Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count
2013-01-01
Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/?L3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ? C) ? (B ? D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560
Choi, Chel Hun; Kang, Heeseok; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Gie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Duk-Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: huna0@naver.com
2008-05-01
Purpose: This study examined factors predicting tumor response and progression-free survival in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 143 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2 to IVA) treated with CCRT were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to retrospectively evaluate prognostic factors, including baseline lymphocyte count, that affect tumor response and progression-free survival. Results: Of the variables evaluated, greater baseline lymphocyte count was the factor most predictive of a complete clinical response, followed by smaller tumor size (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed baseline lymphocyte count, which was treated as a continuous variable with every 1 x 10{sup 9} lymphocytes/L, to remain a prognostic factor with an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-7.23). In addition, a statistically significant association (p = 0.023) was found between baseline lymphocyte count and progression-free survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.89) in the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients and possible biologic variation existing in lymphocyte subset number and activity, these findings highlight the strong prognostic value of baseline lymphocyte count in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT. Therefore, a larger number of patients and analysis of lymphocyte subsets are needed.
Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean
2005-10-05
Landowners and managers need a way of estimating quail populations to determine whether quail management practices are successful. Several direct and indirect methods of counting quail are described, including roadside counts, helicopter surveys...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ms. Popwell
2010-09-20
Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...
Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts: ASR hip resurfacing prosthesis vs. standard THA
2013-01-01
Background and purpose Wear particles from metal–on–metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above–average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts. Method In a randomized controlled trial, we followed 19 RHA patients and 19 THA patients. Lymphocyte subsets and chromium and cobalt ion concentrations were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, at 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years. Results The T–lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2–year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3+CD8+ in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of –0.04 × 109cells/year (95% CI: –0.08 to –0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect of cobalt ions in particular on T–cells with 2–year whole–blood cobalt regression coefficients for CD3+ of –0.10 (95% CI: –0.16 to –0.04) × 109 cells/parts per billion (ppb), for CD3+CD4+ of –0.06 (–0.09 to –0.03) × 109 cells/ppb, and for CD3+CD8+ of –0.02 (–0.03 to –0.00) × 109 cells/ppb. Interpretation Circulating T–lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions—particularly cobalt—may have a general depressive effect on T– and B–lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762 PMID:23597114
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischer, G. L.; Daniels, J. C.; Levin, W. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Cobb, E. K.; Ritzmann, S. E.
1972-01-01
The present studies were undertaken to assess the effects of the environment of space flights on the cellular division of the human immune system. Peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte counts were determined at various preflight and postflight intervals for the 21 crewmen of Apollo Missions 7-13. Mean lymphocyte numbers tended to exhibit a delayed significant but fluctuating increase shortly after recovery, although a variety of responses was seen in individual astronauts. The in vitro reactivity of lymphocytes, reflected by RNA and DNA synthesis rates by unstimulated and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes tissue-cultured preflight and postflight from the same participants, was found to remain within previously established normal ranges. These results indicate that functional integrity of cellular immune potential as reflected by in vitro techniques is maintained during this spaceflight experience.
Khatri, Bhupendra O; Garland, Jeffery; Berger, Joseph; Kramer, John; Sershon, Lisa; Olapo, Tayo; Sesing, Jean; Dukic, Mary; Rehn, Eileen
2015-07-01
Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) is an effective therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our study suggests that this drug may have immunosuppressive properties evidenced by significant sustained reduction in CD8 lymphocyte counts and, to a lesser extent, CD4 lymphocyte counts. This observation is relevant in light of the recent case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient receiving this drug. PMID:26195059
NSDL National Science Digital Library
thorsen
2012-11-24
We are learning about money and how to count coins. We need to learn about coins so we can pay for things we need to buy. These activities will help you practice counting money. Remember to record your learning as you work! Coin Paper We have been learning about coins. Listen to the coin song to remember the names of U.S. coins. U.S. Coin Song Before we can count coins, we need to know the names of the different coins and how much each coin is worth. Click the link below to review ...
Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk, soy milk, yogurt, and ice cream Beans, ...
Absolute monocyte and lymphocyte count prognostic score for patients with gastric cancer
Eo, Wan Kyu; Jeong, Da Wun; Chang, Hye Jung; Won, Kyu Yeoun; Choi, Sung Il; Kim, Se Hyun; Chun, Sung Wook; Oh, Young Lim; Lee, Tae Hwa; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Ki Hyung; Ji, Yong Il; Kim, Ari; Kim, Heung Yeol
2015-01-01
AIM: To measure the prognostic significance of absolute monocyte count/absolute lymphocyte count prognostic score (AMLPS) in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the combination of absolute monocyte count (AMC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) as prognostic variables in a cohort of 299 gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2013 and were followed at a single institution. Both AMC and ALC were dichotomized into two groups using cut-off points determined by receiving operator characteristic curve analysis. An AMLPS was generated, which stratified patients into three risk groups: low risk (both low AMC and high ALC), intermediate risk (either high AMC or low ALC), and high risk (both high AMC and low ALC). The primary objective of the study was to validate the impact of AMLPS on both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), and the second objective was to assess the AMLPS as an independent prognostic factor for survival in comparison with known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Using data from the entire cohort, the most discriminative cut-off values of AMC and ALC selected on the receiver operating characteristic curve were 672.4/?L and 1734/?L for DFS and OS. AMLPS risk groups included 158 (52.8%) patients in the low-risk, 128 (42.8%) in the intermediate-risk, and 13 (4.3%) in the high-risk group. With a median follow-up of 37.2 mo (range: 1.7-91.4 mo), five-year DFS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 83.4%, 78.7%, and 19.8%, respectively. And five-year OS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 89.3%, 81.1%, and 14.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis performed with patient- and tumor-related factors, we identified AMLPS, age, and pathologic tumor-node-metastasis stage as the most valuable prognostic factors impacting DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: AMLPS identified patients with a poor DFS and OS, and it was independent of age, pathologic stage, and various inflammatory markers. PMID:25759535
Affusim, Christopher; Abah, Vivien; Kesieme, Emeka B.; Anyanwu, Kester; Salami, Taofik A. T.; Eifediyi, Reuben
2013-01-01
Objective. To assess the radiographic features in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and the association with CD4 lymphocyte count and sputum smear. Method. A prospective study was carried out on 89 HIV positive patients with PTB. The demographics, smoking history, sputum smear result, chest radiographic findings and CD4 lymphocyte count were documented. Results. Out of the 89 patients recruited in the study, 41 were males and 48 were females. Eighteen (18) patients had typical radiographic features, 60 patients had atypical radiographic features while only 11 of them had normal radiographic films. Sixty eight (68) patients had CD4 count <200?cells/mm3, 19 patients had CD4 count between 200–499?cells/mm3, while only 2 patients had CD4 count from 500?cells/mm3 upwards. The association between low CD4 count and radiographic finding was statistically significant, (P value <0.05). Sixty (60) patients had negative sputum smear for Acid and Alcohol Fast Bacilli (AAFB), while the remaining 29 patients had positive smear. The association between low CD4 count and negative smear was statistically significant (P value <0.05). Conclusion. The radiographic pattern and the result of the sputum smear for AAFB has a significant relationship and association with the immune status of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:23431432
Affusim, Christopher; Abah, Vivien; Kesieme, Emeka B; Anyanwu, Kester; Salami, Taofik A T; Eifediyi, Reuben
2013-01-01
Objective. To assess the radiographic features in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and the association with CD4 lymphocyte count and sputum smear. Method. A prospective study was carried out on 89 HIV positive patients with PTB. The demographics, smoking history, sputum smear result, chest radiographic findings and CD4 lymphocyte count were documented. Results. Out of the 89 patients recruited in the study, 41 were males and 48 were females. Eighteen (18) patients had typical radiographic features, 60 patients had atypical radiographic features while only 11 of them had normal radiographic films. Sixty eight (68) patients had CD4 count <200?cells/mm(3), 19 patients had CD4 count between 200-499?cells/mm(3), while only 2 patients had CD4 count from 500?cells/mm(3) upwards. The association between low CD4 count and radiographic finding was statistically significant, (P value <0.05). Sixty (60) patients had negative sputum smear for Acid and Alcohol Fast Bacilli (AAFB), while the remaining 29 patients had positive smear. The association between low CD4 count and negative smear was statistically significant (P value <0.05). Conclusion. The radiographic pattern and the result of the sputum smear for AAFB has a significant relationship and association with the immune status of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:23431432
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary
1998-01-01
Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurley, Dana M.
2014-11-01
I am a counter by nature. I count things as an effective way to occupy my mind. How many people are in this room? How many are women? How many are wearing glasses? How many people are using a Mac versus a PC?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
areese
2008-09-25
Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...
Rathunde, L; Kussen, G M B; Beltrame, M P; Dalla Costa, L M; Raboni, S M
2014-11-01
CD4?+?lymphocyte counts are routinely ordered during the early phases of antiretroviral therapy and for prophylaxis of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients. Flow cytometry is the standard methodology for CD4 counts in Brazilian reference laboratories. However, these laboratories are located in large cities, frequently distant from patients, thus limiting patient access and delaying results. We compared a point-of-care test with flow cytometry determination of CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts in HIV patients. We analysed 107 consecutive samples by both methods. Overall, the point-of-care test performed well, with excellent agreement between it and the standard method. Test results were concordant for patients with CD4(+) T lymphocyte values above and below 200 cells/mm?(3). The performance characteristics obtained were sensitivity 94% (95% CI 89.5-98.5%), specificity 93% (95% CI 88.2-97.8%), positive predictive value 86% (95% CI 79.4-92.6%), and negative predictive value 97% (95% CI 94-100%). The high sensitivity and specificity of the point-of-care test methodology suggest its utility as an alternative method for rapid measurement of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients with limited access to reference laboratories, enabling prompt therapeutic intervention for patients at risk of progression to AIDS. PMID:24616116
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2013-07-30
In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.
Kim, Haesook T; Armand, Philippe; Frederick, David; Andler, Emily; Cutler, Corey; Koreth, John; Alyea, Edwin P; Antin, Joseph H; Soiffer, Robert J; Ritz, Jerome; Ho, Vincent T
2015-05-01
Immune reconstitution is critical for clinical outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To determine the impact of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery on clinical outcomes, we conducted a retrospective study of 1109 adult patients who underwent a first allogeneic HSCT from 2003 through 2009, excluding patients who died or relapsed before day 30. The median age was 51 years (range, 18 to 74) with 52% undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning and 48% undergoing myeloablative conditioning HSCT with T cell-replete peripheral blood stem cells (93.7%) or marrow (6.4%) grafts. The median follow-up time was 6 years. To determine the threshold value of ALC for survival, the entire cohort was randomly split into a training set and a validation set in a 1:1 ratio, and then a restricted cubic spline smoothing method was applied to obtain relative hazard estimates of the relationship between ALC at 1 month and log hazard of progression-free survival (PFS). Based on this approach, ALC was categorized as ?.2 × 10(9) cells/L (low) or >.2 × 10(9) cells/L. For patients with low ALC at 1, 2, or 3 months after HSCT, the overall survival (OS) (P ? .0001) and PFS (P ? .0002) were significantly lower and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (P ? .002) was significantly higher compared with patients with ALC > .2 × 10(9) cells/L at each time point. When patients who had low ALC at 1, 2, or 3 months after HSCT were grouped together and compared, their outcomes were inferior to those of patients who had ALC > .2 × 10(9) cells/L at 1, 2, and 3 months after HSCT: the 5-year OS for patients with low ALC was 28% versus 46% for patients with ALC > .2 × 10(9) cells/L, P < .0001; the 5-year PFS was 21% versus 39%, P < .0001, respectively and 5-year NRM was 40% versus 18%, P < .0001, respectively. This result remained consistent when other prognostic factors, including occurrence of grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), were adjusted for in multivariable Cox models stratified by conditioning intensity: hazard ratio (HR) for OS: 1.52; P ? .0001; for PFS: 1.42; P = .0008; and for NRM: 2.4 P < .0001 for patients with low ALC. Low ALC was not significantly associated with relapse (HR, 1.01; P = .92) in the multivariable model. Low ALC early after HSCT is an independent risk factor for increased NRM and poor survival independent of grade II to IV acute GVHD. PMID:25623931
Herishanu, Yair; Kay, Sigi; Sarid, Nadav; Kohan, Pedram; Braunstein, Rony; Rotman, Rachel; Deutsch, Varda; Ben-Ezra, Jonathan; Naparstek, Elizabeth; Perry, Chava; Katz, Ben-Zion
2013-10-01
Peripheral absolute monocyte count (AMC) has been reported to correlate with clinical outcome in different types of cancers. This association may relate to alteration in circulating monocytic subpopulations and tumor infiltrating macrophages. In this study we evaluated the clinical significance of peripheral AMC in 80 treatment naive patients with CLL. Measurement of AMC was based on direct morphological enumeration, due to our findings that complete blood count data may yield incorrect monocytes enumeration values in CLL. The median AMC in patients with CLL was within normal limits, however the AMC range exceeded the values of healthy individuals. The AMC trichotomized patients into 3 distinct sub-groups with different characteristics and outcomes. High AMC patients were younger and had higher absolute lymphocytes count, while patients with low AMC had prominent immune dysregulation (lower serum IgA levels, susceptibility to infections and a tendency for positive direct anti-globulin test). The low and high AMC patients had a shorter time to treatment compared to the intermediates AMC subgroups, whereas low AMC was associated with increased mortality caused by infectious complications. In conclusion, AMC quantification during the disease course classifies CLL patients into subgroups with unique clinical features and outcomes. PMID:23937985
Uncertainty of nuclear counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pommé, S.; Fitzgerald, R.; Keightley, J.
2015-06-01
Nuclear counting is affected by pulse pileup and system dead time, which induce rate-related count loss and alter the statistical properties of the counting process. Fundamental equations are presented to predict deviations from Poisson statistics due to non-random count loss in nuclear counters and spectrometers. Throughput and dispersion of counts are studied for systems with pileup, extending and non-extending dead time, before and also after compensation for count loss. Equations are provided for random fractions of the output events, applicable to spectrometry applications. Methods for loss compensation are discussed, including inversion of the throughput equation, live-time counting and loss-free counting. Secondary effects in live-time counting are addressed: residual interference from pileup in systems with imposed dead times and errors due to varying count rate when measuring short-lived radionuclides.
All about Carbohydrate Counting
All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued • If the total carbohydrate ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny
1981-01-01
Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)
Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi
2015-01-01
Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030
Wang, Jian; Liang, Biyan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Liran; Deng, Xin; Li, Xiuhui; Fang, Lu; Tan, Xinghua; Mao, Yuxiang; Zhang, Guoliang; Wang, Yuguang
2014-09-01
This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) by observing the changes in CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count of 110 cases with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated continuously with TCM for 84 months. Information of 110 HIV/AIDS patients from 19 provinces and cities treated with TCM from 2004 to 2013 was collected. Changes in the indexes of CD4 counts ( ? 200, 201-350, 351-500 and > 500 cells/mm(3)) at five time points (0, 12, 36, 60 and 84 months) and different treatments [TCM and TCM plus antiretroviral therapy (ART)] were compared. Repeated measures test indicated no interaction between group and time (P > 0.05). Degrees of increasing and decreasing CD4 count of the two groups at four different frames were statistically significant compared with the baseline. The CD4 count between the two groups was not statistically significant. For CD4 count of ? 200 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were 21 and 28 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of 201-350 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were 6 and 25 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of 351-500 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were -13 and -7 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of > 500 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were -34 and -17 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. Long-term use of TCM could maintain or slow the pace of declining CD4 counts in patients with HIV/AIDS, and may achieve lasting effectiveness. PMID:25190350
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Florida Center for Instructional Technology Clipart ETC
2010-07-19
This collection contains over 630 clipart images that can be used for counting. There are Florida-themed flash cards for numbers 0 - 10 offered in English, Spanish, and bilingual options. Illustrations of hands depicting finger counting in both American style (beginning with the index finger) and European style (beginning with the thumb) are available. There are also images of 3-dimensional designs made of cubes and illustrations of bundles of sticks and dominoes for teaching skip-counting, addition, and place value.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Nancy Saslow
2013-01-01
In this 6-minute video Theresa Tse's grade 1 students develop strategies for counting to 100 and beyond as they engage in activities designed to help them understand the structure of our number system. They participate in choral skip counting, counting collections of objects, grouping, and finding complements to 100. The page includes viewer reflection questions and a link to a transcript of the video (doc).
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Mrs. Christian
2007-03-21
Students will identify and add up coins. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Counting Money - Values of coins Game #2:Counting Money (harder) Game #3: Let s Compare (hardest) Game #4: Money Hard Game #5: Cash Out--Very Difficult Math Game ...
Daniel, Volker; Naujokat, Cord; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Zimmermann, Rainer; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Opelz, Gerhard
2008-01-01
We investigated dendritic cell (DC) subsets as well as cellular and humoral immune parameters in long-term HIV-infected hemophilia patients with clinically stable disease. DC subsets were determined by their function to produce either IL-10 or IL-12. CD11c(+)CD83(+)CD40(+)IL-10(+) and CD11c(+)CD83(+)CD40(+)IL-12(+) DC were studied in freshly obtained blood samples of 28 HIV(+) and 15 HIV(-) patients and 39 healthy controls using four-color flow cytometry, and were analyzed in relation to blood lymphocyte subpopulation counts, proportions of IgG-coated CD4(+) blood lymphocytes, neopterin, and HIV-1 viral load in the plasma, and in vitro responses of patient lymphocytes to mitogens. Proportions and ratios of IL-10(+) DC and IL-12(+) DC were similar in HIV(+) and HIV(-) patients and healthy controls. Whereas IL-12(+) DC in HIV(+) patients were associated with high CD3(+)CD4(-)DR(+) lymphocyte counts, IL-10(+) DC were associated with the proportion of IgG-coated CD4(+) blood lymphocytes. These data suggest that long-term HIV-infected hemophilia patients with clinically stable disease have normal levels of functional IL-10(+) DC and IL-12(+) DC that might be involved in halting the progression of disease. PMID:17879005
Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Phuang-Ngern, Yuwadee; Sukapirom, Kasama; Lerdwana, Surada; Thepthai, Charin; Tassaneetrithep, Boonrat
2008-12-01
Enumeration of CD4+ T lymphocytes is important in management of HIV-infected patients. However, CD4 testing by current gold standard bead-based flow cytometer (FCM) system is expensive for developing countries. This study compared 2 affordable volumetric FCMs with the 3 predicate FCM systems. CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts on blood samples from 150 HIV-1-infected Thai patients were determined in parallel by 5 FCM systems: the 2 single-platform volumetric FCM systems, Guava and CyFlow(green); the 2 standard single-platform bead-based systems (2-color FACSCount and the TriTEST/TruCOUNT tube using a FACSCalibur FCM); and the dual-platform TriTEST system. Correlation and agreement were analyzed using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Results from these 2 volumetric systems gave similar results and excellent correlation: R2 > 0.93; mean biases ranged from +6.3 to +24.1 cells per microliter more for the Guava. In contrast, the CyFlow(green) showed the lowest values with R2 > 0.97; mean biases ranged from -9.8 to -27.6 cells per microliter. This indicates that the absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts determined by CyFlow(green) are < FACSCount < DP TriTEST < TriTEST/TruCOUNT < Guava. Although the use of these 2 volumetric FCMs could make CD4+ T-lymphocyte enumeration more affordable in resource-poor settings, variations among these systems should be considered if these are to be interchanged. PMID:19186347
Counting Statistics I. ESSENTIAL EQUATIONS
Kavanagh, Karen L.
) For M radioactive decay events (ie. M counts), the standard deviation is M , in other words T counts (Total counts) and B counts for the background in the same time interval t, N the net counts due is reported as % error in the output of Liquid Scintillation Counters. The quantity S in Eqs. (6a) and (b
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.
2013-01-01
To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.
... some degree of bone marrow dysfunction or failure, involvement by tumor, and/or a deficiency of certain nutrients (e.g., iron, vitamin B12, folate) or erythropoietin . A low reticulocyte count with anemia may be seen, for ...
Springer, W H
1996-02-01
An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach. PMID:10165241
NSDL National Science Digital Library
HawkCount is an online database that facilitates the tracking and reporting of raptor migrations. It includes site reports from hawk-watch sites in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Materials include an interactive map that provides links to hawk-watch sites; location maps and general information on watch sites; a summary of recent reports; and day and monthly summaries of counts by site.
Obesity and Immune Cell Counts in Women
Womack, Julie; Tien, Phyllis C.; Feldman, Joseph; Shin, Ja Hyun; Fennie, Kristopher; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge H.; Bacon, Melanie C.; Minkoff, Howard
2007-01-01
Objective Obesity is common in women and associated with a number of adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases, and cancer. We explore the relationship between obesity and immune cell counts in women. Design Longitudinal study of 322 women from 1999 through 2003 enrolled as HIV-negative comparators in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Methods Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (BMI 18.5 - 24.9), overweight (BMI 25 - 29.9), obese (BMI 30 - 34.9), and morbid obesity (BMI ?35). CD4 and CD8 counts and percents, total lymphocyte and white blood cell (WBC) counts were measured annually using standardized techniques. A mixed model repeated measures analysis was performed using an autoregressive correlation matrix. Results At the index visit, 61% of women were African-American; mean age was 35 years, and median BMI was 29 kg/m2. Immunologic parameters were in the normal range (median CD4 count: 995 cells/mm3; CD8 count: 488 cells/mm3; total lymphocyte count: 206 cells/mm3; median WBC: 6 × 103 cells/mm3). In multivariate analyses, being overweight, obese or morbidly obese were independently associated with higher CD4, total lymphocyte, and WBC counts than being normal weight; morbid obesity was associated with a higher CD8 count. The strongest associations between body weight and immune cell counts were demonstrated in the morbidly obese. Conclusion Increasing body weight is associated with higher CD4, CD8, total lymphocyte, and WBC counts in women. Investigation into the impact of obesity on immune function and long term adverse outcomes is needed. PMID:17570264
Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting
Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)
1987-01-01
An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.
Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting
Swansen, J.E.
1985-03-05
An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.
Fernandes, Michelle S; Bhat, Ramesh M
2015-05-01
In this study, 100 HIV-positive cases (63 men, 37 women) with skin findings were included. The mean CD4 T cell count was 253?cells/mm(3). A total of 235 dermatological manifestations were seen. The common infectious dermatoses were candidiasis (21%), Staphylococcal skin infections (20%), dermatophytoses (14%) and herpes zoster (6%). Among the non-infectious dermatoses were papular pruritic eruptions (20%), xerosis/ichthyosis (20%) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (16%). Statistically significant association (p?count was seen in pyodermas, dermatophytoses and papular pruritic eruptions. Adverse drug reactions, diffuse hair loss, straightening of hairs and pigmentary changes were also noted. Although there was an absence of Kaposi's sarcoma in our study, a case of verrucous carcinoma of penis was noted. PMID:25015936
Richmond, L B
2008-01-01
An abelian square is a string of length 2n where the last n symbols form a permutation of the first n symbols. In this note we count the number of abelian squares and give an asymptotic estimate of this quantity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.
2014-01-01
Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2010-01-01
In this activity, based on the picture book "Counting on Frank" by Rod Clement, students explore and compare the volume of different containers using standard and non-standard units of measure. Through this activity students develop an understanding of why standard units may be preferable to non-standard units. The activity includes a suggested lesson sequence with guide questions throughout.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bronsil, Matt
2005-01-01
This article discusses how children learn to understand the decimal system in very concrete ways, while having fun using beads. When counting the beads, the children learn 5,491 is not simply "five thousand four hundred and ninety-one" but actually 5 thousands, 4 hundreds, 9 tens, and 1 unit. They begin to understand that as they get 10 units,…
Chilek, Kevin; Gregory, Elizabeth
2004-01-27
This exhibitor card identifies young livestock exhibitors as participants in the Quality Counts! program. The card is printed with a leather-style background on heavy card stock. It features the 4-H clover and the FFA logo, as well as the logo...
Cardinality, Counting, and Equinumerosity
Richard G. Heck Jr.
2000-01-01
Frege, famously, held that there is a close connection between our concept of cardinal number and the notion of one-one correspondence, a con- nection enshrined in Hume's Principle. Husserl, and later Parsons, objected that there is no such close connection, that our most primitive conception of cardinal- ity arises from our grasp of the practice of counting. Some empirical work
Compressed Counting We propose Compressed Counting (CC) for approximating
Jornsten, Rebecka
Compressed Counting Ping Li Abstract We propose Compressed Counting (CC) for approximating the th estimator of CC has asymptotic variance = | - 1|, capturing the intuition that the complexity should 0 CC requires O 1 log(1
NSDL National Science Digital Library
OMSI
2004-01-01
In this activity, learners sort and count different colored plastic dinosaurs by various attributes including tail length, whether or not the dinosaurs have horns, etc. Learners discuss the basis of their sorting, describe individual dinosaurs as well as groups and count the whole as well as subsets of the whole. This identification, sorting and grouping based on different traits (physical attributes, diet, habitat) provides a strong foundation for the development of the concept of species. The lesson plan also explains that dinosaurs lived a long time ago, but because they are no longer alive today, they are said to be extinct. Reasons for their extinction and the concept of endangered species can be explored.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
UK-based Butterfly Conservation presents the preliminary results of the Garden Butterfly Count (GBC), which enlisted the help of private residents to survey backyard butterflies and moths. Over 11,000 completed survey forms were returned to Butterfly Conservation at the end of the 2002 season, and the Web site provides a brief look at early results and analysis. The information is presented for a general audience, making this Web site an interesting stop for any reader.
every moment countS Our Highlights 2013/14
Bentley, Katie
's tailored to the genetic makeup of each person's cancer. Play to cure Spend a few minutes guidingevery moment countS Our Highlights 2013/14 #12;FOR EVERYONE TOUCHED BY CANCER, EVERY MOMENT COUNTS. ONE DAY WE WILL BEAT CANCER. THROUGH RESEARCH WE WILL MAKE IT SOONER. #12;BEATING CANCER SOONER Half
Intentional Control of Event Counting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Richard A.; Cassenti, Daniel N.
2004-01-01
Event counting depends on simple, well-learned knowledge but is effortful and error-prone. In 6 experiments, the authors examined event-counting performance, testing a model that suggests that counting is controlled by minimal goal representations coordinated with perceptual events by temporal synchrony. In Experiment 1, they examined self-paced…
Region Counting Circles Jean Cardinal
Collette. Sébastien
Region Counting Circles Jean Cardinal§ S´ebastien Collette§ Stefan Langerman§ Abstract The region the number of items of a dataset S contained in a region R(p, q) surrounding p, q. We define region counting class of regions R(p, q), the complexity of a region counting circle of radius k is either at least
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Jayne Hartman
2012-07-23
Help the Third Little Pig skip count to 1,000 bricks in groups of 5. (Note students are not expected to count from 0-1,000 by 5s, but this activity allows them to experience counting within a variety of contexts between 0 and 1,000.)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2006-01-01
This interactive Flash applet supports the exploration of numbers to 100 by simulating a 100-bead string. A teacher or child can move all or some beads to the left or right to add and subtract. The controls allow users to move beads individually or 10 at a time to model different counting and calculation strategies. Users can hide or show the numbers represented by the beads. This applet lends itself well to use on an interactive white board. A pdf guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.
Counting supersymmetric branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleinschmidt, Axel
2011-10-01
Maximal supergravity solutions are revisited and classified, with particular emphasis on objects of co-dimension at most two. This class of solutions includes branes whose tension scales with xxxx. We present a group theory derivation of the counting of these objects based on the corresponding tensor hierarchies derived from E 11 and discrete T- and U-duality transformations. This provides a rationale for the wrapping rules that were recently discussed for ? ? 3 in the literature and extends them. Explicit supergravity solutions that give rise to co-dimension two branes are constructed and analysed.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
TERC
2010-01-01
Learners combine counting, multiples, and number patterns with jumping up and down. To start, pick a counting number. Young learners count by 1’s or 2’s; older children by 5’s or 10’s; for more challenge, learners count by 3’s, 7’s, or 2.5’s. Everyone takes turns saying the next number in the counting sequence and jumps whenever anyone says a number ending in 0. Try adding extra actions: clap your hands on a number with a ‘4’ in it, or hop on each odd number. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.
2014-01-01
Background The aim of clinical laboratories is to produce accurate and reproducible results to enable effective and reliable clinical practice and patient management. The standard approach is to use both internal quality control (IQC) and external quality assessment (EQA). IQC serves, in many instances, as a “go, no go” tool to provide real time assurance that instruments and reagent or test systems are performing within defined specifications. EQA however, takes a snapshot at a specific point in time of the full testing process, results are compared to other laboratories performing similar testing but inevitably has some built in delay from sample issue to performance data review. In addition, if IQC or EQA identify areas of concern it can be difficult to determine the exact nature of the problem. In an attempt to address this problem, we have developed an instant QA panel that we have termed VERIQAS™, specifically for CD4+ T lymphocyte counting, and have undertaken a “proof of principle” pilot study to examine how the use of VERIQAS™ could result in improvement of laboratory performance. In addition, we have examined how this approach could be used as a training and education tool (in a domestic/international setting) and potentially be of value in instrument validation/switch studies (a switch study being defined as a laboratory changing from one method/instrument to a new method/instrument with the VERIQAS™ panel being used as an adjunct to their standard switch study protocol). Methods The basic panel consists of 20 stabilized samples, with predefined CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, that span low clinically relevant to normal counts, including some blinded replicates (singlet up to quadruplicate combinations). The CD4+ T lymphocyte target values for each specimen is defined as the trimmed mean ± 2 trimmed standard deviations, where the trimmed values are derived from the CD4+ T lymphocyte counts reported by the participating centers (~780 laboratories) that receive each UK NEQAS for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping send out. Results for the VERIQAS™ panel were returned online, via a specially designed website, and the participant was provided with an immediate assessment (pass or fail). Results To date, the panel has been preliminary trialed by eight laboratories to (i) assess pre-EQA qualification (two laboratories); (ii) address performance issues (two laboratories); or (iii) validate new instruments or techniques (four laboratories). Interestingly, even in this pilot study, the panel has been instrumental in identifying specific technical problems in laboratories with EQA performance issues as well as confirming that implementation of new techniques or instruments have been successful. Conclusion We report here a new and novel “proof of principle” pilot study to quality assessment, that we have termed VERIQAS™, designed to provide instant feedback on performance. Participating laboratories receive 20 “blinded” samples that are in singlet up to quadruplicate combinations. Once a centre reports its results via a website, immediate feedback is provided to both the participant and the EQA organizers, enabling, if required, the initiation of targeted remedial action. We have also shown that this approach has the potential to be used as a tool for prequalification, troubleshooting, training and instrument verification. Pilot phase field trials with VERIQAS™ have shown that the panel can highlight laboratory performance problems, such as suboptimal instrument set up, pipetting and gating strategies, in a rapid and efficient manner. VERIQAS™ will now be introduced, where appropriate, as a second phase study within UK NEQAS for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping to assist those laboratories that have performance issues and also made available to laboratories for training and education of staff and instrument validation studies. PMID:21998025
Sergei Gukov
2015-03-04
Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence --- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.
Reduced background scintillation counting
Valenta, R.
1987-03-17
A liquid scintillation system is described for counting sample optical events resulting from the radioactive decay of a constituent of a sample to be measured in a liquid scintillator while reducing the counting of background events which are all optical events other than sample optical events and which are electrical pulses other than electrical pulses representing a sample optical event. The system comprises: detection means located adjacent the sample for detecting optical events and for converting optical events into electrical pulses; coincidence sensing means for receiving the electrical pulses from the plurality of detection means and producing a coincidence signal when the electrical pulses from the plurality of detection means coincide with each other; burst detection means for receiving the coincidence signals from the coincidence sensing means and the electrical pulses from the plurality of detection means for determining the number of electrical pulses present in a selected interval following each of the coincidence signals; and evaluation means connected to the burst detection means for determining, in response to the number of electrical pulses detected in the selected interval, the extent to which the optical event represented by the corresponding coincidence signal should be treated as a sample optical event or a background event.
2013-01-01
Background Field and community evaluation of the routine usage of CD4 T counting platforms is essential in resource-poor countries for efficient and cost-effective monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children attending health care centers. Methods We herein addressed the principal issues raised by the implementation of the single-platform, volumetric Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) in 8 community HIV monitoring laboratories of different levels throughout Chad. This is a country with particularly difficult conditions, both in terms of climate and vast geographical territory, making the decentralization of the therapeutic management of HIV-infected patients challenging. Results The routine usage of the Auto40 flow cytometers for a period of 5 years (2008–2013) confirms the reliability and robustness of the analyzer for community-based CD4 T cell enumeration in terms of both absolute numbers and percentages to enable accurate monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children. However, our observations suggest that the Auto40 mini flow cytometer is not suitable for all laboratories as it is oversized and ultimately very expensive. Conclusion The Chad experience with the Auto40 flow cytometer suggests that its usage in resource-limited settings should be mainly reserved to reference (level 1) or district (level 2) laboratories, rather than to laboratories of health care centres (level 3). PMID:24083615
Kusters, Maaike A A; Gemen, Eugenie F A; Verstegen, Ruud H J; Wever, Peter C; DE Vries, Esther
2010-05-01
Because of their increased malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and infections, patients with Down syndrome (DS) show features of immunodeficiency. The DS thymus and T lymphocyte subsets have indeed proven to be different, and this has been interpreted as precocious aging. Our study on T lymphocyte subpopulations in DS shows that the normal expansion of naive helper (CD4CD45RA) and cytotoxic (CD8CD45RACD27) T lymphocytes is lacking in the first years of life; this is more logically explainable with an intrinsic T lymphocyte defect. Furthermore, memory cell numbers are not different from age-matched controls (AMC), which does not support the hypothesis of precocious aging. Although the absolute numbers of T lymphocyte subpopulations approach AMC levels toward adulthood, the persistent clinical problems suggest that these cells may not function optimally. However, the clinical picture does not fit severe T lymphocyte deficiency. The latter concept is also supported by our finding that cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive DS children show similar numbers of terminally differentiated cytotoxic T lymphocytes when compared with healthy children, not increased numbers as are seen in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:20098345
Counting on Using a Number Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Betts, Paul
2015-01-01
Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…
Kids Count [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1998.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Wilson, Nancy, Ed.
This Kids Count report is combined with Families Count, and provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The first statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen deaths; (6) juvenile…
Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate
Millard, H.T., Jr.
1984-01-01
Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.
AN AUTOMATED MOSQUITO COUNTING TRAP
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
An automated mosquito counting trap has been designed and tested in laboratory cages. It employs a custom designed infrared beam sensor head retrofit into a commercial counter-flow technology trap (MM-X, American Biophysics Corp.). The trap provides time-stamped insect counts that can be downloaded...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McConkey, Roy; McEvoy, John
1986-01-01
Table games with special dice can help children with severe learning difficulties to improve their basic number skills (rote counting, numeral recognition, and counting out a quantity of objects from 1-200. Field testing supported the value of such games with 9- to 18-year-olds with moderate mental handicaps. (CL)
Hanford whole body counting manual
Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.
1987-05-01
This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.
Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)
2006-05-20
How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts
The origins of counting algorithms.
Cantlon, Jessica F; Piantadosi, Steven T; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Barnard, Allison M
2015-06-01
Humans' ability to count by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. First, they saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set was approximately equal to the first set, the monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before that cache was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that the monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm for comparing quantities in sequence that is incremental, iterative, and condition controlled. This proto-counting algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. PMID:25953949
Understanding RFID Counting Protocols Binbin Chen
Yu, Haifeng
Understanding RFID Counting Protocols Binbin Chen Advanced Digital Sciences Center binbin of Singapore haifeng@comp.nus.edu.sg December 2013 Abstract Counting the number of RFID tags, or RFID counting of RFID counting (i.e., to reduce the time needed to do the counting). This paper aims to gain deeper
Counting Triangles to Sum Squares
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeMaio, Joe
2012-01-01
Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.
Counting Graylings on the Tundra
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Carol Landis
This article profiles Linda Deegan, scientist with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site in the Kuparuk River region of Alaska, as she counts and tags Arctic grayling as they migrate from streams to lakes in the fall.
Balpardo, C; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P
2010-01-01
The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6 %) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital Coincidence Counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid Scintillation Counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and Defined Solid Angle Counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.
C. Balpardo; M. E. Capoulat; D. Rodrigues; P. Arenillas
2010-05-10
The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6 %) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital Coincidence Counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid Scintillation Counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and Defined Solid Angle Counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.
Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.
Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.
2010-07-01
We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.
Hanford whole body counting manual
Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.
1990-06-01
This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.
Berberi, Antoine; Noujeim, Ziad
2015-01-01
Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS patients and to determine their associations with plasma levels of CD4+, CD8+ count and CD4/CD8 ratio. Study design a descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and duration Unit of Odontology, St-Antoine Hospital, a two year period study. Methodology In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 50 patients with a proven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were evaluated. Based on the clinical findings and CD4+, CD8+ counts, the relationships between oral lesions and CD4+, CD8+ cell count and CD4/CD8 ratio were evaluated. Results The CD4+ count (cells/mm3) was < 200, 200–500, and > 500 in 32 cases (64%), 16 cases (32%) and 2 cases (4%) respectively, and the mean CD4+ count was 167.12 cells/mm3. The mean CD8+ count (cells/mm3) was 979.66 cells/mm3 and the mean CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.25. All patients showed at least one oral manifestation. The most common oral lesion identified was pseudo membranous candidiasis accounting for 76% (38/50) followed by periodontal disease 34% (17/50), herpetic lesions and hairy leukoplakia 10% for each (5/50), gingivitis 8% (4/50), oral ulceration 8% (4/50), Kaposi’s sarcoma 6% (3/50), and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2% (1/50). Conclusion The CD4+ count was decreasing the presence and the severity of oral lesions was increasing in this study. No relation was found between the presence of oral lesion and CD4/CD8 ratio. The presence of oral lesions may lead to a positive diagnostic of HIV. Disease progression is characterized by increased prevalence of some oral lesions as candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia and Kaposi sarcoma. The severity of oral lesions was more pronounced with a CD4+ count <200 cells/mm3. PMID:25750864
GalaxyCount: Galaxy counts and variance calculator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Ellis, Simon
2013-12-01
GalaxyCount calculates the number and standard deviation of galaxies in a magnitude limited observation of a given area. The methods to calculate both the number and standard deviation may be selected from different options. Variances may be computed for circular, elliptical and rectangular window functions.
Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salley, Valerie
This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…
Carbon fiber counting. [aircraft structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pride, R. A.
1980-01-01
A method was developed for characterizing the number and lengths of carbon fibers accidentally released by the burning of composite portions of civil aircraft structure in a jet fuel fire after an accident. Representative samplings of carbon fibers collected on transparent sticky film were counted from photographic enlargements with a computer aided technique which also provided fiber lengths.
Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boeke, Kaye
This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…
Maryland KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.
This Kids Count factbook is the fifth to examine statewide and county trends in the well-being of Maryland's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the domains of economic well-being, good health, safety, and preparing for adulthood. The 16 indicators are: (1) child poverty; (2) child support; (3) births to teens; (4) low…
Response Count 0skipped question
Suri, Manil
American/American Indian Race:Ethnicity: African American Asian/Pacific Islander Caucasian/White Hispanic/Latino Multi-Racial Native American/American Indian Prefer not to answer #12;Response Percent Response Count 0/Pacific Islander Prefer not to answer Race:Ethnicity: Hispanic/Latino answered question African American Native
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Charbonneau, David D.
2001-01-01
On Friday, Commerce Secretary Don Evans announced that he, not the Census Bureau, would make the final call on whether to adjust the 2000 Census results to include the estimated undercount of just above one percent. This set off a storm of criticism from congressional Democrats who claimed the Bush administration was politicizing the Census count. (Most analysts believe that an adjusted count will lead to re-districtings favoring the Democrat's chances in the next congressional election.) The White House countered that such a decision is mandated to the appointed representatives of the elected President, not to bureaucrats. Former President Clinton had given the final say to the Director of the Census Bureau, ostensibly to de-politicize the process. But with re-districting stakes so high, it is unlikely that either Republicans or Democrats are ready to approach this issue as one of mere statistics. Indeed, the controversy of the last few years over sampling (a process whereby the Census Bureau makes statistical estimates of uncounted households using surveys of counted ones) has already made the issue the subject of two Supreme Court rulings. The acting director of the Census must make his recommendations by the first of March. Secretary Evans will issue a decision and final count by March 5th.
KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.
This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…
South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holmes, A. Baron
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…
South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holmes, A. Baron
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…
Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon
This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…
Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.
This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…
Counting a Culture of Mealworms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ashbrook, Peggy
2007-01-01
Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…
Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.
Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W
2014-05-26
Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. PMID:24862513
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-01-01
This interactive Flash applet supports the exploration of early number. A child or teacher can place a number of objects on the screen and then move the objects to group them, drag them onto a number line or track, into a hoop to create sets of objects, or into a 10 by 10 grid. This applet lends itself well to group work with a projector. Clicking on the info button allows the user to mouse over items to learn how to use them.
Leukocyte count differences in healthy white and black children 1 to 5 years of age.
Caramihai, E; Karayalcin, G; Aballi, A J; Lanzkowsky, P
1975-02-01
A group of 150 healthy American black children were found to have neutrophil counts significantly lower than those of a similar group of healthy American white children. Absolute lymphocyte counts were similar in the black and white children. The lower neutrophil counts in black children may represent a genetic or hitherto unidentified acquired differences. PMID:1111693
Constraint counting for frictional jamming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quint, D. A.; Henkes, S.; Schwarz, J. M.
2012-02-01
While the frictionless jamming transition has been intensely studied in recent years, more realistic frictional packings are less well understood. In frictionless sphere packings, the transition is predicted by a simple mean-field constraint counting argument, the isostaticity argument. For frictional packings, a modified constraint counting argument, which includes slipping contacts at the Coulomb threshold, has had limited success in accounting for the transition. We propose that the frictional jamming transition is not mean field and is triggered by the nucleation of unstable regions, which are themselves dynamical objects due to the Coulomb criterion. We create frictional packings using MD simulations and test for the presence and shape of rigid clusters with the pebble game to identify the partition of the packing into stable and unstable regions. To understand the dynamics of these unstable regions we follow perturbations at contacts crucial to the stability of the ``frictional house of cards.''
Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts
Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.
2011-01-01
Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437
Chanier, Thomas
2013-01-01
The Maya had a very elaborate and accurate calendar. First, the Mayan Long Count Calendar (LCC) was used to point historical events from a selected "beginning of time". It is also characterized by the existence of a religious month Tzolk'in of 260 days and a civic year Haab' of 365 days. The LCC is supposed to begin on 11 August -3114 BC known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 corresponding to a period of approximately 5125 years or 13 Baktun. We propose here to explain the origin the 13 Baktun cycle, the Long Count Periods and the religious month Tzolk'in.
Student Observation Network: Star Count
NSDL National Science Digital Library
In this hands-on activity, students investigate whether people in different parts of the world see the same number of stars. They will learn how to construct a viewing tube, use it to count the stars in random samples of sky, make calculations, and record the data. They will then share their data online with other students from all over the world to find out why differences might occur.
Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.
Erd?s, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos
2015-01-01
In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, interactive line graphs allowing users to compare indicators from up to eight areas, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. Users can download all of the raw data files for 1999 in a compressed .zip file or they may download raw data files individually as either a MS Excel spreadsheet file (.xls) or a comma-delimited text file (.csv).
Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations
2015-01-01
In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994
7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...
7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...
7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...
7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...
7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...
Understanding and Reducing Crater Counting Errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tar, P. D.; Thacker, N. A.
2015-05-01
We propose a crater counting model which incorporates uncertainties from false positive and false negative crater detections. We show how binomial statistics and Linear Poisson Models can be used to better understand and to reduce counting errors.
Counting Majorana zero modes in superconductors
Santos, Luiz
A counting formula for computing the number of (Majorana) zero modes bound to topological point defects is evaluated in a gradient expansion for systems with charge-conjugation symmetry. This semi-classical counting of ...
Modeling and Simulation of Count Data
Plan, E L
2014-01-01
Count data, or number of events per time interval, are discrete data arising from repeated time to event observations. Their mean count, or piecewise constant event rate, can be evaluated by discrete probability distributions from the Poisson model family. Clinical trial data characterization often involves population count analysis. This tutorial presents the basics and diagnostics of count modeling and simulation in the context of pharmacometrics. Consideration is given to overdispersion, underdispersion, autocorrelation, and inhomogeneity. PMID:25116273
Counting by ones, twos, and tens
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Mrs. Christian
2007-03-21
There are 2 connect the dot activities (counting by 2\\'s) and a missing number game. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: #1 Connect the dots. Game #2: #2 Connect the dots. Game #3: Pick the number that is missing. Game #4:Ant Parade--Skip Counting Game #5:The Counting Game--Skip Counting ...
SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN
Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...
Count-doubling time safety circuit
Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)
1981-01-01
There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.
Finger-Count & Radial-Stroke Shortcuts
Bailly, Gilles
Finger-Count & Radial-Stroke Shortcuts: Two Techniques for Augmenting Linear Menus on Multi-finger Interaction techniques ·Principles ·Finger-Counting ·Radial-Stroke 5 #12;Finger-Counting ·Express a pair;Radial-Stroke Shortcuts ·Principle ·Radial-stroke · Marking menus [Kurtenbach 91] · Multi-Stroke menus
Radix Sorts key-indexed counting
Sedgewick, Robert
1 Radix Sorts key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix quicksort applicationAt(int k); public int length(int); } #12;4 key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix is possible and practical #12;8 key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix quicksort
Approximate counting with a floatingpoint Miklos Csuros
CsÃ¼rÃ¶s, MiklÃ³s
on counting in order to identify repeating sequence patterns. In these applications, billions of counters need a length surpassÂ ing three billion. More than four billion (4 16 ) di#erent words need to be countedApproximate counting with a floatingÂpoint counter Miklâ??os Csï¿½urË?os Department of Computer Science
Understanding RFID Counting Protocols Binbin Chen
Yu, Haifeng
Understanding RFID Counting Protocols Binbin Chen Advanced Digital Sciences Center Illinois University of Singapore Republic of Singapore haifeng@comp.nus.edu.sg ABSTRACT Counting the number of RFID tags, or RFID counting, is needed by a wide array of important wireless applications. Motivated by its
Counting hypercubes in hypercubes Sandi Klav zar
Klavzar, Sandi
Counting hypercubes in hypercubes Sandi Klav#20;zar #3; Department of Mathematics, PeF University identities. Gar- bano, Malerba, and Lewinter [5] counted the edges of a hypercube in two ways to obtain to dou- ble counting of arbitrary d-dimensional hypercubes of a given n-dimensional hypercube, yielding
Nearest neighbors by neighborhood counting.
Wang, Hui
2006-06-01
Finding nearest neighbors is a general idea that underlies many artificial intelligence tasks, including machine learning, data mining, natural language understanding, and information retrieval. This idea is explicitly used in the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (kNN), a popular classification method. In this paper, this idea is adopted in the development of a general methodology, neighborhood counting, for devising similarity functions. We turn our focus from neighbors to neighborhoods, a region in the data space covering the data point in question. To measure the similarity between two data points, we consider all neighborhoods that cover both data points. We propose to use the number of such neighborhoods as a measure of similarity. Neighborhood can be defined for different types of data in different ways. Here, we consider one definition of neighborhood for multivariate data and derive a formula for such similarity, called neighborhood counting measure or NCM. NCM was tested experimentally in the framework of kNN. Experiments show that NCM is generally comparable to VDM and its variants, the state-of-the-art distance functions for multivariate data, and, at the same time, is consistently better for relatively large k values. Additionally, NCM consistently outperforms HEOM (a mixture of Euclidean and Hamming distances), the "standard" and most widely used distance function for multivariate data. NCM has a computational complexity in the same order as the standard Euclidean distance function and NCM is task independent and works for numerical and categorical data in a conceptually uniform way. The neighborhood counting methodology is proven sound for multivariate data experimentally. We hope it will work for other types of data. PMID:16724588
Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and
Heubach, Silvia
Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions Mansour Department of Mathematics, Haifa University, Israel #12;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 3 Definitions Â· A composition = 12 . . . m of n N
Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.
This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geller, M. J.; de Lapparent, V.; Kurtz, M. J.
1984-12-01
It is shown that the 2.5 degree-break in the galaxy correlation function derived from the Shane-Wirtanen star counts is indistinguishable from an artifact introduced by residual systematic variations in the effective magnitude limit from plate to plate. In order to avoid the introduction of a break, the maximum error from plate to plate must be no more than about 0.05 mag. Other large scale features in the data which are also affected by the systematic variations are discussed.
Automatic cell counting with ImageJ.
Grishagin, Ivan V
2015-03-15
Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually needs to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is approximately 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared with manual counting. PMID:25542972
Surgical counts can be risky business!
Porteous, Joan
2004-12-01
The surgical count plays a vital role in enabling perioperative nurses to provide a safe environment to surgical patients. Counting errors are preventable. Although national standards of care provide excellent guidelines for developing effective count protocols, counting procedures are often modified according to individual health care policy. This article will discuss the risk factors for retained items, rate of occurrence, what objects are being left in patients, role of x-rays and consequences of leaving an object in a patient. It will also highlight points to be considered when implementing new count policies. PMID:15709630
Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers
Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul
2014-01-01
Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n?=?3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992–4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. Results All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p?=?0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively), while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all). Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1–2 µm wider venular caliber. Conclusions These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation. PMID:25036459
Association between serum mercury concentration and leukocyte differential count in children.
Kim, Jeong Hong; Lee, Keun-Hwa; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Hye-Sook; Lee, Jaechun; Kang, Ju Wan
2015-03-01
There have been a number of animal studies on the immunological effects of mercury. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the effects of mercury in children. We investigated the association between serum mercury and leukocyte differential count in Korean children. The relationship between mercury and leukocyte differential count (segment, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, and eosinophil counts) was analyzed by multivariate linear analysis adjusted for sex, BMI, parental smoking, lead, cadmium, and allergic sensitization in 311 children. Mercury showed a positive correlation with lymphocyte count (coefficient 113.8, 95% confidence interval 26.7-200.9). However, mercury was not associated with total leukocyte, segment, monocyte, basophil, or eosinophil count. Mercury was associated with the increased of lymphocyte count in Korean children. Further studies will be required to ascertain the clinical significance of this association. PMID:24274666
Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer
Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.
1994-01-01
Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.
Counting solutions from finite samplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun
2012-02-01
We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.
Counting solutions from finite samplings.
Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun
2012-02-01
We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted. PMID:22463290
Low Background Counting At SNOLAB
Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)
2011-04-27
It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.
Estimating relative abundance from count data
Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.
1998-01-01
Much of the available information on large-scale patterns of animal abundance is based on count surveys. The data provided by such surveys are often influenced by nuisance factors affecting the numbers of animals counted, but unrelated to population size. Temporal and spatial patterns in nuisance factors may exist, causing simple summaries of counts to give a misleading view of patterns in population size. We develop models for count data that allows the incorporation of such factors, and describe methods for estimating spatial patterns of relative abundance from counts. We carry out spatial analyses of North American Breeding Bird Survey data, in which observer ability is a nuisance parameter nested within sites. In light of evidence that new observers tend to count more birds than the observers they replace, we model observer ability as a random effect with mean depending on observer initiation year.
Full counting statistics of Andreev tunneling.
Maisi, Ville F; Kambly, Dania; Flindt, Christian; Pekola, Jukka P
2014-01-24
We employ a single-charge counting technique to measure the full counting statistics of Andreev events in which Cooper pairs are either produced from electrons that are reflected as holes at a superconductor-normal-metal interface or annihilated in the reverse process. The full counting statistics consists of quiet periods with no Andreev processes, interrupted by the tunneling of a single electron that triggers an avalanche of Andreev events giving rise to strongly super-Poissonian distributions. PMID:24484157
Counting Majorana zero modes in superconductors
Santos, Luiz; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher
2010-01-01
A counting formula for computing the number of (Majorana) zero modes bound to topological point defects is evaluated in a gradient expansion for systems with charge-conjugation symmetry. This semi-classical counting of zero modes is applied to some examples that include graphene and a chiral p-wave superconductor in two-dimensional space. In all cases, we explicitly relate the counting of zero modes to Chern numbers.
Counting Majorana zero modes in superconductors
Luiz Santos; Yusuke Nishida; Claudio Chamon; Christopher Mudry
2011-04-07
A counting formula for computing the number of (Majorana) zero modes bound to topological point defects is evaluated in a gradient expansion for systems with charge-conjugation symmetry. This semi-classical counting of zero modes is applied to some examples that include graphene and a chiral p-wave superconductor in two-dimensional space. In all cases, we explicitly relate the counting of zero modes to Chern numbers.
Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision
Klee, G.G.; Post, G. )
1989-07-01
Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.
Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting
Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))
1990-07-01
A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.
Small Count Privacy and Large Count Utility in Data Publishing
Fu, Ada Wai-Chee; Wang, Ke; Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing
2012-01-01
While the introduction of differential privacy has been a major breakthrough in the study of privacy preserving data publication, some recent work has pointed out a number of cases where it is not possible to limit inference about individuals. The dilemma that is intrinsic in the problem is the simultaneous requirement of data utility in the published data. Differential privacy does not aim to protect information about an individual that can be uncovered even without the participation of the individual. However, this lack of coverage may violate the principle of individual privacy. Here we propose a solution by providing protection to sensitive information, by which we refer to the answers for aggregate queries with small counts. Previous works based on $\\ell$-diversity can be seen as providing a special form of this kind of protection. Our method is developed with another goal which is to provide differential privacy guarantee, and for that we introduce a more refined form of differential privacy to deal wit...
Low Background Counting at LBNL
Smith, A. R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thomas, K. J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Norman, E. B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Y. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lesko, K. T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, D. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2015-01-01
The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.
Low Background Counting at LBNL
Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.
2015-03-24
The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more »or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less
Track count estimator for DVD and CDROM
Jim M. Graba
1998-01-01
An estimator is shown to accurately count tracks during a seek in a DVD or CDROM storage device. The estimator states are position and velocity. Although the gains can be adapted via the recursive Kalman equations, the track count accuracy suffers little degradation if the gains are fixed. The position estimate's bandwidth can be matched to the seek system poles
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...
Early Concepts of Number and Counting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul
2004-01-01
Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…
Counting Colors in Boxes Haim Kaplan
Shamir, Ron
Q, count the number of distinct colors of the points of P Q. We present a general and relatively into a data structure that, for a given query axis- parallel box Q Rd , can efficiently count the number in the database have some attribute (e.g., the city where they have been born, the college that they have attended
A Count of Classical Field Theory Graphs
Gordon Chalmers
2005-07-28
A generating function is derived that counts the number of diagrams in an arbitrary scalar field theory. The number of graphs containing any number $n_j$ of $j$-point vertices is given. The count is also used to obtain the number of classical graphs in gauge theory and gravity.
Counting and Estimation: Methodology for Improving the
Fienberg, Stephen E.
Æculty faced by statistical agencies is that the public tends to think of the census as an exercise in countingCounting and Estimation: Methodology for Improving the Quality of Censuses The U.S. 2000 Census, Stockholm, Sweden, May 14-15, 2001. 1 #12; Abstract In most countries census data are recognized as being
2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013
2013-01-01
"Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…
"Knots on a Counting Rope": Teaching Stories.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Key, Daphne
2001-01-01
Argues that reflecting on important "marker" stories in people's lives by using counting ropes (based on the children's book "Knots on a Counting Rope" by Bill Martin Jr. and John Archambault) helps students and teachers make sense of their complex worlds. Describes how they are used in the author's language arts methods course. Describes a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008
2008-01-01
"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009
2009-01-01
"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…
Counting decompositions of additive polynomials Mark Giesbrecht
Giesbrecht, Mark
Counting decompositions of additive polynomials Mark Giesbrecht July 26, 2011 Cheriton School-IT, UniversitÂ¨at Bonn, Germany) We consider the problem of counting decompositions of r-additive (or lin- earized) polynomials over a finite field Fq, for q a power of a prime power r. The r-additive polynomials
Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret
2014-01-01
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…
People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such
de Villiers, Marienne
People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such as cranes species are monitored by CAR, of which 14 appear in the South African Red Data Book as Critically Endan gered, Vulnerable or NearThreatened. CAR counts began in 1993 and take place on the last Saturday
Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.
This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…
Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.
This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…
Patients count on it: an initiative to reduce incorrect counts and prevent retained surgical items.
Norton, Elizabeth K; Martin, Cornelia; Micheli, Anne J
2012-01-01
Retained surgical items were the most frequently reported sentinel event in 2010, according to The Joint Commission. Perioperative nurse leaders at Children's Hospital Boston, a pediatric teaching hospital, conducted a quality improvement initiative to reduce or eliminate incorrect counts and count discrepancies, which increase the risk of an item being unintentionally retained after surgery. Work included educating the perioperative staff members, standardizing count practices, formally reviewing every reported count discrepancy with the nursing team, and reviewing and revising the count policy for prevention of retained surgical items. The initiative reduced the number of incorrect counts and count discrepancies by 50% between 2009 to 2010. These initiatives continue to be expanded, and the results have been sustained on an ongoing basis. PMID:22201575
Count response model for the CMB spots
Massimo Giovannini
2010-10-28
The statistics of the curvature quanta generated during a stage of inflationary expansion is used to derive a count response model for the large-scale phonons determining, in the concordance lore, the warmer and the cooler spots of the large-scale temperature inhomogeneities. The multiplicity distributions for the counting statistics are shown to be generically overdispersed in comparison with conventional Poissonian regressions. The generalized count response model deduced hereunder accommodates an excess of correlations in the regime of high multiplicities and prompts dedicated analyses with forthcoming data collected by instruments of high angular resolution and high sensitivity to temperature variations per pixel.
7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...
7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...
7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...
7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...
7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...
Low cost crowd counting using audio tones
Kannan, Pravein Govindan
With mobile devices becoming ubiquitous, collaborative applications have become increasingly pervasive. In these applications, there is a strong need to obtain a count of the number of mobile devices present in an area, ...
Counting and sampling problems on Eulerian graphs
Creed, Patrick John
2010-01-01
In this thesis we consider two sets of combinatorial structures defined on an Eulerian graph: the Eulerian orientations and Euler tours. We are interested in the computational problems of counting (computing the number ...
Counting Independent Sets Using the Bethe Approximation
Chandrasekaran, Venkat
We consider the #P-complete problem of counting the number of independent sets in a given graph. Our interest is in understanding the effectiveness of the popular belief propagation (BP) heuristic. BP is a simple iterative ...
Greater Toronto Area 2006 Cordon Count Program
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area 2006 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-3916 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 2006 Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-3916 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 8 Peel-Toronto Screenline
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 2001 Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table ...................................................................... 8 Peel-Toronto Screenline
Greater Toronto Area 1998 Cordon Count Program
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area 1998 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table --------------------------------------------------------------4 Peel Steeles Avenue Screenline ---------------------------------------------------5 Peel-Toronto
Greater Toronto Area 2001 Cordon Count Program
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area 2001 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table ...................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Peak Periods - 2009 Prepared by: Data Management Group Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto Telephone: (416)978-3916 #12;Table...................................................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Peak Periods 2011 Prepared by: Data Management Group Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-3916 #12......................................................................................................................................6 Peel-Toronto Screenline
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 2004 Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 8 Peel-Toronto Screenline
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 2009 Prepared by: Data Management Group Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto Telephone: (416)978-3916 #12;Table...................................................................................................... 8 Peel-Toronto Screenline
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 2011 Prepared by: Data Management Group Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-3916 #12................................................................................................................................... 10 Peel-Toronto Screenline
Greater Toronto Area 2004 Cordon Count Program
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area 2004 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline
Mood meter: counting smiles in the wild
Hernandez Rivera, Javier
In this study, we created and evaluated a computer vision based system that automatically encouraged, recognized and counted smiles on a college campus. During a ten-week installation, passersby were able to interact with ...
On Count/Mass Distinction in Slovene
Mitrovi?, Moreno
2011-01-01
oznacuje oblikoslovno. V clanku so predlagane pomenoslovne in skladenjske analize števnosti slovenskega samostalnika. ENG: This paper is a model-theoretic investigation into the count/mass distinction in Slovene. It overviews and accounts for Slovene nouns...
RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON
RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION Marine Biological Laboratory AUG 1 1 1958 the parasite |j than dissection of the flesh and manual isolation of I the worms. In addition, the procedure
Evaluating Methods for Counting Cryptic Carnivores
Guy A. Balme; Luke T. B. Hunter; Rob Slotow
2009-01-01
ABSTRACT Numerous techniques have been proposed to estimate carnivore abundance and density, but few have been validated against populations,of known,size. We used a density estimate established by intensive monitoring,of a population,of radiotagged,leopards (Panthera pardus) with a detection probability of 1.0 to evaluate efficacy of track counts and camera-trap surveys as population,estimators. We calculated densities from track counts using 2 methods,and
Clicks counting system for a riflescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drumea, Andrei; Granciu, Dana
2015-02-01
A very useful requirement for a zoom aiming scope with high magnification used for long range rifle shooting is counting and display of knob's clicks number needed for elevation corrections. The paper analyzes one method for clicks counting usable with existing mechanical knobs and describes a microcontroller based system that implements it. Practical aspects like required changes in mechanical construction, influence of perturbations, complexity of electronics or power consumption are also analyzed.
Counting difficulties: retained instruments, sponges, and needles.
Jackson, Sarah; Brady, Sharon
2008-02-01
Patients in whom a sponge or instruments is left after surgery may suffer complications including pain, infection, abscess, or intestinal obstruction. Consequences or retained items for surgical team members may include malpractice lawsuits and adverse actions from the National Practitioner Data Bank and state licensing board. Adherence to AORN recommended practices for counting and facility counting policies can protect both patients and practitioners. PMID:18323022
20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...
7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...
Power Counting to Better Jet Observables
Andrew J. Larkoski; Ian Moult; Duff Neill
2014-09-22
Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.
Power counting to better jet observables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff
2014-12-01
Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia 8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.
Counting by 10's with Zero the Hero and Little Count
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Darbianne Shannon
2012-07-13
In this lesson students will learn to count to 100 by 10's. The relationship between the numbers 1-10 and 10-100 will be made using the 100's chart followed by a power point story about Little Count the Caterpillar. Students will make their own Little Count the Caterpillar using circle body segments, where each circle represents the numerals 10, 20, 30...
Protecting count queries in study design
Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A
2012-01-01
Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018
Project Profile MCBP InstantCount InstantCount Inkjet-printed diagnostics
Twente, Universiteit
counting chambers for point-of-care blood tests, with the goal to provide diagnostics to resource demonstrated a simple and affordable CD4 count, a test that is used for HIV staging, and are currently developing printing techniques to fabricate these test chambers in an affordable and reproducible way
Dark count rates in the STIS MAMA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Colin
2013-06-01
The dark count rates in the STIS MAMA detectors have been monitored. This report covers the period since the Servicing Mission 4 of May 2009. We find both long-term and short-term variations which for the NUV side we express as a function of date and temperature. The NUV dark rate has declined significantly from its surprisingly high initial rate of 0.014 counts/pixel/s that was seen immediately after SM4. By October, 2012 it had dropped to an average value of about 0.002 counts/pixel/sec The behavior and characteristics of the FUV dark rate remain very similar to that seen in 2004, prior to the STIS side-2 failure and subsequent repair.
20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410 Employees...Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources...
Estimating Pedestrian Accident Exposure: Automated Pedestrian Counting Devices Report
Fanping Bu; Ryan Greene-Roesel; Mara Chagas Diogenes; David R Ragland
2007-01-01
Automated methods are commonly used to count motorized vehicles, but are not frequently used to count pedestrians. This is because the automated technologies available to count pedestrians are not very developed, and their effectiveness has not been widely researched. Moreover, most automated methods are used primarily for the purpose of detecting, rather than counting, pedestrians (Dharmaraju et al., 2001; Noyce
Power counting in nuclear effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valderrama, M. Pavon
2015-10-01
The effective field theory formulation of nuclear forces is able to provide a systematic and model independent description of nuclear physics, where all processes involving nucleons and pions can be described in terms of the same set of couplings, the theoretical errors are known in advance and the connection with QCD is present. These features are a consequence of renormalization group invariance, which in turn determines the power counting of the theory. Here we present a brief outline of how to determine the power counting of nuclear effective field theory, what does it looks like and what are the predictions for the two-nucleon sector at lowest orders.
Optical planar waveguide for cell counting
LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.
2012-01-01
Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960
Dye free automated cell counting and analysis.
Dehlinger, Dietrich; Suer, Lynn; Elsheikh, Maher; Peña, José; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman
2013-03-01
We have developed an automated cell counting method that uses images obtained at multiple focal heights to enumerate cells in confluent culture. By taking the derivative of image intensity with respect to focal height using two complementary images, we are able to count high-density monolayers of cells over a large image area. Our method resists errors arising from variability in the focal plane caused by flatness or tilt non-uniformities with a minimal amount of focal plane alignment, allowing the automated collection of images across a large area. PMID:23055412
Counting atoms in a deep optical microtrap.
McGovern, Matthew; Hilliard, Andrew J; Grünzweig, Tzahi; Andersen, Mikkel F
2011-04-01
We demonstrate a method to count small numbers of atoms held in a deep, microscopic optical dipole trap by collecting fluorescence from atoms exposed to a standing wave of light that is blue detuned from resonance. While scattering photons, the atoms are cooled by a Sisyphus mechanism that results from the spatial variation in light intensity. The use of a small blue detuning limits the losses due to light-assisted collisions, thereby making the method suitable for counting several atoms in a microscopic volume. PMID:21478976
Self-consistent electron counting statistics.
Emary, Clive
2011-01-19
We develop a self-consistent version of perturbation theory in Liouville space which seeks to combine the advantages of master equation approaches in quantum transport with the nonperturbative features that a self-consistent treatment brings. We describe how counting fields may be included in a self-consistent manner in this formalism such that the full counting statistics can be calculated. Non-Markovian effects are also incorporated. Several different self-consistent approximations are introduced and we discuss their relative strengths with a simple example. PMID:21406841
Track count estimator for DVD and CDROM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graba, James M.
1998-10-01
An estimator is shown to accurately count tracks during a seek in a DVD or CDROM storage device. The estimator states are position and velocity. Although the gains can be adapted via the recursive Kalman equations, the track count accuracy suffers little degradation if the gains are fixed. The position estimate's bandwidth can be matched to the seek system poles affording optimum filtering. Although the input is a nonlinear function of position, the estimator is constructed in such a way as to maintain linearity.
Optical planar waveguide for cell counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.
2012-01-01
Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.
Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haven, Terry, Ed.
This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…
Going Online to Make Learning Count
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brigham, Cathy; Klein-Collins, Rebecca
2011-01-01
Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom--from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards…
NATURAL VARIATION IN SPOTTING, HYOID TEETH COUNTS,
trusteeship for the well-being of additional hundreds of thousands of Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos, as well as being charged with resource management of millions of acres of Indian-owned lands. In its assigned Methods 3 Comparison of meristic counts 4 Spotting 6 Coloration 7 Discussion and conclusions 9 Literature
Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic diversity);…
Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…
Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…
Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davey, Lynn
This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buck, Beverly R.
This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…
Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.
This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…
Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…
County Data Book 1995: Kentucky Kids Count.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.
This data book presents findings of the Kids Count project on current conditions faced by Kentucky children age birth through 19. For each county, and for the state, comparisons are provided between the base years of 1980-1982 and the most recent years 1992-1994. Counties are ranked against each other and trend graphs are provided for the studied…
KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1999 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.
This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well being: health, safety, education, families, and economic factors. Key indicators in these five areas include: (1) prenatal care rates; (2) low birthweight; (3) child deaths; (4)…
KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.
This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…
Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, Janet M.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…
Kids Count Report in Nebraska, 2002.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, Janet M.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trend data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 of the report presents U.S. Census data on population trends in Nebraska as well as child poverty rates, and urges Nebraskans to work together to ensure that its youngest citizens have the best start possible. Section 2, the bulk of this…
Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, Janet M.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief, 1996.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.
1996-01-01
These two Kids Count brief reports discuss issues related to the well-being of Rhode Island children. The first report identifies ways to measure the impact of state and federal welfare reform proposals on children who receive benefits through Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Potential measures of success for welfare reform include…
WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan
This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what…
Maine Kids Count 1999 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.
This Kids Count Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children, with particular focus on child health care access. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in five areas: (1) child health care access; (2) physical and mental health; (3) community and family environment; (4) social and economic…
Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, Janet M.
This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…
South Dakota KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cochran, Carole, Ed.
This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) low birth…
An optimal algorithm for counting network motifs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itzhack, Royi; Mogilevski, Yelena; Louzoun, Yoram
2007-07-01
Network motifs are small connected sub-graphs occurring at significantly higher frequencies in a given graph compared with random graphs of similar degree distribution. Recently, network motifs have attracted attention as a tool to study networks microscopic details. The commonly used algorithm for counting small-scale motifs is the one developed by Milo et al. This algorithm is extremely costly in CPU time and actually cannot work on large networks, consisting of more than 100,000 edges on current CPUs. We here present a new optimal algorithm, based on network decomposition for counting K-size network motifs with constant memory costs and a CPU cost linear with the number of counted motifs. Our algorithm performs better than previous full enumeration algorithms in terms of running time. Moreover, it uses a constant amount of memory. It also outperforms sampling algorithms. Our algorithm permits the counting of three and four motif for large networks that consists of more than 500,000 nodes and 5,000,000 links. For large networks, it performs more than a thousand times faster than current algorithms.
Virginia KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2003.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
2003
This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: healthy births, adolescent well-being, health and safety, education, and economic security. Specific indicators examined are: (1) births to single women; (2) early prenatal…
Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jelcich, Susan, Ed.
This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1997.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; And Others
This Kids Count report examined statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters addressed the areas of: family and community; economic well-being; child health; safety; and education. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income;…
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1996.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters address the areas of family and community, economic well-being, child health, safety, and education. The statistical portrait is based on 23 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income; (3)…
Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009
2009-01-01
"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…
Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.
This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…
Ptime Canonization for Two Variables with Counting
Martin Otto; RWTH Aachen
1995-01-01
We consider infinitary logic with two variable symbolsand counting quantifiers, C2, and its intersectionwith Ptime on finite relational structures. In particularwe exhibit a Ptime canonization procedure forfinite relational structures which provides unique representativesup to equivalence in C2. As a consequencewe obtain a recursive presentation for the class of allthose queries on arbitrary finite relational structureswhich are both Ptime and definable
Make Every Drop Count In Your Home
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The University of Nebraska - Lincoln Extension, presents this site which outlines the steps to take in order to make "every drop of water count in your home." Focusing on everyday things such as toilets, showers, faucets and washing machines, the site is applicable to a very general audience. Overall, this is introductory material which quickly shows easy ways to conserve water.
Low white blood cell count and cancer
... person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ... quickly, so the treatment can attack the white blood cells as well as the cancer. Other causes of a low white blood cell ...
Counting Faces of Polytopes University of Kentucky
Lee, Carl
Sketch of proof: Sweep the polytope with a plane in general direction. (Think of immersing in water Faces of Polytopes James Madison University 4 / 36 #12;Three-Dimensional Polytopes Sketch of proof: Sweep the polytope with a plane in general direction. (Think of immersing in water.) Count vertices
MOLECULAR COUNTING: FROM NONINVASIVE PRENATAL DIAGNOSTICS TO
Quake, Stephen R.
whole-genome haplotypes. It sets the stage for the direct sequencing of the two unique haploid genomesMOLECULAR COUNTING: FROM NONINVASIVE PRENATAL DIAGNOSTICS TO WHOLE-GENOME HAPLOTYPING similar homologous copies of a chromosome. Here, a whole-genome haplotyping method was devised by ana
Counting Depth Zero Patterns in Ballot Paths
Niederhausen, Heinrich
Counting Depth Zero Patterns in Ballot Paths Heinrich Niederhausen and Shaun Sullivan Florida it to the enu- meration of certain lattice paths. The lattice paths we consider are ballot paths. A ballot path is a path that stays weakly above the diagonal y = x, starts at the origin, and takes steps from the set f
MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts
Masaru Kajisawa; Masahiro Konishi; Ryuji Suzuki; Chihiro Tokoku; Yuka Katsuno Uchimoto; Tomohiro Yoshikawa; Masayuki Akiyama; Takashi Ichikawa; Masami Ouchi; Koji Omata; Ichi Tanaka; Tetsuo Nishimura; Toru Yamada
2006-10-12
We use very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We have observed a 4x7 arcmin^2 field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N), and our data reach J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5sigma, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J-K>2.3 is 2.35+-0.31 arcmin^-2 at Knumber counts of DRGs turn over at K~22, and the surface density of the faint DRGs with K>22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 2number of the faint galaxies with the similar red color is relatively small. Different behaviors of the number counts of the DRGs and bluer galaxies with 222 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of low-mass galaxies are blue while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.
Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria
2010-01-01
Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…
WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark
This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;…
Isospectral graphs with identical nodal counts
Idan Oren; Ram Band
2011-10-02
According to a recent conjecture, isospectral objects have different nodal count sequences. We study generalized Laplacians on discrete graphs, and use them to construct the ?rst non-trivial counter-examples to this conjecture. In addition, these examples demonstrate a surprising connection between isospectral discrete and quantum graphs.
Atom counting in expanding ultracold clouds
Braungardt, Sibylle; Rodriguez, Mirta; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej
2011-10-15
We study the counting statistics of ultracold bosonic atoms that are released from an optical lattice. We show that the counting probability distribution of the atoms collected at a detector located far away from the optical lattice can be used to characterize the initially trapped states. We consider trapped superfluid and insulating states with different occupation patterns. We analyze how the correlations between the modes that develop during the expansion in the gravitational field appear in the counting distribution and find that the ratio of the detector size with respect to the expanded wave function determines whether short-range or long-range correlations of the initial state are reflected in the counting statistics. We find that detectors which are large compared to the size of the expanded wave function distinguish insulating and superfluid phases irrespective of the occupation pattern. We show that using detectors that are small compared to the size of the expanded wave function, occupation patterns in insulating and supersolid states can be distinguished. Finally, we show how the magnetic phase patterns are dramatically reflected in the number distribution.
An Optical Bit-Counting Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mack, Marilyn; Lapir, Gennadi M.; Berkovich, Simon
2000-01-01
This paper addresses the omnipresent problem of counting bits - an operation discussed since the very early stages of the establishing of computer science. The need for a quick bit-counting method acquires a special significance with the proliferation of search engines on the Internet. It arises in several other computer applications. This is especially true in information retrieval in which an array of binary vectors is used to represent a characteristic function (CF) of a set of qualified documents. The number of "I"s in the CF equals the cardinality of the set. The process of repeated evaluations of this cardinality is a pivotal point in choosing a rational strategy for deciding whether to constrain or broaden the search criteria to ensure selection of the desired items. Another need for bit-counting occurs when trying to determine the differences between given files, (images or text), in terms of the Hamming distance. An Exclusive OR operation applied to a pair of files results in a binary vector array of mismatches that must be counted.
Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.
This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)…
Illinois Kids Count 2001: Envisioning the Future.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Brenda; Familia, Yahaira; Gifford, Amy; Knowlton, Gretchen; Matakis, Brian; Olson, Melissa; Owens, Tracy; Zasadny, Julie
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of family, education and child care, arts and recreation, safety, health, and economic security. The indicators are: (1) percent of children living in poverty; (2) number of children enrolled in…
High-rate counting efficiency of VLPC
Hogue, Henry H. [Research and Technology Center, Boeing Electronic Systems and Missile Defense, 3370 Miraloma Ave M/S HB17, Anaheim, CA 92803 (United States)
1998-11-09
A simple model is applied to describe dependencies of Visible Light Photon Counter (VLPC) characteristics on temperature and operating voltage. Observed counting efficiency losses at high illumination, improved by operating at higher temperature, are seen to be a consequence of de-biasing within the VLPC structure. A design improvement to minimize internal de-biasing for future VLPC generations is considered.
Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008
2008-01-01
"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…
Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006
2006-01-01
"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boeke, Kaye
This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…
South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…
Kids Count in Missouri 1998 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.
This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on outcome measures of general areas of children's well being: (1) students free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant mortality; (5)…
Kids Count Alaska, 2000 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leask, Linda, Ed.
This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…
Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1997.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dowshen, Steven, Ed.; Greback, Robert, Ed.; Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Schooley, Teresa L., Ed.; Sturgis, Janice, Ed.
This KIDS COUNT report details statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths, age 1-14 years; (5) teen violent deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (6) juvenile…
Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.
This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Program
Toronto, University of
Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Program Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 1998 prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table --------------------------------------------------------------6 Peel Steeles Avenue Screenline ---------------------------------------------------8 Peel-Toronto
Kids Count in Nebraska 1996 Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Nebraska's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven general areas of children's well-being: (1) early care and education; (2) physical and behavioral health; (3) child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence; (4) out of home care; (5) education; (6) economic…
The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory photon counting detector
I. G. Vanbreda; M. K. Carter; B. E. Patchett; P. D. Read
1992-01-01
The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Photon Counting Detector is a two dimensional area detector having a wide range of applications at optical, UV and X-ray wavelengths, both ground based and in space. It makes use of a microchannel plate intensifier and 'software centroiding' to derive the coordinates for photon events. The intensifier is coupled by means of a fiber optic taper
South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cochran, Carole, Ed.
This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…
South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cochran, Carole
This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…
Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune-
Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna
Chapter 26 Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune- 400 Companies WHAT Zodiac birth sign WH Y Curiosity? 504 - D oes your zodiac sign determine how successful you will be in later life? Fortune magazine collected the zodiac signs of 256 heads of the largest 400 companies. Here are the number of births for each
Radionuclide Counting Technique Measures Wind Velocity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, J. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Mall, G. H.
1983-01-01
Proposed technique for measuring wind velocity based on inverse-squarelaw variation of radioactive counting rates. In proposal, radioative source is deposited on bottom of light, hollow sphere and suspended by flexible wire over radiation counter, Anemometer based on this concept is self-contained, portable, yet not too fragile. Used for extended periods of time, even at remote, inhospitable and inaccessible sites.
Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leask, Linda, Ed.
This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…
Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.
1991-01-01
An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.
conservatively in that I make an effort not to double count birds as I cross and parallel my previous route for the skulkers. Recent (1997) improvements in the trails by the Missouri Department of Conservation have made the area more accessible to birders. Birding is likely to improve over the next few years as newly planted
GUIDE TO CAREERS Work experience counts
Birmingham, University of
GUIDE TO CAREERS #12;Work experience counts We know that having a good degree is only part that they can take steps towards their career goals. If you'd like to know more about our work experience their employability skills and articulate them effectively to potential Parents and carers guide to careers
Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1998.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This Kids Count data book is the fourth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 28 indicators in five areas: (1) family and community; (2) economic well-being, including median household income, poverty rate, and percent of children in families receiving cash…
Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don
This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…
The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model
Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, X. Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Kennedy, Ann R.
2014-01-01
Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of ?-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to ?-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (?-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435
Photon-counting-based dust monitor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamal, Karel; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Eslerova, Iva; Sopko, Bruno; Pasta, Armin
1999-05-01
Most of the dust monitors are based on optical principle: the scattered light intensity is registered. The classical approach is using the multiple photon optical signal intensity and processing. Single photon detection -- photon counting is exploited in Satellite Laser Ranging and was implemented in space born application for Mars Surveyor Program 98, as well. The main advantage of single photon detection is an extreme sensitivity, the entire digital approach, no analog signal is treated. All the light intensity information is acquired on the basis of statistical data treatment. The dust detector consists of the LED diode based transmitter, single photon solid state diode detector and the digital data processing unit. The light beam from the LED diode passing the dust column is detected in a photo detector. The detector employs the avalanche Silicon photodiode 40 micrometers diameter active area and is operated in a passive gating and active quenching mode above its breakdown voltage. The detector provides uniform digital pulses, one for each photon detected. The light intensity measurement is converted into the photon flux counting -- frequency or event counting. The microcomputer controlled data processing electronics counts the detector output pulses, accounts for detector dark count rate, calibration constants, and computes the corresponding dust concentration averaged over desired period. The second LED located close to the detector is used as a reference light source to eliminate the temperature, aging and sensor contamination influence. The laboratory measurements show the long term and temperature stability of the scale within 1%. The setup was tested at the cement plant smoke stack and compared to the commercial optical dust concentration monitor operating on analog multiphoton principle. Due to an extreme optical sensitivity of the photon counting detector, the energy balance is favorable to realize lightweight equipment by a factor of ten in comparison to analogue-based device. The photon counting principle along with the self-calibration setup does not require re-calibration. The optical apertures involved are of the order of millimeters what reduces the problems of contamination of the device by the dust monitored. As no collimating optics is used, the no optical alignment is required.
Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers
Suslov, M. V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow District (Russian Federation); R and D Department, NIX Computer Company, Zvezdniy boulevard 19, 129085 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lesovik, G. B. [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117940 Moscow (Russian Federation); Blatter, G. [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)
2011-05-15
We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number n
Pendleton, G.W.
1995-01-01
Many factors affect the use of point counts for monitoring bird populations, including sampling strategies, variation in detection rates, and independence of sample points. The most commonly used sampling plans are stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling. Each of these might be most useful for different objectives or field situations. Variation in detection probabilities and lack of independence among sample points can bias estimates and measures of precision. All of these factors should be con-sidered when using point count methods.
Genetic heteroscedasticity of teat count in pigs.
Felleki, M; Lundeheim, N
2015-10-01
The genetic improvement in pig litter size has been substantial. The number of teats on the sow must thus increase as well to meet the needs of the piglets, because each piglet needs access to its own teat. We applied a genetic heterogeneity model to teat counts in pigs, and estimated a medium heritability for teat counts (0.35), but found a low heritability for residual variance (0.06), indicating that selection for reduced residual variance might have a limited effect. A numerically positive correlation (0.8) was estimated between the breeding values for the mean and the residual variance. However, because of the low heritability of the residual variance, the residual variance will probably increase very slowly with the mean. PMID:25817797
What Counts in the Immunological Synapse?
Dustin, Michael L.
2014-01-01
Molecular interactions at the interface between helper T cells and antigen-presenting B cells govern the ability to produce specific antibodies, which is a central event in protective immunity generated by natural infection or man-made vaccines. In order for a T cell to deliver effective help to a B cell and guide affinity maturation, it needs to provide feedback that is proportional to the amount of antigen the B cell collects with its surface antibody. This review focuses on mechanisms by which T and B cells manage to count the products of antigen capture and encourage B cells with the best receptors to dominate the response and make antibody-producing plasma cells. We discuss what is known about the proportionality of T cells responses to presented antigens and consider the mechanisms that B cells may use to keep count of positive feedback from T cells. PMID:24766889
Radioactive Background Evaluation by Atom Counting
Orzel, Chad; McKinsey, Daniel
2005-09-08
We propose a new method of measuring 85Kr background levels by direct counting of impurity atoms. The beta-decay of 85Kr is a significant radioactive background for experiments that use liquified noble gases to search for dark matter and measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux. While there are several proposed methods for reducing Kr levels in these experiments, an independent technique is needed for measuring very low Kr levels. By selectively exciting Kr atoms to a metastable state, capturing them in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and detecting fluorescence from the trapped atoms, individual Kr atoms can be counted with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This approach offers both higher sensitivity and shorter measurement times than more conventional techniques, with an estimated sensitivity of 3 x 10-14 in only 3 hours of integration.
COUNTING NUMERICAL SETS WITH NO SMALL ATOMS
Marzuola, Jeremy
COUNTING NUMERICAL SETS WITH NO SMALL ATOMS JEREMY MARZUOLA AND ANDY MILLER Abstract. A numerical set S with Frobenius number g is a set of integers with min(S) = 0 and max(Z - S) = g, and its atom an associated atom monoid A(S) defined by A(S) = {n Z | n + S S} , and this is easily seen to be a numerical
Energy Conservation and Full Counting Statistics
Tristan Benoist; Vojkan Jaksic; Annalisa Panati; Yan Pautrat; Claude-Alain Pillet
2015-03-25
The first law of thermodynamics states that the average total energy current between different reservoirs vanishes at large times. In this Letter we examine this fact from the point of view of the Full Counting Statistics (FCS). Under very general conditions, we establish a tight form of the first law asserting that the fluctuations of the FCS of the total energy current are exponentially suppressed in the large time limit. We illustrate this general result using the example of the Anderson model.
Capacity approaching codes for photon counting receivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondin, Marina; Daneshgaran, Fred; Bari, Inam; Delgado, Maria Teresa
2012-10-01
[1] a low-complexity photon-counting receiver has been presented, which may be employed for weak-energy optical communications and which is typically modeled through its equivalent Binary Symmetric Channel (BSC) model. In this paper we consider the scheme described in [1], we model it as a time varying Binary Input-Multiple Output (BIMO) channel and analyze its performance in presence of soft-metric based capacity approaching iteratively decoded error correcting codes, and in particular using soft-metric based Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes. To take full advantage of such detector, soft information is generated in the form of Log-Likelihood Ratios (LLRs), achieving reduction in Bit Error Rate (BER) and Frame Error Rate (FER) with respect to classical BSC and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel models. Furthermore, we explore the limits of the achievable performance gains when using photon counting detectors as compared to the case when such detectors are not available. To this end, we find the classical capacity of the considered BIMO channel, clearly showing the potential gains that photon counting detectors can provide in the context of a realistic cost-effective scheme from an implementation point of view. Furthermore, we show that from a channel modeling point of view, we can observe that the BIMO channel can be approximated with an AWGN channel for high values of mean photon count Nc, while the AWGN model offers an unreliable result with a low mean photon number Nc, (i.e. with low raw BER). This effect is more evident with lower coding rates.
counting colours in compressed strings Travis Gagie
Lonardi, Stefano
a data structure that takes nH0(s) + O(n) + o(nH0(s)) bits such that later, given a substring's endpoints i and j, in O(log ) time we can count how many distinct characters it contains, where = j - i + 1. #12;source space time BKM&T O(n log n) O(log n) Muthu + WT n log n + o(n log n) O(log n) GN&P n log
New Counting Codes for Distributed Video Coding
Axel Lakus-becker; Ka-ming Leung
2007-01-01
This paper introduces a new counting code. Its design was motivated by\\u000adistributed video coding where, for decoding, error correction methods are\\u000aapplied to improve predictions. Those error corrections sometimes fail which\\u000aresults in decoded values worse than the initial prediction. Our code exploits\\u000athe fact that bit errors are relatively unlikely events: more than a few bit\\u000aerrors in
Distributed Garbage Collection Using Reference Counting
D. I. Bevan
1987-01-01
We describe here an elegant algorithm for the real-time garbage collection of distributed memory. This algorithm makes use of reference counting and is simpler than distributed mark-scan algorithms. It is also truly real-time unlike distributed mark-scan algorithms. It requires no synchronisation between messages and only sends a message between nodes when a reference is deleted. It is also relatively space
Delta-count rate-monitoring system
D. Van Etten; W. Olsen
1983-01-01
A delta-count rate-monitoring system for detection of small changes of low-level gamma radiation was designed for Group HSE-8's environmental surveillance and accident response van. The system is used to locate areas of radioactive contaminants in the environment where surveys with standard instruments would be very difficult because of large areas to cover. An audible alarm sounds when the detected radiation
Method of detecting and counting bacteria
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (inventors)
1976-01-01
An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.
Wholebody radiation counting system. Final report
Fechter, G.M.
1985-05-01
The purpose of this research was to develop a system that would allow the Health Physics staff of the Nuclear Engineering Department of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute to conduct wholebody radiation counting of all assigned personnel and to determine if a multiple-crystal arrangement had any benefits over the single-crystal system. The research had three main objectives: to design and construct the electronic hardware necessary to collect data from a series of three NaI(Tl) scintilation crystals; to develop the computer software necessary to interpret this data and calculate concentrations present within those individuals tested; and to interface the Helgeson Wholebody Counter with the Vax 11/750 Computer System. This system includes a Texas Instruments TM990-101M Microcomputer which acts as the main control unit for the operator and as the interface with the Vax computer. Additionally, the final system included a computer interface and data acquisition module and it uses a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/750 Computer System for a majority of the data manipulation. This system, as all wholebody counting systems, is characterized by its ability to detect low levels of radionuclide concentration while maintaining adequate resolution to identify the exact isotopes present within the person being counted.
Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Tim
2006-10-01
The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by background reduction, high detector efficiency, and long counting times. Backgrounds from cosmic-rays, construction materials, and radon are reduced by counting underground, active and passive shielding, (pre-WWII steel) and situation behind a Class 10,000 clean facility. High-detection efficiency is provided by a well detector for small samples and three large HPGe detectors. Sample concentration methods such as ashing or chemical separation are also used. Count times are measured in days. Recently, two SCUREF programs were completed with the University of South Carolina to further enhance UCF detection sensitivity. The first developed an ultra-low background HPGe detector and the second developed an anti-cosmic shield that further reduces the detector background. In this session, we will provide an overview status of the recent improvements made in the UCF and future directions for increasing sensitivity.
Estimation of population trajectories from count data
Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.
1997-01-01
Monitoring of changes in animal population size is rarely possible through complete censuses; frequently, the only feasible means of monitoring changes in population size is to use counts of animals obtained by skilled observers as indices to abundance. Analysis of changes in population size can be severely biased if factors related to the acquisition of data are not adequately controlled for. In particular we identify two types of observer effects: these correspond to baseline differences in observer competence, and to changes through time in the ability of individual observers. We present a family of models for count data in which the first of these observer effects is treated as a nuisance parameter. Conditioning on totals of negative binomial counts yields a Dirichlet compound multinomial vector for each observer. Quasi-likelihood is used to estimate parameters related to population trajectory and other parameters of interest; model selection is carried out on the basis of Akaike's information criterion. An example is presented using data on Wood thrush from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.
Homeostatic regulation of blood neutrophil counts
von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Ley, Klaus
2009-01-01
Neutrophil counts in blood are determined by the differentiation and proliferation of precursor cells in the bone marrow, release of mature neutrophils into the blood, margination in organs like the lung and spleen, and transmigration through the endothelial lining followed by neutrophil apoptosis and uptake by phagocytes. This brief review summarizes how the regulation of neutrophil production by G-CSF is in part controlled by IL-17 and IL-23. Neutrophils are retained in the bone marrow through interaction of CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4. The relevance of this mechanism is illustrated by rare diseases in which disrupting the desensitization of CXCR4 results in neutrophil accumulation in the bone marrow. Although blood neutrophil numbers in inbred mouse strains and individual human subjects are tightly controlled, the large variation of blood neutrophil counts among outbred populations suggests genetic control. One example is benign ethnic neutropenia, which is found in about 5% of African Americans. Reduced and elevated neutrophil counts, even within the normal range, are associated with excess all-cause mortality. PMID:18832668
Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling.
Zhou, Mingyuan; Carin, Lawrence
2015-02-01
The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB) process. A gamma process is employed to model the rate measure of a Poisson process, whose normalization provides a random probability measure for mixture modeling and whose marginalization leads to an NB process for count modeling. A draw from the NB process consists of a Poisson distributed finite number of distinct atoms, each of which is associated with a logarithmic distributed number of data samples. We reveal relationships between various count- and mixture-modeling distributions and construct a Poisson-logarithmic bivariate distribution that connects the NB and Chinese restaurant table distributions. Fundamental properties of the models are developed, and we derive efficient Bayesian inference. It is shown that with augmentation and normalization, the NB process and gamma-NB process can be reduced to the Dirichlet process and hierarchical Dirichlet process, respectively. These relationships highlight theoretical, structural, and computational advantages of the NB process. A variety of NB processes, including the beta-geometric, beta-NB, marked-beta-NB, marked-gamma-NB and zero-inflated-NB processes, with distinct sharing mechanisms, are also constructed. These models are applied to topic modeling, with connections made to existing algorithms under Poisson factor analysis. Example results show the importance of inferring both the NB dispersion and probability parameters. PMID:26353243
77 FR 65091 - National Character Counts Week, 2012
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-10-24
...Proclamation 8891--National Character Counts Week, 2012 Proclamation 8892--National Forest Products Week, 2012 Presidential Documents Federal Register...October 19, 2012 National Character Counts Week, 2012 By the President of the United...
Deep UV photon-counting detectors and applications
Geboff, Adam B.
Photon counting detectors are used in many diverse applications and are well-suited to situations in which a weak signal is present in a relatively benign background. Examples of successful system applications of photon-counting ...
21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS... REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210...bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of...
33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. 159...and Testing § 159.127 Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. ...recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters....
Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis
Pisania, Anna
Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, ...
2014-01-01
Background Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Methods Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. Results The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P <0.001). The MLCR discriminated best between malaria cases and controls (AUC =?0.691; AUC =?0.741 in non-immune travellers), whereas the NLCR better predicted severe malaria, especially in semi-immune patients (AUC =?0.788). Conclusion Malaria causes typical but non-specific alterations of the differential blood count. The predictive value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity. PMID:24758172
Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms
Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.
1981-06-01
New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.
75 FR 64615 - National Character Counts Week, 2010
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-10-20
...October 15, 2010 National Character Counts Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect upon the values of equality...commitment. During National Character Counts Week, let us take this opportunity to...
20 CFR 418.3310 - Whose income do we count?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose income do we count? 418.3310 Section 418.3310 Employees...D Subsidies Income § 418.3310 Whose income do we count? (a) We count your income. If you are married and live...
Counting molecules in single organelles with superresolution microscopy allows tracking
Lim, Wendell
Counting molecules in single organelles with superresolution microscopy allows tracking organelles, but a deeper understanding of this process is technically limited by our inability to track organelles as well as accurately count absolute numbers of molecules, by correcting for under- counting owing
Counting perfect matchings in planar graphs Ashley Montanaro
Banaji,. Murad
Counting perfect matchings in planar graphs Ashley Montanaro Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol December 11, 2009 Ashley Montanaro Counting perfect matchings in planar graphs Slide 1/25 #12;Chess boards and dominoes Ashley Montanaro Counting perfect matchings in planar graphs Slide 2
Approximate counting with a floating-point Miklos Csuros
CsÃ¼rÃ¶s, MiklÃ³s
on counting in order to identify repeating sequence patterns. In these applications, billions of counters need a length surpass- ing three billion. More than four billion (416 ) different words need to be countedApproximate counting with a floating-point counter MiklÂ´os CsurÂ¨os Department of Computer Science
A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness
Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.
2014-01-01
Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. PMID:25386148
Yasser Hachana; Khémaïs Kraïem
2009-01-01
Hachana, Y. and Kraïem, K. 2009. Proteolysis and storage stability of ultra high temperature processed milk as influenced by somatic cell count and bacterial count. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 36: 65–70.To study keeping quality of UHT processed 1.5% fat milk of different somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial count (BC), that would be sufficient to produce an off-flavor, a 180
Electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in AIDS diagnosis and monitoring.
Carinelli, S; Xufré Ballesteros, C; Martí, M; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I
2015-12-15
The counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes is a clinical parameter used for AIDS diagnosis and follow-up. As this disease is particularly prevalent in developing countries, simple and affordable CD4 cell counting methods are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. This paper describes an electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in whole blood. The CD4(+) T lymphocytes were isolated, preconcentrated and labeled from 100?L of whole blood by immunomagnetic separation with magnetic particles modified with antiCD3 antibodies. The captured cells were labeled with a biotinylated antiCD4 antibody, followed by the reaction with the electrochemical reporter streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. The limit of detection for the CD4 counting magneto-actuated biosensor in whole blood was as low as 44cells?L(-1) while the logistic range was found to be from 89 to 912cells?L(-1), which spans the whole medical interest range for CD4 counts in AIDS patients. The electrochemical detection together with the immunomagnetic separation confers high sensitivity, resulting in a rapid, inexpensive, robust, user-friendly method for CD4 counting. This approach is a promising alternative for the costly standard flow cytometry and suitable as diagnostic tool at decentralized practitioner sites in low resource settings, especially in less developed countries. PMID:26264263
Counting Two-State Transition-Tour Sequences 1 Counting Two-State Transition-Tour Sequences
McCluskey, Edward J.
Counting Two-State Transition-Tour Sequences 1 Counting Two-State Transition-Tour Sequences Nirmal(k), to count the number of transition-tour sequences of length k for bistable machines. It is shown tests for random pattern generators. Index Terms: Transition-Tours, Sequential Machine Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeRocher, James E.; And Others
As part of a continuing project of language analysis, SURC presents an essay on the nature and history of frequency counts. The first section deals with the history of such counts and traces them from Early Hellenic times to the present. Section 2 is an analysis of techniques used and describes the capabilities and limitations of frequency counts…
Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.
This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15 to 17 years; (2) births to teens 15 to 19 years; (3) low birth weight babies;…
Revisiting the NVSS number count dipole
Tiwari, Prabhakar
2015-01-01
We present a realistic modeling of the NVSS number count dipole across the sky. The modeling relies on mock catalogues generated within the context of $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology in the linear regime of structure formation. After removal of the solar motion dipole from the observation, the mocks show that the remaining signal is mostly (70\\%) due to contribution from large scale structure within $\\sim 500$Mpc ($z\\sim0.1$). The amplitude of this contribution depends on the bias factor of the NVSS galaxies. An effective bias factor $b(zz)=3$.
Counting systems and the First Hilbert problem
Yaroslav D. Sergeyev
2012-03-14
The First Hilbert problem is studied in this paper by applying two instruments: a new methodology distinguishing between mathematical objects and mathematical languages used to describe these objects; and a new numeral system allowing one to express different infinite numbers and to use these numbers for measuring infinite sets. Several counting systems are taken into consideration. It is emphasized in the paper that different mathematical languages can describe mathematical objects (in particular, sets and the number of their elements) with different accuracies. The traditional and the new approaches are compared and discussed.
Counting Trees in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics
Cordova, Clay
2015-01-01
We study the supersymmetric ground states of the Kronecker model of quiver quantum mechanics. This is the simplest quiver with two gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, and appears universally in four-dimensional N=2 systems. The ground state degeneracy may be written as a multi-dimensional contour integral, and the enumeration of poles can be simply phrased as counting bipartite trees. We solve this combinatorics problem, thereby obtaining exact formulas for the degeneracies of an infinite class of models. We also develop an algorithm to compute the angular momentum of the ground states, and present explicit expressions for the refined indices of theories where one rank is small.
Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagi, Janos; Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw; Dufour, Jean-Luc; Holzleitner, Ludwig; Huszti, Joseph; Looman, Marc; Marin Ferrer, Montserrat; Lambert, Thierry; Peerani, Paolo; Rackham, Jamie; Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve; Weber, Anne-Laure; Wilson, Mark
2009-09-01
Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of "virtual instruments." These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will describe the rationale for changing to the new technology, give an overview of the hardware and software tools available today and a feedback of the experience gained in the first tests. Associated with the experimental tests, the ESARDA-NDA working group is also performing an intercomparison benchmark exercise on the analysis software for pulse processing.
Robust small area prediction for counts.
Tzavidis, Nikos; Ranalli, M Giovanna; Salvati, Nicola; Dreassi, Emanuela; Chambers, Ray
2015-06-01
A new semiparametric approach to model-based small area prediction for counts is proposed and used for estimating the average number of visits to physicians for Health Districts in Central Italy. The proposed small area predictor can be viewed as an outlier robust alternative to the more commonly used empirical plug-in predictor that is based on a Poisson generalized linear mixed model with Gaussian random effects. Results from the real data application and from a simulation experiment confirm that the proposed small area predictor has good robustness properties and in some cases can be more efficient than alternative small area approaches. PMID:24492792
Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium
Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.
1991-01-01
This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of {sup 235}U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. We have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, {sup 235 }U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Counting planar diagrams with various restrictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
't Hooft, Gerard
1999-01-01
Explicit expressions are considered for the generating functions concerning the number of planar diagrams with given numbers of 3- and 4-point vertices. It is observed that planar renormalization theory requires diagrams with restrictions, in the sense that one wishes to omit 'tadpole' insertions and 'seagull' insertions; at a later stage also self-energy insertions are to be removed, and finally also the dressed 3-point insertions and the dressed 4-point insertions. Diagrams with such restrictions can all be counted exactly. This results in various critical lines in the ?- g plane, where ? and g are effective zero-dimensional coupling constants. These lines can be localized exactly.
Accurate atom counting in mesoscopic ensembles.
Hume, D B; Stroescu, I; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K
2013-12-20
Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles. PMID:24483741
Monitoring of interfacial tensions by drop counting
Duerksen, W.K.; Boring, C.P.; McLaughlin, J.F.; Harless, D.P.
1988-11-01
A capillary tube device was shown to provide a rapid means of measuring the interfacial tension between water and Freon-113. The measurement technique is based on counting the number of drops that form when a fixed volume of water passes through the capillary tube into the bulk Freon. The interfacial tension is predicted to be proportional to the number of drops to the negative 2/3 power. Calibration curves were obtained for Freon-water samples containing known concentrations of a surfactant. A standard Gibbs adsorption curve was obtained. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Parameter estimation by multichannel photon counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus
2015-01-01
The physical parameters governing the dynamics of a light-emitting quantum system can be estimated from the photon counting signal. The information available in the full detection record can be analyzed by means of the distribution of waiting times between detection events. Our theory allows calculation of the asymptotic, long-time behavior of the sensitivity limit, and it applies to emission processes with branching towards different final states accompanied by the emission of distinguishable photons. We illustrate the theory by application to a laser-driven ? -type atom.
Increasing point-count duration increases standard error
Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.; Hamel, P.B.; Ford, R.P.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Cooper, R.J.
1998-01-01
We examined data from point counts of varying duration in bottomland forests of west Tennessee and the Mississippi Alluvial Valley to determine if counting interval influenced sampling efficiency. Estimates of standard error increased as point count duration increased both for cumulative number of individuals and species in both locations. Although point counts appear to yield data with standard errors proportional to means, a square root transformation of the data may stabilize the variance. Using long (>10 min) point counts may reduce sample size and increase sampling error, both of which diminish statistical power and thereby the ability to detect meaningful changes in avian populations.
Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland
2011-12-01
In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.
Counted Sb donors in Si quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Perry, Daniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael
2015-03-01
Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is critical for donor spin qubits in semiconductor based quantum computing. We have developed techniques using a focused ion beam and a diode detector integrated next to a silicon MOS single electron transistor to gain such control. With the diode detector operating in linear mode, the numbers of ions implanted have been counted and single ion implants have been detected. Poisson statistics in the number of ions implanted have been observed. Transport measurements performed on samples with counted number of implants have been performed and regular coulomb blockade and charge offsets observed. The capacitances to various gates are found to be in agreement with QCAD simulations for an electrostatically defined dot. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Language and counting: Some recent results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, Garry
1990-02-01
It has long been recognised that the language of mathematics is an important variable in the learning of mathematics, and there has been useful work in isolating and describing the linkage. Steffe and his co-workers at Georgia, for example, (Steffe, von Glasersfeld, Richardson and Cobb, 1983) have suggested that young children may construct verbal countable items to count objects which are hidden from their view. Although there has been a surge of research interest in counting and early childhood mathematics, and in cultural differences in mathematics attainment, there has been little work reported on the linkage between culture as exemplified by language, and initial concepts of numeration. This paper reports on some recent clinical research with kindergarten children of European and Asian background in Australia and America. The research examines the influence that number naming grammar appears to have on young children's understandings of two-digit numbers and place value. It appears that Transparent Standard Number Word Sequences such as Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese which follow the numerical representation pattern by naming tens and units in order ("two tens three"), may be associated with distinctive place value concepts which may support sophisticated mental algorithms.
Analysis of Parasite and Other Skewed Counts
Alexander, Neal
2012-01-01
Objective To review methods for the statistical analysis of parasite and other skewed count data. Methods Statistical methods for skewed count data are described and compared, with reference to those used over a ten year period of Tropical Medicine and International Health. Two parasitological datasets are used for illustration. Results Ninety papers were identified, 89 with descriptive and 60 with inferential analysis. A lack of clarity is noted in identifying measures of location, in particular the Williams and geometric mean. The different measures are compared, emphasizing the legitimacy of the arithmetic mean for skewed data. In the published papers, the t test and related methods were often used on untransformed data, which is likely to be invalid. Several approaches to inferential analysis are described, emphasizing 1) non-parametric methods, while noting that they are not simply comparisons of medians, and 2) generalized linear modelling, in particular with the negative binomial distribution. Additional methods, such as the bootstrap, with potential for greater use are described. Conclusions Clarity is recommended when describing transformations and measures of location. It is suggested that non-parametric methods and generalized linear models are likely to be sufficient for most analyses. PMID:22943299
Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.
2010-01-01
New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1-bit comparator, which digitizes the input referenced to an adjustable threshold value. This results in four independent serial sample streams of binary 1s and 0s, which are ORed together at rates up to 10 GHz. This single serial stream is then deserialized by a factor of 16 to create 16 signal lines at a rate of 622.5 MHz or lower for input to a high-speed digital processor assembly. The new design and corresponding hardware can be employed with a quad-photon counting detector capable of handling photon rates on the order of multi-gigaphotons per second, whereas prior art was only capable of handling a single input at 1/4 the flux rate. Additionally, the hardware edge-detection algorithm has provided the ability to process 3-10 higher photon flux rates than previously possible by removing the limitation that photoncounting detector output pulses on multiple channels being ORed not overlap. Now, only the leading edges of the pulses are required to not overlap. This new photon counting digitizer hardware architecture supports a universal front end for an optical communications receiver operating at data rates from kilobits to over one gigabit per second to meet increased mission data volume requirements.
Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data
Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.
1999-01-01
The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.
Make Kids Count in '95: Hawai'i Kids Count 1995 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hawaii Kids Count, Honolulu.
This KIDS COUNT statistical report is the first to examine indicators of children's well-being in Hawaii. The bulk of the report is comprised of the indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and children…
Make Kids Count in '96: Hawai'i Kids Count 1996 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hawaii Kids Count, Honolulu.
This KIDS COUNT statistical report is the second to examine indicators of children's well-being in Hawaii. The bulk of the report is comprised of the indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and…
Transition Years Count: An Adolescent Profile. KIDS COUNT County Data Book, 1999.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.
This Kids Count data book is the ninth to examine trends in the well-being of Kentucky children, focusing on the transition period of adolescence, based on the view that lessons learned and foundations laid in early adolescence directly impact the transition to adulthood. This statistical portrait is based on trends in indicators of well-being in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.
2012-01-01
Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petersen, Lori A.; McNeil, Nicole M.
2013-01-01
Educators often use concrete objects to help children understand mathematics concepts. However, findings on the effectiveness of concrete objects are mixed. The present study examined how two factors--perceptual richness and established knowledge of the objects--combine to influence children's counting performance. In two experiments, preschoolers…
Labor does not affect the neonatal absolute nucleated red blood cell count.
Sheffer-Mimouni, Galit; Mimouni, Francis B; Lubetzky, Ronit; Kupferminc, Michael; Deutsch, Verda; Dollberg, Shaul
2003-10-01
We investigated whether the presence or absence of physiologic labor may affect the neonatal nucleated red blood cell (RBC) count. We compared absolute nucleated RBC counts taken at approximately 6 hours of life in term infants born by elective cesarean delivery without trial of labor ( n = 32) and in vaginally delivered infants ( n = 28). Venous blood samples were analyzed and differential cell counts were performed manually; absolute nucleated RBC were counted and expressed as an absolute number. There were no significant differences between groups in birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal analgesia during labor, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, and infant sex. There was a significantly higher hematocrit and RBC count in the vaginally delivered group as compared with the cesarean group. The absolute nucleated RBC, corrected leukocyte and lymphocyte, and platelet counts were strikingly similar in both groups. We conclude that labor does not affect the neonatal nucleated RBC count. This finding supports the speculation that physiologic labor does not induce a fetal hypoxemia severe or prolonged enough to produce hematological evidence of increased erythropoiesis. PMID:14655093
Galaxy Counts at 24 Microns in the SWIRE Fields
David L. Shupe; Michael Rowan-Robinson; Carol J. Lonsdale; Frank Masci; Tracey Evans; Fan Fang; Sebastian Oliver; Mattia Vaccari; Giulia Rodighiero; Deborah Padgett; Jason A. Surace; C. Kevin Xu; Stefano Berta; Francesca Pozzi; Alberto Franceschini; Thomas Babbedge; Eduardo Gonzales-Solares; Brian D. Siana; Duncan Farrah; David T. Frayer; H. E. Smith; Maria Polletta; Frazer Owen; Ismael Perez-Fournon
2007-11-13
This paper presents galaxy source counts at 24 microns in the six Spitzer Wide-field InfraRed Extragalactic (SWIRE) fields. The source counts are compared to counts in other fields, and to model predictions that have been updated since the launch of Spitzer. This analysis confirms a very steep rise in the Euclidean-normalized differential number counts between 2 mJy and 0.3 mJy. Variations in the counts between fields show the effects of sample variance in the flux range 0.5-10 mJy, up to 100% larger than Poisson errors. Nonetheless, a "shoulder" in the normalized counts persists at around 3 mJy. The peak of the normalized counts at 0.3 mJy is higher and narrower than most models predict. In the ELAIS N1 field, the 24 micron data are combined with Spitzer-IRAC data and five-band optical imaging, and these bandmerged data are fit with photometric redshift templates. Above 1 mJy the counts are dominated by galaxies at z less than 0.3. By 300 microJy, about 25% are between z ~ 0.3-0.8, and a significant fraction are at z ~ 1.3-2. At low redshifts the counts are dominated by spirals, and starbursts rise in number density to outnumber the spirals' contribution to the counts below 1 mJy.
Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.
Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y
2015-07-15
White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 ?L of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications. PMID:25721975
Orbiting meteoroid and debris counting experiment
Kinard, W.H.; Armstrong, D.; Crockett, S.K.; Jones, J.L. Jr.; Kassel, P.C. Jr.; Wortman, J.J.
1995-02-01
The Orbiting Meteoroid and Debris Counting Experiment (OMDC) flew for approximately 90 days in a highly elliptical earth orbit onboard the Clementine Interstage Adapter (ISA) Spacecraft. This experiment obtained data on the impact flux of natural micrometeoroids and it provided limited information on the population of small mass man-made debris as a function of altitude in near earth space. The flight of the OMDC experiment on the ISA spacecraft also demonstrated that the ultra-lightweight, low-power, particle impact detector system that was used is a viable system for flights on future spacecraft to monitor the population of small mass man-made debris particles and to map the cosmic dust environment encountered on interplanetary missions. An overview of the ISA spacecraft mission, the approach to the OMDC experiment, and the data obtained by the experiment are presented.
Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.
1992-01-01
Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.
Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions
Vogl, M. Schaller, G. Brandes, T.
2011-10-15
We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of N radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from N to N{sup 2} in the current and to even higher powers of N in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source. - Highlights: > Super-radiance transfers to super-transmittance in steady-state transport. > Higher cumulants are much more sensitive indicators for collective behavior than the first cumulant. > Effects should be measurable by pumped-cavity experiment.
Counting gauge invariants: the plethystic program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Bo; Hanany, Amihay; He, Yang-Hui
2007-03-01
We propose a programme for systematically counting the single and multi-trace gauge invariant operators of a gauge theory. Key to this is the plethystic function. We expound in detail the power of this plethystic programme for world-volume quiver gauge theories of D-branes probing Calabi-Yau singularities, an illustrative case to which the programme is not limited, though in which a full intimate web of relations between the geometry and the gauge theory manifests herself. We can also use generalisations of Hardy-Ramanujan to compute the entropy of gauge theories from the plethystic exponential. In due course, we also touch upon fascinating connections to Young Tableaux, Hilbert schemes and the MacMahon Conjecture.
Sampling and counting genome rearrangement scenarios
2015-01-01
Background Even for moderate size inputs, there are a tremendous number of optimal rearrangement scenarios, regardless what the model is and which specific question is to be answered. Therefore giving one optimal solution might be misleading and cannot be used for statistical inferring. Statistically well funded methods are necessary to sample uniformly from the solution space and then a small number of samples are sufficient for statistical inferring. Contribution In this paper, we give a mini-review about the state-of-the-art of sampling and counting rearrangement scenarios, focusing on the reversal, DCJ and SCJ models. Above that, we also give a Gibbs sampler for sampling most parsimonious labeling of evolutionary trees under the SCJ model. The method has been implemented and tested on real life data. The software package together with example data can be downloaded from http://www.renyi.hu/~miklosi/SCJ-Gibbs/ PMID:26452124
Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting
D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker
1998-11-01
This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.
The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory photon counting detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanbreda, I. G.; Carter, M. K.; Patchett, B. E.; Read, P. D.
1992-12-01
The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Photon Counting Detector is a two dimensional area detector having a wide range of applications at optical, UV and X-ray wavelengths, both ground based and in space. It makes use of a microchannel plate intensifier and 'software centroiding' to derive the coordinates for photon events. The intensifier is coupled by means of a fiber optic taper either to a frame transfer CCD (Charge Coupled Device) or a CID camera running at video rates. Readout data frames are passed to a transputer array for analysis, where the event centroids are first calculated using an approximate numerical algorithm, then corrected using a lookup table. The current characteristics of the detector and some possible future developments are discussed.
Counting primitive points of bounded height
Widmer, Martin
2012-01-01
Let $k$ be a number field and $K$ a finite extension of $k$. We count points of bounded height in projective space over the field $K$ generating the extension $K/k$. As the height gets large we derive asymptotic estimates with a particularly good error term respecting the extension $K/k$. In a future paper we will use these results to get asymptotic estimates for the number of points of fixed degree over $k$. We also introduce the notion of an adelic Lipschitz height generalizing that of Masser and Vaaler. This will lead to further applications involving points of fixed degree on linear varieties and algebraic numbers of fixed degree satisfying certain subfield conditions.
The bispectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts
Di Dio, Enea; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco
2015-01-01
Starting from the relativistic galaxy number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory which we have determined in a previous paper, we discuss the dominant terms on sub-Hubble scales and on intermediate to large redshifts. In particular, we determine their contribution to the bispectrum. In addition to the terms already known from Newtonian second order perturbation theory, we find that there are a series of additional `lensing-like' terms which contribute to the bispectrum. We derive analytical expressions for the full leading order bispectrum and we evaluate it numerically for different configurations, indicating how they can be measured with upcoming surveys. In particular, the new `lensing-like' terms are not negligible within large window functions and even dominate the bispectrum at well separated redshifts. This offers us the possibility to measure them in future surveys.
On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Carlsson, Mats; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin
Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.
Counting OCR errors in typeset text
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandberg, Jonathan S.
1995-03-01
Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.
Modelling View-count Dynamics in YouTube
Richier, Cédric; Elazouzi, Rachid; Altman, Tania; Linares, Georges; Portilla, Yonathan
2014-01-01
The goal of this paper is to study the behaviour of view-count in YouTube. We first propose several bio-inspired models for the evolution of the view-count of YouTube videos. We show, using a large set of empirical data, that the view-count for 90% of videos in YouTube can indeed be associated to at least one of these models, with a Mean Error which does not exceed 5%. We derive automatic ways of classifying the view-count curve into one of these models and of extracting the most suitable parameters of the model. We study empirically the impact of videos' popularity and category on the evolution of its view-count. We finally use the above classification along with the automatic parameters extraction in order to predict the evolution of videos' view-count.
[Automated hematology analysers and spurious counts. Part 1. Platelets].
Tessier-Marteau, Anne; Geneviève, Franck; Godon, Alban; Macchi, Laurent; Zandecki, Marc
2010-01-01
Hematology analysers provide now quick, accurate, and reproducible cell blood counts. However, depending on detection methods, spurious counts may occur. If undetected, such spurious counts may lead to inappropriate medical care and to unneeded explorations. Focusing first on platelet counts, situations leading to spurious decrease include several preanalytical considerations, the major one corresponding to EDTA-induced platelet aggregation and to platelet satellitism around polymorphs. In other instances, related to the presence of small particles mimicking platelets, including fragmented red blood cells, lipids, cryoglobulins, fibrin strands, or cytoplasmic fragments of leukocytes, spurious elevation of platelet count may occur. According to the analyser and to the methods used for the determination of the cell blood count, flags or messages related to these spurious changes differ. For each spurious change, the authors describe the mechanism leading to the anomaly, the way the analysers generate flags, and what should be done to provide accurate results. PMID:20650734
Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang
2015-11-01
The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r?=?0.9937, p?count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p?counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p?>?0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC. PMID:25275874
Scintillation counting of beta activity on filter paper.
FUNT, B L; HETHERINGTON, A
1960-05-27
Scintillation counting of beta activity on filter paper, with monoisopropylbiphenyl as a solvent of low volatility, was investigated. The method is attractive since no sample preparation is involved, and the activities are measured directly on the filter paper wetted with the scintillator solution. A linear dependence of counting rate on total activity was found for iodine-131, phosphorus-32, sodium-22, and carbon-14, and counting efficiencies were determined. PMID:13825688
Effects of virologic rebound on CD4 cell counts.
Bahrani, A; Ramaswamy, R; Oldfield, E C
2001-04-15
A retrospective study was conducted to assess the effects of various degrees of virologic rebound on CD4 cell counts over time in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. We found that (1) the higher the degree of virologic rebound, the more rapid the decrease in CD4 cell counts over time, and (2) the magnitude of the virologic rebound was inversely correlated with the CD4 cell counts at the time of rebound. PMID:11283815
VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY ...
VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY COUNTING MEASURES RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN THE BODY. DESIGNED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RADIATION, BODY COUNTING ROOMS ARE CONSTRUCTED OF PRE-WORLD WAR II (WWII) STEEL. PRE-WWII STEEL, WHICH HAS NOT BEEN AFFECTED BY NUCLEAR FALLOUT, IS LOWER IS RADIOACTIVITY THAN STEEL CREATED AFTER WWII. (10/25/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO
Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space
Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)
2012-06-05
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.
1989-01-01
Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.
Azmy, Suzanna Noor; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Ariffin, Azman; Majid, Zulkepli; Ismail, Muhamad Nor Akmal; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir
2012-01-01
Population surveys and species recognition for roosting bats are either based on capture, sight or optical-mechanical count methods. However, these methods are intrusive, are tedious and, at best, provide only statistical estimations. Here, we demonstrated the successful use of a terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) laser scanner for remotely identifying and determining the exact population of roosting bats in caves. LIDAR accurately captured the 3D features of the roosting bats and their spatial distribution patterns in minimal light. The high-resolution model of the cave enabled an exact count of the visibly differentiated Hipposideros larvatus and their roosting pattern within the 3D topology of the cave. We anticipate that the development of LIDAR will open up new research possibilities by allowing researchers to study roosting behaviour within the topographical context of a cave's internal surface, thus facilitating rigorous quantitative characterisations of cave roosting behaviour. PMID:22826802
The Shane-Wirtanen counts - Observer and time-dependent effects. [in Lick galaxy count
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groth, Edward J.; Peebles, P. J. E.
1986-01-01
In a recent paper, de Lapparent, Kurtz, and Geller (1986) announce the discovery of possible observer and time-dependent effects in the counts of galaxies in the Lick catalog and suggest that these effects may have distorted the galaxy correlation function calculated by Groth and Peebles (1986) from the Lick counts. In particular, they suggest that these effects may have introduced a break where none exists or may have diluted a break stronger than that seen by Groth and Peebles. The Lick counts have been reexamined and it is found that the observer and time-dependent effects are marginal and that they can have had only a negligible effect on the estimates of the correlation functions. Correlation functions have been calculated for each observer and time period separately and it is found that they all depart from the small-angle power law at about the expected scale. Further, the average of these correlation functions agrees extremely well with the average correlation function published by Groth and Peebles.
Statistical mapping of count survey data
Royle, J.A.; Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.
2002-01-01
We apply a Poisson mixed model to the problem of mapping (or predicting) bird relative abundance from counts collected from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). The model expresses the logarithm of the Poisson mean as a sum of a fixed term (which may depend on habitat variables) and a random effect which accounts for remaining unexplained variation. The random effect is assumed to be spatially correlated, thus providing a more general model than the traditional Poisson regression approach. Consequently, the model is capable of improved prediction when data are autocorrelated. Moreover, formulation of the mapping problem in terms of a statistical model facilitates a wide variety of inference problems which are cumbersome or even impossible using standard methods of mapping. For example, assessment of prediction uncertainty, including the formal comparison of predictions at different locations, or through time, using the model-based prediction variance is straightforward under the Poisson model (not so with many nominally model-free methods). Also, ecologists may generally be interested in quantifying the response of a species to particular habitat covariates or other landscape attributes. Proper accounting for the uncertainty in these estimated effects is crucially dependent on specification of a meaningful statistical model. Finally, the model may be used to aid in sampling design, by modifying the existing sampling plan in a manner which minimizes some variance-based criterion. Model fitting under this model is carried out using a simulation technique known as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Application of the model is illustrated using Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) counts from Pennsylvania BBS routes. We produce both a model-based map depicting relative abundance, and the corresponding map of prediction uncertainty. We briefly address the issue of spatial sampling design under this model. Finally, we close with some discussion of mapping in relation to habitat structure. Although our models were fit in the absence of habitat information, the resulting predictions show a strong inverse relation with a map of forest cover in the state, as expected. Consequently, the results suggest that the correlated random effect in the model is broadly representing ecological variation, and that BBS data may be generally useful for studying bird-habitat relationships, even in the presence of observer errors and other widely recognized deficiencies of the BBS.
Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors
Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.
2014-01-01
Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f50 (spatial-frequency at which the MTF falls to a value of 0.50) by ?30% with corresponding improvement in DQE. The range in exposure and additive noise for which PCDs yield intrinsically higher DQE was quantified, showing performance advantages under conditions of very low-dose, high additive noise, and high fidelity rejection of coincident photons. Conclusions: The model for PCD signal and noise performance agreed with measurements of detector signal, MTF, and NPS and provided a useful basis for understanding complex dependencies in PCD imaging performance and the potential advantages (and disadvantages) in comparison to EIDs as well as an important guide to task-based optimization in developing new PCD imaging systems. PMID:25281959
First AID (Atom counting for Isotopic Determination).
Roach, J. L. (Jeffrey L.); Israel, K. M. (Kimberly M.); Steiner, R. E. (Robert E.); Duffy, C. J. (Clarence J.); Roench, F. R. (Fred R.)
2002-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established an in vitro bioassay monitoring program in compliance with the requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. One aspect of this program involves monitoring plutonium levels in at-risk workers. High-risk workers are monitored using the ultra-sensitive Therrnal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) technique to ensure compliance with DOE standards. TIMS is used to measure atom ratios of 239Pua nd 240Puw ith respect to a tracer isotope ('Pu). These ratios are then used to calculate the amount of 239Pu and 240Pup resent. This low-level atom counting technique allows the calculation of the concentration levels of 239Pu and 240Pu in urine for at risk workers. From these concentration levels, dose assessments can be made and worker exposure levels can be monitored. Detection limits for TIMS analysis are on the order of millions of atoms, which translates to activity levels of 150 aCi 239Pua nd 500 aCi for 240Pu. pCi for Our poster presentation will discuss the ultra-sensitive, low-level analytical technique used to measure plutonium isotopes and the data verification methods used for validating isotopic measurements.
The LAMBDA photon-counting pixel detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pennicard, D.; Lange, S.; Smoljanin, S.; Hirsemann, H.; Graafsma, H.; Epple, M.; Zuvic, M.; Lampert, M.-O.; Fritzsch, T.; Rothermund, M.
2013-03-01
The Medipix3 photon-counting detector chip has a number of novel features that are attractive for synchrotron experiments, such as a high frame rate with zero dead time and high spatial resolution. DESY are developing a large-area Medipix3-based detector array (LAMBDA). A single LAMBDA module consists of 2 by 6 Medipix3 chips on a ceramic carrier board, bonded to either a single large silicon sensor or two smaller high-Z sensors. The readout system fits behind the carrier board to allow module tiling, and uses a large on-board RAM and multiple 10 Gigabit Ethernet links to permit high-speed readout. Currently, the first large silicon modules have been constructed and read out at low speed, and the firmware for highspeed readout is being developed. In addition to these silicon sensors, we are developing a germanium hybrid pixel detector in collaboration with Canberra for higher-energy beamlines. Canberra have produced a set of 256-by-256-pixel planar germanium sensors with 55?m pitch, and these are currently being bonded to Medipix3 readout chips by Fraunhofer IZM (Berlin).
Counting Majorana bound states using complex momenta
Ipsita Mandal
2015-03-23
Recently the connection between Majorana fermions bound to defects in arbitrary dimensions, and complex momentum roots of the the vanishing determinant of the corresponding bulk BdG Hamiltonian, has been established (arXiv:1503.03839). Based on this understanding, a formula has been proposed to count the number ($n$) of the zero energy Majorana bound states, which is related to the topological phase of the system. In this paper, we apply this formula to a variety of $1d$ and $2d$ models belonging to the classes BDI, DIII and D. We show that we can successfully chart out the topological phase diagrams. Studying these examples also enables us to explicitly observe the correspondence between these complex momentum solutions in the Fourier space, and the localized Majorana fermion wavefunctions in the position space. Finally, we corroborate the fact that for systems with a chiral symmetry, these solutions are the so-called "Exceptional Points", where two or more eigenvalues of the complexified Hamiltonian coalesce.
Counting test facility for the Borexino experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranucci, G.; Meroni, E.
2014-05-01
A fundamental breakthrough which opened the way to the realization of the Borexino detector was the demonstration of exceptionally low, unprecedented radioactive contaminations in the liquid scintillator, obtained with its pilot prototype Counting Test Facility. Though of limited dimension, with its 4.8 m3 of active liquid core, CTF has however been a key milestone not only for Borexino, but also for the entire field of the ultra-low background searches. Here, we succinctly remind the motivations, which concurred to lay down the project, as well as the specific radiopurity challenge, which guided the design. After the description of the technical elements of the detector, the main outcomes are summarized, both regarding optical and purity scintillator properties, with special emphasis on the exceptional achievements in term of ultra-low traces of radioactive contaminants. The discussion is completed with the description of how CTF was employed for the pre-qualification of the entire inventory of the Borexino scintillator, confirming also in the final phase of its life its essential role for the success of the overall Borexino solar neutrino program.
Estimating resource selection with count data
Nielson, Ryan M; Sawyer, Hall
2013-01-01
Resource selection functions (RSFs) are typically estimated by comparing covariates at a discrete set of “used” locations to those from an “available” set of locations. This RSF approach treats the response as binary and does not account for intensity of use among habitat units where locations were recorded. Advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology allow animal location data to be collected at fine spatiotemporal scales and have increased the size and correlation of data used in RSF analyses. We suggest that a more contemporary approach to analyzing such data is to model intensity of use, which can be estimated for one or more animals by relating the relative frequency of locations in a set of sampling units to the habitat characteristics of those units with count-based regression and, in particular, negative binomial (NB) regression. We demonstrate this NB RSF approach with location data collected from 10 GPS-collared Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range enclosure. We discuss modeling assumptions and show how RSF estimation with NB regression can easily accommodate contemporary research needs, including: analysis of large GPS data sets, computational ease, accounting for among-animal variation, and interpretation of model covariates. We recommend the NB approach because of its conceptual and computational simplicity, and the fact that estimates of intensity of use are unbiased in the face of temporally correlated animal location data. PMID:23919165
Coincident count rates in absorbing dielectric media
Crosse, J. A.; Scheel, Stefan [Quantum Optics and Laser Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2011-02-15
A study of the effects of absorption on the nonlinear process of parametric down-conversion is presented. Absorption within the nonlinear medium is accounted for by employing the framework of macroscopic QED and the Green tensor quantization of the electromagnetic field. An effective interaction Hamiltonian, which describes the nonlinear interaction of the electric field and the linear noise polarization field, is used to derive the quantum state of the light leaving a nonlinear crystal. The signal and idler modes of this quantum state are found to be a superposition of the electric and noise polarization fields. Using this state, the expression for the coincident count rates for both type-I and type-II down-conversion are found. The nonlinear interaction with the noise polarization field was shown to cause an increase in the rate on the order of 10{sup -12} for absorption of 10% per centimeter. This astonishingly small effect is found to be negligible compared to the decay caused by linear absorption of the propagating modes. From the expressions for the biphoton amplitude, it can be seen that the maximally entangled states can still be produced even in the presence of strong absorption.
Advanced Reference Counting Pointers for Better Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reinholtz, William
2007-01-01
A computer program implements reference counting pointers (RCPs) that are lock-free, thread-safe, async-safe, and operational on a multiprocessor computer. RCPs are powerful and convenient means of managing heap memory in C++ software. Most prior RCP programs use locks to ensure thread safety and manage concurrency. The present program was developed in a continuing effort to explore ways of using the C++ programming language to develop safety-critical and mission- critical software. This effort includes exploration of lock-free algorithms because they offer potential to avoid some costly and difficult verification problems. Unlike previously published RCP software, the present program does not use locks (meaning that no thread can block progress on another thread): Instead, this program implements algorithms that exploit capabilities of central-processing- unit hardware so as to avoid locks. Once locks are eliminated, it becomes possible to realize the other attributes mentioned in the first sentence. In addition to the abovementioned attributes, this program offers several advantages over other RCP programs that use locks: It is smaller (and, hence, is faster and uses less memory), it is immune to priority inversion, and there is no way for it to cause a C++ exception.
Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...
CAVE CRICKET EXIT COUNTS: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES AND DURATION OF SURVEYS
Upchurch, Gary - Department of Biology, Texas State University
CAVE CRICKET EXIT COUNTS: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES AND DURATION OF SURVEYS FLOYD W. WECKERLY1 1.edu Abstract: Cave cricket abundance is used as an indicator of integrity of cave ecosystems. One means of monitoring cave cricket abundance is counting crickets as they emerge from cave entrances for two hours after
Making chromosome counts in Solanum using corolla tissue
R. Kessel; G. E. Marks
1970-01-01
Summary A technique is described for counting chromosomes inSolanum. Young corolla tissue has been found to be excellent for making preparations of mitosis. This makes it possible to obtain\\u000a quick, accurate chromosome counts of plants when roots are not available.
78 FR 62955 - National Character Counts Week, 2013
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-10-23
...October 18, 2013 National Character Counts Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect on the ways we support one...values that keep our country strong. This week, we reaffirm our commitment to...
76 FR 65095 - National Character Counts Week, 2011
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-10-20
...October 14, 2011 National Character Counts Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...humanity. During National Character Counts Week, we celebrate our country's core values...country strong, prosperous, and free. This week, we resolve to stay true to the...
Arithmetic, First-Order Logic, and Counting Quantifiers
Nicole Schweikardt
2002-01-01
This paper gives a thorough overview of what is known about fir st-order logic with counting quantifiers and with arithmetic predicates. A s a main theorem we show that Presburger arithmetic is closed under unary counting quantifiers. Pre- cisely, this means that for every first-order formula ?(y, ~ z ) over the signature {<, +} there is a first-order formula
Visualization of Document Co-Citation Counts Steven Noel
Noel, Steven
Visualization of Document Co-Citation Counts Steven Noel Center for Secure Information Systems that are related to each other by links, such as citations in formal publications. We present results of visualizing minimum spanning trees based on document co-citation counts and on document citation correlations
HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES
ABSTRACT In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...
Climatological Analysis of Tornado Report Counts Using a Hierarchical Bayesian
Climatological Analysis of Tornado Report Counts Using a Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio Recent evidence suggests that tornado report counts for monthly or longer peri- ods may be correlated to climate indices in space and time. However, climatologi- cal analysis of tornado reports is complicated
Magnitude Representations and Counting Skills in Preschool Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Batchelor, Sophie; Keeble, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla
2015-01-01
When children learn to count, they map newly acquired symbolic representations of number onto preexisting nonsymbolic representations. The nature and timing of this mapping is currently unclear. Some researchers have suggested this mapping process helps children understand the cardinal principle of counting, while other evidence suggests that this…
Cell Counts in Cerebral Cortex of an Autistic Patient.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coleman, Paul D.; And Others
1985-01-01
Numbers of neurons and glia were counted in the cerebral cortex of one case of autism and two age- and sex-matched controls. Cell counts were made in primary auditory cortex, Broca's speech area, and auditory association cortex. No consistent differences in cell density were found between brains of autistic and control patients. (Author/CL)
2001 GTA CORDON COUNT TRANSPORTATION TRENDS 1991-2001
Toronto, University of
2001 GTA CORDON COUNT TRANSPORTATION TRENDS 1991-2001 TECHNICAL REPORT Prepared on behalf of Transit March 2003 #12;March 2003 2001GTA Cordon Count Transportation Trends 1991-2001 McCormick Rankin Corporation i Acknowledgements This report was prepared on behalf of the GTA Transportation Research and Data
Gross alpha/beta determination by liquid scintillation counting
Leyba, J.D.
1992-03-01
Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is used to assay liquid samples for both gross alpha and gross beta (including tritium) activity in order to declare these samples clean.'' This method provides several advantages over traditional gross assay techniques including easy sample preparation, no sample self-absorption, short counting times, acceptable lower limits of detection (LLD's), and convenient sample disposal.
Gross alpha/beta determination by liquid scintillation counting
Leyba, J.D.
1992-03-01
Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is used to assay liquid samples for both gross alpha and gross beta (including tritium) activity in order to declare these samples ``clean.`` This method provides several advantages over traditional gross assay techniques including easy sample preparation, no sample self-absorption, short counting times, acceptable lower limits of detection (LLD`s), and convenient sample disposal.
An electronic pollen detection method using Coulter counting principle
Zheng Zhang; Jiang Zhe; Santanu Chandra; Jun Hu
2005-01-01
A method for detecting and counting pollen particles based on Coulter counting principle is presented. This approach also provides information on the size and surface charges of the micro particles, allowing for preliminary differentiation of pollens from other micro particles. Three samples are studied: polymethyl methacrylate particles, tree pollens from Juniperus Scopulorum and grass pollens from Secale Cerale. The samples,
CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF
CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF A PORTUGUESE SHARK describe the cell types, differential cell counts, and measurements of both the erythrocytes and leukocytes unusually large cell Sizes in all cell categories. Cell measurements revealed erythrocytes larger than those
Link Vehicle-Count--the Missing Measurement for Traffic Control
Link Vehicle-Count--the Missing Measurement for Traffic Control Markos Papageorgiou Pravin Varaiya and the time they spend in various links of the road network. A technology based on vehicle re-identification is presented for the real-time measurement of link vehicle-count and link travel time. Extensions
Alpha-liquid scintillation counting for the determination of plutonium
R. B. Manolkar; Keshav Chander; S. G. Marathe
1994-01-01
Liquid scintillation counting is useful and extensively employed for -activity measurement. However, quenching is observed and erroneous results are obtained when the size of the solution aliquot and its acidity exceed certain limits. A simple procedure has been developed to overcome the quenching effect of volume and acidity on -counting.
On Optimal Differentially Private Mechanisms for Count-Range Queries*
Zeng, Chen; Cai, Jin-Yi; Lu, Pinyan; Naughton, Jeffrey F.
2014-01-01
While there is a large and growing body of literature on differentially private mechanisms for answering various classes of queries, to the best of our knowledge “count-range” queries have not been studied. These are a natural class of queries that ask “is the number of rows in a relation satisfying a given predicate between two integers ?1 and ?2?” Such queries can be viewed as a simple form of SQL “having” queries. We begin by developing a provably optimal differentially private mechansim for count-range queries for a single consumer. For count queries (in contrast to count-range queries), Ghosh et al. [9] have provided a differentially private mechanism that simultaneously maximizes utility for multiple consumers. This raises the question of whether such a mechanism exists for count-range queries. We prove that the answer is no — for count range queries, no such mechanism exists. However, perhaps surprisingly, we prove that such a mechanism does exist for “threshold” queries, which are simply count-range queries for which either ?1 = 0 or ?2 = +?. Furthermore, we prove that this mechanism is a two-approximation for general count-range queries. PMID:25364783
Rapid-Throughput Insect Population Counting Using Computer Vision
BugID: Rapid-Throughput Insect Population Counting Using Computer Vision Students: N. Larios, H;5/31/2007 Ecosystem Informatics Colloquium 7 Goal: Rapid-Throughput Automated Arthropod Population Counting Specimens and spatial distribution of organisms? What is the population size of each species in a region? What are all
Tritium Assay in Liquids Using Liquid Scintillation Counting
Jia, Songtao
Tritium Assay in Liquids Using Liquid Scintillation Counting Procedure: 7.810 Created: 04 by emission of a low energy (Emax = 0.013 MeV) beta particle. Liquid scintillation counting is an effective or collection of scintillation events caused by transit of the beta particles through the cocktail, making
HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES
ABSTRACT
In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...
Phonics: A Large Phoneme-Grapheme Frequency Count Revised
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fry, Edward
2004-01-01
This study is a summary and simplification of a very large phoneme-grapheme frequency count done by Hanna et al. phoneme-grapheme frequency count done by Hanna et al. T(1966). Although the results and data from the original study have implications for teaching phonics and spelling, they were presented in a complicated and unwieldy manner.…
Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zaslavsky, Claudia
This document describes the contributions of African peoples to the science of mathematics. The development of a number system is seen as related to need. Names of numbers, time reckoning, gesture counting, and counting materials are examined. Mystical beliefs about numbers and special meanings in pattern are presented. Reproductions of patterns,…
Estimating population diversity with unreliable low frequency counts
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
We consider the classical population diversity estimation scenario based on frequency count data (the number of classes or taxa represented once, twice, etc. in the sample), but with the proviso that the lowest frequency counts, especially the singletons, may not be reliably observed. This arises es...
Distributional Importance Sampling for Approximate Weighted Model Counting
Bacchus, Fahiem
Distributional Importance Sampling for Approximate Weighted Model Counting Jessica Davies|fbacchus]@cs.toronto.edu Abstract. We present a sampling method to approximate the weighted model count of Boolean satisfiability problems. Our method is based on distributional importance sampling, where a subset of the variables
High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.
Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique
2015-10-01
A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.43, confidence interval [CI]?=?0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR?=?0.22, CI?=?0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi. PMID:25809795
Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS
Studies were initiated to investigate the interactions between heterotrophic plate count bacteria and coliform organisms. The authors used spiked samples to show that heterotrophic plate count bacteria could reduce coliform densities by more than 3 logs within 8 days. Some hetero...
Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others
1989-01-01
Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)
Apparatus characterization as a standard for neutron correlation counting
Zucker, M.S.
1982-01-01
Neutron correlation counting has the property that the count rate is predictable from first principles. This allows, in certain instances, replacing standards of the conventional types with a careful characterization of the apparatus. Multiplication would have to be small, and the material well characterized. An instance where circumstances forced used of such a procedure, with excellent results, is described.
Lin, Y H; Haslam, P L; Turner-Warwick, M
1985-01-01
Thirty three consecutive untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, confirmed histologically or by Kveim test, were investigated to correlate cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with clinical features, the chest radiograph, and results of lung function tests. A persistently abnormal radiograph had been observed for one year or more in 26 (79%) and for two years or more in 20 (61%), but only 24% had dyspnoea. Twenty (61%) of 33 patients showed an increased percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, although only eight (24%) exceeded 28%. A moderate increase of neutrophils, up to 12%, was found in 14 (42%). Lymphocyte percentage counts were higher in the group of patients without evidence of radiographic contraction suggesting fibrosis, and this contrasted with higher percentage neutrophil counts in those with contraction. There was also a correlation between the percentages of neutrophils and increasing radiographic profusion scores (p less than 0.001), suggesting that neutrophils may reflect the severity of the parenchymal legions as well as fibrotic distortion, and an inverse correlation with vital capacity (p less than 0.001) and transfer factor (TLCO) (p less than 0.1 greater than 0.05). No significant correlation was found between the lymphocyte counts and radiographic profusion scores, vital capacity or TLCO; but it was noted that all eight patients with high lymphocyte counts (greater than 28%) had radiographic profusion scores less than 12. This study shows that, especially in sarcoidosis with more extensive radiographic shadows of long duration, bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils may be important as well as lymphocytes in clinical assessment of "activity" of disease. These observations are important because they throw doubt on whether the lavage lymphocyte count alone can be used as an indicator of the need to start corticosteroid treatment. PMID:4035616
Neutrophil counts in leptospirosis patients infected with different serovars.
Craig, S B; Collet, T A; Wynwood, S J; Smythe, L D; Weier, S L; McKay, D B
2013-12-01
In leptospirosis patients, haematological abnormalities have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine if neutrophil counts were different between patients known to be infected with a range of leptospiral serovars. The study retrospectively compared the neutrophil counts from the first blood samples taken from 210 leptospirosis patients at first presentation to a Queensland Health hospital. Significant differences (p <0.001) were observed in neutrophil counts across the 11 different infecting serovars. These findings suggest that neutrophil counts may be useful in the development of an algorithm determining the infecting serovar in suspected leptospirosis patients. Further studies are required to delineate host cytokine responses which may suggest the underlying aetiology of the observed differences in neutrophil counts. Such studies would also provide valuable therapeutic insights into treating the disease. PMID:24522125
Computed neutron coincidence counting applied to passive waste assay
Bruggeman, M.; Baeten, P.; De Boeck, W.; Carchon, R.
1997-11-01
Neutron coincidence counting applied for the passive assay of fissile material is generally realised with dedicated electronic circuits. This paper presents a software based neutron coincidence counting method with data acquisition via a commercial PC-based Time Interval Analyser (TIA). The TIA is used to measure and record all time intervals between successive pulses in the pulse train up to count-rates of 2 Mpulses/s. Software modules are then used to compute the coincidence count-rates and multiplicity related data. This computed neutron coincidence counting (CNCC) offers full access to all the time information contained in the pulse train. This paper will mainly concentrate on the application and advantages of CNCC for the non-destructive assay of waste. An advanced multiplicity selective Rossi-alpha method is presented and its implementation via CNCC demonstrated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
TH Rainer; DV Smit
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is associated with a lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and neutrophilia and suspected cases may be admitted to hospital on the basis of such abnormalities. Laboratories may report changes as percentages or absolute counts. Objective: To investigate whether absolute or percentage differential counts were more predictive of patients with SARS pneumonia. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: SARS
Koning de C. J. A. M; B. A. Slaghuis; Vorst van der Y
2003-01-01
Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems) on dairy farms in The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms with conventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cell count, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed.
Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation
Chertkov, Michael; Chandrasekaran, V; Gamarmik, D; Shah, D; Sin, J
2009-01-01
The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.
Does Crossover Interference Count in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?
Stahl, Franklin W.; Foss, Henriette M.; Young, Lisa S.; Borts, Rhona H.; Abdullah, M. F. F.; Copenhaver, Gregory P.
2004-01-01
We previously proposed a “counting model” for meiotic crossover interference, in which double-strand breaks occur independently and a fixed number of noncrossovers occur between neighboring crossovers. Whereas in some organisms (group I) this simple model alone describes the crossover distribution, in other organisms (group II) an additional assumption—that some crossovers lack interference—improves the fit. Other differences exist between the groups: Group II needs double-strand breaks and some repair functions to achieve synapsis, while repair in group I generally occurs after synapsis is achieved; group II, but not group I, has recombination proteins Dmc1, Mnd1, and Hop2. Here we report experiments in msh4 mutants that are designed to test predictions of the revised model in a group II organism. Further, we interpret these experiments, the above-mentioned differences between group I and II meiosis, and other data to yield the following proposal: Group II organisms use the repair of leptotene breaks to promote synapsis by generating double-Holliday-junction intermediates that lock homologs together (pairing pathway). The possible crossover or noncrossover resolution products of these structures lack interference. In contrast, for both group I and group II, repair during pachytene (disjunction pathway) is associated with interference and generates only two resolution types, whose structures suggest that the Holliday junctions of the repair intermediates are unligated. A crossover arises when such an intermediate is stabilized by a protein that prevents its default resolution to a noncrossover. The protein-binding pattern required for interference depends on clustering of sites that have received, or are normally about to receive, meiotic double-strand breaks. PMID:15454525
The influence of various hematology analyzers on component platelet counts.
Moroff, Gary; Sowemimo-Coker, Samuel O; Finch, Stephen; Murphy, Scott; Brandwein, Harvey; Whitbread, John; Wenz, Barry
2005-04-01
Hematology analyzers designed to count platelets in samples of whole blood are used to enumerate the total number of platelets in components prepared for transfusion. This report addresses the issue of variability in platelet counts obtained with different models of hematology analyzers. The influence of a common calibration procedure, involving one level of porcine platelets, on the extent of variability was also evaluated. Identical sets of samples of simulated and apheresis-derived human platelets were counted by multiple laboratories in 3 separate studies. In the first 2 exercises, 7 samples of both porcine platelets and modified goat erythrocytes with targeted platelets counts from 0.2 to 4.0 x 10(12)/L were counted without prior dilution. In both exercises, the samples were counted multiple times after routine calibration using instructions provided by the manufacturers of the various hematology analyzers used. In the second exercise, the samples were recounted after the hematology analyzers were recalibrated with a common calibrant consisting of porcine platelets at a targeted concentration of 0.5 x 10(12)/L. In the first and second exercises, 20 and 18 hematology analyzers were used, respectively. In the third exercise, 6 samples prepared from a single unit of apheresis platelets with targeted counts from 0.2 to 1.64 x 10(12)/L were shipped by an overnight courier and counted in triplicate on the day of arrival. Eleven hematology analyzers were used. The influence of recalibration was evaluated statistically by using the 95% prediction interval for the mean of a future set of observations. The platelet counts measured with a specific type of hematology analyzer provided the data to calculate the 95% prediction interval. With routine calibration, a wide variability in platelet counts was observed with all levels of both simulated and apheresis-derived human platelets. For example, with porcine platelets at a targeted level of 0.4 x 10 (12)/L, the platelet counts ranged from 0.31 to 0.47 x 10(12)/L. Recalibration reduced the extent of variability observed with all levels of simulated and apheresis-derived human platelets by increasing the observed platelet counts determined with a subset of hematology analyzers that produced platelet counts in the lower portion of the range. With recalibration, the mean platelet counts obtained with most hematology analyzers, especially with samples having targeted platelet levels no greater than 1.0 x 10(12)/L, were within or near the 95% prediction interval determined with the instruments that provided the highest platelet counts with routine calibration. With recalibration, the reproducibility of the platelet counts was considered to be good for all hematology analyzers with all levels of simulated and apheresis-derived human platelets for most of the instruments. The coefficient of variance did not exceed 6%, with most of the values ranging from 1% to 3%. This study therefore found that the platelet counts of platelet concentrates can be markedly influenced by the type of hematology analyzer used. A common calibration procedure designed specifically for the range of platelet counts in platelet products may be beneficial considering that many different hematology analyzers are being used to count platelets. PMID:15852243
Dark-count-less photon-counting x-ray computed tomography system using a YAP-MPPC detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Eiichi; Sato, Yuich; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun
2012-10-01
A high-sensitive X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for decreasing absorbed dose for patients, and a dark-count-less photon-counting CT system was developed. X-ray photons are detected using a YAP(Ce) [cerium-doped yttrium aluminum perovskite] single crystal scintillator and an MPPC (multipixel photon counter). Photocurrents are amplified by a high-speed current-voltage amplifier, and smooth event pulses from an integrator are sent to a high-speed comparator. Then, logical pulses are produced from the comparator and are counted by a counter card. Tomography is accomplished by repeated linear scans and rotations of an object, and projection curves of the object are obtained by the linear scan. The image contrast of gadolinium medium slightly fell with increase in lower-level voltage (Vl) of the comparator. The dark count rate was 0 cps, and the count rate for the CT was approximately 250 kcps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.
2014-06-01
Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard energy-integrating x-ray detectors, but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a ‘hybrid’ detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al 2011 Med. Phys. 38 1089-102 ). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping (‘bowtie’) filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of 2 to 3. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors.
Photon Counting Airborne Laser Swath Mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, K. C.
2004-05-01
During the past decade airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) has brought topographic mapping to the forefront of geodesy. ALSM has made it possible, for the first time, to study natural geo-surficial processes on spatial scales extending from meters to hundreds of kilometers, all in a consistent geodetic frame of reference. The conventional approach to ALSM has been to use lasers with enough energy per pulse, and optics with large enough collecting areas, to obtain returns of thousands of photons per shot. This approach minimizes the impact of spurious range values caused by noise, such as background solar radiation and sensor thermal noise, but also constrains the minimum size, weight and power consumption of the hardware. Current systems typically operate at rates approaching 100,000 pulses per second, and another order of magnitude increase would be needed to provide contiguous coverage with a spatial resolution of 30 cm or better. This high signal-to-noise ratio approach affords little scalability for significantly downsizing the hardware, or reducing the costs. University of Florida (UF) researchers are developing an ALSM unit based on a different paradigm, which we refer to as photon counting ALSM, or simply PC-ALSM. The approach is to transmit relatively low energy laser pulses, and to illuminate a surface `patch' about an order of magnitude larger than the typical footprint of a conventional ALSM system. The returning signal will have far fewer photons per unit area of the receive optics, making it more difficult to discriminate between return signal and noise. If a single channel detector were used, the spatial resolution would also be degraded. However, by using a multi-channel photomultiplier tube to detect the returns, the surface patch can be divided into an array of groundals, and by using a multi-stop timing system false ranges can be filtered out of the data during post flight processing. Researchers at NASA GSFC have already tested a first generation system based on this new paradigm, operated from a high altitude aircraft, to develop a satellite based instrument. Details of the preliminary UF design for a second generation system that will operate from a light aircraft flying less than 1000 meters above local ground level and providing contiguous coverage of the terrain with 30 cm spatial resolution will be presented.
Probing cosmology with weak lensing peak counts
Kratochvil, Jan M.; Haiman, Zoltan; May, Morgan
2010-02-15
We propose counting peaks in weak lensing (WL) maps, as a function of their height, to probe models of dark energy and to constrain cosmological parameters. Because peaks can be identified in two-dimensional WL maps directly, they can provide constraints that are free from potential selection effects and biases involved in identifying and determining the masses of galaxy clusters. As a pilot study, we have run cosmological N-body simulations to produce WL convergence maps in three models with different constant values of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, w=-0.8, -1, and -1.2, with a fixed normalization of the primordial power spectrum (corresponding to present-day normalizations of {sigma}{sub 8}=0.742, 0.798, and 0.839, respectively). By comparing the number of WL peaks in eight convergence bins in the range of -0.1<{kappa}<0.4, in multiple realizations of a single simulated 3x3 degree field, we show that the first (last) pair of models differ at the 95% (85%) confidence level. A survey with depth and area comparable to those expected from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should have a factor of {approx_equal}50 better parameter sensitivity. These results warrant further investigation, in order to assess the constraints available when marginalization over other uncertain parameters is included, and with the specifications of a realistic survey folded into the analysis. Here we find that relatively low-amplitude peaks ({kappa}{approx}0.03), which typically do not correspond to a single collapsed halo along the line of sight, account for most of the parameter sensitivity. We study a range of smoothing scales and source galaxy redshifts (z{sub s}). With a fixed source galaxy density of 15 arcmin{sup -2}, the best results are provided by the smallest scale we can reliably simulate, 1 arcmin, and z{sub s}=2 provides substantially better sensitivity than z{sub s{<=}}1.5.
Occupational exposure to traffic pollutants and peripheral blood counts.
Sancini, A; Tomei, F; Gioffrè, P A; Sinibaldi, F; Corbosiero, P; Rinaldi, G; Marrocco, M; Scimitto, L; Fiaschetti, M; Tomei, G; Ciarrocca, M
2012-01-01
Aim of the study is to evaluate whether occupational exposure to low doses of pollutants present in the air of the city selected for the study could cause alterations in peripheral blood counts in workers of the Municipal Police with outdoor tasks vs workers with indoor tasks. 279 non smoker males were enrolled and divided on the basis of their different kind of task. The dosage of air pollutants was carried out through the use of personal air samplers on a representative group of workers. Data obtained were subject to statistical evaluation consisting of Homogeneity of variance test, ANOVA univariate test with post hoc Bonferroni correction, Jonckheere-Terpstra test and multiple linear regression analysis. The differences were considered statistically significant when p values were lower than 0.05. Mean levels of RBC, HB, MCHC, WBC and neutrophil cells were significantly higher in traffic policemen and police drivers compared to controls (workers with indoor tasks). Mean levels of MCV, MCH and lymphocytes were significantly lower in traffic policemen and police drivers compared to controls. These results were confirmed by Multiple linear regression test and Jonckheere-Terpstra test. The results suggest that prolonged occupational exposure to low doses of traffic pollutants can alter some lines of the hematopoietic system in exposed workers. PMID:22913176
Impulsivity-related traits are associated with higher white blood cell counts.
Sutin, Angelina R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B; Terracciano, Antonio
2012-12-01
A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity-impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation-are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N = 5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again 3 years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: for every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.10-1.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. PMID:22190235
Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.
Reasoner, Donald J
2004-05-01
In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media, incubation temperatures (20 degrees C, 28 degrees C or 35 degrees C), plating methods (pour plate (PP), spread plate and membrane filter) and range of incubation times (24, 48, 72 h and 5-7 days) provide great flexibility in the application of the HPC analysis to drinking water. PMID:15145589
Galaxy number counts to second order and their bispectrum
Dio, Enea Di; Durrer, Ruth; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco, E-mail: Enea.DiDio@unige.ch, E-mail: Ruth.Durrer@unige.ch, E-mail: Giovanni.Marozzi@unige.ch, E-mail: Francesco.Montanari@unige.ch [Université de Genève, Département de Physique Théorique and CAP, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)
2014-12-01
We determine the number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory in the Poisson gauge and allowing for anisotropic stress. The calculation is performed using an innovative approach based on the recently proposed ''geodesic light-cone'' gauge. This allows us to determine the number counts in a purely geometric way, without using Einstein's equation. The result is valid for general dark energy models and (most) modified gravity models. We then evaluate numerically some relevant contributions to the number counts bispectrum. In particular we consider the terms involving the density, redshift space distortion and lensing.
Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farr, William H.
2009-01-01
Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.
Bubble Counts for Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Using Image Analysis
Miller, P L; Gezahegne, A G; Cook, A W; Cabot, W H; Kamath, C
2007-01-24
We describe the use of image analysis to count bubbles in 3-D, large-scale, LES [1] and DNS [2] of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We analyze these massive datasets by first converting the 3-D data to 2-D, then counting the bubbles in the 2-D data. Our plots for the bubble count indicate there are four distinct regimes in the process of the mixing of the two fluids. We also show that our results are relatively insensitive to the choice of parameters in our analysis algorithms.
Thermostable cocktail for the liquid scintillation counting of heterogeneous media
Noble, R.C.; Shand, J.H.; Wagstaff, H.F.
1982-05-01
Considerable analytical errors arise in the liquid scintillation counting of heterogeneous media as a consequence of gel instability. With large sample numbers, a major causative factor of this instability is temperature changes during the counting period. An emulsifier-scintillation cocktail has been designed to provide stable counting conditions for heterogeneous media over a temperature range of 10-30/sup 0/C, i.e., the wide range of temperature likely to be encountered in liquid scintillation counters lacking sample cooling facilities. A comparison was made with a conventional commercially available emulsifier-scintillator.
Differential leukocyte counting and immunophenotyping in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood.
Nemes, Elisa; Kagina, Benjamin M N; Smit, Erica; Africa, Hadn; Steyn, Marcia; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J
2015-02-01
Absolute cell counts are typically measured in fresh samples, but this is impractical in large field studies. We compared quantification of leukocyte proportions and absolute counts using reference real-time methods (stain and lyse/no-wash (LNW) or hematology analyser) with a novel assay that allows long-term cryopreservation of fixed leukocytes for later counting (DLC-ICE: differential leukocyte count and immunophenotype in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood). For the LNW method, whole blood (WB) was stained with fluorescent antibodies, then erythrocytes were lysed, and leukocytes fixed prior to flow cytometry. Alternatively, our novel DLC-ICE method entailed erythrocyte lysis and leukocyte fixation, cryopreservation and later staining of permeabilized cells prior to flow cytometry. Outcomes were proportions and absolute counts of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and activated T cells within the leukocyte population. We also compared leukocyte subset counts in fresh WB from 51 healthy infants measured by hematology analyser at a rural clinical site or by DLC-ICE method after 2 years of cryopreservation. We observed excellent agreement and strong correlations between absolute counts or cell proportions measured by the LNW and DLC-ICE methods on fresh WB from 10 healthy adults. Compared to LNW, DLC-ICE yielded similar or brighter staining even after cryopreservation. Duration of cryopreservation, assessed monthly for 1 year, had little effect on cell enumeration: median coefficients of variation were below 15% for all outcomes. Under field site conditions, we observed strong correlations between infant leukocyte numbers measured in fresh samples by hematology analyser and those measured by DLC-ICE up to 2 years of cryopreservation. Our novel DLC-ICE method allows accurate flow cytometric quantification of cell subsets from fixed WB even after long-term cryopreservation. This method is ideal for batched, retrospective analysis of samples from large field studies, or when advanced flow cytometry equipment is not available for clinical research purposes. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515205
Exercise Counts: How Many Calories Will Your Activity Burn?
... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » + - Text Size Exercise Counts How many calories will your activity burn? Find the calories burned in a workout or daily activity. Numbers are estimated for a 150 lb. ...
Making Child Care Choices Count for Your Family
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Making Child Care Choices Count for Your Family Article Body For ... Child? There are three basic types of child care: In-home care: A caregiver comes into your ...
DavisPutnam Procedure Helps Counting Models Research Note
Lozinskii, Eliezer L.
DavisÂPutnam Procedure Helps Counting Models Research Note The Good Old DavisÂPutnam Procedure case. Based on the DavisÂPutnam procedure, we present an algorithm, CDP, that computes the exact number
Tracking system for photon-counting laser radar
Chang, Joshua TsuKang
2007-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to build the tracking system for a photon-counting laser radar specifically a laser radar that has the ability to perform direct and coherent detection measurement at low signal levels with ...
Modeling software artifact count attribute with s-curves
Ma, Norman K.
2009-05-15
for software project management. This result is derived from modeling the count of artifact instances created by the software engineering process, which are stored by software tools. Because of the orthogonal origin of this attribute in regard to traditional...
Correlated neutron counting for the 21st century
Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-12-01
Correlated neutron counting techniques, such as neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting, are widely employed at nuclear fuel cycle facilities for the accountancy of nuclear material such as plutonium. These techniques need to be improved and enhanced to meet the challenges of complex measurement items and future nuclear safeguards applications, for example; the non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel, high counting rate applications, small sample measurements, and Helium-3 replacement. At the same time simulation tools, used for the design of detection systems based on these techniques, are being developed in anticipation of future needs. This seminar will present the theory and current state of the practice of temporally correlated neutron counting. A range of future safeguards applications will then be presented in the context of research projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Counts of low-Redshift SDSS quasar candidates
Zeljko Ivezic et al.
2004-03-12
We analyze the counts of low-redshift quasar candidates selected using nine-epoch SDSS imaging data. The co-added catalogs are more than 1 mag deeper than single-epoch SDSS data, and allow the selection of low-redshift quasar candidates using UV-excess and also variability techniques. The counts of selected candidates are robustly determined down to g = 21.5. This is about 2 magnitudes deeper than the position of a change in the slope of the counts reported by Boyle et al. (1990, 2000) for a sample selected by UV-excess, and questioned by Hawkins & Veron (1995), who utilized a variability-selected sample. Using SDSS data, we confirm a change in the slope of the counts for both UV-excess and variability selected samples, providing strong support for the Boyle et al. results.
Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates
Hanson, James A. (Madison, WI); Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)
1981-01-01
A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.
Experimental Study for Automatic Colony Counting System Based Onimage Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Junlong; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Guoxin
Colony counting in many colony experiments is detected by manual method at present, therefore it is difficult for man to execute the method quickly and accurately .A new automatic colony counting system was developed. Making use of image-processing technology, a study was made on the feasibility of distinguishing objectively white bacterial colonies from clear plates according to the RGB color theory. An optimal chromatic value was obtained based upon a lot of experiments on the distribution of the chromatic value. It has been proved that the method greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of the colony counting and the counting result is not affected by using inoculation, shape or size of the colony. It is revealed that automatic detection of colony quantity using image-processing technology could be an effective way.
Multiplexed Photon-Counting Detectors Sergey V. Polyakov1a
Migdall, Alan
Multiplexed Photon-Counting Detectors Sergey V. Polyakov1a , V. Schettinib , I. P. Degiovannib , G). The detector arrangement presented here relies on an active multiplexing of many imperfect components into one
Spatial adaptations for plant foraging: women excel and calories count
Cosmides, Leda
Spatial adaptations for plant foraging: women excel and calories count Joshua New1,*, Max M that the universal sexual division of foraging labour among described huntergatherers (Murdock 1967) characterized
Algorithmic issues in queueing systems and combinatorial counting problems
Katz-Rogozhnikov, Dmitriy A
2008-01-01
(cont.) However, these randomized algorithms can never provide proven upper or lower bounds on the number of objects they are counting, but can only give probabilistic estimates. We propose a set of deterministic algorithms ...
Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates
Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.
1980-05-23
A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.
12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...12 Section 1281.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.12 General counting requirements. (a) Calculating the numerator...
12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...12 Section 1281.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.12 General counting requirements. (a) Calculating the numerator...
12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...16 Section 1282.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.16 Special counting requirements. (a) General. FHFA shall...
12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...12 Section 1281.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.12 General counting requirements. (a) Calculating the numerator...
12 CFR 1281.13 - Special counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...13 Section 1281.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.13 Special counting requirements. (a) General. FHFA shall...
12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...15 Section 1282.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.15 General counting requirements. (a) Calculating the numerator...
12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...15 Section 1282.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.15 General counting requirements. (a) Calculating the numerator...
12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...16 Section 1282.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.16 Special counting requirements. (a) General. FHFA shall...
12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...16 Section 1282.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.16 Special counting requirements. (a) General. FHFA shall...
12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...12 Section 1281.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.12 General counting requirements. (a) Calculating the numerator...
12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...15 Section 1282.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.15 General counting requirements. (a) Calculating the numerator...
12 CFR 1281.13 - Special counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...13 Section 1281.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.13 Special counting requirements. (a) General. FHFA shall...
12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...15 Section 1282.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.15 General counting requirements. (a) Calculating the numerator...
12 CFR 1281.13 - Special counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...13 Section 1281.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.13 Special counting requirements. (a) General. FHFA shall...
12 CFR 1281.13 - Special counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...13 Section 1281.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.13 Special counting requirements. (a) General. FHFA shall...
12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...16 Section 1282.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.16 Special counting requirements. (a) General. FHFA shall...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A...
21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A...
21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A...
20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...other earned income. (c) Payments for services in a sheltered workshop or activities center. We count payments you receive for services performed in a sheltered workshop or work activities center when you receive them or when they...
Personalized low polygon count facial models for real time applications
Mitchell, Ryan Troy
2002-01-01
Low polycount facial models are useful in interactive applications such as games or interactive virtual reality environments. In this thesis, I present an approach to create a wide range of low polygon count facial models. Using this approach, I...
Local fluorescence in micro channels for particle counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centeno Sierra, Mariana; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Stern, Catalina
2013-11-01
We produce local fluorescence in polydimethylxiloxane (PDMS) microchannels with a low power laser. This technique can be used to count either particles or cells in microflows. A CCD webcam is mounted on the objective of a microscope to visualize the flow. Particles obstruct the fluorescence as they pass by, allowing for a simple counting method that is software controlled. We present the experimental setup and preliminary results. We produce local fluorescence in polydimethylxiloxane (PDMS) microchannels with a low power laser. This technique can be used to count either particles or cells in microflows. A CCD webcam is mounted on the objective of a microscope to visualize the flow. Particles obstruct the fluorescence as they pass by, allowing for a simple counting method that is software controlled. We present the experimental setup and preliminary results. We acknowledge support from the Physics Department of the National University of Mexico.
20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
...Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR...Payments for services in a sheltered workshop or activities center. We count payments...for services performed in a sheltered workshop or work activities center when...
20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR...Payments for services in a sheltered workshop or activities center. We count payments...for services performed in a sheltered workshop or work activities center when...
20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR...Payments for services in a sheltered workshop or activities center. We count payments...for services performed in a sheltered workshop or work activities center when...
20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
...Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR...Payments for services in a sheltered workshop or activities center. We count payments...for services performed in a sheltered workshop or work activities center when...
Count-Me-In For Women's Economic Independence
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Count-Me-In For Women's Economic Independence is a national, nonprofit organization focused on raising money from women to be loaned to other women. Count-Me-In's goal is to collect donations of $5 from women around the country to be added to a national loan fund, which will be awarded to qualifying women for small business loans in amounts ranging between $5,000 and $10,000, as well as for scholarships for business training. Be sure to browse through the "what is count-me-in?" section; "follow your $5" details how these $5 contributions are turned into loans, and "the power of small loans" chronicles the ways in which business women have used their small loans from Count-Me-In.
34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...DISADVANTAGED Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent...with a count of children and youth under the age of 21 enrolled...or delinquent children and youth and adult correctional...
29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight employees....
29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight employees....
29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight employees....
Reither, Klaus; Katsoulis, Lynn; Beattie, Trevor; Gardiner, Nicolene; Lenz, Nicole; Said, Khadija; Mfinanga, Elirehema; Pohl, Christian; Fielding, Katherine L.; Jeffery, Hannah; Kagina, Benjamin M.; Hughes, Elisabeth J.; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hanekom, Willem A.; Hoff, Søren T.; Bang, Peter; Kromann, Ingrid; Daubenberger, Claudia; Andersen, Peter; Churchyard, Gavin J.
2014-01-01
Background Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults. Methods HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or placebo was randomly allocated in a 5?1 ratio. The vaccine was administered intramuscularly at day 0 and 56. Safety assessment was based on medical history, clinical examinations, and blood and urine testing. Immunogenicity was determined by a short-term whole blood intracellular cytokine staining assay. Results 47 of the 48 randomised participants completed both vaccinations. In total, 459 mild or moderate and 2 severe adverse events were reported. There were three serious adverse events in two vaccinees classified as not related to the investigational product. Local injection site reactions were more common in H1/IC31 versus placebo recipients (65.0% vs. 12.5%, p?=?0.015). Solicited systemic and unsolicited adverse events were similar by study arm. The baseline CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load were similar by study arm and remained constant over time. The H1/IC31 vaccine induced a persistent Th1-immune response with predominately TNF-? and IL-2 co-expressing CD4+ T cells, as well as polyfunctional IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2 expressing CD4+ T cells. Conclusion H1/IC31 was well tolerated and safe in HIV-infected adults with a CD4+ Lymphocyte count greater than 350 cells/mm3. The vaccine did not have an effect on CD4+ T cell count or HIV-1 viral load. H1/IC31 induced a specific and durable Th1 immune response. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR) PACTR201105000289276 PMID:25490675
Counting triangles in real-world networks using projections
Charalampos E. Tsourakakis
2011-01-01
Triangle counting is an important problem in graph mining. Two frequently used metrics in complex network analysis that require\\u000a the count of triangles are the clustering coefficients and the transitivity ratio of the graph. Triangles have been used successfully\\u000a in several real-world applications, such as detection of spamming activity, uncovering the hidden thematic structure of the\\u000a web and link recommendation
Photon counting statistics analysis of biophotons from hands.
Jung, Hyun-Hee; Woo, Won-Myung; Yang, Joon-Mo; Choi, Chunho; Lee, Jonghan; Yoon, Gilwon; Yang, Jong S; Soh, Kwang-Sup
2003-05-01
The photon counting statistics of biophotons emitted from hands is studied with a view to test its agreement with the Poisson distribution. The moments of observed probability up to seventh order have been evaluated. The moments of biophoton emission from hands are in good agreement while those of dark counts of photomultiplier tube show large deviations from the theoretical values of Poisson distribution. The present results are consistent with the conventional delta-value analysis of the second moment of probability. PMID:15244266
Arithmetic, first-order logic, and counting quantifiers
Nicole Schweikardt
2005-01-01
This article gives a thorough overview of what is known about first-order logic with counting quantifiers and with arithmetic predicates. As a main theorem we show that Presburger arithmetic is closed under unary counting quantifiers. Precisely, this means that for every first-order formula ϕ(y,z) over the signature {x,z) which expresses over the structure ?&U2115;,x is interpreted exactly by the number
ROAD TRANSECT COUNTS FOR RAPTORS: HOW RELIABLE ARE THEY?
BRIAN A. MILLSAP; MAURICE N. LEFRANC
Biases in roadside counts of randomly placed three-dimensional models of perched Red- tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperil), and Sharp-shinned Hawks (A. striatus) were investigated. Counts were performed by seven, two-person survey teams in five vegetation types in September 1983 and March 1984 at Dulles International Airport in Fairfax and Loudoun counties, Virginia. Larger models were consistently seen
Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.
2011-01-01
The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.
Photon Counting Techniques for the Bandlimited Optical Channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Clement G.; Gray, Andrew A.
2005-01-01
Two methods of estimating received photon counts given a realistic noisy and bandlimited optical channel are presented. The function of estimating photon counts is critical in any optical communications receiver. The purpose of this work is to compare two methods, neither of which is generically optimal, with realistic channels-for the purpose of assessing which is more appropriate for application in a hardware receiver given the current state-of-the art.
Effect of aliquot volume on count and disintegration rates
Woodmansee, R.A.
1985-11-01
Measurements of the rate of photosynthesis of phytoplankton are frequently based on a sample disintegration rate determined from a count rate and counting efficiency of a single aliquot, which may vary considerably in volume. In view of the data presented herein, it is evident that, if such a procedure is followed in shallow estuarine systems, the results are apt to be of limited comparative value and will probably be too low.
Correcting the NICMOS count-rate dependent non-linearity
Roelof S. de Jong
2006-01-01
We describe a routine to correct NICMOS imaging data for the NICMOS count-rate dependent non-linearity recently discovered by Bohlin et al. (2005) and quantified by deJong et al. (2006) and Bohlin et al. (2006). The routine has been implemented in the python scripting language and is callable from the shell command line and from iraf. The routine corrects NICMOS count-rate
The polymorphonuclear leucocyte count in childhood haemolytic uraemic syndrome
Martin D. S. Walters; I. Ute Matthei; Richard Kay; Michael J. Dillon; T. Martin Barratt
1989-01-01
Review of data from 79 children with the haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) showed that the polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) count at presentation in childhood HUS predicts outcome. Logistic regression analysis of several features at presentation identified only the PMN count and the presence of a diarrhoeal prodrome as having a significant effect on the outcome (PPt-test on log-transformed data,PPP<0.001). Multiple regression
Counting function for a sphere of anisotropic quartz
N. Sondergaard; T. Guhr; M. Oxborrow; K. Schaadt; C. Ellegaard
2005-04-06
We calculate the leading Weyl term of the counting function for a mono-crystalline quartz sphere. In contrast to other studies of counting functions, the anisotropy of quartz is a crucial element in our investigation. Hence, we do not obtain a simple analytical form, but we carry out a numerical evaluation. To this end we employ the Radon transform representation of the Green's function. We compare our result to a previously measured unique data set of several tens of thousands of resonances.
Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting.
Abbas, Sherif
2015-12-01
A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image. PMID:26380843
Full-counting statistics of random transition-rate matrices.
Mordovina, Uliana; Emary, Clive
2013-12-01
We study the full-counting statistics of current of large open systems through the application of random-matrix theory to transition-rate matrices. We develop a method for calculating the ensemble-averaged current-cumulant generating functions based on an expansion in terms of the inverse system size. We investigate how different symmetry properties and different counting schemes affect the results. PMID:24483426
Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.
Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse
2005-08-01
Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586
Effects of Counting and Matching on Conservation of Number.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuson, Karen C.; And Others
Forty-five children aged four-and-a-half to five-and-a-half years old were given number conservation tasks in three conditions: (1) a count condition in which children were helped to count each set after the transformation; (2) a match condition in which children were helped to connect by a string each animal with its peanut; and (3) the standard…
STL and Local Regression for Modeling Disease Surveillance Counts
David E. Anderson; Cheng Zheng; Ross Maciejewski; Ryan Hafen; Mourad Ouzzani; Shaun J. Grannis; RVAC COE
Project Scope: Seasonal decomposition of time series by Loess (STL) is a well-proven, flexible method for modeling time series with periodic components. We are using STL to model daily disease counts for syndromic surveillance. Loess decomposes the square root daily counts into inter-annual, intra-seasonal, periodic day-of-the week, and remainder components. The inter-annual component models long term trends such as a
Estimation and specification tests of count data recreation demand functions
Gomez, Irma Adriana
1991-01-01
ESTIMATION AND SPECIFICATION TESTS OF COUNT DATA RECREATION DEMAND FUNCTIONS A Thesis IRMA ADRIANA GOMEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics ESTIMATION AND SPECIFICATION TESTS OF COUNT DATA RECREATION DEMAND FUNCTIONS A Thesis by IRMA ADRIANA GOMEZ Approved as to style and content by: T o a, Jr. (C a' of Committee) Lonnie...
Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting Timothy M. Chan
Chan, Timothy M.
(logw n). We give an O(n log log n)-space adaptive data structure that im- proves the query time to O(log log n + logw k), where k is the output count. When k = O(1), our bounds match the state of the art(n log log n)-space data structure for ap- proximate 2-D orthogonal range counting that can com- pute
Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting
Abbas, Sherif
2015-01-01
A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image.
A tutorial on count regression and zero-altered count models for longitudinal substance use data.
Atkins, David C; Baldwin, Scott A; Zheng, Cheng; Gallop, Robert J; Neighbors, Clayton
2013-03-01
Critical research questions in the study of addictive behaviors concern how these behaviors change over time: either as the result of intervention or in naturalistic settings. The combination of count outcomes that are often strongly skewed with many zeroes (e.g., days using, number of total drinks, number of drinking consequences) with repeated assessments (e.g., longitudinal follow-up after intervention or daily diary data) present challenges for data analyses. The current article provides a tutorial on methods for analyzing longitudinal substance use data, focusing on Poisson, zero-inflated, and hurdle mixed models, which are types of hierarchical or multilevel models. Two example datasets are used throughout, focusing on drinking-related consequences following an intervention and daily drinking over the past 30 days, respectively. Both datasets as well as R, SAS, Mplus, Stata, and SPSS code showing how to fit the models are available on a supplemental website. PMID:22905895
Dusty Caches for Reference Counting Garbage Collection Scott Friedman, Praveen Krishnamurthy,
Chamberlain, Roger
Dusty Caches for Reference Counting Garbage Collection Scott Friedman, Praveen Krishnamurthy, Roger K. Cytron, and Jason E. Fritts, "Dusty Caches for Reference Counting Garbage Collection," in Proc, "Dusty Caches for Reference Counting Garbage Collection," ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News, 34
49 CFR 26.55 - How is DBE participation counted toward goals?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...How is DBE participation counted toward goals? 26.55 Section 26.55 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting ...How is DBE participation counted toward goals? (a) When a DBE participates...
49 CFR 23.53 - How do car rental companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals? 23.53 Section 23.53 Transportation...BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN AIRPORT CONCESSIONS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting ...companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals? (a) As a car rental company,...
49 CFR 26.55 - How is DBE participation counted toward goals?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...How is DBE participation counted toward goals? 26.55 Section 26.55 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting ...How is DBE participation counted toward goals? (a) When a DBE participates...
49 CFR 23.53 - How do car rental companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals? 23.53 Section 23.53 Transportation...BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN AIRPORT CONCESSIONS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting ...companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals? (a) As a car rental company,...
49 CFR 26.55 - How is DBE participation counted toward goals?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...How is DBE participation counted toward goals? 26.55 Section 26.55 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting ...How is DBE participation counted toward goals? (a) When a DBE participates...
49 CFR 26.55 - How is DBE participation counted toward goals?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...How is DBE participation counted toward goals? 26.55 Section 26.55 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting ...How is DBE participation counted toward goals? (a) When a DBE participates...
49 CFR 23.53 - How do car rental companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals? 23.53 Section 23.53 Transportation...BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN AIRPORT CONCESSIONS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting ...companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals? (a) As a car rental company,...
49 CFR 23.53 - How do car rental companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals? 23.53 Section 23.53 Transportation...BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN AIRPORT CONCESSIONS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting ...companies count ACDBE participation toward their goals? (a) As a car rental company,...
Cross-camera knowledge transfer for multiview people counting.
Tang, Nick C; Lin, Yen-Yu; Weng, Ming-Fang; Liao, Hong-Yuan Mark
2015-01-01
We present a novel two-pass framework for counting the number of people in an environment, where multiple cameras provide different views of the subjects. By exploiting the complementary information captured by the cameras, we can transfer knowledge between the cameras to address the difficulties of people counting and improve the performance. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, normalizing the perspective of visual features and estimating the size of a crowd are highly correlated tasks. Hence, we treat them as a joint learning problem. The derived counting model is scalable and it provides more accurate results than existing approaches. Second, we introduce an algorithm that matches groups of pedestrians in images captured by different cameras. The results provide a common domain for knowledge transfer, so we can work with multiple cameras without worrying about their differences. Third, the proposed counting system is comprised of a pair of collaborative regressors. The first one determines the people count based on features extracted from intracamera visual information, whereas the second calculates the residual by considering the conflicts between intercamera predictions. The two regressors are elegantly coupled and provide an accurate people counting system. The results of experiments in various settings show that, overall, our approach outperforms comparable baseline methods. The significant performance improvement demonstrates the effectiveness of our two-pass regression framework. PMID:25330489
Submillimeter Number Counts From Statistical Analysis of BLAST Maps
Patanchon, Guillaume; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V
2009-01-01
We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from the confusion limited observations of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyse BLAST observations of a roughly 10 sq. deg map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths, 250, 350, and 500 microns, instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with ...
A High Count Rate Beam Monitor for Thermal Neutrons
Barnett, Amanda [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Crow, Lowell [ORNL; Diawara, Yacouba [ORNL; Funk, Loren L [ORNL; Hayward, J P [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Menhard, Kocsis [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); Sedov, Vladislav N [ORNL
2012-01-01
Beam monitors are an important diagnostic tool in neutron science facilities. Present beam monitors use either ionization chambers in integration mode, which are slow and have no timing information, or pulse counters which can easily be saturated by high beam intensities. Neutron beam monitors indicate the number of neutrons incident on a scattering sample and allow neutron experimental data to be analyzed even when the source strength varies with time. At high flux neutron scattering facilities, neutron beam monitors with very low efficiency (10-5) are presently selected to keep the counting rate within a feasible range, even when a higher efficiency would improve the counting statistics and yield a better measurement of the incident beam. In this work, we report on a high count rate neutron beam monitor which also offers position sensitivity to provide a beam profile. This beam monitor offers good timing (less than 1 s) in addition to position resolution and will therefore improve the counting statistics at neutron energies up to 10 eV and allow moderator studies. The detector s main characteristics will be presented including its background rate, its count rate capability which is an order of magnitude higher than present counting monitors, and its efficiency for thermal neutrons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kraft, Ralph P.; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.
1991-01-01
Two different methods, classical and Bayesian, for determining confidence intervals involving Poisson-distributed data are compared. Particular consideration is given to cases where the number of counts observed is small and is comparable to the mean number of background counts. Reasons for preferring the Bayesian over the classical method are given. Tables of confidence limits calculated by the Bayesian method are provided for quick reference.
The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.
Chen, Y; Müller, J D; So, P T; Gratton, E
1999-01-01
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is generally used to obtain information about the number of fluorescent particles in a small volume and the diffusion coefficient from the autocorrelation function of the fluorescence signal. Here we demonstrate that photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis constitutes a novel tool for extracting quantities from fluorescence fluctuation data, i.e., the measured photon counts per molecule and the average number of molecules within the observation volume. The photon counting histogram of fluorescence fluctuation experiments, in which few molecules are present in the excitation volume, exhibits a super-Poissonian behavior. The additional broadening of the PCH compared to a Poisson distribution is due to fluorescence intensity fluctuations. For diffusing particles these intensity fluctuations are caused by an inhomogeneous excitation profile and the fluctuations in the number of particles in the observation volume. The quantitative relationship between the detected photon counts and the fluorescence intensity reaching the detector is given by Mandel's formula. Based on this equation and considering the fluorescence intensity distribution in the two-photon excitation volume, a theoretical expression for the PCH as a function of the number of molecules in the excitation volume is derived. For a single molecular species two parameters are sufficient to characterize the histogram completely, namely the average number of molecules within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling time epsilon. The PCH for multiple molecular species, on the other hand, is generated by successively convoluting the photon counting distribution of each species with the others. The influence of the excitation profile upon the photon counting statistics for two relevant point spread functions (PSFs), the three-dimensional Gaussian PSF conventionally employed in confocal detection and the square of the Gaussian-Lorentzian PSF for two photon excitation, is explicitly treated. Measured photon counting distributions obtained with a two-photon excitation source agree, within experimental error with the theoretical PCHs calculated for the square of a Gaussian-Lorentzian beam profile. We demonstrate and discuss the influence of the average number of particles within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling interval upon the super-Poissonian character of the photon counting distribution. PMID:10388780
Cell Counting in Human Endobronchial Biopsies - Disagreement of 2D versus 3D Morphometry
Bratu, Vlad A.; Erpenbeck, Veit J.; Fehrenbach, Antonia; Rausch, Tanja; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Krug, Norbert; Hohlfeld, Jens M.; Fehrenbach, Heinz
2014-01-01
Question Inflammatory cell numbers are important endpoints in clinical studies relying on endobronchial biopsies. Assumption-based bidimensional (2D) counting methods are widely used, although theoretically design-based stereologic three-dimensional (3D) methods alone offer an unbiased quantitative tool. We assessed the method agreement between 2D and 3D counting designs in practice when applied to identical samples in parallel. Materials and Methods Biopsies from segmental bronchi were collected from healthy non-smokers (n?=?7) and smokers (n?=?7), embedded and sectioned exhaustively. Systematic uniform random samples were immunohistochemically stained for macrophages (CD68) and T-lymphocytes (CD3), respectively. In identical fields of view, cell numbers per volume unit (NV) were assessed using the physical disector (3D), and profiles per area unit (NA) were counted (2D). For CD68+ cells, profiles with and without nucleus were separately recorded. In order to enable a direct comparison of the two methods, the zero-dimensional CD68+/CD3+-ratio was calculated for each approach. Method agreement was tested by Bland-Altmann analysis. Results In both groups, mean CD68+/CD3+ ratios for NV and NA were significantly different (non-smokers: 0.39 and 0.68, p<0.05; smokers: 0.49 and 1.68, p<0.05). When counting only nucleated CD68+ profiles, mean ratios obtained by 2D and 3D counting were similar, but the regression-based Bland-Altmann analysis indicated a bias of the 2D ratios proportional to their magnitude. This magnitude dependent deviation differed between the two groups. Conclusions 2D counts of cell and nuclear profiles introduce a variable size-dependent bias throughout the measurement range. Because the deviation between the 3D and 2D data was different in the two groups, it precludes establishing a ‘universal conversion formula’. PMID:24663339
Submillimeter Number Counts from Statistical Analysis of BLAST Maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C.; Hughes, David H.; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S.; Viero, Marco P.; Wiebe, Donald V.
2009-12-01
We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called "P(D)," an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg2 map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 ?m instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 ?m, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 ?m, over the range ~0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.
SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS
Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca
2009-12-20
We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg{sup 2} map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 mum; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 mum, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 mum, over the range approx0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.
Finger ridge-count variability in sub-Saharan Africa.
Jantz, R L; Hawkinson, C H
1979-01-01
Mean finger ridge-count data were obtained, primarily from literature sources, for 31 male and 24 female sub-Saharan African samples. The 10 finger ridge-counts and total ridge-count were used as independent variables in a multiple regression analysis, latitude and longitude serving in turn as the dependent variables. The results show that it is not the magnitude of the ridge-counts themselves that is important, but rather contrasts between groups of digits. The most important geographically patterned variation in ridge-counts consists of contrasts between digits 4 and 5 and digits 2 and 3. South and south-east African populations are characterized by low contrasts, west Africans by high contrasts and, south-west Africans are intermediate. The geographical patterning of the contrast agrees well with known patterns of gene flow into and within the continent as determined by serological genes. Principal components analysis was also carried out to determine whether within-group components corresponding to the geographically relevant between-group variation could be identified. The third, fourth and fifth components drew the same types of contrasts between the groups of digits identified in the multiple regression analysis, but they were relatively unimportant. The geographically important principal components would have been overlooked in a traditional multivariate analysis of finge ridge-counts, since the analysis would have been dominated by pattern size. We conclude that finger ridge-counts are potentially very useful in population studies, but account must be taken of their multicomponent nature. PMID:434765
Methods of detecting and counting raptors: A review
Fuller, M.R.; Mosher, J.A.
1981-01-01
Most raptors are wide-ranging, secretive, and occur at relatively low densities. These factors, in conjunction with the nocturnal activity of owls, cause the counting of raptors by most standard census and survey efforts to be very time consuming and expensive. This paper reviews the most common methods of detecting and counting raptors. It is hoped that it will be of use to the ever-increasing number of biologists, land-use planners, and managers that must determine the occurrence, density, or population dynamics of raptors. Road counts of fixed station or continuous transect design are often used to sample large areas. Detection of spontaneous or elicited vocalizations, especially those of owls, provides a means of detecting and estimating raptor numbers. Searches for nests are accomplished from foot surveys, observations from automobiles and boats, or from aircraft when nest structures are conspicuous (e.g., Osprey). Knowledge of nest habitat, historic records, and inquiries of local residents are useful for locating nests. Often several of these techniques are combined to help find nest sites. Aerial searches have also been used to locate or count large raptors (e.g., eagles), or those that may be conspicuous in open habitats (e.g., tundra). Counts of birds entering or leaving nest colonies or colonial roosts have been attempted on a limited basis. Results from Christmas Bird Counts have provided an index of the abundance of some species. Trapping and banding generally has proven to be an inefficient method of detecting raptors or estimating their populations. Concentrations of migrants at strategically located points around the world afford the best opportunity to count many rap tors in a relatively short period of time, but the influence of many unquantified variables has inhibited extensive interpretation of these counts. Few data exist to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods. We believe more research on sampling techniques, rather than complete counts or intensive searches, will provide adequate yet affordable estimates of raptor numbers in addition to providing methods for detecting the presence of raptors on areas of interest to researchers and managers.
HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts
Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
2015-01-01
Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498
Multiscale Methods and the Processing of Images Resulting from Counts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijaoui, A.; Bourdin, H.; Slezak, E.; Jammal, G.
2002-12-01
Astrophysicists are often involved in the processing of event counts: determination of the probability density functions (PDF) of stellar parameters, estimation of the galaxy density, restoration of an image obtained with a counting detector. Under the assumption of statistical independence of events, the empirical distribution is perturbed by a Poisson noise. As this noise depends on the bin scale, it is natural to introduce a mathematical decomposition which takes into account this scale characteristic. Thus, multiscale transforms and particularly the wavelet ones appeared well-suited tools for processing counts. After a short description of the definition and properties of the wavelet transforms, the ingredients for the applications to counts will be reviewed: choice the wavelet transform, PDF of the wavelet coefficients, thresholding and softening functions (in particular in case of a Bayesian approach), the regularized reconstruction and the inversion algorithm in case of deconvolution. The Anscombe transform will be introduced as an efficient mean for stabilizing the variance. A step by step algorithm will be described. Finally, some astrophysical applications will be given: density of galaxies from their counts and restoration of images observed with the X-ray satellite XMM-Newton.
Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred
We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.
Photon counting spectroscopy as done with a Thomson scattering diagnostic
Den Hartog, D.J.; Ruppert, D.E.
1993-11-01
The measurement and reduction of photon counting spectral data is demonstrated within the context of a Thomson scattering diagnostic. This diagnostic contains a microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) as the photon sensing device. The MCP PMT is not an ideal photon sensor, the loss of photoelectrons at the MCP input and the broad charge pulse distribution at the output add to the uncertainty in recorded data. Computer simulations are used to demonstrate an approach to quantification of this added uncertainty and to develop an understanding of its source; the methodology may be applicable to the development of an understanding of photon detectors other than an MCP PMT. Emphasis is placed on the Poisson statistical character of the data, because the assumption that a Gaussian probability distribution is a reasonable statistical description of photon counting data is often questionable. When the count rate is low, the product the possible number of photon counts and the probability of measurement of a single photon is usually not sufficiently large to justify Gaussian statistics. Rather, because probabilities of measurement are so low, the Poisson probability distribution best quantifies the inherent statistical fluctuations in such counting measurements. The method of maximum likelihood is applied to derive the Poisson statistics equivalent of {sub X}{sup 2}. A Poisson statistics based data fitting code is implemented using the Newton-Raphson method of multi-dimensional root finding; we also demonstrate an algorithm to estimate the uncertainties in derived quantities.
Development of a stained cell nuclei counting system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timilsina, Niranjan; Moffatt, Christopher; Okada, Kazunori
2011-03-01
This paper presents a novel cell counting system which exploits the Fast Radial Symmetry Transformation (FRST) algorithm [1]. The driving force behind our system is a research on neurogenesis in the intact nervous system of Manduca Sexta or the Tobacco Hornworm, which was being studied to assess the impact of age, food and environment on neurogenesis. The varying thickness of the intact nervous system in this species often yields images with inhomogeneous background and inconsistencies such as varying illumination, variable contrast, and irregular cell size. For automated counting, such inhomogeneity and inconsistencies must be addressed, which no existing work has done successfully. Thus, our goal is to devise a new cell counting algorithm for the images with non-uniform background. Our solution adapts FRST: a computer vision algorithm which is designed to detect points of interest on circular regions such as human eyes. This algorithm enhances the occurrences of the stained-cell nuclei in 2D digital images and negates the problems caused by their inhomogeneity. Besides FRST, our algorithm employs standard image processing methods, such as mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. We have evaluated the developed cell counting system with fourteen digital images of Tobacco Hornworm's nervous system collected for this study with ground-truth cell counts by biology experts. Experimental results show that our system has a minimum error of 1.41% and mean error of 16.68% which is at least forty-four percent better than the algorithm without FRST.
Skull counting in late stages after internal contamination by actinides.
Tani, Kotaro; Shutt, Arron; Kurihara, Osamu; Kosako, Toshiso
2015-02-01
Monitoring preparation for internal contamination with actinides (e.g. Pu and Am) is required to assess internal doses at nuclear fuel cycle-related facilities. In this paper, the authors focus on skull counting in case of single-incident inhalation of (241)Am and propose an effective procedure for skull counting with an existing system, taking into account the biokinetic behaviour of (241)Am in the human body. The predicted response of the system to skull counting under a certain counting geometry was found to be only ?1.0 × 10(-5) cps Bq(-1) 1y after intake. However, this disadvantage could be remedied by repeated measurements of the skull during the late stage of the intake due to the predicted response reaching a plateau at about the 1000th day after exposure and exceeding that in the lung counting. Further studies are needed for the development of a new detection system with higher sensitivity to perform reliable internal dose estimations based on direct measurements. PMID:24920571