Yakunina, Elena S.; Weigold, Ingrid K.; McCarthy, Alannah S.
International students in higher education represent a diverse population with unique mental health needs. Foreign students commonly experience a host of adjustment issues, including acculturative stress, language difficulties, cultural misunderstandings, racial discrimination, and loss of social support. Despite their challenges, few…
Pedersen, Paul B.
Begins with a discussion of the purposes served by ethical codes and reviews three patterns of implicit assumptions: examples of implicit cultural bias, examples of cultural encapsulation, and examples favoring the dominant culture. Discusses positive recommendations for developing more inclusionary ethical guidelines, using case examples. (RJM)
Garcia, Jorge, G.; Cartwright, Brenda; Winston, Stacey M.; Borzuchowska, Barbara
The Transcultural Integrative Ethical Decision-Making Model in counseling addresses the need for including cultural factors in the process of ethical dilemma resolution. The proposed model is presented in a step-by-step, linear format that can be used by counselors facing ethical dilemmas in a variety of settings and with different cultural…
Steen, Rheta LeAnne; Engels, Dennis; Thweatt, W. Tom, III
The authors review the professional literature related to spirituality and ethics in counseling. The American Counseling Association's (1995, 2005) code of ethics was used as a basis for exploring the possibilities and limits/ boundaries appropriate for discussion of spirituality in counseling. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Zakaria, Noor Syamilah
Peer counselling empowerment entails specific considerations of the training process as peer counsellors. Specific issues related to such empowerment are discussed in light of the counselling profession. Subsequently, ethical considerations pertaining to peer counselling such as confidentiality, dual relationships, competency and vicarious…
Burke, Mary Thomas, Ed.; Miranti, Judith G., Ed.
This book presents a compilation of articles previously published in the journal "Counseling and Values." The follwing articles are included: (1) "Ethics and Spirituality: The Prevailing Forces Influencing the Counseling Profession" (Judith Miranti, Mary Thomas Burke); (2) "Three Contributions of a Spiritual Perspective to Counseling,…
Flach, Frederic, Ed.
Volume of 4 and 5 contain lessons that provide expert information on a variety of ethical issues in professional counseling. The lessons included in these volumes may be applied toward continuing education credits. Lessons in volume 4 are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural…
Hurtado, Juan; And Others
This booklet, developed for school counselors, explores basic considerations for effective counseling of Lau students, defined as those from distinct language and cultural backgrounds, whose home language is other than English and who are not performing conceptually and linguistically at a level equal to district standards. Following a brief…
Weld, Chet; Eriksen, Karen
Spirituality has become increasingly important in counseling, with prayer being the spiritual intervention of choice for Christian counselors. The controversial nature of including prayer in counseling requires careful consideration of ethical issues. This article addresses the intersection of spiritual interventions, particularly prayer, with…
Huey, Wayne C.; And Others
This document contains chapter 1 (8 articles) from a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Standards for School Counselors: Test Your Knowledge" (Wayne C. Huey)…
Attridge, William C.
With the advent of new technologies, the possibility for providing quality, Internet-based, therapeutic counseling services becomes more attainable and realistic every year. Since the National Board for Certified Counselors announced the adoption of voluntary standards for the practice of Internet-based counseling, a new dimension has been added…
Leong, Frederick T. L.
The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.
Employment counseling is commonly used in companies to assist employees with various personal and professional challenges that are confronted in the workplace. Such guidance could affect the degree to which employees believe a company proactively supports an ethical orientation; the purpose of this study was to explore this issue. A self-report…
This practical guide will sensitize the professional school counselor to legal and ethical issues involved in working with minors in school settings. Using a case study approach and more than 100 cases representing school counselors daily dilemmas, chapters help the reader connect the reality of school counseling to critical federal and state…
Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra
This article introduces the culture-infused career counselling (CICC) model. Six principles are foundational to a tripartite model emphasizing cultural self-awareness, awareness of client cultural identities, and development of a culturally sensitive working alliance. The core competencies ensure the cultural validity and relevance of career…
Erlen, Judith A
As science and technology in genetics continue to expand, complex ethical questions arise that require difficult decisions for all concerned. Rather than having ready-made answers, there may be only more challenging questions for patients, families, and healthcare professionals. These complicated questions may have no straightforward, correct answers, thus creating an ethical quandary. This article discusses some selected ethical issues that occur when patients are considering undergoing genetic testing and counseling, including respecting autonomy and the patient's right to decide, establishing patient-healthcare provider trust, and disclosing private information to others. Several strategies are presented that nurses can use as they assist patients and their families who are facing these challenging ethical dilemmas. PMID:17130767
Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.
Virtue ethics focus on the motives that guide ethical decision making and action, and as such, are critical to the competent application of the counseling profession's ethical codes. Knowledge of virtue ethics deepens understanding of moral responsibilities and ethical reasoning in professional practice. This paper is an overview of virtue ethics…
Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel
Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)
Berg, Rachelle; Hendricks, Bret; Bradley, Loretta
Major ethical considerations must be taken into account when providing counseling services to suicidal adolescents and their families. This article explores these ethical issues and the American Counseling Association and International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors ethical codes relevant to these issues. Related liability and…
Henderson, Kathryn L.; Malone, Stefanie L.
Learning to navigate ethical dilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…
Urofsky, Robert I.; Engels, Dennis W.; Engebretson, Ken
This extensive literature review examining the influence of K. S. Kitchener's (1984) introduction of principle ethics on counseling and psychology ethics notes the ultimate practicality of principle ethics. The authors maintain that although a strong influence of principle ethics in the area of counselor education emerges through the review, there…
Robson, Maggie; Cook, Peter; Hunt, Kathy; Alred, Geof; Robson, Dave
Explores the process of ethical decision-making in counseling research and examines to what extent decision-making is based on intuitive thinking. Reviews and considers several models of ethical problem solving. Argues that ethical decisions are reached through intuition, informed by ethical principles, codes of practice, and reference to the laws…
Ensenauer, Regina E; Michels, Virginia V; Reinke, Shanda S
Genetic testing is becoming a much more common practice in medicine today. This presents a unique set of challenges for medical professionals in virtually all specialties. The practical aspects of determining which test to order, and in interpreting the result accurately in the context of the family history, can be difficult. Additionally, the ethical conundrums that frequently present themselves when genetic risk assessment and/or genetic testing is being considered can be daunting. These challenges present real concerns for medical professionals and patients alike. Included in this article is a review of some of the practical and ethical complexities associated with genetic testing. Pretest and posttest genetic counseling is also emphasized as an important and essential process in today's medical practice. PMID:15667031
Warren, Jane; Zavaschi, Guilherme; Covello, Christin; Zakaria, Noor Syamilah
This article includes a description of the bookmark as a creative arts experiential strategy useful in teaching counseling ethics education. Three bookmark examples illustrate how counselors-in-training utilized bookmarks to conceptualize their counseling ethics understanding. Illustrations and written feedback from the counselors-in-training…
... Investigation No. OIG-560, Sept. 16, 2011, pp. 116-117. \\2\\ 15 FR 3175, 64 Stat. 1265 (May 24, 1950). These... 200 Reporting Line for the Commission's Ethics Counsel AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... rules to reflect that the Commission's Office of the Ethics Counsel is now a stand-alone Office of...
Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others
This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Issues Involved With the Use of Computer-Assisted Counseling, Testing, and…
Ridley, Charles R.
The complexity of the cross-cultural counseling and psychotherapy encounter is examined, with particular reference to four prominent variables: (1) views of mental health; (2) goals of counseling; (3) roles of counseling participants; and (4) counseling strategies. (Author/MJB)
Trottier, R.W.; Hodgin, F.C.; Imara, M.; Phoenix, D.; Lybrook, S. . School of Medicine); Crandall, L.A.; Moseley, R.E.; Armotrading, D. . Coll. of Medicine)
Genetic medical services provided by the Georgia Division of Public Health in two northern and two central districts are compared to services provided in a district in which a tertiary care facility is located. Genetics outreach public health nurses play key roles in Georgia's system of Children's Health Services Genetics Program, including significant roles as counselors and information sources on special needs social services and support organizations. Unique features of individual health districts, (e.g., the changing face of some rural communities in ethnocultural diversity and socioeconomic character), present new challenges to current and future genetics services delivery. Preparedness as to educational needs of both health professionals and the lay population is of foremost concern in light of the ever expanding knowledge and technology in medical genetics. Perspectives on genetics and an overview of services offered by a local private sector counselor are included for comparison to state supported services. The nature of the interactions which transpire between private and public genetic services resources in Georgia will be described. A special focus of this research includes issues associated with sickle cell disease newborn screening service delivery process in Georgia, with particular attention paid to patient follow-up and transition to primary care. Of particular interest to this focus is the problem of loss to follow-up in the current system. Critical factors in education and counseling of sickle cell patients and the expectations of expanding roles of primary care physicians are discussed. The Florida approach to the delivery of genetic services contrasts to the Georgia model by placing more emphasis on a consultant-specialist team approach.
Zakaria, Noor Syamilah
Counseling ethics competency is an important part of counselor identity development as required by the counseling profession training standards, and counseling ethics education is one major component of knowledge acquisition in counseling profession. Counselor educators and counselor education training programs have a core responsibility to…
Ponton, Richard F.; Duba, Jill D.
The "ACA Code of Ethics" (American Counseling Association, 2005) is an articulation of the ever-changing relationship between counseling professionals and society. It provides clear parameters of behaviors to meet the changing needs of the people counselors are called to serve. This article reviews the 2005 "Code" as both a statement of counselor…
Lund, Emily M.; Schultz, Jared C.
Background: The use of technology-mediated distance supervision is a rapidly growing area in rehabilitation counseling and other fields. Distance supervision has both tremendous potential and notable challenges to address, including questions of ethics and evidence. Purpose: This article examines both the ethical and nonethical principles that…
Kuit, Wim; Watson, Mark
This article suggests a re-consideration of the way in which postmodern career counselling and theory could position counsellors in relation to their clients. It also poses ethical challenges and questions to developing career counsellors and their established educators. More specifically, the article explores the ethical dilemmas confronting…
Pedersen, Paul B., Ed.; Locke, Don C., Ed.
Counseling has been culturally diversified for a long time, but only in recent years have counselors become aware of their clients' cultural diversity. This collection of articles addresses a growing need for specific information on multicultural concerns in counseling. The emphasis here is on the importance of the client and client's special…
Mental health professionals have engaged in mandatory pretreatment counseling and assessment of patients seeking treatment at IVF programs in the United States since the 1980s. At present, most recipient patients undergoing IVF with egg or embryo donation in the United States are required to meet with a mental health professional for one pretreatment session. Mandatory counseling of gamete recipients is fraught with ethical questions for the mental health professional. Attention to issues of autonomy, confidentiality, role clarity, along with self-evaluation and openness with the patient can help lessen the impact of these ethical challenges. PMID:26235569
Pedersen, Paul B.
Eight clusters of culturally biased assumptions are identified for further discussion from Leong and Ponterotto's (2003) article. The presence of cultural bias demonstrates that cultural bias is so robust and pervasive that is permeates the profession of counseling psychology, even including those articles that effectively attack cultural bias…
Kottler, Jeffrey A.; And Others
This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethics Comes of Age: Introduction to the Special Issue" (Jeffrey A. Kottler)…
Cottone, R. Rocco
Examines social constructivism as an intellectual movement in the mental health field that directs a social consensual interpretation of reality. Presents a social constructivism approach to counseling which redefines the ethical decision-making process as an interactive rather than individual or intrapsychic process. Explores how the process…
Ibrahim, Farah A.; Dykeman, Cass
In this article, the authors identify the cultural and spiritual assessments needed to conduct counseling with Muslim Americans and Muslim immigrants to the United States. Assessment processes are outlined that include cultural identity (which subsumes several variables); worldview; spiritual assessment along with acculturation level and migration…
Hook, Joshua N; Farrell, Jennifer E; Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Utsey, Shawn O
Racial microaggressions may contribute to poor counseling outcomes in racial/ethnic minority clients. The present study examined the occurrence of racial microaggressions in counseling using a large and diverse sample and explored the association between perceived cultural humility of the counselor and racial microaggressions. Racial/ethnic minority participants (N = 2,212) answered questions about the frequency and impact of racial microaggressions in counseling and the characteristics of their counselor. The majority of clients (81%) reported experiencing at least 1 racial microaggression in counseling. Participants most commonly reported racial microaggressions involving denial or lack of awareness of stereotypes and bias and avoidance of discussing cultural issues. There were few differences in racial microaggression frequency or impact based on client race/ethnicity and counselor race/ethnicity. Racially matched clients viewed racial microaggressions as more impactful than did clients who were not racially matched. Client-perceived cultural humility of the counselor was associated with fewer microaggressions experienced in counseling. We conclude by discussing limitations, areas for future research, and implications for counseling. PMID:27078198
Nelson, William A; Taylor, Emily; Walsh, Thom
The success of a health care institution-as defined by delivering high-quality, high-value care, positive patient outcomes, and financial solvency-is inextricably tied to the culture within that organization. The ability to achieve and sustain alignment between its mission, values, and everyday practices defines a positive organizational culture. An institution that has a diminished organizational culture, reflected in the failure to consistently align management and clinical decisions and practices with its mission and values, will struggle. The presence of misalignment or of ethics gaps affects the quality of care being delivered, the morale of the staff, and the organization's image in the community. Transforming an organizational culture will provide a foundation for success and a framework for daily ethics-grounded operations in any organization. However, building an ethics-grounded organization is a challenging process requiring strong organization leadership and planning. Using a case study, the authors provide a multiyear, continuous step-by-step strategy consisting of identifying ethics culture gaps, establishing an ethics taskforce, clarifying and prioritizing the problems, developing strategy for change, implementing the strategy, and evaluating outcomes. This process will assist organizations in aligning its actions with its mission and values, to find success on all fronts. PMID:24776835
Calvin, Richmond E.
School counselors today work with clients from minority races, minority ethnic groups, homosexuals, females, at-risk students and the handicapped. Counselors need to be willing to learn more about these minorities and how to better meet their needs. Many colleges offering counseling programs include multicultural education. Counselors must be…
Pasteur, Alfred B.; Toldson, Ivory L.
The therapeutic and educational advantages of studying black art forms and expressions have largely been ignored. The black experience, as expressed in their art, should be a vital educational and counseling tool for helping blacks suffering from emotional maladjustment and educational disadvantages. (NG)
Weil, J; Mittman, I
The increasing diversity of American society has brought growing recognition of the need to bridge cultures in the delivery of genetic counseling services. New immigrants and members of diverse ethnic groups face multiple barriers to genetic counseling services. The need to train genetic counselors to deal with cultural diversity is especially crucial in the new genetic era, given the rapid expansion of available technology, with the resulting social and ethical ramifications. A framework for teaching cross-cultural issues in genetic counseling training programs is presented that can be implemented in step-wise fashion, consistent with available resources. Cross-cultural issues can be incorporated into existing teaching and training modalities by expanding the orientation from monocultural to multicultural. Relevant clinical experience, exploration of students' preconceptions and biases, reading materials, and lectures by invited speakers can all enhance students' knowledge and sensitivity. It is critically important that training programs furnish students with the basic tools necessary for the ongoing process of learning about cultural diversity. PMID:24242637
Mallen, Michael J.; Vogel, David L.; Rochlen, Aaron B.
This article addresses the practical aspects of online counseling, including ethics, training, supervision, technology, and competency issues. The authors discuss online counseling's strengths and limitations and present guidelines for what types of clients and counseling psychologists may be appropriate for online counseling. To illustrate the…
Nwachuku, Uchenna T.; Ivey, Allen E.
Promotes culture-specific counseling approach, which starts with the culture and its people and searches out natural helping styles. Uses case model drawn from African-Igbo culture and applies anthropological constructs that seek to discover more culturally sensitive approach to counseling theory, to training in counseling skills and knowledge,…
Vontress, Clemmont E.
Reviews the personal and intellectual forces that shaped one practitioner's approach to counseling. Reflects on five themes in which culture influences human existence: self-hatred, cultural differences, historical hostility, existential counseling, and traditional healing. (LSR)
Ardichvili, Alexandre A.; Jondle, Douglas J.; Mitchell, James A.
The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: (1) Mission- and Values-Driven; (2) Stakeholder Balance; (3) Leadership Effectiveness; (4) Process Integrity; and (5) Long-term Perspective.…
Hoshmand, Lisa Tsoi
Narratological research is defined in relation to narrative theory and a cultural psychology perspective. Narrative concepts and methodology are explained, including the configural mode of understanding and principles of narrative analysis. Examples of application in psychological and counseling research are presented, with a discussion of issues…
Vontress, Clemmont E.; Jackson, Morris L.
This document presents guidelines for planning and teaching a cross-cultural counseling course. Problems encountered in defining the culturally different are discussed. Ten minimum course objectives are presented and three ways that a professor may focus on the impact of culture on the counseling process and address the counseling relationship,…
Biesecker, Barbara Bowles
The accelerated discovery of gene mutations that lead to increased risk of disease has led to the rapid development of predictive genetic tests. These tests improve the accuracy of assigning risk, but at a time when intervention or prevention strategies are largely unproved. In coming years, however, data will become increasingly available to guide treatment of genetic diseases. Eventually genetic testing will be performed for common diseases as well as for rare genetic conditions. This will challenge genetic counseling practice. The ethical principles that now guide this practice take into account the personal nature of test decision making, the need to respect individual self-determination, and the importance of client confidentiality. Certain of these principles may have to be modified as genetic testing becomes more widespread in order to meet the changing needs of clients and society. This paper offers recommendations to ensure that genetic counselors will take a leading role in the future delivery of ethical genetic services. PMID:11657426
Trottier, R.W.; Hodgin, F.C.; Imara, M.; Phoenix, D.; Lybrook, S.; Crandall, L.A.; Moseley, R.E.; Armotrading, D.
Genetic medical services provided by the Georgia Division of Public Health in two northern and two central districts are compared to services provided in a district in which a tertiary care facility is located. Genetics outreach public health nurses play key roles in Georgia`s system of Children`s Health Services Genetics Program, including significant roles as counselors and information sources on special needs social services and support organizations. Unique features of individual health districts, (e.g., the changing face of some rural communities in ethnocultural diversity and socioeconomic character), present new challenges to current and future genetics services delivery. Preparedness as to educational needs of both health professionals and the lay population is of foremost concern in light of the ever expanding knowledge and technology in medical genetics. Perspectives on genetics and an overview of services offered by a local private sector counselor are included for comparison to state supported services. The nature of the interactions which transpire between private and public genetic services resources in Georgia will be described. A special focus of this research includes issues associated with sickle cell disease newborn screening service delivery process in Georgia, with particular attention paid to patient follow-up and transition to primary care. Of particular interest to this focus is the problem of loss to follow-up in the current system. Critical factors in education and counseling of sickle cell patients and the expectations of expanding roles of primary care physicians are discussed. The Florida approach to the delivery of genetic services contrasts to the Georgia model by placing more emphasis on a consultant-specialist team approach.
Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.
The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…
Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.
Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…
Sampson, James P., Jr.; Makela, Julia Panke
For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career…
Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.
A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…
Ardichvili, Alexandre; Jondle, Douglas
This literature review identifies characteristics of ethical business cultures, describes factors, considered to be important in developing such cultures, describes current practices of developing ethical culture programs, and discusses the role of HRD in developing ethical business cultures. We argue that ethical thinking and behavior can be…
Castillo, Linda G.; Phoummarath, Marion J.
Asian American adolescents are frequently overlooked as a population in need of counseling interventions. However, cultural issues such as refugee status or the pressure of high academic achievement can influence an Asian American student's mental health. As there is a dearth of school counseling literature written about what school counselors…
Schoen, Alexis Ann
There is a constellation of considerations for counselors dealing with Asian American/Pacific Islander clients. In order to provide culturally sensitive counseling, counselors need to know and respect the traditional values of the particular ethnic group. Beyond this, the counseling process may be enhanced by attention to other salient factors…
Dufresne, Peter; McKenzie, Anne S.
Becoming an ethical leader requires a personal journey toward integrity and a public commitment to a common good. This begins with claiming one's core values, finding a personal voice, developing a vision, and consciously aligning one's attitudes and beliefs with one's actions and behaviors. In the process, ethical leaders create spaces where…
Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julia S.; Bingeman, Brittany A.
This paper addresses a survey conducted to examine knowledge of ethics in school counselor candidates. Students in school counseling practicum and internship classes indicated their familiarity with ethical codes and ethical decision making-models and responded to items pertaining to ethical dilemmas. Areas of concern to counselor educators…
Describes an intervention with a distressed Montagnard refugee in a context sensitive to Southeast Asian culture. Discusses relevant interventions in relation to the current available literature on counseling with Southeast Asian refugees in America. (Author)
Cooper, Caren C.; Gottleib, Michael C.
Describes the evolution of managed care and reviews basic biomedical ethics and ethical decision-making models. Examines specific ethical issues and offers suggestions for practice, research, and education and training. Concludes with a research agenda, a review of projected general trends in health care delivery, and a discussion of counseling…
Tveit, Anne Dorthe; Sunde, Annikken Louise
The purpose of this paper is to explore how different insights from a variety of theories might help ethical decision making in educational counselling and highlight the need for reflection. A framework for ethical decision making based on basic features of counselling, namely the interlocutors' practice or "acts", is proposed. There are…
Infertility is a health-care problem which has very definite physiological, psychological and social implications. Infertile couples are continually reminded of their plight--the structure of society is based on the family unit; simple activities such as shopping are a constant reminder, the shops being geared to the family; the neighbours fill their cars with all the paraphernalia which accompanies children--the stigma of infertility often leads to mental disharmony, marital difficulties, divorce, and in some cultures to ostracism. The suffering experienced by infertile people is very real. We need to remind ourselves that we are treating 'people who are infertile' rather than 'infertility'. Our care goes beyond their physical treatment--their stresses and strains are our concern and we must be careful not to add additional stress to their existing problems. Successful treatment can transform their lives: 'They are bright, healthy, beautiful children--a dream come true. Our lives are transformed and complete. Thank you a million times.' Failure after years of trying is all the more painful. The availability of effective, informed, independent and involved counselling is essential. PMID:2207611
Tozzo, Pamela; Caenazzo, Luciana; Parker, Michael J
Misattributed paternity or 'false' paternity is when a man is wrongly thought, by himself and possibly by others, to be the biological father of a child. Nowadays, because of the progression of genetics and genomics the possibility of finding misattributed paternity during familial genetic testing has increased. In contrast to other medical information, which pertains primarily to individuals, information obtained by genetic testing and/or pedigree analysis necessarily has implications for other biologically related members in the family. Disclosing or not a misattributed paternity has a number of different biological and social consequences for the people involved. Such an issue presents important ethical and deontological challenges. The debate centres on whether or not to inform the family and, particularly, whom in the family, about the possibility that misattributed paternity might be discovered incidentally, and whether or not it is the duty of the healthcare professional (HCP) to disclose the results and to whom. In this paper, we consider the different perspectives and reported problems, and analyse their cultural, ethical and legal dimensions. We compare the position of HCPs from an Italian and British point of view, particularly their role in genetic counselling. We discuss whether the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe (1997) can be seen as a basis for enriching the debate. PMID:23443210
Ryan, Jane; Virani, Alice; Austin, Jehannine C.
Genetic counseling is a well-established healthcare discipline that provides individuals and families with health information about disorders that have a genetic component in a supportive counseling encounter. It has recently been applied in the context of psychiatric disorders (like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression and anxiety) that typically appear sometime during later childhood through to early adulthood. Psychiatric genetic counseling is emerging as an important service that fills a growing need to reframe understandings of the causes of mental health disorders. In this review, we will define psychiatric genetic counseling, and address important ethical concerns (we will particularly give attention to the principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice) that must be considered in the context of its application in adolescent psychiatry, whilst integrating evidence regarding patient outcomes from the literature. We discuss the developing capacity and autonomy of adolescents as an essential and dynamic component of genetic counseling provision in this population and discuss how traditional viewpoints regarding beneficence and non-maleficence should be considered in the unique situation of adolescents with, or at risk for, psychiatric conditions. We argue that thoughtful and tailored counseling in this setting can be done in a manner that addresses the important health needs of this population while respecting the core principles of biomedical ethics, including the ethic of care. PMID:26937355
Atkinson, Donald R.
Responds to earlier article by Mio and Iwamasa (1993) on white researchers investigating ethnic-minority populations and other cross-cultural issues. Organizes concerns raised by Mio and Iwamasa under two themes: ethical issues and professional turf. Concentrates on ethical issues having to do with nonmaleficence, beneficence, privacy, gratitude,…
... Ethics Program and for interpreting subpart M of this part and 5 CFR part 2635. He or she serves as... inquire into alleged violations of subparts C, F, and M of this part, and 5 CFR part 2635. (b) The Ethics... respect to subparts C, F, and M of this part, and 5 CFR part 2635. (7) Oversee investigations and...
Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.
Standards for technology ethics were first introduced into the "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors" in 2002. Since that time, the proliferation of technology has enhanced practice, changed the American vernacular, and become infused in the delivery of services to and teaching of individuals, families, and groups. The 2010…
... Ethics Program and for interpreting subpart M of this part and 5 CFR part 2635. He or she serves as... inquire into alleged violations of subparts C, F, and M of this part, and 5 CFR part 2635. (b) The Ethics... opinions with respect to subparts C, F, and M of this part, and 5 CFR part 2635. (7) Draft rules...
... Ethics Program and for interpreting subpart M of this part and 5 CFR part 2635. He or she serves as... inquire into alleged violations of subparts C, F, and M of this part, and 5 CFR part 2635. (b) The Ethics... respect to subparts C, F, and M of this part, and 5 CFR part 2635. (7) Oversee investigations and...
Mcauliffe, Garrett John; Grothaus, Tim; Jensen, Margaret; Michel, Rebecca
Multicultural counseling is often promoted as a core element in counselor development. As such, educational efforts aim to increase counselors' cultural relativism, or their ability to recognize their own enculturation and to appreciate the value of other cultural norms. This mixed qualitative-quantitative study explored the relationship between…
Grothaus, Tim; McAuliffe, Garett; Craigen, Laurie
Strength-based counseling represents a welcome shift from prevailing deficit perspectives. However, the literature often treats enhancing strengths as an acultural concept, minimizing or ignoring the essential role of culture in forming and defining strengths. Integrating cultural competence and advocacy into strength-based practice is examined as…
Benesch, Kevin F.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.
Examines cross-cultural counseling (especially Western counselor-Eastern client) within a transpersonal psychological framework. Presents meta-model that allows counselors to adopt attitudes that transcend cultural differences. Notes that benefit of such a model to counselors would be superordinate framework in which various, specific counseling…
Camblin, Lanthan D., Jr.; And Others
This document contains chapter 4 (7 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "School Counselors and the Reporting of Child Abuse: A Survey of State Laws and…
Rowley, William J.; MacDonald, Don
Discusses how counselors are challenged to both demonstrate ethical standards of the profession and abide by the law, particularly since mental health and legal systems represent two different cultures. Notes overlapping or common elements of each culture, identifies differing elements of each culture, and provides recommendations for the two…
Stallones, Jared R.
This article delves into the various religious influences on Dr. Felix Adler's spiritual development and the resulting theological and philosophical foundations for the Ethical Culture Society that he created in addition to the Society's schools. The discussion focuses on Dr. Adler's personal struggles with traditional Judaism in the face of…
Hermann, Mary A.; Herlihy, Barbara Richter
In 2001, a federal appeals court upheld the job termination of a counselor who requested being excused from counseling a lesbian client on relationship issues because homosexuality conflicted with the counselor's religious beliefs ("Bruff v. North Mississippi Health Services, Inc.," 2001). This article provides the facts of the case and the legal…
Gholami, Khalil; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi
In this study, we investigated the culture-invariant and culture-dependent nature of teachers' ethical sensitivity in two countries. Our case study involves teachers from Finland (n = 864) representing Western culture, and from Iran (n = 556) representing Eastern culture. Culturally bound elements of ethical sensitivity were studied with the…
Pope, Kenneth S.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.
Although they may be reflected in professional guidelines, formal standards, or law, ethics are not static codes. They are an active process by which the individual therapist or counselor struggles with the sometimes bewildering, always unique constellation of questions, responsibilities, contexts, and competing demands of helping another person.…
Hartung, Paul J.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pope, Mark; Niles, Spencer G.; Farrow, Beverly
Career-Development Assessment and Counseling (C-DAC) uses a comprehensive assessment battery to help clients explore their roles, developmental stages and tasks, career attitudes and knowledge, value, and interests within their unique life contexts. Recommends elaborating C-DAC model to formally appraise cultural identity and to coincide identity…
Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon; Wada, Kaori; Mogami, Tamiko
With growing attention to the internationalization of counseling psychology in the past decade, discussion on effective training of international students is much-needed. In order to provide effective mentorship to international students, the mentor needs to be aware of specific challenges faced by international students and cultural differences…
Identifies 10 of the most frequently encountered examples of cultural bias that consistently emerge in the literature about multicultural counseling and development. Assumptions are described in the areas of normal behavior, individualism, limits of academic disciplines, dependence on abstract words, independence, client support systems, linear…
Leslie, Robert C.
Counseling across cultures can present many problems for the White American counselor. It is important that the counselor understand the subculture in order to meet the needs of minority clients. In dealing with Black Americans, the counselor must consider issues of racism and religion. When working with Mexican-Americans, the counselor must often…
Kinnier, Richard T.; Dixon, Andrea L.; Barratt, Tyler M.; Moyer, Erika L.
Certain cultural customs and practices are viewed as abhorrent by many people, yet contemporary American counselors rarely criticize any specific culture. In this article, the authors explore why counselors abstain from such criticism. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that universalism, often regarded as a politically incorrect and an…
Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A.
The philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's critique of modern ethics and his virtue-centered alternative suggest that counseling can be considered a form of applied virtue ethics, helping clients cultivate the qualities necessary to live the good life. Although similar to developmental theory and positive psychology, this perspective also questions…
Toldson, Ivory L.; Pasteur, Alfred B.
In this paper, observations made by the authors while attending the Second World Festival of Black and African Art and Culture (FESTAC '77) are discussed in terms of their implications for black mental health. The presence and effects of the "Black Aesthetic" are described as they were manifested by the Festival participants. Particularly…
Worldwide, many clinics market stem-cell based interventions often touted as effective for many diseases including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis (MS), and other neurodegenerative diseases. These clinics and their expensive, unproven treatments continue to fuel the practice of stem cell tourism. Given concerns about patient exploitation and safety, how should the physician engage a patient who wants to pursue such treatments? This article presents the case of a patient with neuromyelitis optica interested in pursuing expensive stem cell injections abroad. This article describes stem cell tourism along with some of the ethical issues physicians should consider, while also providing practical resources that physicians may employ to educate and engage patients in making an informed decision. PMID:25651226
Lane, Frank J.; Shaw, Linda R.; Young, Mary Ellen; Bourgeois, Paul J.
It is generally accepted that the environment in which a counselor works influences his or her ethical behavior, but there is little empirical examination of this idea within the rehabilitation counseling professional literature. A survey was conducted with a national sample of practicing certified rehabilitation counselors that elicited…
Yarbrough, Susan; Klotz, Linda
The population of most non-dominant ethnic groups in the USA is growing dramatically. Faculty members are challenged to develop curricula that adequately prepare our future nurses. An increased focus on clinical ethics has resulted from the use of sophisticated technology, changes in health care financing, an increasing elderly population and the shift of care from inpatient to outpatient settings. Nurses frequently face situations demanding resolution of ethical dilemmas involving cultural differences. Nursing curricula must include content on both ethics and cultural sensitivity. Active student participation is an important element providing a foundation for ethical practice. A proposed educational format was introduced with graduating baccalaureate students. In a pilot study, curricular content on cultural sensitivity and ethical practice was taught in separate modules. Students were then asked to identify and problem solve an ethical dilemma involving patients and professional caregivers from vastly different cultures. Course faculty members provided discussion questions to guide the students' thinking. PMID:17562728
Yeatman, Sara E
HIV counseling and testing is broadly considered a critical component of HIV transmission-prevention and treatment efforts. Given the severity of the AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the potential societal benefit of testing is invoked to call for its massive expansion and to justify a shift from voluntary to routine testing. Surprisingly little evidence has demonstrated, however, that such a shift will result in the intended benefits to communities, particularly that of reducing the horizontal transmission of HIV. This analysis addresses and critiques the assumptions underlying a serostatus-based approach to behavior change and discusses the ethical consequences of transferring control of the decision to be tested from the individual to the provider. It concludes with a discussion of the implications for HIV counseling and testing policies and proposes alternatives to routine testing that have the potential to be effective while preserving the right to know one's HIV status. PMID:18284041
Wolfgang, Jeff; Frazier, Kimberly; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Barrett, Joe
As counselors turn their attention to child-based counseling, there is a need to apply the core tenets of the discipline of counseling to young children and incorporate cross-cultural issues into clinical competence. Using Multicultural Counseling Theory (MCT), the authors discuss conventional approaches to providing clinical interventions for…
Leung, S. Alvin; Chen, Ping-Hwa
This article examines the need to develop an indigenous counseling psychology in Chinese communities in Asia. The cross-cultural limitations and applications of counseling psychology are discussed, using the literature on multicultural counseling and competence as illustrations. The authors elaborate on the scope and nature of indigenous…
Bhogal, Ashvinder K.; Brunger, Fern
Abstract OBJECTIVE To help family physicians practise effective genetic counseling and offer practical strategies for cross-cultural communication in the context of prenatal genetic counseling. SOURCES OF INFORMATION PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched. Most evidence was level II and some was level III. MAIN MESSAGE The values and beliefs of practitioners, no less than those of patients, are shaped by culture. In promoting a patient’s best interest, the assumptions of both the patient and the provider must be held up for examination and discussed in the attempt to arrive at a consensus. Through the explicit discussion and formation of trust, the health professionals, patients, and family members who are involved can develop a shared understanding of appropriate therapeutic goals and methods. CONCLUSION Reflecting on the cultural nature of biomedicine’s ideas about risk, disability, and normality helps us to realize that there are many valid interpretations of what is in a patient’s best interest. Self-reflection helps to ensure that respectful communication with the specific family and patient is the basis for health care decisions. Overall, this helps to improve the quality of care. PMID:20944039
Smith-Augustine, Shirlene; Dowden, Angel; Wiggins, Angel; Hall, LaCheata
International cultural immersion provides an in vivo, authentic, cross-cultural experience that can enhance multicultural awareness, knowledge and skills. This article examines the impact of an international immersion on graduate counseling students' cultural self-awareness using a qualitative approach. Five graduate counseling students…
Schilling, Brenda; And Others
The United States is a land of people with diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. There will be a time when every counselor is called on to serve clients from a culture different from his or her own. This guide promotes awareness of cross-cultural counseling problems, and provides information for counseling clients with different beliefs,…
Honan, Eileen; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Alhamdan, Bandar; Phommalangsy, Phouvanh; Lingard, Bob
The gap between theoretical expectations of research ethics as outlined in the bureaucratic processes associated with University Ethics Committees and the situated realities of students undertaking studies within their own sociocultural contexts is explored in this paper. In particular, the authors investigate differences in ethical norms and…
Blyth, Eric; Thorn, Petra; Wischmann, Tewes
Encountering infertility and involuntary childlessness and undergoing infertility treatment are acknowledged as stressful experiences that impact on individuals' psychological and emotional health – and for which access to psychosocial counselling by a skilled mental health professional may be beneficial. Evidence of patients', gamete donors' and surrogates' experiences indicates that utilization of infertility treatment in another country may not only exacerbate these psychosocial adversities, but may also pose additional risks to the psychological or physical health of participants, thus further emphasizing the need for competent psychosocial counselling services in cross-border reproductive care. However, this is a largely neglected topic in recent discussions of both CBRC itself and of infertility counselling practice. This paper extends the previous work undertaken by two of the authors to begin to map out practice issues within an ethical framework for counsellors when working with clients, donors, surrogates, individuals conceived following infertility treatment and existing children in clients', donor's and surrogates' families where cross-border reproductive treatment is considered or undertaken. PMID:21962772
Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond
The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969
This paper examines two topics in Japanese medical ethics: non-disclosure of medical information by Japanese physicians, and the history of human rights abuses by Japanese physicians during World War II. These contrasting issues show how culture shapes our view of ethically appropriate behavior in medicine. An understanding of cultural context reveals that certain practices, such as withholding diagnostic information from patients, may represent ethical behavior in that context. In contrast, nonconsensual human experimentation designed to harm the patient is inherently unethical irrespective of cultural context. Attempts to define moral consensus in bioethics, and to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable variation across different cultural contexts, remain central challenges in articulating international, culturally sensitive norms in medical ethics. PMID:16759415
A model intended to overcome the cultural relativism of determining what is an ethical act draws an analogy to environmental studies. Beginning with the concepts of "telos" (final purpose) and "archai" (priority), the notion of an ecosystem of ethics avoids limitation to a particular historical definition of good. Since the telos of human life is…
In this interview, Clemmont E. Vontress, a pioneer of cross-cultural counseling, reflects on his life and work. He shares personal stories about the people and events in his life that had a major impact on his theory formulation; research and clinical work; and publications in culture, race, ethnicity, and counseling.
The punitive culture of error erects a wall of silence between players in the care relationship. A positive culture of error, founded on a new ethical approach to the nurse-patient relationship, enables everyone to move beyond the illusion of medical infallibility and to cope better with the effects of an adverse event. PMID:27085923
Rassool, G Hussein
Given the rapidly growing population of Muslims in Western societies, it is imperative to develop a better understanding of the mental health needs and concerns of this community. Muslim religious beliefs have an impact on the mental health of individuals, families and communities. The lack of understanding of the interplay between religious influences on health or sickness behaviors can have a significant effect upon the delivery of nursing practice. The Muslim community is experiencing social exclusion (social exclusion correlates with mental health problems) related to their cultural and religious identity. In addition, the emergence of radical extremism and the resulting media coverage have magnified this problem. Misunderstanding the worldview of the patient can lead to ethical dilemmas, practice problems, and problems in communication. Often, Muslim individuals are stigmatized and families are rejected and isolated for their association with mental health problems, addiction and suicide. There are indicators that Muslims experience mental ill health, but that they either are unidentified by mainstream mental health services or present late to the services. The aims of the paper are to examine the religious and cultural influences on mental health beliefs of Muslims, and provide an understanding of mental health problems, and its implications in counseling and spiritual interventions. PMID:26397436
Burkard, Alan W.; Knox, Sarah; Groen, Michael; Perez, Maria; Hess, Shirley A.
Eleven European American psychotherapists' use of self-disclosure in cross-cultural counseling was studied using consensual qualitative research. As reasons for self-disclosing, therapists reported the intent to enhance the counseling relationship, acknowledge the role of racism/oppression in clients' lives, and acknowledge their own…
Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Ali, Saba Rasheed; Ackerman, Sandra R.; Dewey, J. Jane H.
Jews and Muslims represent 2 unique cultural groups that have been relatively under-examined by multicultural counseling scholars. In this article, the authors review the recent literature on Jews and Muslims, synthesize and discuss the commonalities across these 2 groups, provide some recommendations for counseling members of these populations,…
Although all modalities of therapy work equally well, some models are better suited to work with specific populations. This article outlines a rationale for a counselling model used for female college students in the United Arab Emirates where the concept of counselling is not well known, and where the social and cultural organizations demand a…
Byars-Winston, Angela M.
Scholarship is emerging on intervention models that purposefully attend to cultural variables throughout the career assessment and career counseling process (Swanson & Fouad, in press). One heuristic model that offers promise to advance culturally-relevant vocational practice with African Americans is the Outline for Cultural Formulation (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). This article explicates the Outline for Cultural Formulation in career assessment and career counseling with African Americans integrating the concept of cultural identity into the entire model. The article concludes with an illustration of the Outline for Cultural Formulation model with an African American career client. PMID:20495668
Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond
The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:1-3, 2011) and Bracanovic (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:229-236, 2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969
Cook-Masaud, Carema; Wiggins, Marsha I.
In this article, the authors consider strategies for counseling female Muslim clients. First, they review general beliefs and practices of Muslims in the United States. Through the use of a case study, they illustrate a collaborative method of counseling Muslim women that is based on a trusting client-counselor relationship.
The multicultural movement has been and continues to represent a major force that is transforming the mental health professions. The field of counseling psychology has been particularly important in promoting many of these transformative changes. Over the past three decades, multicultural advocates in counseling psychology have expanded our…
The Confucian culture, rich in its contents and great in its significance, exerted on the thinking, culture and political life of ancient China immense influences, unparalleled by any other school of thought or culture. Confucian theories on morality and ethics, with 'goodness' as the core and 'rites' as the norm, served as the 'key notes' of the traditional medical ethics of China. The viewpoints of Confucianism on benevolence and material interests, on good and evil, on kindheartedness, and on character cultivation were all inherited by the medical workers and thus became prominent in Chinese traditional medical ethics. Hence, it is clear that the medical profession and Confucianism have long shared common goals in terms of ethics. Influenced by the excellent Confucian thinking and culture, a rather highly-developed system of Chinese traditional medical ethics emerged with a well-defined basic content, and the system has been followed and amended by medical professionals of all generations throughout Chinese history. This system, just to mention briefly, contains concepts such as the need: to attach great importance to the value of life; to do one's best to rescue the dying and to heal the wounded; to show concern to those who suffer from diseases; to practise medicine with honesty; to study medical skills painstakingly; to oppose a careless style of work; to comfort oneself in a dignified manner; to respect local customs and to be polite; to treat patients, noble or humble, equally, and to respect the academic achievements of others, etc. Of course, at the same time, Confucian culture has its own historical and class limitations, which exerted negative influences on traditional medical ethics. Now, if we are to keep up with the development of modern medicine, a serious topic must be addressed. That is how to retain the essence of our traditional medical ethics so as to maintain historic continuity and yet, at the same time, add on the new contents of medical
Fontes, L A
This article examines ethical issues in cross-cultural research on family violence. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and avoid abuses of power. Special attention to informed consent, definition of the sample, composition of the research team, research methods, and potential harm and benefit are considered key to designing ethical cross-cultural research. The discussion is illustrated with examples from the literature and from the author's experiences conducting research on sexual abuse in a shanty town in Chile and with Puerto Ricans in the U.S. PMID:14627049
Pedersen, Paul B.
Successful counseling is possible if health care providers learn to interpret behaviors within cultural context. The paper describes a culture-centered approach, using a grid that matches same/different behaviors and expectations. Culturally accurate knowledge and skills provide a developmental sequence for more appropriate health-care guidance in…
Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Benesch, Kevin F.
Proposes a direction for cross-cultural training and research different from the traditional ones which emphasize differences between groups and the need to develop culture-specific techniques. Delineates a conceptual model which provides an integrative framework for understanding the role of culture in counseling. Draws on work in transpersonal…
Choi, Na-Yeun; Miller, Matthew J
This study tested 4 theoretically and empirically derived structural equation models of Asian, Asian American, and Pacific Islanders' willingness to seek counseling with a sample of 278 college students. The models represented competing hypotheses regarding the manner in which Asian cultural values, European American cultural values, public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help related to willingness to seek counseling. We found that Asian and European American cultural values differentially related to willingness to seek counseling indirectly through specific indirect pathways (public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help). Our results also showed that the magnitude of model-implied relationships did not vary as a function of generational status. Study limitations, future directions for research, and implications for counseling are discussed. PMID:25019538
Li, Sherry F.; Persons, Obeua S.
The authors used a corporate code of ethics to create 18 scenarios for examining cultural effects on ethical decisions of Chinese versus American business students. Four cultural differences were hypothesized to contribute to overall less ethical decisions of Chinese students. The results support the hypothesis and indicate strong cultural effects…
Herring, Roger D.; Jespersen, Shirley
Notes that Maori leaders contend that New Zealand's schools have failed to meet needs of Maori students, who experience high drop-out rates and low academic achievement. Reports that many Maoris are demanding separate educational system for their youth. Notes need for adequate and appropriate guidance and counseling services for Maori youth, and…
The importance of ethics in helping professions and ethics education in counselor preparation programs have been stressed and discussed greatly. In order to foster helping professionals' ethical behaviors to ensure clients' rights and welfare, professional organizations have developed codes of ethics to serve as guidelines for helping…
Rosell, Tarris D
The practice of nursing in transplant medicine is often fraught with ethical complexity. It is especially so when children are involved as potential living donors. This is no less true when the donor "child" is of consenting age, and when the intended recipient is the parent. This case is presented by a clinical ethics consultant to whom a nurse turned with her discomfort over the situation faced as a renal transplant coordinator. The part played by ethnicity and traditional Korean culture is highlighted. PMID:16572541
Wadensten, Barbro; Wenneberg, Stig; Silén, Marit; Ping Fen Tang; Ahlström, Gerd
The aim of this study was to compare Swedish and Chinese nurses' experiences of ethical dilemmas and workplace distress in order to deepen understanding of the challenges neuroscience nurses encounter in different cultures. Qualitative interviews from two previously performed empirical studies in Sweden and China were the basis of this comparative study. Four common content areas were identified in both studies: ethical dilemmas, workplace distress, quality of nursing and managing distress. The themes formulated within each content area were compared and synthesized into novel constellations by means of aggregated concept analysis. Despite wide differences in the two health care systems, the nurse participants had similar experiences with regard to work stress and a demanding work situation. They were struggling with similar ethical dilemmas, which concerned seriously ill patients and the possibilities of providing good care. This indicates the importance of providing nurses with the tools to influence their own work situation and thereby reducing their work-related stress. PMID:18849365
Heppner, P. Paul
The central thesis of this article is that focusing on cross-cultural competence will enhance both the science and the practice of counseling psychology. Developing cross-cultural competence is a lifelong journey, replete with many joys and challenges, that will (a) increase the sophistication of our research, (b) expand the utility and…
Flores, Lisa Y.; Ramos, Karina; Kanagui, Marlen
In this article, the authors present two hypothetical cases, one of a Mexican American female college student and one of a Mexican immigrant adult male, and apply a culturally sensitive approach to career assessment and career counseling with each of these clients. Drawing from Leong, Hardin, and Gupta's cultural formulation approach (CFA) to…
Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hardin, Erin E.; Gupta, Arpana
Using the cultural formulations approach to career assessment and career counseling, the current article applies it specifically to Asian American clients. The approach is illustrated by using the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" fourth edition ("DSM-IV") Outline for Cultural Formulations that consists of the following five…
Hauser-Kastenberg, Gloria; Kastenberg, William E; Norris, David
With the advent of the newest technologies, it is necessary for engineering to incorporate the integration of social responsibility and technical integrity. A possible approach to accomplishing this integration is by expanding the culture of the engineering profession so that it is more congruent with the complex nature of the technologies that are now being developed. Furthermore, in order to achieve this expansion, a shift in thinking is required from a linear or reductionist paradigm (atomistic, deterministic and dualistic) to a nonlinear paradigm (holistic, chaotic and subjective). Three aspects of such a nonlinear paradigm (holism, transparency and responsiveness) enable an engineer to shift from "applying ethics" to "being ethical". This culture change can be a basis for developing new curricula to satisfy the ABET-2000 requirements as well as for the practice of engineering in the 21st Century. PMID:12971298
Dickens, B M; Pei, N; Taylor, K M
The prediction of susceptibility to heritable breast, ovarian and colon cancer raises important legal and ethical concerns. Health care professionals have a duty to disclose sufficient information to enable patients to make informed decisions. They must also safeguard the confidentiality of patient data. These duties may come into conflict if a positive finding in one patient implies that family members are also at risk. A legal distinction is made between a breach of confidentiality and the legitimate sharing of information in a patient's interest or to prevent harm to a third party. Physicians also have a fiduciary duty to warn. Other issues concern the legal liability assumed by genetic counsellors, whose disclosures may influence decisions about childbearing, for example, and the risk of socioeconomic discrimination faced by people with a known genetic susceptibility. Traditional ethical orientations and principals may be applied to these and other questions, but feminist ethics will likely have particular importance in the development of an ethical stance toward testing and counseling for heritable breast and ovarian cancer. PMID:8634959
Crespi, Tony D.
School psychologists are interested in providing effective and efficient direct services to children. With a wide spectrum of psychological problems impacting children, group counseling represents one viable and valuable intervention. Given the complexity of group counseling, many schools and school psychologists are interested in legal and…
Barden, Sejal M.; Greene, Jennifer H.
Counseling necessitates clinicians to be culturally competent and self-efficacious in order to ethically and effectively work with diverse client populations. This study investigated the relationship between counselor education students' (N?=?118) levels of self-reported multicultural counseling competence (MCC), multicultural counseling…
Burnett, Judith A.
Infertility creates challenges affecting various aspects of couples' intimate lives. Practices regarding reproduction are often shaped by cultural messages. Culturally sensitive treatment methods help counselors provide effective therapy to couples with fertility problems. This article describes cultural influences, challenges, and counseling…
Collins, Sandra; Arthur, Nancy; Wong-Wylie, Gina
Counselors work in an increasingly complex cultural milieu where every encounter with a client must be considered multicultural in nature. Reflective practice is a central component of professional competence and necessarily involves attention to culture. The cultural auditing model provides an effective and flexible reflective process for…
Raz, Aviad E; Atar, Marcela
To evaluate the effects of ethnicity, culture, and counseling style on the interpretation of nondirectiveness in genetic counseling, a questionnaire containing premarital and prenatal case vignettes in two versions (pessimistic/optimistic) was administered to 281 Jewish and 133 Bedouin respondents. The first study population was comprised of Jewish students enrolled in a university and a community college in the Negev (southern part of Israel). The second study population was comprised of Muslim-Bedouin college students from the same area. The majority of Jewish respondents interpreted the nondirective message as intended by counselors, while the majority of Bedouin respondents did not. Counseling style was found to have a statistically significant effect on the interpretation of the general role of counseling. Gender and susceptibility were not found to have a significant effect on interpretation. Group differences are analyzed through a cultural lens in which different interpretive norms can generate expectations for either nondirectiveness or directiveness. PMID:14682356
Sciarra, Daniel T.
Describes a structural family-therapy (SFT) approach combined with the paradigm of acculturation to increase counselors' sensitivity to immigrant families whose members arrive at different times. The focus is on those families in which parents have preceded children in the immigration experience. Provides culturally sensitive counseling strategies…
Adams, Eve M.
The confluence of prevention, multicultural competence and cultural responsiveness, and social justice is embryonic but holds much promise. The author uses the stages of change model to heighten awareness of how counseling psychologists are situated to provide well-developed system-level interventions and to examine the organizational and…
Rapacki, Tomasz Michal; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
The purpose of this project is to enhance the counselling services offered to diverse clients by supplying counsellors-in-training with a professional development resource that combines the best available outcome evidence and applied clinical wisdom, with the most current cultural adaptation frameworks. A comprehensive literature review was…
Evans, Kathy M., Ed.; Rotter, Joseph C., Ed.; Gold, Joshua M., Ed.
Career and work constitute a major portion of most people's lives; families have an impact on people's careers; and their culture determines a great deal about how they approach family and work. The family counseling, career, and multicultural literature has given little attention to these dynamics. This text provides a multifaceted framework for…
Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Shin, Richard Q.
Counseling faculty serve as gatekeepers to protect the public from trainees who demonstrate significant deficiencies in professional functioning. Two issues that have not been thoroughly examined are how different cultural values may intersect with the assessment of appropriate professional competencies and whether the multicultural environment of…
Wierzba, Joan D.
Cultural awareness enlarges the world view of traditional counseling methodologies that teach that the dominant society's values are the healthy norms to use in assessing and assisting ethnic groups. A dominant society counselor or therapist can be more effective in helping members of other groups by utilizing self-awareness and developing a…
This ethnographic study aims to contribute to better counseling services for the Greek American population in the U.S. by providing cultural knowledge and insight into one of the smaller ethnic groups that has been overlooked in the literature. More specifically, it explores the role of the "embodied language" of dance in the formation of Greek…
Villalba, Jose A., Jr.
Strength-based cultural considerations for counseling Latina/o children and adolescents are not well articulated in the literature. Furthermore, research and demographic data indicate concerns for Latinas/os, such as acculturative stress and discrimination. This article describes treatment applications focused on Latina/o youth's cultural…
This bibliography for counseling psychologists focuses on differences in nonverbal behavior as an aspect of cross cultural psychotherapy. The introductory section discusses the purpose, scope and limitations of the report. Different theories of emotion (dimensional versus typological) are also discussed and classifications of nonverbal behavior…
Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt
Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…
Huey, Wayne C.; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.
This digest summarizes ethical and legal issues affecting school counselors. It emphasizes the importance of ethical standards, and of knowing the content, purposes, and limitations of professional codes of conduct as general guidelines for addressing difficult issues. Advice is offered on how to address colleagues' unethical behavior, and on…
Spivey, Mark A.
Cultural diversity raises dilemmas for the library profession, some of which are difficult to resolve on the basis of its absolutist ethical prescriptions. Psychological studies of class, cultural, and gender differences in moral reasoning support a professional ethics based upon care and cultural sensitivity, instead of universal and obligatory…
Well Mind, Well Earth: 97 Environmentally Sensitive Activities for Stress Management, Spirit and Self-Esteem. Continuing Education Training Manual: Environmental Education Ethics and Counseling Psychology.
Cohen, Michael J.
This document presents an environmental/ethics and counseling psychology training manual. An introductory preview for the manual includes "Green in Green: A study of disconnection, its implications and rectification" by Michael J. Cohen. This preview describes a study that helps readers to identify their natural old-brain as well as their…
Shurden, Michael; Shurden, Susan; Cagwin, Douglass
Business schools must prepare students to face the world and yet maintain strong ethical convictions. The question of ethics in the business environment is not exclusive to the United States. Ethical business behavior is a multinational issue, and all business schools world-wide must deal with this issue. However, cultural differences often define…
Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Moeschberger, Scott L.
Reviews articles in a 2001 special issue of Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology (A. Brenes & M. Wessells, 2001b) devoted to building cultures of peace. Counselor educators are offered suggestions on how to prepare counselors to successfully create cultures of peace in a variety of communities. (Contains 21 references.) (GCP)
Young, Richard A.; Marshall, Sheila K.; Valach, Ladislav
The primary question addressed in this article is whether and how career theories can be more culturally sensitive without losing value as conceptual explanations or their usefulness for counselors. Contextual action theory is identified as a means to develop culturally sensitive explanations. Six steps are proposed and illustrated, including…
Mak, Anita S.; Shaw, Tamara L.
Increasing ethnic and cultural diversity worldwide and especially in Australia requires that psychologists and counsellors cultivate the know-how to interact and work effectively with clients and stakeholders in cross-cultural contexts. This study aimed to identify and compare themes regarding challenging intercultural social scenarios experienced…
Adults with dysphagia experience difficulties swallowing food and fluids with potentially harmful health and psychosocial consequences. Speech pathologists who manage patients with dysphagia are frequently required to address ethical issues when patients' food culture and/ or preferences are inconsistent with recommended diets. These issues incorporate complex links between food, identity and social participation. A composite case has been developed to reflect ethical issues identified by practising speech pathologists for the purposes of illustrating ethical concerns in dysphagia management. The case examines a speech pathologist's role in supporting patient autonomy when patients and carers express different goals and values. The case presents a 68-year-old man of Australian/Italian heritage with severe swallowing impairment and strong values attached to food preferences. The case is examined through application of the dysphagia algorithm, a tool for shared decision-making when patients refuse dietary modifications. Case analysis revealed the benefits and challenges of shared decision-making processes in dysphagia management. Four health professional skills and attributes were identified as synonymous with shared decision making: communication, imagination, courage and reflection. PMID:26481206
van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens
The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, "the pig in the backyard". Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on "normal" meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525
Brusa, Margherita; Barilan, Y Michael
The paper explores the ethical aspects of introducing cultural circumcision of children into the EU public health system. We reject commonplace arguments against circumcision: considerations of good medical practice, justice, bodily integrity, autonomy and the analogy from female genital mutilation. From the unique structure of patient-medicine interaction, we argue that the incorporation of cultural circumcision into EU public health services is a kind of medicalization, which does not fit the ethos of universal healthcare. However, we support a utilitarian argument that finds hospital based circumcision safer than non-medicalized alternatives. The argument concerning medicalization and the utilitarian argument both rely on preliminary empirical data, which depend on future validation PMID:19076127
van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens
Simple Summary The idea of cultured meat is to grow meat from animal cells with tissue engineering techniques. Cultured meat is an idea under investigation that will not be ready for the market for several years. It is also still open what it could or should be like. We argue that this openness offers the opportunity to explore different directions in which this idea could be developed. Feelings, critical thinking and the imagination all have important roles to play in this exploration. Abstract The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, “the pig in the backyard”. Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on “normal” meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525
Coker, Angela D.; Majuta, Aaron R.
There is a paucity of research in the area of teaching group counseling within an African context. In this article we describe and reflect on our experiences teaching group counseling at an institution of higher learning in the country of Botswana. We discuss cultural traditions and strengths that support an environment of group work in Botswana,…
Limberg, Dodie; Lambie, Glenn W.
The increase of international business, military placements, and immigration has led to an increase in students attending schools in a country other than where they were born: third culture kids (TCKs). TCKs have unique educational needs, necessitating the support of their school counselors. This article (a) defines and introduces the needs and…
Nuttgens, Simon A.; Campbell, Allan J.
Despite evidence that First Nations people experience a disproportionate degree of mental health concerns relative to other Canadians, many within this population do not access Western-based mental health services. In this article we extend a socio-political and historical rationale for attending to key cultural differences when working with First…
Upholding ethical standards is part of what it means to be a professional and therefore part of professional education, but to what extent is the development of ethical reasoning universal across cultures, or is it highly dependent on culture? If universal, how can we explain the unique patterns of moral reasoning and behaviour in Asia, which…
Demand among graduate and postdoctoral trainees for international research experience brings together students and investigators from increasingly diverse cultural backgrounds around the world. Educators in research ethics and scientific integrity need to address the cultural aspects of both science and ethics to help all trainees learn ethical practices for effective collaboration with a diverse array of partners. NIH and NSF’s mandates for instruction in the responsible conduct of research do not specifically address the needs of international trainees or U.S. trainees who undertake research projects abroad. Nonetheless, research ethics educators’ typical focus on policy and professional standards can offer trainees and faculty investigators helpful insights into differing ethical values and priorities in research. Examination of linguistic differences can also reveal important conceptual frameworks that shape ethical practice. New resources for teaching research integrity in cross-cultural settings can be a valuable addition to the development of shared understanding of the goals of scientific research. PMID:25574262
Pan, Peter Jen Der; Deng, Liang-Yu F; Fan, Ai Churn; Yuan, Jenny S S
Although group verbal behaviors have been extensively studied, little research has examined how the types and frequencies of interactions vary across cultures. The purpose of this study was to examine verbal interactions in the Taiwanese group counseling process from a cultural perspective. 58 students were recruited from seven colleges of a comprehensive university in Taiwan. They were randomly assigned to one of the following: the Family Reconstruction group, Transactional Analysis group, or Growth group, as well as three Counseling groups. By using the Hill Interaction Matrix-SS (HIM-SS), participants' verbal interactions in the three groups were coded. Personal and Relationship Content verbal interactions were frequently used and the Confrontative and Assertive Work verbal interactions were least used in the group process. Personal, Relationship, Conventional, and Speculative verbal interactions were ranked high, but those of Group, Topics, Confrontative, and Assertive were much less used by both leaders and members. The differences of the verbal interactions and Silence responses between leaders and members in counseling groups were examined; there were no significant differences between the leaders' and members' verbal interactions and Silence. Specific types of verbal interactions influenced by cultural issues were discussed. PMID:23234082
Kim, Bryan S. K.; Ng, Gladys F.; Ahn, Annie J.
Based on data from 61 Asian American clients at a university counseling center, the study found that client-perceived match on client-counselor belief about problem etiology was related to counselor credibility, empathy, and cross-cultural competence; the client-counselor working alliance; session depth; and the likelihood of the client…
Cavallaro, Marion L.; Ramsey, Marylou
Combines areas of counseling older adults and maintaining sound ethical practices in professional counseling by enumerating some ethical dilemmas encountered in gerocounseling, examining the American Association for Counseling and Development Ethical Standards (1981), and suggesting options for handling conflicts that may arise. (Author/NB)
Cook, John A.
Defines and examines the nature of prejudice toward children, the psychiatrically impaired, the exceptional, and the culturally different and offers suggestions for elementary school counselors involved in cross-cultural counseling. Calls for empirical data on cross-cultural awareness and advocacy. (JAC)
Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethical dilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions. PMID:19332584
Advances in plastic and reconstructive surgery have revolutionized the management of patients suffering from disfiguring congenital abnormalities, burns and skin cancers. The demand for aesthetic surgery has increased in recent years, as our culture has become more concerned with image and appearance. Several ethical considerations such as patient's right for informed counseling, beneficience and maleficience need to be given careful consideration. PMID:20606994
Gwandure, Ruth; Ross, Eleanor; Dhai, Ames; Gardner, Jillian
In view of the high prevalence of HIV and AIDS in South Africa, particularly among adolescents, the Departments of Health and Education have proposed a school-based HIV counselling and testing (HCT) campaign to reduce HIV infections and sexual risk behaviour. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, our qualitative study explored perceptions of parents regarding the ethico-legal and social implications of the proposed campaign. Despite some concerns, parents were generally in favour of the HCT campaign. However, they were not aware of their parental limitations in terms of the Children's Act. Their views suggest that the HCT campaign has the potential to make a positive contribution to the fight against HIV and AIDS, but needs to be well planned. To ensure the campaign's success, there is a need to enhance awareness of the programme. All stakeholders, including parents, need to engage in the programme as equal partners. PMID:24388086
This article analyses the specific rights of patients with rare diseases from a dual perspective. On the one hand, they concern a new generation of patients' rights that arise once the consolidation of basic rights has occurred, fundamentally after the application of Law 41/2002 (on Regulating Patient Autonomy and Rights and Obligations in the Field of Health Documentation and Information) and its development by the autonomous communities. On the other hand, the fundamental question raises a serious issue related to these patients, which involves the principles of equality, equity, non-discrimination and solidarity. This is aimed at promoting legislative measures to protect patients' equality of access to health and social services, with the ultimate aim of improving their quality of life. The author has given special relevance in his study to the treatment of rare diseases that are genetic in origin, and to the importance of adequate genetic counseling. PMID:22984752
Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti
Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…
Goodwin, Donna; Howe, P. David
Academics and practitioners are often at a loss when it comes to understanding the ethical socio-political and cultural contexts that invade the world of adapted physical activity. Ethical practice is situated in the local and the specific. In this article we highlight the reality that both academics and practitioners need to be ever mindful that…
Vikan, Arne; Camino, Cleonice; Biaggio, Angela
One hundred and twenty students from both Brazil and Norway were tested with Skoe's Ethic of Care Interview (ECI), which is a test of Gilligan's hypothesized gender-related ethic of care. Subjects were also tested with Bem's Sex Role Inventory and Triandis's Test of Cultural Orientations. The ECI was shown to be related neither to gender nor to…
Lefebvre, M; Sanlaville, D; Marle, N; Thauvin-Robinet, C; Gautier, E; Chehadeh, S E; Mosca-Boidron, A-L; Thevenon, J; Edery, P; Alex-Cordier, M-P; Till, M; Lyonnet, S; Cormier-Daire, V; Amiel, J; Philippe, A; Romana, S; Malan, V; Afenjar, A; Marlin, S; Chantot-Bastaraud, S; Bitoun, P; Heron, B; Piparas, E; Morice-Picard, F; Moutton, S; Chassaing, N; Vigouroux-Castera, A; Lespinasse, J; Manouvrier-Hanu, S; Boute-Benejean, O; Vincent-Delorme, C; Petit, F; Meur, N L; Marti-Dramard, M; Guerrot, A-M; Goldenberg, A; Redon, S; Ferrec, C; Odent, S; Caignec, C L; Mercier, S; Gilbert-Dussardier, B; Toutain, A; Arpin, S; Blesson, S; Mortemousque, I; Schaefer, E; Martin, D; Philip, N; Sigaudy, S; Busa, T; Missirian, C; Giuliano, F; Benailly, H K; Kien, P K V; Leheup, B; Benneteau, C; Lambert, L; Caumes, R; Kuentz, P; François, I; Heron, D; Keren, B; Cretin, E; Callier, P; Julia, S; Faivre, L
Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is commonly used in diagnosing patients with intellectual disability (ID) with or without congenital malformation. Because aCGH interrogates with the whole genome, there is a risk of being confronted with incidental findings (IF). In order to anticipate the ethical issues of IF with the generalization of new genome-wide analysis technologies, we questioned French clinicians and cytogeneticists about the situations they have faced regarding IF from aCGH. Sixty-five IF were reported. Forty corresponded to autosomal dominant diseases with incomplete penetrance, 7 to autosomal dominant diseases with complete penetrance, 14 to X-linked diseases, and 4 were heterozygotes for autosomal recessive diseases with a high prevalence of heterozygotes in the population. Therapeutic/preventive measures or genetic counselling could be argued for all cases except four. These four IF were intentionally not returned to the patients. Clinicians reported difficulties in returning the results in 29% of the cases, mainly when the question of IF had not been anticipated. Indeed, at the time of the investigation, only 48% of the clinicians used consents mentioning the risk of IF. With the emergence of new technologies, there is a need to report such national experiences; they show the importance of pre-test information on IF. PMID:26582393
Linton, Jeremy M.
Professional counselors have long been practicing in alcohol and drug treatment settings. However, only recently has the counseling field offered formal recognition of addictions counseling as a specialization through the implementation of accreditation standards for addiction counseling training programs. With the passage of the 2009 standards,…
As today's marketing graduates formally enter the business profession, they are expected to demonstrate the fruits of their ethics-intensive education. Hence, their professors and future bosses may call upon these graduates to discern and deal with ethical situations that affect various aspects of company and consumer relations. However, students…
Genova, Gina L.
The passage of the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) spawned a series of compliance and ethics programs --the revised Principles of Federal Prosecution of Business Organizations known as the Thompson Memo (Thompson, 2003), the revised Federal Sentencing Guidelines that included the Effective Compliance and Ethics Program and the corporate…
Rolbin, Cyrus; Chiesa, Bruno Della
The "language-culture tesseract" hypothesized in the September 2010 issue of "Mind, Brain, and Education" suggests successive links between non-native language (NNL) acquisition, the development of cross-cultural empathy, and prosocial global ethics. Invoking Goethe's (1833/1999) aphorism, "those who do not know other languages know nothing of…
Cultural approaches to composition, such as those forwarded by John Trimbur, John Schilb, and James Berlin have come under strong criticism for attempting to indoctrinate students into instructors' political beliefs. One attack on writing as cultural criticism has been voiced by Maxine Hairston, who has questioned its ethicality. At issue in…
Wallace, B C
This article prepares the clinician delivering chemical dependency treatment for more effective work in therapeutic dyads where there are racial, ethnic, or other "differences" between client and therapist. The objective is to prepare clinicians for service delivery within the present culture of violence and for the receipt of additional training in cross-cultural counseling and trauma-resolution psychotherapy. Social learning and unconscious processes are reviewed in order to explain how this culture of violence operates and impacts treatment. The way in which chemically dependent clients of color--especially African-Americans, Native Americans, and Latinos--have been impacted by both personal and cultural trauma is illustrated by a case example. The resolution of clients' personal trauma by properly trained clinicians is presented as relapse prevention and the clients' best defense against becoming a victim of violence and racism. The article ends with a brief description of the recommended clinical technique for this kind of work, and a statement of needed research. PMID:8483053
MANY ETHICAL CONCERNS REVOLVE AROUND THE FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH: merit and integrity, respect for human beings, weighting of risk-benefit and justice. These principles form the basis for any discussion concerning human research ethics and are applicable to all areas of research including acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine. World Health Organisation document, Guidelines for Clinical Research on Acupuncture, states that 'consideration should be given to the different value systems that are involved in human rights such as social, cultural and historical issues' and that 'further studies should be conducted in relation to ethical issues involved in clinical research on acupuncture'. In addition to outlining the four basic principles, this paper will also examine the effect of Asian culture on Western human research ethics and how this may impact upon issues such as informed consent and weighting of risk-benefit. PMID:18955359
Janson, Gregory R.; Steigerwald, Fran J.
Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (GLBT) persons and their families present unique ethical challenges for marriage and family counselors. A series of brief case vignettes touch on a range of ethical issues for couples and family counselors, including training, supervision, custody evaluation, ethical decision making, counselor bias,…
Tatar, Moshe; Horenczyk, Gabriel
Reports on the differential effects of cultural background and permanence of relocation on the expectations of counseling, the kinds of support sought when approaching a counselor, and the acculturation attitudes among 219 international students from English-speaking countries and the former Soviet Union attending an Israeli university.…
Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.
This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…
Montes, Adonay A.; Rodriguez-Valls, Fernando; Schroeder, Laurie
This article presents an interpersonal methodology designed to increase the cultural awareness of counselor candidates. This methodology was implemented through a sequence of activities, which was part of a multicultural course in the counseling credential program in a university located in Southern California. The goal was to enrich future…
Babb, Tanner A.
Student use of online social networks has increased exponentially in the past five years. Facebook is one of the largest and most utilized by students. Many counseling students use Facebook on a regular basis to keep in touch with friends, family, and acquaintances. (Lenhart & Madden, 2007). Current American Counseling Association (ACA)…
Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed
Study of ethical behavior among medical representatives in the profession is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of organizational culture on ethical behavior of medical representatives. Medical representatives working for both domestic and multinational companies constitutes the sample (n=300). Data is collected using a simple random and cluster sampling through a structured questionnaire. The research design is hypothesis testing. It is a cross-sectional and correlational study, conducted under non-contrived settings. Chi-square tests were shows that there is an association between the organizational culture and ethical behavior of medical representatives. In addition, the strength of the association is measured which report to Cramer’s V of 63.1% and Phi Value of 2.749. Results indicate that multinational company medical reps are more ethical compared to domestic company medical representatives vast difference in both variance and in t test results. Through better organizational culture, pharmaceutical companies can create the most desirable behavior among their employees. Authors conclude that apart from organizational culture, the study of additional organizational, individual and external factors are imperative for better understanding of ethical behavior of medical representatives in the pharmaceutical industry in India. PMID:24826027
Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed
Study of ethical behavior among medical representatives in the profession is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of organizational culture on ethical behavior of medical representatives. Medical representatives working for both domestic and multinational companies constitutes the sample (n=300). Data is collected using a simple random and cluster sampling through a structured questionnaire. The research design is hypothesis testing. It is a cross-sectional and correlational study, conducted under non-contrived settings. Chi-square tests were shows that there is an association between the organizational culture and ethical behavior of medical representatives. In addition, the strength of the association is measured which report to Cramer's V of 63.1% and Phi Value of 2.749. Results indicate that multinational company medical reps are more ethical compared to domestic company medical representatives vast difference in both variance and in t test results. Through better organizational culture, pharmaceutical companies can create the most desirable behavior among their employees. Authors conclude that apart from organizational culture, the study of additional organizational, individual and external factors are imperative for better understanding of ethical behavior of medical representatives in the pharmaceutical industry in India. PMID:24826027
Responsible and ethical use of the Internet is not something that teenagers, in particular, consider to be important, and serious consequences are beginning to emerge as a result of careless and offensive online behaviour. Teachers and teacher-librarians have a duty of care to make students aware of the potentially devastating effects of…
Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul
Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…
Sterling, Stephen R.
Proposes that a new systemic, organic world view is needed to guide future thought and action for the environment. States that an understanding of history is critical in the development of an integrative environmental ethic. Also offers a philosophical framework that recognizes the integrity of human communities and natural systems. (ML)
Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.
Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…
Ypinazar, Valmae A; Margolis, Stephen A
Background Little is known about teaching medical ethics across cultural and linguistic boundaries. This study examined two successive cohorts of first year medical students in a six year undergraduate MBBS program. Methods The objective was to investigate whether Arabic speaking students studying medicine in an Arabic country would be able to correctly identify some of the principles of Western medical ethical reasoning. This cohort study was conducted on first year students in a six-year undergraduate program studying medicine in English, their second language at a medical school in the Arabian Gulf. The ethics teaching was based on the four-principle approach (autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice) and delivered by a non-Muslim native English speaker with no knowledge of the Arabic language. Although the course was respectful of Arabic culture and tradition, the content excluded an analysis of Islamic medical ethics and focused on Western ethical reasoning. Following two 45-minute interactive seminars, students in groups of 3 or 4 visited a primary health care centre for one morning, sitting in with an attending physician seeing his or her patients in Arabic. Each student submitted a personal report for summative assessment detailing the ethical issues they had observed. Results All 62 students enrolled in these courses participated. Each student acting independently was able to correctly identify a median number of 4 different medical ethical issues (range 2–9) and correctly identify and label accurately a median of 2 different medical ethical issues (range 2–7) There were no significant correlations between their English language skills or general academic ability and the number or accuracy of ethical issues identified. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that these students could identify medical ethical issues based on Western constructs, despite learning in English, their second language, being in the third week of their medical school
Nill, Alexander; Schibrowsky, John A.
An experiment was conducted to study how marketing students' ethical decision making was influenced by their perceived moral intensity (PMI), corporate culture, and the reward system. The findings indicate that levels of awareness of the ethical consequences of a decision, the corporate culture, and the reward system all significantly affect…
Yeh, Mei-Yu; Wu, Shu-Mei; Che, Hui-Lian
OBJECTIVES Improving nurses' competence in resolving clinical ethical issues must start with ethics education in training and clinical practice. However, many students complain that they cannot apply classroom learning to actual clinical scenarios. This study explored ethical issues and dilemmas, and their impact experienced by student nurses in clinical practice. METHODS Focus groups were conducted with 44 first-year student nurses from a 2-year college course in northern Taiwan. Interviews were tape-recorded and verbatim transcripts were analysed using content analysis. RESULTS Students expressed and discussed their views in eight focus groups. Analysis of interviews revealed five themes: frustration at inability to help some patients; oppression caused by lower status; lack of honesty and ethical courage; powerlessness, and self-encouragement in adversity. CONCLUSIONS Taiwanese nurse ethics training was only recently introduced and the curriculum has not addressed the clinical reality in Taiwan. This reality includes limitations arising from the medical hierarchy and the socio-cultural role of families in medical decision making, which may inhibit ethical judgements and decision making. In clinical dilemmas, the most common problems faced by Taiwanese nursing students involved not knowing how to handle some situations, inability to abide by principles, and a lack of appropriate role models. Hence, we suggest that nursing ethics education should: (i) integrate scenarios involving ethical dilemmas into daily routines; (ii) give students opportunities to discuss their feelings about their experiences; (iii) allow teachers and students to talk about scenarios with ethical implications, and (iv) provide students with opportunities to reflect on clinical scenarios in order to clarify their values and learn how to respect the value of life. PMID:20345695
Belkofer, Christopher M.; McNutt, Jill V.
This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical…
Discusses how Felix Adler's Ethical Culture School, through its innovative practices, impacts public education and settlement work, and plays a significant role in shaping the methodologies, practices, and content of educational drama in the United States from the inception of the field. Describes the use of story dramatization/storytelling,…
Della Chiesa, Bruno
For potential consideration by the Mind, Brain, and Education community, here is a modest but provocative hypothesis regarding the relationships between acquisition of languages, awareness of cultures, and development of ethics in human beings. Starting from the basic idea according to which "a fish does not know what water is," and using both…
In 2008 Quebec introduced a new ethics and religious culture course. This marks a significant development in Canadian education as the mandated curriculum is intended for use in publically funded secular schools. In the past such courses have been in the domain of denominational schools. This new approach is examined in the context of the profound…
National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).
This report stems from a meeting of representatives of countries in the Asia Pacific region concerned with the development of strategies for strengthening content relating to humanistic, ethical, and cultural values in formal and non-formal education. The following countries were represented: Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,…
Global mental health research is needed to inform effective and efficient services and policy interventions within and between countries. Ethical reflection should accompany all GMHR and human resource capacity endeavors to ensure high standards of respect for participants and communities and to raise public debate leading to changes in policies and regulations. The views and circumstances of ethno-cultural and disadvantaged communities in the Majority and Minority world need to be considered to enhance scientific merit, public awareness, and social justice. The same applies to people with vulnerabilities yet who are simultaneously capable, such as children and youth. The ethical principles of respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence/non-maleficence, justice, and relationality require careful contextualization for research involving human beings. Building on the work of Fisher and colleagues (2002), this article highlights some strategies to stimulate the ethical conduct of global mental health research and to guide decision-making for culturally responsible research, such as developing culturally sensitive informed consent and disclosure policies and procedures; paying special attention to socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental risks and benefits; and ensuring meaningful community and individual participation. Research and capacity-building partnerships, political will, and access to resources are needed to stimulate global mental health research and consolidate ethical practice. PMID:24668025
Zaver, Arzina; DeMartini, Ashley
This article focuses on some of the broader complexities of citizenship in Quebec, paying particular attention to the Quiet Revolution and Bill 60 (Charter of Values) in order to understand how these historical events shape contemporary politics. Using a case study of the Ethics and Religious Culture Program (ERC) in Quebec, we seek to highlight…
Ajayi, A. O.; Torimiro, D. O.
This article focuses on the global and African postures on the issues of child abuse and child labour. The global ethical ideals of the issues are characterized within their various theoretical perspectives while the African cultural realities are explored through the use of focus group discussion sessions, which were organized in six rural…
Racial Identity Theory, Research, and Applications. Edited Conference Proceedings of the Annual Teachers College Winter Roundtable on Cross-Cultural Counseling and Psychotherapy (8th, New York, New York, February 22-23, 1991).
Carter, Robert T., Ed.; Johnson, Samuel D., Jr., Ed.
The 1991 Winter Roundtable on Cross Cultural Counseling was the first national conference devoted to the topic of racial identity in counseling and psychotherapy. Conference papers include: (1) "A Brief Continuing History of the Teachers College Winter Roundtable on Cross-Cultural Counseling and Psychotherapy" (Samuel D. Johnson, Jr.); (2) "Racial…
Taylor, Josiah; Plaice, Evie; Perley, Imelda
In this paper, we share phenomena experienced by a multi-cultural research team working collaboratively with Wolastoq (Maliseet) First Nations Elders to document rapidly disappearing Wolastoq language, culture, and knowledge. This knowledge will ultimately be stored in databanks for future educational, community, and heritage use. Embedded within…
This paper examines biomedicine's contemporary overture to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the move toward an integrated medical system. The paper argues that a major challenge of our increasingly integrating medical culture is raising commensurate personnel to grapple with the changing ethical landscape, especially with regard to understanding the methodologies and philosophies of CAM's therapeutic paradigms. Such personnel is required to tackle realistically the critical ethical challenge of our amalgamating medical system, namely an acceptable framework for evaluating the efficacy of CAM's plural therapeutic paradigms. PMID:16884349
Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung
In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering ethics within a cross-cultural context. Next, it presents a systematic model for designing an engineering ethics curriculum based on moral development theory and ethic dilemma analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data from students' oral and written work were collected and analysed to determine directions for improvement. The paper also presents results of an assessment of this interdisciplinary engineering ethics course. This investigation of a disaster is limited strictly to engineering ethics education; it is not intended to assign blame, but rather to spark debate about ethical issues.
Barnett, Jeffrey E.
Mallen, Vogel, and colleagues explore the developing field of online counseling from the unique perspective of counseling psychology. They examine the body of available research and relevant clinical, ethical, legal, and practical issues and make recommendations for counseling psychologists who desire to participate in online counseling. This…
Wang, V O
Scholars, educators, and practitioners have argued that racial-cultural issues are obstacles for those seeking genetic counseling. When available, cross-cultural genetic counseling has focused on simplistic knowledge of client health beliefs and cultural customs, professional cultures, and biased theoretical models as reasons for failure to create realistic knowledge of members of racial-cultural groups in the United States. Recognizing the importance of meeting the needs for all who seek genetic counseling services, genetic counselors have been providing direction in cross-cultural genetic counseling research, practice, training, and developing competency, ethical, and professional guidelines. However, emanating from a cultural pluralism perspective, cross-cultural genetic counseling has often resulted in homogenized group stereotypes without attention to intragroup variation and individual differences. A transition from cross-cultural towards multicultural genetics shifts from culture-specific group norms to an integrated social, historical, psychological, and political perspective. By valuing the process of personal and professional racial-cultural identity development, the evolution from cross-cultural to multicultural genetic counseling that has occurred within the past quarter century is discussed. PMID:11778981
Pellegrino, E D
This article is from the 1989 CONTEMPO issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, the purpose of which is to keep physicians informed of recent developments in different areas of medicine through brief overviews by specialists in each field. In his article on ethics, Pellegrino focuses on the issues of euthanasia and fetal research. The practice of active, voluntary euthanasia raises questions about the difference between killing a terminally ill patient and withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment, the limits of patient autonomy, the compatibility of active euthanasia with professional ethics, and the social consequences of legalizing euthanasia. The debate over the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment centers on the issue of induced abortion. PMID:2709576
Denier, Yvonne; Gastmans, Chris
In our globalizing world, health care professionals and organizations increasingly experience cross-cultural challenges in care relationships, which give rise to ethical questions regarding "the right thing to do" in such situations. For the time being, the international literature lacks examples of elaborated ethical guidelines for cross-cultural healthcare on the organizational level. As such, the ethical responsibility of healthcare organizations in realizing cross-cultural care remains underexposed. This paper aims to fill this gap by offering a case-study that illustrates the bioethical practice on a large-scale organizational level by presenting the ethical guideline developed in the period 2007-2011 by the Ethics Committee of Zorgnet Vlaanderen, a Christian-inspired umbrella organization for over 500 social profit healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium. The guideline offers an ethical framework within which fundamental ethical values are being analyzed within the context of cross-cultural care. The case study concludes with implications for healthcare practice on four different levels: (1) the level of the healthcare organization, (2) staff, (3) care receivers, and (4) the level of care supply. The study combines content-based ethics with process-based benchmarks. PMID:23906119
Chilton, Janice A.
The population in the United States is increasingly multicultural. So, too, is the U.S. physician workforce. The combination of these diversity dynamics sets up the potential for various types of cultural conflict in the nation’s examining rooms, including the relationship between religion and medicine. To address the changing patient-physician landscape, we argue for a broad scale intervention: interdisciplinary bioethics training for physicians and other health professionals. This approach seeks to promote a common procedural expectation and language which can lead to an improved, patient-centered approach resulting in better patient-physician relationships that contribute to better health outcomes across the U.S. population. The authors illustrate their thesis and solution using a well-known case of cross-cultural dynamics taken from religion and medicine—Anne Fadiman’s The Spirit Catches You And You Fall Down. PMID:23794754
Birky, Ian; Collins, Wanda
Current technology provides counseling center clinicians regular and immediate access to the students they work with via social networking. Focusing on Facebook in particular, this article discusses the opportunities and challenges this access creates and specifically explores how utilization of ethical, clinical, and cultural lenses might affect…
McPhee, Sidney A.
This study was designed to survey and compare attitudes and perceptions toward school counseling and student personnel programs as held by educators in the Caribbean. The subjects in the study comprised 275 teachers and administrators employed in public and private junior and senior high schools in Nassau, Bahamas. The statistical tests used to analyze the data were the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and the Friedman two-way analysis for repeated measures. The findings indicate that administrators at all levels expressed significantly more favorable attitudes and perceptions toward counseling and student personnel programs in the schools than teachers. Teachers in the study expressed the following: (a) serious concern regarding the competency of practicing counselors in their schools; (b) a need for clarification of their role and function in the guidance process and a clarification of the counselor's role; and (c) minimum acceptable standards should be established for school counseling positions.
Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.
This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults’ motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf, or both communities, rated interest in testing for 21 reasons covering 5 life domains. Findings suggest strong interest in testing to learn why they are deaf, but little interest in using it for decisions about a partner or having children. Culturally mediated variation was also demonstrated. Deaf and both communities groups viewed testing as useful for more life domains than the hearing community group. Deaf and both communities had similar motivations related to further exploration, understanding, or strengthening of deafness. Motivations related to “hearing” were also relevant for both communities. We conclude that cultural affiliation is an important factor for constructing motivations for genetic testing. PMID:20488870
Sampson, Deborah A.; Caldwell, Dennis; Taylor, Andre D.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.
In this paper, we examine the implementation and difficulties when conducting genetics research in a rural, traditional West African culture within the frame of the United States’ grounded research ethics. Research challenges are highlighted by Western researchers following U.S. Institutional Review Board (IRB) guidelines and practices in a non-Western country. IRB concepts are culture bound in Western ideals that may not have synchronicity and compatibility with non-Western cultures. Differences in sociocultural norms, traditions, language, and geography were influencing factors that can affect application of IRB principles. Suggestions for change are offered, which will potentially aid researchers considering application of IRB requirements when conducting research in non-Westernized, non-industrialized countries. PMID:23482512
Spokane, Arnold R.; Inman, Arpana G.; Weatherford, Ryan D.; Davidson, Anju Kaduvettoor; Straw, Rebecca
This article reviews the existing theory, research, policy, and practice of disaster mental health and the role of counseling psychology in post-disaster and catastrophic situations, all from a social justice perspective. Specifically, we discuss the phases and stages, social ecology, and individual reactions to disasters. A case study is…
Analyzes the context in which professional career counseling in the U.S. exists at the beginning of the 21st century and makes recommendations to enhance the growth and development of the profession. Issues addresses include developing curricula, training career counselors, and broadening the focus of career decision making to include work…
Lynch, Martin F.; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.
Three commentators (Carter, 2011; Kim, 2011; Scheel, 2011) concurred with a central proposition of the target article (Ryan, Lynch, Vansteenkiste, & Deci, 2011): that client motivation for counseling is of critical importance to counselors and therapists. In this Reply, we acknowledge and address a number of issues raised by the commentators,…
Skouras, Thomas J.
Native Americans constitute a significant population that is growing and has great need for mental health and counseling services. Social problems in Native communities include high rates of alcoholism, alcohol-related deaths, drug use, youth suicide, and sexually transmitted diseases. Despite their mental health needs, Native Americans are…
Flintoff, Vivianne J.; Rivers, Shirley
This article describes some of the local Aotearoa New Zealand context of a general "mainstream" undergraduate counselling degree. Students' learning is shaped to produce a professional practice for the local context of Aotearoa New Zealand. As counsellor educators informed by social constructionism, we detail our theoretical position and our…
Sommer, Carol A.; Rush, Lee Covington; Ingene, Daphne H.
Pedagogic approaches that draw on reflective practices and experiential activities are valued for their perceived ability to enhance multicultural understanding. The use of food-based assignments is not uncommon in multicultural counseling courses; however, the authors contend that although these activities may be experiential in nature, they are…
Aborigo, Raymond A.; Allotey, Pascale; Tindana, Paulina; Azongo, Daniel; Debpuur, Cornelius
Background Due to a paucity of statistics from vital registration systems in developing countries, the verbal autopsy (VA) approach has been used to obtain cause-specific mortality data by interviewing lay respondents on the signs and symptoms experienced by the deceased prior to death. In societies where the culture of mourning is adhered to, the use of VA could clash with traditional norms, thus warranting ethical consideration by researchers. Objective The study was designed to explore the ethics and cultural context of collecting VA information through a demographic and health surveillance system in the Kassena-Nankana District (KND) of Ghana. Study Design Data were collected through qualitative in-depth interviews (IDIs) with four field staff involved in the routine conduct of VAs, four physicians who code VAs, 20 selected respondents to the VA tool, and eight opinion leaders in the KND. The interviews were supplemented with observation by the researchers and with the field notes of field workers. Interviews were audio-recorded, and local language versions transcribed into English. Thematic analysis was performed using QSR NVivo 8 software. Results The data indicate that cultural sensitivities in VA procedures at both the individual and family levels need greater consideration not only for ethical reasons but also to ensure the quality of the data. Discussions of some deaths are culturally prohibited and therefore lead to refusal of interviews. Families were also concerned about the confidentiality of information because of the potential of blame for the death. VA teams do not necessarily engage in culturally appropriate bereavement practices such as the presentation of tokens. The desire by families for feedback on the cause of death, which is currently not provided by researchers, was frequently expressed. Finally, no standard exists on the culturally acceptable time interval between death and VA interviews. Conclusion Ethical issues need to be given greater
Muller, J H; Desmond, B
Considerable attention is now being given to ethical conflicts raised by such issues as the disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis, the role of the family in making medical decisions, and the withholding or withdrawing of treatment of terminally ill patients. Already complicated, these issues take on added complexity in contexts where medical professionals and patients have differing cultural beliefs and practices. Ethical dilemmas that develop in multicultural settings have been largely unaddressed. Through the analysis of a case involving the hospital admission and death of a Chinese woman with metastatic lung cancer, we examine some of these dilemmas and their effect on the patient, family, and physicians. Many issues were raised by this case regarding the relationships among ethnic background, bioethics, and medical care. PMID:1413778
Braverman, Andrea Mechanick
The role of mental health professionals (MHPs) in third-party reproduction has grown and evolved in service to patient care and the needs of medical infertility practices. The need for mental health evaluation and psychoeducation has increased as the psychosocial considerations for the stakeholders and families created through gamete donation and surrogacy are increasingly understood and considered. The conflicting definitions of these roles of evaluation and psychoeducation often leave MHPs in the role of de facto ethical gatekeepers in third-party reproduction. Both the medical team and the MHP need to clarify their role effectively, for themselves, as well as any intended parent. PMID:26171997
Piper, Llewellyn E
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will require health care leaders and managers to develop strategies and implement organizational tactics for their organization to survive and thrive under the federal mandates of this new health care law. Successful health care organizations and health care systems will be defined by their adaptability in the new value-based marketplace created by the Affordable Care Act. The most critical underlining challenge for this success will be the effective transformation of the organizational culture. Transformational value-based leadership is now needed to answer the ethical call for transforming the organizational culture. This article provides a model and recommendations to influence change in the most difficult leadership duty-transforming the organizational culture. PMID:25068882
Herlitz, Anders; Munthe, Christian; Törner, Marianne; Forsander, Gun
This article argues that standard models of person-centred care (PCC) and shared decision making (SDM) rely on simplistic, often unrealistic assumptions of patient capacities that entail that PCC/SDM might have detrimental effects in many applications. We suggest a complementary PCC/SDM approach to ensure that patients are able to execute rational decisions taken jointly with care professionals when performing self-care. Illustrated by concrete examples from a study of adolescent diabetes care, we suggest a combination of moral and psychological considerations to support the claim that standard PCC/SDM threatens to systematically undermine its own goals. This threat is due to a tension between the ethical requirements of SDM in ideal circumstances and more long-term needs actualized by the context of self-care handled by patients with limited capacities for taking responsibility and adhere to their own rational decisions. To improve this situation, we suggest a counseling, self-care, adherence approach to PCC/SDM, where more attention is given to how treatment goals are internalized by patients, how patients perceive choice situations, and what emotional feedback patients are given. This focus may involve less of a concentration on autonomous and rational clinical decision making otherwise stressed in standard PCC/SDM advocacy. PMID:26756477
Contemporary psychosomatics is a research-based technical discipline and its social power depends on how scientific knowledge is obtained and applied in practice, considering cultural contexts. This article presents the view that the dialogical principles on which bioethical discourse is based are more inclusive than professional ethics and philosophical reflection. The distinction is advanced between rule-guided behavior and norm-justifiable acts (substantiation and justification). The practical implications of good practices in the generation of valid, reliable, generalizable and applicable knowledge are emphasized. For practitioners and researchers, the need to reflect on the distinction between patient and research participant can avoid the therapeutic misunderstanding, a form of abuse of the doctor-patient relationship. In addition, in resource-poor settings, the dilemma presented by the know-do gap (inapplicability of research results due to financial or social constraints) is part of the ethics' realm of the profession. Future prospects include a wider use of research results in practice, but avoidance of the know-do gap (the disparity between what is known and what can be done, particularly in settings with limited resources) requires a synthetic and holistic approach to medical ethics, combining moral reflection, theoretical analysis and empirical data. PMID:23816868
Prince, Robert H
The use of role-playing ("active learning") as a teaching tool has been reported in areas as diverse as social psychology, history and analytical chemistry. Its use as a tool in the teaching of engineering ethics and professionalism is also not new, but the approach develops new perspectives when used in a college class of exceptionally wide cultural diversity. York University is a large urban university (40,000 undergraduates) that draws its enrolment primarily from the Greater Toronto Area, arguably one of the most culturally diverse cities in the world, embracing the largest percentage of Canada's immigration. Among the area's five million inhabitants, 50% identify themselves as a visible minority born outside Canada, while over 100 languages and dialects are spoken daily. Although students admitted from this international pool have usually been exposed to western attitudes during secondary education and are rapidly assimilated into Canadian culture, responses to specific ethical issues are strongly influenced by their prior culture. Two and three-part scripts for case studies based on NSF or original scenarios were written to illustrate issues such as gifts, attitudes towards women and ethnic minorities, conflict of interest, whistle-blowing, sexual harassment, individual rights, privacy, environment, intellectual property, and others. Following the presentation, the actors lead group discussion based on previously specified questions. Once the initial shyness and reluctance of some cultures has been overcome through the building of rapport, students have written original scripts based on hypothetical or prior personal situations. The method is now being adopted in a short course format to assist the professional integration of foreign trained engineers. PMID:16609718
Crethar, Hugh C.; Winterowd, Carrie L.
The construct of social justice in counseling is defined and operationalized in this article. This is followed by a discussion about the intersection between social justice in counseling and philosophy, ethics, and spirituality. A call to action for counseling professionals is offered. (Contains 1 figure.)
Wertz, D C; Fletcher, J C; Mulvihill, J J
To provide a basis for international discussion of ethical problems, we studied responses of medical geneticists in 18 countries to questionnaires about 14 clinical cases and five screening situations. Of 1,053 asked to participate, 677 (64%) responded. There was greater than or equal to 75% consensus on five cases involving (1) disclosure of (1) conflicting diagnostic findings, (2) disclosure of ambiguous results, (3) disclosure of controversial interpretations, (4) protection of mother's confidentiality in cases of false paternity, and (5) nondirective counseling about 45,X and XYY syndrome. A majority (51%-60%) would disclose the diagnosis to relatives at risk for Huntington disease or hemophilia A, against the patient's wishes; would disclose which parent carries a translocation causing Down syndrome; and would disclose XY genotype in a female. As reproductive options for patients with disorders not diagnosable prenatally, 84% would discuss artificial insemination by a donor, 66% would discuss in vitro fertilization with donor egg, and 46% would discuss surrogate motherhood. In all, 85% would perform prenatal diagnosis for (or would refer) parents who refuse abortion, 75% for maternal anxiety, and 42% for selection of fetal sex. Screening questions showed that 72% believed that workplace screening should be voluntary and that results should be confidential. PMID:2339711
Wertz, D C; Fletcher, J C; Mulvihill, J J
To provide a basis for international discussion of ethical problems, we studied responses of medical geneticists in 18 countries to questionnaires about 14 clinical cases and five screening situations. Of 1,053 asked to participate, 677 (64%) responded. There was greater than or equal to 75% consensus on five cases involving (1) disclosure of (1) conflicting diagnostic findings, (2) disclosure of ambiguous results, (3) disclosure of controversial interpretations, (4) protection of mother's confidentiality in cases of false paternity, and (5) nondirective counseling about 45,X and XYY syndrome. A majority (51%-60%) would disclose the diagnosis to relatives at risk for Huntington disease or hemophilia A, against the patient's wishes; would disclose which parent carries a translocation causing Down syndrome; and would disclose XY genotype in a female. As reproductive options for patients with disorders not diagnosable prenatally, 84% would discuss artificial insemination by a donor, 66% would discuss in vitro fertilization with donor egg, and 46% would discuss surrogate motherhood. In all, 85% would perform prenatal diagnosis for (or would refer) parents who refuse abortion, 75% for maternal anxiety, and 42% for selection of fetal sex. Screening questions showed that 72% believed that workplace screening should be voluntary and that results should be confidential. PMID:2339711
Santiago-Rivera, Azara L.
Proposes a culturally-sensitive conceptual framework for the mental health treatment of Hispanics, and illustrates how the dimensions of acculturation; language dominance and preference; and cultural norms, values, and beliefs affect the assessment of psychological and physical health. (JPS)
Shaw, Susan J; Armin, Julie
Diverse advocacy groups have pushed for the recognition of cultural differences in health care as a means to redress inequalities in the U.S., elaborating a form of biocitizenship that draws on evidence of racial and ethnic health disparities to make claims on both the state and health care providers. These efforts led to federal regulations developed by the U.S. Office of Minority Health requiring health care organizations to provide Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services. Based on ethnographic research at workshops and conferences, in-depth interviews with cultural competence trainers, and an analysis of postings to a moderated listserv with 2,000 members, we explore cultural competence trainings as a new type of social technology in which health care providers and institutions are urged to engage in ethical self-fashioning to eliminate prejudice and embody the values of cultural relativism. Health care providers are called on to re-orient their practice (such as habits of gaze, touch, and decision-making) and to act on their own subjectivities to develop an orientation toward Others that is "culturally competent." We explore the diverse methods that cultural competence trainings use to foster a health care provider's ability to be self-reflexive, including face-to-face workshops and classes and self-guided on-line modules. We argue that the hybrid formation of culturally appropriate health care is becoming detached from its social justice origins as it becomes rationalized by and more firmly embedded in the operations of the health care marketplace. PMID:21553151
The South Asian culture is one in which family obligation and loyalty, as well as self-sacrifice and obedience toward one's elders, are paramount. These values can be different from those of the more individualistically oriented Euro-Canadian dominant culture, and can prompt challenges of cultural adjustment among Canadian-born South Asian youth…
Greipp, M E
For most nurses world-wide, activities are centred around working directly with patients and so the nurse-patient relationship is of the greatest importance. Ethnocentrism on the part of the health care community has led to misdiagnosis, mistreatment and undertreatment of culturally diverse individuals world-wide. This author discusses a tool, Greipp's Model of Ethical Decision-Making, which can be used to assist nurses in analysing the effects of culture, beliefs and diversity upon the caregiver and care recipient within an ethical framework. PMID:7583427
Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene
Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…
Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Soo Yin; Neihart, Maureen F.
Singapore, a tiny island nation, rose from 3rd- to 1st-world status in just 3 decades. Unlike in most developed countries, counseling in Singapore has a short history with faith-based beginnings and currently faces challenges to remain culturally relevant. The authors trace the development of Singapore's counseling services, provide an update…
Background Female Genital Cutting (FGC) anchored in a complex socio-cultural context becomes significant at the interface of access of health and social services in host countries. The practice of FGC at times, understood as a form of gender-based violence, may result in unjustifiable consequences among girls and women; yet, these practices are culturally engrained traditions with complex meanings calling for ethically and culturally sensitive health and social service provision. Intents and meanings of FGC practice need to be well understood before before any policies that criminalize and condemn are derived and implemented. FGC is addressed as a global public health issue with complex legal and ethical dimensions which impacts ability to access services, far beyond gender sensitivity. The ethics of terminology are addressed, building on the sustained controversial debate in regards to the delicate issue of conceptualization. An overview of international policies is provided, identifying the current trend of condemnation of FGC practices. Socio-cultural and ethical challenges are discussed in light of selected findings from a community-based research project. The illustrative examples provided focus on Western countries, with a specific emphasis on Canada. Discussion The examples provided converge with the literature confirming the utmost necessity to engage with the FGC practicing communities allowing for ethically sensitive strategies, reduction of harm in relation to systems of care, and prevention of the risk of systematic gendered stigmatization. A culturally competent, gender and ethically sensitive approach is argued for to ensure the provision of quality ethical care for migrant families in host countries. We argue that socio-cultural determinants such as ethnicity, migration, sex and gender need to be accounted for as integral to the social construction of FGC. Summary Working partnerships between the public health sector and community based organisations
Recent books, articles and plays about the 'immortal' HeLa cell line have prompted renewed interest in the history of tissue culture methods that were first employed in 1907 and became common experimental tools during the twentieth century. Many of these sources claim tissue cultures like HeLa had a "troubled past" because medical researchers did not seek informed consent before using tissues in research, contravening a long held desire for self-determination on the part of patients and the public. In this article, I argue these claims are unfair and misleading. No professional guidelines required informed consent for tissue culture during the early and mid twentieth century, and popular sources expressed no concern at the widespread use of human tissues in research. When calls for informed consent did emerge in the 1970s and 1980s, moreover, they reflected specific political changes and often emanated from medical researchers themselves. I conclude by arguing that more balanced histories of tissue culture can make a decisive contribution to public debates today: by refuting a false dichotomy between science and its publics, and showing how ethical concepts such as informed consent arise from a historically specific engagement between professional and social groups. PMID:26240021
... Articles Genetic Counseling Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetic Counseling Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... informed decisions about testing and treatment. Reasons for Genetic Counseling There are many reasons that people go ...
Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret; Kabell, Douglas R.
In an era of increased need and expectation for confidentiality, the counseling record of the deceased client challenges confidentiality. Using ethical codes and legal mandates, the authors explore whether the counseling record of a deceased client should be released when the client's will and the client's counseling records are silent on this…
Han, Yeonhee Sohn; Chen, Mei-Whei
A model for offering culturally and developmentally responsive interventions in cross-cultural groups with Asian members is provided. The "stage-specific interactive model" is based on four factors: (1) the stage of Asian clients' ethnic identity development; (2) the stage of White leaders' ethnic identity development; (3) the unique interacting…
Background Tuberculosis is a major global public health challenge, and a majority of countries have adopted a version of the global strategy to fight Tuberculosis, Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS). Drawing on results from research in Ethiopia and Norway, the aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss ethical aspects of the practice of Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) in a cross-cultural perspective. Discussion Research from Ethiopia and Norway demonstrates that the rigid enforcement of directly observed treatment conflicts with patient autonomy, dignity and integrity. The treatment practices, especially when imposed in its strictest forms, expose those who have Tuberculosis to extra burdens and costs. Socially disadvantaged groups, such as the homeless, those employed as day labourers and those lacking rights as employees, face the highest burdens. Summary From an ethical standpoint, we argue that a rigid practice of directly observed treatment is difficult to justify, and that responsiveness to social determinants of Tuberculosis should become an integral part of the management of Tuberculosis. PMID:23819555
Today's superintendents must play a critical role in building a district culture of integrity that maximizes students' ethical development. They must provide an educational environment that clearly supports the broadest aims of public education, which must include strong academic preparation. But it also includes providing students with an…
Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei
In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that contradict the…
Cordeiro, William P.
A case study describes how students from another country violated a business school's code of conduct, although their actions were not considered cheating in their culture. The business school decided to retain its ethical standards, ensuring their equal application to all students. (SK)
In 2008, the Québec Ministry of Education introduced the Ethics and Religious Culture (ERC) program. Though the ERC is a positive step forward in promoting and fostering much-needed religious literacy skills, the implications of a "neutral" professional posture asked of its teachers have been difficult to translate into the classroom.…
Gladding, Samuel T.
Creativity is a crucial component in the advancement of all major cultural entities, including effective counseling. It is through creativity that major theories of counseling and skills in counseling have been developed. Creativity is longitudinal in its impact. If counseling is to progress in the future, it is essential that counselors be…
in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.
Robbins, Steven; Trabichet, Luc
The belief that educational leaders need to be ethical decision-makers is recent. Thomas and Bainbridge suggest that an educational leader needs to develop technical competency in ethical leadership. Yet few leaders in schools have been trained in conflict resolution of an ethical nature and little importance has been given to this within existing…
Heppner, Mary J.; Fu, Chu-Chun
In this article, the authors discuss the Cultural Formulation Approach (CFA) proposed by Leong and his colleagues, and the strong and insightful applications of the approach offered by Leong, Arthur, Juntunen, Byars-Winston, and Flores. They think this model has phenomenal possibilities in providing a methodology for counselors to be able to…
This book presents the results of a study entitled "What Counselors, Educators, Psychologists and Others Should Know About the Hispanic Culture in Order to Work More Effectively with Hispanic Students and Their Parents" funded by the California Department of Education in 1982-83. Approximately 500 people (Hispanics and Non-Hispanics) from 19…
The general societal pattern in Malaysia is reflected by the distinct multi-racial composition of the population, comprised of Malays, Chinese, and Indians. In Malaysia, ethnicity determines the varied differences in the socio-cultural and religious diversity of the population. Organized modern medical services have existed in Malaysia since…
Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Ivers, John J., Sr.; Duffey, Thelma
The non-English-speaking population of the United States has increased by 140% since 1980 (Shin & Kominski, 2010). To serve this growing population, it is important that counselors increase their multicultural and multilingual competence. Through the lens of multicultural theory and relational-cultural theory, we analyze potential benefits of…
Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.
A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…
Cartwright, Brenda Y.; D'Andrea, Michael
Paul Pedersen's journey into becoming culturally competent has encountered interesting twists and turns. An introduction, a discussion of historical factors that help shape his life, a discussion of some of his major contributions, an assessment of the current state of multiculturalism, as well as Paul's vision of the future are all presented.
Smith, Pheny Zhou
The growing number of international students and exchange scholars enrolled in American colleges and universities each year has called attention to the need to provide special mental health services to help international students adjust to the host culture and solve various mental health problems. According to Alderian therapy, people are…
Sheppard, Glenn W.; Schulz, William E.; McMahon, Sylvia-Anne
This booklet expresses the ethical principles and values of the Canadian Counseling Association and serves as a guide to the professional conduct of all its members. It also informs the public served by the association of the standards of ethical conduct for which members are to be responsible and accountable. This guide reflects the values of…
This paper presents a pedagogical framework for teaching cross-cultural clinical ethics. The approach, offered at the intersection of anthropology and bioethics, is innovative in that it takes on the "social sciences versus bioethics" debate that has been ongoing in North America for three decades. The argument is made that this debate is flawed on both sides and, moreover, that the application of cross-cultural thinking to clinical ethics requires using the tools of the social sciences (such as the critique of the universality of the Euro-American construct of "autonomy") within (rather than in opposition to) a principles-based framework for clinical ethics. This paper introduces the curriculum and provides guidelines for how to teach cross-cultural clinical ethics. The learning points that are introduced emphasize culture in its relation to power and underscore the importance of viewing both biomedicine and bioethics as culturally constructed. PMID:26732399
Armstrong, Tonya D
This article addresses two major African-American congregational care needs: (1) helping suffering people to access sustained mental health care, particularly in a large/mega-church; and (2) helping suffering people with multi-layered challenges to access appropriate, skilled care that transcends traditional barriers and is consistent with their faith. One model of congregational care is presented with concrete examples of how cultural, theological, and strategic concerns are discussed, with broad implications for diverse faith communities. PMID:27281758
The impending implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has prompted complicated bioethical and public health ethics concerns regarding the moral distribution of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) to ostensibly healthy populations as a form of HIV prevention when millions of HIV-positive people still lack access to ARVs globally. This manuscript argues that these questions are, in part, concerns over the ethics of epidemiological science and knowledge production practices. Questions of distribution, and their attendant cost-benefit calculations, will rely on a number of presupposed, and therefore, normatively cultural assumptions within the science of epidemiology specifically regarding the ability of epidemiological surveillance to produce accurate maps of HIV throughout national populations. Specifically, ethical questions around PrEP will focus on who should receive ARVs given the fact that global demand will far exceed supply. Given that sexual transmission is one of the main modes of HIV transmission, these questions of “who” are inextricably linked to knowledge about sex, gender and sexuality. As a result, the ethics of epidemiology, and how the epidemiology of HIV in particular conceives, classifies and constructs sexual populations will become a critical point of reflection and contestation for bioethicists, health activists, physicians, nurses, and researchers in the medical humanities and biomedicine. This paper examines how cultural conundrums within the fields of bio- and public health ethics are directly implicated within the ethics of PrEP, by analyzing the problems of population inaugurated by the construction of the men who have sex with men (MSM) epidemiological category in the specific national context of South Africa. PMID:24373050
Sandhu, Daya S.; And Others
The quality of the therapeutic relationship is a prime consideration in counseling and psychotherapy. Good rapport in the counseling relationship has consistently been associated with beneficial changes. This study examined the effects of neurolinguistic mirroring versus non-mirroring of selected nonverbal behaviors on empathy, trustworthiness,…
Science fiction (Scifi) plays out the concerns of our possible scientistic futures; it is a source for exploring the deep rooted psychological concerns of mankind with science and the humanities. In this paper it is proposed Scifi is a valid source of hypotheses to examine, not as "evidence", but as candidate often cautionary notions, i.e., scenarios to be studied. Scifi represents a kind of Jungian mythological based story-telling, putting forward tales that express our conscious/unconscious concerns. Thus, when looking into ethical questions like, "where will techno-progressive futures take us?", we import into them these archetypes, hopes and fears, as a result they frequently reappear as familiar tropes. In this respect it is appropriate not to ignore them, but to openly challenge/appreciate them: to see what scenarios are indeed likely and how they may impact us reciprocally. This paper examines some of these aspects, and provides examples of how they are represented in the Scifi genre, in particular with consideration of the ethical implications of cultural intervention by space-faring civilizations. Given the specific analysis/examples provided, it concludes with an ethical scenario analysis (a dialectic argument), within the limiting conditions of the Drake Equation, Fermi Paradox and Cultural History. It comments on the potential existential risk of the Active SETI programmes recently initiated, indeed the need for an ethical exosociological review of all proposed Interstellar projects that express an "Intervention-Propensity".
Providing effective career counseling to culturally diverse individuals is not the same as helping those from majority cultures. The Career Counseling With Underserved Populations model aids career counselors in supporting underserved populations as they strive to address their important career counseling issues.
Counseling has always been a part of American Indian culture. Only recently has the European American counseling establishment recognized the role of culture in counseling. Developing a historical understanding of American Indians is important to working with American Indian students. It is also important for school counselors to recognize the…
Jegede, Ayodele S; Fayemiwo, Adetona S
This paper discusses the cultural and ethical issues arising from the use of Assisted Reproductive Health Technologies. Twenty-five In-depth interviews were conducted with 5 couples of reproductive age who have never conceived or brought pregnancy to term after one year of unprotected intercourse, 4 adult males, 4 adult females, a gyneacologist, a nurse, a herbalist and 2 religious leaders in Ibadan, Nigeria. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Legitimacy of children born through ART, religious obligation, patriarchy, polygamy and value of children are cultural issues surrounding ARTs while decision making about it, discrimination against children born through ART, psychological problems and loss of self esteem, side effects of the technologies and the cost of accessing them are the ethical challenges. The findings have methodological implications for conducting infertility research in non-western societies. PMID:21243924
Morris, Sarah E; Heinssen, Robert K
Research focused on the prodromal period prior to the onset of psychosis is essential for the further development of strategies for early detection, early intervention, and disease pre-emption. Such efforts necessarily require the enrollment of individuals who are at risk of psychosis but have not yet developed a psychotic illness into research and treatment protocols. This work is becoming increasingly internationalized, which warrants special consideration of cultural differences in conceptualization of mental illness and international differences in health care practices and rights regarding research participation. The process of identifying and requesting informed consent from individuals at elevated risk for psychosis requires thoughtful communication about illness risk and often involves the participation of family members. Empirical studies of risk reasoning and decisional capacity in young people and individuals with psychosis suggest that most individuals who are at-risk for psychosis can adequately provide informed consent; however ongoing improvements to tools and procedures are important to ensure that this work proceeds with maximal consideration of relevant ethical issues. This review provides a discussion of these issues in the context of international research efforts. PMID:25403748
Ochasi, Aloysius; Clark, Peter
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. Over 80% of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is estimated that 1 million to 2 million people worldwide die each year due to lack of access to an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) or a pacemaker. Despite the medical, legal, cultural and ethical controversies surrounding the pacemaker reutilization, studies done so far on the reuse of postmortem pacemakers show it to be safe and effective with an infection rate of 1.97% and device malfunction rate of 0.68%. Pacemaker reutilization can be effectively and safely done and does not pose significant additional risk to the recipient. Heart patients with reused pacemakers have an improved quality of life compared to those without pacemakers. The thesis of this paper is that pacemaker reutilization is a life-saving initiative in LMICs of Nigeria and Ghana. It is cost effective; consistent with the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice with a commitment to stewardship of resources and the Common Good. Used pacemakers with adequate battery life can be properly sterilized for use by patients in LMICs who cannot afford the cost of a new pacemaker. PMID:24720369
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000510.htm Genetic counseling To use the sharing features on this ... cystic fibrosis or Down syndrome. Who May Want Genetic Counseling? It is up to you whether or ...
Long, Vonda; Scherer, David
As experiential counseling gains wider acceptance, it becomes more important to operate from a structural framework promoting effective and ethical practices. This paper outlines a four-part model of experiential counseling: theoretical foundations, experiential activity and personnel, processing and communication skills, and prerequisites for…
Mandatory counseling is a widespread and commonly accepted practice on college campuses throughout the nation. This practice bestirs heated controversy and ethical challenges when college administrators require students to undergo counseling in instances of misconduct that pose little danger to self or others. Apparently many counselors actively…
Binder, Arnold; Binder, Virginia L.
Presents an overview of pscyhological counseling for offenders. The 12 articles of this special issue deal with counseling before trial, in prison, and after release and also crisis intervention for police officers. Other topics include the juvenile justice system, juvenile diversion, ethics, and the economics of service delivery. (JAC)
Mahler, Clarence A.
This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)
Yeaman, Andrew R. J.; And Others
Provides an overview of this special issue that addresses the ethical position of educational technology in a society. Topics discussed include critical theory; an invisible college, i.e., a scholarly communication network; the humanistic approach to developing an ethical conscience; feminist theory; and postmodern and poststructural theory.…
Wester, Kelly L.
Little has been done in terms of teaching or writing about research integrity or research ethics in the counseling field. Because of the continual push for research in counseling to maintain evidence-based practices, there is a need for education in the area of research integrity in order for professionals in the counseling field to conduct…
Stloukal, Merit E.; Wickman, Scott A.
The authors present a model for creating spiritual and religious safe zones in school counseling programs that implements the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's (ASERVIC; 2009) "Competencies for Addressing Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling" in a school setting. The authors frame the model within the…
Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M
Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion. PMID:17036424
Lambie, Glenn W.; Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Ieva, Kara P.
Counselors are required to have high levels of social-cognitive development, significant knowledge regarding ethical and legal practice, and sound ethical decision-making processes to provide effective and ethical services to their clients. This study investigated the effect of two counseling ethics courses on 64 master's-level counselor education…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deputy Ethics Official. 0.105 Section... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT General Provisions Responsibilities § 0.105 Deputy Ethics Official. The Chief Counsel or Legal Counsel for a bureau, or a designee, is the Deputy Ethics Official for that bureau....
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deputy Ethics Official. 0.105 Section... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT General Provisions Responsibilities § 0.105 Deputy Ethics Official. The Chief Counsel or Legal Counsel for a bureau, or a designee, is the Deputy Ethics Official for that bureau....
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deputy Ethics Official. 0.105 Section... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT General Provisions Responsibilities § 0.105 Deputy Ethics Official. The Chief Counsel or Legal Counsel for a bureau, or a designee, is the Deputy Ethics Official for that bureau....
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deputy Ethics Official. 0.105 Section... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT General Provisions Responsibilities § 0.105 Deputy Ethics Official. The Chief Counsel or Legal Counsel for a bureau, or a designee, is the Deputy Ethics Official for that bureau....
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deputy Ethics Official. 0.105 Section... EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT General Provisions Responsibilities § 0.105 Deputy Ethics Official. The Chief Counsel or Legal Counsel for a bureau, or a designee, is the Deputy Ethics Official for that bureau....
Practical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations regarding Videocounseling in College and University Counseling Centers: A Response to Quarto's "Influencing College Students' Perceptions of Videocounseling"
Menzano, Silvestro; Goodwin, Alan; Rockett, Geraldine; Morris, Kathy
There are numerous factors and concerns to take into consideration when implementing new technology into a counseling center's practice. These factors--informed consent, confidentiality, record-keeping, licensure, technical issues, eligibility, emergencies, and staff perceptions--are legitimate and must be addressed and resolved before…
Branstead, Elizabeth; And Others
Includes "Outplacement: The New Counseling Frontier" (Branstead); "Interview with Bob Ward"; "Ethics of Outplacement" (Axmith); "Outplacement--The View from Over Here" (Murray); "In-House Outplacement Programs for the 1990s and Beyond" (Benedict); "Government and Outplacement" (Colon-Rivera); "What Does It Take to Be an Effective Outplacement…
Calvert, Philip James
Joint-use libraries have identified staff integration as a problem. Using focus groups, this project investigated the culture, professional ethics, and attitudes of staff in a public-tertiary joint-use library in Auckland, New Zealand. Findings show some difference in organizational cultures, but more variation at the lower level of roles and…
Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Hughson, Jo-anne; Parker, Anna; Bresin, Agnese; Hajek, John; Knoch, Ute; Phan, Tuong Dien; Story, David
Background Low-participation of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients in medical research remains a problem in migrant and refugee destination countries such as Australia. The aims of this study were to explore i) CALD persons’ perceptions and experiences of the medical system and medical research, in this case, older Italian Australians; and ii) the views of research professionals on CALD patient participation in medical research. Design and Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, in 2015 utilising in-depth interviews and focus groups with four stakeholder groups: older Italian Australians (n=21); adult children of older Italian Australians (n=10); hospital Human Research Ethics Committee administrators (n=4); and clinical researchers (n=4). The data were analysed for content and thematic analysis. Results Themes for the CALD and family group were getting by in medical interactions; receptivity to medical research: testing the waters; and, receptivity to technology for support: passive versus active. Themes for the researcher and HREC groups about CALD patient participation in research were: exclusion; cultural factors; and e-consent. Conclusions Our findings from four stakeholder perspectives and experiences confirm that there were considerable cultural, linguistic, and resourcing barriers hindering the participation of older Italian-Australians in medical research. Furthermore, our findings showed that in this study setting there were few enabling strategies in place to address these barriers despite the national ethics guidelines for equitable participation in research. The findings informed the creation of a multimedia tool whose purpose is to address and improve representation of CALD groups in clinical research. Significance for public health Many people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds remain excluded from medical research such as clinical trials due to a range of language and
Flores, Lisa Y.; Heppner, Mary J.
Critical areas in which career counselors need training are as follows: demographics, world of work, career and multicultural counseling competence, career counseling process, multicultural counseling theories, career development models, career assessment, barriers to career development, culturally sensitive career centers, and continuing…
Malloy, D C; Sevigny, P R; Hadjistavropoulos, T; Bond, K; Fahey McCarthy, E; Murakami, M; Paholpak, S; Shalini, N; Liu, P L; Peng, H
In this study of ethical ideology and religiosity, 1,255 physicians from Canada, China, Ireland, India, Japan and Thailand participated. Forsyth's (1980) Ethical Position Questionnaire and Rohrbaugh and Jessor's (J Pers 43:136-155, 1975) Religiosity Measure were used as the survey instruments. The results demonstrated that physicians from India, Thailand and China reported significantly higher rates of idealism than physicians from Canada and Japan. India, Thailand and China also scored significantly higher than Ireland. Physicians from Japan and India reported significantly higher rates of relativism than physicians from Canada, Ireland, Thailand and China. Physicians from China also reported higher rates of relativism than physicians from Canada, Ireland and Thailand. Overall, religiosity was positively associated with idealism and negatively associated with relativism. This study is the first to explore the differences between ethical ideology and religiosity among physicians in an international setting as well as the relationship between these two constructs. Both religiosity and ethical ideology are extremely generalized, and the extent to which they may impact the actual professional behaviour of physicians is unknown. This paper sets up a point of departure for future research that could investigate the extent to which physicians actually employ their religious and/or ethical orientation to solve ambiguous medical decisions. PMID:22696067
Neukrug, Edward S.; Milliken, Tammi
A random sample of American Counseling Association members was asked to respond to a 77-item survey of counselor behaviors and identify whether each behavior was ethical or unethical. Results are categorized by behaviors in which 90% of counselors agreed, 75% to 90% agreed, and 25% to 50% disagreed. Also, changes in ethics education were reviewed…
Lee, Courtland C., Ed.; Richardson, Bernard L., Ed.
This book was written to provide counseling and human development professionals with specific guidelines for becoming more culturally responsive. It looks at the evolution of multicultural counseling, addresses ideas and concepts for culturally responsive counseling interventions, and examines the implications of cultural diversity for future…
The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the first in a series to use an ethics-based…
Danielson, Elena S.
While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…
Fraser, F C
A workshop was sponsored by the National Genetics Foundation to evaluate and make recommendations about the status of genetic counseling, its goals, nature, achievements, and needs. The process of genetic workup and counseling is divided into 5 stages: validation of the diagnosis; obtaining family history; estimation of the risk of recurrence; helping the family make a decision and take appropriate action; and extending counseling to other members of the family. Counseling can be directed at individuals or at special groups with the potential of carrying such diseases as sickle cell amenia or Tay-Sachs. No consensus exists on an optimal counseling approach. Genetic counseling is regarded as a team effort, requiring, in addition to the counselor, laboratory facilities and a variety of specialists. The source of payment for genetic counseling services is regarded as a problem of increasing concern. Generally, the fee paid rarely covers the cost of the many procedures and it is suggested that the cost, like that of other public health services, should be subsidized by the state. Considerable argument exists over whether a genetic counselor must have a M.D. degree or whether a Ph. D. in medical genetics is suitable enough. The quality of much genetic counseling, which is often done in the office of doctors unskilled in the field, would be increased if better training in genetics were offered to medical students and if physicians were informed of the existence of counseling centers. Further, there is a growing feeling that some sort of accreditation of genetic counselors is desirable. PMID:4609197
The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way. PMID:18506970
Vito Graziano, Gian
The development of a society in economic, cultural and ethical terms is always linked to the growth of the scientific and technical knowledge. It follows that the downsizing of the scientific research brings to a slower growth or even, as it is happening these days in Italy, a real cultural decay. The consequences of the economic crisis are evident to everyone, but it is precisely in times of crisis that the best strategies to restart the economy and give new cultural perspectives to society are studied. The crisis is also contrasted with ideas and ability to put them into practice. This, however, also presupposes a different cultural approach, which has to also include a review of values and beliefs, and a redefinition of the objectives to be pursued. This approach is modeled on the basis of several positive experiences that a country can boast. Among these experiences, there are those arising from the scientific culture: geology, for example, such as chemistry, biology or other sciences, can help to change vision. The research and practice of Earth sciences have important implications on the life and activities of the population and therefore the geoscientists, as active subjects in the society, should question their role and responsibilities. They should be at the service of society, especially in the fields of prevention from natural hazards and valorization of georesources. In this sense they can give important indications for economy and development of their country. The Italian Council of Geologists (Consiglio Nazionale dei Geologi - CNG) acts with the aim of highlighting the social role of geoscientists, hoping for a new cultural Renaissance, which leads to new researches, without obscurantism or prejudices. In an authoritative way, the CNG intends to put this social role before any demand from the professional category. Therefore, it has recently presented its political Manifesto, geared essentially to the good governance of the territory, to all the
Genetics is the study of heredity, the process of a parent passing certain genes on to their ... certain diseases are also often determined by genes. Genetic counseling is the process where parents can learn ...
Skills for counseling adolescents are acquired over a period of time by all practitioners of adolescent health. Though the principles of counseling remain the same the process of counseling an adolescent differs considerably from that of a child or an adult. Adolescents are in their transition between childhood and adulthood with physical, emotional and social challenges to face. The maturity level of each adolescent differs and that decides the pace and contents of each session. The counselor sets the context in a non judgmental manner so that the adolescent feels the ease and eagerness to self disclose. Privacy and confidentiality are two key issues that have to be taken care of during counseling. PMID:23888379
Bingham, Rosie Phillips
Psychologists in university and college counseling centers (UCCCs) have helped to shape and advance the professionalization of psychology. Most definitions of a profession contain at least 5 components. A profession has (1) systematic theories and underlying principles; (2) authority to practice provided by the client; (3) a long educational process, including training and mentoring; (4) standards and a code of ethics; and (5) a culture of service and accountability to the public. UCCC professionals have evolved in a manner that demonstrates all 5 components of a profession. They advance the discipline of psychology as a profession through their counseling interventions because such interventions are based on scientific theories and principles. While their practice rests on scientific principles, their work helps to confirm and modify that science. Authority to practice is evidenced by the continuous growth of counseling centers since World War II. UCCCs aid the extended educational process for psychology graduate students as evidenced by their providing more internship training sites than any other category of training agencies. The majority of UCCC professionals are licensed and must abide by their state code of ethics. Such codes hold psychologists accountable to the public because they regularly deliver counseling service to at least 10% of the campus student population and offer outreach services to many more in their communities. PMID:26618974
... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...
... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...
... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...
... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...
... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...
Scheel, Michael J.; Berman, Margit; Friedlander, Myrna L.; Conoley, Collie W.; Duan, Changming; Whiston, Susan C.
A suspected decline in published counseling-related research in "The Counseling Psychologist" ("TCP") and the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" ("JCP") was investigated through content analyses of the two journals from 1979 to 2008. A marked decline in counseling-related research may signify a shift in emphasis away from counseling as the most…
Balci, Ali; Ozdemir, Murat; Apaydin, Cigdem; Ozen, Fatmanur
The aim of this study is to analyse organizational corruption and to determine its level of relation to attitude towards work, work ethics and organizational culture. The data in study have been collected from 441 public high school teachers employed in the central districts of Ankara in the school year of 2008-2009. Data have been collected…
Herr, Edwin L., Ed.; McFadden, John, Ed.
This document presents the proceedings of the first international conference sponsored by the American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) and the British Association for Counselling (BAC). The document contains a foreword by Robert Nejedlo; a preface by Edwin Herr and John McFadden; an overview of the language of counseling in the…
van den Berghe, Pierre L.
Describes ways in which sociobiology can throw some light on the study of ethics, including recognition of the fact that human behavior, culture, and ethics do not exist in a biological vacuum. Topics discussed are sociobiology as ideology, culture and genes, and enlightened self interest. For journal availability, see SO 505 653. (Author/DB)
Hanna, Fred J.; Green, Alan
In the current practice of school counseling, little consideration is given to the spiritual background of students of Asian cultures. Although there is a body of literature on Asian culture in counseling, the authors could find remarkably few articles pertaining to counseling students in the context of Asian religious and spiritual traditions. In…
McCullough, Laurence B; Grünebaum, Amos; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A
Planned home birth is a paradigmatic case study of the importance of ethics and professionalism in contemporary perinatology. In this article we provide a summary of recent analyses of the Centers for Disease Control database on attendants and birth outcomes in the United States. This summary documents the increased risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity of planned home birth as well as bias in Apgar scoring. We then describe the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, which is based on the professional medical ethics of two major figures in the history of medical ethics, Drs. John Gregory of Scotland and Thomas Percival of England. This model emphasizes the identification and careful balancing of the perinatologist's ethical obligations to pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. This model stands in sharp contrast to one-dimensional maternal-rights-based reductionist model of obstetric ethics, which is based solely on the pregnant woman's rights. We then identify the implications of the professional responsibility model for the perinatologist's role in directive counseling of women who express an interest in or ask about planned home birth. Perinatologists should explain the evidence of the increased, preventable perinatal risks of planned home birth, recommend against it, and recommend planned hospital birth. Perinatologists have the professional responsibility to create and sustain a strong culture of safety committed to a home-birth-like experience in the hospital. By routinely fulfilling these professional responsibilities perinatologists can help to prevent the documented, increased risks planned home birth. PMID:26804379
Shevalier, Rae; McKenzie, Barbara Ann
Research shows culturally responsive teaching affects urban students positively. Current literature is an excellent resource for urban teacher preparation and provides definitions, models, and examples to help preservice teachers recognize the "how" and "what" of culturally responsive teaching. Missing, however, is an accessible, in-depth…
The counselling experience at Chikankata hospital for the first year of the AIDS care and prevention programme is described. People in the counselling team are selected according to specific criteria. Counselling is conducted in integrated AIDS management context, at the individual family and community levels. Counselling emphases differ according to the clinical expression of the disease. Some cultural issues require specific counselling approaches, such as ritual cleansing, and dealing with seropositive women of childbearing age. Counselling is integral to comprehensive AIDS management which is inclusive of the disciplines of clinical care, education, counselling, pastoral care and administration. PMID:2083266
Witt, Kailey; Huntington, Mark K
Preconception counseling is a way to discuss optimizing reproductive age women's health and chronic medical issues to facilitate the healthiest pregnancy possible. Preconception counseling is an important piece of care for reproductive aged women especially as nearly 50 percent of pregnancies in the U.S. are unplanned and important fetal development has already taken place prior to the initial obstetrics visit. Many opportunities are missed to provide this counseling; only approximately one-third of women receive it. Visits to primary care are the ideal time for this to occur. In this paper, topics to discuss will be presented along with some guides to optimizing chronic medical problems to improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27156258
McCurdy, Kenneth G.; Murray, Kenneth C.
The literature addressing ethical issues involved in the disclosure of family secrets in counseling has typically focused on secrets disclosed by adults, ignoring the ethical issues surrounding individual disclosure by minor children and confidentiality within the family counseling context. This article explores family secrets, confidentiality…
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduct toward parties and their counsel. 200.69 Section 200.69 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.69 Conduct toward parties and their counsel. Members...
Lambie, Glenn W.; Ieva, Kara P.; Mullen, Patrick R.
The present study investigated 52 graduate counseling students' levels of ethical and legal knowledge (Lambie, Hagedorn, & Ieva, 2010) and social-cognitive development (Hy & Loevinger, 1996) at three points: (a) prior to a counseling ethics course, (b) at the completion of the course, and (c) four months later. Students' ethical…
This is a continuation of the dialogue among Albert Ellis, Jeffrey T. Guterman, Earl Ginter, Sandra A. Rigazio-DiGilio, Allen E. Ivey, and Don C. Locke that has been appearing in the Journal of Mental Health Counseling on ethical issues of counseling in the postmodern era. Specifically addresses the ethical, constructivist, multicultural, and…
... specific program elements listed in Office of Government Ethics regulations, 5 CFR 738.203(b). ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Counseling service. 200.735-103 Section 200.735... General Provisions § 200.735-103 Counseling service. (a) The Chairman shall appoint a Designated...
Israel is a multicultural state that has absorbed, and is continually absorbing people of different cultures who immigrate to Israel, a situation that could create conflicts in the physician-patient relationship. In this article, I will present several cases in which diversity of culture can lead to conflict, and suggest a way of communication that can help prevent the conflicts arising from those situations. PMID:27351044
Foss Durant, Anne; McDermott, Shawna; Kinney, Gwendolyn; Triner, Trudy
In early 2010, leaders within Kaiser Permanente (KP) Northern California's Patient Care Services division embarked on a journey to embrace and embed core tenets of Caring Science into the practice, environment, and culture of the organization. Caring Science is based on the philosophy of Human Caring, a theory articulated by Jean Watson, PhD, RN, AHN-BC, FAAN, as a foundational covenant to guide nursing as a discipline and a profession. Since 2010, Caring Science has enabled KP Northern California to demonstrate its commitment to being an authentic person- and family-centric organization that promotes and advocates for total health. This commitment empowers KP caregivers to balance the art and science of clinical judgment by considering the needs of the whole person, honoring the unique perception of health and healing that each member or patient holds, and engaging with them to make decisions that nurture their well-being. The intent of this article is two-fold: 1) to provide context and background on how a professional practice framework was used to transform the ethic of caring-healing practice, environment, and culture across multiple hospitals within an integrated delivery system; and 2) to provide evidence on how integration of Caring Science across administrative, operational, and clinical areas appears to contribute to meaningful patient quality and health outcomes. PMID:26828076
Manalo, Maria Fidelis C
Towards the end of life, physicians face dilemmas of discontinuing life-sustaining treatments or interventions. In some circumstances, these treatments are no longer of benefit, while in others the patient or family no longer want them. The physician plays an essential role in clarifying the goals of medical treatment, defining the care plan, initiating discussions about life-sustaining therapy, educating patients and families, helping them deliberate, making recommendations, and implementing the treatment plan. Communication is key. It should be clarified that when inevitable death is imminent, it is legitimate to refuse or limit forms of treatment that would only secure a precarious and burdensome prolongation of life, for as long as basic humane, compassionate care is not interrupted. Agreement to DNR status does not preclude supportive measures that keep patients free from pain and suffering as possible. Acceptable clinical practice on withdrawing or withholding treatment is based on an understanding of the medical, ethical, cultural, and religious issues. There is a need to individualize care option discussions to illness status, and patient and family preferences, beliefs, values, and cultures. The process of shared decision making between the patient, the family, and the clinicians should continue as goals evolve and change over time. PMID:25278756
Peters, Donald L.
This book targeted especially to those who counsel middle-school through high school students, shares experiences, concepts, happenings, and anecdotes of a school counselor. Concepts are presented for those interested in developing functional orientations in the area of helping relationships. The first chapter discusses the concept of help and…
Reacts to C. H. Patterson's article (this issue) concerning multicultural counseling. Asserts that there are problems with historical concepts of counseling, the definition of culture, and the practice of counseling in multicultural settings. A cultural-centered approach to counseling recognizes that the client has internalized patterns of…
Mason, Terrence C., Ed.; Helfenbein, Robert J., Ed.
The widely cited, though highly contested, idea that "the world is flat" (Friedman, 2004) carries with it a call for education to provide a leveling effect across continents and cultures Students in Skokie or in Skopje, as the theory goes, are expected to experience a school curriculum that shares certain common elements, goals, and purposes. Such…
In this personal narrative, I offer reflections about the process of conducting a cross-cultural, cross-linguistic research project with teachers of English in China. Lessons learned from this study address some of the hegemonic perspectives and assumptions that can be dysconsciously held by native English-speakers, the value of crossing borders…
Zhang, Luqing; Wang, Yunfeng; Xiao, Ming; Han, Qunying; Ding, Jiong
Universities and medical schools in China are faced with an ongoing shortage of cadavers for education and research because of insufficient numbers of cadaver donations. This article will examine the main obstacles to cadaver donation in the Chinese culture. These include superstitious traditional views about the body, a lack of legislation…
This article presents a series of reflections based on a study of two schools of secondary level in the city of Buenos Aires. The purpose is to identify reasons why some schools in poorer areas obtain higher levels of success for their pupils. The conceptual basis is one of cultural analysis, permitting a contextual and situational perspective…
Reviews the work of Iris Murdoch, a moral philosopher who maintains that the work of moral education is the recognition of the phenomenology of inner moral experience and the struggle to express it. Shows how important this view of the inner meaning of moral experience, often expressed as metaphor, is to identity, culture, and education.…
Cohen, Adam W., Ed.
This volume of six lessons provides expert information on a variety of issues in substance abuse counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Addressing the Needs of Clients with Traumatic Injury and Alcoholism" (Charles H.…
Genetic counseling provides medical and genetic information of the disease including its natural history, recurrence risk, availability and usefulness of genetic testing, as well as psycho-social support. In the field of pediatric neurology, the majority of genetic counseling seems to be a simple risk estimation of the next child and unrelated to ethical issues. However, in some cases requiring prenatal diagnosis or presymptomatic testing, we have to address serious ethical issues. Genetic counseling should be provided by an educated medical doctor at a suitable genetics clinic. In Japan, we have "Japanese Board of Medical Genetics, Clinical Geneticist" as an education system of clinical genetics for medical doctors. Pediatric neurologists should know the special issues of genetic information and contact with clinical geneticists in selected cases. PMID:12875203
Vera, George Davy
In the worldwide community it is not well known that counseling and guidance professional practices have a long tradition in Venezuela. Therefore, this contribution's main purpose is to inform the international audience about past and contemporary counseling in Venezuela. Geographic, demographic, and cultural facts about Venezuela are provided.…
Turner-Essel, Laura; Waehler, Charles
Previous scholars have made specific suggestions regarding what counseling psychology training programs can do to help future psychologists become more cross-culturally aware. This article addresses the questions of whether and how U.S. counseling psychology training programs are currently employing these suggestions. Forty-seven American…
Gladding, Samuel T.; Wallace, Melanie J. Drake
Stories are an essential part of counseling. Through stories, clients and counselors gain a deeper understanding of concerns brought into counseling sessions and strategies used to address them. Through storytelling, catharsis, power, insight, meaning, cultural awareness, and change take place. This article examines the research on stories in…
The cultural diversity literature largely ignores the effects of religion, and especially Judaism, on counseling and psychotherapy. The author reviews the meager and mostly anecdotal accounts relating to Orthodox Jews in the literature of several related disciplines, including counseling, social work, psychology, and psychiatry. The objective is…
Loveland, Elaina C., Ed.; Raynor, Joyce, Ed.
This book is the first significant body of literature on ethics in college admission published by the National Association for College Admission Counseling. The series is a select compilation of articles on ethics published in the Journal of College Admission in 1998 and 1999. The book is a source of information for the beginning and experienced…
Bratt, William Edgar Vernon
The use of online social networking websites has increased among Canadians in recent years. There are many professional and ethical implications for counsellors who use these sites (Boyd, 2007). Although they offer advantages to counsellors, their use can also raise issues around ethical conduct. Because the counselling literature has not yet…
Cook, Amy L.; Houser, Rick A.
As schools become increasingly diverse through immigration and growth of minority groups, it is important that school counselors incorporate culturally sensitive ethical decision-making in their practice. The use of Western ethical theories in the application of professional codes of ethics provides a specific perspective in ethical…
Yost, J. Kelley
This paper discusses ethical considerations involved in breach of confidentiality in counseling dangerous clients, i.e., those who have the potential to inflict bodily harm on others. The ethical basis for confidentiality is presented in a model for decision making in ethical dilemmas which encompasses three evaluative levels or tiers: ethical…
Wester, Kelly L.
To publish ethical research, one must conduct research responsibly, making ethical choices from the inception of the research idea and throughout the research process. Conducting and publishing ethical research is important because of the impact the results will have on the counseling profession. Steps to consider are discussed.
Drier, Harry N.
This monograph deals with normative ethics, or the application of ethical principles in judging the rightness or wrongness of actions. Specifically, the monograph addresses normative ethics in the use of automated systems in the field and practice of counseling and guidance. It is noted that the immense growth planned for computer applications in…
Harrist, Steve; Richardson, Frank C.
A social justice orientation for counseling is appealing to many but appears to some to violate counselor neutrality and respect for client freedom and rights. Confusion about neutrality and advocacy in the counseling field seems to reflect confused assumptions and values in the wider culture. As a result, counseling is guided more by a disguised…
Guth, Lorraine J.; McAuliffe, Garrett; Michalak, Megan
As the counseling profession continues to build an international community, the need to examine cultural competence training also increases. This quantitative study examined the impact of the Diversity and Counseling Institute in Ireland (DCII) on participants' multicultural counseling competencies. Two instruments were utilized to examine…
Terry, Linda L.
Describes a one semester-unit course, entitled "Family Counseling in the Schools" to complement other training in family systems counseling for students interested in family-school intervention. Links literature on changes in the cultures of the social institutions of schools, families, and family counseling with the systemic conceptual framework…
Wang, Li-fei; Kwan, Kwong-Liem K.; Huang, Su-Fei
The development and consequences of licensure for counseling psychologists in Taiwan are presented to promote cross-cultural awareness surrounding issues in the counseling psychology profession. The national licensure statute for counseling psychologists in Taiwan was established by the Taiwanese Legislature in 2001. While the licensing system…
Goksoy, Asli; Alayoglu, Nihat
Ethics in decision making has been an issue for academics, practitioners, and governmental regulators for decades. In the last decade, numerous scandals and consequently many corporate crises in the global business world have added credence to the criticisms of business ethics. Therefore, it is vital to understand the factors affecting employees'…
Really tough ethical dilemmas in a school community come about when core values conflict. So everyone can benefit from paying attention to ethics as both an urgent literacy requirement for students, and as a unifying force in developing positive school culture. Both those reasons lay behind the founding of The Institute for Global Ethics (IGE), an…
Chuan, Kwek Leong; Lin, Jauyn Grace; Pierron-Bohnes, Veronique; Dawson, Silvina Ponce
Despite the objectivity of science, the local work environment affects the daily activities of scientists. Differences in cultural perception can affect female scientists in the workplace directly. The pressure currently exerted on researchers, on the other hand, is altering how science is practiced and seems to affect women and men differently. In this paper we summarize the discussions that took place on this topic in Workshop V of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics. We present some of the results of the 2010 Global Survey of Physicists analyzed by region and data from France and Taiwan. We also include the recommendations that were formulated at the end of the workshop.
Salyers, Kathleen M.; Ritchie, Martin H.
Appalachians have been referred to as the forgotten people and are often overlooked in multicultural counseling. A case study is presented using the extended case method to enhance counselor awareness and demonstrate how counselors can apply knowledge of the Appalachian culture in the provision of best practices for this population.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Ethics and... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-2 Office of Ethics and Civil Rights. The Office of Ethics and Civil Rights, headed by the Special Counsel for Ethics and Civil Rights, is responsible...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Ethics and... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-2 Office of Ethics and Civil Rights. The Office of Ethics and Civil Rights, headed by the Special Counsel for Ethics and Civil Rights, is responsible...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Office of Ethics and... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-2 Office of Ethics and Civil Rights. The Office of Ethics and Civil Rights, headed by the Special Counsel for Ethics and Civil Rights, is responsible...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Ethics and... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-2 Office of Ethics and Civil Rights. The Office of Ethics and Civil Rights, headed by the Special Counsel for Ethics and Civil Rights, is responsible...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Ethics and... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-2 Office of Ethics and Civil Rights. The Office of Ethics and Civil Rights, headed by the Special Counsel for Ethics and Civil Rights, is responsible...
Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.
The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…
Davis, Howard V.
This paper discusses the comparative newness of elementary school counseling, and the need to develop theoretical bases which, of course, are psychologically and educationally sound. Various theoretical models which have meaning for elementary counseling are considered. These include: (1) developmental and/or growth counseling theory which…
This article provides a historical, political, and organizational analysis regarding counseling psychology's involvement in professional school counseling. Issues discussed include collaboration, curriculum and training, and professional identity, as well as the commonalities that bind counselor education/professional school counseling and…
Byrne, J. Stephen; Shufelt, Brett
The present study explored the use of counseling among counselor trainees and the characteristics of consumers and nonconsumers. Approximately 61% of those surveyed (n = 85) reported that they had received counseling, with the majority being mental health counseling trainees. Nonconsumers (n = 54) indicated that they coped with problems in other…
Ethics Standards (HRPP) and Public Partnership (PARTAKE) to Address Clinical Research Concerns in India: Moving Toward Ethical, Responsible, Culturally Sensitive, and Community-Engaging Clinical Research
Burt, Tal; Gupta, Yogendra K; Mehta, Nalin; Swamy, Nagendra; Sovani, Vishwas; Speers, Marjorie A
Like other emerging economies, India’s quest for independent, evidence-based, and affordable healthcare has led to robust and promising growth in the clinical research sector, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 20.4% between 2005 and 2010. However, while the fundamental drivers and strengths are still strong, the past few years witnessed a declining trend (CAGR −16.7%) amid regulatory concerns, activist protests, and sponsor departure. And although India accounts for 17.5% of the world’s population, it currently conducts only 1% of clinical trials. Indian and international experts and public stakeholders gathered for a 2-day conference in June 2013 in New Delhi to discuss the challenges facing clinical research in India and to explore solutions. The main themes discussed were ethical standards, regulatory oversight, and partnerships with public stakeholders. The meeting was a collaboration of AAHRPP (Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs)—aimed at establishing responsible and ethical clinical research standards—and PARTAKE (Public Awareness of Research for Therapeutic Advancements through Knowledge and Empowerment)—aimed at informing and engaging the public in clinical research. The present article covers recent clinical research developments in India as well as associated expectations, challenges, and suggestions for future directions. AAHRPP and PARTAKE provide etiologically based solutions to protect, inform, and engage the public and medical research sponsors. PMID:25558428
Kocet, Michael M.
Being an effective counselor includes having knowledge of and the ability to integrate a code of ethics into one's professional practice. This article addresses some of the highlights of the changes in the 2005 ACA [American Counseling Association] Code of Ethics such as end-of-life issues, boundaries and relationships, and multicultural and…
Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Chee, Christine; Sand, Jennifer K.
The authors review current literature on issues facing American Indian (AI) women and discuss implications for providing culturally sensitive counseling with these women. A case study of a Dine (Navajo) woman living within mainstream society and holding true to her traditional cultural beliefs illustrates how a culturally responsive approach to…
Whittaker, Shaun R.
Addresses the psychological effects of torture (including solitary confinement) and the implications of torture for counseling and the counseling psychology profession. Discusses counseling issues related to diagnosis of torture victims, treatment, special considerations for counselors, use of testimony as counseling technique, and prognosis.…
Sales, Amos, Ed.
This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…
Pack-Brown, Sherlon P.; Thomas, Tequilla L.; Seymour, Jennifer M.
Multiculturalism and social justice counseling issues influence counselors' ethical thinking and behavior. Counselor educators are responsible for facilitating students' understanding of the relevance of multicultural/social justice counseling issues and ethical standards for professional practices. Added insights in these areas aid students to…
Cummins, Anne-Marie; Hoggett, Paul
Describes the way therapeutic models and language have been used in support of human flexibility and "human resource development" concepts in the 1980s and 1990s. Examines use of humane managerial rhetoric to mask practice of increasingly ruthless public and private-sector organizations, and the dilemmas for counselors operating within these kinds…
Hansen, James T.
Founding humanists argued that counseling should be ideologically grounded in the humanities. Currently, professional counseling culture is largely structured by scientific assumptions, which, the author maintains, have had a detrimental impact on the profession. Specific recommendations for shifting professional counseling culture to a humanities…
Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung
In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering…
Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; and Others
Papers from the second international conference of the American Counseling Association held in Mexico City in June 1990 are included in this book. The book is divided into four parts: community, diversity, communication, and spirituality. The following papers are included: (1) Myths, Realities, and Implications of the English Only Movement in the…
... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Genetic Counseling Print ... how can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating ...
Prentice, Ann E.
Discusses professional ethics in librarianship as system of values and rules that govern way in which librarians view and practice their profession. Background, definition of terms (ethics, professional), development of codes of ethics, history of American Library Association Code of Ethics and 1981 statement, and role of education are covered.…
Elliott, Glenda R.
Based on the core conditions of client-centered counseling and supported by aspects of psychodynamic, cognitive developmental, and behavioral theories, a perspective is introduced that provides a resolution to the dilemma experienced by counselors and counseling students whose personal values and beliefs conflict with the ethical guidelines of the…
Steward, Robbie J.; Borgers, Sherry B.
There is a growing awareness of a sensitivity to ethnic and cultural issues in the helping professions. For the last decade a variety of multicultural concerns have been receiving increased attention. Although there is awareness, the mental health fields have not really addressed the issues involved in the counseling of culturally diverse…
Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Holm, Jessica M.; Daly, Cynthia M.
Graduate students experience mental health distress. The authors investigated the benefits of required counseling services at a training clinic for students enrolled in counseling courses. Results indicated that after receiving services, students ("N" = 55) reported decreases in overall problems, depressive symptoms, and anxiety…
Hemsworth, P H
The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions. PMID:17470069
Baker, Caroline A.; Bowen, Nikol V.; Butler, J. Yasmine; Shavers, Marjorie C.
Using the Dimensions of Personal Identity Model proposed by Arredondo and Glauner (as cited in Arredondo et al., 1996), the authors reviewed the last 11 years of the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling's journal, "Counseling and Values", specifically regarding the "A" dimensions of race and ethnicity. Twenty-five…
Wambu, Grace W.; Fisher, Teresa A.
Despite the government's emphasis on guidance and counseling program implementation in Kenyan schools and a rapid increase in the number of trained school counselors, lack of standardized training curriculums, ethical standards, counseling models, and role ambiguity persist. This article reviews the historical development of guidance and…
Cashwell, Craig S.; Watts, Richard E.
In 2009, leaders in the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC) developed new competencies for addressing spiritual and religious issues in counseling. This article briefly addresses the need for new ASERVIC competencies, provides an overview of the process whereby the new competencies emerged, and concludes…
Kain, Craig D.
At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…
Lewis, Brian J.
This paper examines the counseling of alcoholics in an effort to determine its value and significance. It includes a cursory look at the development, etiology and history of treatment methods and the role of personality theory. However, the main emphasis is on the different types of counseling used in each particular counseling setting. The…
Sussman, Allen E., Ed.; Stewart, Larry G., Ed.
The book presents information on effective counseling with deaf people by discussing issues that confront counselors and administrators involved in providing counseling services to deaf people. A basic assumption of the book is that deaf people of all ages have been frequently denied counseling services due to communication problems between…
Kirk, James J.; Woody, Connie; Burns, Naomi; Howard, Sherrie; Rice, Misty
This publication describes counseling approaches supervisors and human resource professionals can use to help marginal employees become better adjusted and more productive in the workplace. Three case studies are also provided for training purposes. The counseling tools are as follows: (1) Adlerian counseling, involving the belief that humans'…
Myers, Jane E.; Schwiebert, Valerie L.
Gerontological counseling as a counseling specialty spans only 20 years. This text incorporates into its framework the 16 Minimum Essential Competencies of gerontological counseling that have been developed over the past two decades. These competencies focus on the knowledge and skills required to be an effective counselor for older persons and…
Throckmorton, Alyssa; VanderWalde, Lindi; Brackett, Craig; Dominici, Laura; Eisenhauer, Thomas; Johnson, Nathalie; Kong, Amanda; Ludwig, Kandice; O'Neill, Jennifer; Pugliese, Matthew; Teller, Paige; Sarantou, Terry
Breast surgery has evolved as a subspecialty of general surgery and requires a working knowledge of benign and malignant diseases, surgical techniques, shared decision-making with patients, collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team, and a basic foundation in surgical ethics. Ethics is defined as the practice of analyzing, evaluating, and promoting best conduct based upon available standards. As new information is obtained or as cultural values change, best conduct may be re-defined. In 2014, the Ethics Committee of the ASBrS acknowledged numerous ethical issues, specific to the practice of breast surgery. This independent review of ethical concerns was created by the Ethics Committee to provide a resource for ASBrS members as well as other surgeons who perform breast surgery. In this review, the professional, clinical, research and technology considerations that breast surgeons face are reviewed with guidelines for ethical physician behavior. PMID:26219240
Cura, Jonathan Diego
Family cohesiveness provides a unique cultural influence in the observance and expression of autonomy in terms of Filipino patients' decision making. With genetic counseling yet in its dawning practice in the Philippines, healthcare professionals (i.e., geneticists, practitioners) practicing genetic counseling and students in the pioneering genetic counseling program face the challenge of how to provide culturally appropriate measures in respecting Filipinos' autonomy. There is much deliberation with respect to identifying autonomous decision making among Filipino patients as counselees in genetic counseling. Cultural values influence how autonomy and bioethical principles are upheld. In a culturally-appropriate manner of identifying who makes health care and genetic counseling decisions, the sole focus on an individualistic perspective may be too western-based and may render genetic counseling less effective. The uniquely important cultural feature of family cohesiveness necessitates its incorporation into the practice of genetic counseling in the Philippines. PMID:25663328
Huey, Wayne C.
The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) recently revised its ethical code for professional school counselors, the "Ethical Standards for School Counselors," in 2010. Professional school counselors have a unique challenge in counseling minors in that they provide services in an educational setting. Consequently, school counselors not only…
... program, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.201-204. (b) Deputy ethics officials. (1) The Regional Counsel are deputy..., under the DAEO's supervision, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.204. (2) The alternate DAEO, the DAEO's staff, and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agency ethics...
... program, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.201-204. (b) Deputy ethics officials. (1) The Regional Counsel are deputy..., under the DAEO's supervision, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.204. (2) The alternate DAEO, the DAEO's staff, and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency ethics...
Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…
Gumaer, Jim; Martin, Don
Uses acronym GROUP ETHICS to describe training knowledge and skill competencies for ethical counseling in groups. Concludes guidelines for individuals in training to be group counselors are too vague and thus allow neophyte leaders to place themselves in ethical jeopardy. (ABL)
Kurt, Layla J.; Piazza, Nick J.
In 2005, the American Counseling Association (ACA) introduced a new ethical standard for counselors working with clients with terminal illness who are considering hastened death options. The authors' purpose is to inform counselors of the Death With Dignity Act and explore relevant ethical guidelines in the "ACA Code of Ethics" (ACA, 2005).
This article examines the unique ethical considerations for the provision of family therapy as substance abuse treatment. Use of family therapy as substance abuse treatment has grown rapidly, but the ethical codes that guide clinical practice have not kept pace. Ethical pitfalls specific to family counseling within alcohol and drug treatment…
Christakis, N A
In 1987 in Zaire, a French investigator and a small group of Zairians were immunized with a French investigational AIDS vaccine. This action leads to questioning whether different sociocultural settings should have different research ethics applied, especially on pandemic diseases. Another question is to clarify the valid reasons for conducting an AIDS trial in Africa. The design of an AIDS vaccine trial should vary with the ethical and cultural factors of the research population involved, even if the epidemiological and scientific factors are the same worldwide. In Africa, study subjects meet the requirements for AIDS research: They are free from HIV infection and are at risk for the infection. However, concerns center on how to keep the subjects free from risks during the 6 months between HIV tests and how to ensure laboratory test accuracy. The applicability of the findings to that population are essential, although they may be unique to Africa. Research subjects must consent to participating in the trial and must be advised of their antibody status and of their becoming seropositive. To increase the beneficent treatment of subjects and decrease the risks, the study size should be increased and all participants should be counseled to avoid risky behaviors. A subject's family or social group may need to give consent in addition to the subject, because of cultural views. The explanation of the research must be in culturally relevant terms. Africa should have fair access to the vaccine resulting from the research. PMID:3397278
Brown, William J.; Singhal, Arvind
Examines ethical dilemmas associated with using entertainment television for prosocial development. Discusses the ethics of distinguishing prosocial from antisocial television content; depicting socio-cultural equality through television programs; limiting the unintended effects of television programs; and using television as a persuasive tool to…
Mitchell, Regina L. Garza
The blending of technology and education introduces ethical issues for colleges. In particular, those involved with online education may encounter unique dilemmas that have collegewide implications. In order for ethical decisions to be made in regard to online education, colleges must cultivate a culture of trust, define clearly the correct and…
Sexual activity in psychotherapeutic and supervisory relationships breaches counseling ethical standards, some state legal codes, and is perceived as unethical by a majority of mental health practitioners. Many therapists do experience sexual feelings for their clients and supervisees, and an alarming number act out these feelings with clients,…
Efforts to professionalize counseling practice have yielded extraordinary benefits to counselors. However, professionalization has also caused counselors to adopt strict definitions of their education, practices, and ethics. In order to combat the ideological insularity brought on by professionalization, several marginalized ideas are considered.…
Huber, Charles H.
Discusses three recent articles that appeared in the professional mental-health literature. These articles maintain that when managed-care companies reduce the cost of mental-health services by substituting time-limited counseling for longer treatment, a condition identified as "invisible rationing" results. Articles offer ethical, legal, and…
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Counseling service. 200.735-103 Section 200.735-103 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT... specific program elements listed in Office of Government Ethics regulations, 5 CFR 738.203(b)....
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Counseling service. 200.735-103 Section 200.735-103 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT... specific program elements listed in Office of Government Ethics regulations, 5 CFR 738.203(b)....
Nigro, Tracey; Uhlemann, Max R.
The British Columbian Members of the Canadian Counselling Association were surveyed, in order to explore their attitudes and experiences regarding dual relationships. Of 529 deliverable surveys, 206 usable returns yielded a response rate of 39%. The survey instrument collected data regarding respondents' characteristics and ethicality ratings of…
Roessler, Richard T.; Rubin, Stanford E.
"Case Management and Rehabilitation Counseling" discusses procedures that are useful to rehabilitation professionals working in many settings. Specifically, this book reviews the finer points relating to diagnosing, arranging services, monitoring program outcomes, arranging for placement, planning for accommodations, ethical decision making,…
Suzuki, Lisa A.; Ahluwalia, Muninder K.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Quizon, Cherubim A.
The emphasis placed on prolonged engagement, fieldwork, and participant observation has prevented wide-scale use of ethnography in counseling psychology. This article provides a discussion of ethnography in terms of definition, process, and potential ethical dilemmas. The authors propose that ethnographically informed methods can enhance…
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification by the General Counsel. 200.406 Section 200.406 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Regulations Pertaining to Public Observation...
Counseling Psychologist, 2009
Respect for diversity and for values different from one's own is a central value of counseling psychology training programs. The valuing of diversity is also consistent with the profession of psychology as mandated by the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and as discussed in the Guidelines and…
Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P
Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues. PMID:17218662
Harris, Raychelle; Holmes, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.
Codes of ethics exist for most professional associations whose members do research on, for, or with sign language communities. However, these ethical codes are silent regarding the need to frame research ethics from a cultural standpoint, an issue of particular salience for sign language communities. Scholars who write from the perspective of…
This paper considers a different approach for developing ethical organizations. It argues that the practice of servant leadership provides a systematic training approach that should develop a more ethical culture. Servant leadership can serve as a "character ethic" that is teachable to individuals or organizations. The advantages and…
Raes, Inez; Ravelingien, An; Pennings, Guido
It is widely agreed among health professionals that couples using donor insemination should be offered counselling on the topic of donor conception disclosure. However, it is clear from the literature that there has long been a lack of agreement about which counselling approach should be used in this case: a directive or a non-directive approach. In this paper we investigate which approach is ethically justifiable by balancing the two underlying principles of autonomy (non-directive approach) and beneficence (directive approach). To overrule one principle in favour of another, six conditions should be fulfilled. We analyse the arguments in favour of the beneficence principle, and consequently, a directive approach. This analysis shows that two conditions are not met; the principle of autonomy should not be overridden. Therefore, at this moment, a directive counselling approach on donor conception disclosure cannot be ethically justified. PMID:27116204
Lee, Juliana Mei-Har; Thong, Meow-Keong
Genetic counseling service is urgently required in developing countries. In Malaysia, the first medical genetic service was introduced in 1994 at one of the main teaching hospitals in Kuala Lumpur. Two decades later, the medical genetic services have improved with the availability of genetic counseling, genetic testing and diagnosis, for both paediatric conditions and adult-onset inherited conditions, at four main centers of medical genetic services in Malaysia. Prenatal diagnosis services and assisted reproductive technologies are available at tertiary centres and private medical facilities. Positive developments include governmental recognition of Clinical Genetics as a subspecialty, increased funding for genetics services, development of medical ethics guidelines, and establishment of support groups. However, the country lacked qualified genetic counselors. Proposals were presented to policy-makers to develop genetic counseling courses. Challenges encountered included limited resources and public awareness, ethical dilemmas such as religious and social issues and inadequate genetic health professionals especially genetic counselors. PMID:23615969
Today's medicine faces some critical moral challenges, yet the medical class suffers from an increasingly evident malaise: a growing dissatisfaction with an ethical demand often perceived as a cumbersome burden of rules and prohibitions, which risk to erode the fiduciary relations with patients. Such a negative appraisal is partly due to a narrow interpretation of the meaning of ethics, a misconception whose roots are in the positivistic stance that permeates our culture, and in its almost exclusively technological bent. This radical orientation of our culture shows itself in the vanishing of the idea of an intrinsic ethical dimension of medicine and consequent eclipse of traditional medical ethics, currently all but assimilated by bioethics. Maintaining a clear distinction between medical ethics and bioethics is a fundamental condition for guaranteeing an original ethical reflection in medicine, thereby fostering a constructive dialogue between philosophical and medical ethics. In this sense, occupational medicine holds a very propitious position, at the cross-roads to some of the most important dimensions in human life and society: health, work, environment. In a milieu which is too often inclined to efface the living human being and the deepest needs of humanity, the moral commitment of medical profession to the care of the integral reality of the embodied human person is one of the most important ethical challenges facing occupational medicine and a most valuable contribution to the current ethical debate. PMID:26822241
Sternberg, Robert J.
Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…
... have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should a patient receive nutrition? What about advance directives and resuscitation orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...
Illustrating three instances he encountered here in the United States, the Chinese counselor argues that American counseling is deeply rooted in rugged individualism, and often at the expense of the family and community. The suitability of American counseling for other cultures is thus questioned. (Author/NB)
Szymanski, Edna Mora; And Others
Rehabilitation counselors (n=1,535) reported that they were at least moderately prepared in vocational services; foundations of rehabilitation; case management/services; group/family counseling; medical/psychosocial aspects; workers' compensation, employer services, and technology; individual counseling/development; social, cultural, and…
Reimer, Catherine Swan
Successful counseling interventions and treatment depend on understanding the worldview of the people to whom services are offered. This book provides culturally specific information about the Inupiat worldview of "personal well-being" as a basis for establishing counseling strategies. This perspective is obtained through interviews with 25…
Hansen, James T.
Arguably, the defining feature of the counseling profession is an appreciation for human diversity. Early counseling movements emphasized individual diversity, while multiculturalism and social justice highlighted cultural diversity. The author maintains that contemporary psychoanalytic thought can supply a needed intraindividual diversity…
Locke, Don C.
New associate editor for Practice section of "Journal of Mental Health Counseling" discusses contributions he hopes to make to journal. Contends that mental health counseling is faced with increasing need for sensitivity to needs and realities of culturally diverse consumer population and workforce. Notes plans to address issue by encouraging…
Caring for patients from different cultural or religious backgrounds may create difficult ethical dilemmas for physicians. The article reviews four case histories, involving patients from the Navajo culture or the Christian Science Church, that highlight some of these ethical problems. It then discusses an "ethics of responsibility," which is based on and encompasses a variety of meanings of responsibility, including responsibility as recognition, as taking charge, as the ability to assess the consequences of one's actions, and as making a commitment. An ethics of responsibility provides a novel perspective for resolving ethical problems in medicine. PMID:20495256
This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together. PMID:22073817
... ethics investigation: (1) To request a hearing before the investigating officer (IO); (2) To inspect all... be assisted by counsel (see paragraph (c) of this section); (6) To challenge the IO for cause (such... available. (d) If a hearing is requested, the IO will conduct the hearing after reasonable notice to...
... ethics investigation: (1) To request a hearing before the investigating officer (IO); (2) To inspect all... be assisted by counsel (see paragraph (c) of this section); (6) To challenge the IO for cause (such... available. (d) If a hearing is requested, the IO will conduct the hearing after reasonable notice to...
... ethics investigation: (1) To request a hearing before the investigating officer (IO); (2) To inspect all... be assisted by counsel (see paragraph (c) of this section); (6) To challenge the IO for cause (such... available. (d) If a hearing is requested, the IO will conduct the hearing after reasonable notice to...
... investigation. (f) The IO shall prepare a report which summarizes the evidence, to include information presented... U.S. Armed Force. (h) The Rules Counsel shall review all ethics investigations. If the report is... inquiry officer, for further or supplemental inquiry. If the report is complete, then: (1) If the...
D'Andrea, Michael; Heckman, Elizabeth Foster
This study represents a 40-year review of multicultural counseling outcome research that has been done in the mental health professions. Particular attention is directed to the outcomes that ensue from counseling situations that are composed of counselors and clients from different racial/cultural backgrounds and identities in individual, group,…
Smith, Shannon D.; Ng, Kok-Mun
This study examined international counseling students' (ICTs) experiences and perceptions of their multicultural counseling training (MCT) in the United States. The focus was on (a) relevance of the training, (b) effectiveness of the training methods, and (c) development of cross-cultural competence as trainees. Major findings indicated that ICTs…
Lageman, A G
Identifies, suggests understandings, and illustrates applications of marketing principles as they relate to pastoral counseling services. Describes four approaches to marketing pastoral counseling--traditional, educational, marketing, and fund raising--and gives illustrations of each. A director of an established pastoral counseling center responds to the article in terms of "high density" and "low density" principles and suggests that strategies which emulate the medical model may need to be re-examined by contemporary pastoral counselors. PMID:10269463
Verkuyl, D A A
The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Committee for the Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women's Health advises against tubal occlusion (TO) performed at the time of caesarean section (CS/TO) or following a vaginal delivery (VD/TO) if this sterilisation has not been discussed with the woman in an earlier phase of her pregnancy. This advice is neither in accordance with existing medical custom nor evidence based. Particularly in less-resourced locations, adherence to it would deny much wanted one-off sterilisation opportunities to hundreds of thousands of women, many of whom have no reliable contraceptive alternative. To be sure, a well-timed discussion in pregnancy about a potential peripartum TO is preferable and, if conducted as a matter of course (as the Committee appears to promote), would represent an enormous improvement on current practice. Earlier counselling has the advantage that it results in fewer women who regret having rejected the CS/TO or VD/TO option. However, there is no evidence that earlier counselling leads to a smaller proportion of regretted sterilisations. Consequently, where early TO counselling has been impossible, forgotten or deliberately omitted on pronatalist, traditional, financial, cultural or religious grounds, offering a perinatal sterilisation belatedly and in an unbiased, culturally sensitive manner is often verifiably better than not presenting that option at all, notably where high parity and uterine scars are particularly dangerous. Belated counselling, as will be demonstrated in this paper, saves many lives. The Committee's blanket rejection of belated counselling on perinatal sterilisation is therefore unjustified. PMID:25009073
... from the following areas among others: psychiatry, clinical psychology, mental health counseling, clinical social work, marriage and family ... Cognitive Therapy for Depression by SJ Rupke, M.D., ...
Grabosky, Tomoko Kudo; Ishii, Harue; Mase, Shizuno
The authors provide a sociohistorical overview of the development of the counseling profession in Japan. They describe Japan's major social, cultural, and political changes; growing psychological problems in Japanese society; and an increased need for counseling services. Historical overviews and the current state of counseling are presented with…
Pope, Mark; Musa, Muhaini; Singaravelu, Hemla; Bringaze, Tammy; Russell, Martha
Documents the development of career counseling in Malaysia from 1957--when the British colonizers departed--to 2000. Presents information on the historic and economic context of the development of career counseling, an exploration of the educational system from which career counseling was born, and the cultural elements that have formed career…
Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James
Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…
This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness). PMID:11221391
Hill, Brian V.
Growing concern about a shrinking cultural consensus on values, coupled with religious pluralisation and the realisation that schooling is not, and cannot be, value-neutral, have led to proposals to teach ethics in schools, interpreted as a contribution of the discipline of philosophy to the common curriculum. To the extent that this approach is…
LaMontagne, Ramona Marie
This qualitative study examined the perceptions of human resource managers who had faced ethical dilemmas in the workplace, to gain an understanding of how they felt their life experiences shaped their values in making ethical decisions. The experiences of ten human resource managers who believed they chose a right course of action when faced with…
... Here Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Counseling (National Human Genome Research Institute) Genetic Counseling (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Genetic Counseling (March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation) Also in Spanish Making Sense of ...
Fabre, J; Allaz, A F
Opinions diverge on the ethics of preventive medicine. A balance needs to be struck between nihilism (doing nothing) and fanaticism (doing too much). The authors consider the ethical aspects of preventive medicine from the practising physician's viewpoint. Various aspects can be identified: SCIENTIFIC AND METHODOLOGICAL: Like any medical act, preventive practice relies on good scientific data. The epidemiologic studies should be clinically relevant and their recommendations must be interpreted critically before being incorporated into clinical practice. It should not be forgotten that we are dealing with patients and their behaviour. Tactful dialogue and personalized intervention are essential. DEONTOLOGICAL: Modern medicine is oriented toward health maintenance and promotion, thus including prevention. Although the community has drawn obvious benefits from preventive practices such as the use of vaccines, prevention must not be allowed to become a medical tyranny. Respect for the individual should remain its central concern. ETHICAL: The "meaning of life" must not be forgotten. Factors such as quality of life should always be kept in mind in measuring the benefits of prevention. By providing objective information and tailored counselling, the aim of prevention is to encourage expression of the individual's own responsibility for her/his own health. FINANCIAL: Preventive medicine is not covered by health insurance schemes. Cost-benefit analysis should consider not only the economic aspects of prevention but also its positive impacts on the entire social field. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL: The findings of epidemiologic studies must be adapted to precise socio-cultural environments. In our culture, for example, caregivers should be the first to practise what they preach. It must also be remembered that at the present time the basic preventive measures are still not accessible to everyone. PMID:2270441
Ponterotto, Joseph G.
Responds to earlier article by Mio and Iwamasa (1993) on white researchers investigating ethnic-minority populations and other cross-cultural issues. Discusses original rationale for symposium summarized in previous article, presents a white identity case study--the symposium audience--and makes recommendations for counseling training. (NB)
Stead, Graham B.; Bakker, Terri M.
Discourse analysis can be used to understand and interpret culturally and socially produced meanings regarding work and to outline how specific rules and conventions can configure meaning production of work in context. The implications of some core concepts in discourse analysis pertinent to career counseling are explored, including discourse,…
Feldman, Edmund Burke
Provides a series of recommendations to prospective and current art teachers. Contends that studying art of prehistoric and preliterate cultures helps teachers understand art produced by their students. Encourages art teachers to resist temptations to change their career path toward counseling or administration. (CFR)
Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying
Three-quarters of the world come from collectivistic group-oriented cultures. As the world becomes more globalized it is inevitable that group counseling will be a major choice of healing and psychological intervention internationally. However, a review of scholarly articles from "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" and…
MacLennan, Beryce W.; Felsenfeld, Naomi
Intended as an aid in conceptualizing group programs for adolescents and as a basic text on group methods, the book examines the goals and processes of socialization and rehabilitation. Areas treated include the group as an agent of change, the adolescent and his culture, general considerations in group counseling and group psychotherapy, process…
Hershenson, David B.
Theorizes that the evolution of psychological counseling (from psychoanalysis to trait-and-factor counselng to behavior modification) follows a cyclical pattern based on the repetitive cycles of Western culture, in which faith, logic and power succeed each other as the dominant structuring principles. (WAS)
Chandras, Kananur V.
Asian American students who encounter personal problems may hesitate to utilize counseling and mental health facilities on campuses, being fearful that family, friends and/or relatives may consider them emotionally unstable. Counselors and mental health workers may lack understanding of language and cultural background of Asian-American students,…
Smiley, Elizabeth B.
Provides a brief conceptual statement about bisexuality. Offers a review of existing research studies, and suggests issues to consider when counseling bisexual clients. Defines bisexuality and discusses prevalence studies, identity development, and implications for counseling. Claims that bisexuality challenges traditional rules about sexual…
Guillen, Mary A.
A junior high school level program combines reading instruction with guidance counseling. Students become aware of their personal dignity, worth, and responsibility. An introduction to the rationale of classroom counseling precedes 6 sections of course materials and techniques. A section on values clarification contains exercises examining…
The Job Complex, a forum on career- and job-related concerns, was designed to allow for communication among clients and counselors. Although limitations in online communication do exist, the positives to cyber counseling include efficacy of the counseling approach; increased focus; elimination of prejudicial reactions; broadening perspectives;…
Walz, Garry R.
Counseling and human services in the 1990s will be different from counseling today. Among the changes to be expected will be a shift of emphasis from a client specialty focus to a focus on life decisions and planning; from a traditional case load approach to a demand for high output and performance; and from a professional services orientation to…
O'Morain, Padraig; McAuliffe, Garrett J.; Conroy, Kayte; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Michel, Rebecca E.
Counseling in Ireland has experienced rapid growth in the past 30 years. Public attitudes toward counseling have become more positive, especially with the increasing secularization of a once strongly religious Catholic society. Licensure is nonexistent but there are certification bodies that attempt to ensure qualified practice. There is no…
Perrone, Phil; Davis, Sandy A.
In order to determine the specific counseling needs of the adult learner, staff of the Adult Counseling Project began by conducting a literature search pertaining to the problems of returning students and those considering a return to school. The review revealed that little is known about the educational and vocational needs of the returning…
Benjamin, Libby; Walz, Garry R.
This guide offers counselors and special education and classroom teachers assistance in counseling handicapped children. Major articles focus on counseling children who are mentally retarded, emotionally, visually and hearing impaired, learning disabled, and gifted. Additional information is provided on: (1) sexual fulfillment for the handicapped;…
Straehle, Manfred; Soucar, Beth
This paper explores the supportive and effective uses of improvisation in counseling. Specifically, the intention in this paper is to accomplish three goals: to explore the history of improvisation in psychotherapy, to examine the aspects of improvisation that pertain to the counseling process, and to identify ways in which the use of…
Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.
This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…
This article describes how the detention room in one school system was changed in favor of group counseling sessions. In the counseling sessions, the counselors could aid students in identifying the problems which disturb them in order to improve self-understanding and status in school. (JC)
Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria; Ivey, Allen E.
There is rapid growth in Greece's professional and research activity in counseling, despite the lack of a clear professional identity for the field. It is hoped this will be overcome through the newly started graduate programs. Opportunities, objectives, and strategies for counseling's advancement should be directed toward close and essential…
Woody, Robert Henley
Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…
This response suggests that Inclusive Cultural Empathy (ICE) is a process that multiculturally aware group counselors can use to help group members move beyond the confines of social privilege and culture-bound assumptions that divide members and impede communication. (Contains 1 figure.)
Public health covers public activities linked with cure, prevention and health promotion directed to positively influence the health of populations. As far as these criteria are met, health policies are public health. Public health holds many ethical implications. Resources and health opportunities are redistributed, ends and means of public health as well as rights and duties have to be discussed, and conflicts exist between targets. Ethical policy counselling is an important complement to natural and social scientific policy counselling. However, ethical counselling cannot solve conflicts about values and norms nor does it claim to do so. There are different theories and approaches, recommended principles differ and are in conflict with each other. It must not be expected that a generally accepted frame for public health ethical policy counselling will be developed. Public health ethics can develop an ordering effect and enforce more clarity for actors about their values and norms, but in case of unresolvable dissent between experts it can also be misused to give support to the legitimation of political decisions. Orientation of consulting activities towards the "pragmatistic model" (Habermas) and a counselling of the civil society is promising to prevent such exploitation. PMID:19326056
Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.
This study explored relationships between preservice early childhood teachers' views of nature of science (NOS), cognitive developmental levels, and their cultural values. Using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-B) and interviews, we assessed views of NOS. The Learning Context Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to determine the…
...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a... provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics questions and issues... health departments in their efforts to address public health ethics challenges, approaches for...
...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a.... Purpose: The ES will provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad range of public health ethics... meeting; discussion of next steps on addressing potential public health ethical issues associated...
At the present day, a movement trying to establish a global code of ethics for science and engineering is in activity. The author overviews the context of this movement, and examines the possibility of engineering ethics education which uses global code of ethics. In this paper, the engineering ethics education which uses code of ethics in general will be considered, and an expected function of global code of ethics will be also. Engineering ethics education in the new century should be aimed to share the values among different countries and cultures. To use global code of ethics as a tool for such education, the code should include various values, especially Asian values which engineering ethics has paid little attention to.
Lane, Joel A.
The present paper discusses literature concerning the practice of bartering for counseling, psychological, or social work services in lieu of traditional monetary payment. The author contrasts the language concerning the practice of bartering found in the respective ethical codes for each profession, and presents literature describing both risks…
Kong, Wing May
Speaking from the perspective of a clinician and teacher, good medical ethics needs to make medicine better. Over the past 50 years medical ethics has helped shape the culture in medicine and medical practice for the better. However, recent healthcare scandals in the UK suggest more needs to be done to translate ethical reasoning into ethical practice. Focusing on clinical practice and individual patient care, I will argue that, to be good, medical ethics needs to become integral to the activities of health professionals and healthcare organisations. Ethics is like a language which brings a way of thinking and responding to the world. For ethics to become embedded in clinical practice, health professionals need to progress from classroom learners to fluent social speakers through ethical dialogue, ethical reflection and ethical actions. I will end by discussing three areas that need to be addressed to enable medical ethics to flourish and bring about change in everyday clinical care. PMID:25516942
All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…
Arguments are advanced, on a pragmatic basis, for preferring a 'situational' approach to medical ethical problems, rather than an approach based on any one of the dogmatic formulations on offer. The consequences of such a preference are exemplified in relation to confidentiality; and in relation to the ethical dilemmas which surround the beginning and the end of terrestrial human life. PMID:6520850
Engel, J.R.; Engel, J.G.
How can we make ethical decisions about our environment in the face of increasingly conflicting needs and opinions This collection of essays offers a wide range of viewpoints representing many of the world's cultural and religious traditions to help readers better make such determinations for themselves. In this paper, the authors seek to clarify the ethical principles surrounding the concept of sustainable development. They provide a synoptic overview of the contemporary moral challenge of sustainable development and the similarities and differences in its interpretation throughout the world. In bringing together contributions by authorities in environmental ethics and developmental ethics, and by those who are addressing these questions from the perspectives of religion and humanistic philosophy, the book develops the concept of sustainability as the ethical approach to reconciling the needs of environmental conservation with economic development.
Padela, Aasim I
Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488
Linguistic and Cultural Adaptation of a Computer-Based Counseling Program (CARE+ Spanish) to Support HIV Treatment Adherence and Risk Reduction for People Living With HIV/AIDS: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Chhun, Nok; Cleland, Charles M; Crespo-Fierro, Michele; Parés-Avila, José A; Lizcano, John A; Shedlin, Michele G; Johnston, Barbara E; Sharp, Victoria L
Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in the United States disproportionately affects minorities, including Latinos. Barriers including language are associated with lower antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence seen among Latinos, yet ART and interventions for clinic visit adherence are rarely developed or delivered in Spanish. Objective The aim was to adapt a computer-based counseling tool, demonstrated to reduce HIV-1 viral load and sexual risk transmission in a population of English-speaking adults, for use during routine clinical visits for an HIV-positive Spanish-speaking population (CARE+ Spanish); the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was the theoretical framework guiding program development. Methods A longitudinal randomized controlled trial was conducted from June 4, 2010 to March 29, 2012. Participants were recruited from a comprehensive HIV treatment center comprising three clinics in New York City. Eligibility criteria were (1) adults (age ≥18 years), (2) Latino birth or ancestry, (3) speaks Spanish (mono- or multilingual), and (4) on antiretrovirals. Linear and generalized mixed linear effects models were used to analyze primary outcomes, which included ART adherence, sexual transmission risk behaviors, and HIV-1 viral loads. Exit interviews were offered to purposively selected intervention participants to explore cultural acceptability of the tool among participants, and focus groups explored the acceptability and system efficiency issues among clinic providers, using the TAM framework. Results A total of 494 Spanish-speaking HIV clinic attendees were enrolled and randomly assigned to the intervention (arm A: n=253) or risk assessment-only control (arm B, n=241) group and followed up at 3-month intervals for one year. Gender distribution was 296 (68.4%) male, 110 (25.4%) female, and 10 (2.3%) transgender. By study end, 433 of 494 (87.7%) participants were retained. Although intervention participants had reduced viral loads, increased
Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya
Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621
Hays, Donald G.
The author categories futurists into three types and then discusses futurists and crises and counseling strategies in an attempt to bring about congruence and to assist counselors to become aware of and recognize their role in shaping the future. (Author)
Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard
The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)
Loughary, John W.
Today's world is vastly technological, and counselors need to keep abreast of advances in computer science, biofeedback, and other technical systems. Counseling and technology from a larger perspective define technology as concepts and methods as well as hardware. (Author)
Araoz, Daniel L.
Twelve couples in marital counseling were studied during 12 months on the basis of their biorhythms. For each couple a compatibility percentage was obtained. It was found that difficulties in their interaction correlated highly with dissonance in their biorhythms. (Author)
Smyer, Michael A.; Intrieri, Robert C.
Defines the range of interventions considered under the rubric of counseling for the elderly. Uses evaluation of treatments for depression among the elderly to exemplify the current state of outcome-evaluation research. (Author)
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling. 21.3100.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3100 Counseling. (a) Purpose of counseling. The purpose of counseling is to...)) (b) Availability of counseling. Counseling assistance is available for— (1) Identifying and...
Flanders, John N.; And Others
Project Upper Cumberland was a three year endeavor which served 16 Tennessee counties. The final report and evaluation, in three documents, summarizes the three innovative programs which it engendered: (1) teacher inservice training, emphasizing human relations; (2) a pilot cultural arts program (art, music, drama) for grades 1-12; and (3) a pilot…
A surgeon participating in a 2008 congress on the topic of trans-identified people posed the question of whether doctors would have to defend themselves when "judgment day" comes for having employed surgical means to turn men into women or vice versa? What might be viewed as a certain level of (medical) irrationality surrounding transgender life, coupled with widely documented cases of violence directed at these groups may well partly be attributable to the deeply internalized doctrine of creation in Judeo-Christian culture. Objections, however, to the use of transgender medicine "in the name of normalization" cannot relate to the biblical tradition, for there is no normative concept of gender and no text whose scope is to articulate theory of gender. In the vast expanse and freedom of the Judeo-Christian creator there is space for diversity, variations, and, above all, for the development of individual freedom. PMID:26156704
Kavarana, Minoo N.; Sade, Robert M.
While ethical behavior has always been part of cardiac surgical practice, ethical deliberation has only recently become an important component of cardiac surgical practice. Issues such as informed consent, conflict of interest, and professional self-regulation, among many others, have increasingly attracted the attention of cardiac surgeons. This review covers several broad topics of interest to cardiac surgeons and cardiologists, and treats several other topics more briefly. There is much uncertainty about what the future holds for cardiac surgical practice, research, and culture, and we discuss the background of ethical issues to serve as a platform for envisioning what is to come. PMID:22642634
Rennie, Stuart; Mupenda, Bavon
In the last decade, there have been efforts to globalize the field of bioethics, particularly in developing countries, where biomedical and other research is increasingly taking place. We describe and evaluate some key ethical criticisms directed towards these initiatives, and argue that while they may be marked by ethical, practical, and political tensions and pitfalls, they can nevertheless play an important role in stimulating critical bioethics culture in countries vulnerable to exploitation by foreign agencies and/or their own authorities. PMID:25632370
This paper presents the policy and guidelines, which evolved over the last four years, for answering questions and giving counsel on an Internet site dedicated to sexuality and intimate relations of adolescents. The theoretical framework employed is that of non-directive counseling. Some ethical, legal, and practical issues are discussed. The…
Strong, Laura A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships, if any, among school counselors' multicultural competence, demographic data and ethical decision-making ability. The participants (N=160) for this study were members of the American Counseling Association (ACA) who designated their area of practice as school counseling. Participant's…
Francis, Perry C.; Abbassi, Amir
Students with severe and persistent mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; moderate to severe mood, anxiety, dissociative, eating, or personality disorders) are attending community colleges in increasing numbers. Their need for counseling services presents counseling centers with unique ethical issues to consider. This…
Piazza, Nick J.; Yeager, Rebecca D.
Discusses confidentiality in counseling, basing comments on ethical standards of American Association for Counseling and Development and National Academy of Certified Clinical Mental Health Counselors, as well as federal regulations adopted for drug and alcohol abuse treatment. Discusses disclosures with and without client consent and special…
Stadler, Holly A., Ed.
Discusses the meaning of counseling from nonwestern perspectives and suggests some considerations for counselors. Discusses cultural differences related to stress, myth and superstition, social change, and social attitudes related to physical and mental health in six cultures. (JAC)
Chambers, David W
Traditionally, ethics in the professions has focused on big problems that could be found on other peoples' back porches. Small, habitual, frequent, and personal lapses get little attention. In this essay, the literature on opportunism is applied to dentistry with a view toward bringing matters of "near ethics" within reach. Examples of small lapses are discussed under the headings of shirking, free riding, shrinkage, pressing, adverse selection, moral hazard, and risk shifting. The conditions that support opportunism include relationships with small numbers of transactions and uneven access to information. Practical limits on understanding all the consequences of agreements and the costs of supervising others and enforcing corrections of breaches are inescapable aspects of opportunism. Opportunism may not be accepted by all as the subject matter of ethical, but curbing it is a worthy goal and understanding the causes and management of opportunism casts some light on the ethical enterprise. Four suggestions are offered for addressing issue of opportunism. PMID:17691498
Ametrano, Irene Mass; Callaway, Yvonne L.; Stickel, Sue A.
This paper examines graduate counseling students' affective and cognitive development related to cultural competence. Counseling Process and Cross Cultural Counseling, two required courses in a master's degree program at a regional university in the Midwest, were designed to provide a knowledge-base about cultural differences and to project how…
Lewis, Phillip V.; Speck, Henry E., III
Argues that history provides the necessary framework in which both to discuss and to seek answers to the three necessary and sequential questions about business ethics: (1) What is ethics and what does it mean to be ethical? (2) Why be ethical?; and (3) How can one be ethical? (SG)
Farwig, Katrina; Harmon, Amanda G.; Fontana, Kristina M.; Mervis, Carolyn B.; Morris, Colleen A.
We report on a study of genetic counseling to 43 adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants were initially asked what they knew about how WS occurs. Genetic counseling was provided with a focus on the basic genetics of WS, recurrence risk, and on participants’ attitudes toward socio-cultural topics. Forty nine % indicated they would be okay or happy if their baby had WS, 44% said they would be sad or upset, and 5% were unsure. The sad/upset group was significantly older than the okay/happy group and a significantly higher proportion of the former group indicated they did not plan to have children. During the post counseling session participants were questioned to determine if they recalled the facts previously presented. Eighy one % correctly gave the odds that their child would have WS. Fifty three % considered the 50-50 odds to be a high chance. After genetic counseling, 61% were able to state something that had been taught, and 88% indicated they would want to test their baby for WS before birth. Ninety eight% would recommend genetic counseling to others. Findings indicate that based on the type of genetic counseling provided in this study, the majority of individuals with WS—a genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability but with relative strengths in (concrete) language and in verbal rote memory—are able to learn simple facts about the genetics of WS and are eager to respond to socio-cultural questions regarding topics typically included in genetic counseling sessions. PMID:20425790
Increasing European co-operation must take place in many areas, including medical ethics. Against the background of common cultural norms and pluralistic variation within political traditions, religion and lifestyles, Europe will have to converge towards unity within the field of medical ethics. This article examines how such convergence might develop with respect to four major areas: European research ethics committees, democratic health systems, the human genome project and rules for stopping futile treatments. PMID:8459444
Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y
This manuscript reviews research from the past year on the ethical and psychosocial impact of infertility on women and men. We discuss several issues surrounding ovarian stimulation, particularly high-order multiple births, egg banking (especially for research purposes), and diminished ovarian reserve. We also present recent work on distress and counseling, which includes greater attention to subgroups of infertile women. More research on issues confronting men has emerged recently, and we outline these with regard to their relationships with infertile women, or as the infertility patient. Last, we outline some ethical issues posed by newer procedures of fertility preservation and uterine transplant. PMID:23336092
White, M T
Nondirective genetic counseling developed as a means of promoting informed and independent decision-making. To the extent that it minimizes risks of coercion, this counseling approach effectively respects client autonomy. However, it also permits clients to make partially informed, poorly reasoned or ethically questionable choices, and denies counselors a means of demonstrating accountability for the use of their services. These practical and ethical tensions result from an excessive focus on noncoercion while neglecting the contribution of adequate information and deliberative competence to autonomous decision-making. A counseling approach that emphasizes the role of deliberation may more reliably produce thoroughly reasoned decisions. In such an approach, characterized by dialogue, counselors are responsible for ensuring that decisions are fully informed and carefully deliberated. Counseling remains nonprescriptive, but in the course of discussion counselors may introduce unsolicited information and/or challenge what they believe are questionable choices. By this means clients can be better assured that the decisions they make are fully considered, while counselors demonstrate a limited degree of professional accountability. PMID:9564083
Pope, Kenneth S
Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization's misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131
Pope, Kenneth S.
Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization’s misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131
Davis, A J
This article has described numerous activities in nursing ethics at international levels. It acknowledges the larger context within which nurses practice by focusing on selected issues involved in resource allocation and death and dying, cross-culturally. The questions raised about universally shared moral principles reflects the larger questions of cultural and ethical relativism. The discussions of new developments in international nursing ethics focuses on international conferences, the teaching of nursing ethics, national nursing associations, and other professional groups that are actively involved in health care or nursing ethics. Finally, the development of international nursing ethics research studies is providing new knowledge about the scope of ethics within nursing and the nature of nursing care worldwide. Nurses are involved in some aspects of these new developments in nursing ethics in all countries. As they examine and reflect on ethical principles, virtues, and on an ethics of caring, they bring a new dimension to their work as nurses. This new dimension stands as one of the oldest and most central foundations in professional nursing. PMID:2726578
This qualitative study used interpretative phenomenological analysis to examine how Christian counselors-in-training engaged their theological beliefs about sexual orientation in relation to the Code of Ethics of the American Counseling Association (ACA). The ACA Code of Ethics requires counselors to refrain from imposing their personal values on…
Adamson, Nicole A.; Kress, Victoria E.
The use of reused or recycled materials in counseling interventions provides counselors with an opportunity to use unique counseling mediums while simultaneously being socially and fiscally responsible. In this article, ways that reused or recycled items can be used in counseling are discussed. Practical suggestions for using reused or recycled…
Murdock, Nancy L.
Scheel et al. offer an interesting analysis on the publication rate of counseling-related research articles in counseling psychology's two major journals. In this reaction to their work, the author considers various aspects of their results and contemplates possible explanations for the decline of counseling-related publications. The author…
Yager, Geoffrey G.; And Others
The seven studies reported in this paper represent successive attempts to explain the inability of observers to differentiate "good" counseling from "bad" counseling. Essentially, the researchers found that subjects, both undergraduate education majors and graduate counseling students, did not rate a videotaped counselor's performance as more…
Mallen, Michael J.; Vogel, David L.
This article introduces the Major Contribution, which focuses on online counseling. Several acronyms and terms are presented to familiarize the reader with distance-communication technology, including a definition of online counseling. The authors show how counseling psychology provides a framework for specific questions related to the theory,…
Examines the changing world of education through distance education and discusses the need for ethics in distance education. Explains how to ethically develop policy for distance education, including Internet ethics, good practices guidelines, and involving faculty. (LRW)
The throwaway ethic is the belief that it is desirable to use and discard products rapidly, rather than maintain and reuse them for a long period of time. The purpose of this dissertation is to show how and why the throwaway ethic evolved in America, and to describe its place in the structure of American society. The approach used is that of material culture: the study of a society's attitudes through its artifacts. The three artifact groups chosen are watches, paper products, and bottles, representing durable products, nondurable products, and packaging, the three broad categories of consumer products. Changing patterns in the use and disposal of these artifacts, from the eighteenth century to the present, are described in depth. We find that throwaway products and habits appear in the late nineteenth century. The throwaway ethic as a recognized and articulated principle of conduct emerges after World War II. The final conclusion is that the throwaway ethic is a result both of mass production, which alters the monetary value of products, and affluence, which alters the social values of leisure and thrift, and as such is intimately related to the economic foundations of industrial society.
Since culture provides a direction for discovering a sense of coherence between stability and change, therapeutic change can be established when clients become aware of their cultural rules. This digest examines techniques developed for ethnographic research that can be applied directly to the career counseling interview. Ethnography assumes that…
Duncan, Lonnie E.; Johnson, Darrell
A help seeking survey and measures of socioeconomic status, cultural mistrust, and African Self-consciousness were administered to 315 Black college students to study attitudes toward counseling and counselor preference. Multiple Regression analysis indicated that gender, cultural mistrust, and socioeconomic status were statistically significant…
Craig, David G.
Suggests teachers use following steps in counseling students: preparation, introduction, problem definition, solution identification, information gathering, decision making, and follow-up. Discusses role of teacher in directive and non-directive counseling. (DM)