Science.gov

Sample records for cotton rat sigmodon

  1. Trophoblast Deportation to the Lungs of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus)

    PubMed Central

    Perle, Krista M D La; Green, M Gia; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) have been used to study a variety of infectious agents, particularly human respiratory viral pathogens. During the course of comprehensive pathologic evaluations of aging breeders from our breeding colony, 6 of 22 (27%) female cotton rats had histologic evidence, limited to the lungs, of embolized cells that were confirmed to be trophoblastic in origin by HSD3B1 immunoreactivity. When pulmonary trophoblast emboli were numerous, they usually were associated with additional histologic findings in the lungs, including pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, endothelial hypertrophy, fibrinoid vascular necrosis, and abundant alveolar macrophages containing fresh fibrin and hemolyzing erythrocytes. Of the 6 cotton rats with pulmonary trophoblast emboli, 5 (83%) were at 8 to 18 d of the 27-d gestation period, with the greatest number of emboli per lung present between days 10 through 14. The remaining cotton rat had a focal pulmonary trophoblast embolus and was not pregnant but had delivered a litter 3 mo previously. Three other cotton rats in either the early or late stages of gestation showed no histologic evidence of pulmonary trophoblast deportation. This report is the first to document pulmonary trophoblast emboli in cotton rats. This finding suggests that cotton rats may be an alternative animal model for the study of normal and aberrant trophoblast deportation in routine pregnancies and gestational pathologic conditions in women. PMID:25527025

  2. Passive narcosis for anesthesia induction in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus).

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jarod M; Anderson, Lydia J; Williams, Colin M; Jorquera, Patricia; Tripp, Ralph A

    2016-08-23

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are widely used as animal models for infectious disease and immunological research. They emulate many aspects of human disease pathogenesis, and the introduction of cotton rat-specific immunological reagents, cell lines and sequencing of relevant genes have all helped to increase the popularity of this disease model. However, the use of cotton rats is problematic owing to their propensity for aggressive responses when handled, which can lead to escape, increased stress to the animals, and bites to staff. When cotton rats are co-housed, which is recommended under current social housing guidelines, these risks are increased. Here, we describe a method of isoflurane anesthesia induction in the home cage that reduces the risk of animal escape, minimizes stress during induction, and provides additional safety for staff. The method uses inexpensive materials that are widely available and can be easily disinfected. Our method also eliminates the need for expensive and cumbersome machines traditionally used with anesthetic chambers, and uses a minimal amount of inhalant anesthetic, saving resources and protecting staff from inhalation of leaked gas. PMID:27551803

  3. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  4. Female cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) develop chronic anemia with renal inflammation and cystic changes.

    PubMed

    Ichii, Osamu; Nakamura, Teppei; Irie, Takao; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Daisuke; Nakamura, Saori; Sato, Shinobu; Yokoyama, Keisuke; Horino, Taro; Sunden, Yuji; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2016-09-01

    The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is a laboratory rodent that has been used for studies on human infectious diseases. In the present study, we observed that female cotton rats, not the male cotton rats, developed chronic anemia characterized by reduced red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels from 5 to 9 months of age without any changes in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and volume levels. In peripheral blood, the reticulocyte count did not increase in response to anemia in female cotton rats, and no extramedullary hematopoiesis was observed in the liver or spleen. Further, the serum levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine increased from 5 to 9 months of age in female cotton rats compared to male cotton rats, and these increases became more prominent from 10 months of age onward, indicating chronic kidney disease. Histopathologically, female cotton rats manifested tubulointerstitial lesions characterized by the infiltration of mononuclear cells, including plasma cells and CD3(+) T-cells, as well as the dilation of calbindin-D28k(+) distal tubules from 5 to 9 months of age. The severity of these lesions progressed from 10 months of age onward, and renal fibrotic features and numerous tubular cysts appeared without any obvious glomerular lesions. A significant decrease in the erythropoietin protein levels was observed in the kidney of aged female cotton rats, and significant correlations were detected between anemia and tubulointerstitial damage. These results suggest that aged female cotton rats chronically develop renal anemia, and this rodent may serve as a novel model to elucidate its pathogenesis. PMID:27099161

  5. Development of insulation in neonatal cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus)

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, P.A.; Porter, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Data on environmental temperatures, skin temperature, animal size, the depth of fur, density of hairs in fur, hair length, and diameter of hair shafts were used to calculate fur thermal conductivity and heat loss, using a porous medium model modified for that of Kowalski and Mitchell. The total thermal conductivity of fur changed little with respect to the age of the animal, but calculated heat loss per unit area decreased because of a decrease in the thermal gradient across the fur caused by an increase in fur depth. A sensitivity analysis of the model showed that skin, air, and radiant environmental temperatures were most important in determining heat loss in all sizes of animals. Fur depth is the only important property of fur determining heat loss in nestling rats, but in adults, all the properties of fur exert significant effects on heat loss. The diameter of animals is a significant variable in all sizes of rats.

  6. Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus) Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (CD150) Is an Entry Receptor for Measles Virus

    PubMed Central

    Carsillo, Thomas; Huey, Devra; Levinsky, Amy; Obojes, Karola; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) replicate measles virus (MV) after intranasal infection in the respiratory tract and lymphoid tissue. We have cloned the cotton rat signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (CD150, SLAM) in order to investigate its role as a potential receptor for MV. Cotton rat CD150 displays 58% and 78% amino acid homology with human and mouse CD150, respectively. By staining with a newly generated cotton rat CD150 specific monoclonal antibody expression of CD150 was confirmed in cotton rat lymphoid cells and in tissues with a pattern of expression similar to mouse and humans. Previously, binding of MV hemagglutinin has been shown to be dependent on amino acids 60, 61 and 63 in the V region of CD150. The human molecule contains isoleucine, histidine and valine at these positions and binds to MV-H whereas the mouse molecule contains valine, arginine and leucine and does not function as a receptor for MV. In the cotton rat molecule, amino acids 61 and 63 are identical with the mouse molecule and amino acid 60 with the human molecule. After transfection with cotton rat CD150 HEK 293 T cells became susceptible to infection with single cycle VSV pseudotype virus expressing wild type MV glycoproteins and with a MV wildtype virus. After infection, cells expressing cotton rat CD150 replicated virus to lower levels than cells expressing the human molecule and formed smaller plaques. These data might explain why the cotton rat is a semipermissive model for measles virus infection. PMID:25295727

  7. Acute effects of benzene and cyclophosphamide exposure on cellular and humoral immunity of cotton rats, Sigmodon hispidus

    SciTech Connect

    McMurry, S.T.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Vestey, M.R.; Qualls, C.W. Jr.; Elangbam, C.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Many environmental pollutants are potent immunotoxicants with the capability of altering host resistance to pathogens and compromising overall immunological integrity. Because environmental contaminants typically occur as a diverse group of compounds that are difficult to individually identify, their hazardous potential is often difficult to study in the laboratory. Consequently, development of wild mammalian species as bioindicators of environmental contamination may provide an alterative approach to assessing the hazardous potential of immunotoxicants for both human and wildlife populations. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is an excellent prospect as an in situ bioindicator of environmental contamination of terrestrial ecosystems. Recently, the authors initiated studies in their laboratory to develop a sensitive method to evaluate environmental immunotoxicity hazards to wildlife and humans. The present study was designed to test the sensitivity of selected humoral and cell-mediated immune response assays in the cotton rat to acute benzene and cyclophosphamide exposure which are known immunotoxicants.

  8. Induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450 activity in wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) by phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene

    SciTech Connect

    Elangbam, C.S.; Qualls, C.W.,Jr.; Bauduy, M. )

    1989-05-01

    Wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are ubiquitous throughout the Southeast quadrant of the United States, easy to capture, have a generation interval of less than one year and a limited range of movement (less than one hectare). This species may prove to be an excellent model for monitoring environmental contamination. Traditionally, cytochrome P-450 inducing agents are grouped into two classes. One, represented by phenobarbital, induces P-450b and P-450e; the other, represented by 3-methylcholanthrene, induces P-450c and P-450d isoenzymes. The types and amounts of cytochrome P-450 vary among species, organs, health status, sex, and stress of the animal. If the levels of cytochrome P-450 of wild cotton rats are to be used in monitoring environmental pollution, it is necessary to characterize the inducibility and concentration of cytochrome P-450 in this species. This study was designed to determine the concentration and inducibility of cytochrome P-450 in the livers of cotton rats after intraperitoneal (ip) administration of phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene.

  9. Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of Gongylonema spp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) in North American rodents with description of a new species from the cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus (Mammalia: Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Kinsella, John M; Robles, Maria Del Rosario; Preisser, Whitney C

    2016-01-01

    Gongylonema archboldi n. sp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) is described from tunnels in the gastric mucosa of the stomach of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) from Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A. Measurements are also given for specimens from cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus), oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), Florida mice (Podomys floridanus), and golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli) from the same locality. Additional specimens were collected from the cotton rat and the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) from Berry Island, San Patricio County, Texas. The new species is differentiated from congeners by a combination of the following characters: length of the left spicule, length and shape of the gubernaculum, distribution of cuticular bosses, length of esophagus, and distance of the vulva from the posterior end. The status of the genus Gongylonema in North American rodents is reviewed. PMID:27394819

  11. Laboratory trials of seven rodenticides for use against the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus).

    PubMed

    Gill, J E; Redfern, R

    1980-12-01

    The efficacy of seven rodenticides for use against Sigmodon hispidus was investigated in the laboratory. The poisons (warfarin, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, brodifacoum, bromadiolone, calciferol and zinc phosphide) were all toxic at the concentrations normally used against Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus and all were palatable. Trials are now needed to confirm the efficacy of these poisons in the field, but it seems likely that, if used in suitable bait formulations, they would all be useful for the practical control of S. hispidus. PMID:7462594

  12. Laboratory trials of seven rodenticides for use against the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus).

    PubMed Central

    Gill, J. E.; Redfern, R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficacy of seven rodenticides for use against Sigmodon hispidus was investigated in the laboratory. The poisons (warfarin, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, brodifacoum, bromadiolone, calciferol and zinc phosphide) were all toxic at the concentrations normally used against Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus and all were palatable. Trials are now needed to confirm the efficacy of these poisons in the field, but it seems likely that, if used in suitable bait formulations, they would all be useful for the practical control of S. hispidus. PMID:7462594

  13. Identification and distribution of cotton rats, genus Sigmodon (Muridae: Sigmodontinae), of Nayarit, M?xico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, M.D.; Fisher, R.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Morphological, chromosomal, distributional, and ecological data are presented for three species of Sigmodon (S. alleni, S. arizonae, and S. mascotensis) from the state of Nayarit, Mexico. The species were collected in all possible pairwise combinations of sympatry, including the first record of such documented for S. arizonae and S. mascotensis. Emphasis is devoted to the discrimination of S. arizonae and S. mascotensis, from each other and from typical S. hispidus, using qualitative features of the skin and skull and morphometric analyses of craniodental measurements. Based on these results and examination of type specimens, additional synonyms of S. mascotensis are identified, with reassignment of two forms, tonalensis Bailey (1902) and obvelatus Russell (1952), currently mistaken as subspecies of S. hispidus. Sigmodon mascotensis emerges as a species distributed from southern Nayarit and Zacatecas to extreme western Chiapas, where it inhabits deciduous or semi-deciduous tropical vegetation having a pronounced dry season. These reallocations and other reidentifications remove any documentation for S. hispidus along the entire Pacific versant of Mexico.

  14. The effect of supplemental food on the growth rates of neonatal, young, and adult cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) in northeastern Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eifler, Maria A.; Slade, Norman A.; Doonan, Terry J.

    2003-09-01

    In food-limited populations, the presence of extra food resources can influence the way individuals allocate energy to growth and reproduction. We experimentally increased food available to cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) near the northern limit of their range over a 2-year period and tested the hypothesis that seasonal growth rates would be enhanced by supplemental food during winter and spring when natural food levels are low. We also examined whether additional food resources were allocated to somatic growth or reproductive effort by pregnant and lactating females. The effect of supplemental food on growth varied with mass and season, but did not influence the growth rates of most cotton rats during spring and winter. In winter, small animals on supplemented grids had higher growth rates than small animals on control grids, but females in spring had lower growth rates under supplemented conditions. Growth rates of supplemented cotton rats were enhanced in summer. Northern cotton rat populations may use season-specific foraging strategies, maximizing energy intake during the reproductive season and minimizing time spent foraging in winter. Adult females invest extra resources in reproduction rather than in somatic growth. Pregnant females receiving supplemental food had higher growth rates than control females, and dependent pups (≤ 1 month of age) born to supplemented mothers had higher growth rates than those born to control mothers. Increased body size seems to confer an advantage during the reproductive season, but has no concomitant advantage to overwinter survival.

  15. The Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on the Behavior of the Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus):Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, G.W.; Drelin, E.A.; Mabry, K.E.

    2001-07-01

    The authors studied the movements of cotton rats and cotton mice in experimental landscapes at the SRS in order to determine the effects of fragmentation and connectivity between habitat patches on dispersal movements and population dynamics. Densities between connected and isolated patches were not different. Small patches tended to support higher densities. Cotton rats were more common in corridors than expected and cotton mice were more likely to leave by a corridor.

  16. Morphological, biochemical, and histopathological indices and contaminant burdens of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) at three hazardous waste sites near Houston, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were studied at three industrial waste sites near Houston, Texas, to determine whether various morphological, biochemical, and histopathological indices provided evidence of contaminant exposure and toxic insult. Only modest changes were detected in cotton rats residing at waste sites compared with reference sites. No single parameter was consistently altered, except hepatic cytochrome P-450 concentration which was lower ( [Formula: see text] ) at two waste sites, and tended to be lower ( [Formula: see text] ) at a third waste site. Elevated petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were detected in rats at one waste site, but contaminant burdens of rats from the other sites were unremarkable. Unlike rats captured in summer, those trapped in winter exhibited hepatocellular hypertrophy and up to a 65% increase in liver: body weight ratio, cytochrome P-450 concentration, and activities of aniline hydroxylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, and glutathione S-transferase. Although genotoxicity has been previously documented in cotton rats residing at two of the waste sites, biomarkers in the present study provided little evidence of exposure and damage

  17. Measles virus-induced immune suppression in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) model depends on viral glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Niewiesk, S; Eisenhuth, I; Fooks, A; Clegg, J C; Schnorr, J J; Schneider-Schaulies, S; ter Meulen, V

    1997-01-01

    Immune suppression during measles accounts for most of the morbidity and mortality associated with the virus infection. Experimental study of this phenomenon has been hampered by the lack of a suitable animal model. We have used the cotton rat to demonstrate that mitogen-induced proliferation of spleen cells from measles virus-infected animals is impaired. Proliferation inhibition is seen in all lymphocyte subsets and is not dependent on viral replication. Cells which express the viral glycoproteins (hemagglutinin and fusion protein) transiently by transfection induce proliferation inhibition after intraperitoneal inoculation, whereas application of a recombinant measles virus in which measles virus glycoproteins are replaced with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein does not have an antiproliferative effect. Therefore, in vivo expression of measles virus glycoproteins is sufficient and necessary to induce inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. PMID:9311794

  18. Efficacy of the Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Glycoprotein D/AS04 Vaccine against Genital HSV-2 and HSV-1 Infection and Disease in the Cotton Rat Sigmodon hispidus Model

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Jamall; Mbaye, Aissatou; Sanford-Crane, Hannah; Blanco, Jorge C. G.; Huber, Ashley; Herold, Betsy C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Subunit vaccines based on the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD-2) have been the major focus of HSV-2 vaccine development for the past 2 decades. Based on the promising data generated in the guinea pig model, a formulation containing truncated gD-2, aluminum salt, and MPL (gD/AS04) advanced to clinical trials. The results of these trials, however, were unexpected, as the vaccine protected against HSV-1 infection but not against HSV-2. To address this discrepancy, we developed a Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-treated cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus model of HSV-2 and HSV-1 genital infection. The severity of HSV-1 genital herpes was less than that of HSV-2 genital herpes in cotton rats, and yet the model allowed for comparative evaluation of gD/AS04 immunogenicity and efficacy. Cotton rats were intramuscularly vaccinated using a prime boost strategy with gD/AS04 (Simplirix vaccine) or control vaccine formulation (hepatitis B vaccine FENDrix) and subsequently challenged intravaginally with HSV-2 or HSV-1. The gD/AS04 vaccine was immunogenic in cotton rats and induced serum IgG directed against gD-2 and serum HSV-2 neutralizing antibodies but failed to efficiently protect against HSV-2 disease or to decrease the HSV-2 viral load. However, gD/AS04 significantly reduced vaginal titers of HSV-1 and better protected animals against HSV-1 compared to HSV-2 genital disease. The latter finding is generally consistent with the clinical outcome of the Herpevac trial of Simplirix. Passive transfer of serum from gD/AS04-immunized cotton rats conferred stronger protection against HSV-1 genital disease. These findings suggest the need for alternative vaccine strategies and the identification of new correlates of protection. IMPORTANCE In spite of the high health burden of genital herpes, there is still no effective intervention against the disease. The significant gap in knowledge on genital herpes pathogenesis has been further highlighted by the

  19. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  20. CATASTROPHIC DECLINE OF A HIGH-DENSITY POPULATION OF COTTON RATS (SIGMODIN HISPIDUS) IN CENTRAL OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Along the northern periphery of their range, populations of the hispid cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus, are vulnerable to major reductions in density and occasional local extinctions as a result of severe winter weather. Between our sampling periods on 3 December 2000 and 14 Januar...

  1. The microbial community structure of the cotton rat nose.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Plumeier, Iris; Kahl, Silke; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas; Oxley, Andrew P A; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2015-12-01

    The cotton rat nose is commonly used as a model for Staphylococcus aureus colonization, as it is both physiologically and anatomically comparable to the human nares and can be easily colonized by this organism. However, while the colonization of the human anterior nares has been extensively studied, the microbial community structure of cotton rat noses has not been reported so far. We describe here the microbial community structure of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) nose through next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons covering the V1-V2 region and the analysis of nearly full length 16S rRNA genes of the major phylotypes. Roughly half of the microbial community was composed of two undescribed species of the genus Campylobacter, with phylotypes belonging to the genera Catonella, Acholeplasma, Streptobacillus and Capnocytophaga constituting the predominant community members. Thus, the nasal community of the cotton rat is uniquely composed of several novel bacterial species and may not reflect the complex interactions that occur in human anterior nares. Mammalian airway microbiota may, however, be a rich source of hitherto unknown microbes. PMID:26306992

  2. Impact of food supplementation and methionine on high densities of cotton rats: Support of the amino-acid-quality hypothesis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research supports the tenet that quantity and quality of food limit vertebrate populations. We evaluated predictions that increased availabilities of food and the essential amino acid methionine were related to population limitation of the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Effects of supplemental food and methionine on density, survival, and reproductive parameters of wild cotton rats were assessed in north-central Oklahoma in 1998-1999. Twelve enclosed groups of 16 adult cotton rats each (8 male, 8 female) were randomly assigned to either no supplementation (control), supplementation with a mixed ration that had methionine at slightly below maintenance levels (0.20%), or a methionine-enhanced mixed ration (1.20%). In general, densities of cotton rats were twice as high and were sustained longer with dietary supplementation, and methionine-supplemented populations maintained the highest densities. Treatment effects on survival depended on time of year, with higher survival in supplemented enclosures in October and November. Per capita recruitment was highest with methionine-enhanced food. Treatment effects on proportions of overall and female cotton rats in reproductive condition depended on sampling date, but males were most reproductively active with methionine supplementation. Methionine supplementation resulted in an earlier and longer reproductive season. Density-dependent and density-independent factors no doubt interplay to determine population dynamics of cotton rats, but our results suggest that methionine plays a role in the population dynamics of wild cotton rats, apparently by enhancing overall density, recruitment, and reproductive activity of males.

  3. Use of the intestinal parasite community of Sigmodon hispidus as a biomonitor in terrestrial systems

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, B.C.; Lochmiller, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this study was to assess the potential usefulness of parasite communities of small mammals as an endpoint for community level risk assessment in terrestrial ecosystems. A total of 350 wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were collected from a Superfund site in southwestern Oklahoma between fall 1993 and fall 1995. Three contaminated study sites, representing common petrochemical disposal methods and all containing complex mixtures of contaminants, including arsenic, lead, fluoride, phenols, and hydrocarbons, were monitored seasonally. Animals were collected and gastrointestinal contents were examined grossly and microscopically for helminths and coccidial parasites. All parasites were identified to species and enumerated so that measurable alterations of the parasite community structure could be established. The authors also sampled possible intermediate host communities concurrently with Sigmodon collections. Structural characteristics of the parasite communities were compared between replicated toxic and reference study sites.

  4. Immunocompetent syngeneic cotton rat tumor models for the assessment of replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, Jason C.; Morrison, Brian J.; Mannan, Poonam; Abu-Asab, Mones S.; Wildner, Oliver; Miles, Brian K.; Yim, Kevin C.; Ramanan, Vijay; Prince, Gregory A.; Morris, John C.

    2007-12-05

    Oncolytic adenoviruses as a treatment for cancer have demonstrated limited clinical activity. Contributing to this may be the relevance of preclinical animal models used to study these agents. Syngeneic mouse tumor models are generally non-permissive for adenoviral replication, whereas human tumor xenograft models exhibit attenuated immune responses to the vector. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is susceptible to human adenovirus infection, permissive for viral replication and exhibits similar inflammatory pathology to humans with adenovirus replicating in the lungs, respiratory passages and cornea. We evaluated three transplantable tumorigenic cotton rat cell lines, CCRT, LCRT and VCRT as models for the study of oncolytic adenoviruses. All three cells lines were readily infected with adenovirus type-5-based vectors and exhibited high levels of transgene expression. The cell lines supported viral replication demonstrated by the induction of cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in tissue culture, increase in virus particle numbers and assembly of virions seen on transmission electron microscopy. In vivo, LCRT and VCRT tumors demonstrated delayed growth after injection with replicating adenovirus. No in vivo antitumor activity was seen in CCRT tumors despite in vitro oncolysis. Adenovirus was also rapidly cleared from the CCRT tumors compared to LCRT and VCRT tumors. The effect observed with the different cotton rat tumor cell lines mimics the variable results of human clinical trials highlighting the potential relevance of this model for assessing the activity and toxicity of oncolytic adenoviruses.

  5. Influence of habitat modification on the community of gastrointestinal helminths of cotton rats.

    PubMed

    Boggs, J F; McMurry, S T; Leslie, D M; Engle, D M; Lochmiller, R L

    1991-10-01

    Dynamics of communities of gastrointestinal helminths of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were monitored in response to five experimental brush management treatments using herbicide applications with and without prescribed burning on the Cross Timbers Experimental Range in Payne County, Oklahoma (USA). A total of 113 adult cotton rats (68 male and 45 female) was collected from experimental pastures in winter and summer 1986 resulting in the recovery of five species of helminths: Longistriata adunca, Syphacia sigmodontis, Strongyloides sp., Protospirura muris, and Raillietina sp. Prevalences of Raillietina sp. and S. sigmodontis were greater on control than herbicide-treated pastures. Prevalence and abundance of Raillietina sp. and prevalence of S. sigmodontis were significantly lower on annually burned, herbicide-treated pastures compared to unburned herbicide-treated pastures. Triclopyr-treated pastures had greater abundances of L. adunca and lower abundances of Raillietina sp. than those treated with tebuthiuron. Abundances of L. adunca also decreased from winter to summer on annually burned, herbicide-treated pastures while increasing on other pastures. Distribution of all helminths was overdispersed, but distribution of L. adunca showed a significant brush treatment by season interaction as a result of greater overdispersion in summer than winter for cotton rats inhabiting brush-treated pastures. Our results indicate that man-induced habitat modifications can alter host-parasite relationships in the community. PMID:1758023

  6. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS) ACROSS A NITROGEN AMENDED LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population dynamics of some small-mammal species appear to be regulated by plant-community structure, vegetative cover, plant diversity, and food quality. Thus, plant community changes associated with nitrogen additions would likely impact dynamics and structure of small-mammal ...

  7. Early lymphoreticular viral tropism and antigen persistence. Tamiami virus infection in the cotton rat.

    PubMed

    Murphy, F A; Winn, W C; Walker, D H; Flemister, M R; Whitfield, S G

    1976-02-01

    Tamiami virus was inoculated into its natural reservoir host, the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), and the course of infection was followed by sequential organ titrations, frozen-section immunofluorescence, and light and electron microscopy. In animals infected at 2 days of age, there was an early lymphoreticular tropism with peak concentrations of virus and viral antigen in lymph nodes, splenic white pulp, thymus, and bone marrow at 16 days postinoculation. Megakaryocyte infection was early and pronounced. Viral antigen concentration peaked in liver and salivary glands at day 30 and in kidney, adrenal cortex, respiratory tract, and bladder epithelium at day 60-long after viral infectivity in these organs had disappeared. Central nervous system infection was only modestly productive of infectious virus, but viral antigen continued to increase in the brain until day 90 and then did not decline throughout the 360-day study. Reticuloendothelial hyperplastic foci were found late in some target organs, but there was never any histologic or ultrastructural evidence of cytonecrosis. Older animals were virtually uninfectable; therefore, this susceptibility of newborns and their slow termination of infection represent the key to virus transmission and perpetuation in nature. These aspects of viral natural history contribute to an understanding of human exposure to the pathogenic arenaviruses which exist in similar rodent niches. PMID:1249916

  8. Influenza-induced tachypnea is prevented in immune cotton rats, but cannot be treated with an anti-inflammatory steroid or a neuraminidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Eichelberger, Maryna C; Prince, Gregory A; Ottolini, Martin G

    2004-05-01

    Influenza viruses are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality during winter months. Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) is a sign of increasing lower respiratory disease during influenza infection and is frequently observed in hospitalized patients. We investigated this clinical sign in influenza virus-infected cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and the efficacy of antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapy in reducing symptomatic disease. Cotton rats infected intranasally with A/Wuhan/359/95 (H3N2) had increased respiratory rates from 1 to 4 days postinfection that correlated with the dose of virus used to inoculate the animal but not the amount of virus recovered from the lung. In addition, evaluation of sequential lung tissue pathology revealed that extensive epithelial cell destruction of small airways correlated with tachypnea. Increased respiratory rate was not observed in immune animals, supporting results that demonstrated a requirement for exposure to, and infection by, large amounts of live virus for induction of tachypnea. A variety of therapeutic approaches proved ineffective in reducing tachypnea, including anti-inflammatory therapy with systemic triamcinolone acetonide, bronchodilatory therapy with levalbuterol, or antiviral therapy with zanamivir. These results, together with the pathologic observations, suggest that early disruption of the lower respiratory tract epithelium is a major component of the pathophysiology of influenza infection. Therapeutic approaches need to be tailored to clear airway obstruction and restore an intact epithelium. PMID:15110527

  9. Treatment with novel RSV Ig RI-002 controls viral replication and reduces pulmonary damage in immunocompromised Sigmodon hispidus.

    PubMed

    Boukhvalova, M; Blanco, J C G; Falsey, A R; Mond, J

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in several high health risk populations, including infants, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with lower respiratory tract RSV infection can exceed 80%. It has been shown that RSV replication in immunosuppressed individuals is significantly prolonged, but the contribution of pulmonary damage, if any, to the pathogenesis of RSV disease in this susceptible population is not known. In this work, we tested RI-002, a novel standardized Ig formulation containing a high level of RSV-neutralizing Ab, for its ability to control RSV infection in immunocompromised cotton rats Sigmodon hispidus. Animals immunosuppressed by repeat cyclophosphamide injections were infected with RSV and treated with RI-002. Prolonged RSV replication, characteristic of immunosuppressed cotton rats, was inhibited by RI-002 administration. Ab treatment reduced detection of systemic dissemination of viral RNA. Importantly, pulmonary interstitial inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia that were significantly elevated in immunosuppressed animals were reduced by RI-002 administration. These results indicate the potential of RI-002 to improve outcome of RSV infection in immunocompromised subjects not only by controlling viral replication, but also by reducing damage to lung parenchyma and epithelial airway lining, but further studies are needed. PMID:26367224

  10. Use of cotton rats for preclinical evaluation of measles vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wyde, P R; Stittelaar, K J; Osterhaus, A D; Guzman, E; Gilbert, B E

    2000-08-15

    The continued prevalence and medical impact of measles worldwide has created interest in the development of new generations of measles vaccines. Monkeys can be used for preclinical testing of these vaccines. However, a more practical and less expensive animal model is highly desirable, particularly for initial vaccine development and evaluation. Cotton rats have been shown to support the replication of different strains of measles virus (MV), and thus may be useful for these purposes. To test this concept, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two standard (Moraten and trivalent measles, mumps, rubella) and four experimental (two recombinant ALVAC, one ISCOM subunit and live attenuated Edmonston-Zagreb) MV vaccines were evaluated in naïve cotton rats, and cotton rats with passively acquired MV-specific neutralizing serum antibodies. All of the test vaccines were immunogenic and protected naíve animals from pulmonary infection and viral dissemination. However, under the conditions utilized, only the Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine provided such protection to animals with significant levels of passively acquired MV-specific neutralizing antibodies. The results of these tests and the potential of using cotton rats as an animal model for preliminary testing of MV vaccines are discussed. PMID:10924785

  11. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a woody, perennial, indeterminate plant with the C3 photosynthesis pathway, that is grown in warm and some temperate climates for fiber, but also for its seed from which oil and protein are important products. Of the four cultivated forms of cotton, the dominant species in production is Go...

  12. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015

  13. Recombinant Subgroup B Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein Efficiently Replicates in Primary Human Cells and Is Virulent in Cotton Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Ken; Nguyen, D. Tien; Ludlow, Martin; Rennick, Linda J.; Yüksel, Selma; van Amerongen, Geert; McQuaid, Stephen; Rima, Bert K.; de Swart, Rik L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most important viral cause of severe respiratory tract disease in infants. Two subgroups (A and B) have been identified, which cocirculate during, or alternate between, yearly epidemics and cause indistinguishable disease. Existing in vitro and in vivo models of HRSV focus almost exclusively on subgroup A viruses. Here, a recombinant (r) subgroup B virus (rHRSVB05) was generated based on a consensus genome sequence obtained directly from an unpassaged clinical specimen from a hospitalized infant. An additional transcription unit containing the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was introduced between the phosphoprotein and matrix genes (position 5) of the genome to generate rHRSVB05EGFP(5). The recombinant viruses replicated efficiently in both HEp-2 cells and in well-differentiated normal human bronchial cells grown at air-liquid interface. Intranasal infection of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) resulted in high numbers of EGFP+ cells in epithelia of the nasal septum and conchae. When administered in a relatively large inoculum volume, the virus also replicated efficiently in bronchiolar epithelial cells and spread extensively in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Virus replication was not observed in ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea. This is the first virulent rHRSV strain with the genetic composition of a currently circulating wild-type virus. In vivo tracking of infected cells by means of EGFP fluorescence in the absence of cytopathic changes increases the sensitivity of virus detection in HRSV pathogenesis studies. IMPORTANCE Virology as a discipline has depended on monitoring cytopathic effects following virus culture in vitro. However, wild-type viruses isolated from patients often do not cause significant changes to infected cells, necessitating blind passage. This can lead to genetic and phenotypic changes and the generation of high-titer, laboratory

  14. Simulation of cotton rat population dynamics and response to rodenticide applications in Florida sugarcane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montague, Clay L.; Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

    1990-01-01

    Alternative deterministic simulation models were compared to test the management consequences of present uncertainty about the degree of density dependence involved in cotton rat population cycles in southern Florida sugarcane fields. Efficacy of rodenticide applied in different months was explored under six different scenarios of density dependence and independence in two population parameters: fecundity and juvenile survival. Output from the six models differed considerably in the number of rats produced, but was remarkably consistent in the most effective months to apply rodenticide. Since models without density-dependent fecundity were inherently unstable and an inverse relationship between fecundity and population size is apparent in field data, such a population-growth mechanism seems possible in Florida sugarcane fields. The model in which fecundity was density-dependent at all times produced rat densities closest to field data. Output from this model was most sensitive to changes in the amount litter size declines as population size increases. Field tests are necessary to validate the general agreement among the models about the most effective months to apply rodenticide.

  15. Development of Acquired Immunity following Repeated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Cotton Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Yasui, Yosuke; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections occur every year worldwide. Most infants are infected with RSV by one year of age and are reinfected because immune responses after the first infection are too weak to protect against subsequent infections. In the present study, immune responses against RSV were investigated in order to obtain a better understanding of repetitive RSV infections in cotton rats. No detectable neutralizing antibody (NT) was developed after the first infection, and the second infection was not prevented. The results of histological examinations revealed severe inflammation, viral antigens were detected around bronchial epithelial cells, and infectious viruses were recovered from lung homogenates. Following the second infection neutralizing antibodies were significantly elevated, and CD8+ cells were activated in response to RSV-F253-265. No viral antigens was detected thereafter in lung tissues and infectious viruses were not recovered. Similar results were obtained in the present study using the subgroups A and B. These results support the induction of humoral and cellular immune responses following repetitive infections with RSV; however, these responses were insufficient to eliminate viruses in the first and second infections. PMID:27224021

  16. Molecular systematics of the genus Sigmodon: results from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Dallas D.; Bradley, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Sigmodon Say and Ord, 1825 were examined using sequence data from multiple gene regions, including exon 1 of the nuclear-encoded interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein, intron 7 of the nuclear beta-fibrinogen gene, and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 27 individuals representing 11 species of Sigmodon. Nuclear genes were analyzed independently, combined with each other, and combined with the mitochondrial data. Topologies were constructed using parsimony and Bayesian methods, with nodal support provided by bootstrap and posterior probability values. All analyses recovered four independent clades (I–IV), each representing unique species groups: hispidus, fulviventer, peruanus, and alstoni. The analyses from the combined data also provided support for relationships previously proposed within those species groups. PMID:20407590

  17. Patterns of Chromosomal Evolution in Sigmodon, Evidence from Whole Chromosome Paints

    PubMed Central

    Swier, V.J.; Bradley, R.D.; Rens, W.; Elder, F.F.B.; Baker, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Of the superfamily Muroidea (31 genera, 1578 species), the Sigmodontinae (74 genera, 377 species) is the second largest subfamily in number of species and represents a significant radiation of rodent biodiversity. Only 2 of the 74 genera are found in both North and South America (Sigmodon and Oryzomys) and the remainder are exclusively from South America. In recent molecular studies, the genus Sigmodon (Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae) has been considered sister to many other South American Sigmodontines [Steppan et al., 2004]. We examine the chromosomal evolution of 9 species of Sigmodon utilizing chromosomal paints isolated from S. hispidus, proposed to be similar to the ancestral karyotype [Elder, 1980]. Utilizing a phylogenetic hypothesis of a molecular phylogeny of Sigmodon [Henson and Bradley, 2009], we mapped shared chromosomal rearrangements of taxa on a molecular tree to estimate the evolutionary position of each rearrangement. For several species (S. hirsutus, S. leucotis, S. ochrognathus, S. peruanus, and S. toltecus), the karyotype accumulated few or no changes, but in three species (S. arizonae, S. fulviventer, and S. mascotensis) numerous karyotype rearrangements were observed. These rearrangements involved heterochromatic additions, centric fusions, tandem fusions, pericentric inversions, as well as the addition of interstitial DNA not identified by chromosome paints or C-banding. The hypothesis that the ancestral karyotype for this complex had a diploid number of 52, a fundamental number of 52, and a G-band pattern of which most, if not all are similar to that present in modern day S. hispidus fails to be rejected. This hypothesis remains viable as an explanation of chromosomal evolution in Sigmodontine rodents. PMID:19617697

  18. Enhanced efficacy with azacytidine and oncolytic BHV-1 in a tolerized cotton rat model of breast adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cuddington, Breanne P; Verschoor, Meghan; Ashkar, Ali; Mossman, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses selectively replicate in cancer cells by exploiting biochemical differences between normal and tumor cells. Treatment with epigenetic modifiers such as 5-Azacytidine, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, increases the replication and cytotoxicity of oncolytic viruses in vivo and in vitro. The cotton rat is an attractive animal to study oncolytic viruses, as syngeneic models of breast adenocarcinoma and osteosarcoma are well established, and many features of primary and secondary tumor growth recapitulate human disease. Treatment of LCRT breast cancer cells with 5-Azacytidine increases bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1)-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro, with Chou-Talalay analysis indicating a very strong synergy. In vivo, BHV-1 monotherapy delayed tumor growth but did not improve survival of cotton rats with subcutaneous breast adenocarcinomas. However, combination therapy significantly decreased the incidence of secondary lesions, with enhanced tumor cell clearance and evidence of immune cell infiltration compared to BHV-1 monotherapy. Together, these results warrant further investigation of BHV-1 combination therapy with epigenetic modifiers for the treatment of breast cancer, particularly in the context of the prevention and treatment of secondary lesions. PMID:27119103

  19. Geographic Range Expansion for Rat Lungworm in North America

    PubMed Central

    Creecy, James P.; Lord, Wayne D.; Caire, William

    2015-01-01

    Using quantitative PCR analysis and DNA sequencing, we provide evidence for the presence of rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) in Oklahoma, USA, and identified a potentially novel rat host (Sigmodon hispidus). Our results indicate a geographic range expansion for this medically and ecologically relevant parasite in North America. PMID:26079818

  20. Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Shigella flexneri 2a strains mucosally deliver DNA vaccines encoding measles virus hemagglutinin, inducing specific immune responses and protection in cotton rats.

    PubMed

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Barry, Eileen M; Losonsky, Genevieve; Singh, Mahender; Medina-Moreno, Sandra M; Polo, John M; Ulmer, Jeffrey; Robinson, Harriet; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2003-05-01

    Measles remains a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries. Residual maternal measles antibodies and immunologic immaturity dampen immunogenicity of the current vaccine in young infants. Because cotton rat respiratory tract is susceptible to measles virus (MV) replication after intranasal (i.n.) challenge, this model can be used to assess the efficacy of MV vaccines. Pursuing a new measles vaccine strategy that might be effective in young infants, we used attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CVD 908-htrA and Shigella flexneri 2a CVD 1208 vaccines to deliver mucosally to cotton rats eukaryotic expression plasmid pGA3-mH and Sindbis virus-based DNA replicon pMSIN-H encoding MV hemagglutinin (H). The initial i.n. dose-response with bacterial vectors alone identified a well-tolerated dosage (1 x 10(9) to 7 x 10(9) CFU) and a volume (20 micro l) that elicited strong antivector immune responses. Animals immunized i.n. on days 0, 28, and 76 with bacterial vectors carrying DNA plasmids encoding MV H or immunized parenterally with these naked DNA vaccine plasmids developed MV plaque reduction neutralizing antibodies and proliferative responses against MV antigens. In a subsequent experiment of identical design, cotton rats were challenged with wild-type MV 1 month after the third dose of vaccine or placebo. MV titers were significantly reduced in lung tissue of animals immunized with MV DNA vaccines delivered either via bacterial live vectors or parenterally. Since attenuated serovar Typhi and S. flexneri can deliver measles DNA vaccines mucosally in cotton rats, inducing measles immune responses (including neutralizing antibodies) and protection, boosting strategies can now be evaluated in animals primed with MV DNA vaccines. PMID:12692223

  1. A Sigmodon and Baiomys population in ungrazed and unburned Texas prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1949-01-01

    Summary: A 6.1-acre rectangle in ungrazed and unburned tall-grass prairie at Camp Bullis, Bexar County, Texas, was live-trapped from August 4 through 12, 1947. The home range of SIgmodon hispidus in this habitat was less than 100 feet in diameter for females, and less than 200 feet for males. Greater travels were recorded only for two males. The home range of Baiomys taylori was less than 100 feet in diameter for both sexes. None was taken in traps more than 86 feet apart. The population size was calculated by using the collection ratio to estimate the total number using the area. This total was converted to per acre figures by treating it as the population of the study area plus an area around it equal in width to one-half home range diameter. For this purpose, minimal and maximal estimates of the home range size were used. The resulting figures provide limits between which the true number per acre is believed to fall. The population of Sigmodon was found to be 10 to 12 per acre. The Baiomys population was estimated to be 6 to 8 per acre. A sudden large increase in the number of unmarked Baiomys occurred during the trapping period. Possible explanations for the increase are discussed. Runways were very poorly defined. When found, they could be traced for only a few feet. Sigmodon and Baiomys were common in unburned tall-grass prairie that had a mat of dead grass, but were rare in burned prairie that was nearly identical except for the absence of the dead grass mat. It is suggested, that the low populations of small mammals on the eastern portion of the Edwards Plateau can be explained in part by two factors: 1) elimination of the grass mat by grazing, or, as at Camp Bullis, by annual burning; 2) the firmness and toughness of the stony clay soil. This may account for the scarcity or absence of burrowing rodents, including most geomyids and heteromyids.

  2. Biodistribution of an oncolytic adenovirus after intracranial injection in permissive animals: a comparative study of Syrian hamsters and cotton rats

    PubMed Central

    Sonabend, AM; Ulasov, IV; Han, Y; Rolle, CE; Nandi, S; Cao, D; Tyler, MA; Lesniak, MS

    2008-01-01

    Conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) are often evaluated in mice; however, normal and cancerous mouse tissues are poorly permissive for human CRAds. As the cotton rat (CR) is a semipermissive animal and the Syrian hamster (SH) is a fully permissive model for adenoviral replication, we compared them in a single study following intracranial (i.c.) injection of a novel glioma-targeting CRAd. Viral genomic copies were quantified by real-time PCR in brain, blood, liver and lung. The studies were corroborated by immunohistochemical, serological and immunological assays. CR had a multiple log higher susceptibility for adenoviral infection than SH. A similar amount of genomic copies of CRAd-Survivin-pk7 and human adenovirus serotype 5 (AdWT) was found in the brain of CR and in all organs from SH. In blood and lung of CR, AdWT had more genomic copies than CRAd-Survivin-pk7 in some of the time points studied. Viral antigens were confirmed in brain slices, an elevation of serum transaminases was observed in both models, and an increase in anti-adenoviral antibodies was detected in SH sera. In conclusion, CR represents a sensitive model for studying biodistribution of CRAds after i.c. delivery, allowing for the detection of differences in the replication of CRAd-Survivin-pk7 and AdWT that were not evident in SH. PMID:19011597

  3. RE-EVALUATION OF THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SIGMODON HISPIDUS COMPLEX BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert D.; Henson, Dallas D.; Durish, Nevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Geographic distribution among members of the Sigmodon hispidus complex (Sigmodon hirsutus, S. hispidus, and S. toltecus) were examined using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. Geographic distribution of each taxon was defined based on DNA sequences obtained from 69 samples (19 newly obtained and 50 from previous studies) collected from North, Central, and South America. These data indicated that S. hispidus is restricted to the southern one-half of the United States and northeastern Mexico (Nuevo León and Tamaulipas), S. toltecus occupies the eastern one-third of Mexico (central Tamaulipas) to northern Honduras, and S. hirsutus is distributed from central Chiapas and southeastern Oaxaca to northern South America (Venezuela). The newly collected data extend distributions of S. hispidus from the southern United States southward into northeastern Mexico and that of S. toltecus from Chiapas, Mexico, southward to Honduras. Genetic divergence and patterns of phylogeography were examined within each taxon. PMID:20613884

  4. Protein Nutrition of Southern Plains Small Mammals: Immune Response to Variation in Maternal and Offspring Dietary Nitrogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...

  5. COMPARATIVE NITROGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SMALL MAMMALS FOR REPRODUCTION: CONSEQUESCES OF DIETARY NICHE OR LIFE-HISTORY STRATEGY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen dynamics in animal communities are of increasing interest, given growing amounts of environmental nitrogen and the key nutritional role of this element. We performed feeding trials on the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) and the fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontom...

  6. COMPARATIVE NITROGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SMALL MAMMALS FOR REPRODUCTION: CONSEQUENCES OF DIETARY NICHE OR LIFE-HISTORY STRATEGY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen dynamics in animal communities are of increasing interest, given growing amounts of environmental nitrogen and the key nutritional role of this element. We performed feeding trials on the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) and the fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontom...

  7. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Minkyoung; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-07-01

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. PMID:27123586

  8. Resistance to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection Induced by Immunization of Cotton Rats with a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Expressing the RSV G Glycoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, Narayanasamy; Prince, Gregory A.; Murphy, Brian R.; Venkatesan, Sundararajan; Chanock, Robert M.; Moss, Bernard

    1986-03-01

    A cDNA copy of the G glycoprotein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was placed under control of a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the thymidine kinase locus of the vaccinia virus genome. The recombinant vaccinia virus retained infectivity and expressed a 93-kDa protein that migrated with the authentic RSV G glycoprotein upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycosylation of the expressed protein and transport to the cell surface were demonstrated in the absence of other RSV proteins. Cotton rats that were inoculated intradermally with the infectious recombinant virus produced serum antibody to the G glycoprotein that neutralized RSV in vitro. Furthermore, the vaccinated animals were resistant to lower respiratory tract infection upon intranasal inoculation with RSV and had reduced titers of RSV in the nose.

  9. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COTTON GINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air pollutants from cotton gins. Cotton gins separate cotton fibers from cottonseed and trash. During the 1976 crop year, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power metric tons of lint cotton were ginned. Particulates composed of cotton dust, cotton lint, fine-lea...

  10. Cotton Harvesting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting is performed in the US using either a spindle picker or brush-roll stripper. This presentation discusses the environmental, economic, geographic, and cultivar specific reasons behind a grower's choice to use either machine. The development of each machine system was discussed. A...

  11. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded With an Oncolytic Adenovirus Suppress the Anti-adenoviral Immune Response in the Cotton Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Atique U; Rolle, Cleo E; Tyler, Matthew A; Han, Yu; Sengupta, Sadhak; Wainwright, Derek A; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Ulasov, Ilya V; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2010-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviral virotherapy is an attractive treatment modality for cancer. However, following intratumoral injections, oncolytic viruses fail to efficiently migrate away from the injection site and are rapidly cleared by the immune system. We have previously demonstrated enhanced viral delivery and replicative persistence in vivo using human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as delivery vehicles. In this study, we evaluated the immune response to adenovirus (Ad)-loaded MSCs using the semipermissive cotton rat (CR) model. First, we isolated MSCs from CR bone marrow aspirates. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that CR MSCs supported the replication of Ads in vitro. Moreover, we observed similar levels of suppression of T-cell proliferation in response to mitogenic stimulation, by MSCs alone and virus-loaded MSCs. Additionally, we found that MSCs suppressed the production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) by activated T cells. In our in vivo model, CR MSCs enhanced the dissemination and persistence of Ad, compared to virus injection alone. Collectively, our data suggest that the use of MSCs as a delivery strategy for oncolytic Ad potentially offers a myriad of benefits, including improved delivery, enhanced dissemination, and increased persistence of viruses via suppression of the antiviral immune response. PMID:20588259

  12. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells loaded with an oncolytic adenovirus suppress the anti-adenoviral immune response in the cotton rat model.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Atique U; Rolle, Cleo E; Tyler, Matthew A; Han, Yu; Sengupta, Sadhak; Wainwright, Derek A; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Ulasov, Ilya V; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2010-10-01

    Oncolytic adenoviral virotherapy is an attractive treatment modality for cancer. However, following intratumoral injections, oncolytic viruses fail to efficiently migrate away from the injection site and are rapidly cleared by the immune system. We have previously demonstrated enhanced viral delivery and replicative persistence in vivo using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as delivery vehicles. In this study, we evaluated the immune response to adenovirus (Ad)-loaded MSCs using the semipermissive cotton rat (CR) model. First, we isolated MSCs from CR bone marrow aspirates. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that CR MSCs supported the replication of Ads in vitro. Moreover, we observed similar levels of suppression of T-cell proliferation in response to mitogenic stimulation, by MSCs alone and virus-loaded MSCs. Additionally, we found that MSCs suppressed the production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) by activated T cells. In our in vivo model, CR MSCs enhanced the dissemination and persistence of Ad, compared to virus injection alone. Collectively, our data suggest that the use of MSCs as a delivery strategy for oncolytic Ad potentially offers a myriad of benefits, including improved delivery, enhanced dissemination, and increased persistence of viruses via suppression of the antiviral immune response. PMID:20588259

  13. CottonDB: Cotton Genome Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) is the first and most comprehensive source of cotton genome information. CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station, TX. The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 355,000 ...

  14. Dictionary of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  15. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  16. Nematode Management in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The five most important cotton-producing countries are China, United States, India, Pakistan, and Brazil. There are many other important cotton producing regions in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas. Cotton is grown entirely in tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperature climates, and the ...

  17. Dictionary of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  18. CottonDB enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) was initiated in 1995. It is a database that contains genomic, genetic, and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.). It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database, which incorporates new data and user resources. CottonDB is maintained at th...

  19. Evaluating cotton stripper field performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers are used primarily in the Southern High Plains due to the specific cotton varieties grown. Typically, cotton strippers cost about two-thirds the price of a cotton picker and range from one-half to one-fourth the horsepower. A cotton stripper also has a higher field and harvesting ef...

  20. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  1. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inter...

  2. CottonDB Enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton genome database, CottonDB, was developed under a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) project as part of a national program to develop plant genome databases for all agricultural commodities. This first and most extensively used database for ...

  3. BELTWIDE COTTON QUALITY STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year, belt-wide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated in 2005 for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality throughout the ginning process and the ginning season with the ultimate goal of identifying areas where improvements can be ma...

  4. Agrometeorology and cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a deciduous, indeterminate perennial plant that is cultivated as an annual in modern production systems. While the amount of time that the ambient air temperature remains within an optimum range (approximately 15.5 to 32.2 degrees C) is a principal factor determining the pace of cotton gr...

  5. COTTON TRASH CONSTITUENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of cotton plant trash samples were sequentially extracted using toluene, methanol, propanol, and water to detect botanical differences. The United States currently produces around 20 million bales of cotton that is subsequently classed (length, strength, fineness, color, and trash) for mar...

  6. Superhydrophobic antibacterial cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Shateri Khalil-Abad, Mohammad; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad E

    2010-11-01

    We present a facile and effective method to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Silver particles were produced on cotton fibers by treatment with aqueous KOH and AgNO(3), followed by reduction treatment with ascorbic acid in the presence of a polymeric steric stabilizer to generate a dual-size surface roughness. Further modification of the particle-containing cotton textiles with octyltriethoxysilane led to hydrophobic surfaces. Surfaces prepared showed a sticky property, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 151 degrees for a 10 microL droplet that water drop did not slid off even when the sample was held upside down. The modified cotton has potent antibacterial activity toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The Ag particles were uniformly and stably distributed on the substrate surface and killed bacteria. These modified cotton textiles are potentially useful; as superhydrophobic antibacterial fabrics in a wide variety of biomedical and general use applications. PMID:20709327

  7. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  8. Cotton source/sink relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolite source/sink relationships govern assimilate partitioning, developmental rates and fruit abscission in cotton. This subject is, therefore, of primary importance in the improvement of cotton plant types and in cotton culture. Historically, cotton has been among the most valuable of agrono...

  9. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  10. ALTERNATIVE COTTON HARVEST PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production practices, urban encroachment and the presence of certain protected crops on adjacent fields presently restrict the use of defoliant chemicals in some cotton acreage. New legislation or stricter interpretation of existing environmental regulations may greatly increase the amount ...

  11. Superoleophobic cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Leng, Boxun; Shao, Zhengzhong; de With, Gijsbertus; Ming, Weihua

    2009-02-17

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we report on the preparation of superoleophobic cotton textiles based on a multilength-scale structure, as demonstrated by a high hexadecane contact angle (153 degrees for 5 microL droplets) and low roll-off angle (9 degrees for 20 microL droplets). The multilength-scale roughness was based on the woven structure, with additional two layers of silica particles (microparticles and nanoparticles, respectively) covalently bonded to the fiber. Superoleophobicity was successfully obtained by incorporating perfluoroalkyl groups onto the surface of the modified cotton. It proved to be essential to add the nanoparticle layer in achieving superoleophobicity, especially in terms of low roll-off angles for hexadecane. PMID:19199744

  12. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  17. FLAMMABILITY OF COTTON GIN TRASH/BURRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed cotton is removed from the field by a harvester and taken to the cotton gin to finish the harvesting process by separating the incoming seed cotton into four products: cotton fiber/lint, cottonseed, motes and cotton gin trash. Disposal of the cotton gin trash/burrs can be accomplished by sprea...

  18. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  19. 43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  20. CottonDB: A database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB, established in 1995, was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. The goal of CottonDB is to serve both as an archival and a dynamic database that incorporates data from all major categories of genetic and genomic information created by the cotton research commu...

  1. CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

  2. Mining cotton germplasm resources to fight Cotton Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CLCuV (Cotton Leaf Curl Virus) is a major threat to cotton production in Pakistan and parts of India and has been reported in cotton producing countries in Africa, as well as China and Uzbekistan. Identifying sources of resistance to CLCuV helps not only countries such as Pakistan where the virus is...

  3. Picking Cotton - and Nothing Else

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The picking of cotton by mechanical means includes the collection of extensive foreign matter that seriously affects the cotton grade and thus the price per bale. Rapid identification of the nature of the extraneous matter in cotton at each stage of cleaning and processing is necessary to permit act...

  4. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  5. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25416245

  6. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  16. Metal analysis of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  17. Cotton Pickin' Good Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

  18. Cotton thermal defoliation economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvest-aid chemical and application expenses are justified by increased quantity and value of harvested fiber, and decreased harvest costs. Chemical use may be restricted in certain production situations. Harvest preparation costs and producer returns were compared for thermal defoliation ...

  19. Cotton Arthropod IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural source of fiber, accounting for almost 40% of total worldwide production. The crop is grown in more than 75 countries with a total production in 2006 of 25.4 billion kg. The U.S. produced 21.7 million bales in 2006 in a diversity of production environmen...

  20. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  1. The Rare ospC Allele L of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto, Commonly Found among Samples Collected in a Coastal Plain Area of the Southeastern United States, Is Associated with Ixodes affinis Ticks and Local Rodent Hosts Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus

    PubMed Central

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, James H.

    2013-01-01

    The rare ospC allele L was detected in 30% of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains cultured from a tick species, Ixodes affinis, and two rodent host species, Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus, collected in a coastal plain area of Georgia and South Carolina, in the southeastern United States. PMID:23220965

  2. Cotton 2K-Management tools for irrigated cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of simulation models to manage crops was a concept introduced in the 1980’s. For example, the cotton simulation model known as GOSSYM was made available in 1989 and was used by both producers and consultants to manage cotton in real time. More recently, Dr. Avi Marani, Professor Emeritus, Sc...

  3. Cotton-Harvester-Flow Simulator for Testing Cotton Yield Monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental system was developed to simulate the pneumatic flow arrangement found in picker-type cotton harvesters. The simulation system was designed and constructed for testing a prototype cotton yield monitor developed at Mississippi State University. The simulation system was constructed to ...

  4. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  5. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  6. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  7. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  8. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  9. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  10. CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, vis...

  11. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  12. COTTON FIBER CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual cotton production exceeds 25 million metric tons and accounts for more than 40 percent of the textile fiber consumed worldwide. A key textile fiber for over 5000 years, this complex carbohydrate is also one of the leading crops to benefit from genetic engineering. Cotton Fiber Chemistry and...

  13. Natural cotton and flax fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The origins of cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are somewhat of a mystery. Cotton currently maintains a 65 % share of the consumer textile market while flax maintains about 2-3 %. Cellulose is a major component in these crops ranging from ...

  14. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  15. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  16. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  7. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY QUALITY INDICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was spun into yarn at the CQRS laboratory by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex and rotor spinning). Cotton in this st...

  8. Cotton Quality Indices of Spun Yarn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton was spun into yarn at the Cotton Quality Research Station by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex, and open end spinning) to determine if a relationship exits between cotton fiber properties and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was grown and harvested in 2001-2005 from three of the l...

  9. A cotton dust study unmasked.

    PubMed

    Levine, C

    1984-08-01

    The Dan River Company, citing news reports damaging to its image, has abandoned a proposed study to test a theory that byssinosis (brown lung disease) is caused by a bacterium growing in cotton rather than by inhalation of cotton dust. With state approval to exceed federal standards on cotton dust exposure, the company submitted the study to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration as a "variance," not as human subjects research. Levine contends that the proposal violated all major criteria of the federal regulations for protection of research subjects--scientific objectivity, balanced risks and benefits, and voluntary and informed consent. PMID:6480334

  10. Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, James A.; Lumsden, John C.; Kilburn, Kaye H.; Germino, Victor H.; Hamilton, John D.; Lynn, William S.; Byrd, H.; Baucom, D.

    1973-01-01

    Merchant, J. A., Lumsden, J. C., Kilburn, K. H., Germino, V. H., Hamilton, J. D., Lynn, W. S., Byrd, H., and Baucom, D. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 237-247. Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis. A fundamental approach of cleaning or deactivating cotton prior to manufacturing has long been advocated to prevent byssinosis, but no trial had been conducted to test the feasibility of such an approach. In the study described, it was possible to be directed by both biological observations and the results of manufacturing trials. An exposure chamber was built in a cotton textile mill which had been previously studied as part of a large cross-sectional survey. The chamber was provided with an independent air conditioning system and a carding machine which served as a dust generator. Sixteen subjects, who had shown reductions in expiratory flow rate with exposure to cotton dust, were chosen to form a panel for exposure to raw cottons and cottons which had been preprocessed by heating, washing, and steaming. Indicators of effects were symptoms of chest tightness and/or dyspnoea, change in FEV1·0, and fine dust levels over 6 hours of exposure. Exposure of the panel to no cotton dust resulted in no change in FEV1·0 and served as the control for subsequent trials. Exposure to strict middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 22%, a significant decrement in FEV1·0 of 2·9%, and a fine dust level of 0·26 mg/m3. Exposure to strict low middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 79%, a decrement in FEV1·0 of 8·5%, and a fine dust level of 0·89 mg/m3. Oven heating strict low middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 56% and a relatively greater drop in FEV1·0 of 8·3% for 0·48 mg/m3 of fine dust. Washing the strict low grade cotton eliminated detectable biological effects with a symptom prevalence of 8%, an increase of 1·4% in FEV1·, and a dust level of 0·16 mg/m3, but the cotton

  11. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  12. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  14. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  16. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  17. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  19. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  20. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  2. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  3. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  4. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  5. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  6. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  7. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  8. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  9. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In cer...

  10. Perspectives of the International Cotton Genome Initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.), an immensely important crop worldwide, has lacked representation by an international research organization that could facilitate global collaboration and coordination, and it has lagged behind other major crops in genome research. For these reasons, the International Cotton...

  11. Status of the global cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated Gossypium spp. (cotton) represents the single most important, natural fiber crop in the world. In addition to its fiber, the oil and protein portion of the cottonseed also represents significant economic value. To protect the world-wide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byprod...

  12. Spindle speed effects on cotton fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 to...

  13. RETROSPECTIVE VIEW OF COTTON GIN DRYERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews gin dryer designs and compiles most of the significant research conducted on the drying of seed cotton at cotton gins since about 1928. it describes the operation of various types of dryers and gives a critical appraisal of dryer designs that may be useful at current cotton gins....

  14. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  15. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  16. Trash particle distribution measurements in ginned cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A beltwide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality during the ginning process and throughout the ginning season. The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) developed at the USDA-ARS Southwester...

  17. Greige cotton comber noils for sustainable nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To increase utilization of cotton in value-added nonwoven products, a study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilizing cotton textile processing/combing bye-product known as griege cotton comber noils. The study was conducted on a commercial-grade, textile-cum-nonwovens pilot plant and ha...

  18. Global view of cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the status of several large cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Cotton germplasm collections discussed include those from the US, India, France, China, Australia, Uzbekistan, and Brazil. These collections represent a large portion of the curated cotton germpla...

  19. The Cotton Ginning Industry: Past, Present, and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton ginning industry has adopted many changes in cotton production, processing and marketing over the past years. Current trends show reduced cotton acreage, shifts in cotton production regions, and changes in cotton markets. To be competitive, gins must look for every opportunity to improv...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  3. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  4. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  5. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  6. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  8. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  9. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  11. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing State 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State Cotton-producing...

  13. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  15. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  16. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  20. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  1. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  3. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  4. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  6. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  7. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  8. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  13. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  15. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  16. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  18. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  19. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  1. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  2. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  3. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  4. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  5. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  6. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  7. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  8. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  11. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  15. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  16. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  17. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  19. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  20. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  1. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  2. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  3. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  4. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  6. Cotton Square Morphology Offers New Insights into Host Plant Resistance to Cotton Fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) in Upland Cotton.

    PubMed

    McLoud, Laura Ann; Hague, Steven; Knutson, Allen; Wayne Smith, C; Brewer, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that feeds preferentially on developing flower buds, called squares. Heavy infestations cause yield reductions that result from abscission of squares damaged by the cotton fleahopper feeding. Antixenosis, or nonpreference, has been reported as a mechanism of host plant resistance in cotton to cotton fleahopper. Square structure, particularly the placement of the reproductive tissues, and stylet penetration were investigated as factors that influence resistance to cotton fleahopper in cotton lines derived from crosses with Pilose, a cultigen of upland cotton resistant to cotton fleahopper, and backcrossed with high-yielding, susceptible lines. Ovary depth varied among the lines tested and was found to be a heritable trait that affected the ability of a fleahopper's feeding stylets to penetrate the reproductive tissues in the square and might influence preference. Behavioral assays suggested antixenosis as a mechanism of host plant resistance, and the trait conferring antixenosis was found to be heritable. Results suggest ovary depth plays a role in conferring resistance to cotton fleahopper and is an exploitable trait in resistance breeding. PMID:26475922

  7. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  8. Canopy temperature and cotton performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract The temperature of a cotton canopy is a useful indicator of both the metabolic state and water status of the crop. Recent advances in equipment have resulted in reductions in the cost and complexity of near continuous canopy temperature monitoring. Measurements on a seasonal timeframe at a ...

  9. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  10. COTTON STICKINESS MITIGATION BY BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars deposited on lint by late season sucking insects can make cotton difficult to spin and difficult to market. This study evaluated a lacto bacillus strain that metabolizes insect sugars under low moisture conditions. Lint with known levels of stickiness was sprayed with water containing Lasil...

  11. New Low Gossypol Cotton Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated cotton and its wild relatives typically have glands on both the reproductive and vegetative parts of the plant. These glands contain compounds that are toxic to many pests and help protect the plant from tobacco budworms (TBW), bollworms (BW), plant bugs and possibly some diseases. Unfort...

  12. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  13. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  14. Sources of heterosis in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, re-selection, pedigree, and mass selection breeding methods have been used to develop open-pollinated cultivars of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Due to the predominance of these breeding methods, we hypothesize that modern cultivars, as opposed to obsolete cultivars, have accu...

  15. Alternative nitrogen sources for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several alternative nitrogen (N) sources, rates of N, and amendments were evaluated at Prattville, Alabama, on cotton in 2008. Nitrogen rates reported are for sidedress application only. Dry urea produced the highest yield, averaging 1100 pounds lint per acre. Ammonia volatilization was measured fr...

  16. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF COTTON FIBER AND YARN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in ...

  17. Commercial cotton variety spinning study descriptive statistics and distributions of cotton fiber and yarn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC, has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in e...

  18. Evaluation of modern cotton harvest systems on irrigated cotton: Yarn quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of harvest methods (cotton picker vs. cotton stripper) on yarn quality from irrigated cotton harvested on the High Plains of Texas with modern equipment was measured using multiple cultivars from six sites over three years. Few differences were detected in carded yarn quality between har...

  19. Design and evaluation of a source sampling system for cotton harvesters - Seed cotton separation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers in some states across the US cotton belt are facing increased regulatory pressure with regard to air quality permit compliance and reducing fugitive PM emissions. Little accurate emission factor data from cotton picking operations are available for use in the air pollution regulator...

  20. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    SciTech Connect

    Van`t Hof, J.

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

  1. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOEpatents

    Van't Hof, Jack

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

  2. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    PubMed

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever. PMID:26105678

  3. Development of an in situ mammalian biomonitor to assess the effect of environmental contaminants on population and community health

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of environmental contaminants (e.g., lead, benzene, organic hydrocarbons) on immune function of laboratory and field cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and population and community dynamics of small mammals residing on an oil refinery were studied. Cellular immune function in benzene and lead exposed cotton rats were assessed to determine the sensitivity of immune function as a potential biomarker of toxicant exposure. Additionally, cellular immune function, population density, reproduction, recruitment, and survival were assessed for wild cotton rats collected from an abandoned oil refinery to field test the utility of cotton rats as an in situ bioindicator. Cellular immune function in juvenile and adult cotton rats was sensitive to the immunosuppressive effects of lead and benzene. However, benzene-induced immunosuppression was marginal presumably due to the ability of cotton rats to quickly metabolize the compound and recover from the toxic effects. Wild cotton rats collected on the refinery also demonstrated sensitivity in immune function to the complex mixtures of contaminants found on site. Lymphoproliferative responses of splenocytes was the most consistent indicator toxicant exposure. Population parameters of cotton rats indicated marked depression in density, recruitment, and survival. Results also indicated a shift in community structure due to large numbers of house mice (Mus musculus) on toxic sites. Immune function and population parameters appear to be good prospects in situ bioindicators of environmental contamination.

  4. New definitions for cotton fiber maturity ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber maturity affects fiber physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, as well as the processability and qualities of yarn and fabrics. New definitions of cotton fiber maturity ratio are introduced. The influences of sampling, sample preparation, measurement method, and correlations am...

  5. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  6. Registration of 'Acala 1517-08' Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Acala 1517-08’ (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed by the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2010 as a new Acala cotton cultivar. This cultivar was a single plant selection derived from a cross between B7636 and ‘LA887’ and possesses superior Acala cotton type fiber qualit...

  7. A new approach to cotton trash measurement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two different studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of measuring the mass of trash in a sample of cotton lint by means of a rapid/non-destructive spectroscopic method. The first involved three cottons grown in three states subjected to two different harvesting treatments and processed...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1043 - Cotton dust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cotton dust. 1910.1043 Section 1910.1043 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1043 Cotton dust. (a) Scope and application....

  9. Palmer amaranth competition for water in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in cotton production. Yield losses of 65% have been reported due to season-long Palmer amaranth competition with cotton. To determine if water is a factor in this system, experiments were conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Citra, FL and in Tifton, GA. In 2011,...

  10. Optimizing Spindle Speed for Cotton Pickers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted for the 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 crop years by the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory in Mesilla Park, New Mexico. Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and harvested w...

  11. Genetic Diversity in Cotton Out-Crossing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have reported on the finding of genetic differences in the abiotic stress tolerance of cotton pollen. Genetic differences in sensitivity to humidity were observed impacting pollen survival in dry environments. The present study evaluated out-crossing rates in cotton lines whose polle...

  12. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  13. PHOTOBIOLOGY IMPACT ON COTTON FIBER LENGTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are single elongated cells that extend from the seed coat during development, and fiber length is important to textile quality. It was hypothesized that elongating cotton fibers would be as responsive to far-red light (FR) as elongating cells in seedling hypocot...

  14. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  15. Cotton gene flow: Genetic diversity in outcrossing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have reported on the finding of genetic differences in the abiotic stress tolerance of cotton pollen. Genetic differences in sensitivity to humidity were observed impacting pollen survival in dry environments. The present study evaluated out-crossing rates in cotton lines whose pollen ...

  16. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  17. Water-sensitivity of cotton growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All irrigations during a season are not equal in terms of providing economic return on the money spent to irrigate cotton. This article provides a brief description of the effect of water stress on cotton during the different growth stages of the plant and the relative benefit of irrigating to relie...

  18. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  19. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  20. Effect of laundering hydroentangled cotton nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study has been conducted to investigate, for the first time ever, the effect of household washing and drying of hydroentangled cotton nonwoven fabrics (~70 gm/m2) made with several pre-cleaned greige (raw) cottons of considerably different fiber quality characteristics, such as the micronaire, len...

  1. Field measurement of cotton seedling evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on cotton evapotranspiration (ET) during the seedling growth stage and under field conditions is scarce because ET is a difficult parameter to measure. Our objective was to use weighable lysimeters to measure daily values of cotton seedling ET. We designed and built plastic weighable mic...

  2. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  3. Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

  4. CONSIDERATIONS OF ORGANIC COTTON PRODUCTION AND GINNING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 5,000-8,000 bales of organic cotton are currently produced in the U.S. with approximately 115,000 bales being produced worldwide that are certified "organic." Although small compared to the overall crop (less than 0.1 percent), the production of organic cotton has been increasing rece...

  5. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  6. Registration of 'Acala 1517-08' Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Acala 1517-08’ (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed by the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2010 as a new Acala cotton cultivar. This cultivar was a single plant selection derived from a cross between B7636 and ‘LA 887’ and possesses superior Acala cotton type fiber quali...

  7. Spindle speed optimization for cotton pickers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes to cotton pickers over the years regarding the operating speed and size of the spindles have resulted in a general decrease in cotton fiber quality, particularly regarding spindle twists, preparation, and neps. Previous research showed that spindle speeds of 3000 and 4000 rpm had more detri...

  8. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  9. Varietal Variability for Cotton Ginning Efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy consumption is one of the largest expenses of a cotton gin. In light of the rising cost of energy, all avenues should be exploited to optimize energy use in modern cotton gins. One option is to study genetic variability within the available germplasm to look for varieties that gin faster and ...

  10. Atypical Ligon Lintless-2 Phenotype in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mutant Li2 is reported to be a dominant single gene mutation in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. It has normal vegetative phenotypic morphology and the phenotype of the seed cotton is reported to be fuzzy seed with short fibers. The objective of this research was to report on atypical phenotypes ob...

  11. Canopy temperature and maturity in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat units are a widely used indicator of maturity in cotton. It is generally assumed that it takes approximately 2200°F (1222°C) heat units for a cotton plant on the South High Plains of Texas to mature. This value is based on a typical planting date of May 15 with ample irrigation. As water for c...

  12. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  13. Cotton-Fiber-Filled Rubber Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Carbonization of fibers at high temperatures improves strength and erosion resistance. Cotton linters tested as replacement for asbestos filler currently used in rubber insulation in solid rocket motors. Cotton-filled rubber insulation has industrial uses; in some kinds of chemical- or metal-processing equipment, hoses, and protective clothing.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Natural Crossing in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown previously genetic diversity in mature cotton pollen sensitivity to low humidity. This study investigated the impact of pollen sensitivity to low humidity on the amount of outcrossing to neighboring plants. We utilized “red” and “green” pigmented cotton, in addition to gossypol glan...

  15. Insights from the International Cotton Genome Initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an immensely important crop worldwide, it lacked representation by an international research organization that could facilitate global collaboration and coordination. For this and many other reasons, cotton genome research has lagged behind other major crops. In...

  16. Minimization of operational impacts on spectrophotometer color measurements for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key cotton quality and processing property that is gaining increasing importance is the color of the cotton. Cotton fiber in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd and +b. Rd and +b are specific to cotton fiber and are not typical ...

  17. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  19. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  20. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  1. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  2. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  3. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of Cotton. For the purposes of subsection 15b (f) of the...

  4. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  5. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  6. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  10. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  11. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  13. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  15. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  16. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  19. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  20. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  2. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  3. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  4. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  5. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  7. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  8. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  13. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  14. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  15. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  17. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  19. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  1. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  3. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of Cotton. For the purposes of subsection 15b (f) of the...

  4. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  5. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  7. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  8. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of Cotton. For the purposes of subsection 15b (f) of the...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  10. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  11. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  12. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  13. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  14. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  15. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  17. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  20. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  2. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  3. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  4. The Impact of Drought on Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum) Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate moisture during the growing season has been shown to reduce cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) lint yields. Little is known, however, as to how in-season growing conditions alter cotton fiber quality. Here, we show the impact of irrigation on cotton fiber quality. Cotton was grown in large repli...

  5. Climate change and cotton production in modern farming systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is used every day in the form of clothing made from cotton fiber and products made from cotton-seed oil. Wild ancestors of cotton are found in arid regions, often with high daytime temperatures and cool nights, and are naturally adapted to surviving long periods of hot dry weather. Modern cul...

  6. Pollen genotyping in cotton for genetic linkage analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important fiber and oil crop and thus makes very important contributions to US agricultural security and sustainable agriculture. Two species are vital for American cotton industry, i.e., Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Pima cotton (G. barbadense) that are prized for high yields...

  7. Cotton pollen retention in boll weevils, a laboratory experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton pollen is thought to exist in a boll weevil’s gut for at least 18 hours. In a controlled laboratory experiment examining non-cotton food sources, a cotton pollen grain was found in an individual boll weevil that had not fed on cotton for 120 hours. Because we believe that finding whole or ...

  8. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  9. Coordination and collaboration to document the global cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 years to insure the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene ...

  10. New cotton-processing system saves energy, cuts pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.

    1986-08-01

    This paper announces the invention of a machine which saves energy and reduces cotton dust pollution while it removes cotton lint from cottonseeds. The machine takes in seed cotton and puts out clean cotton lint which is ready for baling. It eliminates the need for three separate machines and massive air ducts to move the cotton between these machines. The elimination of the air-handling system, reduces electric power consumption and aeration of the cotton dust. The use of this prototype gin/cleaner will depend on the growth and modernization of existing cotton ginning operations.

  11. CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Jung, Sook; Cheng, Chun-Huai; Ficklin, Stephen P; Lee, Taein; Zheng, Ping; Jones, Don; Percy, Richard G; Main, Dorrie

    2014-01-01

    CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, visualization and data retrieval of cotton research data. CottonGen contains annotated whole genome sequences, unigenes from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), markers, trait loci, genetic maps, genes, taxonomy, germplasm, publications and communication resources for the cotton community. Annotated whole genome sequences of Gossypium raimondii are available with aligned genetic markers and transcripts. These whole genome data can be accessed through genome pages, search tools and GBrowse, a popular genome browser. Most of the published cotton genetic maps can be viewed and compared using CMap, a comparative map viewer, and are searchable via map search tools. Search tools also exist for markers, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), germplasm, publications and trait evaluation data. CottonGen also provides online analysis tools such as NCBI BLAST and Batch BLAST. PMID:24203703

  12. Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans. PMID:22172205

  13. Cotton buds, momentum, and impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Ed; Nuñez, Jover; Guirit, Alfredo; van Huis, Cor

    2000-01-01

    Here is a simple experiment demonstrating impulse and momentum that was picked up from a Japanese presenter at a physics teacher conference held in Cebu City. We have not been able to trace the experiment farther and have never seen it in print. After student-author Nuñez demonstrated it during an exam on conducting demonstrations, we converted the qualitative idea into a quanitative experiment and even discovered some possibilities for student research. The lab is also suitable as homework, since it uses universally available "equipment" — cotton buds (swabs), drinking straws, and a ruler.

  14. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  15. An investigation of cotton for parachute cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appel, Wm D; Worner, R K

    1931-01-01

    This is a resume of the work of the Bureau of Standards on a cotton parachute cloth for use as a substitute for silk in the event of an emergency curtailing the supply. Cotton yarn of high strength in proportion to its weight and otherwise specially suitable for parachute cloth was developed. Cloth woven from this yarn in the bureau mill was equal or superior to parachute silk in strength and tear resistance, met the requirements with respect to air permeability, and weighed only a few tenths of an ounce per square yard more than the silk cloth. Practical trials of cotton parachutes carried out by the Navy Department clearly indicate that the cotton parachute closely approaches the silk parachute in performance as to rate of descent, opening time, strength and ability to function when stored in the pack for sixty days. The increase in weight of the equipment resulting from the use of cotton cloth instead of silk is considered to be well within practicable limits. A specification for cotton parachute cloth and the way in which the requirements of the specification have been met are given. Cotton yarns suitable for parachute cloth are now being woven commercially in the United States.

  16. Cotton-based diagnostic devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Chang, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2014-01-01

    A good diagnostic procedure avoids wasting medical resources, is easy to use, resists contamination, and provides accurate information quickly to allow for rapid follow-up therapies. We developed a novel diagnostic procedure using a "cotton-based diagnostic device" capable of real-time detection, i.e., in vitro diagnostics (IVD), which avoids reagent contamination problems common to existing biomedical devices and achieves the abovementioned goals of economy, efficiency, ease of use, and speed. Our research reinforces the advantages of an easy-to-use, highly accurate diagnostic device created from an inexpensive and readily available U.S. FDA-approved material (i.e., cotton as flow channel and chromatography paper as reaction zone) that adopts a standard calibration curve method in a buffer system (i.e., nitrite, BSA, urobilinogen and uric acid assays) to accurately obtain semi-quantitative information and limit the cross-contamination common to multiple-use tools. Our system, which specifically targets urinalysis diagnostics and employs a multiple biomarker approach, requires no electricity, no professional training, and is exceptionally portable for use in remote or home settings. This could be particularly useful in less industrialized areas. PMID:25393975

  17. A Statistical Analysis of Cotton Fiber Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anindya; Das, Subhasis; Majumder, Asha

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports a statistical analysis of different cotton fiber properties, such as strength, breaking elongation, upper half mean length, length uniformity index, short fiber index, micronaire, reflectance and yellowness measured from 1200 cotton bales. The uni-variate, bi-variate and multi-variate statistical analysis have been invoked to elicit interrelationship between above-mentioned properties taking them up singularly, pairwise and multiple way, respectively. In multi-variate analysis all cotton fiber properties are simultaneously considered for multi-dimensional techniques of principal factor analysis.

  18. Sterilization of Cotton Fabrics Using Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahidi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2013-10-01

    Microbial contamination induces surface deformations and strength degradation of cotton fabrics by invading deeply into the fibers. In this study, the sterilization effects of low pressure plasmas on bacteria-inoculated cotton fabrics were investigated. Oxygen plasma treatment completely sterilized the cotton fabrics inoculated with various concentrations of staphylococcus aureus. Also, the influence of plasma treatment on physical properties of fabrics was examined. It was found that the plasma treatment did not affect ultimate tensile strength and surface morphology of the fabrics because it took advantage of relatively low plasma temperature.

  19. Introgression of cotton leaf curl virus-resistant genes from Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum) into upland cotton (G. hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S; Mahmood, K; Hanif, M; Nazeer, W; Malik, W; Qayyum, A; Hanif, K; Mahmood, A; Islam, N

    2011-01-01

    Cotton is under the constant threat of leaf curl virus, which is a major constraint for successful production of cotton in the Pakistan. A total of 3338 cotton genotypes belonging to different research stations were screened, but none were found to be resistant against the Burewala strain of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV). We explored the possibility of transferring virus-resistant genes from Gossypium arboreum (2n = 26) into G. hirsutum (2n = 52) through conventional breeding techniques. Hybridization was done manually between an artificial autotetraploid of G. arboreum and an allotetraploid G. hirsutum, under field conditions. Boll shedding was controlled by application of exogenous hormones, 50 mg/L gibberellic acid and 100 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid. Percentage pollen viability in F(1) hybrids was 1.90% in 2(G. arboreum) x G. hirsutum and 2.38% in G. hirsutum x G. arboreum. Cytological studies of young buds taken from the F(1) hybrids confirmed that they all were sterile. Resistance against CLCuV in the F(1) hybrids was assessed through grafting, using the hybrid plant as the scion; the stock was a virus susceptible cotton plant, tested under field and greenhouse conditions. All F(1) cotton hybrids showed resistance against CLCuV, indicating that it is possible to transfer resistant genes from the autotetraploid of the diploid donor specie G. arboreum into allotetraploid G. hirsutum through conventional breeding, and durable resistance against CLCuV can then be deployed in the field. PMID:22002133

  20. 7 CFR 457.105 - Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions... long staple cotton crop insurance provisions. The extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions... Extra Long Staple (ELS) cotton and American Upland (AUP) cotton if ELS cotton is destroyed by an...

  1. HVI Colorimeter and Color Spectrophotometer Relationships and Their Impacts on Developing "Traceable" Cotton Color Standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are important quality parameters. The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is an instrument used globally to classify cotton quality, including cotton color. Cotton color by HVI is based on two cotton-specific color parameters—Rd (diffuse...

  2. Assessing the role of non-cotton refuges in delaying Helicoverpa armigera resistance to Bt cotton in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brévault, Thierry; Nibouche, Samuel; Achaleke, Joseph; Carrière, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Non-cotton host plants without Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins can provide refuges that delay resistance to Bt cotton in polyphagous insect pests. It has proven difficult, however, to determine the effective contribution of such refuges and their role in delaying resistance evolution. Here, we used biogeochemical markers to quantify movement of Helicoverpa armigera moths from non-cotton hosts to cotton fields in three agricultural landscapes of the West African cotton belt (Cameroon) where Bt cotton was absent. We show that the contribution of non-cotton hosts as a source of moths was spatially and temporally variable, but at least equivalent to a 7.5% sprayed refuge of non-Bt cotton. Simulation models incorporating H. armigera biological parameters, however, indicate that planting non-Bt cotton refuges may be needed to significantly delay resistance to cotton producing the toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Specifically, when the concentration of one toxin (here Cry1Ac) declined seasonally, resistance to Bt cotton often occurred rapidly in simulations where refuges of non-Bt cotton were rare and resistance to Cry2Ab was non-recessive, because resistance was essentially driven by one toxin (here Cry2Ab). The use of biogeochemical markers to quantify insect movement can provide a valuable tool to evaluate the role of non-cotton refuges in delaying the evolution of H. armigera resistance to Bt cotton. PMID:25568029

  3. Evaluations of Fusarium wilt resistance in Upland cotton from Uzbek cotton germplasm resources.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum Atk. Sny & Hans (FOV), in combination with Verticillium dahliae Kleb, causes a wilt disease complex in cotton that significantly reduces yield. A highly virulent strain of FOV, No. 316, was isolated that caused up to 80% plant death in commercial cotton in Uzbe...

  4. Fate of Southern Green Egg Masses in BT-Cotton, RR Cotton, Soybeans and Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to determine the life history of stink bugs relative to major crops in the southeastern US. To this end, we investigated Southern green stink bug egg mortality by placing sentinel egg masses in plots of soybean, Bt-cotton, Round up Ready (RR) cotton and peanut plants in the Southeas...

  5. Ginning efficiency in upland cotton - a value-added trait in cotton improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past few years, there has been some consorted effort between cotton geneticists and ginning engineers to understand "ginning efficiency" in upland cotton. Ginning efficiency includes ginning rate (measured in gm lint sec -1) and net gin stand energy (measured in Wh kg -1 lint). Improved ginn...

  6. Regional Assessment of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations on Cotton and Non-Cotton Crop Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection pressure on bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvaceae), that produces one or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner proteins is reduced by plantings of non-Bt refuge cotton that produce non-selected individuals. However, ...

  7. 1st stage seed-cotton cleaning total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A ...

  8. Identification of cotton and cotton trash components by fourier-transform near-infrared spectropscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high demand for cotton production worldwide has demonstrated the need for its standardized classification. Cotton trash can become comingled with lint during the ginning and harvesting processes. The conventional instrumental method presently used in the United States and other countries to de...

  9. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following a..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 72747); and the Secretary's Decision and Referendum Order on... published in the October 5, 2009, issue of the Federal Register (74 FR 51094). This administrative action...

  10. 76 FR 80278 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 27 and 28 RIN 0581-AD19 Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is proposing to revise the procedure for determining...

  11. Impact of alternative land rental agreements on the profitability of cotton producers across the cotton belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Across the Cotton Belt, cropland values increased, decreased, or remained constant, depending on the state, from 2007 to 2011. The average change in cropland values in the Cotton Belt from 2010 to 2011 was 3.6%, modest when compared to increases in the Corn Belt. However, even modest increases in la...

  12. Enrichment of chromosome 17 specific molecular markers of Pima cotton substituted in Upland cotton lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the primary source of non-synthetic textile fiber, as well as an important source of food, feed, fuel and other products. In the USA cotton is a major crop in 13 states and grown in 17 states on about 5 million hectares, more than all crops except maize, wheat or soybean, with a return of...

  13. Old Riverdale Cotton Mill office building on left. The old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Riverdale Cotton Mill office building on left. The old office building has also been used as a starch mixing house. Note entrance to new office building on right - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Office Building, Old, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  14. 3. SOUTH ELEVATION OF SELMA COTTON MILL, NOW PHILLIES CIGAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH ELEVATION OF SELMA COTTON MILL, NOW PHILLIES CIGAR COMPANY. ONE OF THE ORIGINAL FIRE PROTECTION RESERVOIRS IS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Selma Cotton Mill, 218 Morgan Avenue, Selma, Dallas County, AL

  15. 2. View looking northeast at Dixie Cotton Mill warehouses. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View looking northeast at Dixie Cotton Mill warehouses. Note firestops between sections of the building to prevent fire from spreading. - Dixie Cotton Mill, Warehouses, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  16. Neuropeptides of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), is an economically important pest of cotton, and increasing concerns over resistance and safety issues associated with traditional insecticide applications have led to an interest in research on novel, alternative strategies to control them....

  17. Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from cotton nonowoven fabric. For the ACF acoustical application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glass fiber ...

  18. Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of manufacturing a carbonized and activated nonwoven made by cotton fiber was investigated in this paper. The study was focused on the acoustic application and nonwoven composites with cotton nonwoven as a base layer and glass fiber nonwoven, cotton nonwoven, and carbonized and activated...

  19. CATEGORIZATION OF EXTRANEOUS MATTER IN COTTON USING MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) was developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory to identify and categorize extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneous matter calls assigned ...

  20. Sequencing of the cultivated tetraploid cotton genome - Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important cash crop in the world and it plays an irreplaceable role in China’s national economy. Cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of world cotton production but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30,000 genes in 2,500 Mb DNA. S...

  1. IMPROVED SPECTROPHOTOMETER FIBER SAMPLING SYSTEM FOR COTTON FIBER COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), and the parameters Rd and +b are used to designate color grades for cotton fiber. However, Rd and +b are cotton-specific color parameters, and the need existed to demonstrate the relationships of Rd and +b to...

  2. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  3. Ground-based technologies for cotton root rot control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymatotrichum, or cotton root rot (CRR), is a fungus currently affecting broadleaf crops including cotton in the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. The ability of CRR to lie dormant in the soil for several years tends to negate the effects of crop rotation, and it remains a problem for cotton...

  4. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electricity is major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of the industry’s variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significant...

  5. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electricity is a major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significantly decrease e...

  6. Evaluation of a load measurement system for cotton harvesters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work is to develop and characterize the performance of a system used onboard a cotton harvester for obtaining seed cotton weight data. This system can be used to measure seed cotton weight on a load by load basis, thereby enhancing the ability for a producer to conduct on-farm ...

  7. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY CLASSIC/SUPPLEMENTARY MEASUREMENT RELATIONSHIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton in this study demonstrated fiber quality traits that allow them to operate at high speeds on the latest generation of spinning eq...

  8. Nonwoven greige cotton for wound healing and hygienic product applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential to use greige (non-bleached) cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention. This is due to innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwoven hydroentanglement processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorpt...

  9. Differential Gene Expression in Developing Cotton Stems and Roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) is a perennial plant that stores starch in stems and roots to provide carbohydrates for growth in subsequent seasons. These reserves may not be available to support seed and fiber development when cotton is grown as an annual crop. Analysis of developing cotton plants i...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  12. 7 CFR 407.12 - Group risk plan for cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for cotton. 407.12 Section 407.12..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.12 Group risk plan for cotton. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Cotton for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  14. 7 CFR 407.12 - Group risk plan for cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for cotton. 407.12 Section 407.12..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.12 Group risk plan for cotton. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Cotton for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  17. 2. Long distance view from the SW of former Cotton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Long distance view from the SW of former Cotton Yards (now used as a parking lot); Cotton Yard Gates at far right, Red Building and Produce Freight Warehouse in background. - Central of Georgia Railway, Cotton Yard Gates, West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  18. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  20. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of Cotton...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  2. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of Cotton...

  3. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of Cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  5. 7 CFR 407.12 - Group risk plan for cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for cotton. 407.12 Section 407.12..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.12 Group risk plan for cotton. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Cotton for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  7. 7 CFR 407.12 - Group risk plan for cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for cotton. 407.12 Section 407.12..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.12 Group risk plan for cotton. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Cotton for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  8. Molecular development of the mid-stage elongating cotton fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is one of the leading natural textile fibers and is the leading value added crop in the USA. The annual business revenue from the cotton industry exceeds $120 billion. The growth of the cotton fiber is divided into four unique, yet overlapping stages; initiation, elongation, secondary w...

  9. Green Flame Retardant Cotton Highlofts for Mattresses and Upholstered Furniture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric is environmentally-friendly because it is from a natural renewable resource, biodegradable, economical, employing greige cotton that is soft to touch. Greige unbleached cotton is cheaper and softer than bleached cotton, thus, increasing its marketability par...

  10. Cotton Production in Mali: Subsidies or Sustainable Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Current trade rules concerning cotton subsidies are intricately linked with poverty and hunger in Mali. Over half of Mali's economy and over 30 million people depend directly on cotton. It is the main cash crop and the most important source of export revenue. Cotton also plays a key role in development policies and in the fight against poverty by…

  11. Fourier transform infrared imaging of Cotton trash mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is much interest in the identification of trash types comingled with cotton lint. A good understanding of the specific trash types present can lead to the fabrication of new equipment which can identify and sort cotton trash found with cotton fiber. Conventional methods, including the High Vo...

  12. Nitrogen Metabolism in Cotton Stems and Roots during Reproductive Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a perennial plant grown as an annual row crop in much of the world. Cotton stems and roots store starch prior to reproduction that is subsequently available to support reproduction. Aspects of nitrogen metabolism in cotton stems and roots were investigated to determine...

  13. Changes in cotton gin energy consumption apportioned by ten functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The public is concerned about air quality and sustainability. Cotton producers, gin owners and plant managers are concerned about rising energy prices. Both have an interest in cotton gin energy consumption trends. Changes in cotton gins’ energy consumption over the past fifty years, a period of ...

  14. Cotton physiological parameters affected by episodic irrigation interruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving cotton irrigation management practices in West Texas is important for increasing farmers’ profits and for sustainability of the Ogallala aquifer. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects in field controlled episodic drought conditions on cotton gas exchange. Irrigated cotton ...

  15. Application of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton fiber micronaire measurement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term “micronaire” describes an important cotton fiber property by characterizing the fiber maturity and fineness. In practice, micronaire is regularly measured in laboratories with well established high volume instrumentation (HVITM) protocol. Most often, cotton breeders/geneticists sent cotton ...

  16. Fiber properties of saw and roller ginned naturally colored cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally colored cottons have economic and environmental appeal because they do not require dyeing. Naturally colored cottons do not have the same fiber length and strength as white cotton cultivars. To determine the optimal ginning process for colored fiber two Upland (G. hirsutim) colors were r...

  17. Categorization of extraneous matter in cotton using machine vision systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory was evaluated for identification and categorization of extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneou...

  18. Cotton as a World Crop: Origin, History, and Current Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Archaeological evidence indicates that cotton has been used by humans for more than 4000 yr. The history of cotton cultivation is at least 3000 yr old. There are four cultivated cotton species, two diploid species and two tetraploid species. In this chapter, the origin and history of these four spec...

  19. Fiber and yarn properties improve with new cotton variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottons containing two different parents (FM832 and MD51neOK) and their progeny were selected to cover a cotton breeding succession and to determine breeding influences on fiber results. The objective of this study was to evaluate fibers produced by cotton parents and their progeny using results ge...

  20. IMPACTS OF GLASS USE IN COTTON COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton color is an important classification property. In the U.S., cotton is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI). The color of cotton on the HVI is denoted by the parameters Rd and +b, which represent the cotton’s diffuse reflectance and yellowness, respectively. Rd...

  1. IMPACTS OF GLASS USE IN COTTON COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton color is an important quality and processing property. In the U.S., cotton is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI). The color of cotton on the HVI is denoted by the parameters Rd and +b, which represent the cotton’s diffuse reflectance and yellowness, respectiv...

  2. COTTON QUALITY AS AFFECTED BY CHANGES IN THE SPINDLE PICKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 - ...

  3. Cotton quality as affected by changes in spindle speed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 to...

  4. Potential development of a new cotton-based antimicrobial wipe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of a cationic biocide on various cotton and synthetic nonwoven fabrics was investigated using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results reveal that rayon and greige cotton nonwovens adsorb nearly three times more cationic biocide than comparable bleached cotton substrates. Polyester...

  5. The International Cotton Genome Initiative: Opportunities and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Cotton Genome Initiative (ICGI) was conceived at the dawn of this century by a group of cotton scientists and industry representatives who envisioned a need of expanded genomic resources and researches for sustainable cotton genetic improvement through enhanced collaboration and co...

  6. Commercial cotton variety spinning study classic/supplementary measurement relationahips.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton in this study demonstrated fiber quality traits that allow them to operate at high speeds on the latest generation of spinning eq...

  7. Removal of plastic sheet material with normal cotton ginning equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US cotton is known to be relatively free of contamination but occasionally pieces of sheet plastic are found in cotton bales produced in the US. To better understand how ginning equipment handles pieces of sheet plastic 5 types of plastic commonly found in US seed cotton fields or used in handling ...

  8. Observations and implications of the cotton fleahopper in Rapistrum rugosum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton fleahopper is an early-season pest of developing cotton in Central Texas and in other areas of the Cotton Belt. Because fleahopper infestations usually develop on weed hosts in the early spring, identification of new hosts is critical to understanding potential sources of fleahopper infe...

  9. Alleviating cotton stickiness-experience and future research topics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though cotton stickiness is manifested only in a small percentage of the world cotton crop, its presence can adversely affect every aspect of the cotton textile industry from production to yarn manufacturing. Reductions in production efficiency due to the presence of stickiness at the mill may be v...

  10. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  11. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 μm according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion. PMID:26428115

  12. Respiratory problems among cotton textile workers

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Fariba; Pili, Jaber Parsa; Abbasi, Akram; Soltani, Mina; Izadi, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Long term occupational exposure to cotton dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and loss of pulmonary function. Aim: This study was conducted to explore respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and chest radiography of workers, and to evaluate the findings of high resolution computed tomographyand its correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT). Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 cotton workers as exposed group and 100 unexposed subjects. Smokers were excluded from the study. All workers were interviewed and examined by the pulmonologist. PFT and chest radiography were conducted for all subjects. HRCT was performed for those with abnormal PFT or chest radiography. Results: A total of 51% and 31% of the cotton textile workers had one or more respiratory symptoms and respiratory signs respectively. 28% of subjects in the exposed group and 5% of subjects in unexposed group had obstructive pattern. Bronchia wall thickening and air trapping were the most frequent chest radiography and HRCT abnormalities respectively. There was a significant correlation between HRCT and the results of PFT. Conclusion: We conclude that long term exposure to cotton dust is associated with obstructive disease that increase with duration of exposure (history of working years), also use of HRCT as a sensitive tool in the assessment of pathologic changes and it's correlation with PFT, confirms the expected pathophysiology of airway obstruction in cotton workers. PMID:27051104

  13. Early Warning of Cotton Bollworm Resistance Associated with Intensive Planting of Bt Cotton in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haonan; Yin, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Lin; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Shuwen; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Yidong

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on “natural” refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins. PMID:21857961

  14. Predicting cotton yield of small field plots in a cotton breeding program using UAV imagery data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maja, Joe Mari J.; Campbell, Todd; Camargo Neto, Joao; Astillo, Philip

    2016-05-01

    One of the major criteria used for advancing experimental lines in a breeding program is yield performance. Obtaining yield performance data requires machine picking each plot with a cotton picker, modified to weigh individual plots. Harvesting thousands of small field plots requires a great deal of time and resources. The efficiency of cotton breeding could be increased significantly while the cost could be decreased with the availability of accurate methods to predict yield performance. This work is investigating the feasibility of using an image processing technique using a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) camera mounted on a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (sUAV) to collect normal RGB images in predicting cotton yield on small plot. An orthonormal image was generated from multiple images and used to process multiple, segmented plots. A Gaussian blur was used to eliminate the high frequency component of the images, which corresponds to the cotton pixels, and used image subtraction technique to generate high frequency pixel images. The cotton pixels were then separated using k-means cluster with 5 classes. Based on the current work, the calculated percentage cotton area was computed using the generated high frequency image (cotton pixels) divided by the total area of the plot. Preliminary results showed (five flights, 3 altitudes) that cotton cover on multiple pre-selected 227 sq. m. plots produce an average of 8% which translate to approximately 22.3 kgs. of cotton. The yield prediction equation generated from the test site was then use on a separate validation site and produced a prediction error of less than 10%. In summary, the results indicate that a COTS camera with an appropriate image processing technique can produce results that are comparable to expensive sensors.

  15. Indian Bt Cotton Varieties Do Not Affect the Performance of Cotton Aphids

    PubMed Central

    Lawo, Nora C.; Wäckers, Felix L.; Romeis, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Cotton varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown worldwide for the management of pest Lepidoptera. To prevent non-target pest outbreaks and to retain the biological control function provided by predators and parasitoids, the potential risk that Bt crops may pose to non-target arthropods is addressed prior to their commercialization. Aphids play an important role in agricultural systems since they serve as prey or host to a number of predators and parasitoids and their honeydew is an important energy source for several arthropods. To explore possible indirect effects of Bt crops we here examined the impact of Bt cotton on aphids and their honeydew. In climate chambers we assessed the performance of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) when grown on three Indian Bt (Cry1Ac) cotton varieties (MECH 12, MECH 162, MECH 184) and their non-transformed near isolines. Furthermore, we examined whether aphids pick up the Bt protein and analyzed the sugar composition of aphid honeydew to evaluate its suitability for honeydew-feeders. Plant transformation did not have any influence on aphid performance. However, some variation was observed among the three cotton varieties which might partly be explained by the variation in trichome density. None of the aphid samples contained Bt protein. As a consequence, natural enemies that feed on aphids are not exposed to the Cry protein. A significant difference in the sugar composition of aphid honeydew was detected among cotton varieties as well as between transformed and non-transformed plants. However, it is questionable if this variation is of ecological relevance, especially as honeydew is not the only sugar source parasitoids feed on in cotton fields. Our study allows the conclusion that Bt cotton poses a negligible risk for aphid antagonists and that aphids should remain under natural control in Bt cotton fields. PMID:19279684

  16. Toward identification of complete set of aquaporin gene family in cotton - A possible way to improve cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the most important natural-fiber producing crop and is a significant global agricultural commodity. Because of the significance of water to the quantity and quality of cotton production, efforts to decrease the amount of water applied and improve cotton water use efficiency are being exten...

  17. Development of Cotton leaf curl virus resistant transgenic cotton using antisense ßC1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Ilah, Abdul; Husen, Azamal; Bhattacharya, P.S.; Rana, D.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system. Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant to CLCuV. PMID:27081361

  18. Development of Cotton leaf curl virus resistant transgenic cotton using antisense ßC1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ilah, Abdul; Husen, Azamal; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2016-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system. Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant to CLCuV. PMID:27081361

  19. Biomimetic superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Hoefnagels, H F; Wu, D; de With, G; Ming, W

    2007-12-18

    We report a biomimetic procedure to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. By in situ introducing silica particles to cotton fibers to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), normally hydrophilic cotton has been easily turned superhydrophobic, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 155 degrees for a 10 microL droplet. The roll-off angle of water droplets depends on the droplet volume, ranging from 7 degrees for a droplet of 50 microL to 20 degrees for a 7 microL droplet. When a perfluoroalkyl chain is introduced to the silica particle surface, the superhydrophobic textile also becomes highly oleophobic, as demonstrated by a static contact angle of 140 degrees and a roll-off angle of 24 degrees for a 15 microL sunflower oil droplet. PMID:17985939

  20. Electrical insulated paper from cotton linter.

    PubMed

    El-Saied, Houssni; El-Meligy, Magda G; Mohamed, Samar H; El-Mongy, S Abd

    2012-09-01

    Insulated paper had been prepared from cotton linter containing certain additives. Strength properties had been studied for all paper prepared from cotton linter, before and after impregnating in the linseed oil. Also, the dielectric constant (έ) and AC electrical conductivity with frequencies over the range (100 kHz to 3 MHz) and at different temperatures were studied. Blended cotton linter with glass fiber or polyester fiber increased the dielectric constant. Since the glass fibers lowered the power factor from 0.63 to 0.28% and enhanced dielectric constant. The addition of hydrophilic fibers such as rayon or polyester fiber can be made paper of low porosity, low density and high dielectric resistance. Also, the addition of lead sulphate improved dielectric constant of paper since it has dielectric coefficient >20. The dielectric constant in sample which dipped in oil is higher than the sample without oil. PMID:24751023

  1. Acute inhalation toxicity of cotton plant dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, R; Snella, M C

    1976-01-01

    The number of free lung-cells was studied in guinea-pigs after acute exposure to extracts of various cotton dusts. A good correlation was found between the increase in number of leucocytes in the airways and the number of Gram-negative bacteria in the different dusts. Experiments using the Shwartzmann reaction and the Limulus titration test demonstrated a relationship between the content of different endotoxins in the dusts and the pulmonary reaction. A model for the acute exposure effects after exposure to cotton dust is proposed. PMID:963002

  2. A Primer for Using Transgenic Insecticidal Cotton in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Ann M.; Heuberger, Shannon; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Many developing countries face the decision of whether to approve the testing and commercial use of insecticidal transgenic cotton and the task of developing adequate regulations for its use. In this review, we outline concepts and provide information to assist farmers, regulators and scientists in making decisions concerning this technology. We address seven critical topics: 1) molecular and breeding techniques used for the development of transgenic cotton cultivars, 2) properties of transgenic cotton cultivars and their efficacy against major insect pests, 3) agronomic performance of transgenic cotton in developing countries, 4) factors affecting transgene expression, 5) impact of gene flow between transgenic and non-transgenic cotton, 6) non-target effects of transgenic cotton, and 7) management of pest resistance to transgenic cotton. PMID:19613464

  3. Some Pharmacological Actions of Cotton Dust and Other Vegetable Dusts

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, P. J.

    1962-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of cotton and other vegetable dusts cause contraction of the isolated ileum and tracheal muscle of the guinea-pig, and of isolated human bronchial muscle. The levels of this contractor activity place the dusts of cotton, flax, and jute in the order of the probable incidence of byssinosis occurring in the mills spinning these fibres. Extracts of cotton dust possess a histamine-liberating activity and contain a permeability-increasing component. These actions are of plant origin and are found in the pericarp and bracts of the cotton boll. Histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine have also been found in some cotton dust samples. The formation of histamine by bacterial action in cotton dust does not take place under conditions found in cotton mills. The smooth muscle contractor substance is organic in nature, relatively heat-stable, and dialysable. The relevance of these results to the symptoms of byssinosis is discussed. PMID:14479451

  4. Human Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein Vaccines That Are Immunogenic and Protective in Cotton Rats▿

    PubMed Central

    Cseke, Gabriella; Wright, David W.; Tollefson, Sharon J.; Johnson, Joyce E.; Crowe, James E.; Williams, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently described paramyxovirus that is a major cause of upper and lower respiratory infection in children and adults worldwide. A safe and effective vaccine could decrease the burden of disease associated with this novel pathogen. We previously reported the development of the cotton rat model of hMPV infection and pathogenesis (J. V. Williams et al., J. Virol. 79:10944-10951, 2005). We report here the immunogenicity of an hMPV fusion (F) protein in this model. We constructed DNA plasmids that exhibited high levels of expression of hMPV F in mammalian cells (DNA-F). These constructs were used to develop a novel strategy to produce highly pure, soluble hMPV F protein lacking the transmembrane domain (FΔTM). We then immunized cotton rats at 0 and 14 days with either control vector, DNA-F alone, DNA-F followed by FΔTM protein, or FΔTM alone. All groups were challenged intranasally at 28 days with live hMPV. All three groups that received some form of hMPV F immunization mounted neutralizing antibody responses and exhibited partial protection against virus shedding in the lungs compared to controls. The FΔTM-immunized animals showed the greatest degree of protection (>1,500-fold reduction in lung virus titer). All three immunized groups showed a modest reduction of nasal virus shedding. Neither evidence of a Th2-type response nor increased lung pathology were present in the immunized animals. We conclude that sequence-optimized hMPV F protein protects against hMPV infection when delivered as either a DNA or a protein vaccine in cotton rats. PMID:17050599

  5. Identification of semiochemicals released by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, upon infestation by the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Oliveira, Janser N; da Costa, Joao G; Bleicher, Ervino; Santana, Antonio E G; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Woodcock, Christine M; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2011-07-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae), is increasing in importance as a pest worldwide since the introduction of Bt-cotton, which controls lepidopteran but not homopteran pests. The chemical ecology of interactions between cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvaceae), A. gossypii, and the predatory lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), was investigated with a view to providing new pest management strategies. Behavioral tests using a four-arm (Pettersson) olfactometer showed that alate A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the presence of odor from uninfested cotton seedlings compared to clean air, but significantly less time in the presence of odor from A. gossypii infested plants. A. gossypii also spent significantly more time in the presence of headspace samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained from uninfested cotton seedlings, but significantly less time with those from A. gossypii infested plants. VOCs from uninfested and A. gossypii infested cotton seedlings were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the identification of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), methyl salicylate, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT), which were produced in larger amounts from A. gossypii infested plants compared to uninfested plants. In behavioral tests, A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the control (solvent) arms when presented with a synthetic blend of these four compounds, with and without the presence of VOCs from uninfested cotton. Coupled GC-electroantennogram (EAG) recordings with the lacewing C. lucasina showed significant antennal responses to VOCs from A. gossypii infested cotton, suggesting they have a role in indirect defense and indicating a likely behavioral role for these compounds for the predator as well as the aphid. PMID:21671083

  6. 7 CFR 457.105 - Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions... long staple cotton crop insurance provisions. The extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions... Cotton—Varieties identified as Extra Long Staple (ELS) cotton and American Upland (AUP) cotton if...

  7. CURRENT STATUS OF THE COTTON DB, A GENOME DATABASE FOR GOSSYPIUM SPP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton genome database, CottonDB, is a publicly available resource for cotton genome research ranging from the collections of Gossypium germplasm, molecular markers, to the functions of cotton genes. Curation of CottonDB is currently maintained in our Research Unit (http://algodon.tamu.edu/cotto...

  8. 7 CFR 27.47 - Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. 27.47... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.47 Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. Subject to the provisions of §§ 27.52 through...

  9. 7 CFR 27.47 - Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. 27.47... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.47 Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. Subject to the provisions of §§ 27.52 through...

  10. 7 CFR 27.12 - Classification request for each lot of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification request for each lot of cotton. 27.12... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification Requests § 27.12 Classification request for each lot of cotton. For each lot or mark of cotton of which...

  11. 7 CFR 319.8-14 - Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable. 319... Cotton and Covers Special Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-14 Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable. Mexican cotton and covers not enterable under §...

  12. 7 CFR 27.45 - No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.45 No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved place....

  13. 7 CFR 27.12 - Classification request for each lot of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification request for each lot of cotton. 27.12... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification Requests § 27.12 Classification request for each lot of cotton. For each lot or mark of cotton of which...

  14. 7 CFR 319.8-14 - Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable. 319... Cotton and Covers Special Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-14 Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable. Mexican cotton and covers not enterable under §...

  15. 7 CFR 28.107 - Original cotton standards and reserve sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Original cotton standards and reserve sets. 28.107... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.107 Original cotton standards and reserve sets....

  16. 7 CFR 319.8-14 - Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable. 319... Cotton and Covers Special Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-14 Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable. Mexican cotton and covers not enterable under §...

  17. 7 CFR 27.12 - Classification request for each lot of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification request for each lot of cotton. 27.12... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification Requests § 27.12 Classification request for each lot of cotton. For each lot or mark of cotton of which...

  18. 7 CFR 27.12 - Classification request for each lot of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification request for each lot of cotton. 27.12... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification Requests § 27.12 Classification request for each lot of cotton. For each lot or mark of cotton of which...

  19. 7 CFR 27.47 - Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. 27.47... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.47 Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. Subject to the provisions of §§ 27.52 through...

  20. 7 CFR 27.45 - No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.45 No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved place....

  1. 7 CFR 319.8-14 - Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable. 319... Cotton and Covers Special Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-14 Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable. Mexican cotton and covers not enterable under §...

  2. 7 CFR 27.45 - No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.45 No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved place....

  3. 7 CFR 27.12 - Classification request for each lot of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification request for each lot of cotton. 27.12... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification Requests § 27.12 Classification request for each lot of cotton. For each lot or mark of cotton of which...

  4. 7 CFR 319.8-14 - Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable. 319... Cotton and Covers Special Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-14 Mexican cotton and covers not otherwise enterable. Mexican cotton and covers not enterable under §...

  5. 7 CFR 27.45 - No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.45 No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved place....

  6. 7 CFR 27.45 - No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.45 No storage of cotton for classification at disapproved place....

  7. 7 CFR 27.47 - Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. 27.47... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.47 Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. Subject to the provisions of §§ 27.52 through...

  8. 7 CFR 27.47 - Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. 27.47... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.47 Tender or delivery of cotton; conditions. Subject to the provisions of §§ 27.52 through...

  9. Remote sensing for assessing cotton defoliation, regrowth control and root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton defoliation and post-harvest destruction are important cultural practices for cotton production. Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that affects cotton yield and lint quality. This paper presents exemplary applications of remote sensing technology for evaluating cotton def...

  10. The Halo Effect: Suppression of Pink Bollworm on Non-Bt Cotton by Bt Cotton in China

    PubMed Central

    Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

    2012-01-01

    In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this “halo effect” against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance. PMID:22848685

  11. Development of a novel-type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Zijing; Hou, Guangming; Hua, Jinping; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2016-08-01

    The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants-npf1 and npf2 (with a 120-bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to form the mature NPF1 and NPF2 peptides, and they were found to regulate feeding behaviour. Knock down of larval npf with dsNPF in vitro resulted in decreases of food consumption and body weight, and dsNPF also caused a decrease of glycogen and an increase of trehalose. Moreover, we produced transgenic tobacco plants transiently expressing dsNPF and transgenic cotton plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that H. armigera larvae fed on these transgenic plants or leaves had lower food consumption, body size and body weight compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the control of feeding of H. armigera and valuable for production of potential transgenic cotton. PMID:26841044

  12. [Effect of plumular axis-cutted cotton on growth and development of cotton bollworm].

    PubMed

    Li, P; Zhang, Q; Cai, Q

    2000-06-01

    The method of plumular axis cutting was used to induce the resistance of cotton plants to cotton bollworms(Heliothis armigera). The bollworm was cultured in the laboratory, and the effect of induced cotton on the duration of larval development and weights of larvae and pupae was studied. In the treatments of infection and control, the lengths of larval period were delayed by 3 days and 0.5 days, the weights of larvae were decreased by 19.60% and 11.45%, and the pupae weights were decreased by 10.81% and 6.54%, respectively. After the 8 days old larvae were reared with induced cotton leaves for 3 days, the infected and uninfected cutted plants resulted in a decrease of the relative growth rates of larvae by 22.9% and 17.2% respectively, and in a decrease of the relative feeding rates by 26.1% and 21.4% respectively. It is suggested that plumular axis cutting could induce the resistance of cotton plants to bollworm, and influence the growth and development speed of bollworms through retarding their feeding and digestion. Combining with the treatment of Pseudomona gladioli D-2251 strain could obviously increase the insect-resistance of cotton plants. PMID:11767647

  13. Analysis of sea-island cotton and upland cotton in response to Verticillium dahliae infection by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton Verticillium wilt is a serious soil-borne vascular disease that causes great economic loss each year. However, due to the lack of resistant varieties of upland cotton, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to this disease, especially to the pathogen Verticillium dahliae, remain unclear. Results We used the RNA-seq method to research the molecular mechanisms of cotton defence responses to different races of Verticillium dahliae by comparing infected sea-island cotton and upland cotton. A total of 77,212 unigenes were obtained, and the unigenes were subjected to BLAST searching and annotated using the GO and KO databases. Six sets of digital gene expression data were mapped to the reference transcriptome. The gene expression profiles of cotton infected with Verticillium dahliae were compared to those of uninfected cotton; 44 differentially expressed genes were identified. Regarding genes involved in the phenylalanine metabolism pathway, the hydroxycinnamoyl transferase gene (HCT) was upregulated in upland cotton whereas PAL, 4CL, CAD, CCoAOMT, and COMT were upregulated in sea-island cotton. Almost no differentially expressed genes in this pathway were identified in sea-island cotton and upland cotton when they were infected with V. dahliae V991 and V. dahliae D07038, respectively. Conclusions Our comprehensive gene expression data at the transcription level will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the cotton defence response to V. dahliae. By identifying the genes involved in the defence response of each type of cotton to V. dahliae, our data not only provide novel molecular information for researchers, but also help accelerate research on genes involved in defences in cotton. PMID:24314117

  14. Moisture study on botanical cotton trash.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized in identifying different types of botanical cotton trash as each was subjected to simulations of ginning and textile processing. Changes in the hydroxyl region observed after heat treatment indicated the need to further...

  15. Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-12-18

    This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of θ(a)/θ(r) = 151°/144° (θ(a), advancing contact angle; θ(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation. PMID:23186211

  16. Silver nanowire-functionalized cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Nateghi, Mohammad R; Shateri-Khalilabad, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    In this study, general functionalization of cotton fabric by loading silver nanowires (AgNWs) on cotton surface is reported. Initially, AgNWs were synthesized by a polyol process and then were conformal coated onto individual cotton fibers through a simple "dip and dry" process. SEM images revealed a thin and uniform AgNWs coating on the cotton microfibers which was supported by a surface chemical analysis by EDX. The average electrical surface resistivity of the fabric coated with conductive network of AgNWs was measured to be 27.4 Ω/sq. Incubating the modified fabric with either Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated that the fabric had substantial antimicrobial capacity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (100% microbial death). The fabric also showed excellent UV-blocking ability with the UV protection factor of 113.14. The fluorosilane coated AgNWs-loaded fabric displayed stable superhydrophobicity with CA and SHA values of 156.2°±3.2° and 7°, respectively. PMID:25498621

  17. Tracking Seed Coat Fragments in Cotton Ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High seed coat fragment (SCF) content in cotton bales causes processing problems in textile plants. This experiment was designed to determine the origin of SCF by tracking their occurrence through a conventional sequence of gin machinery. After the lint cleaner, lint contained an average of 12.25 ...

  18. Ultrasonic acceleration of enzymatic processing of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. It has been found that the intr...

  19. Gossypium Germplasm Resources for Cotton Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a very small fraction of the genetic diversity residing in the Gossypium genus is represented in improved, elite cotton germplasm. Although genetic diversity in elite germplasm is reported to be narrow, diversity on the farm is narrower, due to preferential planting of successful cultivars, an...

  20. Electricity use patterns in cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy costs are the second largest source of variable costs for cotton gins, with electricity accounting for 18% of variable costs. Energy use has typically not been a major consideration in gin design and previous studies of energy use have utilized instantaneous readings or aggregated season-lon...

  1. Cotton production in rotation with summer legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea) is a fast growing tropical legume that can accumulate large amounts of biomass and N in a relatively short period of time during the summer in the southeastern US. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of using this legume as an N source for cotton (Gossypi...

  2. SPINDLE SPEED EFFECTS ON COTTON QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and harvested at three different spindle speeds (1500, 2000, and 2400 rpm). Stalk losses were significantly greater with a spindle speed of 1500 rpm than with the higher spindle speeds, particularly for the D...

  3. The Future of Nematode Management in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Starr, J. L.; Koenning, S. R.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Robinson, A. F.; Roberts, P. A.; Nichols, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality. PMID:19259500

  4. Evaluation of a cotton stripper yield monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of a microwave sensor based yield monitor for measuring yield on a cotton stripper harvester and determine if the yield monitor can discriminate differences in yield to the same level as a reference scale system. A new yield monitor was instal...

  5. Corn yields benefit in rotations with cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotations have long been stated to benefit all species involved in the sequence. Continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has been the primary crop for much of the Mississippi Delta until recently. Corn (Zea mays L.) is now grown on about 1 million acres in the states of Arkansas, Mississippi...

  6. The Case for Cotton Wipes and Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The significant growth in the volume and number of wipe-based products for a wide variety of applications is consuming ever increasing amounts of fiber as raw material in wipes and other nonwoven products. The United States Department of Agriculture and Cotton Incorporated recognize both the economi...

  7. Satellite-based monitoring of cotton evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalezios, Nicolas; Dercas, Nicholas; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Water for agricultural use represents the largest share among all water uses. Vulnerability in agriculture is influenced, among others, by extended periods of water shortage in regions exposed to droughts. Advanced technological approaches and methodologies, including remote sensing, are increasingly incorporated for the assessment of irrigation water requirements. In this paper, remote sensing techniques are integrated for the estimation and monitoring of crop evapotranspiration ETc. The study area is Thessaly central Greece, which is a drought-prone agricultural region. Cotton fields in a small agricultural sub-catchment in Thessaly are used as an experimental site. Daily meteorological data and weekly field data are recorded throughout seven (2004-2010) growing seasons for the computation of reference evapotranspiration ETo, crop coefficient Kc and cotton crop ETc based on conventional data. Satellite data (Landsat TM) for the corresponding period are processed to estimate cotton crop coefficient Kc and cotton crop ETc and delineate its spatiotemporal variability. The methodology is applied for monitoring Kc and ETc during the growing season in the selected sub-catchment. Several error statistics are used showing very good agreement with ground-truth observations.

  8. Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.; Banks, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Three alternative methods for performing flame tests using cheaply and easily available cotton swabs are described. These flame tests are useful for chemical demonstrations or laboratory experiments because they are quick and easy to perform with easy cleanup and disposal methods.

  9. Green FR Cotton Barrier Nonwovens: Progress Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This green barrier fabric is unique in sense that it is from a renewable resource, biodegradable, economical, employing greige (unbleached) cotton, thus, increasing its marketability. The recent open-flame standard (effective since July, 2007) for residential mattresses 16 CFR 1633 from CPSC has l...

  10. Differentially expressed genes in drought stressed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is one of the most challenging agricultural issues limiting sustainable crop production. Many efforts have been incorporated using genetic and genomic approaches to identify valuable molecular resources. Cotton, the world’s primary fiber crop, provides major economic value to farmers and ind...

  11. Genetic Diversity of A-Genome Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is known to have relatively low levels of genetic diversity or variation in genetic makeup among individuals, a better understanding of this variation and relationships among possible sources of novel genes would be valuable. Therefore, analysis of genetic...

  12. Conventional breeding used to improve Bt cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial cultivars of Bollgard® cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., differ in the amount of expressed Cry1Ac protein. However, the plant-mechanism for which this occurs is still unknown. A method was developed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine if differences i...

  13. Relating xylem cavitation to transpiration in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acoustic emmisions (AEs) from xylem cavitation events are characteristic of transpiration processes. Even though a body of work employing AE exists with a large number of species, cotton and other agronomically important crops have either not been investigated, or limited information exists. A few s...

  14. PARTICULATE EMISSION PROFILE OF A COTTON GIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IS ONE OF SIX CRITERIA POLLUTANTS REGULATED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) WITH NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS). IN GENERAL, PM IS THE ONLY AIR POLLUTANT OF CONCERN EMITTED FROM COTTON GINS. THE EPA HAS NAAQS FOR PM10 (PARTICLES WITH AN AERODYNA...

  15. The drought response transcriptome of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our long-term goal is to explore the regulatory networks that control the expression of stress responsive genes. The principal aim of this study was to identify cotton genes implicated in water-deficit stress by comparing information generated by functional genomics and bioinformatics approaches. ...

  16. White speck potential for mechanically harvested cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper examines the white speck phenomena as seen in mechanically picked cottons based on HVI, AFIS and white speck fabric data. White specks are dye defects that can be inherent from the variety or can be caused by weather or other field conditions, and the fabric manufacturer is often caught ...

  17. Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

  18. Improved prospects of cotton used in nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major difficulties and headwinds encountered by the nonwovens industry in incorporating cotton in their products have been identified. The research was conducted to resolve those major problems facing the industry. The research results have shown that most of those problems can be adequately h...

  19. Development of transgenic Acala 1517 cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through backcross breeding, insect resistant Bt genes (W and BGII) and herbicide resistant Roundup Ready genes (RR and RF) have been introduced into Acala 1517 cotton, resulting in the development of one Acala cultivar 1517-99W and a number of elite breeding lines. Acala 1517 germplasm with two Bt g...

  20. Resistance mechanisms against arthropod herbivores in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton plants from the genus Gossypium are grown on more than 30 million hectares worldwide and are a major source of fiber. The plants possess a wide-range of indirect and direct-defense mechanisms against arthropod pests. Direct defense mechanisms include morphological traits such as trichomes and...