Science.gov

Sample records for counselling young cannabis

  1. AKT1 genotype moderates the acute psychotomimetic effects of naturalistically smoked cannabis in young cannabis smokers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, C J A; Freeman, T P; Powell, J; Curran, H V

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis daily doubles an individual's risk of developing a psychotic disorder, yet indicators of specific vulnerability have proved largely elusive. Genetic variation is one potential risk modifier. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the AKT1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes have been implicated in the interaction between cannabis, psychosis and cognition, but no studies have examined their impact on an individual's acute response to smoked cannabis. A total 442 healthy young cannabis users were tested while intoxicated with their own cannabis-which was analysed for delta-9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) and cannabidiol content-and also ± 7 days apart when drug-free. Psychotomimetic symptoms and working memory were assessed on both the sessions. Variation at the rs2494732 locus of the AKT1 gene predicted acute psychotic response to cannabis along with dependence on the drug and baseline schizotypal symptoms. Working memory following cannabis acutely was worse in females, with some suggestion of an impact of COMT polymorphism on working memory when drug-free. These findings are the first to demonstrate that AKT1 mediates the acute response to cannabis in otherwise healthy individuals and implicate the AKT1 pathway as a possible target for prevention and treatment of cannabis psychosis. PMID:26882038

  2. AKT1 genotype moderates the acute psychotomimetic effects of naturalistically smoked cannabis in young cannabis smokers

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, C J A; Freeman, T P; Powell, J; Curran, H V

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis daily doubles an individual's risk of developing a psychotic disorder, yet indicators of specific vulnerability have proved largely elusive. Genetic variation is one potential risk modifier. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the AKT1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes have been implicated in the interaction between cannabis, psychosis and cognition, but no studies have examined their impact on an individual's acute response to smoked cannabis. A total 442 healthy young cannabis users were tested while intoxicated with their own cannabis—which was analysed for delta-9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) and cannabidiol content—and also ±7 days apart when drug-free. Psychotomimetic symptoms and working memory were assessed on both the sessions. Variation at the rs2494732 locus of the AKT1 gene predicted acute psychotic response to cannabis along with dependence on the drug and baseline schizotypal symptoms. Working memory following cannabis acutely was worse in females, with some suggestion of an impact of COMT polymorphism on working memory when drug-free. These findings are the first to demonstrate that AKT1 mediates the acute response to cannabis in otherwise healthy individuals and implicate the AKT1 pathway as a possible target for prevention and treatment of cannabis psychosis. PMID:26882038

  3. Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence: A longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Hindocha, Chandni; Shaban, Natacha D.C.; Freeman, Tom P.; Das, Ravi K.; Gale, Grace; Schafer, Grainne; Falconer, Caroline J.; Morgan, Celia J.A.; Curran, H. Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence. Methods The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants’ own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history. Results Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B = 0.029, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B = 0.159, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29% of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B = 0.274, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B = 0.0168, 95% CI = 0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B = 0.0153, 95% CI = 0.007, 0.027). Conclusions Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco. PMID:25622777

  4. Cannabis use by children and young people.

    PubMed

    McArdle, P A

    2006-08-01

    A popular internet site describes cannabis as "a leafy plant, the leaves and flowering tops (buds) of which may be either smoked or eaten. It also comes in a more concentrated resinous form called hashish, and as a sticky black liquid called hash oil". It is said that users often report a pleasant "subjective enhancement of visual and auditory perception, sometimes with synaesthesia (sounds take on visual colourful qualities)" and the sense that time passes more quickly than real time, a "fatuous euphoria", as well as relaxation and relief from stress. PMID:16861487

  5. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  6. The Role of Study and Work in Cannabis Use and Dependence Trajectories among Young Adult Frequent Cannabis Users.

    PubMed

    Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Van Laar, Margriet; de Graaf, Ron; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J

    2013-01-01

    Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e., feelings of being in control). PMID:23950748

  7. Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥ 3 days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users. PMID:25240105

  8. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  9. The role of decision-making in cannabis-related problems among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Raul; Schuster, Randi M.; Mermelstein, Robin M.; Diviak, Kathleen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficits in decision-making and episodic memory are often reported among heavy cannabis users, yet little is known on how they influence negative consequences from cannabis use. Individual differences in decision-making may explain, in part, why some individuals experience significant problems from their cannabis use whereas others do not. We hypothesized that poor decision-making would moderate relationships between amount of cannabis use and problems from cannabis use whereas episodic memory performance would not. Method Young adult cannabis users (n = 52) with cannabis as their drug of choice and with minimal comorbidities completed semi-structured interviews, self-report questionnaires, and measures of neurocognitive functioning, with decision-making accessed via the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), episodic memory via the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test – Revised (HVLT) and problems from cannabis use with the Marijuana Problems Scale. Results Strong relationships were observed between amount of cannabis use (lifetime, 12-month, and 30-day) and problems reported from use, but only among participants with Low (impaired) decision-making (R2 = .39 to .51; p < .01). No significant relationships were observed among those with better (low average to high average) decision-making performance (p > .05). In contrast, episodic memory performance was not a significant moderator of the relationship between amount of cannabis use and cannabis problems (p > .05). Conclusions Cannabis users with poor decision-making may be at greater risk for experiencing significant negative consequences from their cannabis use. Our results lend further support to emerging evidence of decision-making as a risk factor for addiction and extend these findings to cannabis users. PMID:26199058

  10. Impact of ADHD and Cannabis Use on Executive Functioning in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Tapert, Susan; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Velanova, Katerina; Abikoff, Howard; Swanson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use are each associated with specific cognitive deficits. Few studies have investigated the neurocognitive profile of individuals with both an ADHD history and regular cannabis use. The greatest cognitive impairment is expected among ADHD Cannabis Users compared to those with ADHD-only, Cannabis use-only, or neither. Methods Young adults (24.2±1.2 years) with a childhood ADHD diagnosis who did (n=42) and did not (n=45) report past year ≥ monthly cannabis use were compared on neuropsychological measures to a local normative comparison group (LNCG) who did (n=20) and did not (n=21) report past year regular cannabis use. Age, gender, IQ, socioeconomic status, and past year alcohol and smoking were statistical covariates. Results The ADHD group performed worse than LNCG on verbal memory, processing speed, cognitive interference, decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition. No significant effects for cannabis use emerged. Interactions between ADHD and cannabis were non-significant. Exploratory analyses revealed that individuals who began using cannabis regularly before age 16 (n=27) may have poorer executive functioning (i.e., decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition), than users who began later (n=32); replication is warranted with a larger sample. Conclusions A childhood diagnosis of ADHD, but not cannabis use in adulthood, was associated with executive dysfunction. Earlier initiation of cannabis use may be linked to poor cognitive outcomes and a significantly greater proportion of the ADHD group began using cannabis before age 16. Regular cannabis use starting after age 16 may not be sufficient to aggravate longstanding cognitive deficits characteristic of ADHD. PMID:23992650

  11. Considering Cannabis: The Effects of Regular Cannabis Use on Neurocognition in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Wright, Natasha E.; Kirchner-Medina, Christopher; Maple, Kristin E.; Shollenbarger, Skyler

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-six percent of high school seniors have used cannabis in the past year, and an alarming 6.5% smoked cannabis daily, up from 2.4% in 1993 (Johnston et al., 2013). Adolescents and emerging adults are undergoing significant neurodevelopment and animal studies suggest they may be particularly vulnerable to negative drug effects. In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies outlining the effects of regular (at least weekly) cannabis use on neurocognition, including studies outlining cognitive, structural and functional findings. We will also explore the public health impact of this research. PMID:25013751

  12. Approach to cannabis use disorder in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the clinical features and complications of at-risk cannabis use and cannabis use disorder, and to outline an office-based protocol for screening, identifying, and managing this disorder. Sources of information PubMed was searched for controlled trials, observational studies, and reviews on cannabis use among adolescents and young adults; cannabis-related medical and psychiatric harms; cannabis use disorder and its treatment; and lower-risk cannabis use guidelines. Main message Physicians should ask all patients about cannabis use. They should ask adolescents and young adults and those at highest risk of cannabis-related harms (those with concurrent psychiatric or substance use disorders) more frequently. Physicians should also ask about cannabis use in patients who have problems that could be caused by cannabis, such as mood disorders, psychosis, and respiratory symptoms. In patients who report cannabis use, physicians should inquire about frequency and amount, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, attempts to reduce use, and cannabis-related harms. Lower-risk cannabis users smoke, inhale, or ingest cannabis occasionally without evidence of school, work, or social dysfunction; those with problematic use often use cannabis daily or almost daily, have difficulty reducing their use, and have impaired school, work, or social functioning. Physicians should offer all patients with problematic use brief advice and counseling, focusing on the health effects of cannabis and setting a goal of abstinence (some higher-risk groups should not use cannabis at all) or reduced use, and they should provide practical strategies to reduce cannabis use. Physicians should incorporate simple motivational interviewing techniques into the counseling sessions. They should refer those patients who are unable to reduce use or who are experiencing harms from cannabis use to specialized care, while ensuring those patients remain connected to primary care. As well, physicians

  13. Fertility counseling of young breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Anserini, Paola; Levaggi, Alessia; Poggio, Francesca; Del Mastro, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 6% of women with breast cancer are diagnosed before the age of 40. Young age is an independent predictor of adverse outcome and most young breast cancer patients receive systemic treatment with chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or both. The loss or impairment of fertility is a potential side effect of antineoplastic treatments. Due to the rising trend to delaying pregnancy in life, an increasing proportion of young cancer patients who are yet to have a pregnancy will face the problem of iatrogenic menopause in the future. The incidence of anticancer-treatment-related ovarian failure depends on the type of chemotherapy regimen administered, the use of tamoxifen and the age of patients. It rises with increasing age, in the range of 22-61% and 61-97% in women aged <40 years and >40 years respectively. Although there is a clear trend to increasing incidence of ovarian failure with the rise in aging, there may be a small proportion of patients who became amenorrhoeic despite the very young age, thus indicating that also individual factors still unknown may affect the probability of treatment-related ovarian failure. A prompt referral of patients to reproductive counseling and a multidisciplinary team including Oncology and Reproductive Units are essential to face the management of fertility issues in cancer patients. Fertility counseling should include a detailed description of all the available techniques to preserve fertility. The main available fertility preservation techniques, standard and experimental, for young breast cancer patients include: temporary ovarian suppression during chemotherapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, embryo cryopreservation, cryopreservation of oocytes and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Research efforts are still necessary to improve the efficacy and safety of the available fertility preservation strategies as well as an efficient collaboration between oncologists and gynecologists is necessary to improve

  14. Counseling Interventions for Adolescents and Young People in Penal Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiriakidis, Stavros

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on the counseling interventions for adolescents and young people held in custody. The study analyses the social effects of imprisonment, the incapacitation effects of custody, the need for delivering counseling in custody. In addition it reviews evidence regarding the effects of delivering counseling interventions in…

  15. Young brains on cannabis: It's time to clear the smoke.

    PubMed

    Porath-Waller, A J; Notarandrea, R; Vaccarino, F J

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance among youth. Recent policy developments and ongoing debate related to this drug underscore the urgent need to "clear the smoke" and better understand what the scientific evidence says about the health and behavioral effects of cannabis use, particularly on youth whose brains are undergoing rapid and extensive development. PMID:25778103

  16. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  17. Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…

  18. Alcohol and Cannabis: Young People Talking about How Parents Respond to Their Use of These Two Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highet, Gill

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern over rising levels of alcohol and cannabis use among young people. This paper reports findings from a qualitative investigation of young people's cannabis-related beliefs and behaviour. Fifty-nine boys and girls aged 13 to 15 years were interviewed, mostly in self-selected friendship pairs, in six…

  19. A Web-Based Self-Help Intervention With and Without Chat Counseling to Reduce Cannabis Use in Problematic Cannabis Users: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Andreas; Berg, Oliver; Beck, Thilo; Stark, Lars; Buehler, Eveline; Haug, Severin

    2015-01-01

    Background After alcohol and tobacco, cannabis is the most widely used psychoactive substance in many countries worldwide. Although approximately one in ten users develops serious problems of dependency, only a minority attend outpatient addiction counseling centers. A Web-based intervention could potentially reach those users who hesitate to approach such treatment centers. Objective To test the efficacy of a Web-based self-help intervention with and without chat counseling—Can Reduce—in reducing the cannabis use of problematic cannabis users as an alternative to outpatient treatment services. Methods Altogether, 436 participants were recruited by various online and offline media for the Web-based trial. A total of 308 of these were eligible for study participation and were randomly allocated in an unblinded manner to either self-help with chat (n=114), self-help without chat (n=101), or a waiting list control group (n=93). The fully automated self-help intervention consisted of eight modules designed to reduce cannabis use, and was based on the principles of motivational interviewing, self-control practices, and methods of cognitive behavioral therapy. Additional individual chat counseling sessions were based on the same therapeutic principles. The sessions were conducted by trained counselors and addressed participants' personal problems. The main outcomes were the frequency (number of days) and quantity of cannabis use (number of standardized joints) per week, as entered into the consumption diary at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included self-reported symptoms of cannabis use disorder, severity of cannabis dependence, risky alcohol use, and mental health symptoms. Intervention participation and retention were extracted from the user progress data and the consumption diary, respectively. Results Can Reduce participants were older (U=2.296, P=.02) and reported a greater number of cannabis use days at baseline than patients who

  20. Cannabis use and related harms in the transition to young adulthood: a longitudinal study of Australian secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Patton, George C; Toumbourou, John W

    2013-06-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use increased from 7.5% at age 15 to 29.8% at age 19. Further, at ages 17 and 19, cannabis use was more prevalent among males than females. Among those who reported cannabis use, the rates of cannabis-related harms were low to moderate, and did not increase with age in the same manner as rates of cannabis use. The most prevalent self-reported cannabis-related harm was anxiety/depression; affecting between 20-30% of the cannabis users at each age. These findings may assist in understanding the extent of cannabis-related problems among youth, and in planning relevant services. PMID:23522345

  1. Brief intervention addressing excessive cannabis use in young people consulting their GP: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Dagmar M; Meynard, Anne; Lefebvre, Danièle; Tylee, André; Narring, Françoise; Broers, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background When excessive cannabis consumption occurs in adolescence, the adverse consequences extend into adulthood. Interventions by GPs are effective in preventing harm associated with alcohol use. Similar interventions have potential in addressing cannabis use. Aim To develop and pilot test a brief intervention targeting excessive cannabis use (defined as ≥1×/week) in young people in primary care. Design of the study Pilot intervention trial. Setting Seven family practices in Switzerland. Method The team collaborated with GPs and young people to develop the intervention. Seven GPs piloted its use in their consultations. Patients aged 15 to 24 years consulting for any health problem were recruited before the consultation. Cannabis use, other substance use, and their psychosocial correlates were assessed with a short confidential questionnaire administered before the consultation and 1 month later. GPs, staff, and patients were asked to comment on the study and its feasibility. Results Of 81 young people invited to participate, 78 (70% female) agreed (participation rate: 96%). One in seven (13.2%, 95% confidence interval = 7.5% to 18.9%) used cannabis at least once a week. Data at 1 month were available for 42% who had provided email contact details and 91% of those who had provided their mobile phone number (63% overall). In most cases, the intervention lasted no more than 5 minutes. Comments from participants added favourable data towards the feasibility of the study. Conclusion This pilot study provides a solid base on which to build a randomised trial of a brief intervention addressing cannabis use in young people consulting in family practice. PMID:19275832

  2. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  3. ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B J; van Erp, Theo G M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L Eugene; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-09-01

    Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use. PMID:26489976

  4. Cannabis use and quality of life of adolescents and young adults: findings from an Australian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jane A; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Plotnikova, Maria; Najman, Jackob M

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is generally used to enhance mood (quality of life), but it is not known whether it has this effect in the medium to longer term. Little is currently known about the temporal sequence between cannabis use and the quality of life (QOL). Data are taken from a prospective longitudinal study of pregnant women recruited at their first antenatal visit in Brisbane, Australia. Offspring data from the follow-ups with 14-year-olds and 21-year-olds are used here. Indicators of QOL, happiness, and satisfaction at 14 years are considered as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. The association between cannabis use and QOL at 21 years, adjusting for prior QOL (14 years), is also examined. Socio-demographic characteristics were included as potential confounders relevant to QOL assessments. In this cohort, lower QOL in the early teenage years predicted subsequent onset of cannabis use in young adulthood. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and for QOL pre-cannabis use, participants who used cannabis more frequently had a lower QOL at the 21-years follow-up. Frequent use of cannabis does not appear to enhance the user's QOL and appears to be associated with a reduced QOL into young adulthood. PMID:25950590

  5. Explanations and expectations: drug narratives among young cannabis users in treatment.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2015-07-01

    This article analyses how young people enrolled in drug addiction treatment in Copenhagen, Denmark, explain their cannabis careers and how they view their possibilities for quitting drug use again. Inspired by Mead and narrative studies of health and illness, the article identifies four different drug use 'aetiologies' drawn upon by the interviewees. These cover childhood experiences, self-medication, the influence of friends and cannabis use as a specific lifestyle. A central argument of the article is that these explanations not only concern the past but also point towards the future by assigning the interviewee a more or less agential position in relation to drugs. Further, the drug narratives are viewed as interactional achievements, related to the social context in which they were produced, namely, the institutional setting of the treatment centres. The article is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people in drug addiction treatment. PMID:25688710

  6. Explanations and expectations: drug narratives among young cannabis users in treatment

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses how young people enrolled in drug addiction treatment in Copenhagen, Denmark, explain their cannabis careers and how they view their possibilities for quitting drug use again. Inspired by Mead and narrative studies of health and illness, the article identifies four different drug use ‘aetiologies’ drawn upon by the interviewees. These cover childhood experiences, self-medication, the influence of friends and cannabis use as a specific lifestyle. A central argument of the article is that these explanations not only concern the past but also point towards the future by assigning the interviewee a more or less agential position in relation to drugs. Further, the drug narratives are viewed as interactional achievements, related to the social context in which they were produced, namely, the institutional setting of the treatment centres. The article is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people in drug addiction treatment. PMID:25688710

  7. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  8. Developmental Counseling: The Young Adult Period. Critical Issues in Young Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Lee A.

    In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…

  9. Developing Cross Cultural Competence: Applying Development and Prevention Ideals to Counseling Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgang, Jeff; Frazier, Kimberly; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Barrett, Joe

    2011-01-01

    As counselors turn their attention to child-based counseling, there is a need to apply the core tenets of the discipline of counseling to young children and incorporate cross-cultural issues into clinical competence. Using Multicultural Counseling Theory (MCT), the authors discuss conventional approaches to providing clinical interventions for…

  10. Association between schizotypal and borderline personality disorder traits, and cannabis use in young adults.

    PubMed

    Raynal, Patrick; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of schizotypal and borderline personality traits to cannabis use. Participants were 476 college students (95 males; 381 females; mean age of males=21; mean age of females=20.7) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing cannabis use, schizotypal and borderline personality traits. Problematic cannabis use, depressive symptoms, borderline and schizotypal traits were significantly inter-correlated. A logistic regression analysis showed that only borderline traits contributed significantly to cannabis use in the total sample. A multiple regression analysis showed that only schizotypal traits were positively and uniquely associated to problematic cannabis use symptoms among users. These results may imply that schizotypal traits are not a risk factor for initiating use, but may facilitate the development of problematic use symptoms among users. This study showed the necessity of taking into account schizotypal traits when exploring the relationships between depressive symptoms, borderline traits and cannabis use. PMID:27149691

  11. Cannabis use is quantitatively associated with nucleus accumbens and amygdala abnormalities in young adult recreational users.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Jodi M; Kuster, John K; Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; Makris, Nikos; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2014-04-16

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures: (1) gray matter density using voxel-based morphometry, (2) volume (total brain and regional volumes), and (3) shape (surface morphometry). Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure-dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization. PMID:24741043

  12. Cannabis Use Is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Kuster, John K.; Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; Makris, Nikos; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J.

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures: (1) gray matter density using voxel-based morphometry, (2) volume (total brain and regional volumes), and (3) shape (surface morphometry). Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure-dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization. PMID:24741043

  13. Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: A longitudinal study of Australian youth.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12. PMID:26414206

  14. Social Skills as Precursors of Cannabis Use in Young Adolescents: A Trails Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel F. H.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Huizink, Anja C.; Ormel, Hans; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Social skills (cooperation, assertion, and self-control) were assessed by teachers for a longitudinal cohort of (pre)adolescents, with measurements at average ages 11.1 (baseline) and 16.3 years (follow-up). Prospective associations with participants' self-reported use of cannabis, (age of) onset of cannabis use, and frequency of use at follow-up…

  15. Psychological Change in Distressed Young People Who Do Not Receive Counselling: Does Improvement Happen Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniunaite, Akvile; Ahmad Ali, Zenib; Cooper, Mick

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore self-healing processes in young people, and to develop an understanding of the effects of school-based counselling (SBC), by analysing changes in young people who did not receive this intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 young people on a waiting list for SBC. Participants…

  16. The Impact of School-Based Counselling on Young People's Capacity to Study and Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupani, Pooja; Haughey, Nuala; Cooper, Mick

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how school-based counselling might impact young people's capacity to study and learn. Previous research has indicated that counselling in schools has an indirect positive impact on academic achievement. A mixed methods approach, using a semi-structured qualitative interview and a brief rating scale, was employed with 21 young…

  17. [Frequent non-medical cannabis use: health sequelae and effectiveness of detoxification treatment].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Udo; Specka, Michael; Scherbaum, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The non-medical (recreational) use of cannabis is common particularly among young adults. In light of the ongoing legalization debate the clinical impact of physical and psychosocial consequences of regular recreational cannabis consumption should be presented. Health consequences appear to be more pronounced the earlier the regular recreational cannabis use had been started in the individual's development. There is an increasing demand from recreational cannabis users for medical treatment of cannabis-related complaints including the cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Physical sequelae such as chronic bronchitis, cyclical hyperemesis and fertility problems are usually reversible along with abstinence. The often debilitating cannabis-related mental and cognitive complaints respond on a qualified inpatient detoxification treatment with high effect sizes (Cohen's d 0.7 -1.4). The severity of the cannabis addiction benefits sustainably from psychotherapeutic approaches and individual psychosocial counseling (Cohen's d 0,5-1,2). Currently, the actual health hazard of recreational cannabis use was evaluated by addiction experts to be significantly lower than that of tobacco or alcohol use. PMID:26800074

  18. Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Scoriels, Linda; Theegala, Swathi; Giro, Maria; Ozanne, Susan E; Burling, Keith; Jones, Peter B

    2013-10-01

    Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. 'Current users' of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to 'past users' (n=33) and 'never users' (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases. PMID:23820464

  19. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. PMID:27254840

  20. The toxicology of cannabis and cannabis prohibition.

    PubMed

    Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2007-08-01

    The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients. PMID:17712818

  1. Multimethod alexithymia assessment in adolescents and young adults with a cannabis use disorder.

    PubMed

    Dorard, Géraldine; Berthoz, Sylvie; Haviland, Mark G; Phan, Olivier; Corcos, Maurice; Bungener, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The value of alexithymia assessments in medical and psychiatric research is well documented, but such assessments in cannabis abusers are scarce. Moreover, despite repeated calls for multimethod alexithymia evaluations, researchers typically use 1 self-report only: the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Herein, we evaluated (1) the psychometric properties of the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS), (2) the correspondence between 3 alexithymia measures, (3) OAS raters' affect and its relationship to OAS scores, and (4) cannabis abusers' alexithymic features. Eighty-seven cannabis abusers completed self-reports measuring alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire-B), depression (13-item Beck Depression Inventory), and anxiety (State and Trait Anxiety Inventory-Form Y) and asked relatives to rate them using the OAS. The raters also completed the self-report scales. The OAS met acceptable reliability and validity standards, with the exception of relatively low interrater reliability for one of its subscales. Rater affect appeared to influence OAS scores, albeit slightly. Patients' OAS scores were higher than scores reported for people-in-general samples and lower than those for outpatient clinical samples. Alexithymia rates were similar to those previously reported in cannabis abusers. Our results demonstrated the adequacy and appropriateness of the OAS in these (and related) clinical samples, which may encourage multimethod alexithymia assessments in both research and clinical practice. PMID:18970907

  2. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were…

  3. Counselling Refugee Young People: An Exploration of Therapeutic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warr, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the key findings from a study that considered significant issues that affect refugees and asylum-seekers, and explored beneficial counselling approaches relevant to this group. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with three counsellors and three specialist children's support advisors. Data were analysed…

  4. Experiences of Counsellors Providing Online Chat Counselling to Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Mitchell J.; Rickwood, Debra J.

    2014-01-01

    Online counselling is a rapidly growing field and, while there is emerging evidence of its comparative effectiveness, there has been little research into what techniques are being applied in practice and which clients will most likely benefit from this medium. Using a focus group methodology, this study examines the experiences of 19 online…

  5. The Self-Injury Experiences of Young Adult Women: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Milliken, Tammi F.

    2010-01-01

    Many counselors lack a clear understanding of the phenomenon of self-injury. This article presents results of a qualitative study examining the experiences of young adult women who engage in self-injurious behaviors. Interpretation of the participants' narrative data offers insight into the value of a humanistic approach to counseling this…

  6. Vocational Counseling Needs of Young Women as Perceived by Working Business and Professional Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haczynski, Sharon L.

    Designed to determine the additional competencies women need to obtain jobs and advance in them, a study focused on the counseling needs of young women as perceived by the membership of the Wisconsin Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs comprised of 2,700 women who are working part-time, full-time, or in partnership. The…

  7. Examining the Complexities of Measuring Effectiveness of Online Counselling for Young People Using Routine Evaluation Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefi, Aaron; Hanley, Terry

    2012-01-01

    As mental health services for young people develop, the need for evaluation and audit to justify expenditure follows suit. Counselling is being provided in more and more schools and community settings across the country, and there is an increasing focus on evidence-based funding. Practice-based evidence has an important role to play in fulfilling…

  8. A service-level action research intervention to improve identification and treatment of cannabis and related mental health issues in young Indigenous Australians: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bohanna, India; Bird, Katrina; Copeland, Jan; Roberts, Nicholas; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regular cannabis use is associated with negative mental health impacts including psychosis, depression and anxiety. Rates of cannabis use have increased in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia within the last two decades, presenting a significant increased risk to young people's mental health in these regions. Improved screening, early detection and treatment for cannabis-related mental health issues are urgently required. This paper describes a service-level action research intervention and evaluation protocol for use in the few services where it is possible to engage young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Methods/Design The protocol is being developed in two services where youth mental health is core business: a primary healthcare centre and a youth service in the Cairns and hinterland region, far north Queensland. The protocol calls first for baseline data to be collected using staff and client surveys; network mapping; and analysis of screening, treatment and referral rates. The protocol's intervention phase is driven by service needs identified from baseline data. Intervention strategies focus on implementing/enhancing cannabis screening instruments and processes in line with current best practice; enhancing networks with external drug and mental health services; developing culturally acceptable training and resources; developing activities aiming to reduce cannabis use in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients using the services. The protocol requires implementation of the multilevel intervention within each service for 1 year, with follow-up data then collected and compared to baseline. Process evaluation identifies the more effective intervention strategies and documents the challenges to be overcome for full implementation. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was provided by The James Cook University, Human Research Ethics Committee. Ethics Approval Number H5322. Peer

  9. [Psychiatric complications of cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance, especially among young people. Cannabis use is extremely commonplace and frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders that raise questions about the etiology. The use of cannabis is an aggravating factor of all psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric complications are related to the age of onset, duration of exposure and individual risk factors of the individual (mental and social health). The panic attack is the most common complication. The link with psychosis is narrow that leads to increased prevention for vulnerable populations. Cannabis is also an indicator of increased depressive vulnerability and an aggravating factor for bipolar disorder. PMID:24579344

  10. Determining the Need for Vocational Counselling among Different Groups of Young People under 28 in Spain. National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castro, Ignacio Fernandez; de Elejabeitia, Carmen

    A study examined the need for vocational counseling among two target groups of young people under the age of 28 years in Spain: young women whose chief activity is domestic work in their own homes in Madrid and young people of both sexes affected by industrial reconversion who were living on the left bank of the Bilbao Estuary. Their vocational…

  11. A controlled trial of an internet-based intervention program for cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Tossmann, Hans-Peter; Jonas, Benjamin; Tensil, Marc-Dennan; Lang, Peter; Strüber, Evelin

    2011-11-01

    In the last decade, several programs for the treatment of cannabis-related disorders were developed. Until now, no information is available on the efficacy of Internet-based counseling approaches for this target group. This article describes the evaluation of "quit the shit," a web-based intervention developed to help young people to quit or reduce their cannabis use significantly. Cannabis users seeking web-based treatment were included in a two-arm controlled trial conducted on a website for drug-related information and prevention. After the baseline assessment, members of the treatment condition were randomized to a 50-day intervention program. Other trial participants were put on a waiting list. A post-test was conducted 3 months after randomization. Of all 1,292 subjects included in the trial, a total of 206 participants took part at the post-test. Per-protocol- and intention-to-treat analyses were conducted. Members of the treatment condition showed a significantly stronger reduction in cannabis use (primary outcome) than the control group. In the per-protocol analyses, moderate-to-strong effects were found for the reduction of the frequency and the reduction of the quantity of consumed cannabis. Small-to-moderate effects were observed on the secondary outcomes (use-related self-efficacy, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction). Despite limitations concerning the interpretation of the results, the intervention seems to offer an effective treatment option for persons with cannabis-related problems. PMID:21651419

  12. Evaluating the relationship between cannabis use and IQ in youth and young adults at clinical high risk of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Buchy, Lisa; Seidman, Larry J; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Stone, William; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel H; Addington, Jean

    2015-12-30

    Among people with psychosis, those with a history of cannabis use show better cognitive performance than those who are cannabis naïve. It is unknown whether this pattern is present in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. We evaluated relationships between IQ and cannabis use while controlling for use of other substances known to impact cognition in 678 CHR and 263 healthy control (HC) participants. IQ was estimated using the Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Drug and alcohol use severity and frequency were assessed with the Alcohol and Drug Use Scale, and we inquired participants' age at first use. CHR were further separated into early and late age at onset of cannabis use sub-groups, and low-, moderate- and high-frequency sub-groups. No significant differences in IQ emerged between CHR or HC cannabis users vs. non-users, or between use frequency groups. CHR late-onset users showed significantly higher IQ than CHR early-onset users. Age at onset of cannabis use was significantly and positively correlated with IQ in CHR only. Results suggest that age at onset of cannabis may be a more important factor for IQ than use current use or use frequency in CHR. PMID:26626949

  13. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment. PMID:27215115

  14. Cannabis-induced depersonalization disorder in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hürlimann, Franziska; Kupferschmid, Stephan; Simon, Andor E

    2012-01-01

    We present a case series of 6 patients who developed persistent depersonalization disorder in adolescence after consuming cannabis. In 2 of these cases, the illness course was severely disabling. Within the growing body of literature that investigates the effects of cannabis use on mental health, the association between cannabis and depersonalization disorder is widely neglected. We review the clinical characteristics of this disorder and summarize the neurobiological evidence relating it to cannabis use. This case series extends awareness about the potentially detrimental effect of cannabis use in young individuals beyond its well-documented relationship with psychosis and other psychological sequelae. PMID:22378193

  15. Maternal willingness to pay for infant and young child nutrition counseling services in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Hoang, Minh V.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M.; Le, Chung H.; Menon, Purnima; Rawat, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Background Alive & Thrive Vietnam, a 6-year initiative (2009–2014), has developed and incorporated elements of social franchising into government health services to provide high-quality nutrition counseling services to improve infant and young child feeding practices. One element of franchising that has not yet been implemented is fee for service, which is a potential financing mechanism for sustaining services in the long run. Objective This research aims to estimate maternal willingness to pay (WTP) for nutrition counseling services and to examine potential factors associated with their WTP. Design and methods Data were drawn from an impact evaluation survey of 2,511 women with a child <2 years old from four provinces in Vietnam. An iterative bidding technique was employed to explore individual WTP. The first bid was defined as VND 20,000 (~US$ 1), which was approximately the level of the actual service cost. Depending on the participant response, the bid increased or decreased. Finally, the respondents were asked about the highest price they would be willing to pay for the service. Results Overall, 92.6% of clients reported a need for nutrition counseling services for children <2 years. The WTP rates at bid levels of VND 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, and 100,000 were 95.2, 94.4, 90.7, 68.9, and 33.4%, respectively. The mean and median of the maximum WTP were VND 58,500 and 50,000, respectively. In multiple regression models, WTP rates were higher among younger women, the Kinh majority group, and better educated and wealthier women. Conclusion A high demand for nutrition counseling coupled with a WTP by almost all segments of society would potentially cover costs of delivery for nutrition counseling services in Vietnam. PMID:26328947

  16. Neighborhood-level and individual-level correlates of cannabis use among young persons living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Nichols, Sharon L.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Heinze, Justin E.; Shea, Jaclyn; Fernández, M. Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In addition to individual characteristics, there may be a wide range of environmental or neighborhood stressors that contribute to elevated cannabis use in groups of youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLHIV); however, the effects of social disorganization on cannabis use in YLHIV to date have not been studied. Methods We examined the effects of individual-level and neighborhood-level factors by developing hierarchical generalized linear models estimating odds of current cannabis use (any use during the past 3 months) and daily cannabis use among a sample of YLHIV (N=1921) currently receiving medical care. Results The final model for daily cannabis use in the past 3 months included significant positive effects associated with hostility (O.R.=1.08, 95% C.I.: 1.05, 1.11), being older (O.R.= 1.12, 95% C.I.: 1.05, 1.20), being a bisexual male (O.R.=1.72, 95% C.I.: 1.10, 2.70), and residing in a community with a murder rate in the highest quartile (O.R.= 1.91, 95% C.I.: 1.27, 2.87), second highest quartile (O.R.=1.62, 95% C.I.: 1.06, 2.46), or third highest quartile (O.R.=1.52, 95% C.I.: 1.01, 2.30). Discussion This paper advances our knowledge of the multilevel factors associated with elevated cannabis use among groups of YLHIV and furthers our understanding of social and structural determinants of health in this population. Future research into cannabis use among YLHIV should consider, not only cannabis use within the context of the adjustment of living with HIV/AIDS, but also the stressors that characterize the environments in which groups of YLHIV live. PMID:25858786

  17. Neural mechanisms of sensitivity to peer information in young adult cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Jodi M; Schuster, Randi M; Curran, Max T; Calderon, Vanessa; van der Kouwe, Andre; Evins, A Eden

    2016-08-01

    Though social influence is a critical factor in the initiation and maintenance of marijuana use, the neural correlates of influence in those who use marijuana are unknown. In this study, marijuana-using young adults (MJ; n = 20) and controls (CON; n = 23) performed a decision-making task in which they made a perceptual choice after viewing the choices of unknown peers via photographs, while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The MJ and CON groups did not show differences in the overall number of choices that agreed with versus opposed group influence, but only the MJ group showed reaction time slowing when deciding against group choices. Longer reaction times were associated with greater activation of frontal regions. The MJ goup, compared to CON, showed significantly greater activation in the caudate when presented with peer information. Across groups, caudate activation was associated with self-reported susceptibility to influence. These findings indicate that young adults who use MJ may exhibit increased effort when confronted with opposing peer influence, as well as exhibit greater responsivity of the caudate to social information. These results not only better define the neural basis of social decisions, but also suggest that marijuana use is associated with exaggerated neural activity during decision making that involves social information. PMID:27068178

  18. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  19. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, Robert J.; Shin, Hayden H.; Gray, Andrew R.; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers. Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms. PMID:25837035

  20. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kushani; Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug in the world. Demand for treatment of cannabis use disorders is increasing. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or supportive care for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to 4 March 2014), MEDLINE (to week 3 February 2014), EMBASE (to 3 March 2014) and PsycINFO (to week 4 February 2014). We also searched reference lists of articles, electronic sources of ongoing trials and conference proceedings, and contacted selected researchers active in the area. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving the use of medications to reduce the symptoms and signs of cannabis withdrawal or to promote cessation or reduction of cannabis use, or both, in comparison with other medications, placebo or no medication (supportive care) in participants diagnosed as cannabis dependent or who were likely to be dependent. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. All review authors confirmed the inclusion decisions and the overall process. Main results We included 14 randomised controlled trials involving 958 participants. For 10 studies the average age was 33 years; two studies targeted young people; and age data were not available for two studies. Approximately 80% of study participants were male. The studies were at low risk of selection, performance, detection and selective outcome reporting bias. Three studies were at risk of attrition bias. All studies involved comparison of active medication and placebo. The medications included preparations containing

  1. Common genetic influences on the timing of first use for alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis in young African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The risks associated with early age at initiation for alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis use are well documented, yet the timing of first use has rarely been studied in genetically informative frameworks, leaving the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to age at initiation largely unknown. The current study assessed overlap in heritable and environmental influences on the timing of initiation across these three substances in African-American women, using a sample of 462 female twins (100 monozygotic and 131 dizygotic pairs) from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. Mean age at the time of interview was 25.1 years. Ages at first use of alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis were gathered in diagnostic interviews administered over the telephone. Standard genetic analyses were conducted with substance use initiation variables categorized as never, late, and early onset. Variance in the timing of first use was attributable in large part to genetic sources: 44% for alcohol, 62% for cigarettes, and 77% for cannabis. Genetic correlations across substances ranged from 0.25 to 0.70. Shared environmental influences were modest for alcohol (10%) and absent for cigarettes and cannabis. Findings contrast with reports from earlier studies based on primarily Caucasian samples, which have suggested a substantial role for shared environment on substance use initiation when measured as lifetime use. By characterizing onset as timing of first use, we may be tapping a separate construct. Differences in findings may also reflect a distinct etiological pathway for substance use initiation in African-American women that could not be detected in previous studies. PMID:19261395

  2. Young Clients' Narratives of the Purpose and Outcome of Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Kerry; Cartwright, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how adolescent clients construct the purpose and outcome of counselling. A narrative analysis was performed on interviews with 22 clients (aged 16--18) who had used a school-based counselling service. The aim was to identify the purpose and outcomes that participants attributed to their counselling experience. The analysis…

  3. Education and Counseling Status Report of Young Men and Women: A Survey of Senior Students from Fourteen Public Secondary Schools in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Peggy W.

    To determine the career aspirations, counseling sources, and future plans of young women in Arkansas so as to confirm or negate the belief that women do not aspire to nor seek higher level employment positions than traditionally relegated for women, questionnaires developed by members of the Task Force on Education and Counseling were mailed to…

  4. Cannabis Reclassification: What Is the Message to the Next Generation of Cannabis Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of 2004 the UK government downgraded the legal status of cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug. Following a review of this decision two years later, cannabis remained a Class C substance--which for some contrasted with the potential harmful social and health effects associated with its use, particularly for young people. These…

  5. Healthcare providers balancing norms and practice: challenges and opportunities in providing contraceptive counselling to young people in Uganda – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mandira; Näsström, Sara B.; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Kiggundu, Charles; Larsson, Elin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnancies among young women force girls to compromise education, resulting in low educational attainment with subsequent poverty and vulnerability. A pronounced focus is needed on contraceptive use, pregnancy, and unsafe abortion among young women. Objective This study aims to explore healthcare providers’ (HCPs) perceptions and practices regarding contraceptive counselling to young people. Design We conducted 27 in-depth interviews with doctors and midwives working in seven health facilities in central Uganda. Interviews were open-ended and allowed the participant to speak freely on certain topics. We used a topic guide to cover areas topics of interest focusing on post-abortion care (PAC) but also covering contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were transcribed verbatim and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The main theme, HCPs' ambivalence to providing contraceptive counselling to sexually active young people is based on two sub-themes describing the challenges of contraceptive counselling: A) HCPs echo the societal norms regarding sexual practice among young people, while at the same time our findings B) highlights the opportunities resulting from providers pragmatic approach to contraceptive counselling to young women. Providers expressed a self-identified lack of skill, limited resources, and inadequate support from the health system to successfully provide appropriate services to young people. They felt frustrated with the consultations, especially when meeting young women seeking PAC. Conclusions Despite existing policies for young people's sexual and reproductive health in Uganda, HCPs are not sufficiently equipped to provide adequate contraceptive counselling to young people. Instead, HCPs are left in between the negative influence of social norms and their pragmatic approach to address the needs of young people, especially those seeking PAC. We argue that a clear policy supported by a clear strategy with practical

  6. Medicinal cannabis.

    PubMed

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. PMID:26843715

  7. Medicinal cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-01-01

    Summary A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. PMID:26843715

  8. Skills for Living: Group Counseling Activities for Young Adolescents, Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smead, Rosemarie

    Group counseling offers a content-plus-process approach to counseling of youth. Counselors in schools or mental health settings can use this book to learn how to create meaningful group experiences for adolescents. The group agendas are aimed at middle school youth and offer them the opportunity to experience positive growth and change in the…

  9. A Counselling Model for Young Women in the United Arab Emirates: Cultural Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Although all modalities of therapy work equally well, some models are better suited to work with specific populations. This article outlines a rationale for a counselling model used for female college students in the United Arab Emirates where the concept of counselling is not well known, and where the social and cultural organizations demand a…

  10. Poorer frontolimbic white matter integrity is associated with chronic cannabis use, FAAH genotype, and increased depressive and apathy symptoms in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Shollenbarger, Skyler G.; Price, Jenessa; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Background The heaviest period of cannabis use coincides with ongoing white matter (WM) maturation. Further, cannabis-related changes may be moderated by FAAH genotype (rs324420). We examined the association between cannabis use and FAAH genotype on frontolimbic WM integrity in adolescents and emerging adults. We then tested whether observed WM abnormalities were linked with depressive or apathy symptoms. Methods Participants included 37 cannabis users and 37 healthy controls (33 female; ages 18–25). Multiple regressions examined the independent and interactive effects of variables on WM integrity. Results Regular cannabis users demonstrated reduced WM integrity in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus (UNC) (MD, right: p = .009 and left: p = .009; FA, right: p = .04 and left: p = .03) and forceps minor (fMinor) (MD, p = .03) compared to healthy controls. Marginally reduced WM integrity in the cannabis users was found in the left anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) (FA, p = .08). Cannabis group ∗ FAAH genotype interaction predicted WM integrity in bilateral ATR (FA, right: p = .05 and left: p = .001) and fMinor (FA, p = .02). In cannabis users, poorer WM integrity was correlated with increased symptoms of depression and apathy in bilateral ATR and UNC. Conclusions Consistent with prior findings, cannabis use was associated with reduced frontolimbic WM integrity. WM integrity was also moderated by FAAH genotype, in that cannabis-using FAAH C/C carriers and A carrying controls had reduced WM integrity compared to control C/C carriers. Observed frontolimbic white matter abnormalities were linked with increased depressive and apathy symptoms in the cannabis users. PMID:26106535

  11. Model for Using Hip-Hop Music for Small Group HIV/AIDS Prevention Counseling with African American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Taylor, Sandra E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with African American young adults that makes use of hip-hop music. Contends that an increased understanding of the relationships that many African American young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about…

  12. [Cannabis: Use and dependence].

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Alain; Laqueille, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    The main characteristics of cannabis dependence are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use and important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of cannabis use. Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, irritability, anger, restlessness, depression, mood swings and cravings. Regular cannabis use induces cognitive impairment, especially of attention, episodic memory and working memory. Alcohol and other substances abuse or dependence are frequently found in patients with cannabis dependence. Psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in patients with cannabis dependence, in particular anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. The treatment of cannabis dependence includes behavioral psychotherapy, especially motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy, alongside treatment of co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions. There are currently no available pharmacological treatment interventions for cannabis dependence. The treatment of cannabis dependence and withdrawal remains nonspecific. PMID:23040955

  13. Toking and Driving: Characteristics of Canadian University Students Who Drive after Cannabis Use--An Exploratory Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Benedikt; Rodopoulos, Jenny; Rehm, Jurgen; Ivsins, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis use is increasingly prevalent among young adults in Canada. Due to cannabis' impairment effects, driving under the influence of cannabis has recently developed into a traffic-safety concern, yet little is known about the specific circumstances and factors characterizing this behavior among young people. In this study, we interviewed a…

  14. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008) and health staff (n = 60) from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2-4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6-8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility

  15. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Kim, Sunny S.; Nguyen, Tuan T.; Tran, Lan M.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008) and health staff (n = 60) from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2–4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4–4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6–8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3–1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of

  16. Believability of Messages about Cannabis, Cocaine and Heroin among Never-Triers, Trier-Rejecters and Current Users of Cannabis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sandra C.; Rossiter, John R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the believability of strong warnings about the negative consequences of drug use among young adults in Australia who have never tried, currently use, or have tried and rejected cannabis. It finds that the strong warnings about cannabis are generally believed by never-triers. The same warnings are perceived by current users as…

  17. Cannabis and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Garry, Aurélia; Rigourd, Virginie; Amirouche, Ammar; Fauroux, Valérie; Aubry, Sylvie; Serreau, Raphaël

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk. PMID:20130780

  18. Facilitators and barriers related to voluntary counseling and testing for HIV among young adults in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Bhoobun, Shalinee; Jetty, Anuradha; Koroma, Mohamed A; Kamara, Mohamed J; Kabia, Mohamed; Coulson, Reginald; Ansumana, Rashid; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, we interviewed a population-based sample of 285 young adult residents (age 18-35 years) of the city of Bo, Sierra Leone, about their attitudes toward and experience with voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) for HIV. In total, 33% of the participants (44% of women and 25% of men) reported having been tested for HIV at least once. More than 85% of those not previously tested indicated a willingness to be tested in the near future, but untested participants were nearly twice as likely as tested participants to report fears about family/partner rejection, job loss, and other potential consequences of testing. More than 90% of participants expressed a high desire for testing privacy, and the majority reported a preference for VCT at a facility far from home where no one would know them. Social barriers to HIV testing remain a challenge for HIV prevention in Sierra Leone. PMID:24203408

  19. Masculinity and Counseling with Young Non-Collegiate Men: A Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Eva Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on young men attending college and instruments have been developed based on quantitative data from this population. There is little information, however, about young non-collegiate men. Nearly half of the 1.5 million men completing high school in the U.S. in 2007 elected not to pursue college upon completion of…

  20. Exemplary Counseling Strategies for Developmental Transitions of Young Women with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Susan D. M.; English, William; Schwallie-Giddis, Pat; Jones, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    This article is intended to provide rehabilitation, career, and mental health counselors with an understanding of how attentional impairments are manifested in young women and how professional counselors may help them most effectively. Treatment guidelines and recommendations are presented for working with these young women through the…

  1. Assessing the public health impacts of legalizing recreational cannabis use in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hall, W; Weier, M

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in assessing the public health impact of legalizing cannabis use in Colorado and Washington State is the absence of any experience with legal cannabis markets. The Netherlands created a de facto legalized cannabis market for recreational use, but policy analysts disagree about how it has affected rates of cannabis use. Some US states have created de facto legal supply of cannabis for medical use. So far this policy does not appear to have increased cannabis use or cannabis-related harm. Given experience with more liberal alcohol policies, the legalization of recreational cannabis use is likely to increase use among current users. It is also likely that legalization will increase the number of new users among young adults but it remains uncertain how many may be recruited, within what time frame, among which groups within the population, and how many of these new users will become regular users. PMID:25777798

  2. Young Adult Cannabis Users Report Greater Propensity for Risk-Taking Only in Non-Monetary Domains

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T.; Evins, A. Eden

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. METHODS In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18–25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. RESULTS Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. PMID:25577478

  3. Predicting resistance to health education messages for cannabis use: the role of rebelliousness, autic mastery, health value and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Boddington, Ellen L; McDermott, Mark R

    2013-02-01

    The prevalent use of cannabis by adolescents and young adults, combined with the common misconception that smoking cannabis is relatively harmless, warrants the exploration of factors influencing resistance to health education messages about cannabis use. This investigation did so within a Reversal Theory framework. One hundred and thirteen undergraduate students responded to an informative leaflet detailing the health effects of smoking cannabis. The most significant independent predictor of message resistance was frequency of cannabis use, followed by proactive rebelliousness, autic mastery, health value and ethnicity. These findings have implications for the development, design and targeting of cannabis health education programmes. PMID:22459759

  4. Potential dangers of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Kaymakçalan, S

    1975-01-01

    Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society. PMID:1181294

  5. Adolescent Peer Counselling: Enhancing the Natural Conversational Helping Skills of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldard, Kathryn; Patton, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    During the developmental stage of adolescence young people face many stressful challenges (Dacey & Kenny, 1997). Some adolescents manage these challenges adaptively but others do not and are therefore at the risk of adopting maladaptive responses to stress (Frydenberg & Lewis, 2002; Patton & Noller, 1990). Because adolescents are…

  6. Transforming the Educational Experience of Young Men of Color. School Counseling Series. Volume 2: Increase Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy launched a journal series to support and build awareness of the issues and challenges raised by the College Board Advocacy & Policy Center's research report, "The Educational Experience of Young Men of Color" (youngmenofcolor.collegeboard.org.) The intent of the series is to create a forum…

  7. Understanding and Counseling Self-Mutilation in Female Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zila, Laurie MacAniff; Kiselica, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the syndrome of self-mutilation in female adolescents and young adults. Discusses causes, symptoms, types, definitions, and treatments. Includes an explanation of the lexical and conceptual confusion that accompanies self-mutilation. Addresses implications and recommendations for counselors. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/GCP)

  8. A Dialogue between a Young Lesbian Counseling Student and an Older Straight Male Counselor Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Larry; Davis, Cari

    2005-01-01

    There are distinctions between people and they can not be dismissed as merely fascinating differences that make each person unique. Many of these distinctions are between groups that are politically strong or weak, straight and gay, white and black, rich and poor, young and old, healthy and sick. Sharing experiences through storytelling can…

  9. Cannabis Smoking in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Biehl, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent legislative successes allowing expanded access to recreational and medicinal cannabis have been associated with its increased use by the public, despite continued debates regarding its safety within the medical and scientific communities. Despite legislative changes, cannabis is most commonly used by smoking, although alternatives to inhalation have also emerged. Moreover, the composition of commercially available cannabis has dramatically changed in recent years. Therefore, developing sound scientific information regarding its impact on lung health is imperative, particularly because published data conducted prior to widespread legalization are conflicting and inconclusive. In this commentary, we delineate major observations of epidemiologic investigations examining cannabis use and the potential associated development of airways disease and lung cancer to highlight gaps in pulmonary knowledge. Additionally, we review major histopathologic alterations related to smoked cannabis and define specific areas in animal models and human clinical translational investigations that could benefit from additional development. Given that cannabis has an ongoing classification as a schedule I medication, federal funding to support investigations of modern cannabis use in terms of medicinal efficacy and safety profile on lung health have been elusive. It is clear, however, that the effects of inhaled cannabis on lung health remain uncertain and given increasing use patterns, are worthy of further investigation. PMID:25996274

  10. Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure

    PubMed Central

    Calvigioni, Daniela; Hurd, Yasmin L.; Keimpema, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis remains one of the world’s most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal “legal” highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnancy, little is known about the neurobiological and psychological consequences in the exposed offspring. In this review, we emphasize the importance of maternal programming, defined as the intrauterine presentation of maternal stimuli to the foetus, in neurodevelopment. In particular, we focus on cannabis-mediated maternal adverse effects, resulting in direct central nervous system alteration or sensitization to late-onset chronic and neuropsychiatric disorders. We compare clinical and preclinical experimental studies on the effects of foetal cannabis exposure until early adulthood, to stress the importance of animal models that permit the fine control of environmental variables and allow the dissection of cannabis-mediated molecular cascades in the developing central nervous system. In sum, we conclude that preclinical experimental models confirm clinical studies and that cannabis exposure evokes significant molecular modifications to neurodevelopmental programs leading to neurophysiological and behavioural abnormalities. PMID:24793873

  11. Do medical cannabis laws encourage cannabis use?

    PubMed

    Gorman, Dennis M; Charles Huber, J

    2007-05-01

    Medical cannabis is a contentious issue in the United States, with many fearing that introduction of state laws will increase use among the general population. The present study examined whether the introduction of such laws affects the level of cannabis use among arrestees and emergency department patients. Using the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring system, data from adult arrestees for the period 1995-2002 were examined in three cities in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose), one city in Colorado (Denver), and one city in Oregon (Portland). Data were also analysed for juvenile arrestees in two of the California cities and Portland. Data on emergency department patients from the Drug Abuse Warning Network for the period 1994-2002 were examined in three metropolitan areas in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco), one in Colorado (Denver), and one in Washington State (Seattle). The analysis followed an interrupted time-series design. No statistically significant pre-law versus post-law differences were found in any of the ADAM or DAWN sites. Thus, consistent with other studies of the liberalization of cannabis laws, medical cannabis laws do not appear to increase use of the drug. One reason for this might be that relatively few individuals are registered medical cannabis patients or caregivers. In addition, use of the drug by those already sick might "de-glamorise" it and thereby do little to encourage use among others. PMID:17689362

  12. Cannabis dependence, cognitive control and attentional bias for cannabis words.

    PubMed

    Cousijn, J; Watson, P; Koenders, L; Vingerhoets, W A M; Goudriaan, A E; Wiers, R W

    2013-12-01

    One of the characteristics of people suffering from addictive behaviors is the tendency to be distracted by drug cues. This attentional bias for drug cues is thought to lead to increased craving and drug use, and may draw individuals into a vicious cycle of drug addiction. In the current study we developed a Dutch version of the cannabis Stroop task and measured attentional bias for cannabis words in a group of heavy cannabis users and matched controls. The classical Stroop task was used as a global measure of cognitive control and we examined the relationship between cognitive control, cannabis-related problems, cannabis craving and cannabis attentional bias. Using our version of the cannabis Stroop task, a group of heavy cannabis users showed attentional bias to cannabis words, whereas a control group of non-users did not. Furthermore, within the group of cannabis users, those who were clinically recognized as dependent showed a stronger attentional bias than the heavy, non-dependent users. Cannabis users who displayed reduced cognitive control (as measured with the classical Stroop task) showed increased session-induced craving. Contrary to expectations, however, cognitive control did not appear to modulate the relationship between attentional bias to cannabis words (cannabis Stroop task) and cannabis dependence. This study confirmed the relationship between cannabis dependence and attentional bias and extends this by highlighting a moderating role for cognitive control, which may make some more vulnerable to craving. PMID:24018225

  13. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. PMID:27338965

  14. Cannabis induced asystole.

    PubMed

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia. PMID:26520167

  15. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority, Dan Joseph

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis. PMID:27245718

  16. THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING

    PubMed Central

    Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas with alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs. PMID:19340636

  17. Longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure after heavy cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mary P; Collins, Paul F; Lim, Kelvin O; Muetzel, R L; Luciana, M

    2015-12-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of cannabis users report alterations in brain white matter microstructure, primarily based on cross-sectional research, and etiology of the alterations remains unclear. We report findings from longitudinal voxelwise analyses of DTI data collected at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up on 23 young adult (18-20 years old at baseline) regular cannabis users and 23 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched non-using controls with limited substance use histories. Onset of cannabis use was prior to age 17. Cannabis users displayed reduced longitudinal growth in fractional anisotropy in the central and parietal regions of the right and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, in white matter adjacent to the left superior frontal gyrus, in the left corticospinal tract, and in the right anterior thalamic radiation lateral to the genu of the corpus callosum, along with less longitudinal reduction of radial diffusion in the right central/posterior superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and posterior cingulum. Greater amounts of cannabis use were correlated with reduced longitudinal growth in FA as was relatively impaired performance on a measure of verbal learning. These findings suggest that continued heavy cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood alters ongoing development of white matter microstructure, contributing to functional impairment. PMID:26602958

  18. Herbicidal treatments for control of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, M

    1977-01-01

    In order to test herbicides for the destruction of illicit stands of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) a series of commercially available herbicides were sprayed on glasshouse-grown plants having 2 to 6 leaves. The following herbicides caused complete kill or severe injury to cannabis plants: (a) herbicides with root and foliage activity--ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, terbutryne, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, phenobenzuron, ethofumesate, karbutilate, methazole and oxadiazon; and (b) foliar-acting herbicides with brief or no soil persistence--amitrole, bentazon, 2,4-D, diquat + paraquat, glyphosate and phenmedipham. In field experiments herbicides of the latter group, and ioxynil, metribuzin, and a MSMA-cacodylate mixture, caused death or severe damage to young cannabis plants. Glyphosate, ioxynil and bentazon destroyed developed cannabis plants. In glasshouse and field experiments the following herbicides applied to young cannabis plants caused marked deformations of stems, leaves and/or inflorescences: barban, butralin, dalapon, difenzoquat, dinitramine, diphenamid, IPC, napropamide, penoxalin, triffuralin, and U-27267. PMID:585583

  19. [Cannabis use among children and adolescents: impacts and consequences].

    PubMed

    Peyret, Emmanuelle; Delorme, Richard

    2014-03-01

    A health policy for the prevention and treatment of cannabis-related disorders is urgently needed in France, given the high prevalence of cannabis use among children and adolescents. Such a policy will require a better understanding of the endo-cannabinoid system and the impact of exogenous cannabinoids in this fragile population. The brain continues to undergo significant development until the age of about 25 years, and cannabis consumption by young people therefore carries specific risks of dependence (frequency and intensity), and of neuroanatomical, cognitive and emotional damage. This article summarizes the available data and offers a medical view of the risks and consequences of cannabis use by children and adolescents. PMID:26427298

  20. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired. PMID:27292414

  1. COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR Genetic Polymorphisms Moderate Executive Control in Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Beatriz Fagundo, Ana; Cuenca, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Cuyás, Elisabet; Langohr, Klaus; de Sola Llopis, Susana; Civit, Ester; Farré, Magí; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of cannabis use on executive functions are still controversial, fostering the need for novel biomarkers able to unveil individual differences in the cognitive impact of cannabis consumption. Two common genetic polymorphisms have been linked to the neuroadaptive impact of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure and to executive functions in animals: the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene val158met polymorphism and the SLC6A4 gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. We aimed to test if these polymorphisms moderate the harmful effects of cannabis use on executive function in young cannabis users. We recruited 144 participants: 86 cannabis users and 58 non-drug user controls. Both groups were genotyped and matched for genetic makeup, sex, age, education, and IQ. We used a computerized neuropsychological battery to assess different aspects of executive functions: sustained attention (CANTAB Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, RVIP), working memory (N-back), monitoring/shifting (CANTAB ID/ED set shifting), planning (CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge, SOC), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT). We used general linear model-based analyses to test performance differences between cannabis users and controls as a function of genotypes. We found that: (i) daily cannabis use is not associated with executive function deficits; and (ii) COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms moderate the link between cannabis use and executive performance. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val/val genotype exhibited lower accuracy of sustained attention, associated with a more strict response bias, than val/val non-users. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val allele also committed more monitoring/shifting errors than cannabis users carrying the met/met genotype. Finally, cannabis users carrying the 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype had worse IGT performance than s/s non-users. COMT and SLC6A4 genes moderate the impact of cannabis use on executive functions. PMID:23449176

  2. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this counseling. This fact sheet explains the ... skin looking young and healthy. Potential Benefits and Harms of Behavioral Counseling The main potential benefit of ...

  3. Genetic Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles Genetic Counseling Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetic Counseling Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... informed decisions about testing and treatment. Reasons for Genetic Counseling There are many reasons that people go ...

  4. Talk or text to tell? How young adults in Canada and South Africa prefer to receive STI results, counseling, and treatment updates in a wireless world.

    PubMed

    Labacher, Lukas; Mitchell, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults often lack access to confidential, long-lasting, and nonjudgmental interactions with sexual health professionals at brick-and-mortar clinics. To ensure that patients return for their STI test results, post-result counseling, and STI-related information, computer-mediated health intervention programming allows them to receive sexual health information through onsite computers, the Internet, and mobile phone calls and text messages. To determine whether young adults (age: M = 21 years) prefer to communicate with health professionals about the status of their sexual health through computer-mediated communication devices, 303 second-year university students (183 from an urban North American university and 120 from a periurban university in South Africa) completed a paper-based survey indicating how they prefer to communicate with doctors and nurses: talking face to face, mobile phone call, text message, Internet chat programs, Facebook, Twitter, or e-mail. Nearly all students, and female students in South Africa in particular, prefer to receive their STI test results, post-results counseling, and STI-related information by talking face to face with doctors and nurses rather than communicating through computers or mobile phones. Results are clarified in relation to gender, availability of various technologies, and prevalence of HIV in Canada and in South Africa. PMID:24015829

  5. Experimental cultivation of cannabis plants in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Cortis, G; Luchi, P; Palmas, M

    1985-01-01

    In research carried out in 1982, which included the cultivation of cannabis plants with low, medium and high levels of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the authors have determined the parameters for individualization and classification of cannabis plants according to their intoxicant potential. This can help to provide courts of law with valid supportive expertise on cannabis trafficking cases. The parameters are the percentages of THC in cannabinoids and in the dried substance of a plant, as well as the percentage of cannabinoids in the dried substance. On the basis of these parameters, the authors have found that a cannabis plant in which the percentage of THC exceeds 50 per cent of the total amount of cannabinoids of the extractable resin and 0.3 per cent of the total amount of dried substance, and in which the amounts of resin and cannabinoids are substantial, has a considerable intoxicant potential and is liable to be used for illicit production of cannabis for abuse. On the contrary, a plant with a THC level below 50 per cent of the cannabinoids and 0.3 per cent of the dried substance, in addition to a low level of total cannabinoids, has low intoxicant potential and can be used in industry for the production of oil and rope. On the basis of these parameters it is also possible to predict the intoxicant potential of a young cannabis plant harvested at a relatively early stage of its development. PMID:3011161

  6. Lifetime positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis abuse are partially explained by co-morbid addiction.

    PubMed

    Dubertret, Caroline; Bidard, Isabelle; Adès, Jean; Gorwood, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Recent prospective findings have shown that cannabis use by young people could be a risk factor for psychotic symptoms in adulthood, but the long-term impact of cannabis abuse on the clinical features of declared schizophrenia remains to be explored. We assessed the independent influence of cannabis abuse on the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, after controlling for frequently co-occurring addictive disorders. Patients with schizophrenia, and with (N=66), or without (N=139) cannabis abuse, were compared for lifetime positive and negative symptoms, taking into account presence of any other addictive disorders. The incidence of the abuse of drugs other than cannabis was nearly five times greater amongst patients with both schizophrenia and cannabis abuse. When the analyses were limited to subjects with no other abuse, less avolution and fewer apathy symptoms were still detected in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis abuse than in those with no abuse (p=0.0001). In contrast, between-group differences for positive symptoms were abolished when multiple substance abuses were taken into account. The strong association between cannabis abuse and fewer negative symptoms in schizophrenia was thus replicated in this sample, but once co-morbid addictive disorders had been controlled no influence of cannabis abuse on hallucinations was detected. Distinguishing the effects of co-occurring addictive disorder(s) in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis dependence may thus be important when attempting to analyse the impact of cannabis abuse. PMID:16806837

  7. Grey Matter Changes Associated with Heavy Cannabis Use: A Longitudinal sMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Koenders, Laura; Cousijn, Janna; Vingerhoets, Wilhelmina A M; van den Brink, Wim; Wiers, Reinout W; Meijer, Carin J; Machielsen, Marise W J; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anneke E; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug worldwide. Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that chronic cannabis exposure and the development of cannabis use disorders may affect brain morphology. However, cross-sectional studies cannot make a conclusive distinction between cause and consequence and longitudinal neuroimaging studies are lacking. In this prospective study we investigate whether continued cannabis use and higher levels of cannabis exposure in young adults are associated with grey matter reductions. Heavy cannabis users (N = 20, age baseline M = 20.5, SD = 2.1) and non-cannabis using healthy controls (N = 22, age baseline M = 21.6, SD = 2.45) underwent a comprehensive psychological assessment and a T1- structural MRI scan at baseline and 3 years follow-up. Grey matter volumes (orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, striatum, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum) were estimated using the software package SPM (VBM-8 module). Continued cannabis use did not have an effect on GM volume change at follow-up. Cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up revealed consistent negative correlations between cannabis related problems and cannabis use (in grams) and regional GM volume of the left hippocampus, amygdala and superior temporal gyrus. These results suggests that small GM volumes in the medial temporal lobe are a risk factor for heavy cannabis use or that the effect of cannabis on GM reductions is limited to adolescence with no further damage of continued use after early adulthood. Long-term prospective studies starting in early adolescence are needed to reach final conclusions. PMID:27224247

  8. Grey Matter Changes Associated with Heavy Cannabis Use: A Longitudinal sMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Cousijn, Janna; Vingerhoets, Wilhelmina A. M.; van den Brink, Wim; Wiers, Reinout W.; Meijer, Carin J.; Machielsen, Marise W. J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Goudriaan, Anneke E.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug worldwide. Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that chronic cannabis exposure and the development of cannabis use disorders may affect brain morphology. However, cross-sectional studies cannot make a conclusive distinction between cause and consequence and longitudinal neuroimaging studies are lacking. In this prospective study we investigate whether continued cannabis use and higher levels of cannabis exposure in young adults are associated with grey matter reductions. Heavy cannabis users (N = 20, age baseline M = 20.5, SD = 2.1) and non-cannabis using healthy controls (N = 22, age baseline M = 21.6, SD = 2.45) underwent a comprehensive psychological assessment and a T1- structural MRI scan at baseline and 3 years follow-up. Grey matter volumes (orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, striatum, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum) were estimated using the software package SPM (VBM-8 module). Continued cannabis use did not have an effect on GM volume change at follow-up. Cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up revealed consistent negative correlations between cannabis related problems and cannabis use (in grams) and regional GM volume of the left hippocampus, amygdala and superior temporal gyrus. These results suggests that small GM volumes in the medial temporal lobe are a risk factor for heavy cannabis use or that the effect of cannabis on GM reductions is limited to adolescence with no further damage of continued use after early adulthood. Long-term prospective studies starting in early adolescence are needed to reach final conclusions. PMID:27224247

  9. Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention

  10. Cannabis and Psychopathology : Update 2004

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish

    2004-01-01

    The study of cannabis use and psychopathology remains an interesting area from both academic and pragmatic perspectives. This article provides an update on the progress made in this area over the past decade or so. Psychopathology and psychiatric syndromes associated with cannabis use that have received research attention in recent years include cannabis withdrawal, cannabis and psychotic disorders (especially schizophrenia), depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Status of a specific cannabis withdrawal syndrome and a specific ‘cannabis psychosis’ remains controversial. Current evidence indicates that there is a clinically significant association between cannabis use disorders and psychotic syndromes, depression, anxiety and possibly mild cognitive impairment. However, the nature of this association is often not clear. Several hypothesis related to the cannabis-schizophrenia association are examined. Cannabis use might be casually related to the later development of schizophrenia in an indirect way in a few heavy users, but more commonly, its use may precipitate disorders in persons who are vulnerable to developing psychosis and worsen the course of the disorder. PMID:21206788

  11. Attitudes to legalizing cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jenny; van Ours, Jan C; Grossman, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cannabis use and attitudes to legalizing the use of cannabis. Predictions from theory provide a means of learning about the roles of information, self interest and regret in explaining differences in attitudes to legalization between those who currently use, those who have used in the past and those who have never used. Our empirical investigation suggests that users have a greater awareness of cannabis not being as harmful as abstainers think it is. This may explain why individuals are more inclined to be in favor of legalizing cannabis once they have used it themselves. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037958

  12. Cannabis - the Israeli perspective.

    PubMed

    Mechoulam, Raphael

    2016-05-01

    Short overviews are presented on the historical uses of cannabis in the Middle East and on the more recent scientific and medical research on phytocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, with emphasis on research contributions from Israel. These are followed by examples of research projects and clinical trials with cannabinoids and by a short report on the regulation of medical marijuana in Israel, which at present is administered to over 22,000 patients. PMID:26426888

  13. When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

  14. Genetic counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000510.htm Genetic counseling To use the sharing features on this ... cystic fibrosis or Down syndrome. Who May Want Genetic Counseling? It is up to you whether or ...

  15. Cannabis use and the risk of developing a psychotic disorder

    PubMed Central

    HALL, WAYNE; DEGENHARDT, LOUISA

    2008-01-01

    We briefly review the evidence that cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood is a contributory cause of schizophreniform psychoses, by summarising longitudinal studies that: a) have examined relationships between cannabis use and the risk of psychosis or psychotic symptoms; and b) have controlled for potential confounders, such as other forms of drug use and personal characteristics that predict an increased risk of psychosis. There is now reasonable evidence from longitudinal studies that regular cannabis use predicts an increased risk of schizophrenia and of reporting psychotic symptoms. These relationships have persisted after controlling for confounding variables such as personal characteristics and other drug use. The relationships did not seem to be explained by cannabis being used to self-medicate symptoms of psychosis. A contributory causal relationship is biologically plausible because psychotic disorders involve disturbances in the dopamine neurotransmitter system with which the cannabinoid system interacts, as has been shown by animal studies and a human provocation study. We briefly explore the clinical and public health implications of the most plausible hypothesis, that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia in persons who are vulnerable because of a personal or family history of schizophrenia. PMID:18560513

  16. [Use of cannabis: screening strategy and evaluation of severity factors].

    PubMed

    Delile, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-15

    Cannabis consumption occupies a front place in the field of addictions in France, not only by the levels of consumption but also by the related health harms induced with a growing potentially problematic use of cannabis among young men (14% of those aged 14 to 18 in 2001). Therefore, it is not only an educational problem but also a public health issue. Harmful cannabis use must be systematically researched by history taking on the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and drugs as an integrated part of the patient's social history. The diagnostic of cannabis abuse is made by a clinical evaluation of harmful use, the frequency and quantity of consumption, the search for complications. The practitioner must also evaluate the factors of severity (modalities of consumption and parameters predictive of poor outcome like precocity of first experiences, auto-therapeutic use and the various types of individual and social vulnerability: personality characteristics, psychiatric pathology, family characteristics and social environment). The physician may also be helped by drug screening diagnostic and evaluation instruments like validated autoquestionnaires. Urinary screening can be used especially in public health or forensic medicine fields. Some situational risks must be known while cannabis intoxicated: pregnant women, mentally ill, driving, working. Finally, professionals must know that present situation is very different from what we knew in the seventies and that they have to cope with this fast moving issue. PMID:15801397

  17. Early Cannabis Use and Schizotypal Personality Disorder Symptoms from Adolescence to Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Anglin, Deidre M.; Corcoran, Cheryl; Brown, Alan; Chen, Henian; Lighty, Quenesha; Brook, Judith; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background While increasing evidence suggests that cannabis use may play a role in the development of schizophrenia in some young people, less is known about the strength and specificity of its relationship to latent schizophrenia liability, i.e., schizotypal personality disorder traits. Aims Determine the predictive value of cannabis use during childhood and early adolescence on schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) symptoms projecting into adulthood, using a community-based longitudinal cohort from upstate New York. Method Prospective data from 804 participants was used to determine associations between early cannabis use and later schizotypal symptoms, accounting for important potential confounds (e.g., adolescent schizotypal symptoms). Results Cannabis use with onset prior to age 14 strongly predicted SPD symptoms in adulthood, independent of early adolescent SPD symptoms, major depression, anxiety disorder, other drug use, and cigarette use. There was no interaction effect of early cannabis use and early adolescent SPD symptoms on SPD symptoms into adulthood. Conclusions Our data provide further support for a strong association of early cannabis use with the development of symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. As with studies in schizophrenia, early SPD symptoms could not fully explain the association of early cannabis use with later schizotypal symptoms. The mechanisms that underlie the association of cannabis use and schizotypal symptoms in a developmental context deserve further exploration. PMID:22325079

  18. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  19. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. PMID:25012035

  20. Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Clarence A.

    1971-01-01

    This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)

  1. Impact of Cannabis Use on Long-Term Remission in Bipolar I and Schizoaffective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Dodd, Seetal; Berk, Lesley; Kulkarni, Jayashri; de Castella, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Paul B.; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of regular cannabis use on long-term remission of mood symptoms in bipolar spectrum disorders. Methods The 24-month prospective observational study included patients (n=239) with bipolar I disorder and schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. Participants were classified as regular cannabis users (three times or more per week) or non-users. The primary outcome measure was the achievement of remission on the evaluations during the 24 months. Results Of the 234 participants for whom data was available, 25 (10.7%) were regular cannabis users, and the group comprised significantly more males than females. In the total population, cannabis use was significantly associated with decreased likelihood of remission during the 24-month follow-up period. Subgroup analyses showed that cannabis use was significantly associated with lower remission rates on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in females (n=139) and patients prescribed mood stabilizers alone (n=151), whereas in males (n=95) and patients prescribed olanzapine and/or a mood stabilizer (n=83), cannabis use was significantly associated with lower remission rates on the Young Mania Rating Scale. Remission rates were lowest in the concurrent cannabis and tobacco smoking group (n=22) followed by the tobacco smoking only group (n=97), and the non-smoker group (n=116). The post-hoc analysis revealed that all remission rates were significantly lower in the concurrent cannabis and the tobacco smoking group compared to the non-smoker group. Conclusion Cannabis use negatively affects the long-term clinical outcome in patients with bipolar spectrum disorders. A comprehensive assessment and integrated management of cannabis use are required to achieve better treatment outcomes for bipolar spectrum disorders. PMID:26207128

  2. Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths.

    PubMed

    Jaques, S C; Kingsbury, A; Henshcke, P; Chomchai, C; Clews, S; Falconer, J; Abdel-Latif, M E; Feller, J M; Oei, J L

    2014-06-01

    To review and summarise the literature reporting on cannabis use within western communities with specific reference to patterns of use, the pharmacology of its major psychoactive compounds, including placental and fetal transfer, and the impact of maternal cannabis use on pregnancy, the newborn infant and the developing child. Review of published articles, governmental guidelines and data and book chapters. Although cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal drugs, there is limited data about the prevalence of cannabis use in pregnant women, and it is likely that reported rates of exposure are significantly underestimated. With much of the available literature focusing on the impact of other illicit drugs such as opioids and stimulants, the effects of cannabis use in pregnancy on the developing fetus remain uncertain. Current evidence indicates that cannabis use both during pregnancy and lactation, may adversely affect neurodevelopment, especially during periods of critical brain growth both in the developing fetal brain and during adolescent maturation, with impacts on neuropsychiatric, behavioural and executive functioning. These reported effects may influence future adult productivity and lifetime outcomes. Despite the widespread use of cannabis by young women, there is limited information available about the impact perinatal cannabis use on the developing fetus and child, particularly the effects of cannabis use while breast feeding. Women who are using cannabis while pregnant and breast feeding should be advised of what is known about the potential adverse effects on fetal growth and development and encouraged to either stop using or decrease their use. Long-term follow-up of exposed children is crucial as neurocognitive and behavioural problems may benefit from early intervention aimed to reduce future problems such as delinquency, depression and substance use. PMID:24457255

  3. Cannabis in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D I; Guzman, M

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis has been used in medicine for thousands of years prior to achieving its current illicit substance status. Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, mimic the effects of the endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), activating specific cannabinoid receptors, particularly CB1 found predominantly in the central nervous system and CB2 found predominantly in cells involved with immune function. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main bioactive cannabinoid in the plant, has been available as a prescription medication approved for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and anorexia associated with the AIDS wasting syndrome. Cannabinoids may be of benefit in the treatment of cancer-related pain, possibly synergistic with opioid analgesics. Cannabinoids have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of HIV-related peripheral neuropathy, suggesting that they may be worthy of study in patients with other neuropathic symptoms. Cannabinoids have a favorable drug safety profile, but their medical use is predominantly limited by their psychoactive effects and their limited bioavailability. PMID:25777363

  4. (Re)introducing medicinal cannabis.

    PubMed

    Mather, Laurence E; Rauwendaal, Evert R; Moxham-Hall, Vivienne L; Wodak, Alex D

    2013-12-16

    • After considering extensive scientific and medical evidence, a New South Wales Legislative Council multiparty committee recommended that medicinal cannabis should lawfully be made available for selected-use pharmacotherapy. • The evidence indicates that cannabis has genuine medicinal utility in patients with certain neuropathic conditions, with acceptable levels of risk from mostly mild side effects. • The potential medical benefits of cannabis pharmacotherapy have largely been overlooked, with research and society's attention, in most parts of the world, being directed towards the hazards of its recreational use. • The NSW Government has since dismissed the unanimous and compassionate recommendations of their committee. PMID:24329652

  5. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history

    PubMed Central

    Ramaekers, J. G.; van Wel, J. H.; Spronk, D. B.; Toennes, S. W.; Kuypers, K. P. C.; Theunissen, E. L.; Verkes, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic. PMID:27225696

  6. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, J G; van Wel, J H; Spronk, D B; Toennes, S W; Kuypers, K P C; Theunissen, E L; Verkes, R J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic. PMID:27225696

  7. Cannabis: The Issue is Control.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Donald O

    2016-01-01

    Where is the national issue of cannabis (marijuana) regulation going? Recent actions at the State level are moving to guide us to a national perspective on how to control this new marketplace. PMID:26800184

  8. Synthetic cannabis and respiratory depression.

    PubMed

    Jinwala, Felecia N; Gupta, Mayank

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, synthetic cannabis use has been increasing in appeal among adolescents, and its use is now at a 30 year peak among high school seniors. The constituents of synthetic cannabis are difficult to monitor, given the drug's easy accessibility. Currently, 40 U.S. states have banned the distribution and use of some known synthetic cannabinoids, and have included these drugs in the Schedule I category. The depressive respiratory effect in humans caused by synthetic cannabis inhalation has not been thoroughly investigated in the medical literature. We are the first to report, to our knowledge, two cases of self-reported synthetic cannabis use leading to respiratory depression and necessary intubation. PMID:23234589

  9. Marijuana (Cannabis) and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and neurologic variables, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, which measures patterns of brain activity during performance of a task) while completing a test of working memory. The cannabis group performed more poorly on the ...

  10. Weeding Out the Truth: Adolescents and Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Tau, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The use of cannabis for both legal (similar to alcohol) and medical purposes is becoming more common. Although cannabis remains an illegal Schedule 1 drug federally, as of November 2015, 23 states and the District of Columbia have legalized "medical" cannabis, and 4 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for adults aged 21 years and older. It is very likely that more and more states will sooner rather than later allow cannabis for both medical and legal purposes. This review article will focus on a variety of issues relevant to the current debate about cannabis, and will address the following. PMID:26985645

  11. Psychiatric Morbidity of Cannabis Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip; Murthy, Pratima; Singh, Swaran P

    2003-01-01

    The paper evaluates the hypothesis that cannabis abuse is associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders in India, an area with relatively high prevalence of cannabis use. Retrospective case-note review of all cases with cannabis related diagnosis over a 11 -year period, for subjects presenting to a tertiary psychiatric hospital in southern India was carried out. Information pertaining to sociodemographic, personal, social, substance-use related, psychiatric and treatment histories, was gathered. Standardized diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic Criteria for Research of the World Health Organization, on the basis of information available. Cannabis abuse is associated with widespread psychiatric morbidity that spans the major categories of mental disorders under the ICD-10 system, although proportion of patients with psychotic disorders far outweighed those with non-psychotic disorders. Whilst paranoid psychoses were more prevalent, a significant number of patients with affective psychoses, particularly mania, was also noted. Besides being known as either the causative agent or a potent risk factor in cases of paranoid psychoses, cannabis appears to have similar capabilities with regard to affective psychoses, particularly in cases of mania. It is suggested that cannabis has the potential to act as a "life event stressor" amongst subjects vulnerable to develop affective psychoses and the possible aetiopathogenesis of such a finding is discussed. PMID:21206852

  12. Oral cytology in cannabis smokers.

    PubMed

    Darling, Mark R; Learmonth, Genevieve M; Arendorf, Trevor M

    2002-04-01

    The effects of cannabis/methaqualone/tobacco smoking on the epithelial cells of the tongue, buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth were examined. Oral mucosal smears for detection of cellular changes were taken from 4 sites in 16 patients. The tongue blade scraping technique was used. The sites sampled included the buccal mucosa (left and right sides), the posterior dorsum of the tongue and the anterior floor of the mouth. Tobacco smoking and non-smoking controls were also examined. The only significant difference between cannabis users and controls was the greater prevalence of bacterial cells in the smears taken from cannabis users. However, there were also greater numbers of degenerate and atypical squamous cells in cannabis smokers than in cigarette-smoking and non-smoking controls. Epithelial cells in smears taken from cannabis users and tobacco-smoking controls also showed koilocytic changes, which were not seen in smears taken from non-smoking controls. Koilocytosis is indicative of human papilloma virus infection, although no apparent lesions were seen in the patients from whom smears had been taken. It would appear that there is a greater tendency towards damaged and immature surface epithelial cells in cannabis smokers. PMID:12078330

  13. Distance to Cannabis Shops and Age of Onset of Cannabis Use.

    PubMed

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan C

    2015-11-01

    In the Netherlands, cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a mixed proportional hazard rate framework to take account of observable as well as unobservable characteristics that influence the uptake of cannabis. We find that distance matters. Individuals who grow up within 20 km of a cannabis shop have a lower age of onset. PMID:25294622

  14. Cannabis Use and Performance in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Anil; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…

  15. Mental Health Treatment Barriers among Racial/Ethnic Minority versus White Young Adults 6 Months after Intake at a College Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella; Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Wheeler, Alyssa; Moore, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined mental health treatment barriers following intake at a counseling center among racially/ethnically diverse college students. Methods: College students (N = 122) seen for intake at a college counseling center in 2012-2013 completed self-reports of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and mental health treatment…

  16. Genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Fraser, F C

    1974-09-01

    A workshop was sponsored by the National Genetics Foundation to evaluate and make recommendations about the status of genetic counseling, its goals, nature, achievements, and needs. The process of genetic workup and counseling is divided into 5 stages: validation of the diagnosis; obtaining family history; estimation of the risk of recurrence; helping the family make a decision and take appropriate action; and extending counseling to other members of the family. Counseling can be directed at individuals or at special groups with the potential of carrying such diseases as sickle cell amenia or Tay-Sachs. No consensus exists on an optimal counseling approach. Genetic counseling is regarded as a team effort, requiring, in addition to the counselor, laboratory facilities and a variety of specialists. The source of payment for genetic counseling services is regarded as a problem of increasing concern. Generally, the fee paid rarely covers the cost of the many procedures and it is suggested that the cost, like that of other public health services, should be subsidized by the state. Considerable argument exists over whether a genetic counselor must have a M.D. degree or whether a Ph. D. in medical genetics is suitable enough. The quality of much genetic counseling, which is often done in the office of doctors unskilled in the field, would be increased if better training in genetics were offered to medical students and if physicians were informed of the existence of counseling centers. Further, there is a growing feeling that some sort of accreditation of genetic counselors is desirable. PMID:4609197

  17. Fertility Preservation Knowledge, Counseling, and Actions among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Harlan, Linda C.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Lynch, Charles F.; Prasad, Pinki K.; Cress, Rosemary D.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Hamilton, Ann S.; Parsons, Helen M.; Keel, Gretchen; Charlesworth, Sarah; Schwartz, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fertility of adolescents and young adult (AYA) cancer patients can be threatened by treatments, but little is known about the extent to which providers discuss this with patients or recommend fertility preservation, or patient and physician characteristics associated with these interactions. Methods Questionnaires from 459 AYA cancer patients diagnosed 2007-2008 and recruited through seven U.S. population-based cancer registries were analyzed in sex-specific multivariable models. We assessed characteristics associated with not discussing therapy effects on fertility or fertility preservation options, and not making fertility preservation arrangements. Results Males without a medical oncologist were more likely not to be told that therapy might affect fertility than those with a medical oncologist (male odds ratio [OR]=2.28; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.03, 5.00). Individuals without insurance (male OR=2.91; 95%CI 1.41, 5.91; female OR=5.46; [95%CI] = 1.59, 18.72), raising children <18 years old, and, among males only, who received treatment posing no or low fertility risk (OR=3.39; 95%CI=1.60, 7.16) were more likely not to discuss fertility preservation with providers. Finally, among males, those without a college degree (OR=1.98; 95%CI=1.00, 3.97), lacking private insurance ([OR]=2.97; [95%CI]=1.16, 7.63), and raising children <18 years old (OR=3.53, 95%CI=1.63, 7.65) were more likely to not make fertility preservation arrangements; too few females had made fertility preservation arrangements for similar analyses. Conclusions Discussion and action surrounding fertility preservation for AYA cancer patients are associated with medical factors, patient socioeconomic and child-rearing status. These results highlight the need for insurance coverage for fertility preservation and increased awareness of fertility preservation options. PMID:26214755

  18. Pharmacological Treatment of Cannabis Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, A.M.; Gorelick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal psychoactive substance in the world. There is a significant increase in the number of treatment admissions for cannabis use disorders in the past few years, and the majority of cannabis-dependent individuals who enter treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence. Thus, there is increased need for medications that can be used to treat this population. So far, no medication has been shown broadly and consistently effective; none has been approved by any national regulatory authority. Medications studied have included those that alleviate symptoms of cannabis withdrawal (e.g., dysphoric mood, irritability), those that directly affect endogenous cannabinoid receptor function, and those that have shown efficacy in treatment of other drugs of abuse or psychiatric conditions. Buspirone is the only medication to date that has shown efficacy for cannabis dependence in a controlled clinical trial. Results from controlled human laboratory studies and small open-label clinical trials suggest that dronabinol, the COMT inhibitor entacapone, and lithium may warrant further study. Recent pre-clinical studies suggest the potential of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors such as URB597, endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes, and nicotinic alpha7 receptor antagonists such as methyllycaconitine (MLA). Controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of these medications and to validate the laboratory models being used to study candidate medications. PMID:21524266

  19. Pharmacological treatment of cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, A M; Gorelick, David A

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal psychoactive substance in the world. There is a significant increase in the number of treatment admissions for cannabis use disorders in the past few years, and the majority of cannabis-dependent individuals who enter treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence. Thus, there is increased need for medications that can be used to treat this population. So far, no medication has been shown broadly and consistently effective; none has been approved by any national regulatory authority. Medications studied have included those that alleviate symptoms of cannabis withdrawal (e.g., dysphoric mood, irritability),those that directly affect endogenous cannabinoid receptor function, and those that have shown efficacy in treatment of other drugs of abuse or psychiatric conditions. Buspirone is the only medication to date that has shown efficacy for cannabis dependence in a controlled clinical trial. Results from controlled human laboratory studies and small open-label clinical trials suggest that dronabinol, the COMT inhibitor entacapone, and lithium may warrant further study. Recent pre-clinical studies suggest the potential of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors such as URB597, endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes, and nicotinic alpha 7 receptor antagonists such as methyllycaconitine (MLA).Controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of these medications and to validate the laboratory models being used to study candidate medications. PMID:21524266

  20. Cannabis in Sport

    PubMed Central

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:21985215

  1. Genetic counseling

    MedlinePlus

    Genetics is the study of heredity, the process of a parent passing certain genes on to their ... certain diseases are also often determined by genes. Genetic counseling is the process where parents can learn ...

  2. Counseling adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yamuna, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    Skills for counseling adolescents are acquired over a period of time by all practitioners of adolescent health. Though the principles of counseling remain the same the process of counseling an adolescent differs considerably from that of a child or an adult. Adolescents are in their transition between childhood and adulthood with physical, emotional and social challenges to face. The maturity level of each adolescent differs and that decides the pace and contents of each session. The counselor sets the context in a non judgmental manner so that the adolescent feels the ease and eagerness to self disclose. Privacy and confidentiality are two key issues that have to be taken care of during counseling. PMID:23888379

  3. Cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna; Mechulam, Raphael; Lev, Lihi Bar; Konikoff, Fred M

    2014-01-01

    The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries as a treatment for a variety of ailments. It contains over 60 different cannabinoid compounds. Studies have revealed that the endocannabinoid system is involved in almost all major immune events. Cannabinoids may, therefore, be beneficial in inflammatory disorders. In murine colitis, cannabinoids decrease histologic and microscopic inflammation. In humans, cannabis has been used to treat a plethora of gastrointestinal problems, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and diabetic gastroparesis. Despite anecdotal reports on medical cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there are few controlled studies. In an observational study in 30 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), we found that medical cannabis was associated with improvement in disease activity and reduction in the use of other medications. In a more recent placebo-controlled study in 21 chronic CD patients, we showed a decrease in the CD activity index >100 in 10 of 11 subjects on cannabis compared to 4 of 10 on placebo. Complete remission was achieved in 5 of 11 subjects in the cannabis group and 1 of 10 in the placebo group. Yet, in an additional study, low-dose cannabidiol did not have an effect on CD activity. In summary, evidence is gathering that manipulating the endocannabinoid system can have beneficial effects in IBD, but further research is required to declare cannabinoids a medicine. We need to establish the specific cannabinoids, as well as appropriate medical conditions, optimal dose, and mode of administration, to maximize the beneficial effects while avoiding any potential harmful effects of cannabinoid use. PMID:24969296

  4. [Cannabis-induced cognitive and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Alain; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Laqueille, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have shown that Δ-9-THC the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, can impair cognitive functions, especially attention, episodic memory, working memory and executive functions. These impairments have been related to the duration, frequency, dose and age at onset of cannabis use. Cognitive deficits may disappear with abstinence, but abnormalities may be long-lasting in subjects who began smoking cannabis before age 15. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use disorders is about 1% in the general population. The main characteristics of cannabis use disorders are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use, and persistent avoidance of familial, social occupational or recreational activities because of cannabis use. Nine prospective longitudinal studies in the generalpopulation have shown that cannabis use is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia, compared to controls. The risk of psychosis increases in a dose-related fashion. A higher risk of schizophrenia is predicted by earlier onset of cannabis use. The effects of cannabis are exerted primarily through THC interaction with cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptors in the brain. Cannabis exposure may disrupt the last steps of brain maturation, through the endocannabinoid system, thereby increasing the risk of psychosis during adolescence. PMID:26427297

  5. Whatever Happened to Counseling in Counseling Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheel, Michael J.; Berman, Margit; Friedlander, Myrna L.; Conoley, Collie W.; Duan, Changming; Whiston, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    A suspected decline in published counseling-related research in "The Counseling Psychologist" ("TCP") and the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" ("JCP") was investigated through content analyses of the two journals from 1979 to 2008. A marked decline in counseling-related research may signify a shift in emphasis away from counseling as the most…

  6. Interactive Career Counseling on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ginger; Horan, John J.; Tompkins-Bjorkman, Amy; Kovalski, Theresa; Hackett, Gail

    2000-01-01

    Describes three interactive career counseling Internet programs based on cognitive restructuring and differential diagnosis: changing career beliefs of young women, helping parents facilitate children's career development, and altering attributions related to academic motivation for at-risk students. (SK)

  7. Implementing Injury Prevention Counseling in a Clinic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBailly, Susan A.; And Others

    While physicians should provide injury prevention counseling to parents of young children, they do not always feel they are adequately prepared to provide such counseling. An injury prevention training project was developed to train physicians in injury prevention counseling and to examine factors related to parental compliance with injury…

  8. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    PubMed

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence. PMID:25460036

  9. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  10. [Decision making in cannabis users].

    PubMed

    Alameda Bailén, Jose Ramón; Paíno Quesada, Susana; Mogedas Valladares, Ana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have shown that chronic cannabis users have cognitive impairments, including decision-making process. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the process, through the somatic marker hypothesis in a sample of 41 cannabis users compared with a control group of equal size, and to analyze the influence of age, sex, education level, age of onset and amount of daily consumption. In order to do that, the software "Cartas" (similar to the Iowa Gambling Task), was used, implementing its two versions: normal and reverse. The results show significant differences between cannabis users and control group in the normal and reverse task execution. By block analysis, the control group obtained higher scores in the normal task execution, however, in the reverse task, the differences between groups are present in the initial task execution but not final task execution. None of the analyzed variables (age, sex ...) are significantly related to task performance. These results suggest the existence of alterations in the decision making process of consumers cannabis, which may relate to the difficulty in generating somatic markers, and not for insensitivity punishments insensitivity. PMID:22648319

  11. A Genome-Wide Scan for Loci Influencing Adolescent Cannabis Dependence Symptoms: Evidence for Linkage on Chromosomes 3 and 9

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Christian J.; Lessem, Jeffrey M.; Hartman, Christie A.; Stallings, Michael C.; Cherny, Stacey S.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Krauter, Kenneth S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Smolen, Andrew; Young, Susan E.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most frequently abused illicit substance among adolescents and young adults. Genetic risk factors account for part of the variation in the development of Cannabis Dependence symptoms; however, no linkage studies have been performed for Cannabis Dependence symptoms. This study aimed to identify such loci. Method: 324 sibling pairs from 192 families were assessed for Cannabis Dependence symptoms. Probands (13-19 years of age) were recruited from consecutive admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. The siblings of the probands ranged in age from 12-25 years. A community-based sample of 4843 adolescents and young adults was utilized to define an age- and sex-corrected index of Cannabis Dependence vulnerability. DSM-IV Cannabis Dependence symptoms were assessed in youth and their family members with the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument -Substance Abuse Module. Siblings and parents were genotyped for 374 microsatellite markers distributed across the 22 autosomes (average inter-marker distance = 9.2 cM). Cannabis Dependence symptoms were analyzed using Merlin-regress, a regression-based method that is robust to sample selection. Results: Evidence for suggestive linkage was found on chromosome 3q21 near marker D3S1267 (LOD = 2.61), and on chromosome 9q34 near marker D9S1826 (LOD = 2.57). Conclusions: This is the first reported linkage study of cannabis dependence symptoms. Other reports of linkage regions for illicit substance dependence have been reported near 3q21, suggesting that this region may contain a quantitative trait loci influencing cannabis dependence and other substance use disorders. PMID:17169504

  12. Preconception Counseling.

    PubMed

    Witt, Kailey; Huntington, Mark K

    2016-03-01

    Preconception counseling is a way to discuss optimizing reproductive age women's health and chronic medical issues to facilitate the healthiest pregnancy possible. Preconception counseling is an important piece of care for reproductive aged women especially as nearly 50 percent of pregnancies in the U.S. are unplanned and important fetal development has already taken place prior to the initial obstetrics visit. Many opportunities are missed to provide this counseling; only approximately one-third of women receive it. Visits to primary care are the ideal time for this to occur. In this paper, topics to discuss will be presented along with some guides to optimizing chronic medical problems to improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27156258

  13. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  14. Psychosocial Factors Related to Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial risk and protective factors and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in a cohort of African American and Puerto Rican young adults. A representative sample (N=838) from the East Harlem area of New York City was assessed at four points in time (at mean ages 14.1, 19.2, 24.5, and 29.2). The psychosocial measures came from six domains: personality attributes, family, peer, work, neighborhood, and substance use The psychosocial measures were assessed at each of the first three waves of the study, and CUDs were assessed at the fourth and final wave of the study. Multivariate logistic regression and a cumulative risk analysis were conducted. Increased psychological symptoms (OR=1.21; 95% CI, 1.05–1.39; p<.01), problems resulting from cannabis use (OR=2.69; 95% CI, 1.33–5.46; p<.01), frequent arguments with one’s partner (OR=1.84; 95% CI, 1.09–3.10; p<.05), high levels of deviance (OR=1.81; 95% CI, 1.21–2.71; p<.01), and frequent acts of violence directed toward the participant (OR=1.19; 95% CI, 1.01–1.42; p<.05) were all associated with an increased risk for CUDs. An increase in the number of risks was associated with an increase in the probability of having CUDs at the fourth wave (again, at a mean age of 29.2). A decrease in the number of risk factors may lead to a decrease in CUDs. PMID:22014255

  15. Hampshire Probation Sports Counselling Scheme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Keith

    A sports counseling scheme for young people on criminal probation in Hampshire (England) was developed in the 1980s as a partnership between the Sports Council and the Probation Service. The scheme aims to encourage offenders, aged 14 and up, to make constructive use of their leisure time; to allow participants the opportunity to have positive…

  16. Counseling Adults for Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby

    Adult counseling is assuming increasing importance in counselor education and training. Most important is the developmental aspect of growth all through life, since adulthood is not a static period but can be as fraught with conflict and choice as childhood or adolescence. Outlines describe some important differences between young people and…

  17. The Impact of Peers and Social Disapproval on High-Risk Cannabis Use: Gender Differences and Implications for Drug Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butters, Jennifer E.

    2004-01-01

    Drug education programs that rely on an abstinence based philosophy neglect, and may even contribute to, the potentially adverse consequences experienced by young people who already engage in this potentially health-compromising behaviour. A predominant focus of drug research during the initial wave of rising cannabis use by young people in the…

  18. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. Methods The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms “cannabis” and “marijuana.” Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Results Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated “17+” years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated “high maturity” (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Conclusions Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational

  19. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  20. Position Paper: Should the Scottish National Party Support Scotland to Legalize, Decriminalize, or Prohibit Cannabis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jhaveri, Sujata

    2005-01-01

    The UK has the highest rate of cannabis use among young people worldwide. Dr. Alan Leshner, Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse reports, "Every year more than 100,000 people, most of them adolescents, seek treatment for their inability to control their marijuana use." According to the Scottish Drug Misuse Statistics in Scotland 2002,…

  1. Approche en soins primaires pour les problèmes de consommation de cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2014-01-01

    et un bref counseling, en insistant sur les effets du cannabis sur la santé et en visant l’abstinence (certains groupes à risque élevé devraient s’abstenir complètement de consommer du cannabis) ou la réduction de la consommation, et ils doivent fournir des stratégies pratiques de réduction de la consommation. Les techniques d’entrevue motivationnelle doivent faire partie des séances de counseling. Les médecins devraient aiguiller les patients qui sont incapables de réduire leur consommation ou qui présentent des problèmes liés à leur usage de cannabis vers des soins spécialisés, tout en veillant à ce qu’ils demeurent en contact avec leur généraliste. De plus, les médecins devraient donner à tous les usagers de cannabis de l’information sur la consommation à faible risque. Conclusion Les médecins devraient effectuer au moins une fois chez tous leurs patients de leur pratique un test de dépistage de l’usage de cannabis, particulièrement chez les patients qui présentent des problèmes pouvant être causés par le cannabis. Les tests de dépistage doivent être plus fréquents chez les personnes à risque, soit au moins tous les ans. Il faut savoir distinguer la consommation à faible risque de l’usage problématique. Les patients dont l’usage est problématique doivent recevoir de brèves séances de counseling et ces patients doivent être aiguillés vers un spécialiste s’ils sont incapables de réduire leur consommation ou d’y mettre un terme.

  2. Pathways to cannabis abuse: A multi-stage model from cannabis availability, cannabis initiation, and progression to abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2009-01-01

    Aims Although previous twin studies have modelled the association between drug initiation and abuse, none has included the obvious risk factor of drug availability. Our aim is to determine whether the genetic and environmental risk factors for cannabis availability also generate variation in cannabis initiation and/or progression to DSM-IV symptoms of abuse. Design We used multi-stage modelling, also known as causal-common-contingent (CCC) analysis, to partition the genetic and environmental factors into common and stage-specific components. Participants This report is based on data collected from 1767 adult males from the Mid Atlantic Twin Registry. Measurements The twins participated in two structured interviews which included clinical and non-clinical measures of cannabis abuse as well as retrospective assessments of perceived cannabis availability between ages 8 and 25. Findings Cannabis availability explained almost all of the shared environmental risks in cannabis initiation and abuse. The influence of availability on the symptoms of abuse was indirect and mediated entirely by cannabis initiatio Conclusion These findings have begun to elucidate the causal processes underlying the liability to drug use and abuse in terms of putative risk factors. Specifically, our results show that the latent shared environmental factors in cannabis initiation and abuse can be explained by measured aspects of the shared environment - those responsible for variation in cannabis availability. PMID:19207351

  3. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk. PMID:25216851

  4. Counseling Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.

    This book targeted especially to those who counsel middle-school through high school students, shares experiences, concepts, happenings, and anecdotes of a school counselor. Concepts are presented for those interested in developing functional orientations in the area of helping relationships. The first chapter discusses the concept of help and…

  5. Robin Room and cannabis policy: dangerous comparisons.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes Robin Room's contribution to cannabis policy debates over the period 1993-2010. It focuses on a controversy that erupted over a review that Room and the author undertook for the World Health Organization in the mid-1990s on the comparative harms of cannabis, alcohol, opiates and tobacco. It also briefly describes Room's recent work on global cannabis policy and ends with a brief appreciation of the character of his scholarly contributions to this field. PMID:25395172

  6. Cannabis Exposure in an Omani Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shidhani, Thuraya A.; Arora, Vinita

    2011-01-01

    We report a confirmed case of cannabis exposure in an Omani female child with developmental delay. Cannabis exposure in children can lead to many consequences; for example, chronic use can result in developmental delay, abnormal behaviour, and hyperactivity while there is a risk of coma with acute exposure. It is important for clinicians to consider substance abuse as a differential diagnosis for similar presentations in paediatric patients, noting that children are at risk of cannabis exposure if their parents/caregivers are cannabis users. PMID:22087402

  7. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-01

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit. PMID:26216862

  8. Therapeutic benefits of cannabis: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Webb, Charles W; Webb, Sandra M

    2014-04-01

    Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis ("marijuana") has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai'i. The response rate was 94%. Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain. Average pain improvement on a 0-10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain. Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai'i. No serious adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription. PMID:24765558

  9. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  10. Counseling Dual Career Families: Heterosexual and Lesbian Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Natalie S.

    Young women now have more freedom to shape themselves than young women anywhere or at any time in history. In counseling women for dual-career families the real and imagined difficulties must be addressed and their courage and self-conviction strengthened, not undermined. Especially crucial to the counseling process with these women is an…

  11. Abortion counseling and the school counselor.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J A; Moffett, C F

    1974-01-01

    The Supreme Court decision of January 22, 1973, legalizing abortion now requires school counselors to examine both their personal and professional positions on abortion information and abortion counseling. To date a review of school counseling literature reveals a failure to deal with abortion as a counseling issue. Also, schools have failed to develop official policies regarding abortion counseling and the distribution of abortion information. The counselors who have provided abortion information to date have done so at the request of a student or parent rather than by making the information generally available. A study in 1973 in Virginia, however, revealed that Virginia counselor educators believed that there was a need for counselors in training to be exposed to abortion information as part of their formal training experience. Generally, today's present exposure to abortion information makes it impossible for counselors to continue to ignore a growing demand for both abortion information and counseling. School counselors must deal with the following questions: 1) What course of action should school counselors take when a pregnant young seeks counseling on alternatives to pregnancy continuation? 2) What is the counselor's professional role in abortion counseling with respect to his or her personal feelings and beliefs? 3) What kind of training if any should school counselors receive regarding abortion counseling? 4) Is there a need for in-service training on abortion counseling for school counselors? 5) Should various professional organizations develop materials that would assist their members in providing abortion counseling? 6) Should institutions such as schools, churches, and community agencies establish policies concerning abortion counseling? Although the answers are not simple, the school counselors and their professional organizations must begin to develop the answers in order to provide good counseling services to young women exercising their right to

  12. Vocational Guidance and Counselling: On the Way to "Euro-Counselling"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chome, Gesa, Ed.; Koditz, Volker, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    European cooperation in vocational counseling is today no longer a matter for specialists alone. Parents, teachers, and trainers are increasingly finding themselves confronted with young people considering the option of taking a traineeship or employment abroad. The counseling available in such cases, however, is often still inadequate. A large…

  13. Combined cannabis/methaqualone withdrawal treated with psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Mark A; Harker, Nadine; Lichtigfeld, Frederick J

    2006-07-01

    This article reports the first single-blind study using psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide (PAN) for treating acute withdrawal states following the abuse of methaqualone combined and smoked with cannabis. Smoked methaqualone combined with cannabis is called "white pipe" (WP). South Africa is the only country in the world where WP is a major form of substance abuse. This article demonstrates in 101 consecutively treated patients given placebo (100% oxygen) followed by PAN that this therapy produced a measurable therapeutic effect (more than 50% improvement) in 87 patients. This study confirms that WP is a form of substance abuse confined mainly to young adult male subjects. PMID:16861151

  14. [Therapeutic use of cannabis derivatives].

    PubMed

    Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The therapeutic use of cannabis has generated a lot of interest in the past years, leading to a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. Countries like the United States and Canada have modified their laws in order to make cannabinoid use legal in the medical context. It's also the case in France now, where a recent decree was issued, authorizing the prescription of medication containing "therapeutic cannabis" (decree no. 2013-473, June 5, 2013). Cannabinoids such as dronabinol, Sativex and nabilone have been tested for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. These agents are most promising to relieve chronic pain associated with cancer, with human immunodeficiency virus infection and with multiple sclerosis. However, longer-term studies are required to determine potential long-term adverse effects and risks of misuse and addiction. PMID:24701869

  15. Epigenetic Effects of Cannabis Exposure.

    PubMed

    Szutorisz, Henrietta; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2016-04-01

    The past decade has witnessed a number of societal and political changes that have raised critical questions about the long-term impact of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) that are especially important given the prevalence of its abuse and that potential long-term effects still largely lack scientific data. Disturbances of the epigenome have generally been hypothesized as the molecular machinery underlying the persistent, often tissue-specific transcriptional and behavioral effects of cannabinoids that have been observed within one's lifetime and even into the subsequent generation. Here, we provide an overview of the current published scientific literature that has examined epigenetic effects of cannabinoids. Though mechanistic insights about the epigenome remain sparse, accumulating data in humans and animal models have begun to reveal aberrant epigenetic modifications in brain and the periphery linked to cannabis exposure. Expansion of such knowledge and causal molecular relationships could help provide novel targets for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:26546076

  16. Medical Cannabis in Arizona: Patient Characteristics, Perceptions, and Impressions of Medical Cannabis Legalization.

    PubMed

    Troutt, William D; DiDonato, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Many advances have been made toward understanding the benefits of medical cannabis. However, less is known about medical cannabis patients themselves. Prior research has uncovered many important patient characteristics, but most of that work has been conducted with participants in California, who may not represent medical cannabis patients throughout the United States. Furthermore, it is unknown if medical cannabis legalization, which typically imposes strict regulations on cannabis cultivation and sale, impacts patients' experiences acquiring and using cannabis. The goal of this study was to address these limitations by (1) examining the characteristics, perceptions, and behaviors of medical cannabis patients in Arizona; and (2) questioning participants with a history of cannabis use regarding their experiences with cannabis before and after legalization. Patients in Arizona share many characteristics with those in California, but also key differences, such as average age and degree of cannabis consumption. Participants also had positive perceptions of the effect of medical cannabis legalization, reporting that feelings of safety and awareness were higher after legalization compared to before. The results are discussed in relation to evidence from patients in other states and in terms of their potential policy implications. PMID:26317379

  17. [Clinical prognosis of schizophrenic patients with cannabis addiction. Between nihilism and hope].

    PubMed

    Schnell, T

    2014-09-01

    Comorbid substance use disorders in schizophrenia are mostly associated with an unfavorable course of the disease and with difficulties in clinical management. Therefore, some therapists tend to react to these patients in a resigned manner. However, there is growing evidence for higher cognitive functioning and less severe deficits in brain morphology of these patients compared to patients without cannabis use. A common interpretation refers to relatively low vulnerability for psychosis in some of these patients, who mainly became schizophrenic because of the pro-psychotic properties of cannabis. Low vulnerability is reflected by a higher cognitive functioning; therefore, the pessimistic view of therapists seems unjustified for at least a subgroup of young patients. Provided that patients are treated in adequate therapeutic settings and that they stop using cannabis, a lower vulnerability may be associated with overall better socio-rehabilitative outcome parameters. PMID:24343109

  18. Determining the Need for Vocational Counselling among Different Target Groups of Young People under 28 Years of Age in the European Community. Young People's Need for Vocational Guidance in Greece. The Young Population in General. Young People Who Leave School without Completing Compulsory Education. Young Women with No Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanni-Teliopoulou, Kassandra; Stathakopoulou, Penelope

    A study examined the vocational guidance needs of young people in Greece. Available literature on the following topics was reviewed: transitions of young people to economically active life; available vocational guidance services; transitions of youth from education to work; youths who abandon compulsory education; and young women with…

  19. Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, jumps up from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  20. Recreational cannabis use: pleasures and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Rella, Joseph G

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis is widely used for a variety of reasons, and its changing legal status may foster more new users. Although the acute clinical effects of cannabis are generally benign, clinicians should be aware of health complications and testing limitations. PMID:26540327

  1. Cannabis-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Howaizi, Mehran; Chahine, Mouhamad; Haydar, Fadi; Jemaa, Yassine; Lapoile, Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis has a large number of causes. Major causes are alcohol and gallstones. Toxic causes, mainly represented by medication-induced pancreatitis account for less than 2% of the cases. Cannabis is an anecdotally reported cause of acute pancreatitis. Six cases have previously been reported. Herein we report a new case of cannabis-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:23402090

  2. Quality of Web-Based Information on Cannabis Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…

  3. Cannabis and driving: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, Carl J; Tutt, Douglas C; Bauer, Lyndon A

    2002-09-01

    Cannabis and driving is an emerging injury-prevention concern. The incidence of driving while affected by cannabis is rising in parallel with increased cannabis use in the community. Younger drivers are at particular risk. Improvements in research methodology, technology and laboratory testing methods have occurred in the last 10 years. These cast doubt on earlier results and conclusions. Studies now show that cannabis has a significant impairing effect on driving when used alone and that this effect is exaggerated when combined with alcohol. Of particular concern is the presence of cannabis as the sole psychoactive drug in an increasing number of road fatalities and the lack of any structural response to this problem. A review of testing methods, laboratory and real driving studies, and recent epidemiological studies is presented. Suggestions for methods of further data collection and future public policy are made. PMID:12487047

  4. Cannabis and neuropsychiatry, 1: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep. On the flip side, cannabinoids and cannabis have acute and long-term adverse effects. In randomized controlled trials, cannabinoids increase the risk of total adverse events, serious adverse events, and dropout due to adverse events. Cannabis impairs cognition, and driving after cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, including fatal accidents. Long-term cannabis use may lead to dependence, respiratory conditions, psychosis, and possibly cancer, as well. Cannabis use during pregnancy may compromise certain pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth, and use during adolescence may compromise neurodevelopment, social adjustment, and vocational success. The composition and bioavailability of cannabis vary across preparations of the substance and routes of administration; this limits the ability to generalize the findings of studies. The findings of older research may no longer apply to current strains of cannabis that are higher in psychotogenic content. It is important for medical professionals and the lay public to understand the limitations of the efficacy data and the seriousness of the risks associated with cannabis use in medical and recreational contexts. PMID:27249079

  5. Cognitive bias and drug craving in recreational cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Field, Matt; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P

    2004-04-01

    Recent theories propose that repeated drug use is associated with attentional and evaluative biases for drug-related stimuli, and that these cognitive biases are related to individual differences in subjective craving. This study investigated cognitive biases for cannabis-related cues in recreational cannabis users. Seventeen regular cannabis users and 16 non-users completed a visual probe task which assessed attentional biases for cannabis-related words, and an implicit association test (IAT) which assessed implicit positive or negative associations for cannabis-related words. Results from the IAT indicated more negative associations for cannabis-related words in non-users compared to users. Among cannabis users, those with high levels of cannabis craving had a significant attentional bias for cannabis-related words on the visual probe task, but those with low levels of craving did not. Results highlight the role of craving in attentional biases for cannabis-related stimuli. PMID:15072814

  6. Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms in Non-Treatment-Seeking Adult Cannabis Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Kenneth H.; Copersino, Marc L.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Liu, Fang; Kelly, Deanna L.; Boggs, Douglas L.; Gorelick, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cannabis withdrawal is not recognized in DSM-IV because of doubts about its clinical significance. Objectives Assess the phenomenon of cannabis withdrawal and its relationship to relapse in non-treatment-seeking adults. Subjects Convenience sample of 469 adult cannabis smokers who had made a quit attempt while not in a controlled environment. Methods Subjects completed a 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire collecting information on sociodemographic characteristics, cannabis use history, and their “most difficult” cannabis quit attempt. Results 42.4% of subjects had experienced a lifetime withdrawal syndrome, of whom 70.4% reported using cannabis in response to withdrawal. During the index quit attempt, 95.5% of subjects reported ≥1 individual withdrawal symptom (mean [SD] 9.5 [6.1], median 9.0); 43.1% reported ≥10. Number of withdrawal symptoms was significantly associated with greater frequency and amount of cannabis use, but symptoms occurred even in those using less than weekly. Symptoms were usually of ≥ moderate intensity and often prompted actions to relieve them. Alcohol (41.5 %) and tobacco (48.2%) were used more often than cannabis (33.3%) for this purpose. There was little change during withdrawal in use of other legal or illegal substances. Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is a common syndrome among adults not seeking treatment. The intention to relieve withdrawal symptoms can drive relapse during quit attempts, giving cannabis withdrawal clinical significance as a target of treatment. PMID:20510550

  7. Cannabis cue reactivity and craving among never, infrequent and heavy cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

    2014-04-01

    Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed. PMID:24264815

  8. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  9. Risk-Taking, Harm and Help-Seeking: Reported by Young People in Treatment at a Youth Alcohol and Drug Counselling Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cassandra; Kelly, John

    2012-01-01

    Regarded as a normative component of development, risk-taking by young people is a well-researched subject, and some risk-taking behaviours, such as substance use, are particularly well covered because of their potential to adversely affect health and wellbeing. What has remained unclear is the extent of young people's risk-taking while engaged in…

  10. The Moderating Effects of Cannabis Use and Decision Making on the Relationship between Conduct Disorder and Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J. Megan; Coxe, Stefany; Schuster, Randi M.; Rojas, Angelica; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a current public health concern affecting adolescents and young adults. Conduct disorder, cannabis use and decision making (DM) ability are interrelated constructs that are relevant to RSB; however, there is little research on the association of DM and RSB. Participants were 79 cannabis users assessed through self-report measures of RSB and mental health, and a timeline follow-back procedure for substance use. DM ability was assessed via the Iowa Gambling Task. We found that more conduct disorder symptoms accounted for unique variance in measures of overall RSB and an earlier initiation of oral sex, even when taking into account DM and cannabis use. Amount of cannabis use and DM ability moderated the relationships between number of conduct disorder symptoms and number of oral sex partners and age of initiation for vaginal sex. An increase in conduct disorder symptoms was associated with more oral sex partners when DM was poor and fewer partners when DM was better, however this relationship was only present at higher levels of cannabis use. Furthermore, when DM was poor, more conduct disorder symptoms predicted a younger age of initiation of vaginal sex, with the age decreasing as amount of cannabis use increased. Determining how DM influences RSB may assist in the identification of novel treatment approaches to reduce engagement in RSB. PMID:25832553

  11. Self-medication of achalasia with cannabis, complicated by a cannabis use disorder.

    PubMed

    Luquiens, Amandine; Lourenco, Nelson; Benyamina, Amine; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2015-05-28

    Achalasia is a rare esophagus motility disorder. Medical, endoscopic and surgical treatments are available, but all endorse high relapse rates. No data has been published to date reporting a therapeutic effect of cannabis use neither in achalasia nor on its influence on manometric measurements. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with achalasia. He could benefit from a large panel of therapeutic interventions, but none of them was effective over the time. He first used cannabis at age 20 and identified benefits regarding achalasia symptoms. He maintained regular moderate cannabis use for 9 years, with minimal digestive inconvenience. A manometry performed without cannabis premedication was realized at age 26 and still found a cardiospasm. Cannabis use could explain the gap between functional symptoms assessment and manometry measurement. Further investigations are warranted to explore a therapeutic effect of cannabis in achalasia and possible influence on outcome measurements. PMID:26034374

  12. Self-medication of achalasia with cannabis, complicated by a cannabis use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Luquiens, Amandine; Lourenco, Nelson; Benyamina, Amine; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophagus motility disorder. Medical, endoscopic and surgical treatments are available, but all endorse high relapse rates. No data has been published to date reporting a therapeutic effect of cannabis use neither in achalasia nor on its influence on manometric measurements. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with achalasia. He could benefit from a large panel of therapeutic interventions, but none of them was effective over the time. He first used cannabis at age 20 and identified benefits regarding achalasia symptoms. He maintained regular moderate cannabis use for 9 years, with minimal digestive inconvenience. A manometry performed without cannabis premedication was realized at age 26 and still found a cardiospasm. Cannabis use could explain the gap between functional symptoms assessment and manometry measurement. Further investigations are warranted to explore a therapeutic effect of cannabis in achalasia and possible influence on outcome measurements. PMID:26034374

  13. Assessing topographical orientation skills in cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Liana; Bianchini, Filippo; Iaria, Giuseppe; Tanzilli, Antonio; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The long-term effects of cannabis on human cognition are still unclear, but, considering that cannabis is a widely used substance and, overall, its potential use in therapeutic interventions, it is important to evaluate them. We hypothesize that the discrepancies among studies could be attributed to the specific cognitive function investigated and that skills subserved by the hippocampus, such as the spatial orientation abilities and, specifically, the ability to form and use cognitive maps, should be more compromised than others. Indeed it has been showed that cannabis users have a reduced hippocampus and that the hippocampus is the brain region in which cannabis has the greatest effect since it contains the highest concentration of cannabinoid receptors. To test this hypothesis we asked 15 heavy cannabis users and 19 nonusers to perform a virtual navigational test, the CMT, that assesses the ability to form and use cognitive maps. We found that using cannabis has no effect on these hippocampus-dependent orientation skills. We discuss the implications of our findings and how they relate to evidence reported in the literature that the intervention of functional reorganization mechanisms in cannabis user allows them to cope with the cognitive demands of navigational tasks. PMID:22272167

  14. Assessing Topographical Orientation Skills in Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Liana; Bianchini, Filippo; Iaria, Giuseppe; Tanzilli, Antonio; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The long-term effects of cannabis on human cognition are still unclear, but, considering that cannabis is a widely used substance and, overall, its potential use in therapeutic interventions, it is important to evaluate them. We hypothesize that the discrepancies among studies could be attributed to the specific cognitive function investigated and that skills subserved by the hippocampus, such as the spatial orientation abilities and, specifically, the ability to form and use cognitive maps, should be more compromised than others. Indeed it has been showed that cannabis users have a reduced hippocampus and that the hippocampus is the brain region in which cannabis has the greatest effect since it contains the highest concentration of cannabinoid receptors. To test this hypothesis we asked 15 heavy cannabis users and 19 nonusers to perform a virtual navigational test, the CMT, that assesses the ability to form and use cognitive maps. We found that using cannabis has no effect on these hippocampus-dependent orientation skills. We discuss the implications of our findings and how they relate to evidence reported in the literature that the intervention of functional reorganization mechanisms in cannabis user allows them to cope with the cognitive demands of navigational tasks. PMID:22272167

  15. Utilizing Current Counseling Theory in Elementary Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Howard V.

    This paper discusses the comparative newness of elementary school counseling, and the need to develop theoretical bases which, of course, are psychologically and educationally sound. Various theoretical models which have meaning for elementary counseling are considered. These include: (1) developmental and/or growth counseling theory which…

  16. Counseling Psychology and Professional School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical, political, and organizational analysis regarding counseling psychology's involvement in professional school counseling. Issues discussed include collaboration, curriculum and training, and professional identity, as well as the commonalities that bind counselor education/professional school counseling and…

  17. Factors for Personal Counseling among Counseling Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, J. Stephen; Shufelt, Brett

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the use of counseling among counselor trainees and the characteristics of consumers and nonconsumers. Approximately 61% of those surveyed (n = 85) reported that they had received counseling, with the majority being mental health counseling trainees. Nonconsumers (n = 54) indicated that they coped with problems in other…

  18. Cannabis Use Frequency and Use-Related Impairment among African American and White Users: The Impact of Cannabis Use Motives

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonia M.; Dean, Kimberlye E.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cannabis use motives are differentially related to cannabis-related impairment and coping motives appear to have the strongest relation to use-related impairment. However, it is currently unknown whether African American individuals differ from White persons in reasons for using cannabis. It is also unknown whether motives’ relations to cannabis use and related impairment vary as a function of race. The present study examined the role of race on cannabis use motives and tested whether motives’ relations with cannabis use and related impairment differed by race. Design The sample consisted of 111 (67.6% non-Hispanic White, 32.4% African American) current cannabis-using adults. Results African American participants did not significantly differ from White participants on cannabis use frequency or use-related impairment. African American participants endorsed more social motives than White participants. Race interacted with social, coping, and conformity motives to predict cannabis-related impairment such that these motives were positively related to cannabis impairment among African American, but not White, participants. Conclusion Although African American and White participants do not differ in their cannabis use frequency or cannabis-related impairment, they appear to use cannabis for different reasons. Further, conformity, coping, and social motives were differentially associated with cannabis-related impairment as a function of race. Findings suggest motives for cannabis use should be contexualized in the context of race. PMID:26264291

  19. Cannabis Liberalization and Adolescent Cannabis Use: A Cross-National Study in 38 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuyan; Lenzi, Michela; An, Ruopeng

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the associations between types of cannabis control policies at country level and prevalence of adolescent cannabis use. Setting, Participants and Design Multilevel logistic regressions were performed on 172,894 adolescents 15 year of age who participated in the 2001/2002, 2005/2006, or 2009/2010 cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey in 38 European and North American countries. Measures Self-reported cannabis use status was classified into ever use in life time, use in past year, and regular use. Country-level cannabis control policies were categorized into a dichotomous measure (whether or not liberalized) as well as 4 detailed types (full prohibition, depenalization, decriminalization, and partial prohibition). Control variables included individual-level sociodemographic characteristics and country-level economic characteristics. Findings Considerable intra-class correlations (.15-.19) were found at country level. With respect to the dichotomized cannabis control policy, adolescents were more likely to ever use cannabis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, p = .001), use in past year (OR = 1.09, p = .007), and use regularly (OR = 1.26, p = .004). Although boys were substantially more likely to use cannabis, the correlation between cannabis liberalization and cannabis use was smaller in boys than in girls. With respect to detailed types of policies, depenalization was associated with higher odds of past-year use (OR = 1.14, p = .013) and regular use (OR = 1.23, p = .038), and partial prohibition was associated with higher odds of regular use (OR = 2.39, p = .016). The correlation between cannabis liberalization and regular use was only significant after the policy had been introduced for more than 5 years. Conclusions Cannabis liberalization with depenalization and partial prohibition policies was associated with higher levels of regular cannabis use among adolescents. The correlations were heterogeneous between genders and

  20. INVESTIGATION OF SEX-DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF CANNABIS IN DAILY CANNABIS SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ziva D.; Haney, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background Women exhibit an accelerated progression from first cannabis use to cannabis use disorder (CUD) and show pronounced negative clinical issues related to CUD relative to men. Whether sex-dependent differences in cannabis’ direct effects contribute to the heightened risk in women is unknown. This analysis directly compared cannabis’ abuse-related subjective effects in men and women matched for current cannabis use. Methods Data from four double-blind, within-subject studies measuring the effects of active cannabis (3.27–5.50% THC, depending on study) relative to inactive cannabis (0.00% THC) were combined for this analysis. Data from equal numbers of men and women from each study matched for current cannabis use were pooled (total n = 35 men; 35 women); cannabis’ effects were analyzed according to cannabis condition (active versus inactive) and sex. Results Active cannabis produced more robust subjective effects associated with abuse liability (‘Good,’ ‘Liking,’ ‘Take Again’) and intoxication (‘High,’ ‘Stimulated’) relative to inactive cannabis (p • 0.0001). Women reported higher ratings of abuse-related effects [‘Take Again’ and ‘Good’ (p • 0.05)] relative to men under active cannabis conditions but did not differ in ratings of intoxication. Active cannabis increased heart rate (p • 0.0001) equally for both sexes. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that when matched for cannabis use, women are more sensitive to the subjective effects related to cannabis’ abuse liability relative to men, which may contribute to the enhanced vulnerability to developing CUD. Thus, sex is an important variable to consider when assessing the development of CUD. PMID:24440051

  1. Cannabis receptor haplotype associated with fewer cannabis dependence symptoms in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Christian J; Young, Susan E; Purcell, Shaun; Crowley, Thomas J; Stallings, Michael C; Corley, Robin P; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Smolen, Andrew; Krauter, Ken; Hewitt, John K; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2006-12-01

    Cannabis is a major substance of abuse, and the gene encoding for the central cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) is a logical candidate gene for vulnerability toward developing symptoms of cannabis dependence. We studied four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CNR1 gene for association with having one or more symptoms of cannabis dependence in 541 adolescent subjects who had all tried cannabis five or more times. Cases (327) were defined as those who had tried marijuana and developed one or more symptoms, and controls (214) as those who had tried marijuana but developed no dependence symptoms. Cannabis dependence symptoms were assessed in these youth when they were 17 or older with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview--Substance Abuse Module. Univariate (single-marker) association tests demonstrated that SNP rs806380, located in intron 2 of the CNR1 gene, was significantly associated with developing one or more cannabis dependence symptoms, with the G allele having a protective effect (P < 0.02). This was consistent with the results of the global haplotype test (P < 0.01). One of the common haplotypes examined (present in 21% of the subjects) was significantly associated with a lower rate of having one or more cannabis dependence symptoms. Our findings provide evidence suggesting that a common CNR1 haplotype is associated with developing fewer cannabis dependence symptoms among adolescents who have experimented with cannabis. PMID:16917946

  2. E-Cigarettes: A Review of New Trends in Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Giroud, Christian; de Cesare, Mariangela; Berthet, Aurélie; Varlet, Vincent; Concha-Lozano, Nicolas; Favrat, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has given cannabis smokers a new method of inhaling cannabinoids. E-cigs differ from traditional marijuana cigarettes in several respects. First, it is assumed that vaporizing cannabinoids at lower temperatures is safer because it produces smaller amounts of toxic substances than the hot combustion of a marijuana cigarette. Recreational cannabis users can discretely “vape” deodorized cannabis extracts with minimal annoyance to the people around them and less chance of detection. There are nevertheless several drawbacks worth mentioning: although manufacturing commercial (or homemade) cannabinoid-enriched electronic liquids (e-liquids) requires lengthy, complex processing, some are readily on the Internet despite their lack of quality control, expiry date, and conditions of preservation and, above all, any toxicological and clinical assessment. Besides these safety problems, the regulatory situation surrounding e-liquids is often unclear. More simply ground cannabis flowering heads or concentrated, oily THC extracts (such as butane honey oil or BHO) can be vaped in specially designed, pen-sized marijuana vaporizers. Analysis of a commercial e-liquid rich in cannabidiol showed that it contained a smaller dose of active ingredient than advertised; testing our laboratory-made, purified BHO, however, confirmed that it could be vaped in an e-cig to deliver a psychoactive dose of THC. The health consequences specific to vaping these cannabis preparations remain largely unknown and speculative due to the absence of comprehensive, robust scientific studies. The most significant health concerns involve the vaping of cannabinoids by children and teenagers. E-cigs could provide an alternative gateway to cannabis use for young people. Furthermore, vaping cannabinoids could lead to environmental and passive contamination. PMID:26308021

  3. E-Cigarettes: A Review of New Trends in Cannabis Use.

    PubMed

    Giroud, Christian; de Cesare, Mariangela; Berthet, Aurélie; Varlet, Vincent; Concha-Lozano, Nicolas; Favrat, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has given cannabis smokers a new method of inhaling cannabinoids. E-cigs differ from traditional marijuana cigarettes in several respects. First, it is assumed that vaporizing cannabinoids at lower temperatures is safer because it produces smaller amounts of toxic substances than the hot combustion of a marijuana cigarette. Recreational cannabis users can discretely "vape" deodorized cannabis extracts with minimal annoyance to the people around them and less chance of detection. There are nevertheless several drawbacks worth mentioning: although manufacturing commercial (or homemade) cannabinoid-enriched electronic liquids (e-liquids) requires lengthy, complex processing, some are readily on the Internet despite their lack of quality control, expiry date, and conditions of preservation and, above all, any toxicological and clinical assessment. Besides these safety problems, the regulatory situation surrounding e-liquids is often unclear. More simply ground cannabis flowering heads or concentrated, oily THC extracts (such as butane honey oil or BHO) can be vaped in specially designed, pen-sized marijuana vaporizers. Analysis of a commercial e-liquid rich in cannabidiol showed that it contained a smaller dose of active ingredient than advertised; testing our laboratory-made, purified BHO, however, confirmed that it could be vaped in an e-cig to deliver a psychoactive dose of THC. The health consequences specific to vaping these cannabis preparations remain largely unknown and speculative due to the absence of comprehensive, robust scientific studies. The most significant health concerns involve the vaping of cannabinoids by children and teenagers. E-cigs could provide an alternative gateway to cannabis use for young people. Furthermore, vaping cannabinoids could lead to environmental and passive contamination. PMID:26308021

  4. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    PubMed Central

    Faeh, David; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Chiolero, Arnaud; Warren, Wick; Bovet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors") are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey). The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92%) of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI) was 30% (26–34)/21% (18–25) for smoking, 49% (45–54)/48% (43–52) for drinking, and 17% (15–20)/8% (6–10) for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P < 0.001). Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs. PMID:16803621

  5. Counseling Torture Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Shaun R.

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the psychological effects of torture (including solitary confinement) and the implications of torture for counseling and the counseling psychology profession. Discusses counseling issues related to diagnosis of torture victims, treatment, special considerations for counselors, use of testimony as counseling technique, and prognosis.…

  6. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  7. Cannabis use, schizotypy, and negative priming.

    PubMed

    Albertella, Lucy; Le Pelley, Mike E; Copeland, Jan

    2015-08-30

    The present study examined the effects of frequency of cannabis use, schizotypy, and age on cognitive control, as measured using a location-based negative priming task in a sample of 124 Australians aged 15-24 who had ever used cannabis. This study found that the schizotypy dimension of Impulsive Nonconformity had a significant effect on negative priming such that participants with higher scores on this dimension showed reduced negative priming. Also, higher levels of psychological distress were associated with greater negative priming. Finally, there was a significant age by cannabis use interaction indicating that younger, frequent users of cannabis may be more susceptible to its effects on cognitive control and perhaps at greater risk of developing a disorder on the psychosis dimension. PMID:26154815

  8. Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

  9. The influence of cannabis motives on alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco use among treatment-seeking cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study evaluated the effects of cannabis motives on multi-substance use in an effort to examine the incremental validity of cannabis motives with respect to substance use outcomes. Methods Participants were 167 treatment-seeking smokers (41.92% female; Mage = 28.74; SD = 11.88) who reported smoking an average of 10 or more cigarettes daily for at least one year. Results Structural equation modeling was used to examine the association between cannabis motives and two dependent variables each for alcohol (drinking frequency and alcohol problems), cannabis (cannabis use frequency and cannabis problems), and tobacco (average cigarettes per day and nicotine dependence). Findings indicated that conformity motives were linked with increases in alcohol problems and cannabis problems. Enhancement motives were associated with increased cannabis use and cannabis problems. Coping motives were linked with increased cannabis use and cannabis problems. Contrary to expectations, expansion motives were associated with reductions in the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Also, results supported expectations that the observed effects due to cannabis motives were unique from shared variance with theoretically relevant covariates. Conclusions The present findings supported predictions that cannabis motives would evince effects on the use of multiple substances over and above theoretically relevant variables. However, results indicate that the relationship between cannabis motives and multi-substance use is complex, and therefore, additional research is warranted to better understand substance use intervention. PMID:25481854

  10. Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. Quality of evidence We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Main message Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective “high” (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to “cannabinoid” clinics (level

  11. Significance of cannabis use to dental practice.

    PubMed

    Maloney, William James

    2011-04-01

    The illicit use of the three main forms of cannabis-marijuana, hash, hash oil-pose certain obstacles and challenges to the dental professional. There are a number of systemic, as well as oral/head and neck manifestations, associated with cannabis use. Dentists need to be aware of these manifestations in order to take whatever precautions and/or modifications to the proposed treatment that might be necessary. PMID:21735870

  12. Significance of cannabis use to dental practice.

    PubMed

    Maloney, William James

    2012-01-01

    The illicit use of the three main forms of cannabis--marijuana, hash, hash oil--pose certain obstacles and challenges to the dental professional. There are a number of systemic, as well as oral/head and neck manifestations, associated with cannabis use. Dentists need to be aware of these manifestations in order to take whatever precautions and/or modifications to the proposed treatment that might be necessary. PMID:22474927

  13. Significance of cannabis use to dental practice.

    PubMed

    Maloney, William James

    2011-11-01

    The illicit use of the three main forms of cannabis--marijuana, hash, hash oil--pose certain obstacles and challenges to the dental professional. There are a number of systemic, as well as oral/head and neck manifestations, associated with cannabis use. Dentists need to be aware of these manifestations in order to take whatever precautions and/or modifications to the proposed treatment that might be necessary. PMID:22235566

  14. Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Wouter; Van Damme, Patrick; Meert, Natalie

    2011-10-10

    Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for. PMID:21737218

  15. Cannabis microbiome sequencing reveals several mycotoxic fungi native to dispensary grade Cannabis flowers

    PubMed Central

    McKernan, Kevin; Spangler, Jessica; Zhang, Lei; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Helbert, Yvonne; Foss, Theodore; Smith, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control estimates 128,000 people in the U.S. are hospitalized annually due to food borne illnesses. This has created a demand for food safety testing targeting the detection of pathogenic mold and bacteria on agricultural products. This risk extends to medical Cannabis and is of particular concern with inhaled, vaporized and even concentrated Cannabis products . As a result, third party microbial testing has become a regulatory requirement in the medical and recreational Cannabis markets, yet knowledge of the Cannabis microbiome is limited. Here we describe the first next generation sequencing survey of the fungal communities found in dispensary based Cannabis flowers by ITS2 sequencing, and demonstrate the sensitive detection of several toxigenic Penicillium and Aspergillus species, including P. citrinum and P. paxilli, that were not detected by one or more culture-based methods currently in use for safety testing. PMID:27303623

  16. Counseling Seriously Ill Children: Use of Spontaneous Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoia, Judi; Allan, John

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some of the literature on seriously ill children and the use of art in counseling these children. Discusses self-concept, spontaneous drawings, and counseling techniques. Presents and comments on artwork produced in the last 18 months of the life of a young girl with leukemia. (ABL)

  17. Does the “Gateway” Sequence Increase Prediction of Cannabis Use Disorder Development Beyond Deviant Socialization? Implications for Prevention Practice and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Kirisci, Levent; Mezzich, Ada; Ridenour, Ty; Fishbein, Diana; Horner, Michelle; Reynolds, Maureen; Kirillova, Galina; Vanyukov, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to test whether non-normative socialization mediates the association between transmissible risk measured in childhood and cannabis use disorder manifested by young adulthood, and whether the sequence of drug use initiation (“gateway”, i.e., consuming legal drugs before cannabis, or the reverse) increases accuracy of prediction of cannabis use disorder. Methods Sons of fathers with or without substance use disorders (SUD) related to illicit drugs were tracked from 10–12 to 22 years of age to model the association between transmissible risk for SUD, socialization (peer deviance), order of drug use initiation (“gateway” or reverse sequence), and development of cannabis use disorder. Path analysis was used to evaluate relationships among the variables. Results Non-normative socialization mediates the association between transmissible risk measured during childhood and cannabis use disorder manifest by young adulthood. The sequence of drug use initiation did not contribute additional explanatory information to the model. Conclusions The order of drug use initiation does not play a substantial role in the etiology of cannabis use disorder. PMID:22365896

  18. Limitations to the Dutch cannabis toleration policy: Assumptions underlying the reclassification of cannabis above 15% THC.

    PubMed

    Van Laar, Margriet; Van Der Pol, Peggy; Niesink, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug. In 2011, an advisory committee recommended tightening up legislation, leading to a 2013 bill proposing the reclassification of high potency cannabis products with a THC content of 15% or more as a Schedule I drug. The purpose of this measure was twofold: to reduce public health risks and to reduce illegal cultivation and export of cannabis by increasing punishment. This paper focuses on the public health aspects and describes the (explicit and implicit) assumptions underlying this '15% THC measure', as well as to what extent these are supported by scientific research. Based on scientific literature and other sources of information, we conclude that the 15% measure can provide in theory a slight health benefit for specific groups of cannabis users (i.e., frequent users preferring strong cannabis, purchasing from coffee shops, using 'steady quantities' and not changing their smoking behaviour), but certainly not for all cannabis users. These gains should be weighed against the investment in enforcement and the risk of unintended (adverse) effects. Given the many assumptions and uncertainty about the nature and extent of the expected buying and smoking behaviour changes, the measure is a political choice and based on thin evidence. PMID:27471078

  19. Then suddenly he went right off the rails: mothers' stories of adolescent cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judie

    2003-04-01

    Adolescent drug use provides challenges for parents, health professionals and the wider community. Of those adolescents who use drugs, cannabis is often the drug of choice. A number of adolescents will develop problems associated with cannabis use, and the burden of managing these problems will fall on the family, particularly the mother. This paper explores adolescent cannabis use from the perspective of mothers of affected young people. Twelve women took part in conversational style audio-taped interviews. Stories were extracted from the resulting narratives and were analysed guided by the work of Anderson and Jack (1991). Detailed findings are grouped under the themes: First awareness: 'I couldn't deny it was happening'; Constant vigilance: 'I watched his every move'; Cannabis and family life: 'I'd start to shake when he walked into the house'; Disrupted lives: 'I was terrified he'd go to prison'; Shifting aspirations: 'just staying alive'; and, Maintaining a loving relationship: 'always told him I loved him'. Implications for nursing practice are drawn from the findings. PMID:12785607

  20. Deviant Socialization Mediates Transmissible and Contextual Risk on Cannabis Use Disorder Development: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Fishbein, Diana; Kirisci, Levent; Mezzich, Ada; Ridenour, Ty; Vanyukov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study examined the contribution of transmissible risk, in conjunction with family and peer contextual factors during childhood and adolescence, on development of cannabis use disorder in adulthood. Design The family high risk design was used to recruit proband fathers with and without substance use disorder and longitudinally track their sons from late childhood to adulthood. Setting The families were recruited under aegis of the Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants The oldest son in the family was studied at ages 10–12, 16, 19, and 22. Measurements The transmissible liability index (TLI) (Vanyukov et al., 2009) along with measures of quality of parent child relationship, cooperative behavior at home, social attitudes, and peer milieu were administered to model the developmental pathway to cannabis use disorder. Findings Affiliation with socially deviant peers and harboring non-normative attitudes (age 16) mediate the association between transmissible risk for SUD (age 10–12) and use of illegal drugs (age 19) leading to cannabis use disorder (age 22). Conclusions Deviant socialization resulting from transmissible risk and poor parent-child relationship is integral to development of cannabis use disorder in young adulthood. PMID:21320228

  1. Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D I

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis species have been used as medicine for thousands of years; only since the 1940s has the plant not been widely available for medical use. However, an increasing number of jurisdictions are making it possible for patients to obtain the botanical for medicinal use. For the cancer patient, cannabis has a number of potential benefits, especially in the management of symptoms. Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression. Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite. Inhaled cannabis is more effective than placebo in ameliorating peripheral neuropathy in a number of conditions, and it could prove useful in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. A pharmacokinetic interaction study of vaporized cannabis in patients with chronic pain on stable doses of sustained-release opioids demonstrated no clinically significant change in plasma opiates, while suggesting the possibility of synergistic analgesia. Aside from symptom management, an increasing body of in vitro and animal-model studies supports a possible direct anticancer effect of cannabinoids by way of a number of different mechanisms involving apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inhibition of metastasis. Despite an absence of clinical trials, abundant anecdotal reports that describe patients having remarkable responses to cannabis as an anticancer agent, especially when taken as a high-potency orally ingested concentrate, are circulating. Human studies should be conducted to address critical questions related to the foregoing effects. PMID:27022315

  2. Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis species have been used as medicine for thousands of years; only since the 1940s has the plant not been widely available for medical use. However, an increasing number of jurisdictions are making it possible for patients to obtain the botanical for medicinal use. For the cancer patient, cannabis has a number of potential benefits, especially in the management of symptoms. Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression. Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite. Inhaled cannabis is more effective than placebo in ameliorating peripheral neuropathy in a number of conditions, and it could prove useful in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. A pharmacokinetic interaction study of vaporized cannabis in patients with chronic pain on stable doses of sustained-release opioids demonstrated no clinically significant change in plasma opiates, while suggesting the possibility of synergistic analgesia. Aside from symptom management, an increasing body of in vitro and animal-model studies supports a possible direct anticancer effect of cannabinoids by way of a number of different mechanisms involving apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inhibition of metastasis. Despite an absence of clinical trials, abundant anecdotal reports that describe patients having remarkable responses to cannabis as an anticancer agent, especially when taken as a high-potency orally ingested concentrate, are circulating. Human studies should be conducted to address critical questions related to the foregoing effects. PMID:27022315

  3. Medical use of cannabis: an addiction medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Cook, J; Lloyd-Jones, D M; Ogden, E; Bonomo, Y

    2015-06-01

    The use of cannabis for medical purposes, evident throughout history, has become a topic of increasing interest. Yet on the present medical evidence, cannabis-based treatments will only be appropriate for a small number of people in specific circumstances. Experience with cannabis as a recreational drug, and with use of psychoactive drugs that are prescribed and abused, should inform harm reduction in the context of medical cannabis. PMID:26059881

  4. Prenatal Genetic Counseling (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Genetic Counseling Print ... how can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating ...

  5. Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

  6. Antecedents and Consequences of Cannabis Use among Racially Diverse Cannabis Users: An Analysis from Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Ecker, Anthony H.; Richter, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit substance and use rates are rising. Notably, the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) nearly equals that of other illicit substance use disorders combined. Thus, the present study aimed to identify cognitive, affective, and situational predictors and consequences of ad-lib cannabis use in a racially diverse sample. Methods The sample consisted of 93 current cannabis users (34.4% female; 57.1% non-Hispanic Caucasian), 87.1% of whom evinced a current CUD. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect frequent ratings of cannabis withdrawal, craving, affect, cannabis use motives, and peer cannabis use over two weeks. Mixed effects linear models examined within- and between-day correlates and consequences of cannabis use. Results Withdrawal and craving were higher on cannabis use days than non-use days. Withdrawal, craving, and positive and negative affect were higher immediately prior to cannabis use compared to non-use episodes. Withdrawal and craving were higher among those who subsequently used cannabis than those who did not. Cannabis use resulted in less subsequent withdrawal, craving, and negative affect. Enhancement and coping motives were the most common reasons cited for use. Withdrawal and negative affect were related to using cannabis for coping motives and social motives. Participants were most likely to use cannabis if others were using, and withdrawal and craving were greater in social situations when others were using. Conclusions Data support the contention that cannabis withdrawal and craving and affect and peer use play important roles in the maintenance of cannabis use. PMID:25578250

  7. [Medical cannabis: the opportunity versus the temptation].

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna

    2011-12-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea, and inflammation. Current research has shown cannabis to be a useful remedy for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, dystonia, and chronic pain. Cannabinoids are used to improve food intake in anorexia of AIDS patients and to prevent vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Cannabinoids reduce the size of brain infarct and cardiac reperfusion injury. However, cannabinoid treatment is not free of side effects including euphoria, psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Since the cannabinoid system is involved in many physiological and pathological processes, the therapeutic potential is great. We must not be blind to the opportunity offered to us by medical cannabis just because it is an illicit drug, nor should we be temped by the quick response of patients to the central effect of cannabis. More research is warranted to explore the full potential of cannabis as medicine. PMID:22352284

  8. [A novel analgesics made from Cannabis].

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Kálmán

    2004-01-20

    Bayer AG has recently announced that it acquired exclusive rights for the marketing of GW Pharmaceuticals' new medicine Sativex in Europe and in other regions. Sativex is a sublingual spray on Cannabis extract basis, and is equipped with an electronic tool to facilitate accurate dosing and to prevent misuses. It is standardized for the THC and CBD. The new analgesic is proposed for the treatment of muscle spasticity and pains accompanying multiple sclerosis and as an efficient analgetic for neurogenic pain not responding well to opioids and to other therapies available. The entirely new mechanism of action through the recently discovered cannabinoid receptor system may offer a real therapeutic potential to the drug. Although the Government of Netherlands has authorized the sale of pharmaceutical grade Cannabis herb by pharmacies in the Netherlands, the availability on the pharmaceutical market of the registered preparation may render requests for the authorization of the smoking of Cannabis herb (marihuana) by individuals suffering of multiple sclerosis, neurogenic pain, AIDS wasting syndrome unnecessary. Nevertheless, the "old chameleon" plant Cannabis appears to gradually regain its previous status in mainstream therapy and pharmacy. As long as the plant Cannabis and its products continue to be classified as narcotic drugs, medical use of the new preparation will need close supervision. PMID:15042867

  9. Cannabis reward: biased towards the fairer sex?

    PubMed

    McGregor, I S; Arnold, J C

    2007-11-01

    In contrast to drugs such as alcohol, amphetamine and cocaine, cannabis use in humans has proven difficult to model in laboratory animals. Recent breakthrough discoveries of intravenous THC self-administration in rhesus monkeys and self-administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in rats have allowed new studies of the genetic, neural and environmental determinants of cannabis use. In the present issue of BJP, Fattore and colleagues further demonstrate genetic (strain) differences in WIN 55,212-2 self-administration in rats, with Long Evans (LE) and Lister Hooded (LH), but not Sprague-Dawley, rats self-administering this drug. They then show that female LE and LH rats self-administer more WIN 55,212-2 than male rats. Ovariectomy abolished this sex difference, suggesting a permissive role for oestrogen in cannabis reward. This accompanying Commentary reviews recent progress in animal models of cannabis use and highlights the role of genetic, developmental and endocrine factors in driving cannabis use and dependence. PMID:17891161

  10. Benefits of Required Counseling for Counseling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Holm, Jessica M.; Daly, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Graduate students experience mental health distress. The authors investigated the benefits of required counseling services at a training clinic for students enrolled in counseling courses. Results indicated that after receiving services, students ("N" = 55) reported decreases in overall problems, depressive symptoms, and anxiety…

  11. Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile.

    PubMed

    Swift, Wendy; Wong, Alex; Li, Kong M; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales "Cannabis Cautioning" scheme. A further 26 "Known Provenance" samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The "Cannabis Cautioning" samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A = 14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A = 0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A = 1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). "Known Provenance" samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:23894589

  12. Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kong M.; Arnold, Jonathon C.; McGregor, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales “Cannabis Cautioning” scheme. A further 26 “Known Provenance” samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The “Cannabis Cautioning” samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A = 14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A = 0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A = 1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). “Known Provenance” samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:23894589

  13. Positive: HIV Affirmative Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kain, Craig D.

    At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…

  14. Counseling in Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Brian J.

    This paper examines the counseling of alcoholics in an effort to determine its value and significance. It includes a cursory look at the development, etiology and history of treatment methods and the role of personality theory. However, the main emphasis is on the different types of counseling used in each particular counseling setting. The…

  15. Counseling with Deaf People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Allen E., Ed.; Stewart, Larry G., Ed.

    The book presents information on effective counseling with deaf people by discussing issues that confront counselors and administrators involved in providing counseling services to deaf people. A basic assumption of the book is that deaf people of all ages have been frequently denied counseling services due to communication problems between…

  16. Workplace Counseling Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Woody, Connie; Burns, Naomi; Howard, Sherrie; Rice, Misty

    This publication describes counseling approaches supervisors and human resource professionals can use to help marginal employees become better adjusted and more productive in the workplace. Three case studies are also provided for training purposes. The counseling tools are as follows: (1) Adlerian counseling, involving the belief that humans'…

  17. Competencies for Gerontological Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.; Schwiebert, Valerie L.

    Gerontological counseling as a counseling specialty spans only 20 years. This text incorporates into its framework the 16 Minimum Essential Competencies of gerontological counseling that have been developed over the past two decades. These competencies focus on the knowledge and skills required to be an effective counselor for older persons and…

  18. [Which biological matrix for cannabis testing?].

    PubMed

    Goullé, J-P; Lacroix, C

    2006-05-01

    Decisive analytical progress for biological cannabis testing has been achieved over the past ten years. These major contributions allow to accurately identify and quantify in detail the substances present in the body following cannabinoid exposure. Fast and reliable onsite urine testing is used to implement the French law on narcotic drugs and its relationship to motorway safety. A positive test result will indicate a very recent exposure which is detectable up to five days following intake. Then a clinical examination and blood collection are performed by a physician, with a subsequent blood tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) analysis by authorized professionals registered at the judicial court of appeal. A result higher than the cut-off value is associated with a very recent cannabis exposure. Blood, urine, saliva and sweat cannabis determination are assessed according to the most recent pharmacokinetic and analytical data. PMID:16710116

  19. [Cannabis "bong": A frequent, original and dangerous way of consumption].

    PubMed

    Paleiron, N; André, M; Durand, M; Tromeur, C; Giacardi, C; Grassin, F; Vinsonneau, U

    2016-05-01

    The bong is a water pipe craft, used to smoke tobacco or cannabis. The benefit of consuming cannabis as a "bang" is based on the intensity and speed of the effect. The cannabis intoxication can then be associated with disorders of sensory functions, the type of distortion of perceptions or hallucinations, often accompanied by intense anxiety. Bong cannabis consumption appears to be responsible for specific side effects (especially hemoptysis), possibly related to the importance of inhalation of products of combustion of cannabis and combustion of plastic parts used in its manufacture. PMID:27113618

  20. Imaging dopamine transmission parameters in cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Ghazzaoui, Rassil; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2014-07-01

    Low striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3) availability and low ventrostriatal dopamine release have been observed in alcoholism, cocaine and heroin dependence. Multiple studies to date have examined D2 availability in cannabis dependence and have consistently failed to demonstrate alterations. In addition, the response of the dopamine system to an amphetamine challenge and to a stress challenge has also been examined, and did not show alterations. We review these studies here and conclude that cannabis dependence is an exception among commonly abused drugs in that it is not associated with blunting of the dopamine system. PMID:24513022

  1. Keep off the grass? Cannabis, cognition and addiction.

    PubMed

    Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P; Mokrysz, Claire; Lewis, David A; Morgan, Celia J A; Parsons, Loren H

    2016-05-01

    In an increasing number of states and countries, cannabis now stands poised to join alcohol and tobacco as a legal drug. Quantifying the relative adverse and beneficial effects of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids should therefore be prioritized. Whereas newspaper headlines have focused on links between cannabis and psychosis, less attention has been paid to the much more common problem of cannabis addiction. Certain cognitive changes have also been attributed to cannabis use, although their causality and longevity are fiercely debated. Identifying why some individuals are more vulnerable than others to the adverse effects of cannabis is now of paramount importance to public health. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about such vulnerability factors, the variations in types of cannabis, and the relationship between these and cognition and addiction. PMID:27052382

  2. The intersection between cannabis and cancer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Daniel W; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Camidge, D Ross; Jimeno, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    In the last 15 years there has been a major shift in the laws governing medical use of cannabis in the United States. Corresponding with this change there has been escalating interest in the role that cannabis, commonly referred to as marijuana, and cannabinoids play in the care of patients with cancer. This review will examine cannabis' and cannabinoids' current and potential roles in cancer care. Specifically, we will examine five areas of cannabis medicine: (1) pharmacologic properties of cannabis; (2) its potential role in the development of human cancers, particularly smoking-related malignancies; (3) cannabinoids' potential as anti-cancer therapies; (4) cannabis and cannabinoids in the palliation of common cancer-associated symptoms; (5) current legal status of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States. PMID:22019199

  3. Responsible and controlled use: Older cannabis users and harm reduction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg’s classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. Methods We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946–1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users’ perspectives. Results Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Conclusion Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define “normal” or “acceptable” cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. PMID:25911027

  4. Moral regulation and the presumption of guilt in Health Canada's medical cannabis policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    This paper is a sociological examination of policies and practices in Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD) that presume the illicit intentions and inherent "guilt" of medical cannabis users, hampering safe access to a medicine to which many are legally entitled, and raising doubts about this federal programme's overall effectiveness and constitutional legitimacy. Beginning with a brief historical overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis programme, this paper examines the failure of the MMAD to meet the needs of many sick and suffering Canadians through Hunt's [Hunt, A. (1999). Governing morals: A social history of moral regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press] work on moral regulation and Wodak's [Wodak, A. (2007). Ethics and drug policy. Psychiatry, 6(2), 59-62] critique of "deontological" drug policy strategies. I then cite Tupper's [Tupper, K. W. (2007). The globalization of ayahuasca: Harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy, doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.11.001] argument that shifting to a generative metaphor that constructs certain entheogenic substances as potentially useful "tools" rather than regulating them through inherently moralistic prohibitionist policies would better serve public health, and incorporate Young's [Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press] theories of domination and oppression to examine the rise of community-base medical cannabis dispensaries as "new social movements". First-hand accounts by medical cannabis patients, federally funded studies, and internal Health Canada communication and documents suggest that current federal policies and practices are blocking safe access to this herbal medicine. The community-based dispensary model of medical cannabis access is a patient-centered "new social movement" that mitigates the stigmatization and moral regulation of their member-clients by creating

  5. Relief of cannabis withdrawal symptoms and cannabis quitting strategies in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Koola, Maju Mathew; Boggs, Douglas Lee; Kelly, Deanna Lynn; Liu, Fang; Linthicum, Jared Allen; Turner, Hailey Elaine; McMahon, Robert Patrick; Gorelick, David Alan

    2013-10-30

    This study examined the response to cannabis withdrawal symptoms and use of quitting strategies to maintain abstinence in people with schizophrenia. A convenience sample of 120 participants with schizophrenia who had at least weekly cannabis use and a previous quit attempt without formal treatment were administered the 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire to characterize their "most serious" (self-defined) quit attempt. One hundred thirteen participants had withdrawal symptoms, of whom 104 (92.0%) took some action to relieve a symptom, most commonly nicotine use (75%). 90% of withdrawal symptoms evoked an action for relief in a majority of participants experiencing them, most frequently anxiety (95.2% of participants) and cannabis craving (94.4%). 96% of participants used one or more quitting strategies to maintain abstinence during their quit attempt, most commonly getting rid of cannabis (72%) and cannabis paraphernalia (67%). Religious support or prayer was the quitting strategy most often deemed "most helpful" (15%). Use of a self-identified most helpful quitting strategy was associated with significantly higher one-month (80.8% vs. 73.6%) and one-year (54.9% vs. 41.3%) abstinence rates. Actions to relieve cannabis withdrawal symptoms in people with schizophrenia are common. Promotion of effective quitting strategies may aid relapse prevention. PMID:23969281

  6. Residual cannabis levels in blood, urine and oral fluid following heavy cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Odell, Morris S; Frei, Matthew Y; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases. However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users. Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia. After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use. Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH. In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days and oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78 h after admission to the unit. Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000 ng/mL for some subjects 129 h after last use. The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered. PMID:25698515

  7. Investigations into the hypothesis of transgenic cannabis.

    PubMed

    Cascini, Fidelia

    2012-05-01

    The unusual concentration of cannabinoids recently found in marijuana samples submitted to the forensic laboratory for chemical analysis prompted an investigation into whether genetic modifications have been made to the DNA of Cannabis sativa L. to increase its potency. Traditional methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) were used to analyze herbal cannabis preparations. Our analyses support the hypothesis that marijuana samples submitted to forensic laboratories and characterized by an abnormal level of Δ(9)-THC are the product of breeding selection rather than of transgenic modifications. Further, this research has shown a risk of false positive results associated with the poor quality of the seized samples and probably due to the contamination by other transgenic vegetable products. On the other hand, based on these data, a conclusive distinction between the hypothesis of GMO plant contamination and the other of genetic modification of cannabis cannot be made requiring further studies on comparative chemical and genetic analyses to find out an explanation for the recently detected increased potency of cannabis. PMID:22211569

  8. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform. PMID:27323630

  9. Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303) were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC), a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and therapeutic individual and group

  10. Reactivity to Cannabis Cues in Virtual Reality Environments†

    PubMed Central

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Copp, Hilary L.; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M.; Carter, Brian L.; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments merits with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in the VR cue trial. During the VR cue trial, participants were exposed to four virtual environments that contained audio, visual, olfactory, and vibrotactile sensory stimuli. Two VR environments contained cannabis cues that consisted of a party room in which people were smoking cannabis and a room containing cannabis paraphernalia without people. Two VR neutral rooms without cannabis cues consisted of a digital art gallery with nature videos. Subjective craving and attention to cues were significantly higher in the VR cannabis environments compared to the VR neutral environments. These findings indicate that VR cannabis cue reactivity may offer a new technology-based method to advance addiction research and treatment. PMID:19705672

  11. Genetic predisposition to schizophrenia associated with increased use of cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Power, Robert A.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Zuhair, Mohamed; Montgomery, Grant W.; Henders, Anjali K.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Medland, Sarah E.; Wray, Naomi R.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide. With debate surrounding the legalization and control of use, investigating its health risks has become a pressing area of research. One established association is that between cannabis use and schizophrenia, a debilitating psychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population over their lifetime. Although considerable evidence implicates cannabis use as a component cause of schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether this is entirely due to cannabis directly raising risk of psychosis, or whether the same genes that increases psychosis risk may also increase risk of cannabis use. In a sample of 2,082 healthy individuals, we show an association between an individual’s burden of schizophrenia risk alleles and use of cannabis. This was significant both for comparing those who have ever vs. never used cannabis (p=2.6×10−4), and for quantity of use within users (p=3.0×10−3). While directly predicting only a small amount of the variance in cannabis use, these findings suggest that part of the association between schizophrenia and cannabis is due to a shared genetic aetiology. This form of gene-environment correlation is an important consideration when calculating the impact of environmental risk factors, including cannabis use. PMID:24957864

  12. High-potency cannabis and the risk of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Di Forti, Marta; Morgan, Craig; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Marques, Tiago Reis; Handley, Rowena; Luzi, Sonija; Russo, Manuela; Paparelli, Alessandra; Butt, Alexander; Stilo, Simona A.; Wiffen, Ben; Powell, John; Murray, Robin M.

    2009-01-01

    Background People who use cannabis have an increased risk of psychosis, an effect attributed to the active ingredient Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). There has recently been concern over an increase in the concentration of Δ9-THC in the cannabis available in many countries. Aims To investigate whether people with a first episode of psychosis were particularly likely to use high-potency cannabis. Method We collected information on cannabis use from 280 cases presenting with a first episode of psychosis to the South London & Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, and from 174 healthy controls recruited from the local population. Results There was no significant difference between cases and controls in whether they had ever taken cannabis, or age at first use. However, those in the cases group were more likely to be current daily users (OR = 6.4) and to have smoked cannabis for more than 5 years (OR = 2.1). Among those who used cannabis, 78% of the cases group used high-potency cannabis (sinsemilla, ‘skunk’) compared with 37% of the control group (OR 6.8). Conclusions The finding that people with a first episode of psychosis had smoked higher-potency cannabis, for longer and with greater frequency, than a healthy control group is consistent with the hypothesis that Δ9-THC is the active ingredient increasing risk of psychosis. This has important public health implications, given the increased availability and use of high-potency cannabis. PMID:19949195

  13. Cannabis Use and Dependence among French Schizophrenic Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Basquin, Anne; Koch, Marie; Embouazza, Houcine; Chalvin, Florence; Ilongo, Michaelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: One hundred one schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire, and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates, and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption, and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken. Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs. 44.7 years p < 0.0001), more often male (77 vs. 54%, p = 0.02) and had been hospitalized for the first time in psychiatry earlier (24.3 vs. 31.3 p = 0.003). Eighty-eight percent of cannabis consumers were dependent on cannabis. They were more often dependent on opiates (17 vs. 0%) and alcohol (32 vs. 7.4%, p = 0.001) and presented compulsive buying more often (48 vs. 27%, p = 0.04). Logistic regression revealed that factors associated to cannabis consumption among schizophrenics were cannabis dependence, male gender, pathological gambling, opiate dependence, number of joints smoked each day, and compulsive buying. Conclusion: 33.6% of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment. PMID:25076916

  14. Human studies of cannabinoids and medicinal cannabis.

    PubMed

    Robson, P

    2005-01-01

    Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures. It reached a position of prominence within Western medicine in the nineteenth century but became mired in disrepute and legal controls early in the twentieth century. Despite unremitting world-wide suppression, recreational cannabis exploded into popular culture in the 1960s and has remained easily obtainable on the black market in most countries ever since. This ready availability has allowed many thousands of patients to rediscover the apparent power of the drug to alleviate symptoms of some of the most cruel and refractory diseases known to humankind. Pioneering clinical research in the last quarter of the twentieth century has given some support to these anecdotal reports, but the methodological challenges to human research involving a pariah drug are formidable. Studies have tended to be small, imperfectly controlled, and have often incorporated unsatisfactory synthetic cannabinoid analogues or smoked herbal material of uncertain composition and irregular bioavailability. As a result, the scientific evaluation of medicinal cannabis in humans is still in its infancy. New possibilities in human research have been opened up by the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, a rapidly expanding knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology, and a more sympathetic political environment in several countries. More and more scientists and clinicians are becoming interested in exploring the potential of cannabis-based medicines. Future targets will extend beyond symptom relief into disease modification, and already cannabinoids seem to offer particular promise in the treatment of certain inflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions. This chapter will begin with an outline of the development and current status of legal controls pertaining to cannabis, following which the existing human research will be reviewed. Some key safety issues will then be considered, and the chapter will conclude with

  15. Marketing pastoral counseling.

    PubMed

    Lageman, A G

    1984-12-01

    Identifies, suggests understandings, and illustrates applications of marketing principles as they relate to pastoral counseling services. Describes four approaches to marketing pastoral counseling--traditional, educational, marketing, and fund raising--and gives illustrations of each. A director of an established pastoral counseling center responds to the article in terms of "high density" and "low density" principles and suggests that strategies which emulate the medical model may need to be re-examined by contemporary pastoral counselors. PMID:10269463

  16. Poor School Satisfaction and Number of Cannabis Using Peers within School Classes as Individual Risk Factors for Cannabis Use among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Dominic A.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.

    2010-01-01

    There is little information available on the topic of poor school satisfaction as a risk factor for cannabis use among adolescents. We examined if there was an association between poor school satisfaction, school class cannabis use and individual cannabis use. Further, we investigated if many cannabis users within the school class statistically…

  17. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance. PMID:25220020

  18. Therapy and Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the following areas among others: psychiatry, clinical psychology, mental health counseling, clinical social work, marriage and family ... Cognitive Therapy for Depression by SJ Rupke, M.D., ...

  19. Cannabis smoking and respiratory health: consideration of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gates, Peter; Jaffe, Adam; Copeland, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The respiratory health effects from tobacco smoking are well described. Cannabis smoke contains a similar profile of carcinogenic chemicals as tobacco smoke but is inhaled more deeply. Although cannabis smoke is known to contain similar harmful and carcinogenic substances to tobacco smoke, relatively little is understood regarding the respiratory health effects from cannabis smoking. There is a need to integrate research on cannabis and respiratory health effects so that gaps in the literature can be identified and the more consistent findings can be consolidated with the purpose of educating smokers and health service providers. This review focuses on several aspects of respiratory health and cannabis use (as well as concurrent cannabis and tobacco use) and provides an update to (i) the pathophysiology; (ii) general respiratory health including symptoms of chronic bronchitis; and (iii) lung cancer. PMID:24831571

  20. Psycho-social characteristics of cannabis abusing youth.

    PubMed

    Licanin, Ifeta; Redzić, Amira

    2005-02-01

    It is a well known fact that drug abuse is most common in early adolescence. The most popular substances among youth are cannabis products (made from Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae). The majority of heroin and cocaine addicts have started with marijuana. The aim of this study is to show some psycho-social characteristics of adolescents who abuse cannabis. Research conducted during the year 2001 was epidemiological and prospective. The study group included 600 adolescents of equal gender and age distribution. Q 2000 questionnaire was used, as a comprehensive tool for all aspects of adolescent life. The results show strong peer impact on one's behavior. Youth who use cannabis had 2-3 friends of the same behavior, compared to others who had none. We found positive correlation between life stressful events and cannabis abuse. We also noticed tendency to delinquent behavior related to cannabis abuse (35%). PMID:15771607

  1. MedlinePlus: Genetic Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Counseling (National Human Genome Research Institute) Genetic Counseling (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Genetic Counseling (March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation) Also in Spanish Making Sense of ...

  2. Cannabis and the maturing brain: Role in psychosis development.

    PubMed

    Crocker, C E; Tibbo, P G

    2015-06-01

    A common viewpoint has proliferated that cannabis use is mostly harmless. Some argue that by not supporting its use, we are missing a great therapeutic opportunity. The general public view on cannabis may partially be a result of poor knowledge translation. In fact, the "war on drugs" approach has not allowed for basic education on the varied effects of cannabis on the brain, especially at highly critical phases of brain development such as adolescence. PMID:25704358

  3. The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update

    PubMed Central

    Schoeler, Tabea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of Δ9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in Δ9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis-induced memory impairments occur and to elucidate underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:24648785

  4. Insights from a Review of Medical Cannabis Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Arneson, Tom

    2015-06-01

    The Minnesota Legislature passed a law establishing a medical cannabis program in 2014. One of the first tasks of staff in the new Office of Medical Cannabis at the Minnesota Department of Health was to review scientific literature on medical cannabis. The review was limited to studies involving products similar to those allowed in Minnesota. This article explains how the review was conducted and presents three themes that emerged from it. PMID:26168662

  5. The relationship between cannabis involvement and suicidal thoughts and behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Delforterie, M. J.; Lynskey, M.; Huizink, A. C.; Creemers, H. E.; Grant, J.D.; Few, L. R.; Glowinski, A. L.; Statham, D. J.; Trull, T. J.; Bucholz, K. K.; Madden, P. A. F.; Martin, N. G.; Heath, A. C.; Agrawal, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the present study, we examined the relationship between cannabis involvement and suicidal ideation (SI), plan and attempt, differentiating the latter into planned and unplanned attempt, taking into account other substance involvement and psychopathology. Methods We used two community-based twin samples from the Australian Twin Registry, including 9,583 individuals (58.5% female, aged between 27 and 40). The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was used to assess cannabis involvement which was categorized into: (0) no cannabis use (reference category); (1) cannabis use only; (2) 1–2 cannabis use disorder symptoms; (3) 3 or more symptoms. Separate multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted for SI and suicide attempt with or without a plan. Twin analyses examined the genetic overlap between cannabis involvement and SI. Results All levels of cannabis involvement were related to SI, regardless of duration (Odds ratios [ORs] = 1.28 – 2.00, p < 0.01). Cannabis use and endorsing ≥3 symptoms were associated with unplanned (SANP; ORs = 1.95 and 2.51 respectively, p < 0.05), but not planned suicide attempts (p > 0.10). Associations persisted even after controlling for other psychiatric disorders and substance involvement. Overlapping genetic (rG=0.45) and environmental (rE=0.21) were responsible for the covariance between cannabis involvement and SI. Conclusions Cannabis involvement is associated, albeit modestly, with SI and unplanned suicide attempts. Such attempts are difficult to prevent and their association with cannabis use and cannabis use disorder symptoms requires further study, including in different samples and with additional attention to confounders. PMID:25772435

  6. Medical education on cannabis and cannabinoids: Perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ware, M A; Ziemianski, D

    2015-06-01

    The global regulatory landscape regarding the medical use of cannabis and cannabinoids is changing rapidly. This has considerable impact on health care professionals who currently receive little or no education on issues regarding medical cannabis. We propose a 'cannabis curriculum' that covers the spectrum of historical, botanical, physiological, clinical and legal issues to allow health care professionals to engage in meaningful discussions with their patients and colleagues around this stigmatized and controversial subject. PMID:25728558

  7. Yield and turnover of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) plantations in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Wouter; Surmont, Tim; Van Damme, Patrick; De Ruyver, Brice

    2012-07-10

    In prosecution, Belgian judiciary currently uses outdated yield figures (28.1g per plant, sold at € 3/g at grower level) for fining illicit indoor cannabis plantations. Using state-of-the-art cultivation techniques, our growth experiments showed that yield is better expressed in g/m(2) cultivated surface area rather than in g per plant, and that yield varies significantly between different cannabis strains. It was found that the lower-bound of the one-sided 95% confidence interval of the yield of an indoor cannabis plantation can be set at 575 g/m(2). Prices and pricing mechanisms were investigated using interviews with respondents selected through snowball sampling. Results reveal that (i) the Belgian cannabis market chain is highly complex; (ii) unit prices are predominantly determined by transaction sizes; but also (iii) a set of product- and socially-related price-fixing mechanisms have an equally important role. At grower level, respondents reported prices for 1 g of dry cannabis buds to range € 3.00-4.25. PMID:22502940

  8. Survey of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use in the French army.

    PubMed

    Marimoutou, Catherine; Queyriaux, Benjamin; Michel, Rémy; Verret, Catherine; Haus-Cheymol, Rachel; Mayet, Aurélie; Deparis, Xavier; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to describe the consumption rate of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis in the French Army. A cross-sectional two strata randomized survey was performed between October 2006 and March 2007 using self-report questionnaires (n = 990) to collect individual characteristics, consumption, and addictive behaviors with urinal tests for cannabis (n = 985). The surveyed sample comprised 59% privates, 26% non-commissioned officers, and 6% officers, was predominantly male (89%) and young (median age: 29 years), and had a low level of education (60% attended secondary school). The consumption rate was high: 54.1% were active tobacco smokers, 56.0% were heavy drinkers, 20.5% declared drunkenness more than once per month, 52.6% at least experienced cannabis while 12.3% were occasional users, 8.2% were regular users, and 15.0% displayed multi-risk behaviors. Consumption was higher in the younger age (18 to 25 years) and lower educational group, leading to a high prevalence among privates and suggesting an "army effect." However, large scale behavioral social studies may help distinguish between personal and peer effect among the targeted population. PMID:20390703

  9. Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain’s endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain’s developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens. PMID:24133461

  10. Prescribing medical cannabis in Canada: Are we being too cautious?

    PubMed

    Lake, Stephanie; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio

    2015-01-01

    There has been much recent discussion and debate surrounding cannabis in Canada, including the prescribing of medical cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Certain commentators - including the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) - have denounced the prescribing of cannabis for medical purposes due to a perceived lack of evidence related to the drug's efficacy, harms, and mechanism of action. In this commentary, we present arguments in favour of prescribing medical cannabis in Canada. We believe the anti-cannabis position taken by CMA and other commentators is not entirely evidence-based. Using the example of neuropathic pain, we present and summarize the clinical evidence surrounding smoked or vapourized cannabis, including recent evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of cannabis in comparison to existing standard pharmacotherapies for neuropathy. Further, we outline how the concerns expressed regarding cannabis' mechanism of action are inconsistent with current decision-making processes related to the prescribing of many common pharmaceuticals. Finally, we discuss potential secondary public health benefits of prescribing cannabis for pain-related disorders in Canada and North America. PMID:26451996

  11. Cannabis Allergy: What do We Know Anno 2015.

    PubMed

    Decuyper, Ine; Ryckebosch, Hanne; Van Gasse, Athina L; Sabato, Vito; Faber, Margaretha; Bridts, Chris H; Ebo, Didier G

    2015-10-01

    For about a decade, IgE-mediated cannabis (marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may lead to a cannabis sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical manifestations of a cannabis allergy can vary from mild to life-threatening reactions, often depending on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can trigger various secondary cross-allergies, mostly for plant-derived food. This clinical entity, which we have designated as the "cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome" might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, latex and plant-food derived alcoholic beverages. These secondary cross-allergies are mainly described in Europe and appear to result from cross-reactivity between non-specific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in Cannabis sativa and their homologues that are ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures including a stop of any further cannabis (ab)use. PMID:26178655

  12. Cannabis and Psychosis: a Critical Overview of the Relationship.

    PubMed

    Ksir, Charles; Hart, Carl L

    2016-02-01

    Interest in the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis has increased dramatically in recent years, in part because of concerns related to the growing availability of cannabis and potential risks to health and human functioning. There now exists a plethora of scientific articles addressing this issue, but few provide a clear verdict about the causal nature of the cannabis-psychosis association. Here, we review recent research reports on cannabis and psychosis, giving particular attention to how each report provides evidence relating to two hypotheses: (1) cannabis as a contributing cause and (2) shared vulnerability. Two primary kinds of data are brought to bear on this issue: studies done with schizophrenic patients and studies of first-episode psychosis. Evidence reviewed here suggests that cannabis does not in itself cause a psychosis disorder. Rather, the evidence leads us to conclude that both early use and heavy use of cannabis are more likely in individuals with a vulnerability to psychosis. The role of early and heavy cannabis use as a prodromal sign merits further examination, along with a variety of other problem behaviors (e.g., early or heavy use of cigarettes or alcohol and poor school performance). Future research studies that focus exclusively on the cannabis-psychosis association will therefore be of little value in our quest to better understand psychosis and how and why it occurs. PMID:26781550

  13. Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens. PMID:24133461

  14. Attentional bias in adults with cannabis use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Wardle, Margaret C.; Liu, Shijing; Dias, Nadeeka R.; Lane, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There has been modest examination of attentional bias in individuals with cannabis use disorders. Clinical implications of this work are directly relevant to better informing extant evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (e.g., relapse prevention) and/or developing novel interventions. The overarching aim of this investigation was to examine a novel attentional bias task in adults with cannabis use disorders. Participants were comprised of 25 adults (8 women: M age = 31, SD = 6.8; range = 22–45) with cannabis use disorders (n = 12) and controls (n = 13) without any current (past month) psychopathology. Relative to controls, adults with cannabis use disorders had greater attentional bias scores. These differences were present only at the 125-ms probe time, where the cannabis use disorders group showed greater attentional bias to cannabis cues than the control group (adjusted p = .001, cannabis use disorders mean = 59.9, control mean = −24.8, Cohen's d-effect size for 125 ms = 1.03). The cannabis use disorders group also reported significantly greater perceived stress and post-task stress scores than the control group, but stress was not related to attentional bias. This study informs understanding of the influence of cannabis cues on visual detection and reaction time under different cue-target onset times, as attentional bias was most prevalent under time pressure to detect the probe. PMID:26566718

  15. Cannabis and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illegitimate substance in the world, and the number of users has increased by 10% over the last decade worldwide. Therefore, it is important to review the evidence on psychoactive properties of cannabis and its possible association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). We searched MEDLINE with the key words cannabis and schizophrenia. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years (1999-2009). Bibliographies of cited literature were also searched. Data sources included reviews published in core clinical journals, cohort studies, interventional studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional analyses and epidemiological data. Results are discussed under 2 topics. Firstly, evidence related to biochemical functioning of cannabinoids and their relationship to endocannabinoid system is discussed briefly. Secondly, the evidence from clinical studies on cannabis, psychosis proneness and SSD are discussed in detail. The discussion is structured to fit in the evidence from results section to 3 plausible hypotheses on cannabis use and SSD. The evidence for and against each hypothesis is discussed. Despite new evidence, the exact relationship between cannabis and SSD is unclear. There is no firm evidence that cannabis causes SSD. The evidence for the argument that schizophrenic patients are attracted to cannabis is also not strong. The most plausible explanation is that cannabis use and psychosis proneness may have synergistic effects in a vulnerable minority. PMID:21938097

  16. Attentional bias in adults with cannabis use disorders.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Anka A; Wardle, Margaret C; Liu, Shijing; Dias, Nadeeka R; Lane, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    There has been modest examination of attentional bias in individuals with cannabis use disorders. Clinical implications of this work are directly relevant to better informing extant evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (e.g., relapse prevention) and/or developing novel interventions. The overarching aim of this investigation was to examine a novel attentional bias task in adults with cannabis use disorders. Participants were comprised of 25 adults (8 women: M age = 31, SD = 6.8; range = 22-45) with cannabis use disorders (n = 12) and controls (n = 13) without any current (past month) psychopathology. Relative to controls, adults with cannabis use disorders had greater attentional bias scores. These differences were present only at the 125-ms probe time, where the cannabis use disorders group showed greater attentional bias to cannabis cues than the control group (adjusted p = .001, cannabis use disorders mean = 59.9, control mean = -24.8, Cohen's d-effect size for 125 ms = 1.03). The cannabis use disorders group also reported significantly greater perceived stress and post-task stress scores than the control group, but stress was not related to attentional bias. This study informs understanding of the influence of cannabis cues on visual detection and reaction time under different cue-target onset times, as attentional bias was most prevalent under time pressure to detect the probe. PMID:26566718

  17. Counseling Bisexual Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Elizabeth B.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a brief conceptual statement about bisexuality. Offers a review of existing research studies, and suggests issues to consider when counseling bisexual clients. Defines bisexuality and discusses prevalence studies, identity development, and implications for counseling. Claims that bisexuality challenges traditional rules about sexual…

  18. Futureprint Counseling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillen, Mary A.

    A junior high school level program combines reading instruction with guidance counseling. Students become aware of their personal dignity, worth, and responsibility. An introduction to the rationale of classroom counseling precedes 6 sections of course materials and techniques. A section on values clarification contains exercises examining…

  19. Career Counseling in Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Douglas

    1994-01-01

    The Job Complex, a forum on career- and job-related concerns, was designed to allow for communication among clients and counselors. Although limitations in online communication do exist, the positives to cyber counseling include efficacy of the counseling approach; increased focus; elimination of prejudicial reactions; broadening perspectives;…

  20. The Marketing of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.

    Counseling and human services in the 1990s will be different from counseling today. Among the changes to be expected will be a shift of emphasis from a client specialty focus to a focus on life decisions and planning; from a traditional case load approach to a demand for high output and performance; and from a professional services orientation to…

  1. Counseling in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Morain, Padraig; McAuliffe, Garrett J.; Conroy, Kayte; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Michel, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    Counseling in Ireland has experienced rapid growth in the past 30 years. Public attitudes toward counseling have become more positive, especially with the increasing secularization of a once strongly religious Catholic society. Licensure is nonexistent but there are certification bodies that attempt to ensure qualified practice. There is no…

  2. Crisis Counseling: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

  3. Counseling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Soo Yin; Neihart, Maureen F.

    2012-01-01

    Singapore, a tiny island nation, rose from 3rd- to 1st-world status in just 3 decades. Unlike in most developed countries, counseling in Singapore has a short history with faith-based beginnings and currently faces challenges to remain culturally relevant. The authors trace the development of Singapore's counseling services, provide an update…

  4. Adult Counseling Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Phil; Davis, Sandy A.

    In order to determine the specific counseling needs of the adult learner, staff of the Adult Counseling Project began by conducting a literature search pertaining to the problems of returning students and those considering a return to school. The review revealed that little is known about the educational and vocational needs of the returning…

  5. Counseling Exceptional People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Libby; Walz, Garry R.

    This guide offers counselors and special education and classroom teachers assistance in counseling handicapped children. Major articles focus on counseling children who are mentally retarded, emotionally, visually and hearing impaired, learning disabled, and gifted. Additional information is provided on: (1) sexual fulfillment for the handicapped;…

  6. Improvisation in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straehle, Manfred; Soucar, Beth

    This paper explores the supportive and effective uses of improvisation in counseling. Specifically, the intention in this paper is to accomplish three goals: to explore the history of improvisation in psychotherapy, to examine the aspects of improvisation that pertain to the counseling process, and to identify ways in which the use of…

  7. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  8. Detention Room Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Terry

    1973-01-01

    This article describes how the detention room in one school system was changed in favor of group counseling sessions. In the counseling sessions, the counselors could aid students in identifying the problems which disturb them in order to improve self-understanding and status in school. (JC)

  9. Counseling in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria; Ivey, Allen E.

    2012-01-01

    There is rapid growth in Greece's professional and research activity in counseling, despite the lack of a clear professional identity for the field. It is hoped this will be overcome through the newly started graduate programs. Opportunities, objectives, and strategies for counseling's advancement should be directed toward close and essential…

  10. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  11. Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-07-01

    Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: kava, chocolate, black pepper, and many others that are examined in this review. PMID:27179600

  12. Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox

    PubMed Central

    Melamede, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids) as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive). Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately. PMID:16179090

  13. The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers' ability to ride a bicycle.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Hellen, Florence; Mindiashvili, Nona; Rickert, Annette; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Grieser, Almut; Monticelli, Fabio; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. PMID:26739323

  14. [Cannabis - therapy for the future?].

    PubMed

    Hajer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite all the progress achieved in the treatment of chronic gastrointestinal diseases, in some patients the treatment does not reach long-term optimum effectiveness. Therefore a number of patients have turned to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Of the different types of CAM patients with GIT diseases tend to prefer in particular homeopathy, acupuncture and not least phytotherapy, where therapeutic use of cannabis may also be included. The pathophysiological basis of therapeutic effect of curative cannabis has not been fully clarified so far. Many scientists in many fields of medicine and pharmacology have been engaged in the study of effects of cannabinoids on the body since the beginning of the 20th century with the interest significantly increasing in the 1980s. The discovery of CB receptors (1988) and endogenous molecules which activate these receptors (1992) led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system. Pharmacological modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system offers new therapeutic possibilities of treatment of many illnesses and symptoms including the GIT disorders, including of nausea, vomiting, cachexia, IBS, Crohns disease and some other disorders. Cannabinoids are attractive due to their therapeutic potential - they affect a lot of symptoms with minimum side effects. Experience of patients with GIT disorders show that the use of cannabis is effective and helps in cases where the standard therapy fails. PMID:26375695

  15. General and oral health implications of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Cho, C M; Hirsch, R; Johnstone, S

    2005-06-01

    Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is the most frequently used illicit drug in Australia. Therefore, oral health care providers are likely to encounter patients who are regular users. An upward trend in cannabis use is occurring in Australia, with 40 per cent of the population aged 14 and above having used the drug. There are three main forms of cannabis: marijuana, hash and hash oil, all of which contain the main psychoactive constituent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis is most commonly smoked, however it can be added to foods. THC from cannabis enters the bloodstream and exerts its effects on the body via interaction with endogenous receptors. Cannabis affects almost every system of the body, particularly the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune systems. It also has acute and chronic effects on the mental health of some users. Therefore, chronic abuse is a concern because of its negative effects on general physical and mental health. Cannabis abusers generally have poorer oral health than non-users, with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Cannabis smoke acts as a carcinogen and is associated with dysplastic changes and pre-malignant lesions within the oral mucosa. Users are also prone to oral infections, possibly due to the immunosuppressive effects. Dental treatment on patients intoxicated on cannabis can result in the patient experiencing acute anxiety, dysphoria and psychotic-like paranoiac thoughts. The use of local anaesthetic containing epinephrine may seriously prolong tachycardia already induced by an acute dose of cannabis. Oral health care providers should be aware of the diverse adverse effects of cannabis on general and oral health and incorporate questions about patients' patterns of use in the medical history. PMID:16050084

  16. Are genetic variants for tobacco smoking associated with cannabis involvement?

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Kapoor, Manav; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Schuckit, Marc; Brooks, Andrew; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Saccone, Nancy; Tischfield, Jay; Bierut, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis users are highly likely to also be tobacco cigarette smokers and a proportion of this comorbidity is attributable to shared genetic influences. Three large meta-analyses of genomewide association studies (GWAS) of tobacco smoking have identified multiple genomewide significant (p<5 × 10−8) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We examine whether these SNPs are associated with tobacco smoking and with cannabis involvement in an independent sample. Method Eleven SNPs associated with cigarettes per day (CPD), ever versus never smoking and current smoking/smoking cessation at p < 5 ×10−8 were selected from three published meta-analyses. Association analyses were conducted with similar tobacco smoking measures in 2,716 European-American subjects from the Study of Addictions Genes and Environment (SAGE) and with lifetime and current cannabis use and DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence. Results Cannabis use and tobacco smoking correlated at 0.54. Rs16969968 in CHRNA5 (and its proxy, rs1051730 in CHRNA3) and rs1451240, a proxy for rs13280604 in CHRNB3, were associated with CPD after Bonferroni correction (p<.006). rs1451240 was also associated with DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence. Rs6265 in BDNF was associated with smoking initiation, as in the original meta-analysis and also with lifetime cannabis use. Associations with cannabis involvement were no longer significant upon adjustment for the tobacco smoking measures. Conclusions The modest associations between cannabis involvement and SNPs for tobacco smoking were not independent of the comorbidity between tobacco and cannabis involvement. Larger samples of individuals might be required to articulate the specific genetic architecture of cannabis involvement. PMID:25770649

  17. The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis.

    PubMed

    Borgelt, Laura M; Franson, Kari L; Nussbaum, Abraham M; Wang, George S

    2013-02-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, has been used for medicinal purposes for many years. Several types of cannabinoid medicines are available in the United States and Canada. Dronabinol (schedule III), nabilone (schedule II), and nabiximols (not U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved) are cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals. Medical cannabis or medical marijuana, a leafy plant cultivated for the production of its leaves and flowering tops, is a schedule I drug, but patients obtain it through cannabis dispensaries and statewide programs. The effect that cannabinoid compounds have on the cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2) ) found in the brain can create varying pharmacologic responses based on formulation and patient characteristics. The cannabinoid Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol has been determined to have the primary psychoactive effects; the effects of several other key cannabinoid compounds have yet to be fully elucidated. Dronabinol and nabilone are indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. However, pain and muscle spasms are the most common reasons that medical cannabis is being recommended. Studies of medical cannabis show significant improvement in various types of pain and muscle spasticity. Reported adverse effects are typically not serious, with the most common being dizziness. Safety concerns regarding cannabis include the increased risk of developing schizophrenia with adolescent use, impairments in memory and cognition, accidental pediatric ingestions, and lack of safety packaging for medical cannabis formulations. This article will describe the pharmacology of cannabis, effects of various dosage formulations, therapeutics benefits and risks of cannabis for pain and muscle spasm, and safety concerns of medical cannabis use. PMID:23386598

  18. Cannabis-related stroke: case series and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niranjan N; Pan, Yi; Muengtaweeponsa, Sombat; Geller, Thomas J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador

    2012-10-01

    Marijuana, or cannabis, is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. Although there are some case reports of stroke associated with cannabis use, there is no information on a causal role of cannabis in stroke. We identified 14 patients admitted to St Louis University Hospital between January 2004 and July 2007 with ischemic stroke who had documented clear exposure to cannabis during or before symptom onset and a positive urine screen for cannabis. We report this series, along with 3 cases previously reported by our group, for a total of 17 patients (13 men and 4 women), with a mean age of 41 years (range, 15-63 years). Nine patients were under age 45 years, 4 had a history of hypertension, and 10 sustained stroke in the posterior circulation. Headache, dysarthria, and ataxia were the most common presenting symptoms. Five patients had recurrent stroke with reexposure to cannabis. No patient had a prothrombotic state or cardiac source of embolism. Autopsy performed in 2 patients revealed hemorrhagic infarct with no evidence of vasculitis or embolus. The absence of other vascular risk factors in most of our patients, the temporal relation of symptom onset to cannabis exposure, and the recurrence of symptoms in a few patients with reexposure suggest a causal role of cannabis in these cases of ischemic stroke. However, this causal association cannot be definitely ascertained, given the descriptive nature of our series. More research is needed to explore this possible causal association. PMID:21367621

  19. Cannabis for posttraumatic stress disorder: A neurobiological approach to treatment.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Bryan A

    2016-01-16

    The endocannabinoid system is intricately involved in regulation of the neurobiological processes, which underlie the symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article discusses the neurobiological underpinnings of PTSD and the use of cannabis for treating PTSD in the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program. PMID:26678423

  20. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  1. Early Survey Results from the Minnesota Medical Cannabis Program.

    PubMed

    McGriff, Deepa; Anderson, Susan; Arneson, Tom

    2016-06-01

    As part of its legislative mandate, the Minnesota Department of Health's Office of Medical Cannabis (OMC) is required to study and report on the state's medical cannabis program. This article describes preliminary findings from the OMC's research about who is using the program and whether patients and their certifying health care practitioners are noticing benefits and harms. PMID:27464390

  2. Experiences of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug by Australian secondary school students yet there is scant research investigating school staff responses to student cannabis use. As such, this study surveyed 1,692 school staff who attended "Generation Next" seminars throughout Australia. The self-complete survey identified that the…

  3. Adolescents Initiating Cannabis Use: Cultural Opposition or Poor Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Willy

    1990-01-01

    Investigated possible links between normative and political opposition, mental health, and the use of cannabis in prospective longitudinal study of Norwegian adolescents (n=1,311). Findings indicated that the group that experimented with cannabis was mainly characterized by political and normative "oppositional" engagement, but heavy users also…

  4. Life Threatening Idiopathic Recurrent Angioedema Responding to Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Amit; Roy-Shapira, Aviel; Evgeni, Brotfain; Leonid, Koyfman; Borer, Abraham; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 27-year-old man with recurrent episodes of angioedema since he was 19, who responded well to treatment with medical grade cannabis. Initially, he responded to steroids and antihistamines, but several attempts to withdraw treatment resulted in recurrence. In the last few months before prescribing cannabis, the frequency and severity of the attacks worsened and included several presyncope events, associated with scrotal and neck swelling. No predisposing factors were identified, and extensive workup was negative. The patient reported that he was periodically using cannabis socially and that during these periods he was free of attacks. Recent data suggest that cannabis derivatives are involved in the control of mast cell activation. Consequently, we decided to try a course of inhaled cannabis as modulators of immune cell functions. The use of inhaled cannabis resulted in a complete response, and he has been free of symptoms for 2 years. An attempt to withhold the inhaled cannabis led to a recurrent attack within a week, and resuming cannabis maintained the remission, suggesting a cause and effect relationship. PMID:26257969

  5. Long-term effects of cannabis on brain structure.

    PubMed

    Battistella, Giovanni; Fornari, Eleonora; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Chtioui, Haithem; Dao, Kim; Fabritius, Marie; Favrat, Bernard; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

    2014-08-01

    The dose-dependent toxicity of the main psychoactive component of cannabis in brain regions rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors is well known in animal studies. However, research in humans does not show common findings across studies regarding the brain regions that are affected after long-term exposure to cannabis. In the present study, we investigate (using Voxel-based Morphometry) gray matter changes in a group of regular cannabis smokers in comparison with a group of occasional smokers matched by the years of cannabis use. We provide evidence that regular cannabis use is associated with gray matter volume reduction in the medial temporal cortex, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex; these regions are rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors and functionally associated with motivational, emotional, and affective processing. Furthermore, these changes correlate with the frequency of cannabis use in the 3 months before inclusion in the study. The age of onset of drug use also influences the magnitude of these changes. Significant gray matter volume reduction could result either from heavy consumption unrelated to the age of onset or instead from recreational cannabis use initiated at an adolescent age. In contrast, the larger gray matter volume detected in the cerebellum of regular smokers without any correlation with the monthly consumption of cannabis may be related to developmental (ontogenic) processes that occur in adolescence. PMID:24633558

  6. Standardized cannabis in multiple sclerosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A 52 year old female suffering from severe progressive multiple sclerosis was administered quantifiable amounts of standardized cannabis and monitored over the period of one year, while providing daily pain charts and records of her condition. An average daily intake of 500 mg of Tetrahydrocannabinol as cannabis was required to achieve a desired quality of life. PMID:20076809

  7. How Robustly Does Cannabis Use Associate to College Grades? Findings from Two Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Julia A.; Roth, Madeline G.; Johnson, Douglas N.; Jones, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Along with recent changes in cannabis legalization and decriminalization, there has been an increasing amount of attention aimed at cannabis use and outcomes in college. Although some amount of cannabis use might be expected under theories of collegiate identity development, public health research indicates that cannabis use ultimately associates…

  8. Experiences of Australian school staff in addressing student cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Gates, Peter J; Norberg, Melissa M; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug by Australian secondary school students yet there is scant research investigating school staff responses to student cannabis use. As such, this study surveyed 1,692 school staff who attended Generation Next seminars throughout Australia. The self-complete survey identified that the majority of school staff had discussed cannabis use at least once in the past year, although teachers were less likely to report having cannabis-related discussions compared to other school staff. Staff drug education training was consistently associated with an increased prevalence of cannabis-related discussion and assistance. These findings highlight a need for drug education among school staff and particularly among teachers. PMID:25068166

  9. Cannabis and psychopathology: The meandering journey of the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Basu, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception cannabis has been observed to be associated with various psycho-pathology. In this paper, the authors have reviewed the advancement made in this area over the last decade. The association between cannabis and schizophrenia has been researched more intensively. The controversy regarding the reliability, clinical utility, and the existence of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome has also been settled. Recent studies also buttressed the possibility of acute and chronic effect of cannabis on various cognitive functions. There has been a plethora of research regarding the treatment for cannabis use disorders. But the new and most interesting area of research is concentrated on the endocannabinoid system and its contribution in various psychiatric disorders. PMID:26124519

  10. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of ‘health’. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field. The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary’s failure to engage with an individual’s human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns. Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health. PMID:26692654

  11. Policy designs for cannabis legalization: starting with the eight Ps.

    PubMed

    Kilmer, Beau

    2014-07-01

    The cannabis policy landscape is changing rapidly. In November 2012 voters in Colorado and Washington State passed ballot initiatives to remove the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and possession of cannabis. This paper does not address the question of whether cannabis should be legal; it instead focuses on the design considerations confronting jurisdictions that are pondering a change in cannabis policy. Indeed, whether or not cannabis legalization is net positive or negative for public health and public safety largely depends on regulatory decisions and how they are implemented. This essay presents eight of these design choices which all conveniently begin with the letter "P": production, profit motive, promotion, prevention, potency, purity, price, and permanency. PMID:24853283

  12. Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (the important feature of necrosis). Although Ca2+ is known to cause opening of animal MPT pores, THCA directly opened Cannabis MPT pores in the absence of Ca2+. Based on these results, we conclude that THCA has the ability to induce necrosis though MPT in Cannabis leaves, independently of Ca2+. We confirmed that other cannabinoids (cannabidiolic acid and cannabigerolic acid) also have MPT-inducing activity similar to that of THCA. Moreover, mitochondria of plants which do not produce cannabinoids were shown to induce MPT by THCA treatment, thus suggesting that many higher plants may have systems to cause THCA-dependent necrosis. PMID:19704450

  13. Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2008-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (the important feature of necrosis). Although Ca(2+) is known to cause opening of animal MPT pores, THCA directly opened Cannabis MPT pores in the absence of Ca(2+). Based on these results, we conclude that THCA has the ability to induce necrosis though MPT in Cannabis leaves, independently of Ca(2+). We confirmed that other cannabinoids (cannabidiolic acid and cannabigerolic acid) also have MPT-inducing activity similar to that of THCA. Moreover, mitochondria of plants which do not produce cannabinoids were shown to induce MPT by THCA treatment, thus suggesting that many higher plants may have systems to cause THCA-dependent necrosis. PMID:19704450

  14. The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Susan Harrington; Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Karvinen, Tracy; Titus, Janet C.; Godley, Mark D.; Dent, George; Passetti, Lora; Kelberg, Pamela

    This publication was written for therapists and their supervisors who may want to implement the adolescent community reinforcement approach intervention, which was one of the five interventions tested by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project. The CYT Project provided funding to support a study…

  15. Multidimensional Family Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Howard A.

    The purpose of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project Cooperative Agreement was to test the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a variety of interventions designed to eliminate marijuana use and associated problems in…

  16. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Christian; Mattsson, Johan; Soydaner, Umut; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot) and total CBD (CBDtot) in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3%) and CBD (≥ 94.6%). The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis. PMID:26784441

  17. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Christian; Mattsson, Johan; Soydaner, Umut; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot) and total CBD (CBDtot) in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3%) and CBD (≥ 94.6%). The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis. PMID:26784441

  18. 2001: A Counseling Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Donald G.

    1978-01-01

    The author categories futurists into three types and then discusses futurists and crises and counseling strategies in an attempt to bring about congruence and to assist counselors to become aware of and recognize their role in shaping the future. (Author)

  19. Counseling the Coronary Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  20. Technology and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughary, John W.

    1977-01-01

    Today's world is vastly technological, and counselors need to keep abreast of advances in computer science, biofeedback, and other technical systems. Counseling and technology from a larger perspective define technology as concepts and methods as well as hardware. (Author)

  1. Biorhythm in Couple Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve couples in marital counseling were studied during 12 months on the basis of their biorhythms. For each couple a compatibility percentage was obtained. It was found that difficulties in their interaction correlated highly with dissonance in their biorhythms. (Author)

  2. Evaluating Counseling Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyer, Michael A.; Intrieri, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the range of interventions considered under the rubric of counseling for the elderly. Uses evaluation of treatments for depression among the elderly to exemplify the current state of outcome-evaluation research. (Author)

  3. Associations among Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Cannabis Use, and Cannabis Use Disorder in a Nationally Representative Epidemiologic Sample

    PubMed Central

    Kevorkian, Salpi; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Belendiuk, Katherine; Carney, Dever M.; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Berenz, Erin C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research in community and clinical samples has documented elevated rates of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) among individuals with trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is a lack of research investigating relations between, and correlates of, trauma and cannabis phenotypes in epidemiologic samples. The current study examined associations between trauma (i.e., lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD) and cannabis phenotypes (i.e., lifetime cannabis use and CUD) in a nationally representative sample. Methods Participants were individuals who participated in waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,396; 52.4% women; Mage=48.0 years, SD=16.9). Results Lifetime DSM-IV Criterion A trauma exposure was significantly associated with lifetime cannabis use (OR=1.215) but was only marginally associated with CUD (OR=0.997). Within the trauma-exposed sample, lifetime PTSD showed a significant association with CUD (OR=1.217) but was only marginally associated with lifetime cannabis use (OR=0.992). Conclusions Partially consistent with hypotheses, lifetime trauma was associated with greater odds of lifetime cannabis use while PTSD was associated with greater odds of CUD. Longitudinal research investigating patterns of onset of these events/disorders is needed. PMID:26415060

  4. 38 CFR 21.3100 - Counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling. 21.3100.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3100 Counseling. (a) Purpose of counseling. The purpose of counseling is to...)) (b) Availability of counseling. Counseling assistance is available for— (1) Identifying and...

  5. CANABIC: CANnabis and Adolescents: effect of a Brief Intervention on their Consumption – study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most consumed illegal substance in France. General practitioners (GPs) are the health professionals who are most consulted by adolescents. Brief intervention (BI) is a promising care initiative for the consumption of cannabis, and could be a tool for GPs in caring for adolescents who consume cannabis. The aim of the CANABIC study is to measure the impact of a BI carried out by a GP on the consumption of cannabis by adolescents of 15 to 25 years of age. Methods A randomized clustered controlled trial, stratified over three areas (Auvergne, Languedoc-Roussillon, and Rhône - Alpes), comparing an intervention group, which carries out the BI in consultation, and a control group, which ensures routine medical care. The main assessment criterion is the consumption of cannabis by amount of joints per month, at 12 months. The amount necessary to highlight a significant difference between the two groups of 30% of consumption at 12 months is 250 patients (50 GPs, 5 patients per GP; risk α = 5%; power = 90%; intra-cluster correlation coefficient ρ = 0.2; Hawthorne effect = 15%; lost to follow-up rates for GPs = 10% and for patients = 20%). This plan is replicated for the three areas, and therefore a total of 750 patients are expected. The secondary criteria for judgment are the associated consumption of tobacco and alcohol, the perception of the consequences of consumption, and the driving of a vehicle following consumption. Discussion Research about BI for young cannabis users is underway. The aim of the CANABIC study is to validate a BI suited to adolescents who consume cannabis, which may be performed in the general practice. This would provide a tool for their treatment by a GP, which could be widely distributed during initial or further medical training. Trial registration CANABIC is a randomized clustered trial (NCT01433692, registered 2011 Sept 12), PHRC funded: Clinical Research Hospital Program (Governmental

  6. Fitness to drive and cannabis: validation of two blood THCCOOH thresholds to distinguish occasional users from heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Fabritius, Marie; Augsburger, Marc; Chtioui, Haithem; Favrat, Bernard; Giroud, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Many studies based on either an experimental or an epidemiological approach, have shown that the ability to drive is impaired when the driver is under the influence of cannabis. Baseline performances of heavy users remain impaired even after several weeks of abstinence. Symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence are generally considered incompatible with safe driving. Recently, it has been shown that traffic safety can be increased by reporting the long-term unfit drivers to the driver licensing authorities and referring the cases for further medical assessment. Evaluation of the frequency of cannabis use is a prerequisite for a reliable medical assessment of the fitness to drive. In a previous paper we advocated the use of two thresholds based on 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) concentration in whole blood to help to distinguish occasional cannabis users (≤3 μg/L) from heavy regular smokers (≥40 μg/L). These criteria were established on the basis of results obtained in a controlled cannabis smoking study with placebo, carried out with two groups of young male volunteers; the first group was characterized by a heavy use (≥10 joints/month) while the second group was made up of occasional users smoking at most 1 joint/week. However, to date, these cutoffs have not been adequately assessed under real conditions. Their validity can now be evaluated and confirmed with 146 traffic offenders' real cases in which the whole blood cannabinoid concentrations and the frequency of cannabis use are known. The two thresholds were not challenged by the presence of ethanol (40% of cases) and of other therapeutic and illegal drugs (24%). Thus, we propose the following procedure that can be very useful in the Swiss context but also in other countries with similar traffic policies: if the whole blood THCCOOH concentration is higher than 40 μg/L, traffic offenders must be directed first and foremost toward medical assessment of their fitness to drive. This

  7. Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2) from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5) or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3). Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension) prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms). Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding patients from certain

  8. Cannabis and Endocannabinoid Signaling in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Katona, István

    2015-01-01

    The antiepileptic potential of Cannabis sativa preparations has been historically recognized. Recent changes in legal restrictions and new well-documented cases reporting remarkably strong beneficial effects have triggered an upsurge in exploiting medical marijuana in patients with refractory epilepsy. Parallel research efforts in the last decade have uncovered the fundamental role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in controlling neuronal network excitability raising hopes for cannabinoid-based therapeutic approaches. However, emerging data show that patient responsiveness varies substantially, and that cannabis administration may sometimes even exacerbate seizures. Qualitative and quantitative chemical variability in cannabis products and personal differences in the etiology of seizures, or in the pathological reorganization of epileptic networks, can all contribute to divergent patient responses. Thus, the consensus view in the neurologist community is that drugs modifying the activity of the endocannabinoid system should first be tested in clinical trials to establish efficacy, safety, dosing, and proper indication in specific forms of epilepsies. To support translation from anecdote-based practice to evidence-based therapy, the present review first introduces current preclinical and clinical efforts for cannabinoid- or endocannabinoid-based epilepsy treatments. Next, recent advances in our knowledge of how endocannabinoid signaling limits abnormal network activity as a central component of the synaptic circuit-breaker system will be reviewed to provide a framework for the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of the beneficial and adverse effects. Finally, accumulating evidence demonstrating robust synapse-specific pathophysiological plasticity of endocannabinoid signaling in epileptic networks will be summarized to gain better understanding of how and when pharmacological interventions may have therapeutic relevance. PMID:26408165

  9. The influence of cannabis on glucoregulation.

    PubMed

    de Pasquale, A; Costa, G; Trovato, A

    1978-01-01

    The effects of the administration of cannabis resin in different doses on haematic glucose levels, on plasmic IRI and on the amount of ammonia in the blood have been studied in dogs which had not been fed or had been fed intravenously with glucose. The results show that such resin leads to an increase in haematic glucose, accompanied by a reduction in plasmic IRI and an increase in ammonia levels. In addition, a decrease is observed in the tolerance of glucose administered intravenously. PMID:256518

  10. Child-Witnesses of Domestic Violence: The Evolution of a Counseling Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Elizabeth Heather

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative research design was used to explore the processes by which four child-witnesses of domestic violence made meaning of their experiences in a counseling group. A specific aim of this study was to determine if there were stages of group development that occurred in the counseling group with four young child-witnesses of domestic…

  11. The rapidly increasing trend of cannabis use in burn injury.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Charles Christopher; Nazir, Niaman; Bhavsar, Dhaval

    2015-01-01

    The use of cannabis is currently increasing according to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Surprisingly, cannabis use among burn patients is poorly reported in literature. In this study, rates of cannabis use in burn patients are compared with general population. Data from the National Burn Repository (NBR) were used to investigate incidence, demographics, and outcomes in relation to use of cannabis as evidenced by urine drug screen (UDS). Thousands of patients from the NBR from 2002 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 12 years of age who received a drug screen. Data points analyzed were patients' age, sex, UDS status, mechanism of burn injury, total body surface area, length of stay, ICU days, and insurance characteristics. Incidence of cannabis use in burn patients from the NBR was compared against national general population rates (gathered by Health and Human Services) using chi-square tests. Additionally, the burn patient population was analyzed using bivariate analysis and t-tests to find differences in the characteristics of these patients as well as differences in outcomes. Seventeen thousand eighty out of over 112,000 patients from NBR had information available for UDS. The incidence of cannabis use is increasing among the general population, but the rate is increasing more quickly among patients in the burn patient population (P = .0022). In 2002, 6.0% of patients in burn units had cannabis+ UDS, which was comparable with national incidence of 6.2%. By 2011, 27.0% of burn patients tested cannabis+ while national incidence of cannabis use was 7.0%. Patients who test cannabis+ are generally men (80.1%, P < .0001) and are younger on average (35 years old vs 42, P < .0001). The most common mechanisms of injury among patients who test cannabis+ or cannabis- are similar. Flame injury makes up >60% of injuries, followed by scalds that are >15%. In comparing cannabis+/- patients

  12. Can Cannabis be Considered a Substitute Medication for Alcohol?

    PubMed Central

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Substituting cannabis for alcohol may reduce drinking and related problems among alcohol-dependent individuals. Some even recommend prescribing medical cannabis to individuals attempting to reduce drinking. The primary aim of this review is to assess whether cannabis satisfies the seven previously published criteria for substitute medications for alcohol [e.g. ‘reduces alcohol-related harms’; ‘is safer in overdose than alcohol’; ‘should offer significant health economic benefits’; see Chick and Nutt ((2012) Substitution therapy for alcoholism: time for a reappraisal? J Psychopharmacol 26:205–12)]. Methods: Literature review. Results: All criteria appear either satisfied or partially satisfied, though studies relying on medical cannabis patients may be limited by selection bias and/or retrospective designs. Individual-level factors, such as severity of alcohol problems, may also moderate substitution. Conclusions: There is no clear pattern of outcomes related to cannabis substitution. Most importantly, the recommendation to prescribe alcohol-dependent individuals cannabis to help reduce drinking is premature. Future studies should use longitudinal data to better understand the consequences of cannabis substitution. PMID:24402247

  13. Obesity and cannabis use: results from 2 representative national surveys.

    PubMed

    Le Strat, Yann; Le Foll, Bernard

    2011-10-15

    The role of cannabis and endocannabinoids in appetite regulation has been extensively studied, but the association of cannabis use with weight in the general population is not known. The authors used data from 2 representative epidemiologic studies of US adults aged 18 years or older, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; 2001-2002) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R; 2001-2003), to estimate the prevalence of obesity as a function of cannabis use. The adjusted prevalences of obesity in the NESARC and the NCS-R were 22.0% and 25.3%, respectively, among participants reporting no use of cannabis in the past 12 months and 14.3% and 17.2%, respectively, among participants reporting the use of cannabis at least 3 days per week. These differences were not accounted for by tobacco smoking status. Additionally, after adjustment for sex and age, the use of cannabis was associated with body mass index differences in both samples. The authors conclude that the prevalence of obesity is lower in cannabis users than in nonusers. PMID:21868374

  14. Treatment of Cannabis Use Disorder: Current Science and Future Outlook.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Brian J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. Rates of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD) have increased in the past decade, paralleling changes in the legal and political climate favoring legalization. Almost 20 million people 12 years or older report past-month cannabis use, and 8 million report daily or near-daily use. Concurrently, the perception that cannabis use poses a significant risk of negative consequences has decreased. Contrary to this perception, heavy cannabis use is associated with cognitive impairment, increased risk for psychotic disorders and other mental health problems, lower education attainment, and unemployment. Clinical trials of various treatments for CUD have likewise increased, focusing primarily on psychotherapy treatments, specifically motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and contingency management. Their findings suggest that a combination of these three modalities produces the best abstinence outcomes, although abstinence rates remain modest and decline after treatment. More recently, pharmacotherapy trials have been conducted as adjunctive interventions to psychosocial treatment. N-acetylcysteine and gabapentin are two of the most promising medications, although no pharmacologic treatment has emerged as clearly efficacious. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of clinical trials that evaluated psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for treating CUD and discuss emerging areas of clinical research and cannabis-specific barriers to treatment. PMID:27027272

  15. Vaping cannabis (marijuana): parallel concerns to e-cigs?

    PubMed

    Budney, Alan J; Sargent, James D; Lee, Dustin C

    2015-11-01

    The proliferation of vaporization ('vaping') as a method for administering cannabis raises many of the same public health issues being debated and investigated in relation to e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Good epidemiological data on the prevalence of vaping cannabis are not yet available, but with current trends towards societal approval of medicinal and recreational use of cannabis, the pros and cons of vaping cannabis warrant study. As with e-cigs, vaping cannabis portends putative health benefits by reducing harm from ingesting toxic smoke. Indeed, vaping is perceived and being sold as a safer way to use cannabis, despite the lack of data on the health effects of chronic vaping. Other perceived benefits include better taste, more efficient and intense effects and greater discretion which allows for use in more places. Unfortunately, these aspects of vaping could prompt an increased likelihood of trying cannabis, earlier age of onset, more positive initial experiences, and more frequent use, thereby increasing the probability of problematic use or addiction. Sales and marketing of vaping devices with no regulatory guidelines, especially related to advertising or product development targeting youth, parallels concerns under debate related to e-cigs and youth. Thus, the quandary of whether or not to promote vaping as a safer method of cannabis administration for those wishing to use cannabis, and how to regulate vaping and vaping devices, necessitates substantial investigation and discussion. Addressing these issues in concert with efforts directed towards e-cigs may save time and energy and result in a more comprehensive and effective public health policy on vaping. PMID:26264448

  16. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal–known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists’ perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists’ views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software. Results Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients. Discussion This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which

  17. The Role of Cannabinoids in Neuroanatomic Alterations in Cannabis Users.

    PubMed

    Lorenzetti, Valentina; Solowij, Nadia; Yücel, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The past few decades have seen a marked change in the composition of commonly smoked cannabis. These changes primarily involve an increase of the psychoactive compound ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and a decrease of the potentially therapeutic compound cannabidiol (CBD). This altered composition of cannabis may be linked to persistent neuroanatomic alterations typically seen in regular cannabis users. In this review, we summarize recent findings from human structural neuroimaging investigations. We examine whether neuroanatomic alterations are 1) consistently observed in samples of regular cannabis users, particularly in cannabinoid receptor-high areas, which are vulnerable to the effects of high circulating levels of THC, and 2) associated either with greater levels of cannabis use (e.g., higher dosage, longer duration, and earlier age of onset) or with distinct cannabinoid compounds (i.e., THC and CBD). Across the 31 studies selected for inclusion in this review, neuroanatomic alterations emerged across regions that are high in cannabinoid receptors (i.e., hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, cerebellum). Greater dose and earlier age of onset were associated with these alterations. Preliminary evidence shows that THC exacerbates, whereas CBD protects from, such harmful effects. Methodologic differences in the quantification of levels of cannabis use prevent accurate assessment of cannabis exposure and direct comparison of findings across studies. Consequently, the field lacks large "consortium-style" data sets that can be used to develop reliable neurobiological models of cannabis-related harm, recovery, and protection. To move the field forward, we encourage a coordinated approach and suggest the urgent development of consensus-based guidelines to accurately and comprehensively quantify cannabis use and exposure in human studies. PMID:26858212

  18. A Case Report of Cannabis Induced Hemoptysis

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Hafiz Rizwan Talib; Duncalf, Richard; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the principal route of marijuana use is by inhalation, potential harmful consequences on pulmonary structure and function can be anticipated. Here, we present a case of hemoptysis attributed to smoking cannabis in a 38-year-old man. The patient experienced an episode of hemoptysis and shortness of breath immediately after smoking marijuana. Chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest showed bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacities. A fiber optic bronchoscopy confirmed bilateral diffuse bleeding from respiratory tract. Additional evaluation of hemoptysis indicated no infection or immunological responses. Urine toxicology was positive for cannabis. Chronic marijuana smoking causes visible and microscopic injury to the larger airways responsible for symptoms or chronic bronchitis. We review the beneficial and deleterious effects of marijuana and describe a case of significant hemoptysis attributed to smoking marijuana. In addition to other respiratory complications of marijuana use, physicians should educate their patients about this potentially lethal effect of marijuana smoking in the form of hemoptysis. PMID:27043693

  19. A Case Report of Cannabis Induced Hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Hafiz Rizwan Talib; Duncalf, Richard; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2016-03-01

    As the principal route of marijuana use is by inhalation, potential harmful consequences on pulmonary structure and function can be anticipated. Here, we present a case of hemoptysis attributed to smoking cannabis in a 38-year-old man. The patient experienced an episode of hemoptysis and shortness of breath immediately after smoking marijuana. Chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest showed bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacities. A fiber optic bronchoscopy confirmed bilateral diffuse bleeding from respiratory tract. Additional evaluation of hemoptysis indicated no infection or immunological responses. Urine toxicology was positive for cannabis.Chronic marijuana smoking causes visible and microscopic injury to the larger airways responsible for symptoms or chronic bronchitis. We review the beneficial and deleterious effects of marijuana and describe a case of significant hemoptysis attributed to smoking marijuana. In addition to other respiratory complications of marijuana use, physicians should educate their patients about this potentially lethal effect of marijuana smoking in the form of hemoptysis. PMID:27043693

  20. Cannabis and psychosis/schizophrenia: human studies

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Richard Andrew; Ranganathan, Mohini

    2010-01-01

    The association between cannabis use and psychosis has long been recognized. Recent advances in knowledge about cannabinoid receptor function have renewed interest in this association. Converging lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in some healthy individuals. Also clear is that in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. The mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce transient psychotic symptoms, while unclear may involve dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurotransmission. However, only a very small proportion of the general population exposed to cannabinoids develop a psychotic illness. It is likely that cannabis exposure is a “component cause” that interacts with other factors to “cause” schizophrenia or a psychotic disorder, but is neither necessary nor sufficient to do so alone. Nevertheless, in the absence of known causes of schizophrenia, the role of component causes remains important and warrants further study. Dose, duration of exposure, and the age of first exposure to cannabinoids may be important factors, and genetic factors that interact with cannabinoid exposure to moderate or amplify the risk of a psychotic disorder are beginning to be elucidated. The mechanisms by which exposure to cannabinoids increase the risk for developing a psychotic disorder are unknown. However, novel hypotheses including the role of cannabinoids on neurodevelopmental processes relevant to psychotic disorders are being studied. PMID:19609589

  1. Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Schicho, Rudolf; Storr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In ancient medicine, cannabis has been widely used to cure disturbances and inflammation of the bowel. A recent clinical study now shows that the medicinal plant Cannabis sativa has lived up to expectations and proved to be highly efficient in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases. In a prospective placebo-controlled study, it has been shown what has been largely anticipated from anecdotal reports, i.e. that cannabis produces significant clinical benefits in patients with Crohn's disease. The mechanisms involved are not yet clear but most likely include peripheral actions on cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, and may also include central actions. PMID:24356243

  2. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes. PMID:26876313

  3. Cannabis: A joint problem for patients and the dental profession.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S; Ashley, M

    2016-06-10

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly abused drugs in the UK. The debate about its legality has grown in recent times but the health implication of cannabis use is an issue of today. It is a drug commonly described as being 'soft' but its use has profound effects on many of the body's systems, including the oral cavity. This is of particular importance to the dental clinician. This paper aims to discuss the oral implications of cannabis use and provide advice on ways in which dental professionals can approach this sensitive topic and provide support. PMID:27283568

  4. Vulnerability Factors for the Psychiatric and Behavioral Effects of Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Bortolato, Marco; Bini, Valentina; Tambaro, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Cogent evidence shows that cannabis plays a variable role on behavioral regulation and the pathophysiology of most psychiatric conditions. Accordingly, cannabis has been alternatively shown to exacerbate or ameliorate mental symptoms, depending on its composition and route of consumption, as well as specific individual and contextual characteristics. The vulnerability to the psychological effects of cannabis is influenced by a complex constellation of genetic and environmental factors. In the present article, we will review the current evidence on the pharmacological, individual and situational factors that have been documented to affect the behavioral and psychiatric effects of cannabinoids.

  5. Adolescent ischemic stroke associated with anabolic steroid and cannabis abuse.

    PubMed

    El Scheich, Tarik; Weber, Artur-Aron; Klee, Dirk; Schweiger, Daniel; Mayatepek, Ertan; Karenfort, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 16-year-old body builder who suffered from an acute ischemic stroke. In the urine, cannabis metabolites as well as metabolites of the oral androgenic-anabolic steroid methandrostenolone were detected, both known to be associated with stroke events. This report highlights the role of cannabis and steroid abuse that induce strokes in the absence of arteriopathy, cardioembolism or thrombophilia. Owing to new upcoming socio-behavioral aspects of late childhood and early adolescent life, this formally rare abuse of cannabis and/or anabolic steroids as well as their associations with strokes becomes more current than ever. PMID:23382306

  6. Effects of cannabis smoking on oral soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Arendorf, T M

    1993-04-01

    The oral effects of cigarette smoking have been well documented but the effects of cannabis smoke on the oral environment have been poorly documented. Three-hundred cannabis/tobacco/methaqualone smokers were examined. Two control groups consisting of 152 tobacco- and 189 non-smokers respectively were examined similarly. Health of the oral tissues and oral dryness was recorded. Lesions present included leukoedema, leukoplakia and numerous others. The only significant differences between lesions and conditions noted in cannabis users and controls occurred with respect to leukoedema, dry mouth and traumatic ulcer. PMID:8485974

  7. The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

    This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

  8. "Green" Counseling: Integrating Reused Household Materials into Creative Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Nicole A.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2011-01-01

    The use of reused or recycled materials in counseling interventions provides counselors with an opportunity to use unique counseling mediums while simultaneously being socially and fiscally responsible. In this article, ways that reused or recycled items can be used in counseling are discussed. Practical suggestions for using reused or recycled…

  9. The Ghosts of Counseling Psychology: Is Counseling Research Really Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Scheel et al. offer an interesting analysis on the publication rate of counseling-related research articles in counseling psychology's two major journals. In this reaction to their work, the author considers various aspects of their results and contemplates possible explanations for the decline of counseling-related publications. The author…

  10. "Good" Counseling; "Bad" Counseling: Who Can Tell the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Geoffrey G.; And Others

    The seven studies reported in this paper represent successive attempts to explain the inability of observers to differentiate "good" counseling from "bad" counseling. Essentially, the researchers found that subjects, both undergraduate education majors and graduate counseling students, did not rate a videotaped counselor's performance as more…

  11. Introduction to the Major Contribution: Counseling Psychology and Online Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallen, Michael J.; Vogel, David L.

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the Major Contribution, which focuses on online counseling. Several acronyms and terms are presented to familiarize the reader with distance-communication technology, including a definition of online counseling. The authors show how counseling psychology provides a framework for specific questions related to the theory,…

  12. Some Approaches for Counseling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, David G.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests teachers use following steps in counseling students: preparation, introduction, problem definition, solution identification, information gathering, decision making, and follow-up. Discusses role of teacher in directive and non-directive counseling. (DM)

  13. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  14. Correlates of Intentions to Use Cannabis among US High School Seniors in the Case of Cannabis Legalization

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Petkova, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Background Support for cannabis (“marijuana”) legalization is increasing in the United States (US). Use was recently legalized in two states and in Uruguay, and other states and countries are expected to follow suit. This study examined intentions to use among US high school seniors if cannabis were to become legally available. Methods Data from the last five cohorts (2007–2011) of high school seniors in Monitoring the Future, an annual nationally representative survey of students in the US were utilized. Data were analyzed separately for the 6,116 seniors who reported no lifetime use of cannabis and the 3,828 seniors who reported lifetime use (weighted Ns). We examined whether demographic characteristics, substance use and perceived friend disapproval towards cannabis use were associated with 1) intention to try cannabis among non-lifetime users, and 2) intention to use cannabis as often or more often among lifetime users, if cannabis was legal to use. Results Ten percent of non-cannabis-using students reported intent to initiate use if legal and this would constitute a 5.6% absolute increase in lifetime prevalence of cannabis use in this age group from 45.6% (95% CI=46.6, 44.6) to 51.2% (95% CI=50.2, 52.2). Eighteen percent of lifetime users reported intent to use cannabis more often if it was legal. Odds for intention to use outcomes increased among groups already at high risk for use (e.g., males, whites, cigarette smokers) and odds were reduced when friends disapproved of use. However, large proportions of subgroups of students normally at low risk for use (e.g., non-cigarette-smokers, religious students, those with friends who disapprove of use) reported intention to use if legal. Recent use was also a risk factor for reporting intention to use as often or more often. Conclusion Prevalence of cannabis use is expected to increase if cannabis is legal to use and legally available. PMID:24589410

  15. A Counseling Group for Children of Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanko, Cynthia A.; Taub, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Cancer affects not just the patient but also the entire family system. The effect of a parent's cancer on young children in the family may lead to emotional distress and school problems. This article describes guidelines for a counseling group for elementary school children of cancer patients to be led by the school counselor and meet in the…

  16. The Freshman Student and Academic Success: A Counseling Center's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isakson, Richard L.; Call, John M.

    This paper describes three outreach programs implemented by the Counseling and Development Center (CDC) at Utah's Brigham Young University (BYU) to better serve the academic needs of freshmen. The first program is a cooperative program with the BYU Housing Department aimed at facilitating adjustment to college and personal development of students…

  17. Parental Influence on Young People's Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Luther B.; Call, Vaughn R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes theory and research on parental influence on young people's career development and highlights an important implication of this relationship for career counseling. The authors discuss a seminar that helps parents help their children choose careers. (CT)

  18. Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Ethan B.; Jiang, Hong-En; Li, Xiao; Sutton, Alan; Carboni, Andrea; del Bianco, Francesca; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Potter, David J.; Zhao, You-Xing; Bera, Subir; Zhang, Yong-Bing; Lü, En-Guo; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2008-01-01

    The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis, its oxidative degradation product, cannabinol, other metabolites, and its synthetic enzyme, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, as well as a novel genetic variant with two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. To our knowledge, these investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent, and contribute to the medical and archaeological record of this pre-Silk Road culture. PMID:19036842

  19. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM: LESSONS FROM CANADIAN LITIGATION.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2015-06-01

    This editorial reviews medicinal cannabis litigation in Canada's superior courts between 1998 and 2015. It reflects upon the outcomes of the decisions and the reasoning within them. It identifies the issues that have driven Canada's jurisprudence in relation to access to medicinal cannabis, particularly insofar as it has engaged patients' rights to liberty and security of the person. It argues that the sequence of medicinal schemes adopted and refined in Canada provides constructive guidance for countries such as Australia which are contemplating introduction of medicinal cannabis as a therapeutic option in compassionate circumstances for patients. In particular, it contends that Canada's experience suggests that strategies calculated to introduce such schemes in a gradualist way, enabling informed involvement by medical practitioners and pharmacists, and that provide for safe and inexpensive accessibility to forms of medicinal cannabis that are clearly distinguished from recreational use and unlikely to be diverted criminally maximise the chances of such schemes being accepted by key stakeholders. PMID:26349373

  20. Cannabis: a controversial 21st-century drug of antiquity.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, D; Holt, M

    2014-05-01

    Cannabis consumption has been popular for thousands of years and its historical use is noted in many parts of the world including ancient China, India, the Middle East. It is currently the most popular illicit drug in the world, is being utilized as a medicinal plant, and many parts of the world are legalizing this drug. This discussion considers various aspects of cannabis use including its prevalence, history, co-morbid drug abuse, designer cannabinoids, psychiatric adverse effects, medical adverse effects, and management options. The youth of the world should be comprehensively taught that cannabis is neither a safe nor a benign drug. Prevention with comprehensive drug education is the best plan for our youth since management of a chronic or heavy cannabis consummer remains difficult and fraught with failure if cessation is the goal. Caveat emptor! PMID:24940853

  1. Abraham Maslow's Legacy for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Edward

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the life of Abraham Maslow, a key founder of the humanistic approach to counseling, and his contributions to the counseling field. Maintains that Maslow's innovative work was often misinterpreted by both his admirers and his critics, yet remains highly relevant to current concerns in counseling. (Author/PVV)

  2. Contemporary Counseling: Services, Applications, Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humes, Charles W.

    This book was written to serve as a basic text in courses that overview the use of counseling services and to serve as a useful reference for counseling practitioners. It is designed to stress counseling services in different settings (social agencies, mental health centers, schools, business/industry, correctional institutions, and private…

  3. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, R. Joel, II, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of the "Alabama Counseling Association Journal" published during 1996. The focus of the journal is on communicating ideas and information that will help counselors to implement the counseling role and develop the profession of counseling. Issue number 1 includes the following articles: "Commitment through…

  4. Group Counselling for Problem Gambling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coman, Gregory J.; Evans, Barry J.; Burrows, Graham D.

    2002-01-01

    Group counseling has been used to assist individuals to overcome difficulties associated with problem gambling behavior; however, there are few reports of this application in the clinical and research literature. This paper provides a brief review of group counseling, and describes the application of group counseling to assist individuals with…

  5. Do Counseling and Marketing Mix?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong-Beyette, Margaret L.

    1988-01-01

    Responds to Wittman's previous article on counseling and marketing by discussing concerns about two of Wittman's purposes for use of marketing: improved services in consumers and economic survival of counseling profession. Agrees that counseling profession needs to understand basic marketing principles used by business and health care industry;…

  6. THE PREVALENCE OF CANNABIS-INVOLVED DRIVING IN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark B.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Lacey, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Various national surveys suggest that cannabis use is rising nationally, and many States have passed legislation that has potential to increase usage even further. This presents a problem for public roadways, as research suggests that cannabis impairs driving ability. Methods Anonymous oral fluid samples and breath tests were obtained from more than 900 weekend nighttime drivers randomly sampled from six jurisdictions in California. Oral fluid samples were assayed for the presence of Schedule I drugs. Drivers also completed information on self-reported drug use and possession of a medical cannabis permit. Data from the 2007 National Roadside Survey (collected using comparable methods) were used as a comparison. Results Using the 2010 data, a total of 14.4% of weekend nighttime drivers tested positive for illegal drugs, with 8.5% testing positive for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC-positive rates varied considerably among jurisdictions, from a low of 4.3% in Fresno to a high of 18.3% in Eureka. A comparison with the 2007 NRS data found an increase in THC-positive drivers in 2010, but no increase in illegal drugs other than cannabis. Drivers who reported having a medical cannabis permit were significantly more likely to test positive for THC. Conclusions Cannabis-involved driving has increased in California since 2007. Nearly 1-in-10 weekend, nighttime drivers tested positive for THC, and in some jurisdictions, the rate was nearly 1-in-5. The possible contribution of cannabis legislation, such as decriminalization and medical cannabis usage, is discussed. PMID:22101027

  7. Medical cannabis vs. synthetic cannabinoids: What does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Bolognini, D; Ross, R A

    2015-06-01

    The medical use of cannabis has an intricate therapeutic history that finds its roots in ancient China (∼2700 BC). The main psychoactive component of cannabis, Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC), was discovered in 1964. This was a significant breakthrough, as it allowed the generation of synthetic analogs of Δ(9) -THC, the discovery of cannabinoid receptors, and the generation of synthetic small molecules. Despite this, today there is still a paucity of drugs that target the cannabinoid system. PMID:25761845

  8. [Pathological gambling and addiction to cannabis: common psychosocial profile?].

    PubMed

    Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830

  9. Vocational Counseling Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Charles R.

    1976-01-01

    The author stresses the importance for counselors to articulate a viable and comprehensive approach to vocational counseling to both clients and the larger society. A re-thinking and re-stating of career education concepts can be a first step in applying vocational theory more constructively. (EA)

  10. Counselling for Occupational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwamuo, P. A.; Ugonna, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the general attitude which senior secondary school students display towards counselling for occupational development while determining gender difference in students' attitude towards occupational information. It is also aimed at discovering whether these students seek vocational guidance in their choice of…

  11. Counseling and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Juan; And Others

    This booklet, developed for school counselors, explores basic considerations for effective counseling of Lau students, defined as those from distinct language and cultural backgrounds, whose home language is other than English and who are not performing conceptually and linguistically at a level equal to district standards. Following a brief…

  12. Buddhism and Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Silva, Padmal

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the relevance of the principles and practices of Buddhism to the field of counseling. As Buddhism espouses the notion of a productive and healthy life, it offers ways of dealing with problems and difficulties, and of improving psychological well-being. Cites examples of relevant Buddhist techniques and their application. (JPS)

  13. Assessing Campus Counseling Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrar, William R.; Affsprung, Eric H.; Long, Jeffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Campus mental health needs are in the spotlight. Whether the nature and severity of problems presenting in college counseling centers are increasing or not, it is important to provide appropriate services for the campus as a whole. By surveying the general campus population, a better basis for determining the needs of students can be established…

  14. The Courage To Counsel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Geoffrey G.; And Others

    Counseling is a professional field that requires as much or more courage than virtually any non-life-threatening occupation. In a fashion analogous to both the fire fighter or the police officer who is in direct physical danger, effective counselors must fortify themselves and prepare themselves as well as possible when they enter the unknown and…

  15. The Counseling & Guidance Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Counseling and guidance services are vital in any school curriculum. Counselors may themselves be dealing with students of diverse abilities and handicaps. Counselors may have to work with students affected by drug addiction, fetal alcohol syndrome, homelessness, poverty, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and divorce. Students may present…

  16. Multimodel Counseling: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keat, Donald B., II, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains six articles focusing on current developments in multimodal counseling. Topics addressed include multimodal methods of interviewing children, helping children with anger, and enhancing self-concept. Describes utilizing helping books with children, and the multimodal effect of physical exercise. (RC)

  17. Counseling Skills for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.; Kottler, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    By necessity, today's teachers do much more than deliver instruction. In the classroom, on the playground, or even in the parking lot, teachers are often called upon to respond quickly and appropriately to students' social and emotional needs, drawing from instinct more than anything else. In this second edition of "Counseling Skills for…

  18. Stress and stress counselling.

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    This is a report by the 1989 National Association of Clinical Tutors Wyeth Travelling Fellow to the United States of America. The stresses of postgraduate training and attempts to modify these are described, including stress counselling. The significance of stress and the relevance of the findings for postgraduate training in the United Kingdom are considered. PMID:2235808

  19. Performance Appraisal and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Author, an Associate Professor of Industrial Management Engineering at the University of Oklahoma, has worked with both large and small companies and organizations in many kinds of business and industry. He discusses performance appraisal of employees, merit raises, counseling and interviewing techniques. (Editor/DR)

  20. First Cycle Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darska, Anna

    1981-01-01

    Investigations are described that were carried out by the Centre d'Information de Documentation et d'Orientation of the Rene Descartes University to find an answer to the counseling problems arising from student admission, through coursework, and upon leaving the university to start a career. (Author/MLW)

  1. "Counseling" in Ophthalmology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francois, J.

    1976-01-01

    The need to counsel patients with genetic ophthalmological problems is stressed in the article. Assessment of autosomal dominance or autosomal recessitivity in an individual is explained and sex-linked heredity is traced. Practical examples of genetic abnormalities, such as pigmentary retinopathy and chorodineremia, are discussed. (PHR)

  2. The Counseling Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Leonard

    This volume seeks to answer the basic question "What does a counselor or therapist need to know in order to become a Licensed Professional Counselor?" Containing all the basic information that is taught in the counseling and therapy classes in major universities across the United States, this book places a special emphasis on those courses which…

  3. Advisory Counseling for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penland, Patrick R.

    The papers in the first section of this publication develop an understanding of the background, purpose and functions of advisory counseling in libraries. The purpose of the papers in the second section is to delineate the interrelationships of information transfer and meaning transfer and to lay out a background where flexibility can be developed…

  4. Evaluation Software in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabella, Russell A.

    Counselors today are presented with a number of differing applications software. This article intends to advance the counselor's knowledge and considerations of the various aspects of application software. Included is a discussion of the software applications typically of help to counselors in (a) managing their work (computer managed counseling);…

  5. Developmental Science and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geidner, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental counseling is a promising model integrating theory and practice. A. E. Ivey's (2000; A. E. Ivey & O. F. Goncalves, 1988) work is discussed as a template for proposing a more comprehensive developmental perspective. Where A. E. Ivey's model renders a case for cognition, the current article encompasses other developmental systems…

  6. Writing as Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Alice G.

    1987-01-01

    Promotes writing as a counseling technique to enhance a child's psychological growth. Notes that writing enhances awareness by helping individuals organize their inner selves, contributing to personal integration and self-validation, and providing a cathartic emotional release. Describes current therapeutic writing practices and a therapeutic…

  7. Chemistry, metabolism, and toxicology of cannabis: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Murthy, Pratima; Bharath, M M Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (▵(9_)THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects.Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use.In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis. PMID:23408483

  8. The short-term consequences of early onset cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, D M; Lynskey, M T; Horwood, L J

    1996-08-01

    The associations between early onset (prior to 15 years of age) cannabis use and rates of mental health or adjustment problems during the period from 15 to 16 years of age were studied in a New Zealand birth cohort. Early onset cannabis users were at increased risks of later substance use behaviors, conduct/oppositional disorders, juvenile offending, severe truancy, school dropout, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Early cannabis users had odds of these outcomes ranging from 2.7 to 30.8 times higher than the odds for those who did not use cannabis prior to age 15. Most of the elevated risks of early onset users were explained by the fact that they were a high-risk groups of adolescents characterized by family disadvantages, early adjustment problems, and high affiliations with substance-using or delinquent peers. Nonetheless, even after adjustment for a wide range of confounding factors, early onset users had increased risks of later cannabis use. It is concluded that while most of the elevated risks of early onset users were explained by social, family, and individual characteristics of this group, early onset users were at increased risks of later cannabis use. PMID:8886945

  9. Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Pratima; Bharath, M.M. Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (▵9_THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders. Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects. Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use. In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis. PMID:23408483

  10. Is the clinical use of cannabis by oncology patients advisable?

    PubMed

    Bar-Sela, Gil; Avisar, Adva; Batash, Ron; Schaffer, Moshe

    2014-06-01

    The use of the cannabis plant for various medical indications by cancer patients has been rising significantly in the past few years in several European countries, the US and Israel. The increase in use comes from public demand for the most part, and not due to a scientific basis. Cannabis chemistry is complex, and the isolation and extraction of the active ingredient remain difficult. The active agent in cannabis is unique among psychoactive plant materials, as it contains no nitrogen and, thus, is not an alkaloid. Alongside inconclusive evidence of increased risks of lung and head and neck cancers from prolonged smoking of the plant produce, laboratory evidence of the anti-cancer effects of plant components exists, but with no clinical research in this direction. The beneficial effects of treatment with the plant, or treatment with medicine produced from its components, are related to symptoms of the disease: pain, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight loss. The clinical evidence of the efficacy of cannabis for these indications is only partial. However, recent scientific data from studies with THC and cannabidiol combinations report the first clinical indication of cancer-related pain relief. The difficulties of performing research into products that are not medicinal, such as cannabis, have not allowed a true study of the cannabis plant extract although, from the public point of view, such studies are greatly desirable. PMID:24606496

  11. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Paradoxical Cannabis Effect.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Rivera, Ivonne Marie; Estremera-Marcial, Rodolfo; Sierra-Mercado, Marielly; Gutiérrez-Núñez, José; Toro, Doris H

    2015-01-01

    Despite well-established antiemetic properties of marijuana, there has been increasing evidence of a paradoxical effect in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, given rise to a new and underrecognized clinical entity called the Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. Reported cases in the medical literature have established a series of patients exhibiting a classical triad of symptoms: cyclic vomiting, chronic marijuana use, and compulsive bathing. We present a case of a 29-year-old man whose clinical presentation strongly correlates with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Despite a diagnosis of exclusion, this syndrome should be considered plausible in the setting of a patient with recurrent intractable vomiting and a strong history of cannabis use as presented in this case. PMID:26266060

  12. Use of Alcohol and Drugs in the Transitional Phase from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Torild; Vaglum, Per

    1990-01-01

    Studied use of alcohol and drugs in transitional phase from adolescence to young adulthood by analyzing data from a prospective longitudinal national survey of 2000 young adults. Findings showed a significant impact of this transitional period on both alcohol consumption and use of cannabis and a higher alcohol consumption among those who had left…

  13. Patterns of Drug Use in a Sample of 200 Young Drug Users in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London. Participants were 200 young people who were either weekly cannabis users and/or who had…

  14. Patterns and correlates of cannabis use among individuals with HIV/AIDS in Maritime Canada

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Gregory E; Dupuis, Lise; Mugford, Gerald J; Johnston, Lynn; Haase, David; Page, Ginny; Haldane, Heather; Harris, Nicholas; Midodzi, William K; Dow, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cannabis use in HIV-infected individuals is high and its long-term effects are unclear. METHODS: The prevalence, perceived benefits and consequences, and predictors of cannabis use were studied using a cross-sectional survey in two immunodeficiency clinics in Maritime Canada. RESULTS: Current cannabis use was identified in 38.5% (87 of 226) of participants. Almost all cannabis users (85 of 87 [97.7%]) acknowledged its use for recreational purposes, with 21.8% (19 of 87) reporting medicinal cannabis use. The majority of patients enrolled in the present study reported mild or no symptoms related to HIV (n=179). Overall, 80.5% (70 of 87) of the cannabis-using participants reported a symptom-relieving benefit, mostly for relief of stress, anorexia or pain. Participants consumed a mean (± SD) of 18.3±21.1 g of cannabis per month and spent an average of $105.15±109.87 on cannabis per month. Cannabis use was associated with rural residence, lower income level, driving under the influence of a substance, and consumption of ecstasy and tobacco. Income level, ecstasy use and tobacco use were retained as significant predictors in regression modelling. Cannabis use was not associated with adverse psychological outcomes. DISCUSSION: Prolonged previous cannabis consumption and the substantial overlap between recreational and medicinal cannabis use highlight the challenges in obtaining a tenable definition of medicinal cannabis therapy. PMID:24634690

  15. The role of drug use sequencing pattern in further problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drugs

    PubMed Central

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Maurício; Martins, Silvia S.; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Nicastri, Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been considerable debate regarding what typically occurs after experimentation with drugs throughout the life of young people who used various drugs. Aims To evaluate the clinical importance of the most common sequence for the first use of a drug by two models(the ‘gateway model’ and the ‘alternative model’, which is the most popular sequence for Brazilian university students according to a previous study) regarding the problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illegal drugs, assessed by ASSIST. Method People who had already experimented with three or more drugs across different stages of the two models were selected from a representative sample of university students from 27 Brazilian capitals(n=12, 711). Findings There were no differences regarding the problematic use of the most consumed drugs in Brazil(alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) between the models. Multiple drug seekers and violators had more problematic use of illegal drugs other than cannabis than individuals in the model sequence. However, in the case of violators, this was only evident in the alternative model. Conclusions Multiple drug seekers and violators deserve special attention due to their increased risk of problematic use of other illegal drugs. Declaration of interest None. PMID:25188583

  16. Parental Transmission of Risk for Cannabis Use Disorders to Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kosty, Derek B.; Farmer, Richard F.; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.; Duncan, Susan C.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims We investigated the risk of cannabis use disorder (CUD) among probands as a function of parental psychopathology and explored parent-offspring gender concordance as a mechanism of parental CUD transmission to offspring. Design Four waves of data collection from a longitudinal epidemiological study of psychopathology among a regionally representative sample. Setting Participants were randomly selected from western Oregon, USA, and were initially assessed during mid-adolescence. Participants The reference sample included 719 probands and their biological mothers and fathers. Measurements CUD episodes among probands were assessed with semi-structured diagnostic interviews between mid-adolescence and young adulthood. Lifetime psychiatric disorders among parents of probands were assessed when probands were approximately 24 years of age. Findings There was an increased risk for CUD onset among probands with parental histories of CUD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI95] = 1.30–2.88), hard drug use disorders (HR = 1.96, CI95 = 1.32–2.90), or antisocial personality disorder (HR = 1.73, CI95 = 1.06–2.82). A significant parent-offspring gender concordance effect indicated that females with a maternal CUD history were at higher risk for CUD onset compared with females without a maternal CUD (HR = 3.10, CI95 = 1.52–6.34). Maternal CUD was not associated with CUD onset among males (p = .570), nor was there evidence for parent-offspring gender concordance effects for paternal CUD-specific transmission (p = .114). Conclusions Parental histories of antisocial personality and illicit substance use disorders are associated with increased risk for CUD onset in offspring, especially among females with maternal CUD histories. PMID:25754308

  17. Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, Sam; Kardos, Keith; Salamone, Sal; Fritch, Dean; Bronsgeest, Matth; Cone, Edward J

    2004-10-01

    Oral fluid testing for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) provides a convenient means of detection of recent cannabis usage. In this study, the risk of positive oral fluid tests from passive cannabis smoke exposure was investigated by housing four cannabis-free volunteers in a small, unventilated, and sealed room with an approximate volume of 36 m(3). Five active cannabis smokers were also present in the room, and each smoked a single cannabis cigarette (1.75% THC). Cannabis smoking occurred over the first 20 min of the study session. All subjects remained in the room for approximately 4 h. Oral fluid specimens were collected with the Intercept DOA Oral Specimen Collection Device. Three urine specimens were collected (0, 20, and 245 min). In addition, three air samples were collected for measurement of THC content. All oral fluid specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for cannabinoids (cutoff concentration = 3 ng/mL) and tested by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) for THC (LOQ/LOD = 0.75 ng/mL). All urine specimens were screened by EIA for cannabinoids (cutoff concentration = 50 ng/mL) and tested by GC-MS-MS for THCCOOH (LOQ/LOD = 1 ng/mL). Air samples were measured for THC by GC-MS (LOD = 1 ng/L). A total of eight oral fluid specimens (collected 20 to 50 min following initiation of smoking) from the four passive subjects screened and confirmed positive for THC at concentrations ranging from 3.6 to 26.4 ng/mL. Two additional specimens from one passive subject, collected at 50 and 65 min, screened negative but contained THC in concentrations of 4.2 and 1.1 ng/mL, respectively. All subsequent specimens for passive participants tested negative by EIA and GC-MS-MS for the remainder of the 4-h session. In contrast, oral fluid specimens collected from the five cannabis smokers generally screened and confirmed positive for THC throughout the session at concentrations substantially higher than observed for passive subjects. Urine

  18. [Cannabis--Position Paper of the German Respiratory Society (DGP)].

    PubMed

    Kreuter, M; Nowak, D; Rüther, T; Hoch, E; Thomasius, R; Vogelberg, C; Brockstedt, M; Hellmann, A; Gohlke, H; Jany, B; Loddenkemper, R

    2016-02-01

    In this position paper, the adverse health effects of cannabis are reviewed based on the existing scientific literature; in addition possible symptom-relieving effects on some diseases are depicted. In Germany, cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Approximately 600,000 adult persons show abusive or addictive cannabis consumption. In 12 to 17 year old adolescents, cannabis use increased from 2011 to 2014 from 2.8 to 6.4%, and the frequency of regular use from 0.2 to 1.5%. Currently, handling of cannabinoids is much debated in politics as well as in general public. Health aspects have to be incorporated into this debate. Besides analysing mental and neurological side effects, this position paper will mainly focus on the influences on the bronchopulmonary and cardiovascular system. There is strong evidence for the induction of chronic bronchitis. Allergic reactions including asthma are known, too. Associations with other diseases like pulmonary emphysema, lung cancer and pneumonia are not sufficiently proven, however cannot be excluded either. In connection with the use of cannabis cardiovascular events such as coronary syndromes, peripheral vascular diseases and cerebral complications have been noted. Often, the evidence is insufficient due to various reasons; most notably, the overlapping effects of tobacco and cannabis use can frequently not be separated adequately. Empirically, early beginning, high-dosed, long-lasting and regular cannabis consumption increase the risk of various psychological and physical impairments and negatively affect age-based development. Concerns therefore relate especially to children and adolescents. There is only little scientific evidence for medical benefits through cannabis as a remedy; systematic research of good quality, in particular prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled double-blinded studies are rare. The medical societies signing this position paper conclude that cannabis consumption is linked to adverse health

  19. Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.

  20. A family based tailored counselling to increase non-exercise physical activity in adults with a sedentary job and physical activity in their young children: design and methods of a year-long randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that decrease in sedentary behaviour is beneficial for health. This family based randomized controlled trial examines whether face-to-face delivered counselling is effective in reducing sedentary time and improving health in adults and increasing moderate-to-vigorous activities in children. Methods The families are randomized after balancing socioeconomic and environmental factors in the Jyväskylä region, Finland. Inclusion criteria are: healthy men and women with children 3-8 years old, and having an occupation where they self-reportedly sit more than 50% of their work time and children in all-day day-care in kindergarten or in the first grade in primary school. Exclusion criteria are: body mass index > 35 kg/m2, self-reported chronic, long-term diseases, families with pregnant mother at baseline and children with disorders delaying motor development. From both adults and children accelerometer data is collected five times a year in one week periods. In addition, fasting blood samples for whole blood count and serum metabonomics, and diurnal heart rate variability for 3 days are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up from adults. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle activities providing detailed information on muscle inactivity will be used to realize the maximum potential effect of the intervention. Fundamental motor skills from children and body composition from adults will be measured at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Questionnaires of family-influence-model, health and physical activity, and dietary records are assessed. After the baseline measurements the intervention group will receive tailored counselling targeted to decrease sitting time by focusing on commute and work time. The counselling regarding leisure time is especially targeted to encourage toward family physical activities such as visiting playgrounds and non-built environments, where children can get diversified stimulation

  1. Hippocampal harms, protection and recovery following regular cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Yücel, M; Lorenzetti, V; Suo, C; Zalesky, A; Fornito, A; Takagi, M J; Lubman, D I; Solowij, N

    2016-01-01

    Shifting policies towards legalisation of cannabis for therapeutic and recreational use raise significant ethical issues for health-care providers seeking evidence-based recommendations. We investigated whether heavy cannabis use is associated with persistent harms to the hippocampus, if exposure to cannabidiol offers protection, and whether recovery occurs with abstinence. To do this, we assessed 111 participants: 74 long-term regular cannabis users (with an average of 15.4 years of use) and 37 non-user healthy controls. Cannabis users included subgroups of participants who were either exposed to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but not to cannabidiol (CBD) or exposed to both, and former users with sustained abstinence. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging from which three measures of hippocampal integrity were assessed: (i) volume; (ii) fractional anisotropy; and (iii) N-acetylaspartate (NAA). Three curve-fitting models across the entire sample were tested for each measure to examine whether cannabis-related hippocampal harms are persistent, can be minimised (protected) by exposure to CBD or recovered through long-term abstinence. These analyses supported a protection and recovery model for hippocampal volume (P=0.003) and NAA (P=0.001). Further pairwise analyses showed that cannabis users had smaller hippocampal volumes relative to controls. Users not exposed to CBD had 11% reduced volumes and 15% lower NAA concentrations. Users exposed to CBD and former users did not differ from controls on any measure. Ongoing cannabis use is associated with harms to brain health, underpinned by chronic exposure to THC. However, such harms are minimised by CBD, and can be recovered with extended periods of abstinence. PMID:26756903

  2. Perceived Cannabis Use Norms and Cannabis Use among Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2015-01-01

    Due to changes in cannabis policies, concerns about cannabis use (CU) in adolescents have increased. The population of nonwhite groups is growing quickly in the United States. We examined perceived CU norms and their association with CU and CU disorder (CUD) for White, Black, Hispanic, Native-American, Asian-American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (NH/PI), and mixed-race adolescents. Data were from adolescents (12–17 years) in the 2004–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=163,837). Substance use and CUD were assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. Blacks, Hispanics, Native-Americans, and mixed-race adolescents had greater odds of past-year CU and CUD than Whites. Among past-year cannabis users (CUs), Hispanics and Native-Americans had greater odds of having a CUD than Whites. Asian-Americans had the highest prevalence of perceived parental or close friends’ CU disapproval. Native-Americans and mixed-race adolescents had lower odds than Whites of perceiving CU disapproval from parents or close friends. In adjusted analyses, adolescent’s disapproval of CU, as well as perceived disapproval by parents or close friends, were associated with a decreased odds of CU in each racial/ethnic group, except for NHs/PIs. Adolescent’s disapproval of CU was associated with a decreased odds of CUD among CUs for Whites (personal, parental, and close friends’ disapproval), Hispanics (personal, parental, and close friends’ disapproval), and mixed-race adolescents (personal, close friends’ disapproval). Racial/ethnic differences in adolescent CU prevalence were somewhat consistent with adolescents’ reports of CU norm patterns. Longitudinal research on CU health effects should oversample nonwhite adolescents to assure an adequate sample for analysis and reporting. PMID:25795093

  3. Smoke your troubles away: exploring the effects of death cognitions on cannabis craving and consumption.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Maayan; Rabinovitz, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Two studies informed by the terror management health model were conducted to examine the question of how death cognition affects cannabis craving and whether actual cannabis smoking alleviates death cognitions. The first study examined whether priming thoughts of death are associated with subjective cannabis craving among 42 frequent cannabis users randomly assigned to either a mortality salience or control task. When reminded of their death, participants craved cannabis, even though there was no change in their conscious negative mood. The second study examined the effect of cannabis smoking on death cognitions in an exploratory field setting. Fifty frequent cannabis users were randomly assigned to either mortality reminders or control task and completed death-related words accessibility measures before and after smoking cannabis. Results indicate that cannabis served as a buffer and prevented death-related thoughts from entering consciousness, thus acting as a defense mechanism against death anxiety. These findings indicate that death-related concerns may play a hitherto unsuspected role in cannabis craving and consumption. Also discussed are the implications of a terror management perspective in communication of negative health consequences of recreational cannabis smoking and in the use of cannabis for medical purposes among people with terminal illness. PMID:25950588

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Adolescent Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Sarteschi, Christy; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This meta-analytic review assesses the effectiveness of substance abuse interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use. Method: A systematic search identified 15 randomized controlled evaluations of interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use published between 1960 and 2008. The primary outcome variables, frequency of cannabis use,…

  5. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  6. Applying a Social Determinants of Health Perspective to Early Adolescent Cannabis Use--An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyshka, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Although the risk of problematic cannabis use is relatively low, the lifetime prevalence of dependence is greater than for all other illicit drugs. As such, the population burden of problematic cannabis use warrants attention. Many health and psychosocial risks associated with cannabis…

  7. The medicalisation of revolt: a sociological analysis of medical cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy; Sandberg, Sveinung

    2013-01-01

    In a qualitative study, we investigated the medical motives of 100 Norwegian cannabis users, none of whom had legal access to medical cannabis. Cannabis was used therapeutically for conditions such as multiple sclerosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and rheumatism, as well as for quality of life conditions such as quality of sleep, relaxation and wellbeing. The borders between medical and recreational cannabis use were blurred. This article identifies strategies of medical cannabis users to gain social acceptance. Several respondents downplayed effects such as intoxication and euphoria. Others used the language of medicine and knowledge of current research in psychopharmacology. Cannabis was contrasted with the potential for abuse of prescription medicines. The medical cannabis movement has had little success in Norway. Medical professionals are unable to accept that users may be more knowledgeable than experts and medical users cannot discard the values of traditional cannabis culture. Calls for medical cannabis use are thus perceived as a gambit in attempts to have cannabis legalised. We argue that, despite having had little effect on health authorities, the medical cannabis movement may be having the unintended effect of medicalising cannabis use and using it as a cure for everyday problems. PMID:22827932

  8. Cannabis use and schizotypy: the role of social anxiety and other negative affective states.

    PubMed

    Najolia, Gina M; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S

    2012-12-30

    Emerging research suggests that cannabis use might be related to psychosis onset in people vulnerable to developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Furthermore, individuals with high-positive and disorganized schizotypy traits report more cannabis use and cannabis-related problems than controls. Social anxiety, a frequently co-occurring schizotypal feature, is related to increased cannabis-related problems in the general population. Building on this research, we explored the impact of social anxiety, measured by the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and depression and trait anxiety reported on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), on the relationship of schizotypy, measured by the Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR), to cannabis use (n=220 schizotypy, 436 controls) and frequent use and cannabis-related problems among users (n=88 schizotypy, 83 controls) in college undergraduates. Among cannabis users, social anxiety moderated the relationships of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems in the total schizotypy group, and across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Depression and trait anxiety also moderated the relationship of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems, but results varied across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Results suggest therapeutically targeting negative affective states may be useful in psychosocial intervention for cannabis-related problems in schizotypy. PMID:22920791

  9. Genome-wide association study of lifetime cannabis use based on a large meta-analytic sample of 32 330 subjects from the International Cannabis Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, S; Minică, C C; Verweij, K J H; Mbarek, H; Bernard, M; Derringer, J; van Eijk, K R; Isen, J D; Loukola, A; Maciejewski, D F; Mihailov, E; van der Most, P J; Sánchez-Mora, C; Roos, L; Sherva, R; Walters, R; Ware, J J; Abdellaoui, A; Bigdeli, T B; Branje, S J T; Brown, S A; Bruinenberg, M; Casas, M; Esko, T; Garcia-Martinez, I; Gordon, S D; Harris, J M; Hartman, C A; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Hickie, I B; Hickman, M; Hopfer, C J; Hottenga, J J; Huizink, A C; Irons, D E; Kahn, R S; Korhonen, T; Kranzler, H R; Krauter, K; van Lier, P A C; Lubke, G H; Madden, P A F; Mägi, R; McGue, M K; Medland, S E; Meeus, W H J; Miller, M B; Montgomery, G W; Nivard, M G; Nolte, I M; Oldehinkel, A J; Pausova, Z; Qaiser, B; Quaye, L; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Richarte, V; Rose, R J; Shin, J; Stallings, M C; Stiby, A I; Wall, T L; Wright, M J; Koot, H M; Paus, T; Hewitt, J K; Ribasés, M; Kaprio, J; Boks, M P; Snieder, H; Spector, T; Munafò, M R; Metspalu, A; Gelernter, J; Boomsma, D I; Iacono, W G; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Derks, E M; Vink, J M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely produced and consumed illicit psychoactive substance worldwide. Occasional cannabis use can progress to frequent use, abuse and dependence with all known adverse physical, psychological and social consequences. Individual differences in cannabis initiation are heritable (40–48%). The International Cannabis Consortium was established with the aim to identify genetic risk variants of cannabis use. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data of 13 cohorts (N=32 330) and four replication samples (N=5627). In addition, we performed a gene-based test of association, estimated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and explored the genetic correlation between lifetime cannabis use and cigarette use using LD score regression. No individual SNPs reached genome-wide significance. Nonetheless, gene-based tests identified four genes significantly associated with lifetime cannabis use: NCAM1, CADM2, SCOC and KCNT2. Previous studies reported associations of NCAM1 with cigarette smoking and other substance use, and those of CADM2 with body mass index, processing speed and autism disorders, which are phenotypes previously reported to be associated with cannabis use. Furthermore, we showed that, combined across the genome, all common SNPs explained 13–20% (P<0.001) of the liability of lifetime cannabis use. Finally, there was a strong genetic correlation (rg=0.83; P=1.85 × 10−8) between lifetime cannabis use and lifetime cigarette smoking implying that the SNP effect sizes of the two traits are highly correlated. This is the largest meta-analysis of cannabis GWA studies to date, revealing important new insights into the genetic pathways of lifetime cannabis use. Future functional studies should explore the impact of the identified genes on the biological mechanisms of cannabis use. PMID:27023175

  10. Genome-wide association study of lifetime cannabis use based on a large meta-analytic sample of 32 330 subjects from the International Cannabis Consortium.

    PubMed

    Stringer, S; Minică, C C; Verweij, K J H; Mbarek, H; Bernard, M; Derringer, J; van Eijk, K R; Isen, J D; Loukola, A; Maciejewski, D F; Mihailov, E; van der Most, P J; Sánchez-Mora, C; Roos, L; Sherva, R; Walters, R; Ware, J J; Abdellaoui, A; Bigdeli, T B; Branje, S J T; Brown, S A; Bruinenberg, M; Casas, M; Esko, T; Garcia-Martinez, I; Gordon, S D; Harris, J M; Hartman, C A; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Hickie, I B; Hickman, M; Hopfer, C J; Hottenga, J J; Huizink, A C; Irons, D E; Kahn, R S; Korhonen, T; Kranzler, H R; Krauter, K; van Lier, P A C; Lubke, G H; Madden, P A F; Mägi, R; McGue, M K; Medland, S E; Meeus, W H J; Miller, M B; Montgomery, G W; Nivard, M G; Nolte, I M; Oldehinkel, A J; Pausova, Z; Qaiser, B; Quaye, L; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Richarte, V; Rose, R J; Shin, J; Stallings, M C; Stiby, A I; Wall, T L; Wright, M J; Koot, H M; Paus, T; Hewitt, J K; Ribasés, M; Kaprio, J; Boks, M P; Snieder, H; Spector, T; Munafò, M R; Metspalu, A; Gelernter, J; Boomsma, D I; Iacono, W G; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Derks, E M; Vink, J M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely produced and consumed illicit psychoactive substance worldwide. Occasional cannabis use can progress to frequent use, abuse and dependence with all known adverse physical, psychological and social consequences. Individual differences in cannabis initiation are heritable (40-48%). The International Cannabis Consortium was established with the aim to identify genetic risk variants of cannabis use. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data of 13 cohorts (N=32 330) and four replication samples (N=5627). In addition, we performed a gene-based test of association, estimated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and explored the genetic correlation between lifetime cannabis use and cigarette use using LD score regression. No individual SNPs reached genome-wide significance. Nonetheless, gene-based tests identified four genes significantly associated with lifetime cannabis use: NCAM1, CADM2, SCOC and KCNT2. Previous studies reported associations of NCAM1 with cigarette smoking and other substance use, and those of CADM2 with body mass index, processing speed and autism disorders, which are phenotypes previously reported to be associated with cannabis use. Furthermore, we showed that, combined across the genome, all common SNPs explained 13-20% (P<0.001) of the liability of lifetime cannabis use. Finally, there was a strong genetic correlation (rg=0.83; P=1.85 × 10(-8)) between lifetime cannabis use and lifetime cigarette smoking implying that the SNP effect sizes of the two traits are highly correlated. This is the largest meta-analysis of cannabis GWA studies to date, revealing important new insights into the genetic pathways of lifetime cannabis use. Future functional studies should explore the impact of the identified genes on the biological mechanisms of cannabis use. PMID:27023175

  11. State of the art treatments for cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Itai; Gorelick, David A

    2012-06-01

    The treatment of cannabis dependence can be viewed as a cup half empty or half full. On the one hand, few people who might benefit from treatment actually receive it. Among those who undergo treatment in randomized trials, long-term abstinence is achieved by fewer than 20%. Moderate use goals have been associated with decreases in consequences, but the differential impact of such goals on the long-term course of cannabis dependence is unknown. Optimal duration of treatment is unclear, and certain populations, particularly patients with co-occurring disorders, have not been studied adequately. Twelve-step programs are low cost, effective for other substance use disorders, and readily available in most regions of the world. However, their role and efficacy in cannabis dependence has not been examined. Finally, effective pharmacologic treatments are under development, but none have yet been firmly established. On the other hand, psychotherapeutic strategies used to treat other substance use disorders can be effective for cannabis dependence. A recent meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for illicit substance use disorders found that treatments for cannabis dependence had comparatively larger effect sizes than treatments for other substance use disorders. Combination therapies have proven most effective, particularly those that begin with a motivational intervention, utilize incentives to enhance the commitment to change, and teach behavioral and cognitive copings skills to prevent relapse. Among adolescents, family engagement and collaboration with community stakeholders adds substantial value. Although only 9% of cannabis users develop cannabis dependence, the volume of people who smoke cannabis ensures that the total number of people in need of help is larger than the capacity of substance abuse specialty services. Thus, although efforts to refine and improve the efficacy of treatment interventions continue, innovations that increase the availability and

  12. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG), a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350) The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal), 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%), better symptom management (57%), and less withdrawal potential (34%) with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one psychoactive substance for

  13. 38 CFR 21.7100 - Counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling. 21.7100... Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7100 Counseling. A veteran or servicemember may receive counseling from VA before beginning training and during training. (a) Purpose. The purpose of counseling is (1)...

  14. 38 CFR 21.3102 - Required counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required counseling. 21.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3102 Required counseling. (a) Child. The VA counseling psychologist will provide counseling and assist in preparing the educational plan only if the eligible child or his or...

  15. 46 CFR 201.31 - Public counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public counsel. 201.31 Section 201.31 Shipping MARITIME... Parties (Rule 3) § 201.31 Public counsel. The Assistant General Counsel, Chief, Division of Operating.... The Assistant General Counsel and his representatives shall be designated as Public Counsel and...

  16. 38 CFR 21.3102 - Required counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3102 Required counseling. (a) Child. The VA counseling psychologist will provide counseling and assist in preparing the educational plan only if the eligible child or his or her parent or guardian requests assistance, except that counseling is required for an eligible child if—...

  17. 38 CFR 21.3102 - Required counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3102 Required counseling. (a) Child. The VA counseling psychologist will provide counseling and assist in preparing the educational plan only if the eligible child or his or her parent or guardian requests assistance, except that counseling is required for an eligible child if—...

  18. 38 CFR 21.3102 - Required counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3102 Required counseling. (a) Child. The VA counseling psychologist will provide counseling and assist in preparing the educational plan only if the eligible child or his or her parent or guardian requests assistance, except that counseling is required for an eligible child if—...

  19. 38 CFR 21.3102 - Required counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3102 Required counseling. (a) Child. The VA counseling psychologist will provide counseling and assist in preparing the educational plan only if the eligible child or his or her parent or guardian requests assistance, except that counseling is required for an eligible child if—...

  20. Counseling a Biracial Female College Student with an Eating Disorder: A Case Study Applying an Integrative Biopsychosocialcultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes short-term counseling with a young biracial woman experiencing an eating disorder. A biopsychosocialcultural conceptualization of the problem is described. The counseling approach is informed by feminist and multicultural theory and uses both interpersonal and cognitive behavior therapy. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling either medium dose (3.53%), low dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being VAS pain intensity. Psychoactive side-effects, and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the two active dose groups’ results (p>0.7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo vs. low dose, 2.9 for placebo vs. medium dose, and 25 for medium vs. low dose. As these NNT are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being, for all intents and purposes, as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1–2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. PMID:23237736

  2. Cannabis in the Treatment of Dystonia, Dyskinesias, and Tics.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Barbara S

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis has been used for many medicinal purposes, including management of spasms, dystonia, and dyskinesias, with variable success. Its use for tetanus was described in the second century BCE, but the literature continues to include more case reports and surveys of its beneficial effects in managing symptoms of hyperkinetic movement disorders than randomized controlled trials, making evidence-based recommendations difficult. This paper reviews clinical research using various formulations of cannabis (botanical products, oral preparations containing ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and/or cannabidiol) and currently available preparations in the USA (nabilone and dronabinol). This has been expanded from a recent systematic review of cannabis use in several neurologic conditions to include case reports and case series and results of anonymous surveys of patients using cannabis outside of medical settings, with the original evidence classifications marked for those papers that followed research protocols. Despite overlap in some patients, dyskinesias will be treated separately from dystonia and chorea; benefit was not established beyond individual patients for these conditions. Tics, usually due to Tourettes, did respond to cannabis preparations. Side effects reported in the trials will be reviewed but those due to recreational use, including the dystonia that can be secondary to synthetic marijuana preparations, are outside the scope of this paper. PMID:26271953

  3. MDMA, cannabis, and cocaine produce acute dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    van Heugten-Van der Kloet, Dalena; Giesbrecht, Timo; van Wel, Janelle; Bosker, Wendy M; Kuypers, Kim P C; Theunissen, Eef L; Spronk, Desirée B; Jan Verkes, Robbert; Merckelbach, Harald; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2015-08-30

    Some drugs of abuse may produce dissociative symptoms, but this aspect has been understudied. We explored the dissociative potential of three recreational drugs (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabis, and cocaine) during intoxication and compared their effects to literature reports of dissociative states in various samples. Two placebo-controlled studies were conducted. In Study 1 (N=16), participants received single doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of MDMA, and placebo. In Study 2 (N=21), cannabis (THC 300 µg/kg), cocaine (HCl 300 mg), and placebo were administered. Dissociative symptoms as measured with the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS) significantly increased under the influence of MDMA and cannabis. To a lesser extent, this was also true for cocaine. Dissociative symptoms following MDMA and cannabis largely exceeded those observed in schizophrenia patients, were comparable with those observed in Special Forces soldiers undergoing survival training, but were lower compared with ketamine-induced dissociation. Cocaine produced dissociative symptoms that were comparable with those observed in schizophrenia patients, but markedly less than those in Special Forces soldiers and ketamine users. Thus, MDMA and cannabis can produce dissociative symptoms that resemble dissociative pathology. The study of drug induced dissociation is important, because it may shed light on the mechanisms involved in dissociative psychopathology. PMID:26003508

  4. Recent advances in Cannabis sativa research: biosynthetic studies and its potential in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Taura, Futoshi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2007-08-01

    Cannabinoids, consisting of alkylresorcinol and monoterpene groups, are the unique secondary metabolites that are found only in Cannabis sativa. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC) are well known cannabinoids and their pharmacological properties have been extensively studied. Recently, biosynthetic pathways of these cannabinoids have been successfully established. Several biosynthetic enzymes including geranylpyrophosphate:olivetolate geranyltransferase, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) synthase and cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) synthase have been purified from young rapidly expanding leaves of C. sativa. In addition, molecular cloning, characterization and localization of THCA synthase have been recently reported. THCA and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), its substrate, were shown to be apoptosis-inducing agents that might play a role in plant defense. Transgenic tobacco hairy roots expressing THCA synthase can produce THCA upon feeding of CBGA. These results open the way for biotechnological production of cannabinoids in the future. PMID:17691992

  5. HCV counselling in haemophilia care.

    PubMed

    Miller, R; Telfer, P

    1996-01-01

    The many areas of uncertainty about HCV make counselling patients with haemophilia and HCV a challenge. In this review a brief summary is made of the current understanding of the natural history of hepatitis C infection, the modes of transmission, diagnostic techniques, and treatment options available. This forms a necessary background to counselling patients and their contacts. Some difficulties are highlighted and counselling guidelines about the disease with patients are suggested. PMID:27213897

  6. 34 CFR 106.36 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.36 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on the basis of sex in the counseling...

  7. 45 CFR 2555.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling... Activities Prohibited § 2555.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on the basis of sex in the counseling or guidance...

  8. 32 CFR 196.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on the basis of sex in the counseling...

  9. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B; Guy, Geoffrey W; Robson, Philip J

    2007-08-01

    Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, employing standardized oromucosal cannabis-based medicines containing primarily THC, CBD, or a 1 : 1 combination of the two (Sativex). Sleep-laboratory results indicate a mild activating effect of CBD, and slight residual sedation with THC-predominant extracts. Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I-III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40-50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life. PMID:17712817

  10. Comparative Proteomics of Cannabis sativa Plant Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Raharjo, Tri J.; Widjaja, Ivy; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Comparative proteomics of leaves, flowers, and glands of Cannabis sativa have been used to identify specific tissue-expressed proteins. These tissues have significantly different levels of cannabinoids. Cannabinoids accumulate primarily in the glands but can also be found in flowers and leaves. Proteins extracted from glands, flowers, and leaves were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Over 800 protein spots were reproducibly resolved in the two-dimensional gels from leaves and flowers. The patterns of the gels were different and little correlation among the proteins could be observed. Some proteins that were only expressed in flowers were chosen for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and peptide mass fingerprint database searching. Flower and gland proteomes were also compared, with the finding that less then half of the proteins expressed in flowers were also expressed in glands. Some selected gland protein spots were identified: F1D9.26-unknown prot. (Arabidopsis thaliana), phospholipase D beta 1 isoform 1a (Gossypium hirsutum), and PG1 (Hordeum vulgare). Western blotting was employed to identify a polyketide synthase, an enzyme believed to be involved in cannabinoid biosynthesis, resulting in detection of a single protein. PMID:15190082

  11. Predictive testing of eighteen year olds: counseling challenges.

    PubMed

    Gaff, Clara L; Lynch, Elly; Spencer, Lesley

    2006-08-01

    Genetic counseling of teenagers is challenging and complex. The ability to think abstractly, a sense of self and independence from family all develop during adolescence. Predictive genetic testing counseling protocols presuppose that these qualities exist, requiring the at-risk individual to consider the short and long term consequences of testing as well as their motivations. Eighteen year olds are in transition from adolescence to adulthood; eligible for predictive genetic testing, they may not yet be independent of their family or able to articulate their feelings. This paper presents case studies from the authors' clinical practice to illustrate some of the difficulties faced by genetic counselors when 18 year olds request predictive testing for Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer. By reflecting upon their experiences with these young adults and their families, the authors' intention is to generate discussion about genetic counseling strategies, particularly for predictive genetic testing, that are both age-appropriate and family-sensitive. PMID:16865560

  12. Distress Tolerance Among Students Referred for Treatment Following Violation of Campus Cannabis Use Policy: Relations to Use, Problems, and Motivation.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Jeffries, Emily R; Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H

    2016-09-01

    Students referred to treatment after violating campus drug policies represent a high-risk group. Identification of factors related to these students' cannabis use could inform prevention and treatment efforts. Distress tolerance (DT) is negatively related to substance-related behaviors and may be related to high-risk cannabis use vulnerability factors that can impact treatment outcome. Thus, the current study tested whether DT was related to cannabis use frequency, cannabis-related problems, and motivation to change cannabis use among 88 students referred for treatment after violating campus cannabis policies. DT was robustly, negatively related to cannabis use and related problems. DT was also significantly, negatively correlated with coping, conformity, and expansion motives. DT was directly and indirectly related to cannabis problems via coping (not conformity or expansion) motives. Motives did not mediate the relation of DT to cannabis use frequency. DT may be an important target in treatment with students who violate campus cannabis policies. PMID:26467215

  13. [Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2010-02-01

    Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation. PMID:20118648

  14. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as indicated by epidemiological studies that have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes; ruled out reverse causation; and controlled for plausible alternative explanations. We have also focused on adverse outcomes for which there is good evidence of biological plausibility. The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance--those that are most likely to occur and to affect a substantial proportion of regular cannabis users. These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, and residual cognitive impairment. PMID:23836598

  15. Counseling Couples in Groups: Rationale and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgo, Reese Danley

    1975-01-01

    Marriage counseling of couples in groups is based upon principles and techniques of both group counseling and marriage counseling, and in rationale and methodology combines the two. It can be a useful and constructive form of marital therapy. (Author)

  16. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  17. Exploration of Support Behavior in Counseling Groups with Counseling Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Yoni; Shechtman, Zipora; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the types of support expressed in counseling groups attended by trainee counselors. Support is a crucial factor in human life in general, and in groups in particular, yet little is known about the type of support presented in counseling groups. Type of support was categorized by means of the Social Support Behavior Code (SSBC;…

  18. Addiction Counseling Accreditation: CACREP's Role in Solidifying the Counseling Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Culbreth, Jack R.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs' (CACREP) role in furthering the specialty of addiction counseling. After sharing a brief history and the role of counselor certification and licensure, the authors share the process whereby CACREP developed the first set of…

  19. Intraoperative virtual brain counseling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaowei; Grosky, William I.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Muzik, Otto; Diaz, Fernando

    1997-06-01

    Our objective is to offer online real-tim e intelligent guidance to the neurosurgeon. Different from traditional image-guidance technologies that offer intra-operative visualization of medical images or atlas images, virtual brain counseling goes one step further. It can distinguish related brain structures and provide information about them intra-operatively. Virtual brain counseling is the foundation for surgical planing optimization and on-line surgical reference. It can provide a warning system that alerts the neurosurgeon if the chosen trajectory will pass through eloquent brain areas. In order to fulfill this objective, tracking techniques are involved for intra- operativity. Most importantly, a 3D virtual brian environment, different from traditional 3D digitized atlases, is an object-oriented model of the brain that stores information about different brain structures together with their elated information. An object-oriented hierarchical hyper-voxel space (HHVS) is introduced to integrate anatomical and functional structures. Spatial queries based on position of interest, line segment of interest, and volume of interest are introduced in this paper. The virtual brain environment is integrated with existing surgical pre-planning and intra-operative tracking systems to provide information for planning optimization and on-line surgical guidance. The neurosurgeon is alerted automatically if the planned treatment affects any critical structures. Architectures such as HHVS and algorithms, such as spatial querying, normalizing, and warping are presented in the paper. A prototype has shown that the virtual brain is intuitive in its hierarchical 3D appearance. It also showed that HHVS, as the key structure for virtual brain counseling, efficiently integrates multi-scale brain structures based on their spatial relationships.This is a promising development for optimization of treatment plans and online surgical intelligent guidance.

  20. Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378

  1. Adolescent sexual counseling.

    PubMed

    Shen, J T

    1982-05-01

    The physician provides a much-needed service to teenagers by counseling them regarding sexuality. A series of conferences during adolescence and use of questionnaires can facilitate discussion and point up potential problems. When the patient is confronted with a problem such as a need for contraception or an unwanted pregnancy, the physician should present all the options available and leave the final choice up to the patient. The physician is not obligated to participate in a solution that is counter to his or her moral values. PMID:7071042

  2. Pregnancy testing and counseling.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, J N

    1989-06-01

    Pregnancy testing and counseling are increasingly accepted as necessary services for adolescents within the primary care setting. For teenagers in need of a pregnancy test, the easy-to-perform, highly sensitive and specific enzyme immunoassay analysis for measuring beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) is ideal. However, no single beta-HCG analysis should be taken as absolute evidence for the presence or absence of pregnancy. Instead, an integrated approach using all of the health care professional's skills in adolescent health care should be taken. In some cases a careful history and physical examination will confirm the pregnancy. At other times serial quantitative serum HCG titers, pelvic ultrasonography, and culdocentesis may be necessary to rule out the possibility of ectopic pregnancy or threatened abortion. For more than three quarters of pregnant adolescents the pregnancy is unplanned and may represent a major conflict for themselves, their partner, and their families. When such an event occurs the health care professional will frequently be sought as a resource. Successful pregnancy counseling has many components. The adolescent will need to visualize the counselor as an available, sensitive, nonjudgmental individual who believes in the right of the pregnant teenager ultimately to progress to her own decision. The counseling process should be firmly based on an understanding of adolescent psychosocial and biologic development, crises intervention techniques, and family dynamics. The counselor needs to be a reliable information source. If the adolescent decides to go to term, programs offering comprehensive prenatal services to teenagers should be identified. Information concerning high-quality, low-cost abortion services also will need to be available for those who wish to terminate. It is important to monitor the quality of care given in prenatal and abortion service referrals. Few adolescents currently choose to place their babies for adoption

  3. The Cannabis Pathway to Non-Affective Psychosis may Reflect Less Neurobiological Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Helle, Siri; Nygård, Merethe; Berle, Jan Øystein; Kroken, Rune A.; Johnsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of cannabis use reported in non-affective psychosis. Early prospective longitudinal studies conclude that cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, and neurochemical studies on cannabis have suggested potential mechanisms for this effect. Recent advances in the field of neuroscience and genetics may have important implications for our understanding of this relationship. Importantly, we need to better understand the vulnerability × cannabis interaction to shed light on the mediators of cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis. Thus, the present study reviews recent literature on several variables relevant for understanding the relationship between cannabis and psychosis, including age of onset, cognition, brain functioning, family history, genetics, and neurological soft signs (NSS) in non-affective psychosis. Compared with non-using non-affective psychosis, the present review shows that there seem to be fewer stable cognitive deficits in patients with cannabis use and psychosis, in addition to fewer NSS and possibly more normalized brain functioning, indicating less neurobiological vulnerability for psychosis. There are, however, some familiar and genetic vulnerabilities present in the cannabis psychosis group, which may influence the cannabis pathway to psychosis by increasing sensitivity to cannabis. Furthermore, an earlier age of onset suggests a different pathway to psychosis in the cannabis-using patients. Two alternative vulnerability models are presented to integrate these seemingly paradoxical findings PMID:25477825

  4. The Cannabis Pathway to Non-Affective Psychosis may Reflect Less Neurobiological Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Helle, Siri; Nygård, Merethe; Berle, Jan Øystein; Kroken, Rune A; Johnsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of cannabis use reported in non-affective psychosis. Early prospective longitudinal studies conclude that cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, and neurochemical studies on cannabis have suggested potential mechanisms for this effect. Recent advances in the field of neuroscience and genetics may have important implications for our understanding of this relationship. Importantly, we need to better understand the vulnerability × cannabis interaction to shed light on the mediators of cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis. Thus, the present study reviews recent literature on several variables relevant for understanding the relationship between cannabis and psychosis, including age of onset, cognition, brain functioning, family history, genetics, and neurological soft signs (NSS) in non-affective psychosis. Compared with non-using non-affective psychosis, the present review shows that there seem to be fewer stable cognitive deficits in patients with cannabis use and psychosis, in addition to fewer NSS and possibly more normalized brain functioning, indicating less neurobiological vulnerability for psychosis. There are, however, some familiar and genetic vulnerabilities present in the cannabis psychosis group, which may influence the cannabis pathway to psychosis by increasing sensitivity to cannabis. Furthermore, an earlier age of onset suggests a different pathway to psychosis in the cannabis-using patients. Two alternative vulnerability models are presented to integrate these seemingly paradoxical findings. PMID:25477825

  5. Linkage analyses of cannabis dependence, craving, and withdrawal in the San Francisco family study.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Gizer, Ian R; Vieten, Cassandra; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2010-04-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States. There is ample evidence that cannabis use has a heritable component, yet the genes underlying cannabis use disorders are yet to be completely identified. This study's aims were to map susceptibility loci for cannabis use and dependence and two narrower cannabis-related phenotypes of "craving" and "withdrawal" using a family study design. Participants were 2,524 adults participating in the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Family Alcoholism Study. DSM-IV diagnoses of cannabis dependence, as well as indices of cannabis craving and withdrawal, were obtained using a modified version of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA). Genotypes were determined for a panel of 791 microsatellite polymorphisms. Multipoint variance component LOD scores were obtained using SOLAR. Genome-wide significance for linkage (LOD > 3.0) was not found for the DSM-IV cannabis dependence diagnosis; however, linkage analyses of cannabis "craving" and the cannabis withdrawal symptom of "nervous, tense, restless, or irritable" revealed five sites with LOD scores over 3.0 on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 7, and 9. These results identify new regions of the genome associated with cannabis use phenotypes as well as corroborate the importance of several chromosome regions highlighted in previous linkage analyses for other substance dependence phenotypes. PMID:19937978

  6. The Impact of Cannabis Use on Clinical Outcomes in Recent Onset Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Barrowclough, Christine; Gregg, Lynsey; Lobban, Fiona; Bucci, Sandra; Emsley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are inconsistencies in findings as to whether cannabis use has a negative impact on clinical outcomes for people with established psychosis. Effects may be more evident on patients with recent onset psychosis. Aim: To investigate the relationship between cannabis use and clinical outcome, including whether change in cannabis use affects psychotic symptoms, affective symptoms, functioning and psychotic relapse in a sample of people in early psychosis with comorbid cannabis abuse or dependence. Methods: One hundred and ten participants were examined prospectively with repeated measures of substance use antecedent to psychopathology at baseline, 4.5, 9, and 18 months. We used random intercept models to estimate the effects of cannabis dose on subsequent clinical outcomes and whether change in cannabis use was associated with change in outcomes. Results: There was no evidence of a specific association between cannabis use and positive symptoms, or negative symptoms, relapse or hospital admissions. However, a greater dose of cannabis was associated with subsequent higher depression and anxiety. Change in the amount of cannabis used was associated with statistically significant corresponding change in anxiety scores, but not depression. Additionally, reductions in cannabis exposure were related to improved patient functioning. Conclusions: Reducing cannabis may be directly associated with improvements in anxiety and functioning, but not other specific symptoms. PMID:25011381

  7. How Robustly Does Cannabis Use Associate to College Grades? Findings From Two Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Julia A; Roth, Madeline G; Johnson, Douglas N; Jones, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Along with recent changes in cannabis legalization and decriminalization, there has been an increasing amount of attention aimed at cannabis use and outcomes in college. Although some amount of cannabis use might be expected under theories of collegiate identity development, public health research indicates that cannabis use ultimately associates with negative vocational outcomes. To examine how cannabis use associates with college grade point average specifically, we surveyed n = 1,080 full-time college students and a replication sample of n = 590. Results showed that even after accounting for other measures of student identity formation and drug use, increased cannabis use was robustly associated with lower grade point average. Future research should examine the mechanisms underlying this association. Nevertheless, while laws and attitudes toward cannabis evolve, initiatives to decrease college use should continue. PMID:26224748

  8. Cannabis in palliative medicine: improving care and reducing opioid-related morbidity.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gregory T; Flanagan, Aaron M; Earleywine, Mitchell; Abrams, Donald I; Aggarwal, Sunil K; Grinspoon, Lester

    2011-08-01

    Unlike hospice, long-term drug safety is an important issue in palliative medicine. Opioids may produce significant morbidity. Cannabis is a safer alternative with broad applicability for palliative care. Yet the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) classifies cannabis as Schedule I (dangerous, without medical uses). Dronabinol, a Schedule III prescription drug, is 100% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most psychoactive ingredient in cannabis. Cannabis contains 20% THC or less but has other therapeutic cannabinoids, all working together to produce therapeutic effects. As palliative medicine grows, so does the need to reclassify cannabis. This article provides an evidence-based overview and comparison of cannabis and opioids. Using this foundation, an argument is made for reclassifying cannabis in the context of improving palliative care and reducing opioid-related morbidity. PMID:21444324

  9. Cannabis and Exercise Science: A Commentary on Existing Studies and Suggestions for Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Arielle S; Hutchison, Kent E; Bryan, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    Policies regarding cannabis use are rapidly changing, yet public officials have limited access to scientific information that might inform the creation of these policies. One important area in which to begin investigations is the link between recreational cannabis use and health, specifically exercise. There are common anecdotal reports that cannabis decreases motivation, including motivation to exercise. On the other hand, there are also anecdotal reports that cannabis is used prior to athletic activity. In fact, the World Anti-Doping Agency includes cannabis as a prohibited substance in sport, partly because it is believed that it may enhance sports performance. At the current time, there is limited scientific evidence to support either one of these opposing lay perspectives. Given recent political, cultural, and legal trends, and the growing acceptance of recreational cannabis use, it is important to develop a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between cannabis and exercise, specifically the potential effects of use on exercise performance, motivation, and recovery. PMID:26178329

  10. Preparation and Distribution of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Dosage Formulations for Investigational and Therapeutic Use in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Brian F.; Pollard, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is classified as a schedule I controlled substance by the US Drug Enforcement Agency, meaning that it has no medicinal value. Production is legally restricted to a single supplier at the University of Mississippi, and distribution to researchers is tightly controlled. However, a majority of the population is estimated to believe that cannabis has legitimate medical or recreational value, numerous states have legalized or decriminalized possession to some degree, and the federal government does not strictly enforce its law and is considering rescheduling. The explosive increase in open sale and use of herbal cannabis and its products has occurred with widely variable and in many cases grossly inadequate quality control at all levels—growing, processing, storage, distribution, and use. This paper discusses elements of the analytical and regulatory system that need to be put in place to ensure standardization for the researcher and to reduce the hazards of contamination, overdosing, and underdosing for the end-user.

  11. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture and the environment: a systematic, spatially-explicit survey and potential impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butsic, Van; Brenner, Jacob C.

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis agriculture is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States that is changing rapidly with policy liberalization. Anecdotal observations fuel speculation about associated environmental impacts, and there is an urgent need for systematic empirical research. An example from Humboldt County California, a principal cannabis-producing region, involved digitizing 4428 grow sites in 60 watersheds with Google Earth imagery. Grows were clustered, suggesting disproportionate impacts in ecologically important locales. Sixty-eight percent of grows were >500 m from developed roads, suggesting risk of landscape fragmentation. Twenty-two percent were on steep slopes, suggesting risk of erosion, sedimentation, and landslides. Five percent were <100 m from threatened fish habitat, and the estimated 297 954 plants would consume an estimated 700 000 m3 of water, suggesting risk of stream impacts. The extent and magnitude of cannabis agriculture documented in our study demands that it be regulated and researched on par with conventional agriculture.

  12. Less counseling on Early Childhood Caries transmission by dentists

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E.; Mancl, Lloyd; Garson, Gayle; Grembowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective High levels of Streptococcus mutans on teeth of young children are predictive of Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Transmission from mother-to-child is common and studies have demonstrated treatment of the mother results in less ECC. The objective of this study was to determine how dentists have adopted the practice of counseling about ECC. Methods In 2006 as part of a larger study on dental care for pregnant women, we surveyed 829 general dentists in Oregon. The questionnaire contained questions to capture the extent to which general dentists have adopted counseling pregnant women about ECC transmission, to describe personal and practice characteristics, and examine how dentists' views on the ease of adopting of new procedures related to ECC counseling. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify separate and additive effects of demographic and practice characteristics, attitudes, and beliefs. Results The adjusted odds of a dentist who strongly believed in the link between mothers and babies and provided ECC counseling were 1.60 (95% CI 1.3-2.0, P<0.01). The odds of a dentist who reported discussing ECC with staff members and provided counseling were 2.7 (95% CI 1.7-4.3, P<0.01). Male dentists were less likely to counsel patients than female dentists (Adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p<0.05). Conclusions The strongest predictors of counseling patients about ECC were dentists' belief in the evidence of caries transmission and dentists' discussion of ECC during staff meetings. PMID:22970775

  13. Persuasion in the Counseling Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, David J.; And Others

    Of all the methods and techniques arising from research in human communication that are subsequently used in counseling, the one most seldom mentioned in counseling literature is that of persuasion. The word persuasion is often wrongly used as a synonym for manipulation, an activity counselors are trained to avoid in working with clients. Verbal…

  14. Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

  15. Effectiveness of Group Counseling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaetz, E. L.

    This paper includes both an evaluation of group counseling and a manual for training persons in group counseling. Thirty-five full-time graduate trained counselors were given 30 intensive hours of training in interpersonal skills and group work over a five-week period. In addition to this, all trainees operated a student group in conjunction with…

  16. Ethical Considerations for Internet Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attridge, William C.

    With the advent of new technologies, the possibility for providing quality, Internet-based, therapeutic counseling services becomes more attainable and realistic every year. Since the National Board for Certified Counselors announced the adoption of voluntary standards for the practice of Internet-based counseling, a new dimension has been added…

  17. A Counseling Plan for Randall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Edward M.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to case of head-injured former engineering college student who presented for career counseling following automobile accident, three months in coma, and four years of rehabilitation therapy. Discusses issues underlying provision of career counseling to individuals with brain injuries. Cites information needed for planning, explores major…

  18. Does Counseling Need the Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernes, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that the language used in counseling practice is largely a common sense language using mentalistic words. Basic mentalistic assumptions and challenges to those assumptions are outlined. The practical consequences of retaining or discarding mentalism in counseling are discussed. The author concludes that…

  19. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Gypsy, Ed.; Elliott, Glenda R., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Communicating ideas and information that will help counselors to implement the counseling role and develop the profession of counseling is the purpose of this journal. The first issue in volume 21 contains the following articles: "Policies and Procedures for Reporting Child Abuse in Alabama: Considerations for Counselors, Teachers, and School…

  20. School Counseling Outcomes and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Nancy S.

    The comprehensive, developmental model of school counseling has gained much favor across the nation among educators. It is now time to assess its effectiveness. Counseling has had difficulty achieving the precision attainable in research in the physical sciences. Because of the intangible nature of many of the variables present in the counseling…

  1. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  2. Counseling the Chronic Pain Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Richard S.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the provision of counseling services for chronic pain patients within comprehensive, multifaceted treatment program. Describes the counseling process, including orientation, evaluation, and clarification of client concerns. Cites the use of coping techniques such as relaxation training, biofeedback training, and pain coping skills. (RC)

  3. The Paradigms of Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of counseling psychology's theoretical models and their subsequent treatment by "The Counseling Psychologist" (TCP) in its early years through 1984. After outlining the founding of the journal, the author traces the history of the TCP and its relationship to the historical periods of the profession's development. (GCP)

  4. Counseling Psychology in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthei, Bob

    The history of counseling psychology in Australia, which has been marked by confusion and uncertainty about the distinction between it and other applied areas such as clinical psychology, community psychology, educational psychology, and psychotherapy, is discussed in this paper. The development of the Division of Counselling Psychology within the…

  5. School Counseling: New Perspectives & Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jackie M., Ed.

    School counselors need new ideas to initiate change in school counseling programs. This book presents a collection of innovative paradigms and approaches. Part 1 presents articles on techniques and methods of counseling interventions: (1) Student Rights (C. C. Hogan); (2) At-Risk Students and Violence (L. Giusti); (3) Conflict Management (D. R.…

  6. Client Motivation and Multicultural Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bryan S. K.

    2011-01-01

    This reaction article comments on the major contribution titled "Motivation and Autonomy in Counseling, Psychotherapy, and Behavior Change: A Look at Theory and Practice." It first points out the article's strengths, the primary of which was to move the construct of motivation to the center of focus in the discussion of counseling. In addition,…

  7. Group Counseling for Navy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchum, Nancy Taylor

    1991-01-01

    Conducted six-session group counseling program for Navy children (n=22) enrolled in public schools whose fathers were on deployment. Pretest and posttest scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory suggest that participation in the group counseling unit positively affected self-esteem of Navy children whose fathers were on deployment. Found…

  8. New Developments in Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T., Ed.

    Group counseling is a rapidly changing field. This collection of 31 digests examines various aspects of group process and group counseling. The digests are arranged under different subject headings. In section 1, the nature of group work is examined, along with the evolution of group work training since 1990. The second section looks at…

  9. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  10. Group Counseling with Navy Prisoners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biasco, Frank; Redfering, David

    1980-01-01

    The effects of a short-term group counseling with confinees in a U.S. Navy correctional facility were determined. After 10 weeks of counseling the treatment group held significantly more positive views toward "Persons in Authority" than did the control group. (Author)

  11. Counseling Chaos: Techniques for Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, Jim E. H.

    2006-01-01

    The chaos theory of careers draws together a number of themes in current theory and research. This article applies some of these themes to career counseling. The chaos theory of careers is outlined, and a conceptual framework for understanding assessment and counseling issues that focuses on convergent and emergent qualities is presented. Three…

  12. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…

  13. Counseling Needs of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    The Older Person's Counseling Needs (OPCN) Survey is used as an instrument to assess counseling needs of older persons in relation to their major life concerns. Four key areas of concern have been identified. These include personal, interpersonal, activity, and environmental concerns. These four areas have been subdivided to achieve 27 basic…

  14. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  15. Values in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, C. H.

    1989-01-01

    Considers various ways that values enter into counseling or psychotherapy, with particular attention to goals of the process and methods or procedures by which counselor or therapist implements process. Suggests approach to counseling and psychotherapy that recognizes and incorporates values basic to democratic philosophy and the goal of…

  16. School Counseling in China Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.; Qiong, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the development of psychological thinking in China and social influences on the practice of school counseling today. Common problems of students are described, including anxiety due to pressure to perform well on exams, loneliness and social discomfort, and video game addiction. Counseling approaches used…

  17. Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonski, Verna O.

    2003-01-01

    The focus of wellness counseling is to guide individuals to live a healthy life in which body, mind, and spirit are integrated in order to experience fulfillment and happiness. The purpose of this article is to provide counselors steps to follow when using exercise as a counseling intervention and to provide techniques that will encourage exercise…

  18. Clinical Correlates of Co-Occurring Cannabis and Tobacco Use: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Erica N.; Budney, Alan J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims A growing literature has documented the substantial prevalence of and putative mechanisms underlying co-occurring (i.e., concurrent or simultaneous) cannabis and tobacco use. Greater understanding of the clinical correlates of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use may suggest how intervention strategies may be refined to improve cessation outcomes and decrease the public health burden associated with cannabis and tobacco use. Methods A systematic review of the literature on clinical diagnoses, psychosocial problems, and outcomes associated with co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. Twenty-eight studies compared clinical correlates in co-occurring cannabis and tobacco users vs. cannabis or tobacco only users. These included studies of treatment-seekers in clinical trials and non-treatment-seekers in cross-sectional or longitudinal epidemiological or non-population-based surveys. Results Sixteen studies examined clinical diagnoses, four studies examined psychosocial problems, and 11 studies examined cessation outcomes in co-occurring cannabis and tobacco users (several studies examined multiple clinical correlates). Relative to cannabis use only, co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use was associated with a greater likelihood of cannabis use disorders, more psychosocial problems, and poorer cannabis cessation outcomes. Relative to tobacco use only, co-occurring use did not appear to be consistently associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use disorders, more psychosocial problems, nor poorer tobacco cessation outcomes. Conclusions Cannabis users who also smoke tobacco are more dependent on cannabis, have more psychosocial problems, and have poorer cessation outcomes than those who use cannabis but not tobacco. The converse does not appear to be the case. PMID:22340422

  19. Cannabis and Neuropsychiatry, 2: The Longitudinal Risk of Psychosis as an Adverse Outcome.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-06-01

    Psychosis is one of the most serious among the adverse effects associated with cannabis use. The association between cannabis use and psychosis has been variously explored in a series of recent meta-analyses. The results of these meta-analyses show that persons who develop psychosis experience onset of psychosis about 2-3 years earlier if they are cannabis users; this effect is not observed with alcohol or other substance use. Higher levels of cannabis use are associated with greater risk of psychosis. Current cannabis abuse or dependence (but not past use or lower levels of current use) increases the risk of transition into psychosis in persons at ultrahigh risk of psychosis. About a third of patients with first-episode psychosis are cannabis users, and, at follow-up, about half of these users are found to continue their cannabis use. Continued cannabis use (in those who are treated after developing psychosis) is associated with higher risk of relapse into psychosis, and discontinuation of cannabis use reduces the risk of relapse to that in cannabis nonusers. Finally, persons with psychosis who continue to use cannabis have more severe positive symptoms and poorer levels of functioning. Because experimental studies in humans show that cannabinoids and cannabis can induce psychotic symptoms, it is reasonable to assume that the epidemiologic data indicate a causal effect of cannabis in anticipating, triggering, or exacerbating psychosis in vulnerable individuals and in worsening the course and outcome of the illness in those who continue to use the substance. Given the public health implications of these findings, the trend to legalize medical marijuana must be viewed with concern, and efforts are necessary to educate patients and the public about the serious mental and physical health risks associated with cannabis use and abuse. PMID:27337422

  20. Tetrahydrocannabinol induces brain mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction and increases oxidative stress: a potential mechanism involved in cannabis-related stroke.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Valérie; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Rouyer, Olivier; Charles, Anne-Laure; Singh, François; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Marescaux, Christian; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities V max (complexes I, III, and IV activities), V succ (complexes II, III, and IV activities), V tmpd (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (V max/V 0), were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased V max (-71%; P < 0.0001), V succ (-65%; P < 0.0001), and V tmpd (-3.5%; P < 0.001). Mitochondrial coupling (V max/V 0) was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P < 0.001). Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P < 0.05) and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P < 0.001). Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient's vulnerability to stroke. PMID:25654095

  1. Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Brain Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Increases Oxidative Stress: A Potential Mechanism Involved in Cannabis-Related Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Valérie; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Rouyer, Olivier; Charles, Anne-Laure; Singh, François; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Marescaux, Christian; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities Vmax (complexes I, III, and IV activities), Vsucc (complexes II, III, and IV activities), Vtmpd (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0), were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased Vmax (−71%; P < 0.0001), Vsucc (−65%; P < 0.0001), and Vtmpd (−3.5%; P < 0.001). Mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0) was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P < 0.001). Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P < 0.05) and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P < 0.001). Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient's vulnerability to stroke. PMID:25654095

  2. [Change to the power of three--counselling for adolescents in a society which causes uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Vossler, Andreas

    2004-10-01

    The conditions for becoming adult have changed perceptibly for young people in the course of social modernization processes. Adolescents find themselves in increasingly complex and contradictory areas of life which offer them more choices of action, but also require of them more self-organisation and more decision-making processes in uncertain conditions. The adolescents primarily at risk of failing due to the changes in learning- and development-related tasks are those denied access to necessary coping resources. Owing to the profound effects of social change (for example, changed forms of family life, increased educational pressure) it can generally be assumed that young people have an intensified counselling need. Against this background, the present paper examines which new requirements for action arise in the institutionalized counselling of adolescents. In regard to this, hints are provided in the results of an evaluation study by the present author, within the scope of which adolescents were interviewed about their counselling experiences. Finally, counselling approaches are described which can contribute to facilitating access for young clients, and to structuring counselling in a more suitable way for adolescents (peer counselling). PMID:15543709

  3. Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D I; Vizoso, H P; Shade, S B; Jay, C; Kelly, M E; Benowitz, N L

    2007-11-01

    Although cannabis may have potential therapeutic value, inhalation of a combustion product is an undesirable delivery system. The aim of the study was to investigate vaporization using the Volcano((R)) device as an alternative means of delivery of inhaled Cannabis sativa. Eighteen healthy inpatient subjects enrolled to compare the delivery of cannabinoids by vaporization to marijuana smoked in a standard cigarette. One strength (1.7, 3.4, or 6.8% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) and delivery system was randomly assigned for each of the 6 study days. Plasma concentrations of Delta-9-THC, expired carbon monoxide (CO), physiologic and neuropsychologic effects were the main outcome measures. Peak plasma concentrations and 6-h area under the plasma concentration-time curve of THC were similar. CO levels were reduced with vaporization. No adverse events occurred. Vaporization of cannabis is a safe and effective mode of delivery of THC. Further trials of clinical effectiveness of cannabis could utilize vaporization as a smokeless delivery system. PMID:17429350

  4. The Pharmacological Basis of Cannabis Therapy for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Golub, Victoria M

    2016-04-01

    Recently, cannabis has been suggested as a potential alternative therapy for refractory epilepsy, which affects 30% of epilepsy, both adults and children, who do not respond to current medications. There is a large unmet medical need for new antiepileptics that would not interfere with normal function in patients with refractory epilepsy and conditions associated with refractory seizures. The two chief cannabinoids are Δ-9-tetrahyrdrocannabinol, the major psychoactive component of marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of marijuana. Claims of clinical efficacy in epilepsy of CBD-predominant cannabis or medical marijuana come mostly from limited studies, surveys, or case reports. However, the mechanisms underlying the antiepileptic efficacy of cannabis remain unclear. This article highlights the pharmacological basis of cannabis therapy, with an emphasis on the endocannabinoid mechanisms underlying the emerging neurotherapeutics of CBD in epilepsy. CBD is anticonvulsant, but it has a low affinity for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2; therefore the exact mechanism by which it affects seizures remains poorly understood. A rigorous clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical CBD products is needed to establish the safety and efficacy of their use in the treatment of epilepsy. Identification of mechanisms underlying the anticonvulsant efficacy of CBD is also critical for identifying other potential treatment options. PMID:26787773

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Cannabis Signaling in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Ronan, Patrick J; Wongngamnit, Narin; Beresford, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been cultivated and used by humans for thousands of years. Research for decades was focused on understanding the mechanisms of an illegal/addictive drug. This led to the discovery of the vast endocannabinoid system. Research has now shifted to understanding fundamental biological questions related to one of the most widespread signaling systems in both the brain and the body. Our understanding of cannabinoid signaling has advanced significantly in the last two decades. In this review, we discuss the state of knowledge on mechanisms of Cannabis signaling in the brain and the modulation of key brain neurotransmitter systems involved in both brain reward/addiction and psychiatric disorders. It is highly probable that various cannabinoids will be found to be efficacious in the treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders. However, while there is clearly much potential, marijuana has not been properly vetted by the medical-scientific evaluation process and there are clearly a range of potentially adverse side-effects-including addiction. We are at crossroads for research on endocannabinoid function and therapeutics (including the use of exogenous treatments such as Cannabis). With over 100 cannabinoid constituents, the majority of which have not been studied, there is much Cannabis research yet to be done. With more states legalizing both the medicinal and recreational use of marijuana the rigorous scientific investigation into cannabinoid signaling is imperative. PMID:26810000

  6. Long-Term Heavy Cannabis Use: Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggans, Niall; Dalgarno, Phil; Johnson, Lindsay; Shewan, David

    2004-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cannabis can have negative effects on health. While the ongoing debate about the nature and duration of these effects recognizes mild cognitive impairment, the evidence for irreversibility of cognitive impairment and causal links with psychiatric illness is not conclusive. There is undoubtedly potential for…

  7. Comment on the Central Drug Authority's position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The Central Drug Authority's 'Position statement on cannabis' in this issue of SAMJ is a welcome, if somewhat belated, article that gives an indication of the South African government's response to the shifting sands of local and international public opinion and global drug policies. This editorial comments on the statement. PMID:27245714

  8. Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Gerra, Maria L; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Somaini, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists. PMID:19832688

  9. Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption

    PubMed Central

    Moosmann, Bjoern; Roth, Nadine; Auwärter, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on incorporation of the main analytical targets, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), into human hair is widely missing. Furthermore, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the biogenetic precursor of THC, is found in the hair of persons who solely handled cannabis material. In the light of the serious consequences of positive test results the mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair urgently need scientific evaluation. Here we show that neither THC nor THCA-A are incorporated into human hair in relevant amounts after systemic uptake. THC-COOH, which is considered an incontestable proof of THC uptake according to the current scientific doctrine, was found in hair, but was also present in older hair segments, which already grew before the oral THC intake and in sebum/sweat samples. Our studies show that all three cannabinoids can be present in hair of non-consuming individuals because of transfer through cannabis consumers, via their hands, their sebum/sweat, or cannabis smoke. This is of concern for e.g. child-custody cases as cannabinoid findings in a child’s hair may be caused by close contact to cannabis consumers rather than by inhalation of side-stream smoke. PMID:26443501

  10. Bogarting that joint might decrease oral HPV among cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Zwenger, S R

    2009-12-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) has many known strains, two of the most well studied perhaps being the high-risk types 16 and 18. These strains have attracted more interest because they are known to disrupt tumour-suppressor genes that control the cell cycle, rendering those genes less effective at keeping cell division in check.Within the last decade, an increase in oral hpv-linked cancers of the throat and tongue has been attributed to exposure and contraction of hpv through oral sex, most notably in younger people. An understudied and arguably equal contributor to oral hpv infection might be indirect contact with an infected person. Presented here is a brief but important perspective on the relationship between cannabis use and oral cancer. The development of oral cancer is not a result of smoking cannabis per se; rather, it is hypothesized to be a result of contracting hpv through various forms of sharing and passing joints and other smoking apparatuses. Therefore, it is hypothesized that bogarting (and not passing) joints might decrease oral hpv among cannabis smokers. Future research should therefore investigate the prevalence of oral hpv in cannabis smokers to better understand its epidemiology. PMID:20016740

  11. IBD patients find symptom relief in the Cannabis field

    PubMed Central

    Schicho, Rudolf; Storr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis (or marijuana) has been used in traditional medicine to treat intestinal inflammation and is used as a self-medication by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A survey by Ravikoff Allegretti et al. 1 at a specialized IBD clinic shows that, in the US, marijuana is used by a significant number of patients with IBD to alleviate their symptoms. PMID:24366227

  12. Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Bjoern; Roth, Nadine; Auwärter, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on incorporation of the main analytical targets, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), into human hair is widely missing. Furthermore, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the biogenetic precursor of THC, is found in the hair of persons who solely handled cannabis material. In the light of the serious consequences of positive test results the mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair urgently need scientific evaluation. Here we show that neither THC nor THCA-A are incorporated into human hair in relevant amounts after systemic uptake. THC-COOH, which is considered an incontestable proof of THC uptake according to the current scientific doctrine, was found in hair, but was also present in older hair segments, which already grew before the oral THC intake and in sebum/sweat samples. Our studies show that all three cannabinoids can be present in hair of non-consuming individuals because of transfer through cannabis consumers, via their hands, their sebum/sweat, or cannabis smoke. This is of concern for e.g. child-custody cases as cannabinoid findings in a child's hair may be caused by close contact to cannabis consumers rather than by inhalation of side-stream smoke. PMID:26443501

  13. Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles are presented that focus on the family, sexuality, and developmental issues of young and middle aged adults. The "Articles" section includes: (1) "A Role/Career Development Model of Adult Development" (David Payne); (2) "Counseling the Middle-Aged: Misinformation, Myths and Implications for Counseling" (John D. Keshock); (3)…

  14. Anterior mediastinal mass in a young marijuana smoker: a rare case of small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kothadia, Jiten P; Chhabra, Saurabh; Marcus, Alan; May, Michael; Saraiya, Biren; Jabbour, Salma K

    2012-01-01

    The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research, and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. We report a rare case of 22-year-old man who presented with bilateral neck lymphadenopathy, fatigue, and sore throat without significant medical or family history. The patient had smoked one marijuana joint three times a week for three years but no cigarettes. Chest CT demonstrated a large anterior mediastinal mass compressing the superior vena cava and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A final diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer was reached. Although rare, a small-cell lung cancer in this patient should alert the physician that cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:22545056

  15. Cannabis, Cigarettes, and Their Co-Occurring Use: Disentangling Differences in Gray Matter Volume

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Kanchana; Hager, Nathan; Childress, Anna Rose; Rao, Hengyi; Franklin, Teresa R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Structural magnetic resonance imaging techniques are powerful tools for examining the effects of drug use on the brain. The nicotine and cannabis literature has demonstrated differences between nicotine cigarette smokers and cannabis users compared to controls in brain structure; however, less is known about the effects of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. Methods: We used voxel-based morphometry to examine gray matter volume differences between four groups: (1) cannabis-dependent individuals who do not smoke tobacco (Cs); (2) cannabis-dependent individuals who smoke tobacco (CTs); (3) cannabis-naïve, nicotine-dependent individuals who smoke tobacco (Ts); and (4) healthy controls (HCs). We also explored associations between gray matter volume and measures of cannabis and tobacco use. Results: A significant group effect was observed in the left putamen, thalamus, right precentral gyrus, and left cerebellum. Compared to HCs, the Cs, CTs, and Ts exhibited larger gray matter volumes in the left putamen. Cs also had larger gray matter volume than HCs in the right precentral gyrus. Cs and CTs exhibited smaller gray matter volume than HCs in the thalamus, and CTs and Ts had smaller left cerebellar gray matter volume than HCs. Conclusions: This study extends previous research that independently examined the effects of cannabis or tobacco use on brain structure by including an examination of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use, and provides evidence that cannabis and tobacco exposure are associated with alterations in brain regions associated with addiction. PMID:26045474

  16. Prevalence and correlates of cannabis use in an outpatient VA posttraumatic stress disorder clinic.

    PubMed

    Gentes, Emily L; Schry, Amie R; Hicks, Terrell A; Clancy, Carolina P; Collie, Claire F; Kirby, Angela C; Dennis, Michelle F; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has documented high rates of comorbidity between cannabis use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans. However, despite possible links between PTSD and cannabis use, relatively little is known about cannabis use in veterans who present for PTSD treatment, particularly among samples not diagnosed with a substance use disorder. This study examined the prevalence of cannabis use and the psychological and functional correlates of cannabis use among a large sample of veterans seeking treatment at a Veterans Affairs (VA) PTSD specialty clinic. Male veterans (N = 719) who presented at a VA specialty outpatient PTSD clinic completed measures of demographic variables, combat exposure, alcohol, cannabis and other drug use, and PTSD and depressive symptoms. The associations among demographic, psychological, and functional variables were estimated using logistic regressions. Overall, 14.6% of participants reported using cannabis in the past 6 months. After controlling for age, race, service era, and combat exposure, past 6-month cannabis use was associated with unmarried status, use of tobacco products, other drug use, hazardous alcohol use, PTSD severity, depressive symptom severity, and suicidality. The present findings show that cannabis use is quite prevalent among veterans seeking PTSD specialty treatment and is associated with poorer mental health and use of other substances. It may be possible to identify and treat individuals who use cannabis in specialty clinics (e.g., PTSD clinics) where they are likely to present for treatment of associated mental health issues. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214172

  17. Differentiation of drug and non-drug Cannabis using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay.

    PubMed

    Rotherham, D; Harbison, S A

    2011-04-15

    Cannabis sativa is both an illegal drug and a legitimate crop. The differentiation of illegal drug Cannabis from non-drug forms of Cannabis is relevant in the context of the growth of fibre and seed oil varieties of Cannabis for commercial purposes. This differentiation is currently determined based on the levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adult plants. DNA based methods have the potential to assay Cannabis material unsuitable for analysis using conventional means including seeds, pollen and severely degraded material. The purpose of this research was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay for the differentiation of "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis plants. An assay was developed based on four polymorphisms within a 399 bp fragment of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, utilising the snapshot multiplex kit. This SNP assay was tested on 94 Cannabis plants, which included 10 blind samples, and was able to differentiate between "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis in all cases, while also differentiating between Cannabis and other species. Non-drug plants were found to be homozygous at the four sites assayed while drug Cannabis plants were either homozygous or heterozygous. PMID:21036496

  18. Relationship between cannabis and psychosis: Reasons for use and associated clinical variables.

    PubMed

    Mané, Anna; Fernández-Expósito, Miguel; Bergé, Daniel; Gómez-Pérez, Laura; Sabaté, Agnés; Toll, Alba; Diaz, Laura; Diez-Aja, Cristobal; Perez, Victor

    2015-09-30

    The mechanism underneath the relationship between cannabis and psychosis remains controversial, for which several hypotheses have been proposed, including cannabis as self-medication and cannabis as a risk for the development of psychosis. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between cannabis and psychosis in first-episode psychosis cannabis users and non-users, and non-psychotic cannabis users. The age at the first psychotic episode, duration of untreated psychosis, psychopathology and reasons for cannabis use were assessed. First-episode psychosis cannabis users showed an earlier age at psychosis onset than non-user patients. No significant differences in symptomatology were found. The distinguishing reasons to use cannabis for patients with first-episode psychosis with respect to non-psychotic users were to arrange their thoughts and deal with hallucinations and suspiciousness. These findings are in agreement with both hypotheses: self-medication and secondary psychosis hypothesis. However, longitudinal prospective cohort studies assessing reasons for cannabis use are needed to investigate both hypotheses and their complementarity. PMID:26235479

  19. Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Celia J A; Freeman, Tom P; Schafer, Gráinne L; Curran, H Valerie

    2010-08-01

    Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviorally when administered in the laboratory. No research has yet examined how the ratio of these constituents impacts on the appetitive/reinforcing effects of cannabis in humans. A total of 94 cannabis users were tested 7 days apart, once while non-intoxicated and once while acutely under the influence of their own chosen smoked cannabis on dependence-related measures. Using an unprecedented methodology, a sample of cannabis (as well as saliva) was collected from each user and analyzed for levels of cannabinoids. On the basis of CBD : THC ratios in the cannabis, individuals from the top and bottom tertiles were directly compared on indices of the reinforcing effects of drugs, explicit liking, and implicit attentional bias to drug stimuli. When intoxicated, smokers of high CBD : THC strains showed reduced attentional bias to drug and food stimuli compared with smokers of low CBD : THC. Those smoking higher CBD : THC strains also showed lower self-rated liking of cannabis stimuli on both test days. Our findings suggest that CBD has potential as a treatment for cannabis dependence. The acute modulation of the incentive salience of drug cues by CBD may possibly generalize to a treatment for other addictive disorders. PMID:20428110

  20. Dissociation between implicit and explicit expectancies of cannabis use in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schmits, Emilie; Maurage, Pierre; Thirion, Romain; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-12-30

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly drugs used by teenagers. Expectancies about its effects play a crucial role in cannabis consumption. Various tools have been used to assess expectancies, mainly self-report questionnaires measuring explicit expectancies, but implicit measures based on experimental tasks have also been developed, measuring implicit expectancies. The aim of this study was to simultaneously assess implicit/explicit expectancies related to cannabis among adolescent users and non-users. 130 teenagers attending school (55 girls) were enrolled (Age: M=16.40 years); 43.84% had never used cannabis ("non-users") and 56.16% had used cannabis ("users"). They completed self-report questionnaires evaluating cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, effect expectancies (explicit expectancies), alcohol use, social and trait anxiety, depression, as well as three Implicit Association Tests (IAT) assessing implicit expectancies. Adolescents manifested more implicit affective associations (relaxation, excitation, negative) than neutral ones regarding cannabis. These were not related to explicit expectancies. Cannabis users reported more implicit relaxation expectancies and less negative explicit expectancies than non-users. The frequency of use and related problems were positively associated with the explicit expectancies regarding relaxation and enhancement, and were negatively associated with negative explicit expectancies and negative implicit expectancies. Findings indicate that implicit and explicit expectancies play different roles in cannabis use by adolescents. The implications for experimentation and prevention are discussed. PMID:26575651