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1

Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practicing Counting Count the number of bunnies and match it to the correct number of characters on the right. Click on the correct one. Bunny Count Practice counting by 1 Countin by 1 Practice counting Sea Horses! Counting Sea Horses ...

Person, Ms.

2007-11-28

2

Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

Beck, Mrs.

2006-12-08

3

Sampling Site Matters When Counting Lymphocyte Subpopulations  

PubMed Central

Clinical and scientific work routinely relies on antecubital venipunctures for hematological, immunological or other analyses on blood. This study tested the hypothesis that antecubital veins can be considered to be a good proxy for other sampling sites. Using a hematocytometer and a flow cytometer, we analyzed the cell counts from samples coming from the radial artery, the dorsal hand veins and the antecubital veins from 18 volunteers. Most surprisingly, we identified the greatest difference not to exist between arterial and venous circulation, but between the distal (radial artery & dorsal hand veins) and proximal (antecubital veins) sampling sites. Naïve T cells had a higher cell count distally compared to proximally and the reverse was true for effector memory T cells. Despite these differences there were high correlations between the different sampling sites, which partially supports our initial hypothesis. Our findings are crucial for the future design and interpretation of immunological research, and for clinical practice. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for interval lymph nodes in the trafficking of lymphocytes.

Ogunjimi, Benson; Peeters, Dieter; Hens, Niel; Malfait, Ronald; Van Tendeloo, Viggo; Van Damme, Pierre

2012-01-01

4

Eosinophil Count and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Bacteremia: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is scarce evidence on the use of eosinophil count as a marker of outcome in patients with infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in eosinophil count, as well as the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), could be used as clinical markers of outcome in patients with bacteremia.MethodsWe performed a retrospective study of patients with a

Roser Terradas; Santiago Grau; Jordi Blanch; Marta Riu; Pere Saballs; Xavier Castells; Juan Pablo Horcajada; Hernando Knobel

2012-01-01

5

Absolute lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ cell count in monitoring of antiretroviral therapy, Northwest Ethiopia: retrospective evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the use of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ cell count among HIV infected patients at the University of Gondar Hospital. Methods A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital antiretroviral therapy laboratory from December 2011 to May 2012. Data on CD4+ cell count, total lymphocyte count, sex, and age were collected from 2964 HIV infected patients and analyzed using SPSS version 16 computer software. Results Total lymphocyte count was significantly correlated with CD4+ cell count (P<0.001; r2=0.434). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of total lymphocyte count<1?200 cells/mm3 to predict CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3 was 57.8%, 86.4%%, 34.1%, 86.39%, respectively. A total lymphocyte count<1?000cells/mm3 was found to have suboptimal sensitivity (69.0%), and specificity (85.0%) for predicting a CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3. Conclusions Total lymphocyte count and CD4+ cell count was positively correlated. Hence, lymphocyte count less than or equal to 1?000/mm3 can be used as a cutoff value in place where there is no CD4+ cell counting machine.

Gelaw, Aschalew; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Molla, Rahel; Felegetibeb, Nahom; Asefa, Mebratu; Birhan, Wubet; Gelaw, Baye

2013-01-01

6

No effect of lysis solutions on absolute CD19+ lymphocytes count and CD45 index in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

The absolute CD19+ lymphocytes count is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) management. At the present time, no standardized flow cytometry (FCM) protocol to measure B-lymphocytes counts is established. The aims of the present study were first to evaluate the effect of different lysis solutions and of red blood cell lysis per se on CLL lymphocytes count and B-lymphocytes CD45 expression and second to compare absolute B-lymphocytes counts obtained by single (SP) and dual platforms (DP). Absolute CD19+ B-lymphocytes counts and CD45 expression in 35 whole-blood CLL samples were determined by FCM using either different lysis solutions or using a no wash no lyse (NWNL) protocol. Single platform using microbeads was also evaluated for absolute quantification. The absolute CD19+ B-lymphocytes counts using different red blood cell lysis solutions correlated with NWNL method without any effect on CD45 expression. Bland and Altman plot showed homogenous distribution of bias; mean bias was less than 1% for all lysing solutions. Moreover, no statistically significant difference between SP and DP was observed. The type of lysis solution influences neither the CD19+ B-lymphocytes count nor the CD45 expression. The two systems, SP and DP, yield comparable values with excellent agreement. However, the tendency of slightly lower results with SP showed the requirement of larger studies before standardization of B-lymphocytes count in CLL patients. PMID:21638772

Mekouar, Hassan; Mullier, François; Dinon, Quentin; Bailly, Nicolas; Cornet, Yvan; Chatelain, Bernard

2011-11-01

7

Absolute CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Count as a Surrogate Marker of Pediatric HIV Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

Background Traditionally in pediatric HIV, the CD4+ T-lymphocyte percent is used in monitoring disease progression due to the variability in absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte numbers. Because of the high cost of equipment, sophisticated and delicate technology, most laboratories in resource-limited settings use simple protocols that enumerate only the absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. We assessed the use of absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker of pediatric HIV disease progression. Methods We analyzed the CD4+ T-lymphocytes and HIV viral load over a 10-year period (1996 to 2006) of 97 HIV-infected children enrolled in the Yale Prospective Longitudinal Pediatric HIV Cohort using generalized linear mixed models. Both CD4+ T-lymphocytes and HIV viral load were assessed at baseline and every 2-3 months. The modeling approach utilized in this study allows the intercept and the rate at which outcome variables change over time to vary across participants. Results We determined that absolute CD4+ T-lymphocytes count was just as reliable at monitoring pediatric HIV as CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage. Antiretroviral treatment, regardless of the regimen used, was associated with higher CD+ T-lymphocytes count (p < 0.01). Race was significantly associated with CD4+ T-lymphocytes counts (with lower values for blacks compared to non-blacks; p < 0.01). The presence of other infections was associated with lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (p=0.01) and higher viral load (p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions In situations where determination of CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentages is not readily available, the absolute count may provide an affordable and accessible laboratory surrogate marker of HIV disease progression in children.

Paintsil, Elijah; Ghebremichael, Musie; Romano, Sostena; Andiman, Warren A.

2010-01-01

8

[Clinical impact of peripheral lymphocyte counts for metastatic urothelial carcinoma patients treated with chemotherapy].  

PubMed

Pre-chemotherapeutic factors to assess the prognosis of patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma have not yet been completely established. The immune response of the host to the tumor is lymphocytedependent. However, the effect of lymphocytes on chemotherapy prognosis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the correlation between pre-chemotherapeutic lymphocyte counts and the clinical characteristics of urothelial carcinoma and determined the effectiveness of lymphocytes as a prognostic predictor for metastatic urothelial carcinoma treated with chemotherapy. Between April 2003 and March 2011, data from 34 patients withunresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma were retrospectively subjected to multivariate regression analysis to determine the patient characteristics with independent prognostic significance for survival. The median patient age was 71 ; 21 patients were male and 13 female. The number of primary tumors in the pelvis, ureter, and bladder were four, six, and 24, respectively. Seventeen patients underwent prior curative resections, and visceral metastases at chemotherapy were detected in 14 patients. The median lymphocyte count at chemotherapy was 1,292/ml. Cancer-specific survival was significantly lower in patients withlymph ocyte counts ?1,000/ml than in patients with lymphocyte counts ?1,000/?l (p?0. 001). During multivariate analysis, visceral metastasis and lymphocyte counts were independent factors for predicting poor prognosis. In addition, lymphocyte counts of ?1, 000/ml or positive visceral metastases also affected survival. This information may be useful for identifying patients who are likely to benefit from chemotherapy. PMID:24894856

Sekita, Nobuyuki; Nishikawa, Rika; Fujimura, Masaaki; Takeuchi, Nobuyoshi; Ogino, Hiroko; Shibata, Naoki; Omura, Sachiko; Mikami, Kazuo

2014-05-01

9

Prognostic Value of Baseline Lymphocyte Count in Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study examined factors predicting tumor response and progression-free survival in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 143 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2 to IVA) treated with CCRT were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to retrospectively evaluate prognostic factors, including baseline lymphocyte count, that affect tumor response and progression-free survival. Results: Of the variables evaluated, greater baseline lymphocyte count was the factor most predictive of a complete clinical response, followed by smaller tumor size (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed baseline lymphocyte count, which was treated as a continuous variable with every 1 x 10{sup 9} lymphocytes/L, to remain a prognostic factor with an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-7.23). In addition, a statistically significant association (p = 0.023) was found between baseline lymphocyte count and progression-free survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.89) in the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients and possible biologic variation existing in lymphocyte subset number and activity, these findings highlight the strong prognostic value of baseline lymphocyte count in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT. Therefore, a larger number of patients and analysis of lymphocyte subsets are needed.

Choi, Chel Hun; Kang, Heeseok; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Gie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Duk-Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: huna0@naver.com

2008-05-01

10

RBC count  

MedlinePLUS

... renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia) Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Your RBC count will increase for several weeks when you move to a higher altitude. Drugs that can increase the RBC count include: Gentamicin ...

11

Let's Count!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...

Popwell, Ms.

2010-09-20

12

Counting Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skip-counting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity.

2010-01-01

13

CD4 Lymphocyte Count Within 24 Month of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seroconversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study reports an analysis of T-4 lymphocyte counts and T-4 cells as a percent of all lymphocytes within 24 months of estimated date of HIV seroconversion in 1,046 HIV seroconverters (1,023 men, 23 women) in the Navy and Marine Corps during 1987-1991....

E. D. Gorham F. C. Garland D. L. Mayers R. R. Goforth S. K. Brodine

1993-01-01

14

Count Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can findâand figure out "what counts." Itâs easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.

2010-01-01

15

A review on peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in healthy adult Indians  

PubMed Central

The CD4+ T lymphocytes are the crucial cells in the cascade of events in forming immune response to the foreign antigen and hence monitoring the CD4+ T cell counts to understand the extent of immune deficiency is a common practice. CD4+ T cells are also the primary target cells for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hence CD4+ T lymphocyte count is the most important marker of immune dysfunction in HIV disease progression. The estimation of CD4+ T cell counts is used to decide the initiation of anti retroviral therapy (ART), to monitor the efficacy of ART and to start treatment for opportunistic infections (OIs). To develop the threshold levels of CD4+ T cell counts, data from western countries are being used in India. The CD4+ T cell counts are known to be influenced by race and environmental factors. Hence it is important to establish the reference ranges for the CD4+ T cell counts in the target population to understand the immune dysfunction. The information on the lower limits of the CD4+ T cells count is necessary to decide the initiation and monitoring of ART. The published data on the CD4+ T cells count in healthy Indian adult population have been reviewed, analyzed and discussed in this review article. The requirement of establishment of reference ranges in Indian population is discussed.

Shete, Ashwini; Thakar, Madhuri; Abraham, Philip Raj; Paranjape, Ramesh

2010-01-01

16

Pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV infection: Radiographic appearance is related to CD4 + T-lymphocyte count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting: An adult HIV outpatient clinic in Cape Town, South Africa.Objective: To investigate the relationship between the radiographic appearance of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in HIV infected patients and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count.Design: Pretreatment radiographs of 150 patients with newly diagnosed PTB were reviewed. CD4+ Tlymphocyte count was used as a marker of HIV disease progression.Results: Upper zone infiltrate typical of PTB

F. A. Post; R. Wood; G. P. Pillay

1995-01-01

17

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are learning about money and how to count coins. We need to learn about coins so we can pay for things we need to buy. These activities will help you practice counting money. Remember to record your learning as you work! Coin Paper We have been learning about coins. Listen to the coin song to remember the names of U.S. coins. U.S. Coin Song Before we can count coins, we need to know the names of the different coins and how much each coin is worth. Click the link below to review ...

Thorsen

2012-11-24

18

On-chip counting the number and the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique is reported for counting the number and the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. This system integrates optical fluorescence detection with resistive pulse sensing enhanced by a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). The MOSFET signal indicates the total number of the cells passing through the detection channel, while the concurrent fluorescence

Yao-Nan Wang; Yuejun Kang; Dongyan Xu; Chan Hee Chon; Louise Barnett; Spyros A. Kalams; Deyu Lib; Dongqing Li

2008-01-01

19

Reticulocyte count  

MedlinePLUS

A reticulocyte count measures the percentage of reticulocytes (slightly immature red blood cells) in the blood. ... marrow at an appropriate rate. The number of reticulocytes in the blood is a sign of how ...

20

Clock Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

Mcduffee, Ms.

2008-11-12

21

Counting carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

22

Cerenkov counting.  

PubMed

When auditing research laboratories, health physics personnel are often alarmed to find liquid scintillation vials that only contain filters and no cocktail. They are then surprised when lab personnel state that they don't need cocktail to count their samples. While not frequently used by the health physicist, counting of samples by using Cerenkov radiation is valid and advantageous when correctly used. PMID:11045514

BenZikri, A

2000-11-01

23

Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Mathematics, Illustrative

2012-07-31

24

Lymphocytopenia and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio predict bacteremia better than conventional infection markers in an emergency care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Absolute lymphocytopenia has been reported as a predictor of bacteremia in medical emergencies. Likewise, the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been shown a simple promising method to evaluate systemic inflammation in critically ill patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the ability of conventional infection markers, lymphocyte count and NLCR to predict bacteremia in adult patients admitted to the Emergency Department

Cornelis PC de Jager; Paul TL van Wijk; Rejiv B Mathoera; Jacqueline de Jongh-Leuvenink; Tom van der Poll; Peter C Wever

2010-01-01

25

B-cell count and survival: differentiating chronic lymphocytic leukemia from monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis based on clinical outcome.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in asymptomatic patients has historically been based on documenting a characteristic lymphocyte clone and the presence of lymphocytosis. There are minimal data regarding which lymphocyte parameter (absolute lymphocyte count [ALC] or B-cell count) and what threshold should be used for diagnosis. We analyzed the relationship of ALC and B-cell count with clinical outcome in 459 patients with a clonal population of CLL phenotype to determine (1) whether the CLL diagnosis should be based on ALC or B-cell count, (2) what lymphocyte threshold should be used for diagnosis, and (3) whether any lymphocyte count has independent prognostic value after accounting for biologic/molecular prognostic markers. B-cell count and ALC had similar value for predicting treatment-free survival (TFS) and overall survival as continuous variables, but as binary factors, a B-cell threshold of 11 x 10(9)/L best predicted survival. B-cell count remained an independent predictor of TFS after controlling for ZAP-70, IGHV, CD38, or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results (all P < .001). These analyses support basing the diagnosis of CLL on B-cell count and retaining the size of the B-cell count in the diagnostic criteria. Using clinically relevant criteria to distinguish between monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) and CLL could minimize patient distress caused by labeling asymptomatic people at low risk for adverse clinical consequences as having CLL. PMID:19015397

Shanafelt, Tait D; Kay, Neil E; Jenkins, Greg; Call, Timothy G; Zent, Clive S; Jelinek, Diane F; Morice, William G; Boysen, Justin; Zakko, Liam; Schwager, Susan; Slager, Susan L; Hanson, Curtis A

2009-04-30

26

The role of neutrophyl lymphocyte count ratio as an inflammatory marker in systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Aim: to evaluate neutrophyl lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) as an inflammatory marker in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: this was a cross sectional study involving 21 SLE patients with mild and moderate disease activity according to Mex SLEDAI score and 30 normal subjects. White blood cells counts were examined with Sysmex XE-5000. The absolute neutrophyl count and absolute lymphocyte count were tabulated and compared between SLE and normal subjects using unpaired t-test. The comparison of NLCR between SLE and normal subject was calculated using Mann-Whitney test. This study was conducted in the Department of Internal Medicine Hasan Sadikin Hospital from November 2011 until January 2012. Results: there was no significant difference in absolute neutrophyl count between SLE and normal subjects (4158+1517 vs 4031+1218 /mm3, p=0.74). The absolute lymphocyte count was significantly lower in SLE than normal subjects (1721+600 vs 2397+587/mm3, p=0.000). NLCR was significantly higher in SLE than normal subjects (2.52 (1.01-10.92) vs 1.65 (0.77-4.59), p=0.007). There was no significant difference in NLCR between SLE with mild and moderate activity (2.59 (1.01-10.92) vs 2.01 (1.38-3.98), p= 0.412). Based on ROC curve, with AUC 0.727, cut off NLCR value >1.93 had 70% sensitivity and 67% specificity in differentiating between SLE and normal subjects. Conclusion: NLCR could be used as simple inflammatory parameter in SLE. PMID:24045385

Oehadian, Amaylia; Suryadinata, Hendarsyah; Dewi, Sumartini; Pramudyo, Riardi; Alisjahbana, Bachti

2013-07-01

27

Predictive value of lymphocytopenia and the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio for severe imported malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphocytopenia has frequently been described in patients with malaria, but studies on its association with disease severity have yielded conflicting results. The neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been introduced as a parameter for systemic inflammation in critically ill patients and was found, together with lymphocytopenia, to be a better predictor of bacteraemia than routine parameters like C-reactive protein and total leukocyte count. In the present study, the predictive value of the NLCR and lymphocytopenia for severe disease was evaluated in patients with imported malaria. Methods All patients diagnosed with malaria at the Harbour Hospital between January 1st 1999 and January 1st 2012 with differential white cell counts determined within the first 24 hours after admission were included in this retrospective study. Severe malaria was defined according to the WHO criteria. The performance of the NLCR and lymphocytopenia as a marker of severe malarial disease was compared back-to-back with that of C-reactive protein as a reference biomarker. Results A total of 440 patients (severe falciparum malaria n = 61, non-severe falciparum malaria n = 259, non-falciparum malaria n=120) were included in the study. Lymphocytopenia was present in 52% of all patients and the median NLCR of all patients was 3.2. Total lymphocyte counts and NLCR did not differ significantly between groups. A significant correlation of total leukocyte count and NLCR, but not lymphocyte count, with parasitaemia was found. ROC analysis revealed a good negative predictive value but a poor positive predictive value of both lymphocytopenia and NLCR and performance was inferior to that of C-reactive protein. After complete parasite clearance a significant rise in total leukocyte count and lymphocyte count and a significant decrease in NLCR was observed. Conclusion The NLCR was found to correlate with parasitaemia, but both lymphocytopenia and the NLCR were inferior to C-reactive protein as markers for severe disease in patients with imported malaria. The NLCR and lymphocytopenia are not useful as predictive markers for severe disease in imported malaria in the acute care setting.

2013-01-01

28

Emerging technologies for point-of-care CD4 T-lymphocyte counting  

PubMed Central

A CD4 T-lymphocyte count determines eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) with patients recently diagnosed with HIV and also monitors the efficacy of ART treatment thereafter. ART slows the progression of HIV to AIDS. In the developing world, CD4 tests are often performed in centralized laboratories, typically in urban areas. The expansion of ART programs into rural areas has created a need for rapid CD4 counting as logistical barriers can delay the timely dissemination of test results and affect patient care through delay in intervention or loss of follow-up care. CD4 measurement at the point-of-care (POC) in rural areas could help facilitating ART and monitoring of treatment. This review highlights recent technology developments with applications towards determining CD4 counts at the POC.

Boyle, David S.; Hawkins, Kenneth R.; Steele, Matthew S.; Singhal, Mitra; Cheng, Xuanhong

2012-01-01

29

The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Study Objective The neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been identified as a predictor of bacteremia in medical emergencies. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of the NLCR in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods and Results Consecutive adult patients were prospectively studied. Pneumonia severity (CURB-65 score), clinical characteristics, complications and outcomes were related to the NLCR and compared with C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil count, white blood cell (WBC) count. The study cohort consisted of 395 patients diagnosed with CAP. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±16.0 years. 87.6% (346/395) of the patients required hospital admission, 7.8% (31/395) patients were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and 5.8% (23/395) patients of the study cohort died. The NLCR was increased in all patients, predicted adverse medical outcome and consistently increased as the CURB-65 score advanced. NLCR levels (mean ± SD) were significantly higher in non-survivors (23.3±16.8) than in survivors (13.0±11.4). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve for NLCR predicting mortality showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.701. This was better than the AUC for the neutrophil count, WBC count, lymphocyte count and CRP level (0.681, 0.672, 0.630 and 0.565, respectively). Conclusion Admission NLCR at the emergency department predicts severity and outcome of CAP with a higher prognostic accuracy as compared with traditional infection markers.

de Jager, Cornelis P. C.; Wever, Peter C.; Gemen, Eugenie F. A.; Kusters, Ron; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B.; van der Poll, Tom; Laheij, Robert J. F.

2012-01-01

30

Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant.  

PubMed

Delayed immune recovery is a characteristic feature of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult recipients. Although recipient thymic T-cell neogenesis contributes to T-cell regeneration after transplantation, thymic recovery in the transplant recipient decreases with increasing age, and is diminished by intensive preconditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease. In adult recipients, most events that determine transplant success or failure occur during the period when the majority of circulating T cells is derived from the donor's post thymic T-cell repertoire. As a result, the make-up of the donor lymphocyte compartment may strongly influence immune recovery and transplant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine donor lymphocyte counts in a series of patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant to identify the potential contribution of donor regulatory and conventional T lymphocyte populations to immune recovery and transplant outcomes. We examined donor lymphocyte subset counts in relation to post-transplant lymphocyte recovery and transplant events in 220 consecutive myeloablative, T-cell-depleted, HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies. In a multivariate analysis, absolute numbers of donor CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants were associated with overall survival (P=0.032). The donors' absolute lymphocyte count and thymic production of regulatory T cells were both associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.002 and P=0.022, respectively). In conclusion, these results identify donor immune characteristics that are associated with lymphocyte recovery, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, and survival in the recipient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study reported here was performed using peripheral blood samples drawn from donors and patients enrolled in the ClinicalTrials.gov-registered trials NCT00001623, NCT00001873, NCT00353860, NCT00066300, NCT00079391, and NCT00398346. PMID:23065508

McIver, Zachariah; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Wu, Colin; Grim, Andrew; Ito, Sawa; Cho, Irene; Hensel, Nancy; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, Austin John

2013-03-01

31

Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts: ASR hip resurfacing prosthesis vs. standard THA  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Wear particles from metal–on–metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above–average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts. Method In a randomized controlled trial, we followed 19 RHA patients and 19 THA patients. Lymphocyte subsets and chromium and cobalt ion concentrations were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, at 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years. Results The T–lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2–year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3+CD8+ in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of –0.04 × 109cells/year (95% CI: –0.08 to –0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect of cobalt ions in particular on T–cells with 2–year whole–blood cobalt regression coefficients for CD3+ of –0.10 (95% CI: –0.16 to –0.04) × 109 cells/parts per billion (ppb), for CD3+CD4+ of –0.06 (–0.09 to –0.03) × 109 cells/ppb, and for CD3+CD8+ of –0.02 (–0.03 to –0.00) × 109 cells/ppb. Interpretation Circulating T–lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions—particularly cobalt—may have a general depressive effect on T– and B–lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762

2013-01-01

32

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.

2011-03-23

33

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

34

Shared Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're interested in checking out the social media shares for various websites, the Shared Count tool is a nice find. Visitors just need to enter the URL in question and then can find out how often the site has been shared on a range of social media platforms. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-03-27

35

Counting Circles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have students stand and form a circle facing in toward each other. Select a counting sequence to be practiced with no more than 8-10 numbers in the sequence. Have the students start counting around the circle one by one until the last number in the sequence is reached. When the last number is reached all students clap and that student is out and sits down on the floor in the middle of the circle. Start the counting sequence over again until another student reaches the number at the end of the sequence; everyone claps and that student sits in the center with the first student. Continue repeating the sequence until only one child is left standing and the rest are seated in the center of the circle. For example: for the counting sequence 1-10: the first student says "one," the next student says "two" and so on until the 10th students gets to "ten" at this point everyone claps and the tenth child sits in the center of the circle. The eleventh student starts over with "one" and so on.

Mathematics, Illustrative

2012-07-31

36

Effects of the space flight environment on man's immune system. II - Lymphocyte counts and reactivity.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present studies were undertaken to assess the effects of the environment of space flights on the cellular division of the human immune system. Peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte counts were determined at various preflight and postflight intervals for the 21 crewmen of Apollo Missions 7-13. Mean lymphocyte numbers tended to exhibit a delayed significant but fluctuating increase shortly after recovery, although a variety of responses was seen in individual astronauts. The in vitro reactivity of lymphocytes, reflected by RNA and DNA synthesis rates by unstimulated and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes tissue-cultured preflight and postflight from the same participants, was found to remain within previously established normal ranges. These results indicate that functional integrity of cellular immune potential as reflected by in vitro techniques is maintained during this spaceflight experience.

Fischer, G. L.; Daniels, J. C.; Levin, W. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Cobb, E. K.; Ritzmann, S. E.

1972-01-01

37

Fluorescence flow cytometry methodology to exclude platelet aggregate interference when measuring feline CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts.  

PubMed

Changes in individual feline lymphocyte subsets over the course of infection, immune-mediated disease, or treatment can be used clinically to monitor disease progression. However, interference by platelet aggregates is a common problem when measuring feline lymphocyte subtype counts using flow cytometry in whole blood specimens. In this study, buffer was used to lyse red blood cells so that lymphocytes could be isolated, and then a gate containing a highly purified population of lymphocytes was characterized and fixed using fluorescence flow cytometry analysis. After tagging platelets with anti-CD61AF647 antibody to reduce aggregate interference, lymphocyte subtypes were measured using simultaneous 3-color channels with fluorescent anti-CD markers. When CD61AF647 exclusion of platelet aggregates was used, CD4%, CD8%, CD8low% and CD4:CD8 counts increased significantly (all specimens, n=66, P<0.001; >20% CD61 in the fixed gate, n=21, P<0.01). The methodology showed robust stability and precision over 3 days (n=10 specimens), yielding average day-to-day coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.15%, 5.01%, 7.33%, 7.77% and 9.35% for white blood cell (WBC) counts, lymphocyte counts, CD4 lymphocyte counts, CD8 lymphocyte counts and CD4:CD8, respectively. PMID:23846026

Lin, Juiming; Litster, Annette

2013-10-01

38

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

Areese

2008-09-25

39

Absolute lymphocyte count and risk of short-term infection in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.  

PubMed

Patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) may be at increased risk of infection because of the steroids and other immunosuppressive agents used in its treatment. This study aimed to identify events that are associated with infection within 6 months of diagnosis and the impact that infection has on survival. We retrospectively evaluated 239 patients (107 men, 132 women; median age 61 years) diagnosed between January 1997 and August 2011. Every patient received steroid treatment according to the platelet count and the extent of bleeding. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with the development of infection within 6 months of ITP being diagnosed. Sixty-two patients (25.9 %) developed an infection within 6 months of diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that a lower absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at diagnosis (<1?×?10(9)/l) was an independent risk factor for infection (P?=?0.039; 95 % confidence interval, 1.033-3.599; odds ratio, 1.928). The time to infection event is significant shorter in those of low ALC, compared with those of higher ALC (P?=?0.032). Furthermore, the 1-year mortality rate after ITP diagnosis was significantly higher in those patients who developed an infection (P?=?0.001). ITP patients with a low absolute lymphocyte count at diagnosis have an increased risk of infection, and those who develop infections have lower 1-year survival. PMID:24441917

Hu, Ming-Hung; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Huang, Yu-Chung; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Chen, Ming-Huang; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Po-Min; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Liu, Chun-Yu

2014-06-01

40

Basis for fluctuations in lymphocyte counts in fingolimod-treated patients with multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the range of fluctuation in total lymphocyte counts (TLCs) in peripheral blood over a 4- to 7-year period in patients with MS receiving fingolimod (FTY720) and the relation between TLCs and T-cell subsets (CD4+, CD8+, CCR7+/?) that are differentially regulated in the lymph nodes by fingolimod. Methods: TLCs were measured every 3 months in patients (n = 23) receiving fingolimod for 4 to 7 years. T-cell subset (CD4+, CD8+, and CCR7+/?) analyses were performed on whole-blood samples and/or freshly isolated or cryopreserved mononuclear cells. Results: All serially studied patients had mean TLCs <0.6 × 109 lymphocytes/L. In 30% of patients, 20% to 40% of TLCs were >0.6 × 109 lymphocytes/L vs mean 4.0% for “nonfluctuator” patients. Cross-sectional analysis indicated that TLCs of 0.2–0.6 × 109 lymphocytes/L correlated with numbers of CD8+ effector (CCR7?) cells. For patients discontinuing therapy, TLCs between 0.6 and 1.0 × 109 lymphocytes/L were associated with a relative increase of CD4 T cells and reappearance of CCR7+ (CD4+ and CD8+) T cells. Analysis of cryopreserved mononuclear cell samples from patients receiving therapy with TLCs >0.6 × 109 lymphocytes/L indicated no differences in total CD4 or CD8+ T cells but increased proportion of CD4+CCR7+ T cells compared to samples with TLCs <0.6 × 109 lymphocytes/L. Conclusion: Fluctuations of TLCs within 0.2–0.6 × 109 lymphocytes/L in patients receiving fingolimod reflect changes in total CCR7?CD8+ effector cells, a population less regulated by this agent. Although less apparent than for patients discontinuing therapy, cells expected to be sequestered by this therapy may begin to re-emerge when TLC values are >0.6 × 109 lymphocytes/L.

Henault, David; Galleguillos, Lorna; Moore, Craig; Johnson, Trina; Bar-Or, Amit

2013-01-01

41

Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

1998-01-01

42

CD4+ T Lymphocytes count in sickle cell anaemia patients attending a tertiary hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: Sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS) is the commonest abnormal haemoglobin and it has a worldwide distribution. Reports have shown that patients with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) have an increased susceptibility to infection leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Impaired leucocyte function and loss of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity are some of the mechanisms that have been reported to account for the immunocompromised state in patients with sickle cell disease. This study was carried out to determine the CD4+ T lymphocytes count in patients with sickle cell anaemia. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study of 40 sickle cell anaemia patients in steady state (asymptomatic for at least 4 weeks) attending haematology clinic and 40 age and sex-matched healthy HbA control were recruited into the study. Both HbS patients and the controls were HIV negative. The blood samples obtained were analyzed for CD4+ T cell by Flow cytometry. Results: The study found that there was no significant difference in the number of CD4+ T lymphocyte count between individuals with sickle cell anaemia and HbA (1016 ± 513 cells/?L vs 920 ± 364cells/?L). Conclusion: It is recommended that the functionality of CD4+ T lymphocyte should be considered rather than the number in further attempt to elucidate the cellular immune dysfunction in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

Ojo, Omotola Toyin; Shokunbi, Wuraola Adebola

2014-01-01

43

Potential clinical implications of interlaboratory variability in CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

The CD4+ T-lymphocyte count is an important factor in the management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Previous studies have found significant variability among the counts determined by different laboratories. We conducted a study of lymphocyte phenotyping in four laboratories to assess this variability and its possible clinical implications. One laboratory was situated at the study site; the other three were selected randomly from a total of 11 commercial and hospital laboratories available locally. Blood specimens were obtained from 24 patients and were sent to the four laboratories for a complete blood count and a lymphocyte subset analysis. Using the Kruskall-Wallis test, we found that the laboratories' ranks of four individual components of the CD4 cell count differed significantly: total white blood cell count (P < .0001), lymphocyte percentage (P = .003), lymphocyte count (P = .002), and CD4 percentage (P = .0004). Of the 24 patients in this survey, 14 (58.3%) had CD4-count results with enough variation to have led to conflicting treatment recommendations; three of the 24 patients fulfilled the revised Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition of AIDS on the basis of results from some but not all laboratories. In addition, the laboratories disagreed on whether CD4 cell counts of nine patients (37.5%) had increased or decreased since the previous determination. We conclude that when strict thresholds of CD4 cell counts are used as a basis for treatment recommendations or for diagnosis of AIDS, interlaboratory variability may be sufficient to alter the decisions made. PMID:8589131

Sax, P E; Boswell, S L; White-Guthro, M; Hirsch, M S

1995-11-01

44

Preoperative lymphocyte count is a favorable prognostic factor of disease-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Recently, the prognostic value of cancer-related inflammatory response has been revealed. Previous studies showed that peripheral neutrophils and lymphocytes had significant impact on the prognosis of advanced and early-node-negative non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts in patients with NSCLC who underwent lobectomy and lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy. Retrospective analyses were performed to examine the impact of preoperative peripheral lymphocyte and neutrophil counts on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and to analyze the relationships of these factors to clinicopathological factors. A total of 142 patients with NSCLC were evaluated of which 57 (40.1 %) patients had local recurrence or metastasis. Multivariate analyses revealed that peripheral lymphocyte count was an independent favorable prognostic factor of DFS (hazard ratio 0.548; 95 % confidence interval 0.351-0.857; P = 0.008) but not OS (P = 0.164). The maximum logrank statistical value was 9.504 (P = 0.002) when the cutoff value of lymphocyte was 1,800 mm(-3). The median DFS was 318.0 days (95 % confidence interval 226.0-410.0) for lymphocyte ?1,800 mm(-3) group and 669.0 days (95 % confidence interval 0.0-1,431.0) for lymphocyte >1,800 mm(-3) group. Low lymphocyte count was related with lymphatic invasion (P = 0.012) and recurrence of NSCLC (P = 0.022). Peripheral neutrophil count had no impact on DFS or OS when analysis included all the 142 patients. Preoperative peripheral lymphocyte count, which is related with lymphatic invasion, is an independent favorable prognostic factor of DFS in patients with NSCLC who underwent lobectomy and lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23275140

Zhang, Jian; Huang, Shao-Hong; Li, Hui; Li, Yun; Chen, Xiu-Ling; Zhang, Wei-Qing; Chen, Hui-Guo; Gu, Li-Jia

2013-03-01

45

A quartz nanopillar hemocytometer for high-yield separation and counting of CD4+ T lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of a novel quartz nanopillar (QNP) array cell separation system capable of selectively capturing and isolating a single cell population including primary CD4+ T lymphocytes from the whole pool of splenocytes. Integrated with a photolithographically patterned hemocytometer structure, the streptavidin (STR)-functionalized-QNP (STR-QNP) arrays allow for direct quantitation of captured cells using high content imaging. This technology exhibits an excellent separation yield (efficiency) of ~95.3 +/- 1.1% for the CD4+ T lymphocytes from the mouse splenocyte suspensions and good linear response for quantitating captured CD4+ T-lymphoblasts, which is comparable to flow cytometry and outperforms any non-nanostructured surface capture techniques, i.e. cell panning. This nanopillar hemocytometer represents a simple, yet efficient cell capture and counting technology and may find immediate applications for diagnosis and immune monitoring in the point-of-care setting.We report the development of a novel quartz nanopillar (QNP) array cell separation system capable of selectively capturing and isolating a single cell population including primary CD4+ T lymphocytes from the whole pool of splenocytes. Integrated with a photolithographically patterned hemocytometer structure, the streptavidin (STR)-functionalized-QNP (STR-QNP) arrays allow for direct quantitation of captured cells using high content imaging. This technology exhibits an excellent separation yield (efficiency) of ~95.3 +/- 1.1% for the CD4+ T lymphocytes from the mouse splenocyte suspensions and good linear response for quantitating captured CD4+ T-lymphoblasts, which is comparable to flow cytometry and outperforms any non-nanostructured surface capture techniques, i.e. cell panning. This nanopillar hemocytometer represents a simple, yet efficient cell capture and counting technology and may find immediate applications for diagnosis and immune monitoring in the point-of-care setting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11338d

Kim, Dong-Joo; Seol, Jin-Kyeong; Wu, Yu; Ji, Seungmuk; Kim, Gil-Sung; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Yong; Lim, Hyuneui; Fan, Rong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

2012-03-01

46

Initial absolute lymphocyte count as a prognostic factor for outcome in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

The absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at presentation has been associated with survival in various malignancies. However, its prognostic value in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been established. In a series of 1702 newly diagnosed patients with AML, we evaluated the prognostic value of ALC at diagnosis with regard to induction chemotherapy response, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Low initial ALC (< 1 × 10(9)/L) appeared as a poor prognostic factor for DFS (p = 0.01) and OS (p = 0.02), while higher ALC (> 4.5 × 10(9)/L) showed a lower response rate after one (p = 0.004) or two induction chemotherapy courses (p = 0.01). However, ALC did not appear as an independent predictor of outcome in a multivariate analysis model also including age, cytogenetics and white blood cell count. Examination of lymphocyte subsets is warranted to specify the relationship between ALC at diagnosis and clinical outcome in AML. PMID:23786457

Le Jeune, Caroline; Bertoli, Sarah; Elhamri, Mohamed; Vergez, Francois; Borel, Cecile; Huguet, Françoise; Michallet, Mauricette; Dumontet, Charles; Recher, Christian; Thomas, Xavier

2014-04-01

47

The Effect of Low CD4+ Lymphocyte Count on the Radiographic Patterns of HIV Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Nigerians  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the radiographic features in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and the association with CD4 lymphocyte count and sputum smear. Method. A prospective study was carried out on 89 HIV positive patients with PTB. The demographics, smoking history, sputum smear result, chest radiographic findings and CD4 lymphocyte count were documented. Results. Out of the 89 patients recruited in the study, 41 were males and 48 were females. Eighteen (18) patients had typical radiographic features, 60 patients had atypical radiographic features while only 11 of them had normal radiographic films. Sixty eight (68) patients had CD4 count <200?cells/mm3, 19 patients had CD4 count between 200–499?cells/mm3, while only 2 patients had CD4 count from 500?cells/mm3 upwards. The association between low CD4 count and radiographic finding was statistically significant, (P value <0.05). Sixty (60) patients had negative sputum smear for Acid and Alcohol Fast Bacilli (AAFB), while the remaining 29 patients had positive smear. The association between low CD4 count and negative smear was statistically significant (P value <0.05). Conclusion. The radiographic pattern and the result of the sputum smear for AAFB has a significant relationship and association with the immune status of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis.

Affusim, Christopher; Abah, Vivien; Kesieme, Emeka B.; Anyanwu, Kester; Salami, Taofik A. T.; Eifediyi, Reuben

2013-01-01

48

Counting is FUN!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s Practice counting! Let\\'s practice are counting by visiting Count the Chickens!. Now we are going to visit Fishy Count! and count fish! So you think you are smart? Why not try this fun game and Help Froggy get across!! ...

Wren, Ms.

2007-10-25

49

Complete blood count - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... of blood cells. It can reflect acute or chronic infection, allergies, and problems with clotting. The CBC test isolates and counts the 7 types of cells found in the blood: neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, red blood cell, lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet.

50

Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index  

PubMed Central

Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART), but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs) have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb), and body mass index (BMI) to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ? 200 cells ?L, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells ?L. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/?L and 1830 cells/?L, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ? 2250 cells/?L produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC <2000 cells/?L, excluded all patients with a TLC >3000 cells/?L, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/?L, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

Moore, David M; Awor, Anna; Downing, Robert S; Were, Willy; Solberg, Peter; Tu, David; Chan, Keith; Hogg, Robert S; Mermin, Jonathan

2007-01-01

51

Ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count at diagnosis is associated with progression-free survival in follicular lymphoma.  

PubMed

The prognosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) is significantly associated with host immunity and tumor microenvironment. Lymphopenia has been identified as a negative prognostic factor for FL. The association between monocytosis and progression-free survival (PFS) in FL remains controversial. It is unknown whether the ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count (ALC/AMC) at diagnosis is associated with FL prognosis. We studied 99 consecutive patients with FL who were treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy at Kitano Hospital or Kyoto University Hospital between 2000 and 2012. We analyzed individual variables associated with the ALC/AMC ratio before treatment, as well as known prognostic factors of FL, and found that an ALC/AMC ratio of 4.7 was the best cut-off value for PFS. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was associated with inferior PFS (P = 0.022). Multivariate analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was a significant poor prognostic factor independent of other variables (hazard ratio, 2.714; 95 % confidence interval, 1.060-6.948; P = 0.037). The ALC/AMC ratio before treatment may be a significant prognostic factor predicting PFS of FL. PMID:24756873

Kumagai, Shogo; Tashima, Masaharu; Fujikawa, Jun; Iwasaki, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshihiro; Sueki, Yuki; Fukunaga, Akiko; Yanagita, Soshi; Nishikori, Momoko; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Arima, Nobuyoshi

2014-06-01

52

White blood cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has been previously observed. However, the relationship between WBC count and CHD mortality independent of cigarette smoking and the possible interaction between WBC count and smoking remains unclear. We examined the association between WBC count and CHD mortality with Cox regression analyses of data from

David W Brown; Wayne H Giles; Janet B Croft

2001-01-01

53

The Big Pumpkin Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

1981-01-01

54

All about Carbohydrate Counting  

MedlinePLUS

All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued • If the total carbohydrate ...

55

Quality control of the total lymphocyte count parameter obtained from routine haematology analyzers, and its relevance in HIV management.  

PubMed

Lylmphocyte subsets/CD4 T Helper cell enumeration in HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings can be difficult to ascertain as a result of the lack of the necessary instrumentation, capacity and infrastructure. However. it is imperative to gain such information for patient monitoring in HIV. The Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) is useful as a surrogate marker for CD4 count as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and to calculate CD4% for pacdiatric use. This study therefore sets out to determine and compare the accuracy of the total lymphocyte counts obtained from three haematology analysers designated A. B and C. that are in regular use for routine haemnatological parameters at the main referral hospital in Barbados. West Indies. The TLC of 263 HIV treatment naive individuals attending the HIV Reference Unit in Barbados were enumnerated on the three haematology analysers. The lymphosumn (Sum of lymphocyte subsets: T-helper cell. T-cytotoxic cells. B lymphocytes and Natural killer cells) should be equal to the TLC. and is derived by immunophenotypic analysis on a 4-colour flowcytometer. Machine C had the highest positive correlation between the TLC and the lymphosumn with and R' of 0.9031 compared to machine A with an R values of 0.7119 and Machine B with R(2) values of 0.637. These results show that there can be dramatic inaccuracies when using routine haematology analysers for both routine use. as a surrogate marker of CD4 or for derivation of CD4% in HIV management. It further demonstrates that all haematology analyzers require some form of Quality control. The possible lack of accuracy of the TLC by haematology analysers should be taken into consideration when following the recommendations of the WHO in resource poor settings or using it as a denominator for calculating CD4%. PMID:17209312

Marshall, S; Sippy, N; Broome, H; Abayomi, A

2006-06-01

56

Absolute monocyte count trichotomizes chronic lymphocytic leukemia into high risk patients with immune dysregulation, disease progression and poor survival.  

PubMed

Peripheral absolute monocyte count (AMC) has been reported to correlate with clinical outcome in different types of cancers. This association may relate to alteration in circulating monocytic subpopulations and tumor infiltrating macrophages. In this study we evaluated the clinical significance of peripheral AMC in 80 treatment naive patients with CLL. Measurement of AMC was based on direct morphological enumeration, due to our findings that complete blood count data may yield incorrect monocytes enumeration values in CLL. The median AMC in patients with CLL was within normal limits, however the AMC range exceeded the values of healthy individuals. The AMC trichotomized patients into 3 distinct sub-groups with different characteristics and outcomes. High AMC patients were younger and had higher absolute lymphocytes count, while patients with low AMC had prominent immune dysregulation (lower serum IgA levels, susceptibility to infections and a tendency for positive direct anti-globulin test). The low and high AMC patients had a shorter time to treatment compared to the intermediates AMC subgroups, whereas low AMC was associated with increased mortality caused by infectious complications. In conclusion, AMC quantification during the disease course classifies CLL patients into subgroups with unique clinical features and outcomes. PMID:23937985

Herishanu, Yair; Kay, Sigi; Sarid, Nadav; Kohan, Pedram; Braunstein, Rony; Rotman, Rachel; Deutsch, Varda; Ben-Ezra, Jonathan; Naparstek, Elizabeth; Perry, Chava; Katz, Ben-Zion

2013-10-01

57

A Spoken Word Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This word count is a composite listing of the different words spoken by a selected sample of 54 English-speaking adults and the frequency with which each of the different words was used in a particular test. The stimulus situation was identical for each subject and consisted of 20 cards of the Thematic Apperception Test. Although most word counts…

Jones, Lyle V.; Wepman, Joseph M.

58

Counting Sheep in Basque  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

Araujo, Frank P.

1975-01-01

59

Counting coins and value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will identify and add up coins. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Counting Money - Values of coins Game #2:Counting Money (harder) Game #3: Let s Compare (hardest) Game #4: Money Hard Game #5: Cash Out--Very Difficult Math Game ...

Christian, Mrs.

2007-03-21

60

White blood count in patients on regular haemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total white cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were compared in patients with chronic renal failure treated successively by conservative means (low-protein diet), regular haemodialysis, and renal allotransplantation. The lowest total white cell and neutrophil counts and the highest lymphocyte counts were found in patients on regular haemodialysis. A rapid fall in neutrophil count during the first half-hour of dialysis and

M. Papadimitriou; L. R. I. Baker; B. Seitanidis; L. H. Sevitt; A. E. Kulatilake

1969-01-01

61

Correlation between imaging features of Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis (PCP), CD4+ T lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load: A study in 50 consecutive AIDS patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the imaging manifestations of Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis (PCP) in AIDS patients, and the correlation between imaging features, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load. Materials and methods A total of consecutive 50 AIDS patients with PCP were reviewed retrospectively. Chest CT manifestations, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load were analyzed to investigate their correlation. Results PCP chest CT manifestations included ground-glass opacities dominated in 28 cases (28/50, 56%), lung cysts dominated in 10 cases (10/50, 20%), consolidation dominated in 6 cases (6/50, 12%), interstitial lesion dominated in 3 cases (3/50, 6%), and mixed lesions in 3 cases (3/50, 6%). In these 50 patients, CD4+ lymphocyte count ranged from 2 to 373 cells/µL. Plasma HIV viral load ranged from 500 to 5.28×107 copies/mL. CD4+ lymphocyte count in ground-glass opacities dominated patients was higher than that of lung cyst dominated patients (P<0.05). Plasma virus load of lung cysts dominated PCP patients was higher than that of consolidation dominated patients (P<0.05). Conclusions The typical chest imaging features of PCP in AIDS patients included lung ground-glass opacities and lung cysts. The chest imaging features were correlated with CD4+ T lymphocyte count and plasma HIV viral load.

Deng, Ying-Ying; Liu, Shui-Teng; Liu, Yan; Liu, Ying-Xia; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Zhu, Wen-Ke; Le, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Wei-Ye; Zhou, Bo-Ping

2012-01-01

62

The automated monocyte count is independently predictive of overall survival from diagnosis in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and of survival following first-line chemotherapy.  

PubMed

We conducted an analysis of the effect of monocytosis at diagnosis of CLL on subsequent overall (OS) and treatment-free survival (TFS). Monocyte counts were performed using the Sysmex XE2100 analyser. A monocyte count >0.9 × 10(9)L(-1) at the time of diagnosis was associated with a shortened OS and TFS. Monocytosis at diagnosis was associated with lymphocyte count, deletions of chromosomes 17p and 11q, the extent of IgVH somatic hypermutation and Binet stage. A multivariate analysis model which excluded somatic hypermutation found only monocyte count and age to be independently predictive of OS. The automated monocyte count is predictive of OS and TFS in newly diagnosed CLL. PMID:23522450

Mazumdar, Ranjana; Evans, Paul; Culpin, Rachel; Bailey, James; Allsup, David

2013-06-01

63

Great Backyard Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1998, the Great Backyard Bird Count collects data on wild birds and to display results in near real-time. The event takes place in February in the U.S. and Canada in order to create a snapshot of bird distribution just before the start of spring migration. Participants create accounts and help to count birds for at least 15 minutes on one or more days during the yearly event. Data from past counts can be viewed at the website. A mobile app is available for entering data.

University, Cornell

64

Cutaneous presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia as unique extramedullar involvement in a patient with normal peripheral blood lymphocyte count (monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis).  

PubMed

Skin infiltration by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is very rare and almost all reported cases occur in advanced stage. We report a patient with no relevant past medical history who presented with cutaneous erythematous plaques. A punch biopsy showed typical CLL morphologic and immunophenotypic features. Subsequent studies revealed a normal lymphocyte count in peripheral blood, and there was no evidence of lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Flow cytometry demonstrated a clonal B-cell population both in the bone marrow and peripheral blood (1.60 × 10(9)/l) with a CLL phenotype, but it did not fulfill required criteria for CLL diagnosis. Without cutaneous involvement, this case should be classified as monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. PMID:23639136

Tapia, Gustavo; Mate, José-Luis; Fuente, María-José; Navarro, José-Tomás; Fernández-Figueras, Maria-Teresa; Juncà, Jordi; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Ariza, Aurelio

2013-08-01

65

Lakota Winter Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Different human societies across the millennia have sought to record their histories in a multitude of ways, and the Lakota people of the Northern Plains elected to record their experiences through what are known as winter counts. These winter counts are essentially histories or calendars in which events are recorded by pictures, with one picture for each year. These rather fascinating documents were used in conjunction with extensive oral histories, and as such, most of these events were widely known and recognized by a majority of the Lakota. This particular website from the National Anthropological Archives at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History allows visitors to view these winter counts, learn more about the Lakota, and view interviews with contemporary Lakota people about the winter counts. The site also contains an audio glossary and a number of helpful resources for educators.

66

Reticulocyte Count Test  

MedlinePLUS

... reticulocyte count is performed with an automated instrument (hematology analyzer) and can be done simultaneously with a ... Neoplasms Elsewhere On The Web American Society of Hematology: Anemia Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation FamilyDoctor.org: ...

67

Counting Knights and Knaves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

2013-01-01

68

Christmas Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The longest running Citizen Science survey in the world, Christmas Bird Count provides critical data on population trends. Tens of thousands of participants know that it is also a lot of fun. Data from the over 2,300 circles are entered after the count and become available to query under the Data & Research link. Participants will be helping to preserve bird species, as the data is used by conservation biologists to understand and protect species and their habitats.

Chapman, Frank

69

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

DOEpatents

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, J.E.

1985-03-05

70

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

DOEpatents

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

71

WY Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

72

Fraction Counting Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will make a book of fractions in which they choose a denominator and count up to a whole and greater than a whole. They will represent the fractions as pictures, in number form, word form, and on a number line.

2012-12-17

73

Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) with normal lymphocyte counts is associated with decreased numbers of normal circulating B-cell subsets.  

PubMed

Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) with normal lymphocyte counts is associated with decreased numbers of normal circulating B-cell subsets.Little is known about the distribution of normal lymphoid cells and their subsets in the peripheral blood (PB) of subjects with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). In our study, we compared the absolute number of PB lymphoid cells and their subpopulations in 95 MBL cases with normal lymphocyte counts vs. 617 age-/sex-matched non-MBL healthy subjects (controls), using highly sensitive flow cytometry. MBL cases showed significantly reduced numbers of normal circulating B-cells, at the expense of immature and naive B-cells; in addition, CD4+CD8+ double-positive T-cells and CD8+ T-cells were significantly lower and higher vs. controls, respectively. Moreover, most normal B-cell subsets were significantly decreased in PB at >1% MBL-counts, vs. "low-count" MBL cases, and lower amounts of immature/naive B-cells were detected in biclonal (particularly in cases with coexisting CLL-like- and non-CLL-like B-cell clones) vs. monoclonal MBL subjects. In summary, our results show imbalanced (reduced) absolute numbers of recently produced normal circulating B-cells (e.g., immature and na?ve B-cells) in MBL, which becomes more pronounced as the MBL cell count increases. PMID:22685020

Hauswirth, Alexander W; Almeida, Julia; Nieto, Wendy G; Teodosio, Cristina; Rodriguez-Caballero, Arancha; Romero, Alfonso; López, Antonio; Fernandez-Navarro, Paulino; Vega, Tomas; Perez-Andres, Martin; Valent, Peter; Jäger, Ulrich; Orfao, Alberto

2012-07-01

74

Peritransplant absolute lymphocyte count as a predictive factor for advanced recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Lymphocytes play an active role in natural immunity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). We hypothesized that a lower absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) may alter HCV outcome after liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of peritransplant ALC on HCV recurrence following LT. A total of 289 LT patients between 2005 and 2011 were evaluated. Peritransplant ALC (pre-LT, 2-week, and 1-month post-LT) and immunosuppression were analyzed along with recipient and donor factors in order to determine risk factors for HCV recurrence based on METAVIR fibrosis score. When stratifying patients according to pre- and post-LT ALC (<500/?L versus 500-1,000/?L versus >1,000/?L), lymphopenia was significantly associated with higher rates of HCV recurrence with fibrosis (F2-4). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed posttransplant ALC at 1 month remained an independent predictive factor for recurrence (P = 0.02, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.47 for <500/?L). When peritransplant ALC was persistently low (<500/?L pre-LT, 2-week, and 1-month post-LT), patients were at significant risk of developing early advanced fibrosis secondary to HCV recurrence (F3-4 within 2 years) (P = 0.02, HR = 3.16). Furthermore, severe pretransplant lymphopenia (<500/?L) was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.01, HR = 3.01). The use of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction (RATG) had a remarkable protective effect on HCV recurrence (P = 0.02, HR = 0.6) despite its potential to induce lymphopenia. Subgroup analysis indicated that negative effects of posttransplant lymphopenia at 1 month (<1,000/?L) were significant regardless of RATG use and the protective effects of RATG were independent of posttransplant lymphopenia. Conclusion: Peritransplant ALC is a novel and useful surrogate marker for prediction of HCV recurrence and patient survival. Immunosuppression protocols and peritransplant management should be scrutinized depending on peritransplant ALC. PMID:23728831

Nagai, Shunji; Yoshida, Atsushi; Kohno, Keisuke; Altshuler, David; Nakamura, Mio; Brown, Kimberly A; Abouljoud, Marwan S; Moonka, Dilip

2014-01-01

75

Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in apparently healthy Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between leukocyte subtype counts and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia,\\u000a and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Logistic regressions using hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia\\u000a as a dependent variable and total leukocyte, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts as an independent\\u000a variable were calculated adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

Eiji Oda; Ryu Kawai; Yoshifusa Aizawa

76

Count Models in Criminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Crime can be measured in many metrics, including occurrence (yes\\/no), seriousness (e.g., felony\\/misdemeanor), and frequency\\u000a or rate. Frequency can be considered in two analogous ways – how soon until an occurrence (the rate) or how many occurrences\\u000a per unit such as weeks, months, or years (counts). We can also look at frequency with respect to other units such as population

John M. MacDonald; Pamela K. Lattimore

77

Garden Butterflies Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UK-based Butterfly Conservation presents the preliminary results of the Garden Butterfly Count (GBC), which enlisted the help of private residents to survey backyard butterflies and moths. Over 11,000 completed survey forms were returned to Butterfly Conservation at the end of the 2002 season, and the Web site provides a brief look at early results and analysis. The information is presented for a general audience, making this Web site an interesting stop for any reader.

78

Count the Beat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article discusses the Count the Beat project, which incorporates music into math instruction. The instructors in this project began each lesson with a brief math exercise followed by a more in-depth music task utilizing number lines, fractions, ratios, and/or probability. While music professionals carried out this project the article does offer some suggestions for application in the math classroom without music professional.

Goulder, Nicky; Lodge, Samantha

2013-01-01

79

Comparison of 5 flow cytometric immunophenotyping systems for absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in HIV-1-infected patients living in resource-limited settings.  

PubMed

Enumeration of CD4+ T lymphocytes is important in management of HIV-infected patients. However, CD4 testing by current gold standard bead-based flow cytometer (FCM) system is expensive for developing countries. This study compared 2 affordable volumetric FCMs with the 3 predicate FCM systems. CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts on blood samples from 150 HIV-1-infected Thai patients were determined in parallel by 5 FCM systems: the 2 single-platform volumetric FCM systems, Guava and CyFlow(green); the 2 standard single-platform bead-based systems (2-color FACSCount and the TriTEST/TruCOUNT tube using a FACSCalibur FCM); and the dual-platform TriTEST system. Correlation and agreement were analyzed using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Results from these 2 volumetric systems gave similar results and excellent correlation: R2 > 0.93; mean biases ranged from +6.3 to +24.1 cells per microliter more for the Guava. In contrast, the CyFlow(green) showed the lowest values with R2 > 0.97; mean biases ranged from -9.8 to -27.6 cells per microliter. This indicates that the absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts determined by CyFlow(green) are < FACSCount < DP TriTEST < TriTEST/TruCOUNT < Guava. Although the use of these 2 volumetric FCMs could make CD4+ T-lymphocyte enumeration more affordable in resource-poor settings, variations among these systems should be considered if these are to be interchanged. PMID:19186347

Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Phuang-Ngern, Yuwadee; Sukapirom, Kasama; Lerdwana, Surada; Thepthai, Charin; Tassaneetrithep, Boonrat

2008-12-01

80

White Blood Cell Counting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter...

1972-01-01

81

High incidence of post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after antithymocyte globulin-based conditioning and ineffective prediction by day 28 EBV-specific T lymphocyte counts.  

PubMed

The largest study on post-allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) epidemiology showed a cumulative incidence of 1.7% in patients receiving antithymocyte globulin (ATG). We had noted an apparently higher incidence in our transplant recipients whose conditioning included ATG. Therefore, we formally determined the incidence of PTLD through chart review. We also evaluated whether counts of EBV-specific T lymphocytes measured by cytokine flow cytometry could identify patients at risk of developing PTLD. Among 307 allogeneic transplant recipients, 25 (8.1%) developed PTLD. This was biopsy proven in 11 patients, and was fatal in seven patients. Patient age, EBV serostatus, donor type/match or GVHD did not influence PTLD risk significantly. Median onset of PTLD was 55 (range, 28-770) days post transplant. Day 28 EBV-specific T lymphocyte counts were not significantly different in 11 patients who developed PTLD and 31 non-PTLD patients matched for published risk factors for PTLD. In summary, when using conditioning with thymoglobulin 4.5 mg/kg, the incidence of PTLD is relatively high and cannot be predicted by day 28 cytokine flow cytometry-determined EBV-specific T lymphocyte counts. Thus, in this scenario PTLD prevention may be warranted, for example, using EBV DNAemia monitoring with preemptive therapy. PMID:21057556

Hoegh-Petersen, M; Goodyear, D; Geddes, M N; Liu, S; Ugarte-Torres, A; Liu, Y; Walker, J T; Fonseca, K; Daly, A; Duggan, P; Stewart, D; Russell, J A; Storek, J

2011-08-01

82

Intentional Control of Event Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event counting depends on simple, well-learned knowledge but is effortful and error-prone. In 6 experiments, the authors examined event-counting performance, testing a model that suggests that counting is controlled by minimal goal representations coordinated with perceptual events by temporal synchrony. In Experiment 1, they examined self-paced counting with or without delays that disrupted participants' preferred pacing. In subsequent experiments, participants

Richard A. Carlson; Daniel N. Cassenti

2004-01-01

83

Counting supersymmetric branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximal supergravity solutions are revisited and classified, with particular emphasis on objects of co-dimension at most two. This class of solutions includes branes whose tension scales with xxxx. We present a group theory derivation of the counting of these objects based on the corresponding tensor hierarchies derived from E 11 and discrete T- and U-duality transformations. This provides a rationale for the wrapping rules that were recently discussed for ? ? 3 in the literature and extends them. Explicit supergravity solutions that give rise to co-dimension two branes are constructed and analysed.

Kleinschmidt, Axel

2011-10-01

84

Skip Count by 5s  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help the Third Little Pig skip count to 1,000 bricks in groups of 5. (Note students are not expected to count from 0-1,000 by 5s, but this activity allows them to experience counting within a variety of contexts between 0 and 1,000.)

Hartman, Jayne

2012-07-23

85

Photon counting and Laguerre detection.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this correspondence maximum-likelihood binary detection theory is applied to an incoherent optical system model employing photodetectors governed by Laguerre counting statistics. It is shown that a maximum-likelihood Laguerre detector corresponds to a count comparison over each signaling interval. Laguerre error probabilities are presented and compared with those for Poisson counting.

Gagliardi, R. M.

1972-01-01

86

Count the Vowels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to count the vowels in a list of 15 words. They are then asked to write down as many WORDS as they can remember. They can usually remember only 3 - 4. Next students are told to look at the list of words and asked to memorize them. They can usually remember about half of them after trying to memorize the words. Finally, students are told that the words are listed in a certain way, with a guiding concept to the arrangements. They readily understand the words are listed according to number. After spending 30 seconds to memorize the words this time, students generally tend to remember 12 or more. Metacognitive components of the activityStudents learn that considering the organization of informaton is important to remember it. Metacognitive goals for this activity:To show students that they can significantly and immediately improve their learning. Assessing students' metacognitionStudents tell us in verbal or email communication that they have now "stopped counting vowels" and are learning information.

87

Modal Logics with Counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.

Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre

88

Counting coalescent histories.  

PubMed

Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula. PMID:17563317

Rosenberg, Noah A

2007-04-01

89

Count Us In  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Online division, this interactive site contains age-appropriate and visually-appealing games designed to help young people understand basic number concepts. There are fifteen games in total, all of which may be downloaded for use in the classroom or at home, at no charge. Some of the games include activities that allow students to design patterns using objects contained with a bookshelf or the ever-popular sheep counting game, where participants must move sheep from left to right until there are the same number of sheep in each paddock. Additionally, there is a section that explains the purpose of each game, and a help feature within each game that helps users become acclimated to the goal of each activity. The site is rounded out by a selection of teacher resources designed to complement each game on the site.

90

K.CC Counting Mat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Counting Mats * Small objects to count, such as bears or tiles. Action The teacher gives students the counting mat and many small objects t...

91

Youth Count: Exploring How KIDS COUNT Grantees Address Youth Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inspired by the 2004 Kids Count Databook essay, "Moving Youth From Risk to Opportunity," this new report highlights the history of data collection, challenges and innovative strategies of 12 Annie E. Casey Foundation KIDS COUNT grantees in their work to serve the needs of older youth. (Contains 3 figures, 2 tables, and 9 notes.)

Wilson-Ahlstrom, Alicia; Gaines, Elizabeth; Ferber, Thaddeus; Yohalem, Nicole

2005-01-01

92

KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By providing policymakers and citizens with benchmarks of child well-being, KIDS COUNT seeks to enrich local, state, and national discussions concerning ways to secure better futures for all children. This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the 2005 "KIDS COUNT Data Book." The following sections are included: (1) Essay; (2) Charts on 10 Key…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2005

2005-01-01

93

Data Anlaysis: Fundamental Counting Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan presents an activity where students use charts and tree diagrams to show the possible outcomes of probability experiments and the likelihood of each event. In the plan the teacher guides the class to understand and apply the fundamental counting principle. Two independent worksheets provide students with more practice creating sample spaces and applying the fundamental counting principle.

2012-01-01

94

The immunoglobulin gene repertoire of low-count chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-like monoclonal B lymphocytosis is different from CLL: diagnostic implications for clinical monitoring.  

PubMed

In the revised National Cancer Institute Working Group (NCI-WG)/International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (IWCLL) guidelines for CLL, CLL-like monoclonal B lymphocytosis (MBL) is defined as the presence of less than 5 x 10(9)/L B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. However, the concentration of MBL in the blood is extremely variable. MBL in subjects with lymphocytosis require treatment at a rate of 1.1% per year and present immunoglobulin (IG) gene features and similar to good prognosis CLL. Little is known about low-count MBL cases, accidentally found in the general population. We analyzed IGHV-D-J rearrangements in 51 CLL-like MBL cases from healthy individuals, characterized by few clonal B cells. Seventy percent of the IGHV genes were mutated. The most frequent IGHV gene was IGHV4-59/61, rarely used in CLL, whereas the IGHV1-69 gene was lacking and the IGHV4-34 gene was infrequent. Only 2 of 51 (3.9%) MBL cases expressed a CLL-specific stereotyped HCDR3. Therefore, the IG gene repertoire in low-count MBL differs from both mutated and unmutated CLL, suggesting that the detection of MBL in an otherwise healthy subject is not always equivalent to a preleukemic state. Detailed IG analysis of individual MBL may help to identify cases that necessitate continuous clinical monitoring to anticipate disease progression. PMID:19029437

Dagklis, Antonis; Fazi, Claudia; Sala, Cinzia; Cantarelli, Valeria; Scielzo, Cristina; Massacane, Roberto; Toniolo, Daniela; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Ghia, Paolo

2009-07-01

95

Uncertainty in measurements by counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

2012-02-01

96

White blood cell counting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

1972-01-01

97

Aedes aegypti egg counting system.  

PubMed

New monitoring methods of dengue vector and evaluation of public policies on dengue control are major concerns for several tropical countries. Drawback on monitoring methods base on oviposition surveys are the counting process of mosquito eggs, information store and analysis. Here we present a new automated egg counting system for remote Aedes aegypti population survey. The system is base on an optical scanning platform, a man-machine interface, and a software for mosquitoes eggs counting. Acquired information are sent over the internet and remotely analyzed. Prototypes of the device were installed and implement in two different cities. PMID:22255902

da Silva, M G N M; Rodrigues, M A B; de Araujo, R E

2011-01-01

98

Generalized model for coincidence counting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this paper is to provide a description of the multiplicative processes associated with coincidence counting techniques, for example in the NDA of plutonium bearing materials. The model elucidates both the physical processes and the underlying m...

M. S. Lu T. Teichmann

1992-01-01

99

Counting Graylings on the Tundra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article profiles Linda Deegan, scientist with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site in the Kuparuk River region of Alaska, as she counts and tags Arctic grayling as they migrate from streams to lakes in the fall.

Landis, Carol

100

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

101

Semiparametric Model for Citation Counts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pattern of yearly citation counts of a scientific paper, which expresses in some way its importance, is modeled as a discrete time stochastic process with a conditional distribution dependent on a few parameters characterizing the particular scientifi...

A. P. Vanderplas

1988-01-01

102

Enhancing the Accuracy of Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio after Adjustment for Large Platelet Count: A Pilot Study in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. The objective of our study is to investigate the potential effect of adjusting preoperative platelet to lymphocyte ratio, an emerging biomarker of survival in cancer patients, for the fraction of large platelets. Methods. A total of 79 patients with breast neoplasias, 44 with fibroadenomas, and 35 with invasive ductal carcinoma were included in the study. Both conventional platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the adjusted marker, large platelet to lymphocyte ratio (LPLR), were correlated with laboratory and histopathological parameters of the study sample. Results. LPLR elevation was significantly correlated with the presence of malignancy, advanced tumor stage, metastatic spread in the axillary nodes and HER2/neu overexpression, while PLR was only correlated with the number of infiltrated lymph nodes. Conclusions. This is the first study evaluating the effect of adjustment for large platelet count on improving PLR accuracy, when correlated with the basic independent markers of survival in a sample of breast cancer patients. Further studies are needed in order to assess the possibility of applying our adjustment as standard in terms of predicting survival rates in cancer.

Seretis, Charalampos; Seretis, Fotios; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Politou, Marianna; Gemenetzis, George; Salemis, Nikolaos S.

2012-01-01

103

Low white blood cell count and cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... kill them. It is called a low white blood cell count, or neutropenia, when a person has too few ... a microliter of blood has a low white blood cell count. If the white blood cell count is very ...

104

Differential leukocyte count method for bovine low somatic cell count milk.  

PubMed

Whereas many differential leukocyte count methods for high somatic cell count (SCC) milk from mastitic cows are available, only a few have been developed for low SCC milk. We have developed a flow cytometric differential leukocyte count method for low SCC milk. The procedure consists of 1) 1.5 ml of diluted milk sample (30%, vol/vol dilution with PBS), 2) centrifugation, 3) leukocyte labeling with SYTO 13 and 4) flow cytometric analysis. Four major leukocyte populations can be clearly identified in the green fluorescence-side scatter dot plot: lymphocytes and monocytes (LM), polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), mature macrophages (Mphi), and cells with apoptotic features based on chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. The optimal processing temperature was 20 degrees C. Significant differences among samples with similar differential leukocyte counts were found. Storage of milk samples during 2 d at 7 degrees C had no effect on differential leukocyte count. Using the new method, differential leukocyte count was performed in low SCC milk samples from cows in early, mid, and late lactation. In accordance with previous studies, PMN and Mphi percentages were lower and LM percentages were higher in early lactation than in the other stages of lactation. The percentage of cells with apoptotic features was higher in early lactation than in mid and late lactation. In conclusion, a rapid, simple, accurate, and reproducible standard procedure was developed to determine the differential leukocyte count (Mphi, PMN, LM, and cells with apoptotic features) of bovine low SCC milk. PMID:12703619

Dosogne, H; Vangroenweghe, F; Mehrzad, J; Massart-Leën, A M; Burvenich, C

2003-03-01

105

Counting strings, wound and bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound states.

Ashok, Sujay K.; Nampuri, Suresh; Troost, Jan

2013-04-01

106

Photon Counting - One More Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

Stanton, Richard H.

2012-05-01

107

Counting statistics in multistable systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a microscopic model for stochastic transport through a single quantum dot that is modified by the Coulomb interaction of environmental (weakly coupled) quantum dots, we derive generic properties of the full counting statistics for multistable Markovian transport systems. We study the temporal crossover from multimodal to broad unimodal distributions depending on the initial mixture, the long-term asymptotics and the divergence of the cumulants in the limit of a large number of transport branches. Our findings demonstrate that the counting statistics of a single resonant level may be used to probe background charge configurations.

Schaller, Gernot; Kießlich, Gerold; Brandes, Tobias

2010-05-01

108

Counting Lattice-Gas Invariants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summarized is a method to count the number of invariants in a lattice-gas automata. A simple calculation proves that a deterministic FHP lattice-gas with a definite chirality, possesses only three invariants: the total mass and the two components of momen...

J. Yepez

1993-01-01

109

Flap over Census 2000 Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Friday, Commerce Secretary Don Evans announced that he, not the Census Bureau, would make the final call on whether to adjust the 2000 Census results to include the estimated undercount of just above one percent. This set off a storm of criticism from congressional Democrats who claimed the Bush administration was politicizing the Census count. (Most analysts believe that an adjusted count will lead to re-districtings favoring the Democrat's chances in the next congressional election.) The White House countered that such a decision is mandated to the appointed representatives of the elected President, not to bureaucrats. Former President Clinton had given the final say to the Director of the Census Bureau, ostensibly to de-politicize the process. But with re-districting stakes so high, it is unlikely that either Republicans or Democrats are ready to approach this issue as one of mere statistics. Indeed, the controversy of the last few years over sampling (a process whereby the Census Bureau makes statistical estimates of uncounted households using surveys of counted ones) has already made the issue the subject of two Supreme Court rulings. The acting director of the Census must make his recommendations by the first of March. Secretary Evans will issue a decision and final count by March 5th.

Charbonneau, David D.

2001-01-01

110

KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

111

Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

112

South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

113

Kids Count New Hampshire, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 14 indicators of child well being: (1) children in poverty; (2) fatherless families; (3) maternal education; (4) teen births; (5) births to unmarried mothers; (6) low birth weight births; (7) insurance coverage; (8)…

Terry, Susan Palmer; Hall, Douglas E.

114

Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

115

Carbon fiber counting. [aircraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed for characterizing the number and lengths of carbon fibers accidentally released by the burning of composite portions of civil aircraft structure in a jet fuel fire after an accident. Representative samplings of carbon fibers collected on transparent sticky film were counted from photographic enlargements with a computer aided technique which also provided fiber lengths.

Pride, R. A.

1980-01-01

116

Mathline Activity I -- Borda Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mock-election demonstrating the Borda Electoral Count, a ranking system of elections that is rarely used for governmental elections, but often used to rank in non-governmental settings such as student governments or college sports teams. This activity is especially useful when used in conjunction with other electoral simulations.

2000-01-01

117

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.  

PubMed

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

2011-12-01

118

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts  

PubMed Central

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

2011-01-01

119

Photon-Counting Detector Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different classes of photon-counting detector systems are currently in use and under development, specifically, intensified Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), Microchannel Plates (MCPs) with direct electronic readout systems, and coded-aperture systems employing multiple photo-multiplier tubes. This paper gives an overview of the construction and mode-of-operation of the different detector systems and compares and constrasts their performance characteristics.

J. G. Timothy

1988-01-01

120

Photon-Counting Detector Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different classes of photon-counting detector systems are currently in use and under development, specifically, intensified Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), Microchannel Plates (MCPs) with direct electronic readout systems, and coded-aperture systems employing multiple photo-multiplier tubes. This paper gives an overview of the construction and mode-of-operation of the different detector systems and compares and constrasts their performance characteristics.

Timothy, J. G.

121

Electron counting in quantum dots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use time-resolved charge detection techniques to investigate single-electron tunneling in semiconductor quantum dots. The ability to detect individual charges in real-time makes it possible to count electrons one-by-one as they pass through the structure. The setup can thus be used as a high-precision current meter for measuring ultra-low currents, with resolution several orders of magnitude better than that of

S. Gustavsson; R. Leturcq; M. Studer; I. Shorubalko; T. Ihn; K. Ensslin; D. C. Driscoll; A. C. Gossard

2009-01-01

122

1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, interactive line graphs allowing users to compare indicators from up to eight areas, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. Users can download all of the raw data files for 1999 in a compressed .zip file or they may download raw data files individually as either a MS Excel spreadsheet file (.xls) or a comma-delimited text file (.csv).

123

KIDS COUNT Data Book 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1998 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on ten statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, line graphs comparing indicators from various states, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. The particularly helpful line graph section of the online data book allows users to compare data for a single indicator. Users select a time range and up to eight areas to be included in a customized graph. Overall, this site does an excellent job of synthesizing child-related data from quality data sources.

124

Normalization of lymphocyte count after high ablative dose of I-131 in a patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia and secondary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Case report.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a 70-year-old male patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia who presented subsequently a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with metastases to regional lymph nodes. The patient was treated with surgical thyroidectomy with regional and cervical lymph node excision and radioiodine therapy (I-131). The protocolar control scintigraphy 4 days after the radioactive dose showed I-131 uptake in both axillae and even in the inguinal regions. PET/CT showed faint FDG-F-18 uptake in one lymph node of the left axilla. An ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy of this lymph node identified by I-131 SPECT/CT and FDG-F-18 PET/CT revealed lymphoma cells and was negative for thyroid tissue and thyroglobulin content. The sequential blood counts done routinely after radiation treatment showed a marked fall until return to normal values of leucocytes and lymphocytes (absolute and relative), which were still normal in the last control 19 months after the radioiodine administration. Chest computed tomography showed a decrease in size of axillary and para-aortic lymph nodes. By immunohistochemistry, cells of the lymphoid B lineage decreased from 52% before radioiodine therapy to 5% after the procedure. The authors speculate about a possible sodium iodide symporter expression by the cells of this lymphoma, similar to some other non-thyroid tumors, such as breast cancer cells. PMID:24728254

Thom, Anneliese Rosmarie Gertrud Fischer; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Teles, Verônica Goes; Osawa, Akemi; Santos, Fabio Pires de Souza; Pasqualin, Denise da Cunha; Wagner, Jairo; Yamaga, Lilian Yuri Itaya; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Campos Neto, Guilherme de Carvalho; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão

2014-03-01

125

7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field Operations (DAFO), shall begin counting requests no later than November 30, 2007. FSA shall determine the number of eligible persons...

2009-01-01

126

7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field Operations (DAFO), shall begin counting requests no later than November 30, 2007. FSA shall determine the number of eligible persons...

2010-01-01

127

Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15

128

SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

129

DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

DC Action for Children, 2012

2012-01-01

130

Cyclic reference counting by typed reference fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting strategy is a natural choice for real-time garbage collection, but the cycle collection phase which is required to ensure the correctness for reference counting algorithms can introduce heavy scanning overheads. This degrades the efficiency and inflates the pause time required for garbage collection. In this paper, we present two schemes to improve the efficiency of reference counting algorithms.

J. Morris Chang; Wei-Mei Chen; Paul A. Griffin; Ho-Yuan Cheng

131

Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers  

PubMed Central

Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n?=?3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992–4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. Results All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p?=?0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively), while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all). Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1–2 µm wider venular caliber. Conclusions These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation.

Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

2014-01-01

132

Somatic Cell Counts in Bovine Milk  

PubMed Central

Factors which influence somatic cell counts in bovine milk are reviewed and guidelines for their interpretation are presented. It is suggested that the thresholds of 300 000 and 250 000 cells/mL be used to identify infected quarters and cows respectively. However, it is stressed that somatic cell counts are general indicators of udder health which are subject to the influence of many factors. Therefore the evaluation of several successive counts is preferable to the interpretation of an individual count. Relationships between somatic cell counts and both milk production and milk composition are discussed. Subclinical mastitis reduces milk quality and decreases yield although the relationship between production loss and somatic cell count requires clarification. Finally the availability of somatic cell counting programs in Canada is presented.

Dohoo, I. R.; Meek, A. H.

1982-01-01

133

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

134

2002 Kids Count Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Crafted by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Kids Count Data Book is a yearly publication that illuminates the status of AmericaâÂÂs children by providing data on the "educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all across the U.S. By updating the book annually, viewers can assess the changes that have or have not been made by individual states and the nation at large. The report is divided into sections including graphs and color coded maps; profiles, which provides data on individual states or the nation as a whole; rankings, which contains data on all 50 states ranked according to an indicator; raw data, which allows downloading of the entire data book as "delimited files"; and PDF files, which allows downloading and printing of the data book using Adobe Acrobat. Those wanting a hard copy of the book can order a free copy from the home page.

135

Electron counting in quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use time-resolved charge detection techniques to investigate single-electron tunneling in semiconductor quantum dots. The ability to detect individual charges in real-time makes it possible to count electrons one-by-one as they pass through the structure. The setup can thus be used as a high-precision current meter for measuring ultra-low currents, with resolution several orders of magnitude better than that of conventional current meters. In addition to measuring the average current, the counting procedure also makes it possible to investigate correlations between charge carriers. Electron correlations are conventionally probed in noise measurements, which are technically challenging due to the difficulty to exclude the influence of external noise sources in the experimental setup. Using real-time charge detection techniques, we circumvent the problem by studying the electron correlation directly from the counting statistics of the tunneling electrons. In quantum dots, we find that the strong Coulomb interaction makes electrons try to avoid each other. This leads to electron anti-bunching, giving stronger correlations and reduced noise compared to a current carried by statistically independent electrons. The charge detector is implemented by monitoring changes in conductance in a nearby capacitively coupled quantum point contact. We find that the quantum point contact not only serves as a detector but also causes a back-action onto the measured device. Electron scattering in the quantum point contact leads to emission of microwave radiation. The radiation is found to induce an electronic transition between two quantum dots, similar to the absorption of light in real atoms and molecules. Using a charge detector to probe the electron transitions, we can relate a single-electron tunneling event to the absorption of a single photon. Moreover, since the energy levels of the double quantum dot can be tuned by external gate voltages, we use the device as a frequency-selective single-photon detector operating at microwave energies. The ability to put an on-chip microwave detector close to a quantum conductor opens up the possibility to investigate radiation emitted from mesoscopic structures and gives a deeper understanding of the role of electron-photon interactions in quantum conductors. A central concept of quantum mechanics is the wave-particle duality; matter exhibits both wave- and particle-like properties and cannot be described by either formalism alone. To investigate the wave properties of the electrons, we perform experiments on a structure containing a double quantum dot embedded in the Aharonov-Bohm ring interferometer. Aharonov-Bohm rings are traditionally used to study interference of electron waves traversing different arms of the ring, in a similar way to the double-slit setup used for investigating interference of light waves. In our case, we use the time-resolved charge detection techniques to detect electrons one-by-one as they pass through the interferometer. We find that the individual particles indeed self-interfere and give rise to a strong interference pattern as a function of external magnetic field. The high level of control in the system together with the ability to detect single electrons enables us to make direct observations of non-intuitive fundamental quantum phenomena like single-particle interference or time-energy uncertainty relations.

Gustavsson, S.; Leturcq, R.; Studer, M.; Shorubalko, I.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Driscoll, D. C.; Gossard, A. C.

2009-06-01

136

Full counting statistics of Andreev tunneling.  

PubMed

We employ a single-charge counting technique to measure the full counting statistics of Andreev events in which Cooper pairs are either produced from electrons that are reflected as holes at a superconductor-normal-metal interface or annihilated in the reverse process. The full counting statistics consists of quiet periods with no Andreev processes, interrupted by the tunneling of a single electron that triggers an avalanche of Andreev events giving rise to strongly super-Poissonian distributions. PMID:24484157

Maisi, Ville F; Kambly, Dania; Flindt, Christian; Pekola, Jukka P

2014-01-24

137

Photon counting with an EMCCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make faint flux imaging efficient with an EMCCD, the Clock Induced Charges (CIC) must be reduced to a minimum. Some techniques were proposed to reduce the CIC but until now, neither commercially available CCD controller nor commercial cameras were able to implement them and get satisfying results. CCCP, the CCD Controller for Counting Photons, has been designed with the aim of reducing the CIC generated when an EMCCD is read out. It is optimized for driving EMCCDs at high speed (>= 10MHz), but may be used also for driving conventional CCDs (or the conventional output of an EMCCD) at high, moderate, or low speed. This new controller provides an arbitrary clock generator, yielding a timing resolution of ~20 ps and a voltage resolution of ~2mV of the overlap of the clocks used to drive the EMCCD. The frequency components of the clocks can be precisely controlled, and the inter-clock capacitance effect of the CCD can be nulled to avoid overshoots and undershoots. Using this controller, CIC levels as low as 0.001 - 0.002 ¯e per pixel per frame were measured on a 512×512 CCD97 operating in inverted mode, at an EM gain of ~2000. This is 5 to 10 times less than what is usually seen in commercial EMCCD cameras using the same EMCCD chip.

Daigle, Olivier; Blais-Ouellette, Sébastien

2010-02-01

138

Lamellar body counts: a consensus on protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamellar bodies, concentrically layered “packages” of phospholipid that represent the storage form of surfactant, can be counted in the platelet channel of most electronic cell counters. The lamellar body count has been used for more than a decade and performs as well as traditional phospholipid analysis as an assay for evaluating fetal lung maturity. It is preferable to phospholipid analysis

Mark G Neerhof; James C Dohnal; Edward R Ashwood; In-Sik Lee; Maurizio M Anceschi

2001-01-01

139

LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING WITH GLASS FIBER PAPER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of counting C¹⁴ on cellulose paper was compared ; with that of glass fiber paper. It was observed that cellulose paper is only ; about 60% as efficient as glass fiber paper. Identical amounts of fucose-1-C\\/sup ; 14\\/ were placed on each type of paper and the disks were counted in a nonpolar ; scintillation fluid. The proportionality

K. G. Pinter; J. G. Hamilton; O. N. Miller

1963-01-01

140

Optical Channels: Practical Limits with Photon Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In optical communication, ideal amplification of the received signal leads to a limiting signaling rate of 1 nat per photon. This is much inferior to the optimum limit ofkTjoules\\/nat, which we can theoretically approach by counting photons. Practically, the rates we can attain by photon counting will be limited by how elaborate codes we can instrument rather than by thermal

J. Pierce; J. R. PIERCE

1978-01-01

141

Induced Sputum Cell Counts in Healthy Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced sputum cell counts provide a relatively noninvasive method to evaluate the presence, type, and degree of inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Their interpretation requires a knowledge of normal values from a healthy population. The objective was to examine the total and differential cell counts in induced sputum from a sample of healthy adults. A total of 118

JOSE BELDA; RICHARD LEIGH; KRISHNAN PARAMESWARAN; PAUL M. O'BYRNE; MALCOLM R. SEARS; FREDERICK E. HARGREAVE

2000-01-01

142

Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct

Nipon Theera-Umpon; Paul D. Gader

2000-01-01

143

A Word Count of Modern Arabic Prose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a word count of Arabic prose based on 60 twentieth-century Egyptian books. The text is divided into an alphabetical list and a word frequency list. This word count is intended as an aid in the: (1) writing of primers and the compilation of graded readers, (2) examination of the vocabulary selection of primers and readers…

Landau, Jacob M.

144

2009 KidsCount in Colorado!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

2009-01-01

145

Photon counts from stellar occultation sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

Buglia, James J.

1987-01-01

146

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

147

Lamellar body counts: a consensus on protocol.  

PubMed

Lamellar bodies, concentrically layered "packages" of phospholipid that represent the storage form of surfactant, can be counted in the platelet channel of most electronic cell counters. The lamellar body count has been used for more than a decade and performs as well as traditional phospholipid analysis as an assay for evaluating fetal lung maturity. It is preferable to phospholipid analysis because it is rapid, objective, and inexpensive and can be performed in any hospital laboratory. The current methodologies for specimen preparation vary widely among laboratories, most notably with respect to centrifugation, resulting in differences in maturity cutoffs used. Our goal was to establish a consensus regarding a standardized methodology for the lamellar body count. Institutions that previously had published their results with lamellar body counts were invited to contribute. The consensus of the four participating institutions includes the following: centrifugation is not a necessary step and should be abandoned, maturity is suggested by a count of 50,000/microL or greater, and immaturity is suggested by a count of 15,000/microL or lower. As the lamellar body count gains wider acceptance as a primary assay for assessing fetal lung maturity, the test must be performed uniformly and accurately, given the implications of acting on a falsely negative test resulting from improper methodology. PMID:11165603

Neerhof, M G; Dohnal, J C; Ashwood, E R; Lee, I S; Anceschi, M M

2001-02-01

148

Utility of Serum Neopterin and Serum IL-2 Receptor Levels to Predict Absolute CD4 T Lymphocyte Count in HIV Infected Cases  

PubMed Central

A prospective study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of serum neopterin and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) concentrations in comparison to CD4 count to study the progression of HIV disease and monitor response to ART in HIV cases. One hundred newly diagnosed HIV seropositive subjects were recruited. CD4 counts were determined by FACS system. Serum neopterin and sIL-2R levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay. In our study, levels of neopterin and sIL-2R were significantly higher in subjects with CD4 <200 cells/?L (with S. neopterin levels of >25.1?nmol/L and sIL-2R levels of >47.1?pM as cutoff values for CD4 <200 cells/?L) compared to those in subjects with CD4 >200 cells/?L at baseline which indicate that these markers can be utilized for initiation of ART in HIV cases. The levels of these markers decreased significantly after initiation of ART. In patients with CD4 >200 cells/?L, these markers are helpful in predicting disease progression.

Chadha, Sanjim; Bhalla, Preena; Gautam, Hitender; Chakravarti, Anita; Saini, Sanjeev; Anuradha, S.; Dewan, Richa

2013-01-01

149

B Counting at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

McGregor, Grant Duncan

2008-12-16

150

A two-dimensional photon counting array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional photon counting array in operation at Mount Stromlo is described and its performance discussed. The detector consists of a highly intensified Fairchild SL 62925 charge coupled device (CCD) where the spectral response of the system can be varied by the use of intensifiers which have different cathode types (S-20, S-25) as the first electron-emitting surface. The format of the external memory is 760 x 488 event-centered pixels. Prior frame subtraction is used to achieve counting rates of 5 Hz pixel with 3% coincidence correction. The advantages of photon-counting array systems over analog CCD detectors are discussed.

Stapinski, T. E.; Rodgers, A. W.; Ellis, M. J.

1981-04-01

151

HIV/AIDS - CD4 Count  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - HIV/AIDS - CD4 Count Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This information made possible with support from ... National Library of Medicine For more information on HIV/AIDS see AIDS.gov

152

Photon Counting Imager using CMOS Compatible Photodetectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a CMOS compatible photodetector purposed for a photon counting imager. Several structures have been designed and implemented using standard industrial CMOS technology. First test results are presented in this paper.

Ville Nieminen; Juha Kostamovaara; Anssi Mäkynen

2006-01-01

153

Large Actuator Count MEMS Deformable Mirror Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large-actuator-count deformable mirrors (DM) are essential for high- contrast imaging systems NASA is developing for exoplanet detection. These same mirrors can be used to correct aberrations from atmospheric turbulence for free- space communications and ...

M. A. Helmbrecht

2010-01-01

154

Counting Distinct Elements in a Data Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present three algorithms to count the number of distinct elements in a data stream to within a factor of 1 ± ?. Our algorithms improve upon known algorithms for this problem, and offer a spectrum of time\\/space tradeoffs.

Ziv Bar-yossef; T. S. Jayram; Ravi Kumar; D. Sivakumar; Luca Trevisan

2002-01-01

155

Statistical modelling for falls count data.  

PubMed

Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle. PMID:20159058

Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

2010-03-01

156

Large Volume Scintillation Chamber for Radon Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 450-cc cylindrical Lucite chamber covered internally with ZnS(Ag) and viewed at each end by 5-in. photo-multiplier tubes with summed outputs has been used routinely as a low background (?0.8 counts per min for a new chamber) Rn scintillation counter. The counter is simple to construct and has operated reliably for about two years. The counting efficiency for Rn in

Hobart W. Kraner; Gerald L. Schroeder; Anthony R. Lewis; Robley D. Evans

1964-01-01

157

Counting by 10's with Zero the Hero and Little Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will learn to count to 100 by 10's. The relationship between the numbers 1-10 and 10-100 will be made using the 100's chart followed by a power point story about Little Count the Caterpillar. Students will make their own Little Count the Caterpillar using circle body segments, where each circle represents the numerals 10, 20, 30...

Shannon, Darbianne

2012-07-13

158

Stability of prepared iodine counting standards  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. (Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (US))

1987-05-01

159

Protecting count queries in study design  

PubMed Central

Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems.

Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

2012-01-01

160

White blood cell differential counts in severely leukopenic samples: a comparative analysis of different solutions available in modern laboratory hematology  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) differential counts in severely leukopenic samples by the Hematoflow method and by automated hematology analyzers and compared the results with manual counts. Methods EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples (175 samples) with WBC counts of 40-990/µL were selected. Hematoflow differential counts were performed in duplicates employing flow cytometry using the CytoDiff reagent and analysis software. Differential counts were also performed using the DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter) and XE-2100 (Sysmex) automated hematology analyzers. The sum of the manual counts by a hematology technician and a resident were used as the manual counts. Results The total analysis time and hands-on time required by the Hematoflow method were shorter than those required by manual counting. Hematoflow counts were reproducible, showed a good correlation with automated analyzers, and also showed strong correlation with manual counts (r > 0.8) in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. None of the cases containing less than 4% blasts as analyzed by the Hematoflow method had blasts in the manual counts, but 8 cases of 21 cases (38.1%) with over 4% blasts by Hematoflow had blasts in manual counts. Conclusion Hematoflow counts of severely leukopenic samples were reproducible and showed a good correlation with manual counts in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The Hematoflow method also detected the presence of blasts. Manual slide review is recommended when over 4% blasts are found by Hematoflow.

Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo

2014-01-01

161

Dark count rates in the STIS MAMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dark count rates in the STIS MAMA detectors have been monitored. This report covers the period since the Servicing Mission 4 of May 2009. We find both long-term and short-term variations which for the NUV side we express as a function of date and temperature. The NUV dark rate has declined significantly from its surprisingly high initial rate of 0.014 counts/pixel/s that was seen immediately after SM4. By October, 2012 it had dropped to an average value of about 0.002 counts/pixel/sec The behavior and characteristics of the FUV dark rate remain very similar to that seen in 2004, prior to the STIS side-2 failure and subsequent repair.

Cox, Colin

2013-06-01

162

Full counting statistics of stationary particle beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general theoretical framework for treating particle beams as time-stationary limits of many particle systems. Due to stationarity, the total particle number diverges, and a description in Fock space is no longer possible. Nevertheless, we show that when describing the particle detection via second quantized arrival time observables, such beams exhibit a well-defined ``local'' counting statistics, that is, full counting statistics of all clicks falling into any given finite time interval. We also treat in detail a realization of such a beam via the long time limit of a source creating particles in a fixed initial state from which they then evolve freely. From the mathematical point of view, the beam is described by a quasi-free state which, in the one-particle level, is locally trace class with respect to the operator valued measure describing the time observable; this ensures the existence of a Fredholm determinant defining the characteristic function of the counting statistics.

Kiukas, J.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Werner, R. F.

2013-04-01

163

Standardisation of (210)Pb by ?erenkov counting.  

PubMed

A standard of (210)Pb in solution was produced at the National Physical Laboratory by a novel technique combining ?erenkov counting with the established liquid scintillation efficiency tracing technique known as the CIEMAT/NIST method. Coincidence counting was applied in order to validate the measurements and the activity concentrations of the solution determined with each technique are shown to be in agreement. Radiochemical separation of the (210)Pb from its daughters was also necessary and the scheme for the separation is described. After performing this two-stage standardisation, the uncertainty was successfully lowered to 0.66% (k=1). This uncertainty is approximately a factor of four lower than previously achieved at NPL by the classical method of standardisation of radionuclides, i.e. coincidence counting. PMID:21288729

Arinc, Arzu; Johansson, Lena C; Gilligan, Chris R D; Pearce, Andy K

2011-05-01

164

Dye free automated cell counting and analysis.  

PubMed

We have developed an automated cell counting method that uses images obtained at multiple focal heights to enumerate cells in confluent culture. By taking the derivative of image intensity with respect to focal height using two complementary images, we are able to count high-density monolayers of cells over a large image area. Our method resists errors arising from variability in the focal plane caused by flatness or tilt non-uniformities with a minimal amount of focal plane alignment, allowing the automated collection of images across a large area. PMID:23055412

Dehlinger, Dietrich; Suer, Lynn; Elsheikh, Maher; Peña, José; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman

2013-03-01

165

Utah rig count indicates lively activity  

SciTech Connect

A flurry of drilling applications late last year suggests that a number of operators in Utah look forward to a fairly busy 1984. The Utah Overthrust, and the Uinta and Paradox basins are expected to see continued exploration and development work this year. This article discusses the exploratory and oil drilling activity planned for Utah. The rig count in Utah in early December was about 55, not far below the number of rigs that were drilling in the state in 1981, when the count was in the 60's.

Rountree, R.

1984-01-01

166

Estimating Pedestrian Accident Exposure: Automated Pedestrian Counting Devices Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated methods are commonly used to count motorized vehicles, but are not frequently used to count pedestrians. This is because the automated technologies available to count pedestrians are not very developed, and their effectiveness has not been widely researched. Moreover, most automated methods are used primarily for the purpose of detecting, rather than counting, pedestrians (Dharmaraju et al., 2001; Noyce

Fanping Bu; Ryan Greene-Roesel; Mara Chagas Diogenes; David R Ragland

2007-01-01

167

Approximate Frequency Counts over Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present algorithms for computing frequency counts exceeding a user-specified threshold over data streams. Our algorithms are simple and have provably small memory footprints. Although the output is approximate, the error is guaranteed not to exceed a user-specified parameter. Our algo- rithms can easily be deployed for streams of single- ton items like those found in IP network monitor- ing.

Gurmeet Singh Manku; Rajeev Motwani

2002-01-01

168

Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…

Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

169

A variable length counting Bloom filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new data structure called variable length counting Bloom filter is proposed for membership queries. This data structure uses variable length counters instead of fixed length counters in Bloom filter. Rules for the operations of the filter are defined. The size of the new data structure is analyzed. Both the analysis and the simulation show that it

Lichun Li; Bingqiang Wang; Julong Lan

2010-01-01

170

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

Johnston, Janet M.

171

A box-counting red herring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Box counting is commonly used as a method to determine the multifractal spectrum of measured time series. Here we show that ?-correlated signals, having an (hyper)exponential amplitude distribution, can generate a spurious detection of multifractality. The situation becomes even worse for nonlinearly-filtered, linear autoregressive processes. Care should thus be exerted when claiming the presence of multifractality in measured data.

von Hardenberg, J.; Thieberger, R.; Provenzale, A.

2000-05-01

172

Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching Assistants (Rhea R.…

Education Week, 2007

2007-01-01

173

COUNTING DEAD BIRDS: EXAMINATION OF METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied three methods (line transect, circular quadrat, complete count) for esti- mating density of dead birds, using models of sparrows and meadowlarks placed at a density of 50 birds of each type\\/ha. Line transects with a 500-m search line were used in cultivated pasture and native prairie habitats. The number of birds found by individual searchers in line transects

H. Philibert; G. Wobeser; R. G. Clark

174

Promoting health: making every contact count.  

PubMed

This article describes a new training programme devised and run by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) to assist staff to make every patient contact count. The aim of the training programme is to help nurses become more effective when offering opportunistic health promotion advice as part of their routine work, and avoid generating resistance to change. PMID:24641058

Percival, Jennifer

175

South Carolina Kids Count Report, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines trends in the status of South Carolina children on a state-wide and county basis. The statistical portrait is based on 32 indicators of well-being, grouped into 6 categories: (1) family (family characteristics, child neglect/abuse); (2) economic status (poverty, mean family income); (3) health (prenatal care,…

South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

176

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters address the areas of family and community, economic well-being, child health, safety, and education. The statistical portrait is based on 23 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income; (3)…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

177

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examined statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters addressed the areas of: family and community; economic well-being; child health; safety; and education. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income;…

Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; And Others

178

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters address the areas of family and community, economic well-being, child health, safety, and education. The statistical portrait is based on 20 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income; (3)…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

179

Construction of Exponential Martingales for Counting Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let N(t) be a counting process with continuous compensator A(t) and f(t) a bounded predictabler process. If E(exp(2/f/N(t))) < infinity and E(exp (2(1 + exp/f/)A (t))) < infinity then it is shown that z(+) = exp (-integral from 0 to t (f(u)dN(u)) - integr...

W. A. Rosenkrantz

1985-01-01

180

An Optical Bit-Counting Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the omnipresent problem of counting bits - an operation discussed since the very early stages of the establishing of computer science. The need for a quick bit-counting method acquires a special significance with the proliferation of search engines on the Internet. It arises in several other computer applications. This is especially true in information retrieval in which an array of binary vectors is used to represent a characteristic function (CF) of a set of qualified documents. The number of "I"s in the CF equals the cardinality of the set. The process of repeated evaluations of this cardinality is a pivotal point in choosing a rational strategy for deciding whether to constrain or broaden the search criteria to ensure selection of the desired items. Another need for bit-counting occurs when trying to determine the differences between given files, (images or text), in terms of the Hamming distance. An Exclusive OR operation applied to a pair of files results in a binary vector array of mismatches that must be counted.

Mack, Marilyn; Lapir, Gennadi M.; Berkovich, Simon

2000-01-01

181

Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…

Davey, Lynn

182

Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

183

MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We observed a 4' × 7' field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N), and our data reached J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5?, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J - K > 2.3 is 2.35 ± 0.31 arcmin-2 at K < 22 and 3.54 ± 0.38 arcmin-2 at K < 23, respectively. These values are consistent with those in the GOODS-South and FIRES. Our deep and wide data suggest that the number counts of DRGs turn over at K ˜ 22, and the surface density of the faint DRGs with K > 22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 2 < z < 4 with the relatively old stellar population and/or heavy dust extinction, the number of faint galaxies with a similar red color is relatively small. Different behavior patterns of the number counts of the DRGs and bluer galaxies with 2 < zphot < 4 at K > 22 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of the low-mass galaxies are blue, while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka; Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

2006-12-01

184

Photon-counting-based dust monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the dust monitors are based on optical principle: the scattered light intensity is registered. The classical approach is using the multiple photon optical signal intensity and processing. Single photon detection -- photon counting is exploited in Satellite Laser Ranging and was implemented in space born application for Mars Surveyor Program 98, as well. The main advantage of single

Karel Hamal; Ivan Prochazka; Josef Blazej; Iva Eslerova; Bruno Sopko; Armin Pasta

1999-01-01

185

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…

Johnston, Janet M.

186

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

Johnston, Janet M.

187

Study of autoabsorption for total ? and ? counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RaMsEs Group (Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales) of the IPHC performs research and offers services mainly in the field of radioactivity measurements and sample analysis. This report will describe some of our recent experience using a semiautomatic evaporation system to prepare large area thin deposits for total ? and ? counting and gives experimental and simulated results for the autoabsorption coefficients.

Saettel, M. A.; Sellam, A.; Nourreddine, A.; Pape, A.

2008-06-01

188

Do Important Papers Produce High Citation Counts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In honor of the centennial of the American Astronomical Society, we asked 53 senior astronomers to select what they thought were the most important papers published in the Astronomical Journal or Astrophysical Journal during this century. This selection of important papers gives us the opportunity to determine whether important papers invariably produce high citation counts. We compared those papers with

Helmut A. Abt

2000-01-01

189

Atom counting in expanding ultracold clouds  

SciTech Connect

We study the counting statistics of ultracold bosonic atoms that are released from an optical lattice. We show that the counting probability distribution of the atoms collected at a detector located far away from the optical lattice can be used to characterize the initially trapped states. We consider trapped superfluid and insulating states with different occupation patterns. We analyze how the correlations between the modes that develop during the expansion in the gravitational field appear in the counting distribution and find that the ratio of the detector size with respect to the expanded wave function determines whether short-range or long-range correlations of the initial state are reflected in the counting statistics. We find that detectors which are large compared to the size of the expanded wave function distinguish insulating and superfluid phases irrespective of the occupation pattern. We show that using detectors that are small compared to the size of the expanded wave function, occupation patterns in insulating and supersolid states can be distinguished. Finally, we show how the magnetic phase patterns are dramatically reflected in the number distribution.

Braungardt, Sibylle [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Rodriguez, Mirta [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Passeig Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-10-15

190

Youth Count: The Vermont Youth Report, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines trends in the well-being of Vermont's youth. The report balances at-risk youth data with survey results related to "positive youth development," an approach that promotes beneficial attributes of youth and their communities. Following an introduction and discussion of positive youth development and youth well-being…

Farber, Wendy; Burgess, Beth

191

Radar Meteor Counts: Anomalous Increase during 1963.  

PubMed

Radar meteor counts at Ottawa, Canada, show an increase of up to 50 percent in the hourly rates of short-duration echoes during the middle months of 1963. A similar increase has been observed in the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:17753360

McIntosh, B A; Millman, P M

1964-12-11

192

An optimal algorithm for counting network motifs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network motifs are small connected sub-graphs occurring at significantly higher frequencies in a given graph compared with random graphs of similar degree distribution. Recently, network motifs have attracted attention as a tool to study networks microscopic details. The commonly used algorithm for counting small-scale motifs is the one developed by Milo et al. This algorithm is extremely costly in CPU time and actually cannot work on large networks, consisting of more than 100,000 edges on current CPUs. We here present a new optimal algorithm, based on network decomposition for counting K-size network motifs with constant memory costs and a CPU cost linear with the number of counted motifs. Our algorithm performs better than previous full enumeration algorithms in terms of running time. Moreover, it uses a constant amount of memory. It also outperforms sampling algorithms. Our algorithm permits the counting of three and four motif for large networks that consists of more than 500,000 nodes and 5,000,000 links. For large networks, it performs more than a thousand times faster than current algorithms.

Itzhack, Royi; Mogilevski, Yelena; Louzoun, Yoram

2007-07-01

193

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

194

Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

1991-01-01

195

Let's Count! Learning Numbers in Multiple Ways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video Pre-K teacher Rosemary Kungu demonstrates a variety of activities that develop early number skills, including number recognition, counting and ordering numbers. The activities involve active participation and incorporate multiple senses and learning styles, music, and collaboration. A downloadable transcript of the video (doc) is included along with reflection questions for viewers.

2013-01-01

196

WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;…

Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark

197

Agar Concentration in Counting Clostridium Colonies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decreasing the agar concentration of a counting medium from the usual 1.5% resulted in larger colonies with less interference from gas in Clostridium botulinum 115B and C. sporogenes PA 3679. Optimal agar concentration was 0.65% for C. botulinum with 24-h...

C. Eller L. Rogers E. S. Wynne

1966-01-01

198

KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1997 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general areas of children's well-being: (1) healthy births; (2) children's health; (3) school success; (4) risky behavior; (5) families; and (6) community well-being. Key indicators in these six areas include the…

Galano, Joseph; Nezlek, John B.; Wood, Lisa

199

Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

200

Virginia KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: healthy births, adolescent well-being, health and safety, education, and economic security. Specific indicators examined are: (1) births to single women; (2) early prenatal…

2003

201

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two Kids Count brief reports discuss issues related to the well-being of Rhode Island children. The first report identifies ways to measure the impact of state and federal welfare reform proposals on children who receive benefits through Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Potential measures of success for welfare reform include…

Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.

1996-01-01

202

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

203

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

Cochran, Carole

204

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

205

South Dakota KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) low birth…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

206

KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

Boeke, Kaye

207

Alabama Kids Count 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being for Alabama's children. The statistical portrait is based on 17 indicators in the areas of health, education, safety, and security. The indicators are: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention;…

Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

208

Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Nevada. The report is comprised of eight sections: an overview; Nevada's demographic profile; key facts regarding children in the state; Nevada's comparison to the rest of the United States; trends in the state; indicators of child well-being;…

Ford, Paula R.

209

Illinois Kids Count 2001: Envisioning the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of family, education and child care, arts and recreation, safety, health, and economic security. The indicators are: (1) percent of children living in poverty; (2) number of children enrolled in…

Baker, Brenda; Familia, Yahaira; Gifford, Amy; Knowlton, Gretchen; Matakis, Brian; Olson, Melissa; Owens, Tracy; Zasadny, Julie

210

Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…

Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

211

Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

212

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

213

KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

Staberg, Christine

214

KidsCount in Colorado! 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…

Boeke, Kaye

215

Mesoscopic full counting statistics and exclusion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the distribution of current fluctuations in two simple exclusion models. Although these models are classical, we recover even for small systems such as a simple or a double barrier, the same distibution of current as given by traditional formalisms for quantum mesoscopic conductors. Due to their simplicity, the full counting statistics in exclusion models can be reduced to

Philippe-E. Roche; Bernard Derrida; B. Douçot

2005-01-01

216

Going Online to Make Learning Count  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom--from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards…

Brigham, Cathy; Klein-Collins, Rebecca

2011-01-01

217

Reading Authentic Texts: What Counts as Cognate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements…

Balling, Laura Winther

2013-01-01

218

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

Bentz, Cara Anderson

219

Kansas Kids Count Data Book, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1996 Kids Count data book presents data on 20 indicators of child well-being in Kansas, grouped into 6 areas: economic well-being, physical health and safety, educational achievement, early childhood care and education, emotional well-being, and social behavior and social control. The data are grouped by county for each indicator, by…

Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

220

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…

Cassatt, Susan

221

Incorrect Surgical Counts: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring that patients remain free of unintended retained foreign bodies is a primary responsibility of perioperative nurses and surgical technologists. However, these incidents continue to occur despite hospital policies and AORN recommended practice guidelines for their prevention. To provide insight into how incorrect surgical counts occur, researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of the tasks and challenges faced by perioperative nurses

Aletha Rowlands; Richard Steeves

2010-01-01

222

Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

2010-01-01

223

Marked point processes for crowd counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bayesian marked point process (MPP) model is developed to detect and count people in crowded scenes. The model couples a spatial stochastic process governing number and placement of individuals with a conditional mark process for selecting body shape. We automatically learn the mark (shape) process from training video by estimating a mixture of Bernoulli shape prototypes along with an

Weina Ge; Robert T. Collins

2009-01-01

224

WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what…

Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan

225

Maine Kids Count 1999 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children, with particular focus on child health care access. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in five areas: (1) child health care access; (2) physical and mental health; (3) community and family environment; (4) social and economic…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

226

To count or not to count: the effect of instructions on expecting a break in timing.  

PubMed

When a break is expected during a time interval production, longer intervals are produced as the break occurs later during the interval. This effect of break location was interpreted as a result of distraction related to break expectancy in previous studies. In the present study, the influence of target duration and of instructions about chronometric counting strategies on the break location effect was examined. Using a strategy such as chronometric counting enhances the reliability of temporal processing, typically in terms of reduced variability, and could influence how timing is affected by break expectancy, especially when relatively long target durations are used. In two experiments, results show that time productions lengthened with increasing value of break location at various target durations and that variability was greater in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. More important, the break location effect was stronger in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. We conclude that chronometric counting orients attention toward timing processes, making them less likely to be disrupted by concurrent nontemporal processes. PMID:23269518

Gaudreault, Rémi; Fortin, Claudette

2013-04-01

227

Bacterial Cell Counts in Goat Milk and Their Correlations with Somatic Cell Counts, Percent Fat, and Protein1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representative milk samples at morning and afternoon milking were collected periodically for 5 mo from 32 does in a Prairie View A&M University milking herd to test the concentrations of total bacterial, coliform, and staphylococcus counts and to determine the correlations among the bacterial cell counts, somatic cell counts, percent fat, and percent protein. Bacterial cell counts were assayed by

Y. W. Park; R. D. Humphrey

1986-01-01

228

Reliability Verification of Search Engines' Hit Counts: How to Select a Reliable Hit Count for a Query  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we investigate the trustworthiness of search engines’ hit counts, numbers returned as search result counts.\\u000a Since many studies adopt search engines’ hit counts to estimate the popularity of input queries, the reliability of hit counts\\u000a is indispensable for archiving trustworthy studies. However, hit counts are unreliable because they change, when a user clicks\\u000a the “Search” button more

Takuya Funahashi; Hayato Yamana

2010-01-01

229

Modeling zero-inflated count data when exposure varies: With an application to tumor counts.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with the analysis of zero-inflated count data when time of exposure varies. It proposes a modified zero-inflated count data model where the probability of an extra zero is derived from an underlying duration model with Weibull hazard rate. The new model is compared to the standard Poisson model with logit zero inflation in an application to the effect of treatment with thiotepa on the number of new bladder tumors. PMID:24003010

Baetschmann, Gregori; Winkelmann, Rainer

2013-09-01

230

Effects of sampling strategy, detection probability, and independence of counts on the use of point counts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many factors affect the use of point counts for monitoring bird populations, including sampling strategies, variation in detection rates, and independence of sample points. The most commonly used sampling plans are stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling. Each of these might be most useful for different objectives or field situations. Variation in detection probabilities and lack of independence among sample points can bias estimates and measures of precision. All of these factors should be con-sidered when using point count methods.

Pendleton, G.W.

1995-01-01

231

What Counts in the Immunological Synapse?  

PubMed Central

Molecular interactions at the interface between helper T cells and antigen-presenting B cells govern the ability to produce specific antibodies, which is a central event in protective immunity generated by natural infection or man-made vaccines. In order for a T cell to deliver effective help to a B cell and guide affinity maturation, it needs to provide feedback that is proportional to the amount of antigen the B cell collects with its surface antibody. This review focuses on mechanisms by which T and B cells manage to count the products of antigen capture and encourage B cells with the best receptors to dominate the response and make antibody-producing plasma cells. We discuss what is known about the proportionality of T cells responses to presented antigens and consider the mechanisms that B cells may use to keep count of positive feedback from T cells.

Dustin, Michael L.

2014-01-01

232

How fast can quantum annealers count?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We outline an algorithm for the quantum counting problem using adiabatic quantum computation (AQC). We show that the mechanism of quantum-adiabatic evolution may be utilized toward estimating the number of solutions to a problem, and not only to find them. Using local adiabatic evolution, a process in which the adiabatic procedure is performed at a variable rate, the problem of counting the number of marked items in an unstructured database is solved quadratically faster than the corresponding classical algorithm. The above algorithm provides further evidence for the potentially powerful capabilities of AQC as a paradigm for more efficient problem solving on a quantum computer, and may be used as the basis for solving more sophisticated problems.

Hen, Itay

2014-06-01

233

Time to reset the great count  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have come to a similar conclusion as Emiliani [1994] in one main point: that marking time from the event of Christ's birth has no significance for many of the world's cultures; indeed, the ubiquitous spread of the common era count is a common error [Volk, 1995]. Thus perhaps Agnew [1994], who believes that “Emiliani is the only person who has trouble with our calendar,” should talk to some Buddhists or Muslims. Agnew, however, does damage Emiliani's proposed solution (to start a new great count at the beginning of the Holocene by establishing the birth of Christ at the year 10,000), which Agnew points out is too arbitrary. And, I might add, Emiliani's suggestion continues the essential cultural error—Christ's birth is now merely offset by a power of ten. This was also noted by Schaffer [1994].

Volk, Tyler

234

Method of detecting and counting bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (inventors)

1976-01-01

235

Count Your Lucky Stars: Sampling in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about sampling specifically in astronomy. Learners will make a sampling window in order to estimate the number of stars in the sky visible to the unaided eye. After, they will discuss how to estimate the effect of different variables on their counts, such as sky brightness, dark adaptation, cloud cover, etc. Please note use of a clear night sky is optimal for this activity.

236

Subunit counting in membrane-bound proteins  

PubMed Central

The subunit number and stoichiometry of membrane-bound proteins are difficult to determine without disrupting their membrane environment. Here we describe a single-molecule technique for counting subunits of proteins in live cell membranes by observing bleaching steps of GFP fused to a protein of interest. After testing the method with proteins of known stoichiometry expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we resolved the composition of NMDA receptors composed of NR1 and NR3 subunits.

Ulbrich, Maximilian H; Isacoff, Ehud Y

2009-01-01

237

Bank Branch Location: a Count Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study undertakes an analysis of the association between socio-economic variables and the spatial distribution of bank branches in South Africa. To analyse retail bank branch location, parametric Poisson, negative binomial, Poisson-hurdle, and finite-mixture count models that accommodate unobserved heterogeneity have been estimated with a data set of bank branches in municipalities in South Africa. The key finding is that

Charles Okeahalam

2009-01-01

238

Methods for counting particles in microfluidic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfluidic particle counters are important tools in biomedical diagnostic applications such as flow cytometry analysis.\\u000a Major methods of counting particles in microfluidic devices are reviewed in this paper. The microfluidic resistive pulse sensor\\u000a advances in sensitivity over the traditional Coulter counter by improving signal amplification and noise reduction techniques.\\u000a Nanopore-based methods are used for single DNA molecule analysis and the

Hongpeng Zhang; Chan Hee Chon; Xinxiang Pan; Dongqing Li

2009-01-01

239

Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by background reduction, high detector efficiency, and long counting times. Backgrounds from cosmic-rays, construction materials, and radon are reduced by counting underground, active and passive shielding, (pre-WWII steel) and situation behind a Class 10,000 clean facility. High-detection efficiency is provided by a well detector for small samples and three large HPGe detectors. Sample concentration methods such as ashing or chemical separation are also used. Count times are measured in days. Recently, two SCUREF programs were completed with the University of South Carolina to further enhance UCF detection sensitivity. The first developed an ultra-low background HPGe detector and the second developed an anti-cosmic shield that further reduces the detector background. In this session, we will provide an overview status of the recent improvements made in the UCF and future directions for increasing sensitivity.

Brown, Tim

2006-10-01

240

Duplication count distributions in DNA sequences.  

PubMed

We study quantitative features of complex repetitive DNA in several genomes by studying sequences that are sufficiently long that they are unlikely to have repeated by chance. For each genome we study, we determine the number of identical copies, the "duplication count," of each sequence of length 40, that is of each "40-mer." We say a 40-mer is "repeated" if its duplication count is at least 2. We focus mainly on "complex" 40-mers, those without short internal repetitions. We find that we can classify most of the complex repeated 40-mers into two categories: one category has its copies clustered closely together on one chromosome, the other has its copies distributed widely across multiple chromosomes. For each genome and each of the categories above, we compute N(c), the number of 40-mers that have duplication count c, for each integer c. In each case, we observe a power-law-like decay in N(c) as c increases from 3 to 50 or higher. In particular, we find that N(c) decays much more slowly than would be predicted by evolutionary models where each 40-mer is equally likely to be duplicated. We also analyze an evolutionary model that does reflect the slow decay of N(c). PMID:19256873

Sindi, Suzanne S; Hunt, Brian R; Yorke, James A

2008-12-01

241

Curves, dynamical systems, and weighted point counting  

PubMed Central

Suppose X is a (smooth projective irreducible algebraic) curve over a finite field k. Counting the number of points on X over all finite field extensions of k will not determine the curve uniquely. Actually, a famous theorem of Tate implies that two such curves over k have the same zeta function (i.e., the same number of points over all extensions of k) if and only if their corresponding Jacobians are isogenous. We remedy this situation by showing that if, instead of just the zeta function, all Dirichlet L-series of the two curves are equal via an isomorphism of their Dirichlet character groups, then the curves are isomorphic up to “Frobenius twists”, i.e., up to automorphisms of the ground field. Because L-series count points on a curve in a “weighted” way, we see that weighted point counting determines a curve. In a sense, the result solves the analogue of the isospectrality problem for curves over finite fields (also know as the “arithmetic equivalence problem”): It states that a curve is determined by “spectral” data, namely, eigenvalues of the Frobenius operator of k acting on the cohomology groups of all ?-adic sheaves corresponding to Dirichlet characters. The method of proof is to show that this is equivalent to the respective class field theories of the curves being isomorphic as dynamical systems, in a sense that we make precise.

Cornelissen, Gunther

2013-01-01

242

Full counting statistics for molecular spintronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our recent study on the full counting statistics (FCS) of transport through a molecular quantum dot magnet. Our analysis is theoretical, and its range of validity is restricted here to the incoherent tunneling regime. One of the original points is our Hamiltonian describing a single-level quantum dot, magnetically coupled to an additional local spin, the latter representing the total molecular spin s. We assume that the system is in the strong Coulomb blockade regime, i.e., double occupancy on the dot is forbidden. The master equation approach to FCS is applied to derive a generating function yielding the FCS of charge and current. In the master equation approach, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients appear in the transition probabilities, whereas the derivation of generating function reduces to solving the eigenvalue problem of a modified master equation with counting fields. The latter needs de facto only the eigenstate which collapses smoothly to the zero-eigenvalue stationary state in the limit of vanishing counting fields. Our main discovery is that in our problem with arbitrary spin s, some quartic relations among Clebsch-Gordan coefficients allow us to identify the desired eigenspace without solving the whole problem. Thus the FCS generating function is derived analytically and exactly in the framework of master equation approach. By considering more specific cases, some contour plots of the joint charge-current probability distribution function are obtained numerically.

Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Martin, Thierry

2007-12-01

243

III-nitride photon counting avalanche photodiodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for solar and visible blind III-nitride based photodetectors to effectively compete with the detective performance of PMT there is a need to develop photodetectors that take advantage of low noise avalanche gain. Furthermore, in certain applications, it is desirable to obtain UV photon counting performance. In this paper, we review the characteristics of III-nitride visible-blind avalanche photodetectors (APDs), and present the state-of-the-art results on photon counting based on the Geiger mode operation of GaN APDs. The devices are fabricated on transparent AlN templates specifically for back-illumination in order to enhance hole-initiated multiplication. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance are analyzed under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated in smaller devices. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality visible-blind APDs and Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and solutions to the major problems are described where available. Finally, future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined.

McClintock, Ryan; Pau, Jose L.; Minder, Kathryn; Bayram, Can; Razeghi, Manijeh

2008-01-01

244

Duplication count distributions in DNA sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantitative features of complex repetitive DNA in several genomes by studying sequences that are sufficiently long that they are unlikely to have repeated by chance. For each genome we study, we determine the number of identical copies, the “duplication count,” of each sequence of length 40, that is of each “40-mer.” We say a 40-mer is “repeated” if its duplication count is at least 2. We focus mainly on “complex” 40-mers, those without short internal repetitions. We find that we can classify most of the complex repeated 40-mers into two categories: one category has its copies clustered closely together on one chromosome, the other has its copies distributed widely across multiple chromosomes. For each genome and each of the categories above, we compute N(c) , the number of 40-mers that have duplication count c , for each integer c . In each case, we observe a power-law-like decay in N(c) as c increases from 3 to 50 or higher. In particular, we find that N(c) decays much more slowly than would be predicted by evolutionary models where each 40-mer is equally likely to be duplicated. We also analyze an evolutionary model that does reflect the slow decay of N(c) .

Sindi, Suzanne S.; Hunt, Brian R.; Yorke, James A.

2008-12-01

245

Homeostatic regulation of blood neutrophil counts  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil counts in blood are determined by the differentiation and proliferation of precursor cells in the bone marrow, release of mature neutrophils into the blood, margination in organs like the lung and spleen, and transmigration through the endothelial lining followed by neutrophil apoptosis and uptake by phagocytes. This brief review summarizes how the regulation of neutrophil production by G-CSF is in part controlled by IL-17 and IL-23. Neutrophils are retained in the bone marrow through interaction of CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4. The relevance of this mechanism is illustrated by rare diseases in which disrupting the desensitization of CXCR4 results in neutrophil accumulation in the bone marrow. Although blood neutrophil numbers in inbred mouse strains and individual human subjects are tightly controlled, the large variation of blood neutrophil counts among outbred populations suggests genetic control. One example is benign ethnic neutropenia, which is found in about 5% of African Americans. Reduced and elevated neutrophil counts, even within the normal range, are associated with excess all-cause mortality.

von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Ley, Klaus

2009-01-01

246

Photon counting threshold optimization in mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of detection threshold on the performance of ideal photon counting sensors is investigated in mammography for several X-ray tube anode/filter combinations and various breast thicknesses. Based on linear X-ray system theory, a method is proposed to take into consideration detector contrast modulation in the domain of X-ray energy as well as effects related to scattered radiation. Breast screening procedures are modelled as radiographic tasks in which low-contrast objects (tumours or microcalcifications) have to be detected in a noisy image background. For ideal photon counting detectors, results at zero spatial frequency show that higher detection thresholds must be implemented when imaging a thick compressed breast, compared to a thin compressed breast. In practice, the photon counting threshold also affects the image noise and the spatial resolution of hybrid pixel detectors, by tuning the amount of charge-shared events. To be generalized to more realistic imaging situations, this analysis must be performed over the full range of spatial frequencies and include additional detector noise parameters.

Marchal, Julien; Hussein, Khalid; John, Lester R.; Vaughan, Christopher L.

2006-07-01

247

Enabling photon counting detectors with dynamic attenuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are being investigated as a replacement for conventional x-ray detectors because they promise several advantages, including better dose efficiency, higher resolution and spectral imaging. However, many of these advantages disappear when the x-ray flux incident on the detector is too high. We recently proposed a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator (or beam shaping filter) that can control the flux incident on the detector. This can restrict the operating range of the PCXD to keep the incident count rate below a given limit. We simulated a system with the piecewise-linear attenuator and a PCXD using raw data generated from forward projected DICOM files. We investigated the classic paralyzable and nonparalyzable PCXD as well as a weighted average of the two, with the weights chosen to mimic an existing PCXD (Taguchi et al, Med Phys 2011). The dynamic attenuator has small synergistic benefits with the nonparalyzable detector and large synergistic benefits with the paralyzable detector. Real PCXDs operate somewhere between these models, and the weighted average model still shows large benefits from the dynamic attenuator. We conclude that dynamic attenuators can reduce the count rate performance necessary for adopting PCXDs.

Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

2014-03-01

248

Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing. PMID:20494165

Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

2010-06-01

249

What I Need to Know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Top ] Can I use carbohydrate counting if I am pregnant? You can use carbohydrate counting to help ... diabetesresearch/dm_research.aspx . [ Top ] Pronunciation Guide amputations (AM-pyoo-TAY-shuhns) carbohydrate (KAR-boh-HY-drayt) ...

250

The Audubon Christmas Bird Count: A Valuable Teaching Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explains how he uses the Audubon Christmas Bird Count to teach a laboratory exercise in vertebrate population dynamics. Problems and limitations associated with using these Christmas Counts are also enumerated. Graphs illustrate the material. (MA)

Ferner, John W.

1977-01-01

251

Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms  

SciTech Connect

New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

1981-06-01

252

Ortec: AN34 Experiment 2 - Geiger Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with the Geiger-Mueller counter. This counter is a widely used pulse-counting instrument that uses gas amplification, which makes it remarkably sensitive, but whose simple construction makes it relatively inexpensive. The experiments that are designed to accomplish this purpose deal with the operating plateau of the Geiger tube, half-life determinations, resolving-time corrections, and the basic nuclear considerations involved. This document is part of Ortec's AN34 Publication, a collection of nuclear physics experiments for undergraduate laboratories.

2009-02-06

253

Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of "virtual instruments." These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will describe the rationale for changing to the new technology, give an overview of the hardware and software tools available today and a feedback of the experience gained in the first tests. Associated with the experimental tests, the ESARDA-NDA working group is also performing an intercomparison benchmark exercise on the analysis software for pulse processing.

Bagi, Janos; Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw; Dufour, Jean-Luc; Holzleitner, Ludwig; Huszti, Joseph; Looman, Marc; Marin Ferrer, Montserrat; Lambert, Thierry; Peerani, Paolo; Rackham, Jamie; Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve; Weber, Anne-Laure; Wilson, Mark

2009-09-01

254

1.NBT Start/Stop Counting II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Setup Students should be seated on chairs at their tables or desks. The teacher will give a counting sequence (for example, 20-120) to the students. Ac...

255

Monitoring of interfacial tensions by drop counting  

SciTech Connect

A capillary tube device was shown to provide a rapid means of measuring the interfacial tension between water and Freon-113. The measurement technique is based on counting the number of drops that form when a fixed volume of water passes through the capillary tube into the bulk Freon. The interfacial tension is predicted to be proportional to the number of drops to the negative 2/3 power. Calibration curves were obtained for Freon-water samples containing known concentrations of a surfactant. A standard Gibbs adsorption curve was obtained. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Duerksen, W.K.; Boring, C.P.; McLaughlin, J.F.; Harless, D.P.

1988-11-01

256

Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of {sup 235}U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. We have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, {sup 235 }U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.

1991-01-01

257

Cerenkov Counting Technique for Beta Particles: Advantages and Limitations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cerenkov counting is a useful technique for assaying medium/high energy beta emitters in aqueous solutions. Advantages of the technique include: (1) simple sample preparation; (2) being able to handle large volume of aqueous solution for counting; and (3) absence of chemical quenching. Cerenkov counting is also less expensive than other methods.…

Rengan, K.

1983-01-01

258

Multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10(sup 6) counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained wit...

A. F. Barbosa G. P. Guedes E. Tamura I. M. Pepe N. B. Oliveira

1997-01-01

259

Putting Counting to Work: Preschoolers' Understanding of Cardinal Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool children are often good at counting things but seem slow to learn that there is more to counting than simply finding out how many are in a single set. Counting is useful when comparing sets and when creating new sets to match existing ones. This is part of the numerical understanding that educators wish to foster in schools. In two…

Muldoon, Kevin; Lewis, Charlie; Freeman, Norman H.

2003-01-01

260

Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 °C for 48 h,

Donald J Reasoner

2004-01-01

261

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...

2013-04-01

262

Application of generalized additive models to butterfly transect count data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the use of generalized additive models for describing patterns in butterfly transect counts during the flight period. Models were applied to sets of simulated data and to transect counts from the British Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (BMS) recorded at a large number of sites in the UK. The models successfully described patterns in counts in a range of species

Peter Rothery; David Roy

2001-01-01

263

Knowledge of Counting Principles: How Relevant Is Order Irrelevance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most children who are older than 6 years of age apply essential counting principles when they enumerate a set of objects. Essential principles include (a) one-to-one correspondence between items and count words, (b) stable order of the count words, and (c) cardinality--that the last number refers to numerosity. We found that the acquisition of a…

Kamawar, Deepthi; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Smith-Chant, Brenda; Penner-Wilger, Marcie

2010-01-01

264

ADONIS : a new system for high count rate HPGe ? spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ADONIS (Algorithmic Development framewOrk for Nuclear Instrumentation and Spectrometry) system is a new ? spectrometer which addresses high count rate metrology. It has been developed for count rate up to 106 cps and beyond on HPGe detectors. The ADONIS system has been designed in order to: (1) maximize the (pile-up free) output count rate (OCR), (2) achieve both qualitative

Eric Barat; Thomas Dautremer; L. Laribiere; J. Lefevre; T. Montagu; J.-C. Trama

2006-01-01

265

Differential Counting in Mixed Cultures with Coulter Counters  

PubMed Central

A critical comparison of Coulter, viable, and microscope counts for several mixed cultures of microorganisms has been made. This investigation shows that Coulter counting can provide reliable estimates of microbial numbers in mixed cultures. Precautions and limitations of Coulter counting in mixed cultures are discussed.

Drake, J. F.; Tsuchiya, H. M.

1973-01-01

266

Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.

van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland

2011-12-01

267

B decay charm counting via topological vertexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new and unique measurement of the branching fractions of b hadrons to states with 0, 1, and 2 open charm hadrons, using a sample of 350,000 hadronic Z0 decays collected during the SLD/SLC 97--98 run. The analysis takes advantage of the excellent vertexing resolution of the VXD3, a pixel-based CCD vertex detector, which allows the separation of B and cascade D decay vertices. A fit of the vertex count and the decay length distributions to distribution shapes predicted by Monte Carlo simulation allows the extraction of the inclusive branching fractions. We measure: BRB?0D X=3.7+/-1.1 stat+/-2.1 syst% BRB?2D X=17.9+/-1.4 stat+/-3.3 syst% where B, and D represent mixtures of open b and open c hadrons. The corresponding charm count, Nc = 1.188 +/- 0.010 +/- 0.040 +/- 0.006 is consistent with previous measurement averages but slightly closer to theoretical expectations.

Chou, Aaron Sze-Ting

2002-09-01

268

Martian crater counts on Elysium Mons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Without returned samples from the Martian surface, relative age chronologies and stratigraphic relationships provide the best information for determining the ages of geomorphic features and surface regions. Crater-size frequency distributions of six recently mapped geological units of Elysium Mons were measured to establish their relative ages. Most of the craters on Elysium Mons and the adjacent plains units are between 500 and 1000 meters in diameter. However, only craters 1 km in diameter or larger were used because of inadequate spatial resolution of some of the Viking images and to reduce probability of counting secondary craters. The six geologic units include all of the Elysium Mons construct and a portion of the plains units west of the volcano. The surface area of the units studied is approximately 128,000 sq km. Four of the geologic units were used to create crater distribution curves. There are no craters larger than 1 km within the Elysium Mons caldera. Craters that lacked raised rims, were irregularly shaped, or were arranged in a linear pattern were assumed to be endogenic in origin and not counted. A crater frequency distribution analysis is presented.

Mcbride, Kathleen; Barlow, Nadine G.

1990-01-01

269

Low-Background Counting at Homestake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

Marshall, Iseley

2009-10-01

270

Analysis of Parasite and Other Skewed Counts  

PubMed Central

Objective To review methods for the statistical analysis of parasite and other skewed count data. Methods Statistical methods for skewed count data are described and compared, with reference to those used over a ten year period of Tropical Medicine and International Health. Two parasitological datasets are used for illustration. Results Ninety papers were identified, 89 with descriptive and 60 with inferential analysis. A lack of clarity is noted in identifying measures of location, in particular the Williams and geometric mean. The different measures are compared, emphasizing the legitimacy of the arithmetic mean for skewed data. In the published papers, the t test and related methods were often used on untransformed data, which is likely to be invalid. Several approaches to inferential analysis are described, emphasizing 1) non-parametric methods, while noting that they are not simply comparisons of medians, and 2) generalized linear modelling, in particular with the negative binomial distribution. Additional methods, such as the bootstrap, with potential for greater use are described. Conclusions Clarity is recommended when describing transformations and measures of location. It is suggested that non-parametric methods and generalized linear models are likely to be sufficient for most analyses.

Alexander, Neal

2012-01-01

271

Quality Counts 2002: Building Blocks for Success  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year's Quality Counts report (last mentioned in the January 12, 2001 Scout Report) focuses on the importance of high quality learning experiences for children prior to their K-12 school years. The benefits of offering quality education at this early point can be substantial; children perform with better cognitive skills during later educational stages. Not simply an endorsement of improved standards and programs, the report outlines the current state of affairs with supporting statistics and documentation for each state and the District of Columbia. The report examines tangible issues such as adequate pay for educators, evaluation criteria and measurement tools, and each state's "commitment to Kindergarten." The format of this report is much enhanced from prior publications. An Interactive data search, Excel and .pdf data tables, Web-only testing data (e.g., the table "Grade-by-Grade Testing Policies" is available online only), and inclusion of "new indicators of several school-quality categories" are all new features with the 2002 report. This report, as are all the Quality Counts Reports from Education Week and the Pew Charitable Trusts, is a thoughtful read for anyone concerned with education.

2002-01-01

272

Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1-bit comparator, which digitizes the input referenced to an adjustable threshold value. This results in four independent serial sample streams of binary 1s and 0s, which are ORed together at rates up to 10 GHz. This single serial stream is then deserialized by a factor of 16 to create 16 signal lines at a rate of 622.5 MHz or lower for input to a high-speed digital processor assembly. The new design and corresponding hardware can be employed with a quad-photon counting detector capable of handling photon rates on the order of multi-gigaphotons per second, whereas prior art was only capable of handling a single input at 1/4 the flux rate. Additionally, the hardware edge-detection algorithm has provided the ability to process 3-10 higher photon flux rates than previously possible by removing the limitation that photoncounting detector output pulses on multiple channels being ORed not overlap. Now, only the leading edges of the pulses are required to not overlap. This new photon counting digitizer hardware architecture supports a universal front end for an optical communications receiver operating at data rates from kilobits to over one gigabit per second to meet increased mission data volume requirements.

Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

2010-01-01

273

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15 to 17 years; (2) births to teens 15 to 19 years; (3) low birth weight babies;…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

274

Increasing point-count duration increases standard error  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined data from point counts of varying duration in bottomland forests of west Tennessee and the Mississippi Alluvial Valley to determine if counting interval influenced sampling efficiency. Estimates of standard error increased as point count duration increased both for cumulative number of individuals and species in both locations. Although point counts appear to yield data with standard errors proportional to means, a square root transformation of the data may stabilize the variance. Using long (>10 min) point counts may reduce sample size and increase sampling error, both of which diminish statistical power and thereby the ability to detect meaningful changes in avian populations.

Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.; Hamel, P.B.; Ford, R.P.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Cooper, R.J.

1998-01-01

275

A New Prognostic Score for Elderly Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP: The Prognostic Role of Blood Monocyte and Lymphocyte Counts Is Absent  

PubMed Central

Background Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) have been documented as independent predictors of survival in patients with newly diagnosed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Analysis of the prognostic impact of ALC and AMC in the context of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and other significant variables in elderly population treated in the R-CHOP regime has not been carried out yet. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective study, a cohort of 443 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients with age ?60 was analyzed. All patients were treated with the R-CHOP therapy. An extensive statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors of 3-year overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, only three predictors proved significant: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG), age and bulky disease presence. These predictors were dichotomized (ECOG ?1, age ?70, bulk ?7.5) to create a novel four-level score. This score predicted 3-year OS of 94.0%, 77.4%, 62.7% and 35.4% in the low-, low-intermediate, high-intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively (P<0.001). Further, a three-level score was tested which stratifies the population better (3-year OS: 91.9%, 67.2%, 36.2% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively) but is more difficult to interpret. Both the 3- and 4-level scores were compared to standard scoring systems and, in our population, were shown to be superior in terms of patients risk stratification with respect to 3-year OS prediction. The results were successfully validated on an independent cohort of 162 patients of similar group characteristics. Conclusions The prognostic role of baseline ALC, AMC or their ratio (LMR) was not confirmed in the multivariate context in elderly population with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. The newly proposed age-specific index stratifies the elderly population into risk groups more precisely than the conventional IPI and its existing variants.

Prochazka, Vit; Pytlik, Robert; Janikova, Andrea; Belada, David; Salek, David; Papajik, Tomas; Campr, Vit; Furst, Tomas; Furstova, Jana; Trneny, Marek

2014-01-01

276

What counts and how to count it: physicians' constructions of evidence in a disinvestment context.  

PubMed

Internationally, there is an increasing focus on quality and sustainability measures oriented to reducing inefficiencies in health provision. The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for older women represents a case study in this area. This paper analyses the constructions of evidence brought to bear by ART physicians in the context of deliberative stakeholder engagements (held 2010) around options for restricting public subsidy of ART in Australia. Physicians participated in two deliberative engagements during which they were presented with results of a systematic review of ART effectiveness, as well as ethical and cost analyses. These sessions were part of a broader research program of engagements held with policymakers, community members and consumers. Physicians deliberated around the data presented with a view to formulating an informed contribution to policy. The ensuing discussions were transcribed and subject to discourse analysis. Physicians questioned the evidence presented on the grounds of 'currency', 'proximity', 'selectivity' and 'bias'. We outline physicians' accounts of what should count as evidence informing ART policy, and how this evidence should be counted. These accounts reflect implicit decisions around both the inclusion of evidence (selection) and the status it is accorded (evaluation). Our analysis suggests that participatory policy processes do not represent the simple task of assessing the quality/effectiveness of a given technology against self-evident criteria. Rather, these processes involve the negotiation of different orders of evidence (empirical, contextual and anecdotal), indicating a need for higher-level discussion around 'what counts and how to count it' when making disinvestment decisions. PMID:22963922

Hodgetts, Katherine; Elshaug, Adam G; Hiller, Janet E

2012-12-01

277

Transition Years Count: An Adolescent Profile. KIDS COUNT County Data Book, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book is the ninth to examine trends in the well-being of Kentucky children, focusing on the transition period of adolescence, based on the view that lessons learned and foundations laid in early adolescence directly impact the transition to adulthood. This statistical portrait is based on trends in indicators of well-being in…

Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

278

Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.

Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

1999-01-01

279

Direction Counts: A Comparative Study of Spatially Directional Counting Biases in Cultures with Different Reading Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear…

Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.

2012-01-01

280

Effects of Perceptually Rich Manipulatives on Preschoolers' Counting Performance: Established Knowledge Counts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators often use concrete objects to help children understand mathematics concepts. However, findings on the effectiveness of concrete objects are mixed. The present study examined how two factors--perceptual richness and established knowledge of the objects--combine to influence children's counting performance. In two experiments, preschoolers…

Petersen, Lori A.; McNeil, Nicole M.

2013-01-01

281

White cell count and platelet count associate with histological alcoholic hepatitis in jaundiced harmful drinkers  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with suspected alcoholic hepatitis and a Discriminant Function ?32 underwent liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Of these (n?=?58), 43 had histological features of alcoholic hepatitis and 15 (25%) did not. We aimed to determine the laboratory features that differentiated those patients with a histological diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis from those without, and assess potential clinical utility. Methods Laboratory investigations at presentation for each of the histologically confirmed cases of alcoholic hepatitis (n?=?43) were compared to those without (n?=?15) to determine whether there were differences between the two groups. Univariate analysis was by Mann Whitney U Test and Multivariate analysis was by a stepwise approach. Results White cell count (16.2?±?10.5 v 6.9?±?3.5 (×?109/L); p?=?0.0001) and platelet count (178?±?81 v 98.4?±?43 (×?109/L); p?=?0.0005) were higher in the patients with histological features of alcoholic hepatitis than in those without. The area under the ROC curve for AH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.83 (0.73, 0.94) and 0.81 (0.69, 0.93) for white cell count and platelet count respectively. Conclusions Clinicians cannot accurately differentiate patients with or without alcoholic hepatitis without liver biopsy. This is critically important when deciding on specific therapies such as corticosteroids or when interpreting data from future trials in which biopsy is not mandated. In situations where liver biopsy is unsuitable or unavailable the white cell and platelet counts can be used to determine the likelihood of histological alcoholic hepatitis and guide treatment.

2013-01-01

282

Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

1992-01-01

283

Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2013-08-08

284

On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.

Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Carlsson, Mats; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin

285

Orbiting meteoroid and debris counting experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orbiting Meteoroid and Debris Counting Experiment (OMDC) flew for approximately 90 days in a highly elliptical earth orbit onboard the Clementine Interstage Adapter (ISA) Spacecraft. This experiment obtained data on the impact flux of natural micrometeoroids and it provided limited information on the population of small mass man-made debris as a function of altitude in near earth space. The flight of the OMDC experiment on the ISA spacecraft also demonstrated that the ultra-lightweight, low-power, particle impact detector system that was used is a viable system for flights on future spacecraft to monitor the population of small mass man-made debris particles and to map the cosmic dust environment encountered on interplanetary missions. An overview of the ISA spacecraft mission, the approach to the OMDC experiment, and the data obtained by the experiment are presented.

Kinard, William H.; Armstrong, Dwayne; Crockett, Sharon K.; Jones, James L., Jr.; Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Wortman, J. J.

1995-01-01

286

Radioactive krypton background evaluation using atom counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beta-decay of 85Kr is a significant radioactive background for experiments that use liquified noble gases to search for dark matter and measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux. While there are several proposed methods for reducing Kr levels in these experiments, an independent technique is needed for measuring very low Kr levels. By selectively exciting Kr atoms to a metastable state, capturing them in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and detecting fluorescence from the trapped atoms, individual Kr atoms can be counted with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This approach could be used to ascertain Kr impurity levels in other noble gases, with an estimated sensitivity of 3×10.

McKinsey, D. N.; Orzel, C.

2005-06-01

287

Full counting statistics of crossed Andreev reflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the full transport counting statistics in a three-terminal tunnel device with one superconducting source and two normal-metal or ferromagnet drains. We obtain the transport probability distribution from direct Andreev reflection, crossed Andreev reflection, and electron transfer which reveals how these processes’ statistics are determined by the device conductances. The cross-correlation noise is a result of competing contributions from crossed Andreev reflection and electron transfer, as well as antibunching due to the Pauli exclusion principle. For spin-active tunnel barriers that spin polarize the electron flow, crossed Andreev reflection and electron transfer statistics exhibit different dependencies on the magnetization configuration and can be controlled by relative magnetization directions and voltage bias.

Morten, Jan Petter; Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Belzig, Wolfgang; Brataas, Arne

2008-12-01

288

Number counts and non-Gaussianity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a general procedure for using number counts of any object to constrain the probability distribution of the primordial fluctuations, allowing for generic weak non-Gaussianity. We apply this procedure to use limits on the abundance of primordial black holes and dark matter ultracompact minihalos to characterize the allowed statistics of primordial fluctuations on very small scales. We present constraints on the power spectrum and the amplitude of the skewness for two different families of non-Gaussian distributions, distinguished by the relative importance of higher moments. Although primordial black holes probe the smallest scales, ultracompact minihalos provide significantly stronger constraints on the power spectrum and so are more likely to eventually provide small-scale constraints on non-Gaussianity.

Shandera, Sarah; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Scott, Pat; Galarza, Jhon Yana

2013-11-01

289

Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment  

PubMed Central

Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change.

Williams, R.; Kelly, N.; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A. S.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.-H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.; Brierley, A. S.

2014-01-01

290

Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

2013-08-01

291

Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Methods Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. Results The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P <0.001). The MLCR discriminated best between malaria cases and controls (AUC =?0.691; AUC =?0.741 in non-immune travellers), whereas the NLCR better predicted severe malaria, especially in semi-immune patients (AUC =?0.788). Conclusion Malaria causes typical but non-specific alterations of the differential blood count. The predictive value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity.

2014-01-01

292

Complete blood count parameters for healthy, small-for-gestational-age, full-term newborns.  

PubMed

No previous study has investigated the full range of complete blood count (CBC) parameters in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns. The main aim of this study was to compare CBC and peripheral smear parameters in term, healthy SGA neonates and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) neonates, and to establish CBC reference values for full-term SGA newborns. One hundred thirty-two healthy, term newborns (73 SGA and 59 AGA) were included. On day 1, we obtained 109 samples and on day 7 we obtained 77 samples. A CBC and peripheral smear were analyzed for each sample collected and group data were compared. We observed higher mean values for normoblast count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell (RBC) count in the SGA babies than in the AGA babies on day 1. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration values for the SGA babies were decreased because of the relatively high RBC count and relatively high mean corpuscular volume we observed in this group. Of the SGA newborns, 21.9% had neutropenia and 4.7% had absolute neutrophil counts lower than 1500/microl on day 1. On both day 1 and day 7, the SGA newborns had higher mean absolute metamyelocyte counts and higher mean I : T (immature : total neutrophil ratio) values than the AGA group. The SGA babies had a lower mean absolute lymphocyte count on day 7 than the AGA group. We detected thrombocytopenia in almost one-third of the 64 SGA newborns tested on day 1. In summary, our study clearly demonstrates that CBC parameters for healthy, full-term, SGA newborns are different from those of healthy, term AGA newborns. This is the first study that has documented different mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, metamyelocyte counts, lymphocyte counts, and I : T in SGA babies compared with AGA babies. PMID:16630213

Ozyürek, E; Cetinta?, S; Ceylan, T; O?ü?, E; Haberal, A; Gürakan, B; Ozbek, N

2006-04-01

293

[Standardization of regional cerebral count corrected by equilibrium blood count with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT].  

PubMed

To standardize the regional cerebral count with 99mTc-HMPAO, equilibrium blood count of which trapping mechanism is the same as the brain was used in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease. We injected 99mTc-HMPAO 740 MBq in 10-15 sec and got sequential arterial sampling in patients who were undertaken with PET. Four hours later 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT was taken and a venous sampling was drawn for determining the equilibrium blood count. Correlation between the area of arterial time activity curve and equilibrium venous blood count was 0.93. After 44 regions (36 in cortical area, 8 in deep area) with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT were placed, SPECT counts were corrected by standardization of equilibrium venous blood count. The correlation between rCBF determined from C15O2 PET and corrected SPECT counts was 0.80 and 0.67, cortical area and deep area, respectively. We concluded that 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT count can be corrected by equilibrium blood count to standardize the regional cerebral counts. PMID:7967196

Tanaka, R; Hayashida, K; Hirose, Y; Ishida, Y; Miyashita, K; Kaminaga, T; Nishimura, T

1994-09-01

294

Dead-time effects in pulse-counting Digicon detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope's High Resolution Spectrograph employs two pulse-counting Digicon detectors to record UV spectra. At higher measured count rates, the intervals between photon arrivals become comparable to the response time of the electronics, so that not every pulse will be counted; this 'paired pulse' effect causes departures from linearity and must be corrected for during raw data reduction. Attention is given to two analytic equations that quantify the dead-time losses. The less attenuated spectra are noted to be severely distorted by these losses; a comparison with the undistorted low count rate data allows a detailed analysis to be made of the pulse-counting characteristics over five decades of input event rates. The present equations and calibration methods should be applicable to all kinds of multichannel pulse-counting detectors.

Ebbets, Dennis C.; Garner, Harry W.

1986-01-01

295

Statistical mapping of count survey data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We apply a Poisson mixed model to the problem of mapping (or predicting) bird relative abundance from counts collected from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). The model expresses the logarithm of the Poisson mean as a sum of a fixed term (which may depend on habitat variables) and a random effect which accounts for remaining unexplained variation. The random effect is assumed to be spatially correlated, thus providing a more general model than the traditional Poisson regression approach. Consequently, the model is capable of improved prediction when data are autocorrelated. Moreover, formulation of the mapping problem in terms of a statistical model facilitates a wide variety of inference problems which are cumbersome or even impossible using standard methods of mapping. For example, assessment of prediction uncertainty, including the formal comparison of predictions at different locations, or through time, using the model-based prediction variance is straightforward under the Poisson model (not so with many nominally model-free methods). Also, ecologists may generally be interested in quantifying the response of a species to particular habitat covariates or other landscape attributes. Proper accounting for the uncertainty in these estimated effects is crucially dependent on specification of a meaningful statistical model. Finally, the model may be used to aid in sampling design, by modifying the existing sampling plan in a manner which minimizes some variance-based criterion. Model fitting under this model is carried out using a simulation technique known as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Application of the model is illustrated using Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) counts from Pennsylvania BBS routes. We produce both a model-based map depicting relative abundance, and the corresponding map of prediction uncertainty. We briefly address the issue of spatial sampling design under this model. Finally, we close with some discussion of mapping in relation to habitat structure. Although our models were fit in the absence of habitat information, the resulting predictions show a strong inverse relation with a map of forest cover in the state, as expected. Consequently, the results suggest that the correlated random effect in the model is broadly representing ecological variation, and that BBS data may be generally useful for studying bird-habitat relationships, even in the presence of observer errors and other widely recognized deficiencies of the BBS.

Royle, J.A.; Link, W. A.; Sauer, J.R.

2002-01-01

296

Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results. The WBC count of the DIFF channel was highly correlated with the WBC count of the microscopic reference method (r ¼ 0.99; WBC analyser ¼ 0.870 ? WBC reference method þ 0.413). In contrast, no agreement existed between WBC counts generated by the WBC\\/BASO channel of the analyser and the reference method (r ¼ 0.52; WBC analyser ¼ 0.008

R. de Jonge; R. Brouwer; M. Smit; R. J. E. M. Dolhain; J. M. W. Hazes; A. W. van Toorenenbergen; J. Lindemans

2003-01-01

297

Local Underdensity Model for Near Infrared Galaxy Counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse bright-end (K = 10 -17) galaxy counts from a number of near infrared galaxy surveys. Observed near infrared galaxy number counts at low magnitudes are inconsistent with a pure no-evolution model. We examine a new, local underdensity model for K band galaxy counts. and find that the data point to a factor of 1.5 - 2.4 deficiency of

L. A. Phillips; E. L. Turner

1997-01-01

298

A new fast analog-to-digital counting converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new fast analog-to-digital (A\\/D) counting converter is proposed. The proposed converter is based on the theory of both the flash and the conventional counting converters. Its conversion speed can be increased from that of the slow conventional A\\/D counting converter up to that of the flash type converter. It is shown that the number of clock

M. M. Al-Ibrahim; S. Bataineh; M. Irshid

1996-01-01

299

Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space  

DOEpatents

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-06-05

300

Factors affecting aerobic colony counts for bottled water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Official Method MFO-15 for aerobic colony counts of bottled waters and ice requires pour plating with plate count agar (PCA) tempered to 40–45°C and incubating 48 h at 35°C. The performance of hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMF), counted by computerized counter after 48 h incubation on various media, was compared against MFO-15 for 31 water samples collected across

L. J Parrington; A. N Sharpe

1998-01-01

301

VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY COUNTING MEASURES RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN THE BODY. DESIGNED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RADIATION, BODY COUNTING ROOMS ARE CONSTRUCTED OF PRE-WORLD WAR II (WWII) STEEL. PRE-WWII STEEL, WHICH HAS NOT BEEN AFFECTED BY NUCLEAR FALLOUT, IS LOWER IS RADIOACTIVITY THAN STEEL CREATED AFTER WWII. (10/25/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

302

Phoswich detectors for simultaneous counting of ?-, ?(?)-rays and neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous counting of ?-, ?(including ?)-rays, fast and thermal neutrons was accomplished by devising phoswich detectors with pulse-shape discrimination. The detectors consisted of ZnS(Ag), anthracene and 6Li-glass (NS8) scintillators: ZnS(Ag)\\/anthracene phoswich for simultaneous ?, ?(?) and fast-neutron counting and ZnS(Ag)\\/anthracene\\/NS8 phoswich for simultaneous ?, ?(?), fast- and thermal-neutron counting. Satisfactory properties of pulse-shape discrimination among the respective radiations are presented

Shigekazu Usuda; Satoshi Sakurai; Kenichiro Yasuda

1997-01-01

303

Is loss-free counting under statistical control?  

PubMed

A new formula for the statistical uncertainty of "loss-free counting" (LFC) is presented. Its validity is demonstrated by comparing with experimental data obtained with a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. Also, computer simulation data of nuclear counting with different types of count loss (pileup rejection, extending and nonextending dead time) are in agreement with the predicted counting uncertainty. The proposed formula for LFC uncertainty is applicable to spectrometers with a classical semi-Gaussian pulse-shaping amplifier as well as with a gated-integrator amplifier. Hence, achieving statistical control seems to be a feasible goal. PMID:10676517

Pommé, S

1999-01-01

304

Counting on co-transcriptional splicing  

PubMed Central

Splicing is the removal of intron sequences from pre-mRNA by the spliceosome. Researchers working in multiple model organisms – notably yeast, insects and mammalian cells – have shown that pre-mRNA can be spliced during the process of transcription (i.e. co-transcriptionally), as well as after transcription termination (i.e. post-transcriptionally). Co-transcriptional splicing does not assume that transcription and splicing machineries are mechanistically coupled, yet it raises this possibility. Early studies were based on a limited number of genes, which were often chosen because of their experimental accessibility. Since 2010, eight studies have used global datasets as counting tools, in order to quantify co-transcriptional intron removal. The consensus view, based on four organisms, is that the majority of splicing events take place co-transcriptionally in most cells and tissues. Here, we discuss the nature of the various global datasets and how bioinformatic analyses were conducted. Considering the broad differences in experimental approach and analysis, the level of agreement on the prevalence of co-transcriptional splicing is remarkable.

2013-01-01

305

The LAMBDA photon-counting pixel detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Medipix3 photon-counting detector chip has a number of novel features that are attractive for synchrotron experiments, such as a high frame rate with zero dead time and high spatial resolution. DESY are developing a large-area Medipix3-based detector array (LAMBDA). A single LAMBDA module consists of 2 by 6 Medipix3 chips on a ceramic carrier board, bonded to either a single large silicon sensor or two smaller high-Z sensors. The readout system fits behind the carrier board to allow module tiling, and uses a large on-board RAM and multiple 10 Gigabit Ethernet links to permit high-speed readout. Currently, the first large silicon modules have been constructed and read out at low speed, and the firmware for highspeed readout is being developed. In addition to these silicon sensors, we are developing a germanium hybrid pixel detector in collaboration with Canberra for higher-energy beamlines. Canberra have produced a set of 256-by-256-pixel planar germanium sensors with 55?m pitch, and these are currently being bonded to Medipix3 readout chips by Fraunhofer IZM (Berlin).

Pennicard, D.; Lange, S.; Smoljanin, S.; Hirsemann, H.; Graafsma, H.; Epple, M.; Zuvic, M.; Lampert, M.-O.; Fritzsch, T.; Rothermund, M.

2013-03-01

306

Advanced Reference Counting Pointers for Better Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program implements reference counting pointers (RCPs) that are lock-free, thread-safe, async-safe, and operational on a multiprocessor computer. RCPs are powerful and convenient means of managing heap memory in C++ software. Most prior RCP programs use locks to ensure thread safety and manage concurrency. The present program was developed in a continuing effort to explore ways of using the C++ programming language to develop safety-critical and mission- critical software. This effort includes exploration of lock-free algorithms because they offer potential to avoid some costly and difficult verification problems. Unlike previously published RCP software, the present program does not use locks (meaning that no thread can block progress on another thread): Instead, this program implements algorithms that exploit capabilities of central-processing- unit hardware so as to avoid locks. Once locks are eliminated, it becomes possible to realize the other attributes mentioned in the first sentence. In addition to the abovementioned attributes, this program offers several advantages over other RCP programs that use locks: It is smaller (and, hence, is faster and uses less memory), it is immune to priority inversion, and there is no way for it to cause a C++ exception.

Reinholtz, William

2007-01-01

307

Counting test facility for the Borexino experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental breakthrough which opened the way to the realization of the Borexino detector was the demonstration of exceptionally low, unprecedented radioactive contaminations in the liquid scintillator, obtained with its pilot prototype Counting Test Facility. Though of limited dimension, with its 4.8 m3 of active liquid core, CTF has however been a key milestone not only for Borexino, but also for the entire field of the ultra-low background searches. Here, we succinctly remind the motivations, which concurred to lay down the project, as well as the specific radiopurity challenge, which guided the design. After the description of the technical elements of the detector, the main outcomes are summarized, both regarding optical and purity scintillator properties, with special emphasis on the exceptional achievements in term of ultra-low traces of radioactive contaminants. The discussion is completed with the description of how CTF was employed for the pre-qualification of the entire inventory of the Borexino scintillator, confirming also in the final phase of its life its essential role for the success of the overall Borexino solar neutrino program.

Ranucci, G.; Meroni, E.

2014-05-01

308

Clinical Efficacy of a West African Sorghum bicolor-Based Traditional Herbal Preparation Jobelyn Shows Increased Hemoglobin and CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV-Positive Patients  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a traditional herbal preparation, Jobelyn,® for its effects on anemia and CD4+ T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus–positive (HIV+) patients in Nigeria. Design: An open-label pilot study involving 10 confirmed (HIV+) patients who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ARVT) was performed, in which the patients consumed Jobelyn for 8 weeks, at a dose of 500?mg twice daily. The pilot study was followed by a controlled trial involving 51 patients, all confirmed HIV+, where the patients with CD4+ T-cell counts below 350 cells/?L were receiving ARVT. The eight patients with baseline CD4+ T-cell counts above 350 cells/?L received Jobelyn. The remaining patients who all received ARVT were randomized to ARVT alone versus ARVT+Jobelyn for 12 weeks. Results: Patients receiving ARVT showed a statistically significant improvement in their CD4+ T-cell counts across the 12-week study period (p<0.01). Patients receiving ARVT+Jobelyn showed a faster improvement, reaching a high level of statistical significance compared to baseline already at 6 weeks (p<0.001), and remained highly significant at 12 weeks (p<0.001). Conclusions: This is the first controlled study conducted to evaluate efficacy of Jobelyn on immune status in HIV+ patients. The data suggest that consumption of Jobelyn contributed to improved hemoglobin levels and increased CD4+ T-cell counts in Nigerian HIV+ patients. Further studies are needed to examine similar effects in other populations, and to elaborate on the underlying mechanisms, specifically, whether the consumption of Jobelyn supported multiple aspects of bone marrow function.

Ayuba, Godwin I.; Jensen, Gitte S.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Okubena, Ademola M.

2014-01-01

309

The influence of technical factors on differential cell count in milk.  

PubMed

Differential cell count of milk is a traditional parameter for the evaluation of udder health. The literature shows great variation in differential cell counts of the milk of healthy mammary glands: macrophages range from 0% to 80%, lymphocytes from 1.5% to 79.5%, polymorphonuclear neutrophils from 3% to 95%, and epithelial cells from 1% to 19%. We conducted three studies to seek explanations for such variation. In the first, we evaluated the impact of polyethylene and glass sampling bottles. The aim of the second study was to compare the results of differential cell counts performed by three different technicians. The third study evaluated two methods of smear preparation. When polyethylene plastic bottles were used, the macrophage population was minimized but lymphocytes remained unaffected. This was shown by an exemplary flow cytometric analysis using four monoclonal antibodies against three lymphocyte surface structures. There were significant differences in the differential cell counts of 40 smears made by three technicians despite identical operating procedures. For the sediment smear, milk was centrifuged once and the sediment spread by eye on a glass slide. For the "coffee grinder" smear method, the sample was subjected to four centrifugations and then placed on a cover glass in order to spread the sediment using centrifugal force. The coffee grinder procedure led to a reduction of lymphocytes and an enrichment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils without affecting the macrophage population. Both methods made it possible to distinguish different udder health classes. It can be concluded that differential cell counts are a useful tool for comparing and monitoring udder health only if: samples are taken in a glass bottle; smears are prepared with the identical technique; and the differential cell counts are performed by a single person. PMID:15909680

Schröder, Anke C; Hamann, Jörn

2005-05-01

310

Counting signal processing and counting level normalization techniques of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors.  

PubMed

A counting signal processing technique of the fiber-optic interferometric sensor is proposed. The technique is capable of counting the numbers of the maximum and minimum of the output interferometric signal in a specific time duration, and it can be used as the basis to distinguish the sensing phase signal. It can also be used as a signal detector on applications such as intrusion detection. All sensors are subject to aging of the optical components and bending loss, and therefore the output signal of each sensor may vary with time. We propose a counting level normalization technique to compensate for these variations and to obtain the correct counting numbers. PMID:17119580

Huang, Shih-Chu; Lin, Hermann

2006-12-10

311

Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation  

SciTech Connect

The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chandrasekaran, V [MIT; Gamarmik, D [MIT; Shah, D [MIT; Sin, J [MIT

2009-01-01

312

Improving global health: counting reasons why.  

PubMed

This paper examines cumulative ethical and self-interested reasons why wealthy developed nations should be motivated to do more to improve health care in developing countries. Egalitarian and human rights reasons why wealthy nations should do more to improve global health are that doing so would (1) promote equality of opportunity (2) improve the situation of the worst-off, (3) promote respect of the human right to have one's most basic needs met, and (4) reduce undeserved inequalities in well-being. Utilitarian reasons for improving global health are that this would (5) promote the greater good of humankind, and (6) achieve enormous benefits while requiring only small sacrifices. Libertarian reasons are that this would (7) amend historical injustices and (8) meet the obligation to amend injustices that developed world countries have contributed to. Self-interested reasons why wealthy nations should do more to improve global health are that doing so would (9) reduce the threat of infectious diseases to developed countries, (10) promote developed countries' economic interests, and (11) promote global security. All of these reasons count, and together they add up to make an overwhelmingly powerful case for change. Those opposed to wealthy government funding of developing world health improvement would most likely appeal, implicitly or explicitly to the idea that coercive taxation for redistributive purposes would violate the right of an individual to keep his hard-earned income. The idea that this reason not to improve global health should outweigh the combination of rights and values embodied in the eleven reasons enumerated above, however is implausibly extreme, morally repugnant and perhaps imprudent. PMID:19143088

Selgelid, Michael J

2008-08-01

313

Pinochle Poker: An Activity for Counting and Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding counting rules is challenging for students; in particular, they struggle with determining when and how to implement combinations, permutations, and the multiplication rule as tools for counting large sets and computing probability. We present an activity--using ideas from the games of poker and pinochle--designed to help students…

Wroughton, Jacqueline; Nolan, Joseph

2012-01-01

314

Starry Nights: The Great World Wide Star Count  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great World Wide Star Count is an international field campaign encouraging participants to go outside, look skyward after dark, count the stars they see in certain constellations, and report what they see online. This Windows to the Universe citizen science event is designed to raise awareness about light pollution and the night sky as well as promote learning in

Dennis Ward; K. Meymaris; S. Henderson; R. Johnson

2008-01-01

315

Children's Numerical Estimation: Flexibility in the Use of Counting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a microcomputer "dart" game, this study of 61 primary school students investigated how children of different ages used counting to make numerical estimates. Results showed developmental differences in accuracy of estimation, fluency in counting and sophistication of self-reported strategy use. (BS)

Newman, Richard S.; Berger, Carl F.

1984-01-01

316

Markov Chain Monte Carlo Analysis of Correlated Count Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the analysis of correlated count data. A class of models is proposed in which the correlation among the counts is represented by correlated latent effects. Special cases of the model are discussed and a tuned and efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to estimate the model under both multivariate normal and multivariate-t assumptions

Siddhartha Chib; Rainer Winkelmann

2001-01-01

317

Some target assay uncertainties for passive neutron coincidence counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides some target assay uncertainties for passive neutron coincidence counting of plutonium metal, oxide, mixed oxide, and scrap and waste. The target values are based in part on past user experience and in part on the estimated results from new coincidence counting techniques that are under development. The paper summarizes assay error sources and the new coincidence techniques,

N. Ensslin; D. G. Langner; H. O. Menlove; M. C. Miller; P. A. Russo

1990-01-01

318

New Jersey Kids Count 2011: The State of Our Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"New Jersey Kids Count 2011" again documents both advances and setbacks in key areas that affect child well-being--poverty, health, child protection, education, including early learning, and adolescent well-being. To better gauge New Jersey's progress in essential areas, a "New Jersey Kids Count Report Card" that identifies trends in 15 key…

Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2011

2011-01-01

319

Design and Experiments of Photon Counting Imaging Test Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photon counting avalanche photodiode (APD) imaging test platform is put up according to the semi-classical theory of photoelectric detection which the classical statistical fluctuation of the light field is combined with the fluctuation of the interaction between light and matter. A mathematical model between APD photon counting frequency's expectation and input gray levels is set up. With changes of

Liju Yin; Qian Chen

2009-01-01

320

Counting and Determining the Viability of Cultured Cells  

PubMed Central

Determining the number of cells in culture is important in standardization of culture conditions and in performing accurate quantitation experiments. A hemacytometer is a thick glass slide with a central area designed as a counting chamber. Cell suspension is applied to a defined area and counted so cell density can be calculated.

Ricardo, Richard; Phelan, Katy

2008-01-01

321

HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

322

Counting method of heterotrophic bacteria based on image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterotrophic bacteria is detected and counted by National Standard Method of China at present, i.e. flat dish numberation, which has the disadvantages of subjectivity, big error and low efficiency because of relying on manual counting. A method of rapid determination of heterotrophic bacteria in industrial cooling water is developed. After converting the original image into a greyscale one, we removed

Hong Men; Yujie Wu; Xiaoying Li; Zhen Kou; Shanrang Yang

2008-01-01

323

Virginia Tech Campaign to Count Gifts Made to Victims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virginia Tech has decided to count gifts to a memorial fund for victims of the April 16 shootings toward its goal of raising $1-billion in a capital campaign. Higher-education fund-raising experts agree that counting the memorial-fund contributions toward the total does not break common donation-reporting guidelines. Many big college fund-raising…

Strout, Erin

2007-01-01

324

An Investigation of the Count Pate Performance of Baseline Restorers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of baseline restorers (stabilizers) at high count rates were investigated. The analyses included both of the basic types of baseline restorers: 1) the non-linear circuit realizations (BLR), and 2) the time-variant stabilizers based on the gated differentiator concept. The advantage of the TVS over the BLR was demonstrated. Two new count rate effects were described. One is the

Neven Karlovac; T. V. Blalock

1975-01-01

325

High counting rate, two-dimensional position sensitive timing RPC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the requirements of the next generation experiments in terms of very good time and position resolution in high counting rate and multiplicity environment, a new architecture of differential, strip structure, symmetric, multi gap timing RPC was developed. The results on efficiency, time resolution, position resolution and performance in high counting rate environment using low resistivity glass electrodes are reported.

Petrovici, M.; Petri?, M.; Simion, V.; Barto?, D.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Constantin, F.; R?dulescu, L.; Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Deppner, I.; Doroud, K.; Herrmann, N.; Linev, S.; Loizeau, P.; Williams, M. C. S.

2012-11-01

326

The Photon Counting Histogram in Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is generally used to obtain information about the number of fluorescent particles in a small volume and the diffusion coefficient from the autocorrelation function of the fluorescence signal. Here we demonstrate that photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis constitutes a novel tool for extracting quantities from fluorescence fluctuation data, i.e., the measured photon counts per molecule and

Yan Chen; Joachim D. Müller; Peter T. C. So; Enrico Gratton

1999-01-01

327

Impala, Aepyceros melampus, platelets: count, morphology, and morphometric observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little published information regarding the platelets of impala (Aepyceros melampus). In this study we determined the platelet counts of 12 healthy adult male impalas and describe the morphology of the platelets. The platelet counts of the animals are high. Although the platelets appear to be extremely small, they have the characteristic ultrastructure of the platelets of the family

L. du Plessis; A. J. Botha; K. Stevens

1997-01-01

328

Cleanroom Design Practices and Their Influence on Particle Counts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will discuss the adverse effects of deficient cleanroom design practices on airborne particle counts and the rather curious correlation of particle count variations with external environmental pressure fluctuations. Data is also presented that demonstrates that APL building 23 cleanrooms ran well below ISO class 7 (FED class 10,000) during New Horizons and STEREO integration.

Hogue, Patrick

2008-01-01

329

Histopathological analysis of apoptotic cell count and its role in oral lichen planus  

PubMed Central

Aim of the Study: To identify and count the number of apoptotic cells in oral lichen planus (OLP) and correlate with the degree of keratinization, thickness of epithelium and thickness of lymphocytic infiltration of OLP. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 40 diagnosed cases of OLP. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to identify and count the number of apoptotic cells. Measurement of other histopathological parameter of OLP such as degree of keratinization, thickness of epithelium and thickness of lymphocytic infiltration was done by using stage micrometer and eyepiece graticule. Statistical analysis was done to understand the correlation between apoptotic cells and histopathological features of OLP. Result: The result showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased, with an increase in thickness of lymphocytic infiltration and degree of keratinization, but there was a decrease in the epithelial thickness. Conclusion: Further immunological and molecular studies are required for a stronger evidence in correlating apoptotic cell and histological parameters of OLP.

Doddawad, Vidya G

2014-01-01

330

Single cell analysis reveals oligoclonality among "low count" monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a pre-clinical hematologic syndrome characterized by small accumulations of CD5+ B lymphocytes. Most MBL share phenotypic characteristics with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). While some MBL progress to CLL, most MBL have apparently limited potential for progression to CLL, particularly those MBL with normal absolute B cell counts (“low count” MBL). Most CLL are monoclonal and it is not known whether MBL are monoclonal or oligoclonal; this is important because it is unclear whether MBL represent indolent CLL or represent a distinct pre-malignant precursor prior to the development of CLL. We used flow cytometry analysis and sorting to determine immunophenotypic characteristics, clonality, and molecular features of MBL from familial CLL kindreds. Single cell analysis indicated 4 of 6 low count MBL consisted of two or more unrelated clones; the other 2 MBL were monoclonal. 87% of low count MBL clones had mutated immunoglobulin genes, and no immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangements of VH family 1 were observed. Some MBL were diversified, clonally related populations with evidence of antigen-drive. We conclude that while low count MBL share many phenotypic characteristics with CLL, many MBL are oligoclonal. This supports a model for step-wise development of MBL into CLL.

Lanasa, Mark C.; Allgood, Sallie D.; Volkheimer, Alicia D.; Gockerman, Jon P.; Whitesides, John F.; Goodman, Barbara K.; Moore, Joseph O.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Levesque, Marc C.

2009-01-01

331

High counting rate resistive-plate chamber  

SciTech Connect

Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast (<1 ns) and have very simple construction: just two parallel metallic plates or mesh electrodes. Depending on the applied voltage they may work either in spark mode or avalanche mode. The advantage of the spark mode of operation is a large signal amplitude from the chamber, the disadvantage is that there is a large dead time (msec) for the entire chamber after an event. The main advantage of the avalanche mode is high rate capability 10{sup 5} counts/mm{sup 2}. A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity ({ge}10{sup 10} {Omega}{center_dot}cm) materials. In practice RPCs are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm{sup 2}, leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm`s law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases.

Peskov, V.; Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

1993-05-01

332

High counting rate resistive-plate chamber  

SciTech Connect

Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast (<1 ns) and have very simple construction: just two parallel metallic plates or mesh electrodes. Depending on the applied voltage they may work either in spark mode or avalanche mode. The advantage of the spark mode of operation is a large signal amplitude from the chamber, the disadvantage is that there is a large dead time (msec) for the entire chamber after an event. The main advantage of the avalanche mode is high rate capability 10[sup 5] counts/mm[sup 2]. A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity ([ge]10[sup 10] [Omega][center dot]cm) materials. In practice RPCs are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm[sup 2], leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases.

Peskov, V.; Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

1993-05-01

333

The relationship between faecal egg counts, worm burden and tissue egg counts in early Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between schistosome faecal egg counts (EPG), total tissue egg counts (TEC) and adult female worm burdens (FW) recorded at post-mortem examination of 30 Friesian calves from three different field trials were analysed. The calves in study 1 (n=14) had been exposed to natural Schistosoma mattheei infections for 2 months, those of study 2 (n=9) for between 4 and

J De Bont; D. J Shaw; J Vercruysse

2002-01-01

334

You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers  

PubMed Central

The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing.

Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H.; Pulvermuller, Friedemann

2012-01-01

335

Correlation between standard plate count and somatic cell count milk quality results for Wisconsin dairy producers.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) monthly reported results for Wisconsin dairy producers. Such a correlation may indicate that Wisconsin producers effectively controlling sanitation and milk temperature (reflected in low SPC) also have implemented good herd health management practices (reflected in low SCC). The SPC and SCC results for all grade A and B dairy producers who submitted results to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, in each month of 2012 were analyzed. Grade A producer SPC results were less dispersed than grade B producer SPC results. Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between SPC and SCC, but the R(2) value was very small (0.02-0.03), suggesting that many other factors, besides SCC, influence SPC. Average SCC (across 12mo) for grade A and B producers decreased with an increase in the number of monthly SPC results (out of 12) that were ?25,000cfu/mL. A chi-squared test of independence showed that the proportion of monthly SCC results >250,000cells/mL varied significantly depending on whether the corresponding SPC result was ?25,000 or >25,000cfu/mL. This significant difference occurred in all months of 2012 for grade A and B producers. The results suggest that a generally consistent level of skill exists across dairy production practices affecting SPC and SCC. PMID:24630657

Borneman, Darand L; Ingham, Steve

2014-05-01

336

Advantages and challenges in automated apatite fission track counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fission track thermochronometer data are often a core element of modern tectonic and denudation studies. Soon after the development of the fission track methods interest emerged for the developed an automated counting procedure to replace the time consuming labor of counting fission tracks under the microscope. Automated track counting became feasible in recent years with increasing improvements in computer software and hardware. One such example used in this study is the commercial automated fission track counting procedure from Autoscan Systems Pty that has been highlighted through several venues. We conducted experiments that are designed to reliably and consistently test the ability of this fully automated counting system to recognize fission tracks in apatite and a muscovite external detector. Fission tracks were analyzed in samples with a step-wise increase in sample complexity. The first set of experiments used a large (mm-size) slice of Durango apatite cut parallel to the prism plane. Second, samples with 80-200 ?m large apatite grains of Fish Canyon Tuff were analyzed. This second sample set is characterized by complexities often found in apatites in different rock types. In addition to the automated counting procedure, the same samples were also analyzed using conventional counting procedures. We found for all samples that the fully automated fission track counting procedure using the Autoscan System yields a larger scatter in the fission track densities measured compared to conventional (manual) track counting. This scatter typically resulted from the false identification of tracks due surface and mineralogical defects, regardless of the image filtering procedure used. Large differences between track densities analyzed with the automated counting persisted between different grains analyzed in one sample as well as between different samples. As a result of these differences a manual correction of the fully automated fission track counts is necessary for each individual surface area and grain counted. This manual correction procedure significantly increases (up to four times) the time required to analyze a sample with the automated counting procedure compared to the conventional approach.

Enkelmann, E.; Ehlers, T. A.

2012-04-01

337

Dark-count-less photon-counting x-ray computed tomography system using a YAP-MPPC detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-sensitive X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for decreasing absorbed dose for patients, and a dark-count-less photon-counting CT system was developed. X-ray photons are detected using a YAP(Ce) [cerium-doped yttrium aluminum perovskite] single crystal scintillator and an MPPC (multipixel photon counter). Photocurrents are amplified by a high-speed current-voltage amplifier, and smooth event pulses from an integrator are sent to a high-speed comparator. Then, logical pulses are produced from the comparator and are counted by a counter card. Tomography is accomplished by repeated linear scans and rotations of an object, and projection curves of the object are obtained by the linear scan. The image contrast of gadolinium medium slightly fell with increase in lower-level voltage (Vl) of the comparator. The dark count rate was 0 cps, and the count rate for the CT was approximately 250 kcps.

Sato, Eiichi; Sato, Yuich; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

2012-10-01

338

The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces the impact of count rate loss with photon-counting detectors.  

PubMed

Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard energy-integrating x-ray detectors, but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a 'hybrid' detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al 2011 Med. Phys. 38 1089-102 ). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping ('bowtie') filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of 2 to 3. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors. PMID:24819415

Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

2014-06-01

339

The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces the impact of count rate loss with photon-counting detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard energy-integrating x-ray detectors, but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a ‘hybrid’ detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al 2011 Med. Phys. 38 1089–102 ). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping (‘bowtie’) filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of 2 to 3. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors.

Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

2014-06-01

340

Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

2010-01-01

341

[Validity of the AgNOR count in cervical pathology].  

PubMed

Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were counted on ten cases each of normal ectocervix, CIN 1, 2 and 3 to verify the possibility of a differentiation between the various grades of CIN and between them and condylomata. Counts were performed on the full thickness of the tissue, layer by layer (stratified counts). A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the means of normal tissue toward condylomata and CIN 2 and 3 and between CIN 1 and CIN 2 and 3. There was no significance (p < 0.05) between normal tissue and CIN 1, between CIN 2 and 3 and between condylomata and CIN 2 and 3. The range of variations on the counts was associated with overlapping between the various cases. Our data showed also a progressive rise in mean NOR values from normal tissue to CIN 3. The stratified counts showed in all the groups a rise from basal to parabasal cells. Counts on parabasal and intermediate layers distinguished two groups of cases. In one there was either the same number of dots or a further rise from one layer to the next, while in the other a definite decrease was seen. The former pattern may be related to a potential for malignant evolution of the lesion. NORs should be counted in all cases of CIN and condylomata to treat more aggressively those lesions which present the pattern of a progressive rise of NORs from basal to intermediate cells. PMID:1465312

Leopardi, O; Colecchia, M; Colavecchio, A

1992-01-01

342

CONTEMPORARY LYMPH NODE COUNTS DURING PRIMARY RETROPERITONEAL LYMPH NODE DISSECTION  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent observations suggest that surgeon volume is associated with lymph node counts during retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). We report our contemporary single-surgeon experience with lymph node counts during primary RPLND for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT). Methods Using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Testis Cancer Database, we identified 124 consecutive patients treated with primary RPLND by a single experienced surgeon for NSGCT between 2004 and 2008. Predictors of positive nodes and number of positive nodes were evaluated with logistic and linear regression models adjusting for year of surgery and clinical stage. Results Positive lymph nodes were observed in 37 (30%) while 87 (70%) patients were pN0. Mean total node count was 51 (SD= 23) during the 5 year study period. Mean node counts for the paracaval, interaortocaval, and paraaortic regions were 8 (SD= 6), 17 (SD= 9), and 26 (SD= 15), respectively. In a multivariate analysis, higher total node count was significantly associated with finding positive nodes (odds ratio 1.02 for each additional node counted; p=0.037) and finding multiple positive nodes (coefficient 0.04 for each additional node counted; p=0.004). Year of surgery (p<0.001) was associated with higher total node counts, while clinical stage and pathologist were not (p>0.5 for each). Conclusion The average total node count for a primary RPLND by an experienced surgeon is approximately 50 nodes with nearly half of the nodes originating in the paraaortic region. These results will be useful when assessing the adequacy of lymph node dissections for testis, renal, and upper tract urothelial malignancies.

Thompson, R. Houston; Carver, Brett S.; Bosl, George J.; Bajorin, Dean; Motzer, Robert; Feldman, Darren; Reuter, Victor E.; Sheinfeld, Joel

2013-01-01

343

Beam test results of high counting rate MRPCs at GSI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usage of electrodes made of semi-conductive glass is an inspiring way of improving the counting rate capability of resistive plate chamber. We developed 6 and 10-gap multi-gap resistive plate chambers (MRPCs) with low resistive silicate glass electrodes (bulk resistivity ˜1010 ?cm) for applications in time-of-flight (TOF) at high counting rates. These two prototypes were tested with secondary irradiation from 2.5 GeV proton beam at GSI. Time resolutions below 90 ps and efficiencies above 90% were obtained at counting rates up to 28 kHz/cm2 for the 10-gap MRPC.

Zhu, Xianglei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Jingbo; Li, Yuanjing; Cheng, Jianping

2010-03-01

344

Performance evaluation and comparison of three counting bloom filter schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Counting Bloom Filter (CBF) is a kind of space-efficient data structure that extends a Bloom filter so as to allow approximate\\u000a multiplicity queries on a dynamic multi-set. This paper evaluates the performance of multiplicity queries of three simple\\u000a CBF schemes-the Naïve Counting Bloom Filter (NCBF), the Space-Code Bloom Filter (SCBF) and the d-left Counting Bloom Filter\\u000a (dlCBF)—using metrics of

Jin Zhang; Jiangxing Wu; Julong Lan; Jianqiang Liu

2009-01-01

345

Counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid collected directly on membrane filters  

PubMed Central

Accurate enumeration of cells in the cerebrospinal fluid is not feasible with the current method of counting cells in the Fuchs Rosenthal or Neubauer chamber when the count is near normal since the volume of fluid examined is too small. A sample of adequate volume to permit such accurate assessment may be collected from the lumbar puncture needle into a syringe through a ruled membrane filter in a Swinney cartridge. A study of 291 samples shows that the upper limit of the normal cerebrospinal fluid count is 2000 cells/ml (2/cmm) and not 5000/ml (5/cmm) as is currently accepted. Images

Burechailo, F.; Cunningham, T. A.

1974-01-01

346

Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.  

PubMed

In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media, incubation temperatures (20 degrees C, 28 degrees C or 35 degrees C), plating methods (pour plate (PP), spread plate and membrane filter) and range of incubation times (24, 48, 72 h and 5-7 days) provide great flexibility in the application of the HPC analysis to drinking water. PMID:15145589

Reasoner, Donald J

2004-05-01

347

Automatic Pedestrian Detection and Counting Applied to Urban Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical knowledge of human flows in the streets is mandatory for urban planning. Today many cities use the expensive method of manual pedestrian counting, since there is no reliable automatic counting device. This project aims at achieving the first efficient, real-time, embedded and autonomous system that provides high-level data. Our first work focused on the development of a reliable counting method under MatlabTM. On the basis of video sequences recorded in the city of Mulhouse we have validated the robustness of our approach.

Michelat, Thomas; Hueber, Nicolas; Raymond, Pierre; Pichler, Alexander; Schaal, Pascal; Dugaret, Bernard

348

Bubble Counts for Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Using Image Analysis  

SciTech Connect

We describe the use of image analysis to count bubbles in 3-D, large-scale, LES [1] and DNS [2] of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We analyze these massive datasets by first converting the 3-D data to 2-D, then counting the bubbles in the 2-D data. Our plots for the bubble count indicate there are four distinct regimes in the process of the mixing of the two fluids. We also show that our results are relatively insensitive to the choice of parameters in our analysis algorithms.

Miller, P L; Gezahegne, A G; Cook, A W; Cabot, W H; Kamath, C

2007-01-24

349

Scheme dependence of instanton counting in ALE spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been two distinct schemes studied in the literature for instanton counting in A p-1 asymptotically locally Euclidean (ALE) spaces. We point out that the two schemes — namely the counting of orbifolded instantons and instanton counting in the resolved space — lead in general to different results for partition functions. We illustrate this observation in the case of {N}=2 U( N) gauge theory with 2 N flavors on the A p-1 ALE space. We propose simple relations between the instanton partition functions given by the two schemes and test them by explicit calculations.

Ito, Yuto; Maruyoshi, Kazunobu; Okuda, Takuya

2013-05-01

350

Hardness Ratio Estimation in Low Counting X-Ray Photometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardness ratios are commonly used in X-ray photometry to roughly indicate spectral properties. They are usually defined as the ratio of counts in two different wave bands. This definition, however, is problematic when the counts are very limited. Here we instead define the hardness ratio using the ?-parameter of Poisson processes and develop an estimation method via Bayesian statistics. Our Monte Carlo simulations show the validity of our method. Based on this new definition we can estimate the hydrogen column density for the photoelectric absorption of X-ray spectra in the case of low counting statistics.

Jin, Y. K.; Zhang, S. N.; Wu, J. F.

2006-12-01

351

A tutorial on count regression and zero-altered count models for longitudinal substance use data.  

PubMed

Critical research questions in the study of addictive behaviors concern how these behaviors change over time: either as the result of intervention or in naturalistic settings. The combination of count outcomes that are often strongly skewed with many zeroes (e.g., days using, number of total drinks, number of drinking consequences) with repeated assessments (e.g., longitudinal follow-up after intervention or daily diary data) present challenges for data analyses. The current article provides a tutorial on methods for analyzing longitudinal substance use data, focusing on Poisson, zero-inflated, and hurdle mixed models, which are types of hierarchical or multilevel models. Two example datasets are used throughout, focusing on drinking-related consequences following an intervention and daily drinking over the past 30 days, respectively. Both datasets as well as R, SAS, Mplus, Stata, and SPSS code showing how to fit the models are available on a supplemental website. PMID:22905895

Atkins, David C; Baldwin, Scott A; Zheng, Cheng; Gallop, Robert J; Neighbors, Clayton

2013-03-01

352

The string landscape: On formulas for counting vacua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive formulas for counting certain classes of vacua in the string/M theory landscape. We do so in the context of the moduli space of M-theory compactifications on singular manifolds with G2 holonomy. Particularly, we count the numbers of gauge theories with different gauge groups but equal numbers of U(1) factors which are dual to each other. The vacua correspond to various symmetry breaking patterns of grand unified theories. Counting these dual vacua is equivalent to counting the number of conjugacy classes of elements of finite order inside Lie groups. We also point out certain cases where the conventional expectation is that symmetry breaking patterns by Wilson lines and Higgs fields are the same, but we show they are in fact different.

Friedmann, Tamar; Stanley, Richard P.

2013-04-01

353

Highly stable high-rate discriminator for nuclear counting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse amplitude discriminator is specially designed for nuclear counting applications. At very high rates, the threshold is stable. The output-pulse width and the dead time change negligibly. The unit incorporates a provision for automatic dead-time correction.

English, J. J.; Howard, R. H.; Rudnick, S. J.

1969-01-01

354

Subitizing and counting in typical and atypical development.  

PubMed

Enumeration performance in standard dot counting paradigms was investigated for different age groups with typical and atypically poor development of arithmetic skills. Experiment 1 showed a high correspondence between response times and saccadic frequencies for four age groups with typical development. Age differences were more marked for the counting than the subitizing range. In Experiment 2 we found a discontinuity between subitizing and counting for dyscalculic children; however, their subitizing slopes were steeper than those of typically developing control groups, indicating a dysfunctional subitizing mechanism. Across both experiments a number of factors could be identified that affect enumeration in the subitizing and the counting range differentially. These differential patterns further support the assumption of two qualitatively different enumeration processes. PMID:22213901

Schleifer, Patrick; Landerl, Karin

2011-03-01

355

Experimental Study for Automatic Colony Counting System Based Onimage Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colony counting in many colony experiments is detected by manual method at present, therefore it is difficult for man to execute the method quickly and accurately .A new automatic colony counting system was developed. Making use of image-processing technology, a study was made on the feasibility of distinguishing objectively white bacterial colonies from clear plates according to the RGB color theory. An optimal chromatic value was obtained based upon a lot of experiments on the distribution of the chromatic value. It has been proved that the method greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of the colony counting and the counting result is not affected by using inoculation, shape or size of the colony. It is revealed that automatic detection of colony quantity using image-processing technology could be an effective way.

Fang, Junlong; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Guoxin

356

High-precision digital ? counting for superallowed ?-decay studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superallowed ?-decay ft values must be measured to high precision in order to test the Electroweak Standard Model and probe new physics beyond it. To establish a more robust ? counting system for high precision half-life measurements, we have developed a new digital ? counting system, which we have now tested on-line. An 8-bit digitizer with 1 GS/s sampling rate was used to record the waveforms from our gas proportional counter, and a software filter applied to discriminate and count genuine decay events. The software filter uses pulse-shape analysis to separate genuine ?-decay events from proportional-counter spurious pulses. The digital counting method and the results obtained from our recent on-line test experiments will be presented in detail. This work demonstrates the first successful application of a high-speed digitizer and off-line digital-signal-processing techniques to high precision nuclear ?-decay lifetime measurements.

Chen, Lixin; Hardy, John C.

2011-10-01

357

Pulse loss and counting statistics with a digital spectrometer  

PubMed

A commercially available digital gamma-ray spectrometer is tested at high count rates using a germanium detector and appropriate pulse processing parameters. Correction for pulse loss due to dead time and pileup is done by extending the live time according to the Gedcke-Hale method. The accuracy of this count-loss correction technique is tested experimentally up to saturation count rates. Also the statistical uncertainty applicable to the total number of counts in arbitrary regions of interest in gamma-ray spectra is studied experimentally, for measurements at fixed real time as well as at fixed live time. The results are similar to those found with traditional spectrometers using analog technology. PMID:10724377

Pomme; Kennedy

2000-03-01

358

29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...

2013-07-01

359

The Method of Recursive Counting: Can one go further?  

SciTech Connect

After a short review of the Method of Recursive Counting we introduce a general algebraic description of recursive lattice building. This provides a rigorous framework for discussion of method`s limitations.

Creutz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Horvath, I. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mendris, R. [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratslava, (Slovakia)

1993-12-01

360

Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates  

DOEpatents

A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

1980-05-23

361

Power Counting Regime of Chiral Extrapolation and Beyond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Finite-range regularized chiral effective field theory is presented in the context of approximation schemes ubiquitous in modern lattice QCD calculations. Using FRR techniques, the power-counting regime (PCR) of chiral perturbation theory can be estimated...

D. B. Leinweber A. W. Thomas R. D. Young

2005-01-01

362

Palm and sole interdigital ridge-count correlations.  

PubMed

Correlations among the twelve palm and sole interdigital ridge-counts were calculated for samples of Europeans of German, Austrian, Finnish and Polish ancestry, for Bantu speaking Black Africans from Angola and the Republic of South Africa, for Japanese and Tibetans and for Indians and Coloureds from the Republic of South Africa. Canonical correlation and factor analyses were used to discern patterning in the correlations. Generally, within palm and within sole correlations are stronger than palm-sole correlations. However, the results show an unequivocal positive relationship between palm and sole ridge-counts. A consistent feature was a stronger relationship of palm c-d counts to sole a-b counts. We suggest that this pattern of correlation may reflect early morphogenetic pattern formation prior to commitment of cells to hands and feet. PMID:2077775

Brehme, H; Jantz, R L

1990-01-01

363

An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented and their differences discussed. Within the estimated uncertainties, the two methodologies agree. This shows the potential for a fully automated annual layer counting method to be operational for data sections where the annual layering is unknown.

Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

2012-04-01

364

Rapid quantitation of DNA spot hybridization by flatbed scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

The flatbed scintillation counting system (Betaplate) was used for quantitative measurement of the radioactive hybridization signal in detection of adenovirus and papillomavirus DNA in clinical specimens. In this method, 96 samples on a nylon membrane can be handled as a single entity throughout the hybridization and counting procedure. The technique is sensitive, rapid, and convenient in routine use when compared with conventionally applied methods for the numerical analysis of hybridization results. The assay principle allows simultaneous testing of large numbers of specimens.

Hyypiae, T.A.; Auvinen, E.; Kovanen, S.; Stahlberg, T.H. (Univ. of Turku (Finland))

1990-01-01

365

Counting system for field determination of radium-226 in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A counting system has been developed to determine the Radium-226 content of soils in core barrel samplers either on or near uranium mill tailings piles. More than 3000 samples have been counted to determine the Ra-226 activity of tailings and of soils beneath the tailings. Minimum detectable activity is about two pCi Ra-226\\/gm of soil in a 0.5 mr\\/hr background

D. M. Minnema; H. L. Rarrick; L. W. Brewer

1982-01-01

366

Count rate performance of a microchannel plate photomultiplier  

SciTech Connect

The count rate dependent gain change of a microchannel plate photomultiplier has been measured. Gain changes of 60% have been observed for count rates in excess of 2 x 10/sup 5/ s/sup -1/. The microchannel plate photomultiplier was used as a multiplying element of a scintillation detector system using NaI(Tl) as the scintillator. Data are compared to a simplified model of this form of photomultiplier.

Nieschmidt, E.B.; Lawrence, R.S.; Gentillon, C.D.; Vegors, S.H. Jr.

1981-01-01

367

Improving Linear Cryptanalysis of LOKI91 by Probabilistic Counting Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We improve linear cryptanalysis by introducing a technique of probabilistic counting into the maximum likelihood stage.\\u000a \\u000a In the original linear cryptanalysis based on maximum likelihood method with deterministic counting, the number of effective\\u000a key and text bits is a multiple of the number of bit involved in the input to some S-box. Then, when larger S-boxes are used,\\u000a 2R-method and

Kouichi Sakurai; Souichi Furuya

1997-01-01

368

False-positive Ascaris suum egg counts in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

False-positive Ascaris suum egg counts in pig faeces are frequently observed under both experimental and natural conditions. Data from 12 experiments with A. suum infections in pigs were summarized and showed that the percentage of false-positive faecal samples ranged from 4 to 36%. False-positive egg count values varied greatly between pigs and experiments (range 20–1060 eggs per gram faeces). Indoor

Jaap Boes; Peter Nansen; Lani S. Stephenson

1997-01-01

369

Characterization of a new computer-ready photon counting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photon-counting system seems to be the best solution for extremely low optical power measurements. The Hamamatsu HC135 photon counting module has a built-in high-voltage power supply amplifier, discriminator, micro-controller with an RS232 serial output. It requires only a +5V supply voltage and an IBM PC or compatible computer to run. The system is supplied with an application software. This talk is about the testing of the device.

Andor, Gyorgy

1998-08-01

370

Measuring What Counts: A Conceptual Guide for Mathematics Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To achieve national goals for education, we must measure the things that really count. Measuring What Counts establishes crucial research-based connections between standards and assessment. Arguing for a better balance between educational and measurement concerns in the development and use of mathematics assessment, this book sets forth three principles--related to content, learning, and equity--that can form the basis for new assessments that support emerging national standards in mathematics education.

Mathematical Sciences Education Board, National R.

1993-01-01

371

ROAD TRANSECT COUNTS FOR RAPTORS: HOW RELIABLE ARE THEY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biases in roadside counts of randomly placed three-dimensional models of perched Red- tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperil), and Sharp-shinned Hawks (A. striatus) were investigated. Counts were performed by seven, two-person survey teams in five vegetation types in September 1983 and March 1984 at Dulles International Airport in Fairfax and Loudoun counties, Virginia. Larger models were consistently seen

BRIAN A. MILLSAP; MAURICE N. LEFRANC

372

Evaluation of counting methods for oceanic radium-228  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of open ocean 228Ra is difficult, typically requiring at least 200 L of seawater. The burden of collecting and processing these large-volume samples severely limits the widespread use of this promising tracer. To use smaller-volume samples, a more sensitive means of analysis is required. To seek out new and improved counting method(s), conventional 228Ra counting methods have been compared

James C. Orr

1988-01-01

373

Evaluation of counting methods for oceanic radium-228  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of open ocean ²²⁸Ra is difficult, typically requiring at least 200 L of seawater. The burden of collecting and processing these large-volume samples severely limits the widespread use of this promising tracer. To use smaller-volume samples, a more sensitive means of analysis is required. To seek out new and improved counting method(s), conventional ²²⁸Ra counting methods have been compared

James C. Orr

1988-01-01

374

Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

2011-01-01

375

Standardisation of ??Cu using a software coincidence counting system.  

PubMed

The activity of the radionuclide (64)Cu was determined by the efficiency extrapolation method applied to 4?(PC)-? coincidence counting. The standardisation was performed by software coincidence counting-a digital method for primary activity measurement that simplifies the setting of optimal coincidence parameters. The ?-ray-energy window, characterised by identical gamma detection efficiency related to the sum of EC and to the sum of beta decay branches, was found. This setting ensured a linear and zero slope extrapolation curve. PMID:24332340

Havelka, Miroslav; Sochorová, Jana

2014-05-01

376

Avalanche photodiode photon counting receivers for space-borne lidars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; (2) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; and (3) APD's in analog mode when the received optical signal is extremely weak. Non-breakdown APD photon counters were shown experimentally to achieve an effective photon counting quantum efficiency of 5.0 percent at lambda = 820 nm with a dead time of 15 ns and a dark count rate of 7000/s which agreed with the theoretically predicted values. The interarrival times of the counts followed an exponential distribution and the counting statistics appeared to follow a Poisson distribution with no after pulsing. It is predicted that the effective photon counting quantum efficiency can be improved to 18.7 percent at lambda = 820 nm and 1.46 percent at lambda = 1060 nm with a dead time of a few nanoseconds by using more advanced commercially available electronic components.

Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

1991-01-01

377

Calculating concentration of inhaled radiolabeled particles from external gamma counting: External counting efficiency and attenuation coefficient of thorax  

SciTech Connect

We determined the overall external counting efficiency of radiolabeled particles deposited in the sheep lung. This efficiency permits the noninvasive calculation of the number of particles and microcuries from gamma-scintillation lung images of the live sheep. Additionally, we have calculated the attenuation of gamma radiation (120 keV) by the posterior chest wall and the gamma-scintillation camera collection efficiency of radiation emitted from the lung. Four methods were employed in our experiments: (1) by light microscopic counting of discrete carbonized polystyrene particles with a count median diameter (CMD) of 2.85 microns and tagged with cobalt-57, we delineated a linear relationship between the number of particles and the emitted counts per minute (cpm) detected by well scintillation counting; (2) from this conversion relationship we determined the number of particles inhaled and deposited in the lungs by scintillation counting fragments of dissected lung at autopsy; (3) we defined a linear association between the number of particles or microcuries contained in the lung and the emitted radiation as cpm detected by a gamma scintillation camera in the live sheep prior to autopsy; and (4) we compared the emitted radiation from the lungs of the live sheep to that of whole excised lungs in order to calculate the attenuation coefficient (ac) of the chest wall. The mean external counting efficiency was 4.00 X 10(4) particles/cpm (5.1 X 10(-3) microCi/cpm), the camera collection efficiency was 1 cpm/10(4) disintegrations per minute (dpm), and the ac had a mean of 0.178/cm. The external counting efficiency remained relatively constant over a range of particles and microcuries, permitting a more general use of this ratio to estimate number of particles or microcuries depositing after inhalation in a large mammalian lung if a similarly collimated gamma camera system is used.

Langenback, E.G.; Foster, W.M.; Bergofsky, E.H.

1989-01-01

378

Determination of confidence limits for experiments with low numbers of counts. [Poisson-distributed photon counts from astrophysical sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different methods, classical and Bayesian, for determining confidence intervals involving Poisson-distributed data are compared. Particular consideration is given to cases where the number of counts observed is small and is comparable to the mean number of background counts. Reasons for preferring the Bayesian over the classical method are given. Tables of confidence limits calculated by the Bayesian method are provided for quick reference.

Kraft, Ralph P.; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.

1991-01-01

379

A microfluidic device for practical label-free CD4+ T cell counting of HIV-infected subjects  

PubMed Central

Practical HIV diagnostics are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. While HIV infection can be diagnosed using simple, rapid, lateral flow immunoassays, HIV disease staging and treatment monitoring require accurate counting of a particular white blood cell subset, the CD4+ T lymphocyte. To address the limitations of current expensive, technically demanding and/or time-consuming approaches, we have developed a simple CD4 counting microfluidic device. This device uses cell affinity chromatography operated under differential shear flow to specifically isolate CD4+ T lymphocytes with high efficiency directly from 10 microlitres of unprocessed, unlabeled whole blood. CD4 counts are obtained under an optical microscope in a rapid, simple and label-free fashion. CD4 counts determined in our device matched measurements by conventional flow cytometry among HIV-positive subjects over a wide range of absolute CD4 counts (R2 = 0.93). This CD4 counting microdevice can be used for simple, rapid and affordable CD4 counting in point-of-care and resource-limited settings.

Cheng, Xuanhong; Irimia, Daniel; Dixon, Meredith; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Demirci, Utkan; Zamir, Lee; Tompkins, Ronald G.

2013-01-01

380

Statistical treatment of photon/electron counting: extending the linear dynamic range from the dark count rate to saturation.  

PubMed

An experimentally simple photon counting method is demonstrated providing 7 orders of magnitude in linear dynamic range (LDR) for a single photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector. In conventional photon/electron counting methods, the linear range is dictated by the agreement between the binomially distributed measurement of counted events and the underlying Poisson distribution of photons/electrons. By explicitly considering the log-normal probability distribution in voltage transients as a function of the number of photons present and the Poisson distribution of photons, observed counts for a given threshold can be related to the mean number of photons well beyond the conventional limit. Analytical expressions are derived relating counts and photons that extend the linear range to an average of ?11 photons arriving simultaneously with a single threshold. These expressions can be evaluated numerically for multiple thresholds extending the linear range to the saturation point of the PMT. The peak voltage distributions are experimentally shown to follow a Poisson weighted sum of log-normal distributions that can all be derived from the single photoelectron voltage peak-height distribution. The LDR that results from this method is compared to conventional single photon counting (SPC) and to signal averaging by analog to digital conversion (ADC). PMID:21114249

Kissick, David J; Muir, Ryan D; Simpson, Garth J

2010-12-15

381

Evaluation of plasma eosinophil count and mean platelet volume in patients with coronary slow flow  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of coronary slow flow has not been clearly defined, although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis, have been reported. It is known that eosinophils play an important role in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombosis. We aimed to compare the eosinophil counts of coronary slow flow patients versus healthy controls. METHODS: This study included 50 coronary slow flow patients (19 males, mean age 65.6±13.7 years) and 30 healthy controls (10 males, mean age 57.86±11.6 years). These participants were evaluated using concurrent routine biochemical tests as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts and mean platelet volume (MPV), which were obtained from the whole blood count. These parameters were compared between groups. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. The coronary slow flow patients had a higher mean platelet volume and eosinophil count than the control group (8.38±0.86 vs 6.28±1.6 fL and 0.31±0.42 vs 0.09±0.05; p<0.001 and 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a relationship between eosinophil count and MPV in patients with coronary slow flow.

Demir, Mehmet; Cosar, Selvi; Melek, Mehmet

2014-01-01

382

Components of the Complete Blood Count as Risk Predictors for Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete blood count, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete blood count with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research.

Madjid, Mohammad; Fatemi, Omid

2013-01-01

383

Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria in Potable Water: Monitoring Methods and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The heterotrophic plate count (HPC), formerly known as the standard plate count, is a useful tool for enumerating bacteria in potable water. The document briefly reviews the development of the heterotrophic bacterial plate count for use in water quality m...

D. J. Reasoner

1989-01-01

384

Evaluation of an automatic platelet counting system utilizing whole blood  

PubMed Central

Technicon's newly developed platelet AutoCounter utilizes an electro-optical system which detects and counts particles by sensing the scattering of light which occurs when blood cells flow through the illuminated sensing chamber of a micro-optical system. The system utilizes whole blood collected into EDTA. Blood samples, which can be handled at the rate of 40 per hour, are diluted with 2M urea which in addition causes lysis of the erythrocytes. The haemolysate thus obtained is delivered to the particle counter after a two-minute reaction time, the cell count finally being displayed on a continuous chart recorder. An evaluation of this machine has been carried out in the Department of Haematology, the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, on hospital specimens from patients suffering from a wide variety of diseases. The results of this evaluation are presented. Reproducibility studies indicate a coefficient of variation of 4% at any platelet level. The percentage drift per sample ranges from +0·4 to ?0·4% of the total count. Carry-over and departures from linearity are statistically significant; however, the magnitude of these deviations is not sufficient to cause concern in routine use. Acceptable agreement is noted between machine counts and the counts obtained by technicians using phase-contrast microscopy with the exception of two anomalous individuals. Discrepant counts were noted in patients with elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and also in patients with disturbance of immunoglobulins. A modification to the sampling probe which eliminates the former problem is described. The AutoCounter described in this paper provides a fast, reliable, and accurate service laboratory platelet counting system. Images

Rowan, R. M.; Allan, W.; Prescott, R. J.

1972-01-01

385

Interaural Comparison of Spiral Ganglion Cell Counts in Profound Deafness  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study is designed to measure the degree to which spiral ganglion cell (SGC) survival in the left and right ears is similar in profoundly hearing-impaired human patients with symmetric (right/left) etiology and sensitivity. This is of interest because a small difference between ears would imply that one ear could be used as a control ear in temporal bone studies evaluating the impact on SGC survival of a medical intervention in the other ear. Materials and Methods Forty-two temporal bones from 21 individuals with bilaterally symmetric profound hearing impairment were studied. Both ears in each individual were impaired by the same etiology. Rosenthal’s canal was reconstructed in two dimensions and segmental and total SGCs were counted. Correlation analysis and t-tests were used to compare segmental and total counts of left and right ears. Statistical power calculations illustrate how the results can be used to estimate the effect size (right/left difference in SGC count) that can be reliably identified as a function of sample size. Results Left counts (segmental and total) were significantly correlated with those in the right ears (p<0.01) and the coefficients of determination for segments 1 to 4 and total count were respectively 0.64, 0.91, 0.93, 0.91 and 0.98. The hypothesis that mean segmental and total counts of right and left are the same could not be rejected by paired t-test. Conclusion The variance in the between-ear difference across the temporal bones studied indicates that useful effect sizes can be reliably identified using subject numbers that are practical for temporal bone studies. For instance, there is 95% likelihood that an interaural difference in SGC count of approximately 1000 cells associated with a treatment/manipulation of one ear will be reliably detected in a bilaterally-symmetric profound hearing loss population of temporal bones from approximately 10 subjects.

Seyyedi, Mohammad; Eddington, Donald K; Nadol, Joseph B

2011-01-01

386

Computer simulation of particle overlap in fiber count samples.  

PubMed

Fibrous aerosols are of great importance to industrial hygienists because of the severe health risks that may be associated with inhaling such particles. Previous studies on measurement error due to overloading of fibers and nonfibrous particles on the collected sample indicate that a 100-1300 fiber/mm2 filter area is the best filter loading density to reduce bias in fiber counts. The present study investigated the upper fiber and particle concentration limits for reliable counting and identification and the possibility of a procedure for correcting observed fiber counts to account for fiber masking due to overlapping particles or fibers. A computer-generated grid was used to simulate the light microscope graticule field. The resolution of 2000 x 2000 was found to accurately represent the shape of the fibers and nonfibrous particles. Bivariate lognormal distributions were used to describe the length and width distributions of the fibers. The capability of distinguishing particle-overlapped fibers (defined as the resolution index), the coverage of the graticule field, the filter surface loading density, size distributions of fibers and particles, and the fiber-to-particle concentration ratio were the primary parameters in this study. The counting efficiency was found to consistently decrease with increasing filter surface loading density and decreasing resolution index. The recommended upper limit of filter surface fiber density depended not only on the number concentration ratio but also on the filter surface loading densities and size distributions of fibers and particles. The advantage of using a thoracic preseparator on counting efficiency was calculated and found to improve counting efficiency significantly when the count median diameter of nonfibrous particles was close to or larger than the thoracic 50% cutoff point of 10 microm. PMID:11434433

Chen, C C; Yu, T S; Shih, T S; Baron, P

2001-01-01

387

Biomolecular network motif counting and discovery by color coding.  

PubMed

Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of many organisms share global topological features such as degree distribution, k-hop reachability, betweenness and closeness. Yet, some of these networks can differ significantly from the others in terms of local structures: e.g. the number of specific network motifs can vary significantly among PPI networks. Counting the number of network motifs provides a major challenge to compare biomolecular networks. Recently developed algorithms have been able to count the number of induced occurrences of subgraphs with k < or = 7 vertices. Yet no practical algorithm exists for counting non-induced occurrences, or counting subgraphs with k > or = 8 vertices. Counting non-induced occurrences of network motifs is not only challenging but also quite desirable as available PPI networks include several false interactions and miss many others. In this article, we show how to apply the 'color coding' technique for counting non-induced occurrences of subgraph topologies in the form of trees and bounded treewidth subgraphs. Our algorithm can count all occurrences of motif G' with k vertices in a network G with n vertices in time polynomial with n, provided k = O(log n). We use our algorithm to obtain 'treelet' distributions for k < or = 10 of available PPI networks of unicellular organisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Escherichia coli and Helicobacter Pyloris), which are all quite similar, and a multicellular organism (Caenorhabditis elegans) which is significantly different. Furthermore, the treelet distribution of the unicellular organisms are similar to that obtained by the 'duplication model' but are quite different from that of the 'preferential attachment model'. The treelet distribution is robust w.r.t. sparsification with bait/edge coverage of 70% but differences can be observed when bait/edge coverage drops to 50%. PMID:18586721

Alon, Noga; Dao, Phuong; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Sahinalp, S Cenk

2008-07-01

388

What makes counting count? Verbal and visuo-spatial contributions to typical and atypical number development.  

PubMed

Williams Syndrome (WS) is marked by a relative strength in verbal cognition coupled with a serious impairment in non-verbal cognition. A strong deficit in numerical cognition has been anecdotally reported in this disorder; however, its nature has not been systematically investigated. Here, we tested 14 children with WS (mean age=7 years 2 months), 14 typically developing controls individually matched on visuo-spatial ability (mean age=3 years 5 months) as well as a larger group of typically developing controls (mean age=3 years 4 months) on two tasks to assess their understanding that counting determines the exact quantity of sets (cardinality principle). The understanding of the cardinality principle in children with WS is extremely delayed and only at the level predicted by their visuo-spatial MA. In this clinical group, only language accounted for a significant amount of the variance in cardinality understanding, whereas in the normal comparison group only visuo-spatial competence predicted the variance. The present findings suggest that visuo-spatial ability plays a greater role than language ability in the actual development of cardinality understanding in typically developing children, whereas the opposite obtains for the clinical group. PMID:12742762

Ansari, Daniel; Donlan, Chris; Thomas, Michael S C; Ewing, Sandra A; Peen, Tiffany; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

2003-05-01

389

Methods of detecting and counting raptors: A review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most raptors are wide-ranging, secretive, and occur at relatively low densities. These factors, in conjunction with the nocturnal activity of owls, cause the counting of raptors by most standard census and survey efforts to be very time consuming and expensive. This paper reviews the most common methods of detecting and counting raptors. It is hoped that it will be of use to the ever-increasing number of biologists, land-use planners, and managers that must determine the occurrence, density, or population dynamics of raptors. Road counts of fixed station or continuous transect design are often used to sample large areas. Detection of spontaneous or elicited vocalizations, especially those of owls, provides a means of detecting and estimating raptor numbers. Searches for nests are accomplished from foot surveys, observations from automobiles and boats, or from aircraft when nest structures are conspicuous (e.g., Osprey). Knowledge of nest habitat, historic records, and inquiries of local residents are useful for locating nests. Often several of these techniques are combined to help find nest sites. Aerial searches have also been used to locate or count large raptors (e.g., eagles), or those that may be conspicuous in open habitats (e.g., tundra). Counts of birds entering or leaving nest colonies or colonial roosts have been attempted on a limited basis. Results from Christmas Bird Counts have provided an index of the abundance of some species. Trapping and banding generally has proven to be an inefficient method of detecting raptors or estimating their populations. Concentrations of migrants at strategically located points around the world afford the best opportunity to count many rap tors in a relatively short period of time, but the influence of many unquantified variables has inhibited extensive interpretation of these counts. Few data exist to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods. We believe more research on sampling techniques, rather than complete counts or intensive searches, will provide adequate yet affordable estimates of raptor numbers in addition to providing methods for detecting the presence of raptors on areas of interest to researchers and managers.

Fuller, M.R.; Mosher, J.A.

1981-01-01

390

Improved method for counting virus and virus like particles.  

PubMed

An improved method for counting virus and virus like particles by electron microscopy (EM) was developed. The procedure involves the determination of the absolute concentration of pure or semi-pure particles once deposited evenly on EM grids using either centrifugation or antibody capture techniques. The counting of particles was done with a Microfiche unit which enlarged approximately 50 x the image of particles on a developed negative film which had been taken at a relatively low magnification (2500 x) by EM. Initially, latex particles of a known concentration were counted using this approach, to prove the accuracy of the technique. The latex particles were deposited evenly on an EM grid using centrifugation (Modified Beckmen EM-90 Airfuge technique). Subsequently, recombinant Bluetongue virus (BTV) core-like particles (CLPs) captured by a Monoclonal antibody using a novel sample loading method were counted by the Microfiche unit method and by a direct EM method. Comparison of the simplified counting method developed with a conventional method, showed good agreement. The method is simple, accurate, rapid, and reproducible when used with either pure particles or with particles from crude cell culture extracts. PMID:9002073

Zheng, Y Z; Webb, R; Greenfield, P F; Reid, S

1996-12-01

391

Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter  

DOEpatents

A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for counting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensated circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

Todd, Richard A. (Powell, TN)

1981-01-01

392

Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

393

Approaches to reducing subvisible particle counts in lyophilized parenteral formulations.  

PubMed

Reduction in subvisible particle counts in parenteral formulations is an important requirement. Despite selection of best container/closure and use of processing conditions where the drug is most soluble and stable, lyophilized formulations often demonstrate problems of subvisible particle counts greater than the permitted compendial limits. We have studied some formulation and processing approaches with different compounds with the intention of developing lyophilized products, which after reconstitution, pass compendial subvisible particle limits for large volume parenterals (LVP). The approaches studied were targeted to reduce "intrinsic" subvisible particle counts and included the addition of a solubilizing agent, pH adjustment, charcoal treatment of the process solution, and use of a filter with finer pore size for filtering the solution prior to lyophilization. Although the relative efficiency of each of these parameters in reducing subvisible particle counts was found to be slightly different for each compound, the inclusion of a solubilizing agent and charcoal treatment of the processing solution were found to have the most pronounced effect. The combination of two or more parameters was often found to be even more effective. It is suggested that these approaches may be useful in developing other lyophilized products that yield low subvisible particle counts on reconstitution. PMID:8004415

Gupta, P K; Porembski, E; Williams, N A

1994-01-01

394

Correction for nonlinear photon counting effects in lidar systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) employed in the photon counting (PC) mode of operation are widely used as detectors in lidar systems. In our laboratory, we have developed a versatile Nd:YAG lidar which is used for measurement of both the middle atmosphere and the troposphere. With this system, we encounter a very wide range of signal levels ranging from the extremely weak signals from the top of the mesosphere to the very strong returns from low level clouds. Although the system is capable of operating the PMT's in either the analog detection or photon counting mode, we find that often when we use photon counting we have portions of our lidar return which contain very useful information but are not within the linear operating regime of the PC system. We report the results of our efforts to explore the extent to which such high intensity PC signals can be quantitatively analyzed. In particular, a useful model relating the mean 'true' count rate and the observed count rate is presented and it's application to our system demonstrated. This model takes into account the variation in height of the PMT output pulses and the effect of the pulse height discrimination threshold.

Donovan, D. P.; Whiteway, J. A.; Carswell, A. I.

1992-01-01

395

Correction for nonlinear photon counting effects in lidar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) employed in the photon counting (PC) mode of operation are widely used as detectors in lidar systems. In our laboratory, we have developed a versatile Nd:YAG lidar which is used for measurement of both the middle atmosphere and the troposphere. With this system, we encounter a very wide range of signal levels ranging from the extremely weak signals from the top of the mesosphere to the very strong returns from low level clouds. Although the system is capable of operating the PMT's in either the analog detection or photon counting mode, we find that often when we use photon counting we have portions of our lidar return which contain very useful information but are not within the linear operating regime of the PC system. We report the results of our efforts to explore the extent to which such high intensity PC signals can be quantitatively analyzed. In particular, a useful model relating the mean 'true' count rate and the observed count rate is presented and it's application to our system demonstrated. This model takes into account the variation in height of the PMT output pulses and the effect of the pulse height discrimination threshold.

Donovan, D. P.; Whiteway, J. A.; Carswell, A. I.

1992-07-01

396

Analyzing Adherence to Prenatal Supplement: Does Pill Count Measure Up?  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine if adherence as measured by pill count would show a significant association with serum-based measures of adherence. Methods. Data were obtained from a prenatal vitamin D supplementation trial where subjects were stratified by race and randomized into three dosing groups: 400 (control), 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D3/day. One measurement of adherence was obtained via pill counts remaining compared to a novel definition for adherence using serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) levels (absolute change in 25(OH)D over the study period and the subject's steady-state variation in their 25(OH)D levels). A multivariate logistic regression model examined whether mean percent adherence by pill count was significantly associated with the adherence measure by serum metabolite levels. Results. Subjects' mean percentage of adherence by pill count was not a significant predictor of adherence by serum metabolite levels. This finding was robust across a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. Based on our novel definition of adherence, pill count was not a reliable predictor of adherence to protocol, and calls into question how adherence is measured in clinical research. Our findings have implications regarding the determination of efficacy of medications under study and offer an alternative approach to measuring adherence of long half-life supplements/medications.

Appelgren, Kristie E.; Nietert, Paul J.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Wagner, Carol L.

2010-01-01

397

Analyzing adherence to prenatal supplement: does pill count measure up?  

PubMed

Objective. To determine if adherence as measured by pill count would show a significant association with serum-based measures of adherence. Methods. Data were obtained from a prenatal vitamin D supplementation trial where subjects were stratified by race and randomized into three dosing groups: 400 (control), 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D(3)/day. One measurement of adherence was obtained via pill counts remaining compared to a novel definition for adherence using serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) levels (absolute change in 25(OH)D over the study period and the subject's steady-state variation in their 25(OH)D levels). A multivariate logistic regression model examined whether mean percent adherence by pill count was significantly associated with the adherence measure by serum metabolite levels. Results. Subjects' mean percentage of adherence by pill count was not a significant predictor of adherence by serum metabolite levels. This finding was robust across a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. Based on our novel definition of adherence, pill count was not a reliable predictor of adherence to protocol, and calls into question how adherence is measured in clinical research. Our findings have implications regarding the determination of efficacy of medications under study and offer an alternative approach to measuring adherence of long half-life supplements/medications. PMID:20169132

Appelgren, Kristie E; Nietert, Paul J; Hulsey, Thomas C; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

2010-01-01

398

Racial diversity with high nucleated cell counts and CD34 counts achieved in a national network of cord blood banks.  

PubMed

Banked, unrelated, partially HLA-matched, umbilical cord blood is an alternative stem cell source for patients in need of transplantation therapy who lack traditionally matched donors. A presumed advantage of cord blood is the ability to increase recruitment of donors of minority ethnic backgrounds. The American Red Cross Cord Blood Program was established in 1999 with 6 banks and 10 collection sites throughout the country. Cord blood donors self-report racial designations on questionnaires, and donor race was collected from each site. Postprocessing nucleated cell counts and CD34(+) counts were obtained on the cord blood units, and results from each racial group (white, black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American) were compared in the natural logarithmic scale by using analysis of variance. A total of 18878 donors consented: 64% white, 16% black, 12% Hispanic, 4% Asian, 1% Native American, and 3% other. The Detroit area consented the highest percentage of black donors (87%), San Diego consented the highest percentage of Hispanic donors (59%), and Oakland consented the highest percentage of Asian donors (15%). Seven thousand eight hundred sixty-six cord blood units have been banked for transplantation. The mean preprocessing nucleated cell count was 1220 x 10(6) (range, 327-7300 x 10(6)). There was no difference among racial groups when controlled for site (P =.395). The mean CD34(+) count was 3.28 x 10(6). Blacks had a significantly lower CD34(+) count than the other racial/ethnic groups in the Midwest, Northwest, and North Carolina collection sites. A racially diverse cord blood bank can be achieved. Nucleated cell counts were similar among the different racial/ethnic groups. CD34(+) counts were lower for blacks in some collection sites. PMID:15077225

Ballen, Karen K; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lane, Thomas A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Miller, John P; Nagan, Denis; Newman, Bruce; Rupp, Neil; Haley, N Rebecca

2004-04-01

399

Prices affect rig count more than 3-D  

SciTech Connect

The idea is discounted that 3-D seismic works so well that fewer dry holes are drilled, the discoveries made are more prolific, and that fewer wells are needed to efficiently develop reservoirs. This line of reasoning suggests that the low rig counts (currently at 676 rigs working the onshore and offshore U.S.) are nothing to worry about - that oil is just being more efficiently discovered for fewer dollars. It is suggested that the low rig count, even though 3-D is a marvelous prospecting tool, is a serious matter. The rig count is essentially a measure of expectation and that expectation is about price. An operator starts with price, figures in costs and risks and decides whether the project generates cash flow.

Williams, P.; Lyle, D.

1995-07-01

400

Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate time-resolved counting of single atoms extracted from a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 87}Rb atoms. The atoms are detected with a high-finesse optical cavity and single atom transits are identified. An atom laser beam is formed by continuously output coupling atoms from the Bose-Einstein condensate. We investigate the full counting statistics of this beam and measure its second order correlation function g{sup (2)}({tau}) in a Hanbury Brown-Twiss type experiment. For the monoenergetic atom laser we observe a constant correlation function g{sup (2)}({tau})=1.00{+-}0.01 and an atom number distribution close to a Poissonian statistics. A pseudothermal atomic beam shows a bunching behavior and a Bose distributed counting statistics.

Oettl, Anton; Ritter, Stephan; Koehl, Michael; Esslinger, Tilman [Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zuerich, Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2005-08-26

401

Dynamics and regulation of bulk milk somatic cell counts.  

PubMed Central

Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk is inversely related to dairy cow productivity and milk quality. In an effort to improve product quality, and indirectly farm productivity, regulatory limits on somatic cell counts have been established by many of the major dairy producing countries. The purpose of this paper was to assess the impact of regulations on bulk milk somatic cell counts in Ontario and to assist producers in meeting regulatory limits through development of prediction models. Through the use of a transfer function model, provincial SCC was found to have dropped by approximately 60,000 as a result of the reduction program. Limits of the regulatory program, seasonality and herd characteristics were found through time series cross-sectional models to have an impact on prediction of SCC at the farm level, but the major influence was historical SCC levels.

Schukken, Y H; Weersink, A; Leslie, K E; Martin, S W

1993-01-01

402

Accuracy enhancement of fatigue damage counting using design sensitivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have suggested fatigue damage counting of a linear elastic system using only the output data; design sensitivity analysis based on the transmissibility function was studied in order to identify the most sensitive response location under intact conditions. The design sensitivity index was derived to be proportional to the response energy at the measured point through reformulation of the previous equation for the sensitivity index. The accuracy of the damage counting method can be enhanced with design sensitivity analysis by selecting the location with the maximum response energy; the method is optimally robust against unexpected noise in the output data. Simulation and testing of a notched simple specimen under uniaxial excitation were used to verify that sensitivity analysis enhances the accuracy of the predicted damage counting.

Kim, Chan-Jung; Lee, Bong-Hyun; Kang, Yeon June; Ahn, Hyeong-Joon

2014-06-01

403

An electronic pollen detection method using Coulter counting principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for detecting and counting pollen particles based on Coulter counting principle is presented. This approach also provides information on the size and surface charges of the micro particles, allowing for preliminary differentiation of pollens from other micro particles. Three samples are studied: polymethyl methacrylate particles, tree pollens from Juniperus Scopulorum and grass pollens from Secale Cerale. The samples, suspended in diluted KCl aqueous solutions in an electrochemical cell, were allowed to pass through a microchannel and the conductance of the microchannel was sampled with a Gamry ® Potentiostat. The changes in the conductance due to the passing of the micro particles was thus recorded and analyzed. The experimental results showed that tree pollens and grass pollens display distinctive behaviors. The phenomena may be attributed to the differences in the surface characteristics of the pollens and is potentially useful for counting and differentiating different micro particles.

Zhang, Zheng; Zhe, Jiang; Chandra, Santanu; Hu, Jun

404

Loss-Free Counting with Digital Signal Processors  

SciTech Connect

Loss-free-counting (LFC) techniques have frequently been used with traditional analog pulse processing systems to compensate for the time or pulses lost when a spectroscopy system is unavailable (busy) for processing an accepted pulse. With the availability of second-generation digital signal processing (DSP) electronics that offer a significantly improved performance for both high and low count rate applications, the LFC technique has been revisited. Specific attention was given to the high and ultra-high count rate behavior, using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with both transistor reset preamplifiers (TRP) and conventional RC preamplifiers. The experiments conducted for this work show that the known LFC techniques further benefit when combined with modern DSP pulse shaping.

Markku Koskelo; Dave Hall; Martin Moslinger

2000-11-12

405

Gasolines as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

Gasolines from several commercial sources have been used as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting of dry and aqueous samples of either /sup 3/H- or /sup 14/C-labeled compounds. Dry samples can be counted only by the addition of fluors to the gasolines, and compared to a standard liquid scintillator, efficiencies of around 75% were attained. For the counting of aqueous samples, gasolines must also be supplemented with secondary solvents (i.e., 10% naphthalene, 5% Triton X-100, or 10% methanol). Simply with Triton X-100, efficiencies similar to those obtained with a dioxane-based liquid scintillator were observed in the case of some gasolines. Drawbacks to gasoline are the higher toxicity and the variation of efficiency, probably depending on the presence of color markers. On the positive side is the low price of the gasolines, compared with either toluene or dioxane, and the facility of purchasing.

Fernandez, A.; Ma Pinto, R.; Sillero, A.

1986-11-01

406

Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems.  

PubMed

A useful analytic model describing the response of a photon-counting (PC) system has been developed. The model describes the nonlinear count loss and apparent count gain arising from the overlap of photomultiplier tube (PMT) pulses, taking into account the distribution in amplitude of the PMT output pulses and the effect of the pulse-height discrimination threshold. Comparisons between the model and Monte Carlo simulations show excellent agreement. The model has been applied to a PC lidar system with favorable results. Application of the model has permitted us to extend the linear operating range of the PC system and to quantify accurately the response of the system in its nonlinear operating regime, thus increasing the useful dynamic range of the system by 1 order of magnitude. PMID:20856527

Donovan, D P; Whiteway, J A; Carswell, A I

1993-11-20

407

Bayesian Inference from Count Data Using Discrete Uniform Priors  

PubMed Central

We consider a set of sample counts obtained by sampling arbitrary fractions of a finite volume containing an homogeneously dispersed population of identical objects. We report a Bayesian derivation of the posterior probability distribution of the population size using a binomial likelihood and non-conjugate, discrete uniform priors under sampling with or without replacement. Our derivation yields a computationally feasible formula that can prove useful in a variety of statistical problems involving absolute quantification under uncertainty. We implemented our algorithm in the R package dupiR and compared it with a previously proposed Bayesian method based on a Gamma prior. As a showcase, we demonstrate that our inference framework can be used to estimate bacterial survival curves from measurements characterized by extremely low or zero counts and rather high sampling fractions. All in all, we provide a versatile, general purpose algorithm to infer population sizes from count data, which can find application in a broad spectrum of biological and physical problems.

Fracchia, Letizia

2013-01-01

408

Pretreatment neutrophil count as an independent prognostic factor in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: An analysis of Japan Multinational Trial Organisation LC00-03  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the impact of pretreatment neutrophil count on survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 388 chemo-naïve patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC from a randomised controlled trial were evaluated. The effects of pretreatment peripheral blood neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio on survival were examined using the proportional hazards regression

Satoshi Teramukai; Toshiyuki Kitano; Yusuke Kishida; Masaaki Kawahara; Kaoru Kubota; Kiyoshi Komuta; Koichi Minato; Tadashi Mio; Yuka Fujita; Toshiro Yonei; Kikuo Nakano; Masahiro Tsuboi; Kazuhiko Shibata; Kiyoyuki Furuse; Masanori Fukushima

2009-01-01

409

Improved confidence intervals when the sample is counted an integer times longer than the blank.  

PubMed

Past computer solutions for confidence intervals in paired counting are extended to the case where the ratio of the sample count time to the blank count time is taken to be an integer, IRR. Previously, confidence intervals have been named Neyman-Pearson confidence intervals; more correctly they should have been named Neyman confidence intervals or simply confidence intervals. The technique utilized mimics a technique used by Pearson and Hartley to tabulate confidence intervals for the expected value of the discrete Poisson and Binomial distributions. The blank count and the contribution of the sample to the gross count are assumed to be Poisson distributed. The expected value of the blank count, in the sample count time, is assumed known. The net count, OC, is taken to be the gross count minus the product of IRR with the blank count. The probability density function (PDF) for the net count can be determined in a straightforward manner. PMID:21451310

Potter, William Edward; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga Jodi

2011-05-01

410

FAR-ULTRAVIOLET NUMBER COUNTS OF FIELD GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

The far-ultraviolet (FUV) number counts of galaxies constrain the evolution of the star formation rate density of the universe. We report the FUV number counts computed from FUV imaging of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and small areas within the GOODS-North and South fields. These data were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts sample an FUV AB magnitude range from 21 to 29 and cover a total area of 15.9 arcmin{sup 2}, {approx}4 times larger than the most recent HST FUV study. Our FUV counts intersect bright FUV Galaxy Evolution Explorer counts at 22.5 mag and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytic models based on dark matter 'merger trees' by R. S. Somerville et al. We show that the number counts are {approx}35% lower than in previous HST studies that use smaller areas. The differences between these studies are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more lines of sight and more area than previous HST FUV studies. The integrated light from field galaxies is found to contribute between 65.9{sup +8}{sub -8} and 82.6{sup +12}{sub -12} photons s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1} to the FUV extragalactic background. These measurements set a lower limit for the total FUV background light.

Voyer, Elysse N.; De Mello, Duilia F. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Gardner, Jonathan P. [Astrophysics Science Division, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Siana, Brian D., E-mail: 48voyer@cardinalmail.cua.edu [California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2011-08-01

411

An analysis of dependency of counting efficiency on worker anatomy for in vivo measurements: whole-body counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo radiobioassay is integral to many health physics and radiological protection programs dealing with internal exposures. The Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) physical phantom has been widely used for whole-body counting calibrations. However, the shape of BOMAB phantoms—a collection of plastic, cylindrical shells which contain no bones or internal organs—does not represent realistic human anatomy. Furthermore, workers who come in contact with radioactive materials have rather different body shape and size. To date, there is a lack of understanding about how the counting efficiency would change when the calibrated counter is applied to a worker with complicated internal organs or tissues. This paper presents a study on various in vivo counting efficiencies obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of two BOMAB phantoms and three tomographic image-based models (VIP-Man, NORMAN and CNMAN) for a scenario involving homogeneous whole-body radioactivity contamination. The results reveal that a phantom's counting efficiency is strongly dependent on the shape and size of a phantom. Contrary to what was expected, it was found that only small differences in efficiency were observed when the density and material composition of all internal organs and tissues of the tomographic phantoms were changed to water. The results of this study indicate that BOMAB phantoms with appropriately adjusted size and shape can be sufficient for whole-body counting calibrations when the internal contamination is homogeneous.

Zhang, Binquan; Mille, Matthew; Xu, X. George

2008-07-01

412

New counting ASIC for X-ray imaging devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new preamplifier concept dedicated to X-ray counting devices was tested through a small 32×32 pixel matrix ASIC design. The schematics uses a charge transfer amplifier principle. Design was optimized to allow a high sensitivity (675 mV/ke -) together with a high counting rate (minimum ? t: 150 ns at 3000e - input pulses), a low noise (150 rms electrons) and a low pixel power consumption (4.6 ?W). A chip in 0.35 ?m technology was processed and electronically tested. Design and performance are presented.

Arques, M.; Villard, P.; Accensi, M.; Noca, A.

2006-07-01

413

Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by photon counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of radiation signals is at the heart of precision metrology and sensing. In this article we show how the fluctuations in photon-counting signals can be exploited to optimally extract information about the physical parameters that govern the dynamics of the emitter. For a simple two-level emitter subject to photon counting, we show that the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound based on the full detection record can be evaluated from the waiting-time distribution in the fluorescence signal which can, in turn, be calculated for both perfect and imperfect detectors by a quantum trajectory analysis. We provide an optimal estimator achieving that bound.

Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

2014-05-01

414

Some target assay uncertainties for passive neutron coincidence counting  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides some target assay uncertainties for passive neutron coincidence counting of plutonium metal, oxide, mixed oxide, and scrap and waste. The target values are based in part on past user experience and in part on the estimated results from new coincidence counting techniques that are under development. The paper summarizes assay error sources and the new coincidence techniques, and recommends the technique that is likely to yield the lowest assay uncertainty for a given material type. These target assay uncertainties are intended to be useful for NDA instrument selection and assay variance propagation studies for both new and existing facilities. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

Ensslin, N.; Langner, D.G.; Menlove, H.O.; Miller, M.C.; Russo, P.A.

1990-01-01

415

Mystery Jars: Make Your Own: Estimating and Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners make a counting/estimating jar to exchange with friends or bring home. Each learner fills a clear plastic cup with small objects such as beads or pennies and keeps count of exactly how many are in the cup. Others have to estimate how many are in the cup. Younger learners use larger objects, so only up to about 15 fill the cup; older ones can use smaller objects, so 50 or more fill the cup. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

416

Spermatid count as a predictor of response to FSH therapy.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the predictive power of spermatid count and cytology for assisted reproduction outcome after FSH therapy. A total of 174 men with severe oligozoospermia and normal plasma FSH concentration underwent semen analysis including spermatid count, TUNEL test, FISH analysis for sperm aneuploidies and testicular fine-needle aspiration cytology. Ninety-two men with hypospermatogenesis received FSH therapy for 3months and 82 patients with maturative disturbance or partial obstruction served as controls. Semen was analysed at baseline, after FSH therapy and after 3- and 9-month follow up, and pregnancies were recorded. Subjects not reaching pregnancy at 3-month follow up were recommended assisted reproduction treatment. Spermatid count was related to testicular cytology: spermatid concentrations <0.01, 0.01-0.3 and >0.3×10(6)/ml were predictive of partial obstruction, hypospermatogenesis and maturative disturbance. FSH therapy patients showed increases in sperm number and motility (both P<0.001), allowing some couples to undergo intrauterine insemination instead of IVF. Cumulative pregnancy rate after 12months was higher with FSH therapy (44.6%) than without (22.0%; P=0.002). FSH therapy improved pregnancy rate and sometimes allowed less invasive assisted reproduction treatment in well-selected patients. Spermatid count could represent a new parameter to predict response to FSH therapy. One-hundred seventy-four patients with severe reduction of sperm count and normal sex hormones plasma levels underwent semen analysis with spermatid count, and testicular fine needle aspiration cytologiy (FNAC). Ninety-two men infertile men with reduced sperm production (hypospermatogenesis) were treated with highly purified urofollitropin and 82 patients with sperm maturative defects or partial obstruction of the seminal tract served as controls. After treatment and after the following 3 and 9months all subjects performed a new semen analysis and pregnancies were recorded. Subjects who had not reached spontaneous pregnancy were suggested to undergo assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). Spermatid count was strongly related to testicular cytology: spermatid concentrations were predictive of partial obstruction, hypospermatogenesis and maturative disturbance respectively. Treated patients showed significant increase in sperm number and motility allowing some couples to undergo easier and less invasive assisted reproductive techniques. The number of pregnancies was significantly higher among treated (44.6%) than untreated couples (22.0%). Our data confirmed that FSH treatment can induce a significant improvemet of pergnancy rate and sometimes allows less invasive ARTs use in well selected severe oligozoospermic patients. Moreover, we suggest that spermatid count can be useful to define tubular status and could represent a new parameter to predict response to FSH therapy. PMID:24816256

Garolla, Andrea; Selice, Riccardo; Engl, Bruno; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Menegazzo, Massimo; Finos, Livio; Lenzi, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo

2014-07-01

417

Universal count correction for high-throughput sequencing.  

PubMed

We show that existing RNA-seq, DNase-seq, and ChIP-seq data exhibit overdispersed per-base read count distributions that are not matched to existing computational method assumptions. To compensate for this overdispersion we introduce a nonparametric and universal method for processing per-base sequencing read count data called FIXSEQ. We demonstrate that FIXSEQ substantially improves the performance of existing RNA-seq, DNase-seq, and ChIP-seq analysis tools when compared with existing alternatives. PMID:24603409

Hashimoto, Tatsunori B; Edwards, Matthew D; Gifford, David K

2014-03-01

418

Impala, Aepyceros melampus, platelets: count, morphology, and morphometric observations.  

PubMed

There is little published information regarding the platelets of impala (Aepyceros melampus). In this study we determined the platelet counts of 12 healthy adult male impalas and describe the morphology of the platelets. The platelet counts of the animals are high. Although the platelets appear to be extremely small, they have the characteristic ultrastructure of the platelets of the family Bovidae. They have few but prominent alpha-granules. Other cytoplasmic inclusions are the dense bodies, microtubules, mitochondria, and glycogen. There is no surface-connecting canalicular system present. PMID:9149444

du Plessis, L; Botha, A J; Stevens, K

1997-04-01

419

worker certain content 131I thyroid monitored whole body counter under fixed conditions geometry counting time. net number measured gamma counts (background subtracted) thyroid initial 1129  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: worker certain content 131I thyroid monitored whole body counter under fixed conditions geometry counting time. net number measured gamma counts (background subtracted) thyroid initial 1129 ?

420

Growth Curve Models for Zero-Inflated Count Data: An Application to Smoking Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article applies growth curve models to longitudinal count data characterized by an excess of zero counts. We discuss a zero-inflated Poisson regression model for longitudinal data in which the impact of covariates on the initial counts and the rate of change in counts over time is the focus of inference. Basic growth curve models using a…

Liu, Hui; Powers, Daniel A.

2007-01-01

421

Photon Counting Detectors for the 1.0 - 2.0 Micron Wavelength Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe results on the development of greater than 200 micron diameter, single-element photon-counting detectors for the 1-2 micron wavelength range. The technical goals include quantum efficiency in the range 10-70%; detector diameter greater than 200 microns; dark count rate below 100 kilo counts-per-second (cps), and maximum count rate above 10 Mcps.

Krainak, Michael A.

2004-01-01

422

A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...

423

Are Placental Chorionic Capillary Nucleated Red Blood Cell Counts Useful Compared to Umbilical Cord Blood Tests?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare measurement of fetal nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts in paired histologic samples of the placenta and umbilical cord bloods. Method: Forty-five randomly selected pregnancies had two determinations of the NRBC count. A sample of umbilical venous blood had a NRBC count measured and sections of the placenta were examined for their villous capillary NRBC counts. Results:

Joan M. McCarthy; Enid Gilbert-Barness; John C. M. Tsibris; William N. Spellacy

2007-01-01

424

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2002. Tenth Annual Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Dakotas children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economics, and safety. The indicators include: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) racial groups; (3) single age years; (4) households and families; (5) infant…

Cochran, Carole; Nelson-Kraayenbrink, Briana

425

Breaking the Cycle: A Special Report by Arkansas Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to federal welfare reform legislation, Arkansas created the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program in April 1997. The goal of this Kids Count report is to increase awareness regarding issues underlying the early implementation of TEA, focusing on caseload reductions, demographic composition of the caseload, level of support…

Huddleston, Rich; Duran, Angela

426

New York State Touchstones/KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book examines trends in the well-being of New York's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general areas of children's well-being: (1) economic security; (2) physical and emotional health; (3) education; (4) citizenship; (5) family; and (6) community. Following an introductory section addressing the 2000 census…

Chavis, Karen, Ed.

427

KIDS COUNT, 2000: The State of the Child in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Tennessee's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in five broad areas: (1) healthy babies, including enrollment in the TennCare insurance program, prenatal care, infant mortality and child deaths, and immunizations; (2) healthy…

Tennessee State Commission on Children and Youth, Nashville.

428

Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter  

DOEpatents

A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for couting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensation circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

Todd, R.A.

1980-05-12

429

Night cough counts and diary card scores in asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tape recording system for recording night cough in asthmatics at home is described. Objective cough counts and half hour periods containing cough did not correlate with diary card scores awarded to eight children on seven nights each. Night cough diary scores may mislead in the assessment of symptom severity.

L N Archer; H Simpson

1985-01-01

430

Counting Statistics and Detector Properties of Quantum Point Contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum detector properties of the quantum point contact (QPC) are analyzed for an arbitrary electron transparency and coupling strength to the measured system and are shown to be determined by the electron counting statistics. Conditions of the quantum-limited operation of the QPC detector, which prevent information loss through the scattering time and scattering phases, are found for arbitrary coupling. We

Dmitri V. Averin; Eugene V. Sukhorukov

2005-01-01

431

Understanding English Non-Count Nouns and Indefinite Articles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fact that English non-count abstract nouns such as knowledge are compatible with the indefinite article a/an is not only perplexing for second language (L2) learners of English but also troublesome for both native and non-native English teachers. This paper does research on this curious phenomenon of English grammar to clarify its mechanism…

Tsuchida, Takehiro

2010-01-01

432

A priori precision estimation for neutron Triples counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nondestructive assay of Plutonium bearing items for criticality, safety, security, safeguards, inventory balance, process control, waste management and compliance is often undertaken using correlated neutron counting. In particular Multiplicity Shift Register analysis allows one to extract autocorrelation parameters from the pulse train which can, within the framework of a simple interpretational model, be related to the effective 240Pu spontaneous

Stephen Croft; Martyn T Swinhoe; Vladimir Henzl

2011-01-01

433

X-chromosome inactivation: counting, choice and initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many sexually dimorphic species, a mechanism is required to ensure equivalent levels of gene expression from the sex chromosomes. In mammals, such dosage compensation is achieved by X-chromosome inactivation, a process that presents a unique medley of biological puzzles: how to silence one but not the other X chromosome in the same nucleus; how to count the number of

Philip Avner; Edith Heard

2001-01-01

434

Class Counts: An Overview and Response to Mr. Cooper's Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents Allan Ornstein's response to highly respected scholar, Bruce Cooper's review of Ornstein's 2007 book, "Class Counts: Education, Inequality and the Shrinking Middle Class." Here Ornstein attempts to elaborate on a few points that he felt Cooper missed in his review.

Ornstein, Allan

2009-01-01

435

Energy dispersive photon counting detectors for breast imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our efforts toward the development of silicon (Si) strip detectors for energy-resolved clinical breast imaging. Typically, x-ray integrating detectors based on scintillating cesium iodide CsI(Tl) or amorphous selenium (a- Se) are used in most commercial systems. Recently, mammography instrumentation has been introduced based on photon counting silicon Si strip detectors. Mammography requires high flux from the x-ray generator, therefore, in order to achieve energy resolved single photon counting, a high output count rate (OCR) for the detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel, provided that the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions. We present our methods and results from the optimization of prototype detectors based on Si strip structures. We describe the detector optimization and the development of ASIC readout electronics that provide the required spatial resolution, low noise, high count rate capabilities and minimal power consumption.

Barber, William C.; Wessel, Jan C.; Malakhov, Nail; Wawrzyniak, Gregor; Hartsough, Neal E.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan; Nygard, Einar; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

2013-09-01

436

Photon counting three-dimensional passive sensing and object recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this keynote address, we introduce three-dimensional (3D) passive sensing using photon counting integral imaging. We investigate both linear and nonlinear matched filtering for automatic target recognition (ATR). Significant benefits of the nonlinear matched filtering with 3D integral imaging are found for ATR with a low number of photons. The discrimination capability of our system is quantified in terms of

Bahram Javidi; Edward Watson; Seokwon Yeom

2006-01-01

437

Earthquake dating: an application of carbon-14 atom counting.  

PubMed

Milligram-sized specimens of detrital charcoal from soil layers associated with prehistoric earthquakes on the Wasatch fault in Utah have been dated by direct atom counting of carbon-14 with a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The measured ratios of carbon-14 to carbon-12 correspond to ages of 7800, 8800, and 9000 years with uncertainties of +/- 600 years. PMID:17735610

Tucker, A B; Woefli, W; Bonani, G; Suter, M

1983-03-18

438

Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

439

Simple Identification of Complex ADHD Subtypes Using Current Symptom Counts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the assessment of the accuracy of simple rules based on symptom count for assigning youths to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes show that having six or more total symptoms and fewer than three hyperactive-impulsive symptoms is an accurate predictor for the latent class sever inattentive subtype.

Volk, Heather E.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hay, David A.; Todd, Richard D.

2009-01-01

440

Determination of uranium-235 by a delayed neutron counting technique  

SciTech Connect

Annual progress report for the period July 1972 through June Determination of /sup 235/U in uranium dioxide-- thorium dioxide mixtures and pyrocarbon- and silicon carbide-coated uranium-- thorium carbide fuel beads was carried out by bombarding with thermal neutrons and counting the delayed neutrons arising from fission of the /sup 235/U. The precision and accuracy of some results are given. (auth)

Hagenauer, R.C.; Zyskowski, C.L.; Nelson, L.C. Jr.

1973-09-01

441

Snacks and Skills: Teaching Children Functional Counting Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how two young children with moderate/severe mental retardation were taught functional counting skills by helping with a snack delivery activity. Instruction involved a task analysis, use of pictures to represent objects and numbers, self-monitoring to increase student independence, and ongoing evaluation. The importance of…

Xin, Joy F.; Holmdal, Pamela

2003-01-01

442

Attention during active visual tasks: Counting, pointing, or simply looking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual attention and saccades are typically studied in artificial situations, with stimuli presented to the steadily fixating eye, or saccades made along specified paths. By contrast, in real-world tasks saccadic patterns are constrained only by the demands of the motivating task. We studied attention during pauses between saccades made to perform three free-viewing tasks: counting dots, pointing to the same

John D. Wilder; Eileen Kowler; Brian S. Schnitzer; Timothy M. Gersch; Barbara A. Dosher

2008-01-01

443

Semiparametric Analysis of Zero-Inflated Count Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Medical and public health research often involve the analysis of count data that exhibit a substantially large proportion of zeros, such as the number of heart attacks and the number of days of missed primary activities in a given period. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model, which hypothesizes a two-point heterogeneity in the population characterized by a binary random effect,

K. F. Lam; Hongqi Xue; Yin Bun Cheung

2006-01-01

444

Kids Count 1995 Data Book on Louisiana's Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book presents findings of the Kids Count project on current conditions faced by Louisiana children ages birth to 19 years of age. Data is presented in a table format by individual indicator for each of the parishes, and is further broken down by race. The first subject area addresses poverty and statistics on children receiving AFDC,…

Agenda for Children, New Orleans, LA.

445

Implementing Graduation Counts: State Progress to Date, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the governors of all 50 states made an unprecedented commitment to voluntarily implement a common, more reliable formula for calculating their state's high school graduation rate by signing the Graduation Counts Compact of the National Governors Association (NGA). Five years later, progress is steady. Twenty-six states say they have…

Curran, Bridget; Reyna, Ryan

2010-01-01

446

Analyzing Historical Count Data: Poisson and Negative Binomial Regression Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that traditional approaches to multivariate analysis, including standard linear regression techniques, ignore the special character of count data. Explicates three suitable alternatives to standard regression techniques, a simple Poisson regression, a modified Poisson regression, and a negative binomial model. (MJP)

Beck, E. M.; Tolnay, Stewart E.

1995-01-01

447

Programmer's guide for LIFE2's rainflow counting algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The LIFE2 computer code is a fatique/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. The numerical formulation of the code uses a series of cycle count matrices to describe the cyclic stress states imposed upon the t...

L. L. Schluter

1991-01-01

448

Non-Contact Sensor for Passenger Counting and Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to develop and test an experimental approach to count the number of passengers entering and exiting rail transit cars through a wide stream door. Testing of the Cyclops system demonstrated that radar is a variable method ...

G. Greneker

2001-01-01

449

Imaging photon counting system for the extreme ultraviolet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an imaging photon counting system for the EUV and its application to the measurement of the imaging quality of CDS EUV telescope for SOHO. The detector system uses an open window micro-channel plate intensifier coupled to a CCD with a fiber-optic taper. The digitized data are processed using a transputer based processing system which resolves the channel pores

Martin K. Carter; Barry J. Kent; Peter D. Read; Bernd R. Aschenbach; Heinrich W. Braeuninger

1995-01-01

450

New York State KIDS COUNT 1995 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of New York's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general indicators of children's well-being: (1) economic well-being; (2) education; (3) health; (4) adolescent behavior; (5) child welfare; and (6) children's families. Indicator 1 focuses on poverty, neighborhood…

Dunton, Nancy; Leon, Seth

451

Mapping politics: how context counts in electoral geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electoral geography, indeed political geography in general, has been largely concerned with mapping distributions which are then ‘explained’ by non-spatial factors. To the extent that spatial context itself has counted, it has been largely in terms of locality or neighborhood effects which are presumed to work against ‘larger’ or ‘wider’ social processes. This paper takes issue with conventional mapping and

John Agnew

1996-01-01

452

Method and Apparatus for Measuring White Blood Cell Count.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for quantitatively measuring white blood cell count involves capture of white blood cells from a fluid sample by a retainer, removal of the red blood cells and other interfering substances by a wash solution, and reading the result of a color rea...

I. Nikolyukin W. T. Law Y. Nikolyukin

2003-01-01

453

Illinois Kids Count, 2002: Supporting the Changing Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of family, health, safety, education, and economic security. The indicators are: (1) living arrangements for children; (2) teen births; (3) children in foster/substitute care; (4) foster…

Parker, Trisha; Warner, Lindsay; Zasadny, Julie

454

Source Counts and Background Fluctuations in X Rays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurement of the cell to cell fluctuations in X-ray background radiation contains information equivalent to a source count below the minimum resolvable source. The parameters of a power law distribution of the sources vs. flux can be bounded from the an...

A. Cavaliere

1973-01-01

455

Interaction of somatic cell count and quarter milk flow patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk flow parameters at udder and quarter levels were studied in relation to somatic cell count (SCC) and other risk factors for mastitis (bimodality, duration of decline, and duration of overmilking phase). Thirty-eight Holstein cows in their first to sixth lactations were investigated during 10 mo of lactation. Monthly milk samples were collected for SCC during morning milking. Quarter and

V. Tancin; A. H. Ipema; P. H. Hogewerf

2007-01-01

456

The Labeling Strategy: Moving beyond Order in Counting Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Permutations and combinations are used to solve certain kinds of counting problems, but many students have trouble distinguishing which of these concepts applies to a given problem. An "order heuristic" is usually used to distinguish the two, but this heuristic can cause confusion when problems do not explicitly mention order. This…

CadwalladerOlsker, Todd

2013-01-01

457

A Method of Recording and Predicting the Pollen Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hair dryer, plastic funnel, and microscope slide can be used for predicting pollen counts on a day-to-day basis. Materials, methods for assembly, collection technique, meteorological influences, and daily patterns are discussed. Data collected using the apparatus suggest that airborne grass products other than pollen also affect hay fever…

Buck, M.

1985-01-01

458

Correction for Nonlinear Photon Counting Effects in Lidar Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) employed in the photon counting (PC) mode of operation are widely used as detectors in lidar systems. In our laboratory, we have developed a versatile Nd:YAG lidar which is used for measurement of both the middle atmosphere a...

D. P. Donovan J. A. Whiteway A. I. Carswell

1992-01-01

459

Correction for nonlinear photon counting effects in lidar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) employed in the photon counting (PC) mode of operation are widely used as detectors in lidar systems. In our laboratory, we have developed a versatile Nd:YAG lidar which is used for measurement of both the middle atmosphere and the troposphere. With this system, we encounter a very wide range of signal levels ranging from the extremely weak

D. P. Donovan; J. A. Whiteway; A. I. Carswell

1992-01-01

460

Counting graphene layers on glass via optical reflection microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that optical reflection microscopy is a reliable method to simultaneously locate and count graphene layers deposited on bulk, transparent substrates such as soda-lime glass. The visible contrast in optical reflection versus graphene layer number is resolvable on bulk substrates. A simple Fresnel theory based on the universal optical conductance of graphene layers accurately models optical reflection images taken

P. E. Gaskell; H. S. Skulason; C. Rodenchuk; T. Szkopek

2009-01-01

461

Counting Graphene Layers on Glass by Optical Reflection Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using optical reflection microscopy we can locate and count graphene layers on a bulk glass substrate. This is a reliable and low cost technique for graphene flake metrology. Optical reflection measurements are in agreement with the universal optical conductance of graphene. We present measurements of the optical conductivity of graphitic flakes showing a transition from few layer graphene to bulk

Helgi Skulason; Peter Gaskell; Chris Rodenchuk; Thomas Szkopek

2009-01-01

462

Algorithms for Modular Counting of Roots of Multivariate Polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a multivariate polynomial over a nite eld , let denote the num- ber of roots over . The modular root counting problem is given a modulus , to determine . We study the complexity of computing , when the polynomial is given as a sum of monomials. We give an efcient algorithm to compute when the modulus is a

Parikshit Gopalan; Venkatesan Guruswami; Richard J. Lipton

2006-01-01

463

Locking and Reference Counting in the Mach Kernel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coordination of independently executing threads of control within the operating system kernel is an important problem that must be addressed in the design of a multiprocessor operating system. The efficient coordination of operations is vital for avoiding performance bottlenecks without compromising system correctness. The Mach operating system achieves this coordination via carefully designed locking and reference counting techniques. This paper

David L. Black; Avadis Tevanian; David B. Golub; Michael W. Young

1991-01-01

464

Generalized estimators of avian abundance from count survey data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I consider modeling avian abundance from spatially referenced bird count data collected according to common protocols such as capture?recapture, multiple observer, removal sampling and simple point counts. Small sample sizes and large numbers of parameters have motivated many analyses that disregard the spatial indexing of the data, and thus do not provide an adequate treatment of spatial structure. I describe a general framework for modeling spatially replicated data that regards local abundance as a random process, motivated by the view that the set of spatially referenced local populations (at the sample locations) constitute a metapopulation. Under this view, attention can be focused on developing a model for the variation in local abundance independent of the sampling protocol being considered. The metapopulation model structure, when combined with the data generating model, define a simple hierarchical model that can be analyzed using conventional methods. The proposed modeling framework is completely general in the sense that broad classes of metapopulation models may be considered, site level covariates on detection and abundance may be considered, and estimates of abundance and related quantities may be obtained for sample locations, groups of locations, unsampled locations. Two brief examples are given, the first involving simple point counts, and the second based on temporary removal counts. Extension of these models to open systems is briefly discussed.

Royle, J. A.

2004-01-01

465

Yours, Mine or Ours: What Counts as Innovation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I argue that research and development organizations (R&DOs) have particular perspectives on what counts as an innovation whereas the potential adopting users usually have quite different often diverse perspectives. If these "worldviews" do not overlap or speak to each other, then what R&DOs consider innovative might constitute a…

Cooksey, Ray W.

2011-01-01

466

Optimization of Procedures for Counting Viruses by Flow Cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of sensitive nucleic acid stains, in combination with flow cytometric techniques, has allowed the identification and enumeration of viruses in aquatic systems. However, the methods used in flow cytometric analyses of viruses have not been consistent to date. A detailed evaluation of a broad range of sample prep- arations to optimize counts and to promote the consistency of

Corina P. D. Brussaard

2004-01-01

467

Mirror Symmetry, D-Branes and Counting Holomorphic Discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a class of special Lagrangian subspaces of Calabi-Yau manifolds and identify their mirrors, using the recent derivation of mirror symmetry, as certain holomorphic varieties of the mirror geometry. This transforms the counting of holomorphic disc instantons ending on the Lagrangian submanifold to the classical Abel-Jacobi map on the mirror. We recover some results already anticipated as well as

Mina Aganagic; Cumrun Vafa

2000-01-01

468

The repeatability of faecal egg counts in Polish Wrzosówka sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of nematode eggs in the faeces was estimated in Polish Wrzosówka sheep, in the spring and autumn of 1993 and again in 1994. The sheep had been naturally infected. The dominant species were Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, but Trichostrongylus spp., Cooperia curticei, Nematodirus spp. and Chabertia ovina were also present. Anthelmintics were not used. Egg counts were

M. Doligalska; B. Moskwa; R. Niznikowski

1997-01-01

469

How repeatable is a faecal egg count reduction test?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To gather information on the repeatability of a faecal nematode egg count (FEC) reduction (FECR) test (FECRT), evaluating both different methods of calculating efficacy and variations within a method, in order to supply veterinarians and other advisors with sufficient information to apply some level of confidence around a diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance based on FECRT results.METHODS: Two commercial sheep

CM Miller; TS Waghorn; DM Leathwick; ML Gilmour

2006-01-01

470

COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS FOR COUNTING HUMAN SPERMATOZOA  

EPA Science Inventory

COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS FOR COUNTING HUMAN SPERMATOZOA SC Jeffay1, LF Strader1, RA Morris1, JE Schmid1, AF Olshan2, LW Lansdell2, SD Perreault1. 1US EPA/ORD, RTP, NC; 2UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC. The IDENT feature of the HTM-IVOS semen analyzer (Hamilton Thorne Research, Bev...

471

Performance of asbestos fibre counting laboratories by transmission electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In France, the owners of buildings have been obliged since February 1996 to ascertain whether asbestos has been incorporated into surfacing materials, insulation products or false ceilings. In certain circumstances, there is also a requirement to measure the airborne asbes- tos fibre concentration. Three years (1996-1998) of asbestos fibre count reporting are evalu- ated for the proficiency testing scheme organized

E. Kauffer; M. MARTINE; M. GRZEBYK; J. C. VIGNERON; J. P. SANDINO

2001-01-01

472

Cox's Regression Model for Counting Processes: A Large Sample Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cox regression model for censored survival data specifies that covariates have a proportional effect on the hazard function of the life-time distribution of an individual. In this paper we discuss how this model can be extended to a model where covariate processes have a proportional effect on the intensity process of a multivariate counting process. This permits a statistical

P. K. Andersen; R. D. Gill

1982-01-01

473

KIDS COUNT in Virginia 1996: Kids and Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is organized into six general areas of children's well-being: (1) healthy births; (2) children's health; (3) school success; (4) risky behavior; (5) families; and (6) community well-being. Key indicators in these six areas include…

Nezlek, John B.; Galano, Joseph; Gholston, Susan E.

474

Syntactic Acquisition of the Count/Mass Distinction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The count/mass disinction is often considered to be a semantic one because it distinguishes those nouns that refer to countable things from those that refer to non-countable things. However, exceptions indicate that semantic properties alone are not sufficient to determine noun sub-categorization. Therefore, such sub-categorization must be defined…

Gordon, Peter

475

Evaluation of counting methods for oceanic radium-228  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of open ocean /sup 228/Ra is difficult, typically requiring at least 200 L of seawater. The burden of collecting and processing these large-volume samples severely limits the widespread use of this promising tracer. To use smaller-volume samples, a more sensitive means of analysis is required. To seek out new and improved counting method(s), conventional /sup 228/Ra counting methods have been compared with some promising techniques which are currently use for other radionuclides. Of the conventional method, ..cap alpha.. spectrometry possesses the highest efficiency (3--9%) and lowest background (0.0015 cpm), but it suffers from the need for complex chemical processing after sampling and the need to allow about 1 year for adequate ingrowth of /sup 228/Th granddaughter. The other two conventional counting methods measure the shorth-lived /sup 228/Ac daughter while it remains supported by /sup 228/Ra, thereby avioiding the complex sample processing and the long delay before counting. The first of these, high resolution ..gamma.. spectrometry, offers the simplest processing and an efficiency (4.8%) comparable to ..cap alpha.. spectrometry; yet its high background (0.16 cpm) and substantial equipment cost (approx.$30,000) limit is widespread use.

Orr, J.C.

1988-07-15

476

Particle counting and sizing with LDV for automotive air- filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope of study. Flow non-uniformity in the automotive filter has a great impact on the filter performance. Therefore, study of the flow distribution as well as the dust particle concentration in the filter housing is very important for improvement of automotive filter design. This study focuses on particle counting and sizing techniques with Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and their application

Faqiu Liang

1997-01-01

477

Making Afterschool Count: Communities & Schools Working Together, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the first two issues of a brief (usually 6-page) serial publication highlighting the Making After-School Count initiative, programs across the country wherein communities and schools cooperate to serve children after school hours. The June 1998 issue discusses a teleconference discussion with Vice President Al Gore to…

Beachum-Bilby, Sheila; Seymour, Liz; Krajewski, Fran

1998-01-01

478

Idaho Kids Count, 1998: Profiles of Child Well-Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide and county level trends in the well-being of Idaho's children. The statistical portrait is based on 15 indicators of well-being: (1) child poverty rate; (2) percent of single-parent families with children under 18; (3) infant mortality rate; (4) percent of low birthweight infants; (5) percent of mothers…

Idaho KIDS COUNT Project, Boise.

479

New York State Touchstones/KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book examines trends in the well-being of New York's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general areas of children's well-being: (1) economic security; (2) physical and emotional health; (3) education; (4) citizenship; (5) family; and (6) community. Following an introductory section which describes the features…

Bogardus, Frank, Ed.; Chavis, Karen, Ed.; Donohue, Patti, Ed.; McLain, Ford, Ed.; Rider, Renee, Ed.

480

Efficient top-k count queries over imprecise duplicates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose ecient techniques for processing various Top- K count queries on data with noisy duplicates. Our method diers from existing work on duplicate elimination in two significant ways: First, we dedup on the fly only the part of the data needed for the answer — a requirement in massive and evolving sources where batch deduplication is expen- sive. The

Sunita Sarawagi; Vinay S. Deshpande; Sourabh Kasliwal

2009-01-01

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