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Sample records for count lymphocyte count

  1. Sampling site matters when counting lymphocyte subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Peeters, Dieter; Hens, Niel; Malfait, Ronald; Van Tendeloo, Viggo; Van Damme, Pierre; Beutels, Philippe; Smits, Evelien

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and scientific work routinely relies on antecubital venipunctures for hematological, immunological or other analyses on blood. This study tested the hypothesis that antecubital veins can be considered to be a good proxy for other sampling sites. Using a hematocytometer and a flow cytometer, we analyzed the cell counts from samples coming from the radial artery, the dorsal hand veins and the antecubital veins from 18 volunteers. Most surprisingly, we identified the greatest difference not to exist between arterial and venous circulation, but between the distal (radial artery & dorsal hand veins) and proximal (antecubital veins) sampling sites. Naïve T cells had a higher cell count distally compared to proximally and the reverse was true for effector memory T cells. Despite these differences there were high correlations between the different sampling sites, which partially supports our initial hypothesis. Our findings are crucial for the future design and interpretation of immunological research, and for clinical practice. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for interval lymph nodes in the trafficking of lymphocytes. PMID:22848485

  2. Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes count in HIV patients from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/?L3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ? C) ? (B ? D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

  3. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro da Silva, Angela M; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. METHODS: Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers. PMID:25789525

  4. Prognostic Value of Baseline Lymphocyte Count in Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chel Hun; Kang, Heeseok; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Lee, Je-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: This study examined factors predicting tumor response and progression-free survival in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 143 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2 to IVA) treated with CCRT were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to retrospectively evaluate prognostic factors, including baseline lymphocyte count, that affect tumor response and progression-free survival. Results: Of the variables evaluated, greater baseline lymphocyte count was the factor most predictive of a complete clinical response, followed by smaller tumor size (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed baseline lymphocyte count, which was treated as a continuous variable with every 1 x 10{sup 9} lymphocytes/L, to remain a prognostic factor with an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-7.23). In addition, a statistically significant association (p = 0.023) was found between baseline lymphocyte count and progression-free survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.89) in the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients and possible biologic variation existing in lymphocyte subset number and activity, these findings highlight the strong prognostic value of baseline lymphocyte count in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT. Therefore, a larger number of patients and analysis of lymphocyte subsets are needed.

  5. Transcriptomic landscape for lymphocyte count variation in poly I:C-induced porcine peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Hou, Y; Guo, J; Chen, H; Liu, X; Wu, Z; Zhao, S; Zhu, M

    2016-02-01

    Lymphocyte count is an important phenotypic metric that has been reported to be related to the individual antiviral capacity of pigs and other mammals. To date, aside from information regarding several genes and pathways, little is known about the mechanism by which gene expression affects variation in lymphocyte count. In this work, we investigated the lymphocyte count variation after poly I:C stimulation and compared the transcriptomes of pigs with large and small differences of lymphocyte counts before and after poly I:C stimulation. Pigs with large and small differences of lymphocyte counts were designated as extreme response (ER) and moderate response (MR) pigs respectively. Lymphocyte counts in all animals were observed to decline after poly I:C stimulation. Transcriptomic analysis identified 1121 transcripts (981 differentially expressed genes) in MR pigs and 1045 transcripts (904 differentially expressed genes) in ER pigs. We found that the majority of the differentially expressed genes were involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the innate immune response of ER pigs was more rapid than that of MR pigs. Results indicated that the activation of signaling pathways associated with cell death, cytotoxicity and apoptosis may contribute to the poly I:C-induced decrease of lymphocyte counts in the periphery. Moreover, the differential expression patterns of chemokines and FAS either totally or partially provided an interpretation for the different degrees of decrease in the lymphocyte counts between MR and ER pigs. Overall, our study will provide further understanding of the molecular basis for the antiviral capacity of pigs and other mammals. PMID:26607402

  6. WBC count

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... is 4,500 to 10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges may vary ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal One ...

  7. Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

    1980-03-01

    Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

  8. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  9. Absolute Lymphocyte Count Predicts the Response to New Influenza Virus H1N1 Vaccination in Pediatric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    van der Flier, Michiel; Stelma, Foekje; van Leer-Buter, Coretta; Preijers, Frank W.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    We measured the vaccination response to the new H1N1 virus in relation to the lymphocyte count prior to vaccination in pediatric cancer patients. The absolute lymphocyte count above the lower normal limits (LNL) for age prior to vaccination predicts the response to influenza vaccination in pediatric cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:23175288

  10. Sustaining Blood Lymphocyte Count during Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Predictive Marker for Pathologic Complete Response in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jaesung; Chun, Mison; Noh, O Kyu; Oh, Young-Taek; Suh, Kwang Wook; Park, Jun Eun; Cho, Oyeon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the circulating lymphocyte level during preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and pathologic complete response (pCR) in locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and Methods From May 2010 to May 2013, 52 patients treated with preoperative CRT followed by surgery, were analysed. Patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy (50-54 Gy) with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Surgical resection was performed at 4 to 8 weeks after the completion of preoperative CRT. Absolute blood lymphocyte counts and their relative percentage in total white blood cell counts were obtained from complete blood count tests performed prior to and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of CRT. We analysed the association between achieving pCR and change in blood lymphocyte level during CRT, as well as clinical parameters. Results Among 52 patients, 14 (26.9%) had evidence of pCR. Sustaining the blood lymphocyte count during CRT (lymphocyte count at 4 weeks/baseline lymphocyte count > 0.35; odds ratio, 8.33; p=0.02) and initial carcinoembryonic antigen < 4.4 ng/mL (odds ratio, 6.71; p=0.03) were significantly associated with pCR in multivariate analyses. Conclusion Sustaining blood lymphocyte count during preoperative CRT was predictive for pCR in rectal cancer. Further studies are warranted to investigate the association between pathologic responses and circulating lymphocyte count with its subpopulation during preoperative CRT. PMID:25779365

  11. Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    McIver, Zachariah; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Wu, Colin; Grim, Andrew; Ito, Sawa; Cho, Irene; Hensel, Nancy; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, Austin John

    2013-03-01

    Delayed immune recovery is a characteristic feature of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult recipients. Although recipient thymic T-cell neogenesis contributes to T-cell regeneration after transplantation, thymic recovery in the transplant recipient decreases with increasing age, and is diminished by intensive preconditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease. In adult recipients, most events that determine transplant success or failure occur during the period when the majority of circulating T cells is derived from the donor's post thymic T-cell repertoire. As a result, the make-up of the donor lymphocyte compartment may strongly influence immune recovery and transplant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine donor lymphocyte counts in a series of patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant to identify the potential contribution of donor regulatory and conventional T lymphocyte populations to immune recovery and transplant outcomes. We examined donor lymphocyte subset counts in relation to post-transplant lymphocyte recovery and transplant events in 220 consecutive myeloablative, T-cell-depleted, HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies. In a multivariate analysis, absolute numbers of donor CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants were associated with overall survival (P=0.032). The donors' absolute lymphocyte count and thymic production of regulatory T cells were both associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.002 and P=0.022, respectively). In conclusion, these results identify donor immune characteristics that are associated with lymphocyte recovery, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, and survival in the recipient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study reported here was performed using peripheral blood samples drawn from donors and patients enrolled in the ClinicalTrials.gov-registered trials NCT00001623, NCT00001873, NCT00353860, NCT00066300, NCT00079391, and NCT00398346. PMID:23065508

  12. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts: ASR hip resurfacing prosthesis vs. standard THA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Wear particles from metalonmetal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has aboveaverage failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts. Method In a randomized controlled trial, we followed 19 RHA patients and 19 THA patients. Lymphocyte subsets and chromium and cobalt ion concentrations were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, at 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years. Results The Tlymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3+CD8+ in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of 0.04 109cells/year (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect of cobalt ions in particular on Tcells with 2year wholeblood cobalt regression coefficients for CD3+ of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16 to 0.04) 109 cells/parts per billion (ppb), for CD3+CD4+ of 0.06 (0.09 to 0.03) 109 cells/ppb, and for CD3+CD8+ of 0.02 (0.03 to 0.00) 109 cells/ppb. Interpretation Circulating Tlymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ionsparticularly cobaltmay have a general depressive effect on T and Blymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762 PMID:23597114

  13. Effects of the space flight environment on man's immune system. II - Lymphocyte counts and reactivity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, G. L.; Daniels, J. C.; Levin, W. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Cobb, E. K.; Ritzmann, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to assess the effects of the environment of space flights on the cellular division of the human immune system. Peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte counts were determined at various preflight and postflight intervals for the 21 crewmen of Apollo Missions 7-13. Mean lymphocyte numbers tended to exhibit a delayed significant but fluctuating increase shortly after recovery, although a variety of responses was seen in individual astronauts. The in vitro reactivity of lymphocytes, reflected by RNA and DNA synthesis rates by unstimulated and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes tissue-cultured preflight and postflight from the same participants, was found to remain within previously established normal ranges. These results indicate that functional integrity of cellular immune potential as reflected by in vitro techniques is maintained during this spaceflight experience.

  14. TOTAL LYMPHOCYTE COUNT AND SERUM ALBUMIN AS PREDICTORS OF NUTRITIONAL RISK IN SURGICAL PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    ROCHA, Naruna Pereira; FORTES, Renata Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early detection of changes in nutritional status is important for a better approach to the surgical patient. There are several nutritional measures in clinical practice, but there is not a complete method for determining the nutritional status, so, health professionals should only choose the best method to use. Aim: To evaluate the total lymphocyte count and albumin as predictors of identification of nutritional risk in surgical patients. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study was conducted with 69 patients undergoing surgery of the gastrointestinal tract. The assessment of nutritional status was evaluated by objective methods (anthropometry and biochemical tests) and subjective methods (subjective global assessment). Results: All parameters used in the nutritional assessment detected a high prevalence of malnutrition, with the exception of BMI which detected only 7.2% (n=5). The albumin (p=0.01), the total lymphocytes count (p=0.02), the percentage of adequacy of skinfolds (p<0.002) and the subjective global assessment (p<0.001) proved to be useful as predictors of risk of postoperative complications, since the smaller the values of albumin and lymphocyte count and higher the score the subjective global assessment were higher risks of surgical complications. Conclusions: A high prevalence of malnutrition was found, except for BMI. The use of albumin and total lymphocyte count were good predictor for the risk of postoperative complications and when used with other methods of assessing the nutritional status, such as the subjective global assessment and the percentage of adequacy of skinfolds, can be useful for identification of nutritional risk and postoperative complications. PMID:26537145

  15. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  16. Immunogenetics of CD4 lymphocyte count recovery during antiretroviral therapy: An AIDS Clinical Trials Group study.

    PubMed

    Haas, David W; Geraghty, Daniel E; Andersen, Janet; Mar, Jessica; Motsinger, Alison A; D'Aquila, Richard T; Unutmaz, Derya; Benson, Constance A; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Landay, Alan

    2006-10-15

    During antiretroviral therapy, CD4 lymphocyte count increases are modest in some patients despite virologic control. We explored whether polymorphisms in genes important for T cell expansion, survival, and apoptosis are associated with the magnitude of CD4 lymphocyte count recovery during antiretroviral therapy. We studied treatment-naive individuals who achieved sustained control of plasma viremia (<400 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) for at least 48 weeks after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and compared genotypes among individuals who had an increase of either <200 or > or =200 CD4 cells/mm3 from baseline. A total of 137 single-nucleotide polymorphisms across 17 genes were characterized in 873 study participants. In multivariate analyses that controlled for clinical variables, polymorphisms in genes encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), TNF- alpha , Bcl-2-interacting molecule (Bim), interleukin (IL)-15, and IL-15 receptor alpha chain (IL-15R alpha ) were associated with the magnitude of the increase in CD4 lymphocyte count, as were haplotypes in genes encoding interferon- alpha , IL-2, and IL-15R alpha (P < .05, for each). Multifactor dimensionality reduction identified a gene-gene interaction between IL-2/IL-15 receptor common beta chain and IL-2/IL-7/IL-15 receptor common gamma chain. Immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy is a complex phenotype that is influenced by multiple genetic variants. Future studies should validate these tentative associations and define underlying mechanisms. PMID:16991084

  17. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tumor, radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels Chronic kidney disease Anemia caused by low levels of Vitamin B12 or folate Reticulocyte count may be increased during pregnancy.

  18. Counting carbohydrates

    MedlinePLUS

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk, soy milk, yogurt, and ice cream Beans, ...

  19. The effect of dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) on lymphocyte counts: A potential contributor to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Bhupendra O; Garland, Jeffery; Berger, Joseph; Kramer, John; Sershon, Lisa; Olapo, Tayo; Sesing, Jean; Dukic, Mary; Rehn, Eileen

    2015-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) is an effective therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our study suggests that this drug may have immunosuppressive properties evidenced by significant sustained reduction in CD8 lymphocyte counts and, to a lesser extent, CD4 lymphocyte counts. This observation is relevant in light of the recent case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient receiving this drug. PMID:26195059

  20. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  1. Women Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.

    2014-11-01

    I am a counter by nature. I count things as an effective way to occupy my mind. How many people are in this room? How many are women? How many are wearing glasses? How many people are using a Mac versus a PC?

  2. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the

  3. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  4. A quartz nanopillar hemocytometer for high-yield separation and counting of CD4+ T lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Seol, Jin-Kyeong; Wu, Yu; Ji, Seungmuk; Kim, Gil-Sung; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Yong; Lim, Hyuneui; Fan, Rong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2012-03-01

    We report the development of a novel quartz nanopillar (QNP) array cell separation system capable of selectively capturing and isolating a single cell population including primary CD4+ T lymphocytes from the whole pool of splenocytes. Integrated with a photolithographically patterned hemocytometer structure, the streptavidin (STR)-functionalized-QNP (STR-QNP) arrays allow for direct quantitation of captured cells using high content imaging. This technology exhibits an excellent separation yield (efficiency) of ~95.3 +/- 1.1% for the CD4+ T lymphocytes from the mouse splenocyte suspensions and good linear response for quantitating captured CD4+ T-lymphoblasts, which is comparable to flow cytometry and outperforms any non-nanostructured surface capture techniques, i.e. cell panning. This nanopillar hemocytometer represents a simple, yet efficient cell capture and counting technology and may find immediate applications for diagnosis and immune monitoring in the point-of-care setting.We report the development of a novel quartz nanopillar (QNP) array cell separation system capable of selectively capturing and isolating a single cell population including primary CD4+ T lymphocytes from the whole pool of splenocytes. Integrated with a photolithographically patterned hemocytometer structure, the streptavidin (STR)-functionalized-QNP (STR-QNP) arrays allow for direct quantitation of captured cells using high content imaging. This technology exhibits an excellent separation yield (efficiency) of ~95.3 +/- 1.1% for the CD4+ T lymphocytes from the mouse splenocyte suspensions and good linear response for quantitating captured CD4+ T-lymphoblasts, which is comparable to flow cytometry and outperforms any non-nanostructured surface capture techniques, i.e. cell panning. This nanopillar hemocytometer represents a simple, yet efficient cell capture and counting technology and may find immediate applications for diagnosis and immune monitoring in the point-of-care setting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11338d

  5. Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate for absolute CD4 count in the adult Indian HIV population: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Karanth, Suman S.; Rau, N. R.; Gupta, Anurag; Kamath, Asha; Shanbhogue, Vikram; Pruthvi, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Standard methods of CD4 counts and plasma viral load estimation require specialized equipment, highly trained personnel and are extremely expensive. This remains a major challenge for the initiation of anti-retroviral therapy for patients in resource-limited settings. Objective: To assess the clinical utility of the total lymphocyte count (TLC) to serve as a surrogate marker for predicting a CD4 counts <350 cell/mm3 in patients with HIV. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 200 consecutive newly detected highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) nave HIV patients admitted over a one year period was conducted. Linear regression, Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the relationship between TLC and CD4 counts. Results: A significant correlation between TLC and CD4 count was observed (r = 0.682, P < 0.001). TLC cut off of 1200 cell/mm3 as a predictor of CD4 count <350 cell/mm3 had 73.1% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value (PPV) and 51.4% negative predictive value (NPV). Raising the cutoff to 1500 cells/mm3 improved the sensitivity to 82.1% with 88.2% specificity, 96.5% PPV, 44.4% NPV. The ROC curve demonstrated highest area under curve (AUC = 0.8) for TLC of 1500 cell/mm3. Conclusion: The study showed that TLC cutoff value of 1500 cells/mm3 was a cost effective surrogate marker for CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3 in resource-limited settings. PMID:24678463

  6. Assembly of bionanostructures onto beta-cyclodextrin molecular printboards for antibody recognition and lymphocyte cell counting.

    PubMed

    Ludden, Manon J W; Li, Xiao; Greve, Jan; van Amerongen, Aart; Escalante, Maryana; Subramaniam, Vinod; Reinhoudt, David N; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2008-06-01

    The assembly of complex bionanostructures onto beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) monolayers has been investigated with the aims of antibody recognition and cell adhesion. The formation of these assemblies relies on host-guest, protein-ligand, and protein-protein interactions. The buildup of a structure consisting of a divalent bis(adamantyl)-biotin linker, streptavidin (SAv), biotinylated protein A (bt-PA), and an Fc fragment of a human immunoglobin G (IgG-Fc) was studied with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Patterns of this bionanostructure were obtained via microcontact printing of the divalent linker at the molecular printboard, followed by the subsequent attachment of the proteins. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the buildup of these bionanostructures on the betaCD monolayers is highly specific. On the basis of these results, bionanostructures were made in which whole antibodies (ABs) were used instead of the IgG-Fc. These ABs were bound to the SAv layer via biotinylated protein G (bt-PG) or via a biotinylated AB. These constructions yielded specifically bound ABs with a less than maximal density, as shown by SPR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Finally, the immobilization of ABs to the molecular printboard was used to create platforms for lymphocyte cell count purposes. Monoclonal ABs (MABs) were attached to the SAv layer using bt-PG, an engineered biotin functionality, or through nonspecific adsorption. The binding specificity of the immobilized cells was the highest on the buildup made from bt-PG, which is attributed to an optimized orientation of the antibodies. An approximately linear relationship between the numbers of seeded cells and counted cells was demonstrated, rendering the platform potentially suitable for lymphocyte cell counting. PMID:18461928

  7. Absolute monocyte and lymphocyte count prognostic score for patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Wan Kyu; Jeong, Da Wun; Chang, Hye Jung; Won, Kyu Yeoun; Choi, Sung Il; Kim, Se Hyun; Chun, Sung Wook; Oh, Young Lim; Lee, Tae Hwa; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Ki Hyung; Ji, Yong Il; Kim, Ari; Kim, Heung Yeol

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To measure the prognostic significance of absolute monocyte count/absolute lymphocyte count prognostic score (AMLPS) in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the combination of absolute monocyte count (AMC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) as prognostic variables in a cohort of 299 gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2013 and were followed at a single institution. Both AMC and ALC were dichotomized into two groups using cut-off points determined by receiving operator characteristic curve analysis. An AMLPS was generated, which stratified patients into three risk groups: low risk (both low AMC and high ALC), intermediate risk (either high AMC or low ALC), and high risk (both high AMC and low ALC). The primary objective of the study was to validate the impact of AMLPS on both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), and the second objective was to assess the AMLPS as an independent prognostic factor for survival in comparison with known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Using data from the entire cohort, the most discriminative cut-off values of AMC and ALC selected on the receiver operating characteristic curve were 672.4/?L and 1734/?L for DFS and OS. AMLPS risk groups included 158 (52.8%) patients in the low-risk, 128 (42.8%) in the intermediate-risk, and 13 (4.3%) in the high-risk group. With a median follow-up of 37.2 mo (range: 1.7-91.4 mo), five-year DFS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 83.4%, 78.7%, and 19.8%, respectively. And five-year OS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 89.3%, 81.1%, and 14.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis performed with patient- and tumor-related factors, we identified AMLPS, age, and pathologic tumor-node-metastasis stage as the most valuable prognostic factors impacting DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: AMLPS identified patients with a poor DFS and OS, and it was independent of age, pathologic stage, and various inflammatory markers. PMID:25759535

  8. Significance of Preoperative Total Lymphocyte Count as a Prognostic Criterion in Adult Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aghdaii, Nahid; Ferasatkish, Rasoul; Mohammadzadeh Jouryabi, Ali; Hamidi, Seyed Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evaluation of operational risk is a consequential goal in perioperative management of patients in cardiac surgery. Preoperative total lymphocyte count (PTLC) is a prognostic criterion of adverse major cardiovascular outcomes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of PTLC as an independent predictor of postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. Patients and Methods: Of 1604 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery between September, 2012 and March, 2013, a total of 1171 consecutive patients underwent elective primary valvular heart surgery and coronary artery bypass grafting. The patients were divided to three groups according to their PTLCs. The baseline characteristics and postoperative mortality and morbidity of the patients as well as the intensive care unit (ICU) stay according to the PTLCs were recorded and analyzed. The only inclusion criterion was a preoperative complete blood count. Exclusion criteria included: ages under 18 or over 80 years old, emergency surgery, adult patients with congenital heart disease and previous open heart surgery, and patients with any bacterial or viral infection during two weeks before the surgery. Protocol of anesthetic medications was used in all the patients similarly and according to standard. All the patients were admitted to the ICU after the surgery. Results: A PTLC < 1500 cells/µL was associated with significantly high mortality and morbidity (P = 0.0001). In-hospital mortality and major composite morbidity were 9.65% and 28.4%, respectively. Low PTLC was associated with more frequent need for inotropic and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support (P < 0.001), dialysis-dependent acute renal failure (P = 0.0001), postoperative superficial wound infections (P = 0.0001) and prolong ICU stay (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Our study results showed that low PTLC was an independent, valuable prognostic criterion, with high sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. PMID:25289377

  9. [Corrected count].

    PubMed

    1991-11-27

    The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected. PMID:12286542

  10. Risk factors associated with low CD4+ lymphocyte count among HIV-positive pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abimiku, Alashle; Villalba-Diebold, Pacha; Dadik, Jelpe; Okolo, Felicia; Mang, Edwina; Charurat, Man

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors for CD4+ lymphocyte counts of 200 cells/mm3 or lower in HIV-positive pregnant women in Nigeria. Method A cross-sectional data analysis from a prospective cohort of 515 HIV-positive women attending a prenatal clinic. Risk of a low CD4+ count was estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results CD4+ lymphocyte counts of 200 cells/mm3 or lower (280182 cells/mm3) were recorded in 187 (36.3%) out of 515 HIV-positive pregnant women included in the study. Low CD4+ count was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 10.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2095.53), lack of condom use (aOR, 5.16; 95% CI, 1.1223.8), history of genital ulcers (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.122.82), and history of vaginal discharge (aOR; 1.62; 1.062.48). Conclusions Over 35% of the HIV-positive pregnant women had low CD4+ counts, indicating the need for treatment. The findings underscore the need to integrate prevention of mother-to-child transmission with HIV treatment and care, particularly services for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:19464006

  11. Elevated lymphocyte count at time of acute myeloid leukemia diagnosis is associated with shorter remission.

    PubMed

    Bar, Merav; Othus, Megan; Park, Hanahlyn M; Sandhu, Vicky; Chen, Xueyan; Wood, Brent L; Estey, Elihu

    2015-11-01

    In solid tumors, decreased absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at diagnosis was found to be associated with poorer outcome, but there is only limited data on the impact of ALC in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study we evaluated the prognostic value of ALC on outcome in 259 adult patients with AML who responded to induction therapy. Higher than normal ALC at diagnosis was associated with shorter remission (HR 4.06; p < 0.001), and decreased relapse free and overall survival (HR 3.47; p < 0.001 and HR 3.85; p < 0.001 respectively). Flow cytometry showed low frequency of natural killer (NK) cells and high frequency of CD4+ T cells (which includes the subset of T regulatory cells) in the high ALC group. Low frequency of NK cells and potentially high frequency of inhibitory T regulatory cells may result in weaker immune responses against residual leukemia and may explain the poorer outcome of the high ALC group. PMID:25726954

  12. Association of the Preoperative Neutrophil-to-ymphocyte Count Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Count Ratio with Clinicopathological Characteristics in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Mi; Kim, Eun Heui; Kim, Jong Ho; Park, Su Bin; Nam, Yoon Jeong; Ahn, Kang Hee; Oh, Min Young; Kim, Won Jin; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sang Soo; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Ju

    2015-01-01

    Background Several inflammatory biomarkers, especially a high preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte count ratio (PLR), are known to be indicator of poor prognosis in several cancers. However, very few studies have evaluated the significance of the NLR and PLR in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We evaluated the association of the preoperative NLR and PLR with clinicopathological characteristics in patients with PTC. Methods This study included 1,066 female patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for PTC. Patients were stratified into 4 quartiles by preoperative NLR and PLR. And the combination of preoperative NLR and PLR was calculated on the basis of data obtained value of tertile as follows: patients with both an elevated PLR and an elevated NLR were allocated a score of 2, and patients showing one or neither were allocated a score of 1 or 0, respectively. Results The preoperative NLR and PLR were significantly lower in patients aged ≥45 years and in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The PLR was significantly higher in patients with tumor size >1 cm (P=0.021).When the patients were categorized into the aforementioned four groups, the group with the higher preoperative PLR was found to have a significantly increased incidence of lateral lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P=0.018). However, there are no significant association between the combination of preoperative NLR and PLR and prognostic factors in PTC patients. Conclusion These results suggest that a preoperative high PLR were significant associated with lateral LNM in female patients with PTC. PMID:26354491

  13. Total Lymphocyte Count and Haemoglobin Concentration Combined as a Surrogate Marker for Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-limited Setting as against CD4 Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Dhamangaonkar, AC; Mathew, A; Pazare, AR

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To find a sensitive and low-cost surrogate marker for CD4 count for initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) [CD4 < 200 /mm3], in the form of total lymphocyte count (TLC) < 1200 /mm3 combined with haemoglobin (Hb) with multiple Hb cut-offs. Method: Two hundred and three consecutive treatment-nave adult HIV positive outpatients attending the virology clinic in World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage 1, 2 or 3 were enrolled in the study. Their complete blood counts and CD4 counts were done. Descriptive statistics was done by two methods correlating TLC alone with CD4 and the other using combined marker of TLC and Hb with CD4 count. Result: Total lymphocyte count alone did not correlate well with CD4 counts (r = 0.13; p = 0.065). Sensitivity of TLC < 1200 /mm3 to predict CD4 < 200 /mm3 was low (23.27%) and the sensitivity of the combined marker (TLC + Hb) increased with higher Hb cut-offs. Conclusion: Adding Hb to TLC markedly improved the sensitivity of the marker to predict CD4 count < 200/mm3. We also recommend a trade-off Hb cut-off of 10.5 g/dL for optimum sensitivity and specificity in this population subset. PMID:25781283

  14. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePLUS

    Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...

  15. Uncertainty of nuclear counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomm, S.; Fitzgerald, R.; Keightley, J.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear counting is affected by pulse pileup and system dead time, which induce rate-related count loss and alter the statistical properties of the counting process. Fundamental equations are presented to predict deviations from Poisson statistics due to non-random count loss in nuclear counters and spectrometers. Throughput and dispersion of counts are studied for systems with pileup, extending and non-extending dead time, before and also after compensation for count loss. Equations are provided for random fractions of the output events, applicable to spectrometry applications. Methods for loss compensation are discussed, including inversion of the throughput equation, live-time counting and loss-free counting. Secondary effects in live-time counting are addressed: residual interference from pileup in systems with imposed dead times and errors due to varying count rate when measuring short-lived radionuclides.

  16. Total and subset lymphocyte counts, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and dialysis duration in younger and older peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Leander, Magdalena; Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Karolewski, Marcin

    2004-01-01

    Disturbances in immunity and nutrition status worsen in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with advancing age. In the present study, we evaluated variations in total lymphocyte count (TLC) and subset lymphocyte counts (SLCs) with respect to the age of PD patients. We carried out the study in two groups of PD patients. Group I patients (n = 12) were less than 40 years of age (35.5 +/- 5.4 years), and their PD duration was 18.2 +/- 9.4 months. Group II patients (n = 14) were more than 60 years of age (67.2 +/- 5.1 years), and their PD duration was 20.6 +/- 11.0 months. In group I, 9 patients were taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs); in group II, 10 patients were taking ACEIs. We used flow cytometry to estimate SLCs (determining CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, and CD16+56 antigens). In both groups, the mean CD19, CD4, and CD8 counts were lower than the normal ranges. In group II, TLC and CD3 count were also lower than normal. In group I, correlations were seen between age and TLC, CD3, CD19, CD4, and CD8. Correlations were also seen between dialysis duration and TLC, CD3, CD19, and CD4, and between total ACEI dose and CD19 count. In group II, correlations were seen between age and TLC, CD3, and CD8. No correlation was observed between PD duration and TLC or SLCs, but a correlation between total ACEI dose and CD8 count was seen. In patients who were taking enalapril as their only ACEI, a correlation was observed between total enalapril dose and TLC, CD3, and CD8. Our results confirm data that indicate worse immunity and nutrition status in older PD patients and demonstrate decreasing values of TLC and SLCs with aging in younger and older PD patients alike. Administration of ACEIs negatively influences SLCs independently of age, but decreases in TLC and SLCs are significantly related to PD duration only in younger patients. PMID:15384824

  17. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  18. Cardinality Development and Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermejo, Vicente

    1996-01-01

    Focused on cardinality acquisition (thought to be crucial to correct counting) and on the relation between cardinality and counting. Gathered data with three groups of children three to five years old on four kinds of tasks. Found no empirical evidence for considering counting as a single prerequisite to cardinality. Suggests new approach to

  19. Enteric pathogens in HIV-positive patients with diarrhoea and their correlation with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Nitya; Pathan, Nazneen; Aziz, Adil

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Opportunistic parasitic infections are among the most serious infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and claim number of lives every year. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and to elucidate the association between intestinal opportunistic parasitic infection and CD4 (CD4+ T lymphocyte) counts in HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 266 HIV-positive patients presenting with diarrhoea and 100 HIV-positive patients without diarrhoea attending the integrated counselling and testing centre (ICTC) of SMS hospital, Jaipur. Simultaneously, CD4+ T-cell count estimation was done to assess the status of HIV infection vis--vis parasitic infections. The identification of pathogens was done on the basis of direct microscopy and different staining techniques. Results: Out of 266 patients with diarrhoea, parasites were isolated from 162 (i.e. 60.9%) patients compared to 16 (16%) patients without diarrhoea. Cryptosporidium parvum (25.2%) was the predominant parasite isolated in HIV-positive patients with diarrhoea followed by Isospora belli (10.9%). Parasites were more commonly isolated from stool samples of chronic diarrhoea patients, (77% i.e. 128/166) as compared to acute diarrhoea patients (34% i.e. 34/100) (P<0.05). The maximum parasitic isolation was in the patients with CD4+ T cell counts below 200 cells/?l. Conclusions: Chronic diarrhoea in HIV-positive patients with CD4+ T-cell counts <200/?l has high probability of association with intestinal parasitic infections. Identification of these parasitic infections may play an important role in administration of appropriate therapy and reduction of mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:23508727

  20. Epididymal sperm count.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yefan

    2003-02-01

    Making Epididymal Sperm Counts (Yefan Wang, TherImmune Research Corporation, Gaithersberg, Maryland). Epididymal sperm counts are a widely used, simple and sensitive method of assessing the effects of male reproductive toxicants on the epididymal and/or testicular site of action. After careful dissection of the tissues and further processing, the sperm suspensions are counted using a hemacytometer and analyzed for effect. PMID:20963758

  1. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral," funded by

  2. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  3. White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/L increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

  4. Infections During Peginterferon/Ribavirin Therapy Are Associated With the Magnitude of Decline in Absolute Lymphocyte Count: Results of the IDEAL Study

    PubMed Central

    Melia, Michael T.; Bru, Norbert; Poordad, Fred; Lawitz, Eric J.; Shiffman, Mitchell L.; McHutchison, John G.; Muir, Andrew J.; Galler, Greg W.; Nyberg, Lisa M.; Lee, William M.; Schiff, Eugene; Long, Jianmin; Noviello, Stephanie; Brass, Clifford A.; Pedicone, Lisa D.; Sulkowski, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Myelosuppression due to pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) is common during treatment for hepatitis C virus. The relationship between infection risk and decreases in leukocyte lines, however, is not well established. The objective of this analysis was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for infections during peg-IFN/ribavirin (RBV) therapy. Methods.?A total of 3070 treatment-naive, chronic hepatitis C genotype 1infected patients were treated for up to 48 weeks with peg-IFN alfa-2b 1.5 g/kg/week or 1 g/kg/week, or peg-IFN alfa-2a 180 g/week plus RBV. On-treatment leukocyte counts were obtained every 26 weeks. Dose reduction was required for a neutrophil count <0.75 109 cells/L, and treatment discontinuation was required for a neutrophil count <0.5 109 cells/L. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was prohibited. Data on infections were captured at each study visit and categorized according to MedDRA version 13.0. Results.?A total of 581 (19%) patients experienced moderate, severe, or life-threatening infections as assessed by the investigator; 648 (21%) patients had at least 1 neutrophil count <0.75 109 cells/L, but only 242 (8%) sustained an infection and had a neutrophil count <0.75 109 cells/L at any time while on treatment. Twelve patients had severe or life-threatening infection and grade 3/4 neutropenia, but only 4 had temporally related infections. In a multivariate logistic regression model, nadir lymphocyte count, history of depression, and female sex, but not nadir neutrophil count, were associated with moderate, severe, or life-threatening infection. Conclusions.?Nadir lymphocyte count, not nadir neutrophil count, was independently associated with moderate, severe, or life-threatening infections in the IDEAL study. Clinicians should be aware of their patients' absolute lymphocyte counts during peg-IFN/RBV therapy; peg-IFN dose reductions may be a consideration in patients with significant lymphocytopenia (<0.5 109 cells/L). PMID:24399086

  5. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Certain fungus infections Asthma Autoimmune diseases Eczema Hay fever Leukemia and other blood disorders A lower-than-normal eosinophil count may be due to: Alcohol intoxication Overproduction of certain steroids in the body (such as cortisol)

  6. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you manage your blood glucose (sugar). Carbohydrates, or carbs, are one of the three main energy sources ... prevent diabetes complications. You can learn to count carbs to choose what and how much to eat. ...

  7. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Annuities & Planned Gifts Shop Resources Disease Information Treatment Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Click here × ... individuals of similar age and sex. Nearly all lab reports include a "normal" range or high and ...

  8. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach. PMID:10165241

  9. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  10. Make Your Calories Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for packaged foods. For more information, see Proposed Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label . Use the Nutrition Facts Label for Healthy Weight Management Make Your Calories Count is an interactive learning ...

  11. Optimal Threshold and Time of Absolute Lymphocyte CountAssessment for Outcome Prediction after Bone MarrowTransplantation.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Ulas D; Milton, Deni R; Guindani, Michele; Rondon, Gabriela; Chen, Julianne; Al-Atrash, Gheath; Rezvani, Katayoun; Champlin, Richard; Ciurea, Stefan O

    2016-03-01

    The recovery pace of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) is prognostic after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Previous studies have evaluated a wide range of ALC cutoffs and time points for predicting outcomes. We aimed to determine the optimal ALC value for outcome prediction after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A total of 518 patients who underwent BMT for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome between 1999 and 2010 were divided into a training set and a test set to assess the prognostic value of ALC on days 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, as well as the first post-transplantation day of an ALC of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 1000/?L. In the training set, the best predictor of overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was ALC on day 60. In the entire patient cohort, multivariable analyses demonstrated significantly better OS, RFS, and NRM and lower incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients with an ALC >300/?L on day 60 post-BMT, both including and excluding patients who developed GVHD before day 60. Among the patient-, disease-, and transplant-related factors assessed, only busulfan-based conditioning was significantly associated with higher ALC values on day 60 in both cohorts. The optimal ALC cutoff for predicting outcomes after BMT is 300/?L on day 60 post-transplantation. PMID:26524730

  12. Absolute lymphocyte count at the end of induction therapy is a prognostic factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hirase, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Takahashi, Hironobu; Moriwaki, Kensuke; Saito, Atsuro; Kozaki, Aiko; Ishida, Toshiaki; Yanai, Tomoko; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kubokawa, Ikuko; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Nishio, Hisahide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have reported that the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) during induction therapy is predictive of treatment outcome in de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); however, the significance of ALC on outcomes remains controversial. In the present study, we assessed the significance of ALC at day 29 (ALC-29), the end of induction therapy, on outcomes in our Japanese cohort. The outcomes of 141 patients aged ?18years with newly diagnosed ALL who were enrolled on the JACLS ALL-02 at our hospitals were analyzed in terms of ALC-29. Patients with ALC-29 ?750/?L (n=81) had a superior 5-year EFS (95.22.7 vs 84.34.8%, P=0.016) and OS (100 vs 87.04.7%, P=0.0062). A multivariate analysis identified ALC-29 ?750/?L as a significant predictor of improved EFS and OS after controlling for confounding factors. A multiple linear regression model revealed a significant inverse relationship between the percentage of blasts in bone marrow on day 15 and ALC-29 (P=0.005). These results indicate that ALC is a simple prognostic factor in childhood ALL, and, thus, has the potential to refine current risk algorithms. PMID:26440971

  13. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  14. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  15. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  16. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  17. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly

  18. WY Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

  19. Counting or Playing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronsil, Matt

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how children learn to understand the decimal system in very concrete ways, while having fun using beads. When counting the beads, the children learn 5,491 is not simply "five thousand four hundred and ninety-one" but actually 5 thousands, 4 hundreds, 9 tens, and 1 unit. They begin to understand that as they get 10 units,

  20. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the

  1. The Watt Count System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Watt Count System combines aerospace and computer technology, an engineering systems design approach and the environmental control expertise of a group of engineers who worked on Apollo. First step of the system is a computerized energy consumption analysis based on plans for a new home. Company calculates heating and cooling loads and customizes the most energy efficient system for the particular structure analyzed. A quality control engineer assures that insulation and ducting are installed to specifications. Analysis and design techniques are so accurate that company is able to give homeowner a two-year guarantee that the home's energy consumption will not exceed the kilowatt hour level determined by the computer in step one. In an annual energy performance comparison, a Watt Count home used 45 percent less energy than a conventionally equipped home.

  2. Counting every quantum

    PubMed Central

    Sakitt, B.

    1972-01-01

    1. Human subjects were asked to rate both blanks and very dim flashes of light under conditions of complete dark adaptation at 7 in the periphery. The ratings used were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 2. For one subject (B.S.) the distributions of ratings were approximately Poisson distributions. The data were consistent with each rating being the actual number of effective quantal absorptions plus the number of noise events. This subject was presumably able to count every rod signal (effective absorptions plus noise). 3. For two other subjects, the data were consistent with the ratings being one less (L.F.) and two less (K.D.) than the number of effective absorptions plus noise. They were able to count every rod signal beginning with 2 and 3 respectively. A fourth subject's erratic data could not be fitted. 4. The fraction of quanta incident at the cornea that resulted in a rod signal was estimated to be about 003 which is consistent with physical estimates of effective absorption for that retinal region. 5. A simulated forced choice experiment leads to an absolute threshold about 040 log units below the normal yes-no absolute threshold. This and other results indicate that subjects can use the sensory information they receive even when only 1, 2 or 3 quanta are effectively absorbed, depending on the individual. Humans may be able to count every action potential or every discrete burst of action potentials in some critical neurone. PMID:5046137

  3. Baseline CD4+ T lymphocyte cell counts, hepatitis B and C viruses seropositivity in adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer; Oladimeji, Ajayi Akande; Temi, Adegun Patrick; Adeseye, Ajayi Iyiade; Akinyeye, Ojo Abiodun; Taiwo, Raimi Hussean

    2011-01-01

    Background Ekiti State of Nigeria is known to have the lowest prevalence of HIV in Nigeria. University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Ado Ekiti was recently upgraded to serve as one of the three centres for HIV/AIDS referral, diagnosis and treatment in Ekiti State. We evaluated the baseline immunologic and biochemical parameters of patients presenting at the ART clinic of University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State. Methods All HIV seropositive patients not yet on antiretroviral therapy, who presented at the ART Clinic within the study period had at the first visit to the clinic, their blood sample taken for CD4 cell counts estimation, HBsAg and anti- HCV screening, ALT, AST as well as hemoglobin estimation as part of the routine workup to assess their disease health status and need for antiretroviral therapy. Statistical significance was taken as p< 0.05. Results A total of 273 patients comprising 79 (28.9%) males and 194 (71.1%) females were included in the study (F:M = 2.46: 1). The mean age of the study population was 36.21± 10.20 years with mean age of males (39.52 ± 9.95years) significantly higher than females (34.88 ± 10.02; p=0.001). The overall prevalence of HBsAg in the study population was 6.6% with a sex specific prevalence of 8.1% and 6% for males and females, respectively. No statistically significance difference in the mean serum alanine transaminase, serum aspartate transaminase, hemoglobin and CD4+ T- Lymphocytes cell count of those who had HBsAg negative status compared to those who had HBsAg positive status. Two (0.7%) of the patients had positive serum anti HCV antibodies. The CD4+ T- Lymphocytes cell count ranged between 5 – 1050 cells/µl with a mean of 286.19 ± 233.31 cells/µl. The majority of patients (71.8%) had a CD4+ T- Lymphocytes cell count < 350 cells/µl. Conclusion At the time of presentation, majority of our patients had a CD4+ T- Lymphocytes cell count less than 350 cells/µl consistent with significant immune-suppression. More sustained and vigorous awareness campaigns still need to be done in Ekiti State to diagnose this disease early. There is also a need to accelerate the integration of hepatitis B virus screening and treatment programme into HIV/AIDS programme because of the morbidity and mortality implication of HBV and HIV co-infection. PMID:22145054

  4. Spectrum of mucocutaneous manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and its correlation with CD4 lymphocyte count.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Michelle S; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2015-05-01

    In this study, 100 HIV-positive cases (63 men, 37 women) with skin findings were included. The mean CD4 T cell count was 253?cells/mm(3). A total of 235 dermatological manifestations were seen. The common infectious dermatoses were candidiasis (21%), Staphylococcal skin infections (20%), dermatophytoses (14%) and herpes zoster (6%). Among the non-infectious dermatoses were papular pruritic eruptions (20%), xerosis/ichthyosis (20%) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (16%). Statistically significant association (p?count was seen in pyodermas, dermatophytoses and papular pruritic eruptions. Adverse drug reactions, diffuse hair loss, straightening of hairs and pigmentary changes were also noted. Although there was an absence of Kaposi's sarcoma in our study, a case of verrucous carcinoma of penis was noted. PMID:25015936

  5. Foggy scintillation counting technique.

    PubMed

    Fujii, H; Takiue, M

    2001-10-01

    A new "foggy scintillator" was developed for the measurement of low-energy beta-emitters in air. By the use of an ultrasonic wave generator, a liquid scintillator can be converted into the "foggy scintillator". In order to obtain reasonable detection efficiency, it is necessary to prepare a liquid scintillator with a very high concentration of the first solute (PPO). The foggy scintillation counting technique avoids the trouble of the sample preparation usually necessary for the measurement of radionuclides in air, since the radionuclide in the air can be measured directly. PMID:11545505

  6. Photon counting and Laguerre detection.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    In this correspondence maximum-likelihood binary detection theory is applied to an incoherent optical system model employing photodetectors governed by Laguerre counting statistics. It is shown that a maximum-likelihood Laguerre detector corresponds to a count comparison over each signaling interval. Laguerre error probabilities are presented and compared with those for Poisson counting.

  7. Counting RG flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.

  8. Radon Detection and Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David

    2004-11-01

    One of the daughter products of the naturally occuring U 238 decay chain is the colorless, odorless, inert gas radon. The daughter products of the radon, from Po 218 through Po 214, can remain in the lungs after breathing radon that has diffused into the atmosphere. Radon testing of homes before sale or purchase is necessary in many parts of the U.S. Testing can be accomplished by the simple procedure of exposing a canister of activated charcoal to the ambient air. Radon atoms in the air are adsorbed onto the surface of the charcoal, which is then sealed in the canister. Gamma rays of the daughter products of the radon, in particular Pb 214 and Bi 214, can then be detected in low background counting system. Radon remediation procedures are encouraged for radon activities in the air greater than 4 pCi/L.

  9. Associations of Host Genetic Variants on CD4+ Lymphocyte Count and Plasma HIV-1 RNA in Antiretroviral Naïve Children

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Min; Brummel, Sean; Singh, Kumud K.; Fenton, Terry; Spector, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) counts and HIV plasma RNA concentration (RNA) are two key HIV disease markers. The complex interplay between virus and host genetics may contribute to differences in viral set point and CD4 status. Determining the effects of host genetic variation on HIV disease markers is often complicated by the use of antiretroviral therapy. In this study, the association between genetic variants and baseline HIV RNA and CD4 counts was examined in a large cohort of antiretroviral naïve children. Methods Specimens from 1053 HIV-infected children were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 78 regions from 17 genes. Linear regression with a robust variance estimator was used to test the association between genetic markers with HIV RNA and CD4count, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and study. False discovery rate (FDR) controlling was used to adjust for multiple testing. Results The study population was 60% black, 26% Hispanic and 13% white; median age 2.35 years; 55% female. Baseline median CD4 count was 780/mm3; median log10 HIV RNA was 5.17 copies/mL. For analyses of the associations of genetic makers with baseline CD4+, 6 HLA and 4 additional markers exhibited p-values <0.05, but none met the criteria for statistical significance with FDR controlled at 0.05. For baseline HIV RNA, HLA DRB1*15, DRB1*10, B-27/57, B-14, Cw-8, B57 were statistically significant with FDR controlled at 0.05. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence that HLA DRB1*15, DRB1*10, B-27/57, B-14, Cw-8, B57 are associated with HIV RNA, and play a role in HIV pathogenesis in infected children. PMID:24797997

  10. Making environmental DNA count.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method - like the reception of new information itself - can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists - those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count - have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. () quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set - further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance - but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?' PMID:26768195

  11. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  12. Kids Count [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Wilson, Nancy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is combined with Families Count, and provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The first statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen deaths; (6) juvenile

  13. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count

  14. Adult counting is resource demanding.

    PubMed

    Camos, Valrie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2004-02-01

    Several recent studies on both the development of counting and working-memory span tasks have provided results that could be interpreted as ruling out any cognitive resource model for counting. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, even in adults, counting is a demanding task that requires the allocation of cognitive resources. In a first experiment, we asked adults to count arrays of dots while maintaining 5 items in memory (either digits or letters). As we predicted, the concurrent memory load did not increase the rate of errors but induced longer counting times. In a second experiment, we asked adults to count using either the numeric chain or the alphabet while they maintained 1, 3 or 5 items in memory (digits or letters). First, we replicated the load effect observed in Experiment 1. Second, though both types of counting required similar amounts of time, counting with the less automatized chain (i.e. the alphabet) resulted in a poorer recall performance. Finally, this detrimental effect in recall was all the more pronounced the greater the number of items to be recalled. These results are interpreted within theoretical frameworks that consider cognitive resources as attentional capacities. PMID:15005865

  15. AN AUTOMATED MOSQUITO COUNTING TRAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated mosquito counting trap has been designed and tested in laboratory cages. It employs a custom designed infrared beam sensor head retrofit into a commercial counter-flow technology trap (MM-X, American Biophysics Corp.). The trap provides time-stamped insect counts that can be downloaded...

  16. T-cell count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to: Cancer, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia or multiple myeloma Infections, such as hepatitis or mononucleosis Lower than normal T-cell levels may be due to: Acute viral infections Aging ... diseases, such as HIV/AIDS Radiation therapy Steroid treatment

  17. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  18. Star counts and galactic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Star counts are discussed as an aid in studies of galactic structure. Iterative computations using a method-of-color-bins to match numerical models with observational data are described. The star counts provide bounds for the luminosity function and the color-magnitude diagram and allow spheroid normalization in a copycat Galaxy model which posits a galaxy with a Population I disk and a Population II spheroid. Good agreement has been obtained between star counts predicted by the model and observed distributions, including color and magnitude ranges and direction. Modifications being considered for the model include consideration of the halo, a galactic bulge and a thick disk. Several galactic structural features which have yet to be modeled and which may be tractable to the copycat model corrected with star counts are identified.

  19. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  20. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  1. Deep Counts of Submillimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, A. W.; Kneib, J.-P.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, Ian

    1999-02-01

    We present the counts of luminous submillimeter (sub-mm) galaxies from an analysis of our completed survey of the distant universe seen through lensing clusters. This survey uses massive cluster lenses with well-constrained mass models to obtain a magnified view of the background sky. This both increases the sensitivity of our sub-mm maps and reduces the effects of source confusion. Accurate lens models are used to correct the observed sub-mm source counts for the lens amplification. We show that the uncertainties associated with this correction do not dominate the final errors. We present sub-mm counts derived from two independent methods: a direct inversion of the observed sources, which are corrected individually for lens amplification, and a Monte Carlo simulation of our observations using a parametric model for the background counts, which is folded through the lens models and incompleteness estimates to determine best-fitting values of the count parameters. Both methods agree well and confirm the robustness of our analysis. Detections that are identified with galaxies in the lensing clusters in deep optical images are removed prior to our analysis, and the results are insensitive both to the details of the correction and to the redshift distribution of the detections. We present the 850 ?m counts at flux densities between 0.5 and 8 mJy. The count of galaxies brighter than 4 mJy is 1500+/-700 deg-2, in agreement with the value of 2500+/-1400 deg-2 reported by Smail, Ivison, & Blain in 1997. The most accurate 850 ?m count is determined at 1 mJy: 7900+/-3000 deg-2. All quoted errors include both Poisson and systematic terms. These are the deepest sub-mm counts published, and they are not subject to source confusion because the detected galaxies are separated and magnified by the lens. Down to the 0.5 mJy limit of our counts, the resolved 850 ?m background radiation intensity is (5+/-2)10-10 W m-2 sr-1, comparable to the current COBE estimate of the background. This indicates that the bulk of the 850 ?m background radiation originated in distant ultraluminous galaxies.

  2. Low serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of 30 day hospital readmission in patients 65 years of age or older

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge is a target for health care cost savings through the medicare Value Based Purchasing initiative. Because of this focus, hospitals and health systems are investing considerable resources into the identification of patients at risk of hospital readmission and designing interventions to reduce the rate of hospital readmission. Malnutrition is a known risk factor for hospital readmission. Materials and Methods. All medical patients 65 years of age or older discharged from Memorial Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2012 who had a determination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count on hospital admission were studied retrospectively. Admission serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte counts were used to classify the nutritional status of all patients in the study. Patients with a serum albumin less than 3.5 grams/dL and/or a TLC less than 1,500 cells per mm3 were classified as having protein energy malnutrition. The primary outcome investigated in this study was hospital readmission for any reason within 30 days of discharge. Results. The study population included 1,683 hospital discharges with an average age of 79 years. The majority of the patients were female (55.9%) and had a DRG weight of 1.22 (0.68). 219 patients (13%) were readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge. Protein energy malnutrition was common in this population. Low albumin was found in 973 (58%) patients and a low TLC was found in 1,152 (68%) patients. Low albumin and low TLC was found in 709 (42%) of patients. KaplanMeier analysis shows any laboratory evidence of PEM is a significant (p < 0.001) predictor of hospital readmission. Low serum albumin (p < 0.001) and TLC (p = 0.018) show similar trends. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed low serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 3.27, 95% CI [2.304.63]) and higher DRG weight (Hazard Ratio 1.19, 95% CI [1.031.38]) to be significant independent predictors of hospital readmission within 30 days. Discussion. This study investigated the relationship of PEM to the rate of hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge in patients 65 years of age or older. These results indicate that laboratory markers of PEM can identify patients at risk of hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge. This risk determination is simple and identifies a potentially modifiable risk factor for readmission: protein energy malnutrition. PMID:26339558

  3. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. Photon Counting - One More Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Richard H.

    2012-05-01

    Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

  5. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family

  6. City & Rural KIDS COUNT Data Book. KIDS COUNT Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides the objective data needed to track and monitor the well-being of children in different types of American communities. It is part of the ongoing work of the Casey Foundation -- advanced primarily through our KIDS COUNT initiative -- designed to give policymakers data that can help them better understand how conditions of

  7. Extragalactic x ray source counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Maarten

    1991-01-01

    Extragalactic x-ray source counts carry information about the luminosity function and cosmic evolution of galaxies, BL Lac objects, Seyfort galaxies, and quasars. We discuss two available x-ray source samples with complete optical identifications and redshifts. We find evidence for instrumental bias in the detection of clusters for cosmic evolution of quasars, and of absorption effects in low luminosity Seyfert galaxies. Modest spectral and density evolution of Seyfort galaxies would allow the soft x-ray background to be made up entirely of discrete sources. We present a source count prognosis for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) energy range 0.5 to 10 keV.

  8. A rugged pulse counting detector

    SciTech Connect

    Velbeck, K.; Leslie, D.; Szalanczy, A.; Tawil, R.A.

    1985-02-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements made on 3 sets of rugged scintillation detector assemblies. The temperature range of 0 - 50 degrees centigrade was covered in steps of 10 degrees. These compact PMT-based detector assemblies are powered by + and - 15VDC and operate in the pulse counting mode. Each unit contains a high voltage power supply that is externally adjustable, and is also equipped with external controls for radiation energy lower limit and window adjustment. Measurements on the dependence of the count rate and the shift in the Am-241 and Cs-137 main peaks on temperature fluctuations were made. The results are reported here.

  9. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  10. 7 CFR 993.502 - Size count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size count. 993.502 Section 993.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Pack Specification as to Size Definitions 993.502 Size count. Size count means the count or number...

  11. Hexadecimal counting? Use your fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, K.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the note is to show how 'natural' the hexadecimal number system is and how one can count in this system using fingers at least as effortlessly as in the decimal system. The system uses the joints and tips of the four fingers of one hand.

  12. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,

  13. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school

  14. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Inst. for Child Advocacy, Inc., Oklahoma City. Oklahoma Kids Count.

    This Kids Count report details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical report is based on eight indicators of child well being: (1) economic distress; (2) percent low birthweight infants; (3) infant mortality rate; (4) births to teens; (5) child abuse and neglect rates; (6) child and teen death rate;

  15. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Inst. for Child Advocacy, Inc., Oklahoma City. Oklahoma Kids Count.

    This Kids Count report details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school dropouts; and (8)

  16. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This data book presents findings of the Kids Count Project on current conditions faced by Oklahoma children age birth through 18. This second annual factbook organizes state and county data over a period of time to enable conditions for children in each county to be compared and ranked. The benchmark indicators studied include low birthweight

  17. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  18. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)

  19. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)

  20. Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)

  1. KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and

  2. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the

  3. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance

  4. Maryland KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This Kids Count factbook is the fifth to examine statewide and county trends in the well-being of Maryland's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the domains of economic well-being, good health, safety, and preparing for adulthood. The 16 indicators are: (1) child poverty; (2) child support; (3) births to teens; (4) low…

  5. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  6. The counting recursive digital filter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of the bit-level operations involved in the convolutions realizing recursive digital filters leads to hardware designs of such filters based on the operation of counting. Various designs realizing both the canonic and 'direct' forms are presented with particular emphasis on low-cost low-speed high-flexibility machines.

  7. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  8. Maryland's Kids Count Factbook 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maryland's children. The statistical portrait is based on 14 indicators of child well being: (1) child poverty; (2) child support; (3) births to teens; (4) low birthweight infants; (5) infant mortality; (6) lead screening; (7) child abuse and neglect; (8) child death rate; (9)

  9. Maryland's Kids Count Factbook 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This KIDS COUNT statistical report profiles the status of children in Maryland by tracking trends in economic well-being, health, safety, and education. The report is divided into four sections. Section 1, "Status of Our Children," presents a vision for Maryland's children, presents the key findings, ranks Maryland's counties, and examines trends

  10. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  11. Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

    This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

  12. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  13. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  14. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  15. White blood cell count at diagnosis and immunoglobulin variable region gene mutations are independent predictors of treatment-free survival in young patients with stage A chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Ilaria; Mauro, Francesca Romana; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Santangelo, Simona; Marinelli, Marilisa; Peragine, Nadia; Di Maio, Valeria; Nanni, Mauro; Barzotti, Rita; Mancini, Francesca; Armiento, Daniele; Paoloni, Francesca; Guarini, Anna; Fo, Robin

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive panel of clinical-biological parameters was prospectively evaluated at presentation in 112 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (<65 years), to predict the risk of progression in early stage disease. Eighty-one percent were in Binet stage A, 19% in stages B/C. Treatment-free survival was evaluated as the time from diagnosis to first treatment, death or last follow up. In univariate analysis, advanced stage, hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cell, leukemic lymphocyte count, raised beta 2-microglobulin and LDH, unmutated immunoglobulin variable region genes, CD38, del(17p), del(11q) and +12, were significantly associated with a short treatment-free survival; the T/leukemic lymphocyte ratio was associated with a better outcome. Multivariate analysis of treatment-free survival in stage A patients selected a high white blood cell count and unmutated immunoglobulin variable region genes as unfavorable prognostic factors and a high T/leukemic lymphocyte ratio as a favorable one. At diagnosis, these parameters independently predict the risk of progression in stage A chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. PMID:21193417

  16. 1/Nc Countings in Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Goity

    2004-05-01

    The 1/N{sub c} power countings for baryon decays and configuration mixings are determined by means of a non-relativistic quark picture. Such countings are expected to be robust as the quark masses are decreased towards the chiral limit. It is shown that excited baryons have natural widths of {Omicron}(N{sub c}{sup 0}). These dominant widths are due to the decays that proceed directly to the ground state baryons, with cascade decays being suppressed to {Omicron}(1/N{sub c}). Configuration mixings, defined as mixings between states belonging to different O(3) x SU(2N{sub f}) multiplets, are shown to be sub-leading in an expansion in 1/{radical}N{sub c}, except for certain mixings between excited multiplets belonging to the mixed-symmetric spin-flavor representation and different O(3) representations, where the mixings are of zeroth order in 1/N{sub c}.

  17. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  18. The Making Cases Count intiative.

    PubMed

    Relton, C; Viksveen, P; Kessler, U

    2014-08-01

    Given the challenges faced, how can homeopaths communicate the power and scope of the therapeutic system of homeopathy? Homeopaths need to communicate to patients, the public and media, other healthcare professionals, healthcare researchers, and funders of healthcare (healthcare insurers, those who commission healthcare services either in publicly funded healthcare systems such as the NHS or charities). Effective communication with these stakeholders requires information that is: (a) easily understood, (b) credible, and (c) relevant. The patient's voice is the trusted, indisputable and easily understood common ground in homeopathy. Yet, the experiences of patients are rarely heard outside the profession of homeopathy. Homeopaths are in a unique position to make these voices heard by disseminating the results of their routine practice cases incorporating their patients' voices. The 'Making Cases Count' initiative has been created in order to bring about a culture where easily understood, trusted and salient information is regularly made available to all stakeholders in homeopathy. The Making Cases Count initiative supports, guides and incentives homeopaths to collect routine data with the aim of bringing about a culture where a significant proportion of homeopaths collect routine data from their patients in a format which will then be able to be transformed (i.e. anonymised, summarised and counted). This routine data requires numbers and categories to report the behavior and the perspective of patients receiving homeopathic treatment. This can be strengthened through the use of validated outcome measures in hearing patients' voices. When transformed, this routine data will then be able to inform homeopaths and more importantly other key stakeholders. It is now time to make patient cases count. PMID:25146064

  19. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Mikls, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Mikls, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  20. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erd?s, Pter L; Kiss, Sndor Z; Mikls, Istvn; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Mikls, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Mikls, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  1. What I Need to Know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... URL Español What I need to know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes Page Content On this page: ... counting? Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate * counting, also called carb counting, is ...

  2. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  3. Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, Alan L

    2010-12-15

    This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

  4. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1280.628 Section 1280.628... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  5. 46 CFR 185.504 - Passenger count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger count. 185.504 Section 185.504 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies 185.504 Passenger count. The master of a vessel, except a vessel listed in 185.502(a) of this part, shall keep a correct, written count of all passengers that embark...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counting. 1205.28 Section 1205.28 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field Operations (DAFO), shall begin counting requests no later than November 30, 2007....

  7. 46 CFR 122.504 - Passenger count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger count. 122.504 Section 122.504 Shipping COAST... Emergencies 122.504 Passenger count. The master of a vessel, except a vessel listed in 122.502(a), shall keep a correct, written count of all passengers that embark on and disembark from the vessel. Prior...

  8. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  9. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counting requests. 1220.625 Section 1220.625... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions 1220.625 Counting requests. (a) The requests for a referendum shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the requests...

  10. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  11. Platelet counting using the Coulter electronic counter

    PubMed Central

    Eggleton, M. J.; Sharp, A. A.

    1963-01-01

    A method for counting platelets in dilutions of platelet-rich plasm using the Coulter electronic counter is described.1 The results obtained show that such platelet counts are at least as accurate as the best methods of visual counting. The various technical difficulties encountered are discussed. PMID:16811002

  12. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  13. Lithium dosage and leukocyte counts in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Oyewumi, L K; McKnight, M; Cernovsky, Z Z

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in leukocyte counts among patients treated with either lithium alone, antipsychotic medications alone, or a combination of both. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Long-stay psychiatric hospital. PATIENTS: Patients admitted between 1990 and 1993, and treated with lithium for at least 1 week and/or with antipsychotic medication for at least 2 weeks. Excluded from the study were those patients for whom complete blood counts at baseline and during therapy were not available, and those patients whose blood picture could primarily be accounted for by extraneous factors. Included in the study were 38 patients treated with lithium alone, 207 patients receiving antipsychotic medications alone, and 71 patients receiving both. OUTCOME MEASURES: Leukocyte, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts. RESULTS: Patients treated with lithium alone had significantly higher mean leukocyte and granulocyte counts than those treated with antipsychotic medication alone (analysis of variance, p < 0.05). None of the patients receiving lithium alone showed leukopenia. The dosage of lithium was significantly correlated with leukocyte count (r = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.35, p < 0.001,) and granulocyte count (r = 0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.38, p < 0.001), but not with lymphocyte count (r = 0.06, p = 0.286, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Lithium therapy is associated with higher leukocyte and granulocyte levels in psychiatric patients. This leukocytotic effect of lithium may be dose dependent. PMID:10354655

  14. Counting human neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Steven; Flanagan, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the exact number of viable cells in a given volume of a cell suspension is required for many routine tissue culture manipulations, such as plating cells for immunocytochemistry or for cell transfections. This protocol describes a straightforward and fast method for differentiating between live and dead cells and quantifying the cell concentration and total cell number using a hemacytometer. This procedure first requires detaching cells from a growth surface and resuspending them in media. Next, the cells are diluted in a solution of Trypan blue (ideally to a concentration that will give 20-50 cells per quadrant) and placed in the hemacytometer. Finally, averaging the counts of viable cells in several randomly selected quadrants, dividing the average by the volume of one 1 mm(2) quadrant (0.1 microl) and multiplying by the dilution factor gives the number of cells per l. Multiplying this cell concentration by the total volume in microl gives the total cell number. This protocol describes counting human neural stem/precursor cells (hNSPCs), but can also be used for many other cell types. PMID:18989433

  15. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

  16. Somatic Cell Counts in Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Dohoo, I. R.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Factors which influence somatic cell counts in bovine milk are reviewed and guidelines for their interpretation are presented. It is suggested that the thresholds of 300 000 and 250 000 cells/mL be used to identify infected quarters and cows respectively. However, it is stressed that somatic cell counts are general indicators of udder health which are subject to the influence of many factors. Therefore the evaluation of several successive counts is preferable to the interpretation of an individual count. Relationships between somatic cell counts and both milk production and milk composition are discussed. Subclinical mastitis reduces milk quality and decreases yield although the relationship between production loss and somatic cell count requires clarification. Finally the availability of somatic cell counting programs in Canada is presented. PMID:17422127

  17. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  18. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

  19. Well coincidence counting and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T.; Ceo, R.N.; Collins, L.L.

    1994-03-01

    In several recent papers a physical/mathematical model was developed to describe the nuclear multiplicative processes in samples containing fissile material from a general statistical viewpoint, starting with the basic underlying physical phenomena. The results of this model agreed with the established picture used in ``standard`` HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) measurements, but considerably extended them, and allowed a more detailed interpretation of the underlying physical mechanisms and of the higher moments of the neutron counts. The present paper examines some recent measurements made at Y-12 (Oak Ridge) using the AWCC, in the light of this model. The results show internal consistency under a variety of conditions, and give good agreement between experiment and theory.

  20. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  1. Estimating relative abundance from count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Much of the available information on large-scale patterns of animal abundance is based on count surveys. The data provided by such surveys are often influenced by nuisance factors affecting the numbers of animals counted, but unrelated to population size. Temporal and spatial patterns in nuisance factors may exist, causing simple summaries of counts to give a misleading view of patterns in population size. We develop models for count data that allows the incorporation of such factors, and describe methods for estimating spatial patterns of relative abundance from counts. We carry out spatial analyses of North American Breeding Bird Survey data, in which observer ability is a nuisance parameter nested within sites. In light of evidence that new observers tend to count more birds than the observers they replace, we model observer ability as a random effect with mean depending on observer initiation year.

  2. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index. PMID:25676369

  3. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  4. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Interfering factors: Acute emotional or physical stress can increase WBC counts. There are various types of white blood cells (WBCs) that normally appear in the blood: neutrophils (polymorphonuclear ...

  5. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, G.G.; Post, G. )

    1989-07-01

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

  6. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  7. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  8. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  9. Automated counting of mammalian cell colonies.

    PubMed

    Barber, P R; Vojnovic, B; Kelly, J; Mayes, C R; Boulton, P; Woodcock, M; Joiner, M C

    2001-01-01

    Investigating the effect of low-dose radiation exposure on cells using assays of colony-forming ability requires large cell samples to maintain statistical accuracy. Manually counting the resulting colonies is a laborious task in which consistent objectivity is hard to achieve. This is true especially with some mammalian cell lines which form poorly defined or 'fuzzy' colonies, typified by glioma or fibroblast cell lines. A computer-vision-based automated colony counter is presented in this paper. It utilizes novel imaging and image-processing methods involving a modified form of the Hough transform. The automated counter is able to identify less-discrete cell colonies typical of these cell lines. The results of automated colony counting are compared with those from four manual (human) colony counts for the cell lines HT29, A172, U118 and IN1265. The results from the automated counts fall well within the distribution of the manual counts for all four cell lines with respect to surviving fraction (SF) versus dose curves, SF values at 2 Gy (SF2) and total area under the SF curve (Dbar). From the variation in the counts, it is shown that the automated counts are generally more consistent than the manual counts. PMID:11197679

  10. Automated counting of mammalian cell colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Paul R.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Kelly, Jane; Mayes, Catherine R.; Boulton, Peter; Woodcock, Michael; Joiner, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    Investigating the effect of low-dose radiation exposure on cells using assays of colony-forming ability requires large cell samples to maintain statistical accuracy. Manually counting the resulting colonies is a laborious task in which consistent objectivity is hard to achieve. This is true especially with some mammalian cell lines which form poorly defined or `fuzzy' colonies, typified by glioma or fibroblast cell lines. A computer-vision-based automated colony counter is presented in this paper. It utilizes novel imaging and image-processing methods involving a modified form of the Hough transform. The automated counter is able to identify less-discrete cell colonies typical of these cell lines. The results of automated colony counting are compared with those from four manual (human) colony counts for the cell lines HT29, A172, U118 and IN1265. The results from the automated counts fall well within the distribution of the manual counts for all four cell lines with respect to surviving fraction (SF) versus dose curves, SF values at 2 Gy (SF2) and total area under the SF curve (Dbar). From the variation in the counts, it is shown that the automated counts are generally more consistent than the manual counts.

  11. Kids Count in Indiana: 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This Kids Count report is the third in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. The report combines statistics of special concern in Indiana with 10 national Kids Count well-being indicators: (1) percent low birthweight; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) birth rate to unmarried teens ages 15

  12. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  13. Photon counts from stellar occultation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

  14. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  15. 2009 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  16. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  17. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this

  18. Dying dyons don't count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2007-09-01

    The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with Script N = 4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the ``immortal dyons" that are stable everywhere.

  19. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  20. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

  1. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy. Conclusions Insensitive to the variance of images, the LNS (Leukocyte Nuclei Segmentation) method functioned well to isolate the leukocyte nuclei from a blood smear image with much better UR (Under Segmentation Rate), ER (Overall Error Rate), and RDE (Relative Distance Error). The presented LC (Lobe Counting) method is capable of splitting leukocyte nuclei into lobes. The experimental results illuminated that both methods can give expressive performances. In addition, three advanced image processing techniques were proposed as weighted Sobel operator, GDW (Gradient Direction Weight), and GBPD (Genetic-based Parameter Detector). PMID:21073711

  2. Patients count on it: an initiative to reduce incorrect counts and prevent retained surgical items.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth K; Martin, Cornelia; Micheli, Anne J

    2012-01-01

    Retained surgical items were the most frequently reported sentinel event in 2010, according to The Joint Commission. Perioperative nurse leaders at Children's Hospital Boston, a pediatric teaching hospital, conducted a quality improvement initiative to reduce or eliminate incorrect counts and count discrepancies, which increase the risk of an item being unintentionally retained after surgery. Work included educating the perioperative staff members, standardizing count practices, formally reviewing every reported count discrepancy with the nursing team, and reviewing and revising the count policy for prevention of retained surgical items. The initiative reduced the number of incorrect counts and count discrepancies by 50% between 2009 to 2010. These initiatives continue to be expanded, and the results have been sustained on an ongoing basis. PMID:22201575

  3. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  4. Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, O.

    1964-01-01

    To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

  5. Clicks counting system for a riflescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Granciu, Dana

    2015-02-01

    A very useful requirement for a zoom aiming scope with high magnification used for long range rifle shooting is counting and display of knob's clicks number needed for elevation corrections. The paper analyzes one method for clicks counting usable with existing mechanical knobs and describes a microcontroller based system that implements it. Practical aspects like required changes in mechanical construction, influence of perturbations, complexity of electronics or power consumption are also analyzed.

  6. Counting and cardinality in English nursery pupils.

    PubMed

    Fluck, M; Henderson, L

    1996-12-01

    This study examines the development of counting and cardinality in a structured sample of 60 English 3 1/2-4 1/2 year-olds attending local education authority nursery classes in socially mixed areas of Portsmouth. Children were given two types of task: counting sets of animals, and giving specified numbers of items from a pile. Three measures of cardinal understanding were used: spontaneous repetition of the last word on completion of a counting trial, repetition of the last word in reply to a question, and use of counting vs. grabbing when asked to give a specific number of items from a heap. In line with research on other populations the results indicate a pronounced developmental discrepancy between procedural and conceptual knowledge of counting, but cardinality appears to develop six months later in this population than in other populations studied. There were marked individual differences, however. Proficiency with object counting was found to be necessary, but not sufficient, for cardinal understanding. Children rarely repeated final count words spontaneously. Last word repetition in response to a verbal prompt depended on the nature of the prompt. Contrary to previous research, the present results indicate that last word repetition elicited by the prompt 'how many?' is not merely a conventional reply but generally implies an understanding of cardinality. The findings also indicate that an understanding of cardinality emerges relatively suddenly, consistent with the discovery or construction of a principle. Whether nursery pupils treat counting simply as a conventional routine without cardinal significance appears to depend on the situation as well as on their understanding of cardinality. The findings are discussed in relation to Karmiloff-Smith's Representational Redescription model. PMID:9008426

  7. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-06-03

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor''s hardware.

  8. SIS Detectors for Terahertz Photon Counting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Hajime; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Ukibe, Masahiro; Fujii, Go; Shiki, Shigetomo

    2016-01-01

    An Intensity interferometer with photon counting detector is a candidate to realize a THz interferometer for astronomical observations. We have demonstrated that synthesis imaging is possible even with intensity interferometers. An SIS junction (or STJ) with low leakage current of 1 pA is a suitable device for photon counting detectors. Readout circuit utilizing FETs with low gate leakage, low gate capacitance, and fast response is discussed.

  9. Predicted galaxy counts in CO emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verter, Frances

    1992-01-01

    The CO galaxy counts are predicted from studies of LCO in nearby galaxies, with consideration given to how these counts may be compared to the current understanding of recent galaxy evolution. The average number of galaxies per square degree with CO (1-0) emission above a brightness threshold of 4.5 x 10 exp -20 W/sq m is predicted to be 0.5 +/-4.0. The expressed uncertainty in the predicted galaxy counts comes primarily from uncertainties in the absolute scale and high-luminosity cutoff of the CO luminosity function. Using present-technology mm-radio telescopes and receivers, it is possible to employ galaxy counts in CO (1-0) emission to test theories of recent (z is less than about 0.4) galaxy evolution. If it is true that interactions among galaxies and consequent starbursts were more common in the recent past, as suggested by galaxy counts at far-IR and cm-radio wavelengths, then it is anticipated that the molecular emission of galaxies will increase with redshift and the CO galaxy counts will exceed this prediction based on nearby galaxies.

  10. U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected Persons, 2000 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Keri N.; Buchacz, Kate; Hall, H. Irene; Zhang, Jinbing; Hanna, David B.; Rebeiro, Peter; Gange, Stephen J.; Moore, Richard D.; Kitahata, Mari; Gebo, Kelly A.; Martin, Jeffrey; Justice, Amy C.; Horberg, Michael; Hogg, Robert S.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Cescon, Angela; Klein, Marina B.; Thorne, Jennifer; Crane, Heidi; Mugavero, Michael J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Kirk, Gregory D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Brooks, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Background The U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy targets for 2015 include increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for persons living with HIV in the United States (PLWH-US). Objective To demonstrate the utility of the NA-ACCORD (North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design) for monitoring trends in the HIV epidemic in the United States and to present trends in HIV treatment and related health outcomes. Design Trends from annual cross-sectional analyses comparing patients from pooled, multicenter, prospective, clinical HIV cohort studies with PLWH-US, as reported to national surveillance systems in 40 states. Setting U.S. HIV outpatient clinics. Patients HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any calendar year from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2008. Measurements Annual rates of antiretroviral therapy use, HIV VL, and CD4 cell count at death. Results 45 529 HIV-infected persons received care in an NA-ACCORDparticipating U.S. clinical cohort from 2000 to 2008. In 2008, the 26 030 NA-ACCORD participants in care and the 655 966 PLWH-US had qualitatively similar demographic characteristics. From 2000 to 2008, the proportion of participants prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy increased by 9 percentage points to 83% (P < 0.001), whereas the proportion with suppressed HIV VL (?2.7 log10 copies/mL) increased by 26 percentage points to 72% (P < 0.001). Median CD4 cell count at death more than tripled to 0.209 109 cells/L (P < 0.001). Limitation The usual limitations of observational data apply. Conclusion The NA-ACCORD is the largest cohort of HIV-infected adults in clinical care in the United States that is demographically similar to PLWH-US in 2008. From 2000 to 2008, increases were observed in the percentage of prescribed HAART, the percentage who achieved a suppressed HIV VL, and the median CD4 cell count at death. Primary Funding Source National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian HIV Trials Network, and the government of British Columbia, Canada. PMID:22944874

  11. Using carbohydrate counting in diabetes clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, S J; Kulkarni, K D; Daly, A E

    1998-08-01

    Carbohydrate counting is a meal planning approach used with clients who have diabetes that focuses on carbohydrate as the primary nutrient affecting postprandial glycemic response. The concept of carbohydrate counting has been around since the 1920s, but it received renewed interest after being used as 1 of 4 meal planning approaches in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. In the trial, carbohydrate counting was found to be effective in meeting outcome goals and allowed flexibility in food choices. Recent practice pattern surveys have shown an increasing interest in and use of carbohydrate counting for medical nutrition therapy for persons with diabetes. Carbohydrate counting can be used by clients with type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Three levels of carbohydrate counting have been identified based on increasing levels of complexity. Level 1, or basic, introduces clients to the concept of carbohydrate counting and focuses on carbohydrate consistency. Level 2, or intermediate, focuses on the relationships among food, diabetes medications, physical activity, and blood glucose level and introduces the steps needed to manage these variables based on patterns of blood glucose levels. Level 3, or advanced, is designed to teach clients with type 1 diabetes who are using multiple daily injections or insulin infusion pumps how to match short-acting insulin to carbohydrate using carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios. All 3 levels emphasize portion control and offer opportunities for using creative teaching methods, such as "food labs," and use of a variety of carbohydrate resource tools and publications. In this article, glycemic effects of protein, fat, and fiber intake are discussed for persons with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Decision trees are introduced for each level of carbohydrate counting and show the usual progression through each level. Carbohydrate counting as a meal planning approach offers variability of food choices with the potential for improving glycemic control. Research opportunities are available for those interested in comparing carbohydrate counting with other meal planning approaches for clients with diabetes and the effects on clinical outcomes. PMID:9710660

  12. 25 CFR 81.21 - Counting of ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STATUTE 81.21 Counting of ballots. All duly cast ballots are to be counted. Even though it will not be... counted for purposes of determining whether the required percentage of voters have cast their ballots in... of votes cast....

  13. 25 CFR 81.21 - Counting of ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATUTE 81.21 Counting of ballots. All duly cast ballots are to be counted. Even though it will not be... counted for purposes of determining whether the required percentage of voters have cast their ballots in... of votes cast....

  14. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  15. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  16. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  17. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...

  18. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...

  19. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  20. Stability of prepared iodine counting standards

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. )

    1987-05-01

    This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

  1. A complementary method to CD4 counting: measurement of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio in a tandem affinity microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjie; Gao, Yan; Pappas, Dimitri

    2015-12-01

    We describe a tandem affinity microfluidic separation that measures the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes from blood samples. It is performed by injecting 2?L of lysed blood samples at 1800-2700cells?L(-1) into a microfluidic device containing two serially linked affinity regions, followed with a stop flow incubation that captures CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes on the corresponding affinity regions. Fluorophore conjugated antibodies are then injected at a controlled shear stress of 1.7dyn cm(-2) to label target cells while eluting non-specific cells; and at last the CD4/CD8 ratio is calculated after the cell enumeration. The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes achieved by our tandem affinity microfluidic system was in close agreement with that performed using conventional flow cytometry (R (2) ?=?0.97) over a wide range (0.4-2.5) that covered the reference values from immune deficient patients to healthy people. This approach may represent an inexpensive and powerful tool in diagnosis of immunodeficiency disorders including HIV or mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:26559198

  2. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications. PMID:26738016

  3. Counting Statistics of Single-Electron Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Toshimasa

    Single-electron counting is a sensitive quantum measurement that allows the detection of individual electron flow in real time. The apparatus required for such measurements can be prepared using a fast charge sensor attached to a quantum dot. The scheme allows us to measure extremely small currents of the order of attoamperes with single-electron resolution and evaluate the statistical characteristics of the transport. A bidirectional counting scheme with a double quantum dot enables measurements in linear as well as nonlinear transport regimes, where both forward and backward transport processes are essential. Various statistical analyses, such as frequency spectrum, time-correlation, and full counting statistics, have been developed to characterize current fluctuations and understand correlated electron transport in nanostructures.

  4. Sub electron readout noise & photon counting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gach, J.-L.; Balard, Ph.; Daigle, O.; Destefanis, G.; Feautrier, Ph.; Guillaume, Ch.; Rothman, J.

    We present recent advances on ultra low noise visible detectors at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, photon counting and EMCCD developments in collaboration with Observatoire de haute provence, Laboratoire d'astrophysique de l'observatoire de Grenoble and Laboratoire d'Astrophysique Experimentale (Montreal). After a review of the progress with third generation Image Photon Counting Systems (IPCS), we present the OCAM camera, based on the E2V CCD220 EMCCD, part of the Opticon JRA2 programme, and the CCCP controller, a new controller for the 3DNTT instrument that reduces the clock induced charge of an EMCCD by a factor 10, making it competitive with IPCS detectors for very faint fluxes. We will finally present the RAPID project and the concept of photon counting avalanche photodiode CMOS device (in collaboration with CEA-LETI) which is foreseen to be the ultimate detector for the visible-IR range providing no readout noise, high QE and extremely fast readout.

  5. CERN_DxCTA counting mode chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, D.; Kaplon, J.; Nygard, E.

    2008-06-01

    This ASIC is a counting mode front-end electronic optimized for the readout of CdZnTe/CdTe and silicon sensors, for possible use in applications where the flux of ionizing radiation is high. The chip is implemented in 0.25 ?m CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain shaper stage with 21 ns peaking time, two discriminators and two 18-bit counters. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. The amplifier shows a linear sensitivity of 118 mV/fC and an equivalent noise charge of about 711 e -, for a detector capacitance of 5 pF. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and pixel detectors.

  6. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

    2008-06-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

  7. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H.; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

    2008-01-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

  8. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

  9. Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis.

  10. 25 CFR 81.21 - Counting of ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Counting of ballots. 81.21 Section 81.21 Indians BUREAU... STATUTE 81.21 Counting of ballots. All duly cast ballots are to be counted. Even though it will not be... counted for purposes of determining whether the required percentage of voters have cast their ballots...

  11. 24 CFR 81.16 - Special counting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special counting requirements. 81... counting requirements. (a) General. HUD shall determine whether a GSE shall receive full, partial, or no... counted. The following transactions or activities shall not count toward achievement of any of the...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Count per pound. 51.1242 Section 51.1242 Agriculture... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single...

  13. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count if... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they...

  14. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count if... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they...

  15. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  16. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  17. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  18. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  19. Object detection for vision-aided inventory counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yueming; Zhang, Yin

    2015-12-01

    An object detection for vision-aided inventory counting is developed. The propose approach is simple to use and reduce the workload remarkably. Meanwhile, the approach count the items of interest almost in real time with an acceptable precision, which is desirable in inventory counting. The experiment results show that the proposed approach is efficient to fulfill the counting task.

  20. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  1. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1123 - How we count unearned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How we count unearned income. 416.1123... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Unearned Income § 416.1123 How we count unearned income. (a) When we count unearned income. We count unearned income at the earliest of the following points: when...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1123 - How we count unearned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we count unearned income. 416.1123... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Unearned Income § 416.1123 How we count unearned income. (a) When we count unearned income. We count unearned income at the earliest of the following points: when...

  4. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the... subsidy if you are married and live with your spouse as of the month for which we determine...

  5. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the... subsidy if you are married and live with your spouse as of the month for which we determine...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We count... account or set aside for your use. We determine wages for each month. We count wages for...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We count... account or set aside for your use. We determine wages for each month. We count wages for...

  8. Kids Count Alaska, 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)

  9. KidsCount in Colorado! 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child

  10. County Data Book 1997: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Kids Count Consortium.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children on a statewide and county basis. An introduction summarizes some of the trends for Kentucky's children in the 1990s. The bulk of the report presents statewide and county data grouped into five categories: (1) poverty rates and programs (persons in poverty; median

  11. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

  12. Kids Count in Nebraska 1996 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Nebraska's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven general areas of children's well-being: (1) early care and education; (2) physical and behavioral health; (3) child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence; (4) out of home care; (5) education; (6) economic

  13. Montana Kids Count 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This 1996 KIDS COUNT data book presents comparative data on child well-being for each county in Montana and for the state as a whole. Data in the county profiles, which comprise the bulk of the report, are grouped into: background facts (demographic, mental health, education, security, and income support information); charts showing changes in

  14. An Introduction to Adults Count Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Roseanne

    This paper provides an overview of a book entitled "Adults Count Too: Mathematics for Empowerment". The introduction to the book details why the author spent three years writing about adults learning mathematics, and outlines the shape and structure of the book. A chapter from the book, entitled "A Matrix of Factors," is presented as an example of

  15. Kids Count Report in Nebraska, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trend data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 of the report presents U.S. Census data on population trends in Nebraska as well as child poverty rates, and urges Nebraskans to work together to ensure that its youngest citizens have the best start possible. Section 2, the bulk of this

  16. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and

  17. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters address the areas of family and community, economic well-being, child health, safety, and education. The statistical portrait is based on 23 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income; (3)

  18. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters address the areas of family and community, economic well-being, child health, safety, and education. The statistical portrait is based on 20 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income; (3)

  19. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and

  20. Kids Count in Indiana: 1995 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This Kids Count report is the second in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. After an introduction and an explanation of the statistics, sections of the statistical report contain data on several indicators of well-being: (1) Indiana's children and their families, including population estimates, ethnicity,

  1. Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)

  2. South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)

  3. Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;

  4. Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Lynn

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a

  5. KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galano, Joseph; Nezlek, John B.; Wood, Lisa

    This KIDS COUNT data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general areas of children's well-being: (1) healthy births; (2) children's health; (3) school success; (4) risky behavior; (5) families; and (6) community well-being. Key indicators in these six areas include the

  6. What Counts as Teacher Research?: An Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy

    1999-01-01

    Describes the "Book Club Plus Inquiry Group," a group of classroom teachers and university teacher educators in Michigan involved in practitioner research. Offers perspectives from the group on the question of what counts as teacher research. Concludes with a model of their conception. (SR)

  7. Kids Count in Missouri 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on outcome measures of general areas of children's well being: (1) students free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant mortality; (5)

  8. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 1995 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is organized by county and is based on 10 outcome measures of children's well-being: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant

  9. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 1994 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is organized by county and is based on 11 outcome measures of children's well-being: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant

  10. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a

  11. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a

  12. Kids Count in Missouri 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT report documents the status of children in all 115 Missouri counties. Following an executive summary that reports areas of improvement, stabilization, and deterioration, and profiles for the state as a whole and for Caucasians versus minorities, summary information is provided for the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in

  13. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators of general areas of children's well being: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without a high school diploma; (3) low birth weight; (4) infant

  14. Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student

  15. Maine Kids Count 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children, with particular focus on child health care access. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in five areas: (1) child health care access; (2) physical and mental health; (3) community and family environment; (4) social and economic

  16. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1995 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ. Medical Center, Omaha.

    While a vast majority of children in Nebraska are experiencing a safe, healthy, and nurturing childhood, a significant number are not, and some of these numbers are growing. This Kids Count report is the third annual comprehensive review of available data in nine areas of child health and well-being in the state. Presented with these statistics…

  17. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  18. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; And Others

    This Kids Count report examined statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters addressed the areas of: family and community; economic well-being; child health; safety; and education. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income;

  19. WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark

    This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;

  20. Reading Authentic Texts: What Counts as Cognate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements…

  1. People Count: Analyzing a Country's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranendonk, Henry A.

    2004-01-01

    Counting can be done using a linear, exponential method or by using a technique incorporating a recursive process which gives a visual analysis of population data. Population estimates are based on assumptions about change brought about by immigration, emigration, deaths and births.

  2. Restricted Schur polynomials and finite N counting

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Storm

    2009-01-15

    Restricted Schur polynomials have been posited as orthonormal operators for the change of basis from N=4 SYM to type IIB string theory. In this paper we briefly expound the relationship between the restricted Schur polynomials and the operators forwarded by Brown, Heslop, and Ramgoolam. We then briefly examine the finite N counting of the restricted Schur polynomials.

  3. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowshen, Steven, Ed.; Greback, Robert, Ed.; Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Schooley, Teresa L., Ed.; Sturgis, Janice, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT report details statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths, age 1-14 years; (5) teen violent deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (6) juvenile

  4. Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  5. Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…

  6. KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  7. KidsCount in Colorado! 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jenifer

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…

  8. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    We Can, Inc., Las Vegas, NV.

    This Kids Count data book is the first to examine statewide indicators of the well being of Nevada's children. The statistical portrait is based on 15 indicators of child well being: (1) percent low birth-weight babies; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) percent of children in poverty; (4) percent of children in single-parent families; (5) percent of…

  9. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  10. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…

  11. Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

  12. KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

  13. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paula R.

    This Kids Count report provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Nevada. The report is comprised of eight sections: an overview; Nevada's demographic profile; key facts regarding children in the state; Nevada's comparison to the rest of the United States; trends in the state; indicators of child well-being;…

  14. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentz, Cara Anderson

    This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

  15. KidsCount in Colorado! 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  16. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassatt, Susan

    This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…

  17. KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

  18. An Optical Bit-Counting Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Marilyn; Lapir, Gennadi M.; Berkovich, Simon

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the omnipresent problem of counting bits - an operation discussed since the very early stages of the establishing of computer science. The need for a quick bit-counting method acquires a special significance with the proliferation of search engines on the Internet. It arises in several other computer applications. This is especially true in information retrieval in which an array of binary vectors is used to represent a characteristic function (CF) of a set of qualified documents. The number of "I"s in the CF equals the cardinality of the set. The process of repeated evaluations of this cardinality is a pivotal point in choosing a rational strategy for deciding whether to constrain or broaden the search criteria to ensure selection of the desired items. Another need for bit-counting occurs when trying to determine the differences between given files, (images or text), in terms of the Hamming distance. An Exclusive OR operation applied to a pair of files results in a binary vector array of mismatches that must be counted.

  19. Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of

  20. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  1. Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine

  2. All Our Children: Massachusetts Kids Count 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Franna, Ed.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends from 1990 to 1994 in the well-being of Massachusetts' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being in five areas: (1) economic well-being of children and their families, including child poverty rate, family income, job loss, earnings of male high school dropouts and

  3. Weighted power counting and perturbative unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Dylan

    2011-02-15

    We consider the relationship between renormalizability and unitarity at a Lifshitz point in d dimensions. We test tree unitarity for theories containing only scalars and fermions, and for pure gauge theory. In both cases, we find the requirement of weighted power-counting renormalizability is equivalent to that of tree unitarity.

  4. WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what

  5. Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching Assistants (Rhea R.

  6. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)

  7. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)

  8. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

    This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…

  9. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

  10. Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

  11. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic diversity);…

  12. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…

  13. County Data Book 1996: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky children on a state-wide, county, and school district basis. An introductory essay finds a strong link between the percentage of adults completing high school in a given school district and various indicators: As the percentage of adults completing high school increases, the

  14. Virginia KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: healthy births, adolescent well-being, health and safety, education, and economic security. Specific indicators examined are: (1) births to single women; (2) early prenatal…

  15. KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

  16. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight

  17. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count data book is the fourth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 28 indicators in five areas: (1) family and community; (2) economic well-being, including median household income, poverty rate, and percent of children in families receiving cash

  18. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of

  19. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,

  20. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of

  1. 7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Size count. 993.105 Section 993.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN...

  2. 7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size count. 993.105 Section 993.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN...

  3. 7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Size count. 993.105 Section 993.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN...

  4. 7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Size count. 993.105 Section 993.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN...

  5. 7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Size count. 993.105 Section 993.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN...

  6. A retrospective histological study of 669 cases of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma in clinical stage I. 3. The relation between the tumour-associated lymphocyte infiltration and age and sex, tumour cell type, pigmentation, cellular atypia, mitotic count, depth of invasion, ulceration, tumour type and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T E; Grude, T H

    1978-11-01

    A selected series of 669 primary malignant melanoma of the skin, stage I, was studied. The series included 86 lentigo maligna melanomas, 259 superficial spreading malignant melanomas, 194 nodular malignant melanomas and 130 unclassifiable malignant melanomas. The adjacent lymphocyte infiltration was graded and its prognostic value and its relation to the sex and age of the patient, tumour cell type, pigmentation, cellular atypia, mitotic count, depth of dermal invasion, tumour type and ulceration was studied. There was no significant relationship between lymphocyte response and sex and age of the patient and the tumour cell type. There was a highly significant relationship between a dense lymphocyte infiltration and superficial tumour invasion as far as the papillary-reticular interface in contrast to the weak response associated with deeper invasion. When only tumours with invasion of the papillary-reticular interface were considered, there was no significant relationship between lymphocyte infiltration and pigmentation, cellular atypia, mitotic count, tumour type and ulceration. At the same level of invasion there was no difference in prognosis in relation to the density of lymphocyte infiltration. Nodular malignant melanomas surrounded by a dense lymphocyte infiltration had a significantly worse prognosis than was associated with a simular lymphocyte response against the two other types of melanoma. PMID:716913

  7. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-15

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  8. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-01

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012316 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter’s performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  9. Breast carcinoma vascularity: a comparison of manual microvessel count and Chalkley count.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Hari Prasad; Bassarova, Assia; Naume, Bjrn; Synnestvedt, Marit; Borgen, Elin; Kaaresen, Rolf; Schlichting, Ellen; Wiedswang, Gro; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Nesland, Jahn M

    2009-08-01

    Manual counting of microvessels as intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) and Chalkley counting have been used in several studies to assess the prognostic impact of vascularity in invasive breast carcinomas. In our present study, the aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis in invasive breast carcinoma assessed by MVD and Chalkley techniques in the same series of patients. A total of 498 breast carcinoma patients with median follow up time 85 months were evaluated. The tumour vascularity was quantified by both manual microvessel count (MVD) and Chalkley count in CD34 stained breast carcinoma slides by a single investigator blinded to clinical information. Other relevant clinicopathological parameters were noted, including breast cancer related death and both loco-regional and systemic relapse. The patients were stratified by converting MVD and Chalkley counts to categorical variables to assess prognostic impact, and results were compared. High vascular grades using MVD count did not demonstrate any prognostic significance for breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) or distant disease free survival (DDFS) either in whole patient group (BCSS, p=0.517, DDFS, p=0.301) or in non-treated node negative patients (p>0.05). Chalkley count showed prognostic significance for both DDFS and BCSS in whole patient group (p<0.001) and also in untreated node negative patient group (p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, Chalkley count, but not MVD, retained the prognostic value for BCSS (p=0.007) and DDFS (p=0.014). The Chalkley count for assessing angiogenesis in invasive breast carcinomas demonstrated prognostic value. The Chalkley method appears to be the better method in estimating the prognostic impact of vascularity in invasive breast carcinomas. PMID:19554512

  10. 34 CFR 222.34 - If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made? 222.34 Section 222.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made? (a)(1) The applicant may, but...

  11. What Counts as Knowing? The Development of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Counting from Kindergarten through Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-01-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual…

  12. What Counts as Knowing? The Development of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Counting from Kindergarten through Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-01-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual

  13. Effects of sampling strategy, detection probability, and independence of counts on the use of point counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Many factors affect the use of point counts for monitoring bird populations, including sampling strategies, variation in detection rates, and independence of sample points. The most commonly used sampling plans are stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling. Each of these might be most useful for different objectives or field situations. Variation in detection probabilities and lack of independence among sample points can bias estimates and measures of precision. All of these factors should be con-sidered when using point count methods.

  14. Liquid scintillation counting analysis of cadmium-109

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.K.; Barfuss, D.W. )

    1991-04-01

    Recently the authors have used radiolabled cadmium-109 to measure the transport of inorganic cadmium in renal proximal tubules. An anomaly discovered in the liquid scintillation counting analysis of Cd-109 which is not attributable to normal decay; it consists of a significant decrease in the measured count rate of small amounts of sample. The objective is to determine whether the buffer solution used in the membrane transport studies is causing precipitation of the cadmium or whether cadmium is being adsorbed by the glass. It was important to determine whether the procedure could be modified to correct this problem. The problem does not appear to be related to the use of the buffer or to adsorption of Cd onto glass. Correction based on using triated L-glucose in all of these experiments and calculating a correction factor for the concentration of cadmium.

  15. Low level counting from meteorites to neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, Gerd

    2005-09-01

    The development in low level counting at Heidelberg with NaI(Tl) crystals, proportional counters and Germanium detectors is reviewed throughout the course of almost 40 years of experience. Research subjects changed from cosmogenic radionuclides in meteorites to solar neutrinos and double beta decay. Driven by screening measurements for these rare event experiments, the sensitivity in single gamma counting has gained almost 3 orders of magnitude. With Ge spectrometry the ?Bq/kg range is now accessible. It is discussed how further improvements can be realized. There is potential to reach a sensitivity at the level of 10 to 100 nBq/kg for cryogenic liquid type Gespectroscopy, a technique which the next generation 76Ge double beta decay experiment GERDA is based on.

  16. Physical characterization of photon-counting tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, Karl; Lundqvist, Mats; Cederstrm, Bjrn; Danielsson, Mats E.; Fredenberg, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Tomosynthesis is emerging as a next generation technology in mammography. Combined with photon-counting detectors with the ability for energy discrimination, a novel modality is enabled spectral tomosynthesis. Further advantages of photon-counting detectors in the context of tomosynthesis include elimination of electronic noise, efficient scatter rejection (in some geometries) and no lag. Fourier-based linear-systems analysis is a well-established method for optimizing image quality in two-dimensional x-ray systems. The method has been successfully adapted to threedimensional imaging, including tomosynthesis, but several areas need further investigation. This study focuses on two such areas: 1) Adaption of the methodology to photon-counting detectors, and 2) violation of the shift-invariance and stationarity assumptions in non-cylindrical geometries. We have developed a Fourier-based framework to study the image quality in a photon-counting tomosynthesis system, assuming locally linear, stationary, and shift-invariant system response. The framework includes a cascaded-systems model to propagate the modulation-transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS) through the system. The model was validated by measurements of the MTF and NPS. High degrees of non-shift invariance and non-stationarity were observed, in particular for the depth resolution as the angle of incidence relative the reconstruction plane varied throughout the imaging volume. The largest effects on image quality in a given point in space were caused by interpolation from the inherent coordinate system of the x-rays to the coordinate system that was used for reconstruction. This study is part of our efforts to fully characterize the spectral tomosynthesis system, we intend to extend the model further to include the detective-quantum efficiency, observer modelling, and spectral effects.

  17. Capacity approaching codes for photon counting receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondin, Marina; Daneshgaran, Fred; Bari, Inam; Delgado, Maria Teresa

    2012-10-01

    [1] a low-complexity photon-counting receiver has been presented, which may be employed for weak-energy optical communications and which is typically modeled through its equivalent Binary Symmetric Channel (BSC) model. In this paper we consider the scheme described in [1], we model it as a time varying Binary Input-Multiple Output (BIMO) channel and analyze its performance in presence of soft-metric based capacity approaching iteratively decoded error correcting codes, and in particular using soft-metric based Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes. To take full advantage of such detector, soft information is generated in the form of Log-Likelihood Ratios (LLRs), achieving reduction in Bit Error Rate (BER) and Frame Error Rate (FER) with respect to classical BSC and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel models. Furthermore, we explore the limits of the achievable performance gains when using photon counting detectors as compared to the case when such detectors are not available. To this end, we find the classical capacity of the considered BIMO channel, clearly showing the potential gains that photon counting detectors can provide in the context of a realistic cost-effective scheme from an implementation point of view. Furthermore, we show that from a channel modeling point of view, we can observe that the BIMO channel can be approximated with an AWGN channel for high values of mean photon count Nc, while the AWGN model offers an unreliable result with a low mean photon number Nc, (i.e. with low raw BER). This effect is more evident with lower coding rates.

  18. State counting and low-temperature series

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M. )

    1991-05-01

    I present a simple numerical technique for evaluating the low-temperature expansion for discrete statistical systems. I begin with a recursive procedure on finite lattices to count the states of a given energy. Comparing these numbers on different lattice sizes, I extract coefficients for the infinite-volume series. I test the method with the three-dimensional Ising model, obtaining the expansion of the average energy through terms involving 34 excited bonds.

  19. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  20. Counts of galaxies in a merger model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colin, P.; Schramm, D. N.; Peimbert, M.

    1994-01-01

    A model for the photometric evolution of galaxies has been developed and has been applied to the problem of galaxy counts. The integrated colors of galaxies are calculated using the most recently computed evolutionary tracks from Maeder and collaborators complemented with evolutionary tracks derived by other authors. The asymptotic giant branch lifetime is left as a free parameter. A series of cosmological models using different values of the cosmological constant, lambda(sub 0), and the density parameter, omega(sub 0), have been computed. The universality hypothesis of the luminosity function of galaxies has been abandoned. The influence of galaxy merging on the counts has been considered in a simple manner by assuming that the number of strongly interacting galaxies in a comoving volume increases with redshift as a power law given by (1 + z)(exp 3.8). Taking a Schechter parametrization for the luminosity function of the different types of galaxies, we are able to reproduce the observations reasonably well. We have also considered models with a Gaussian distribution for the luminosity function of the brighter galaxies that provide a poorer fit to the observations. It is shown that galaxy count data are not yet able to make unambiguous cosmological statements since evolutionary assumptions are critical. In particular, an omega(sub 0) = 1, lambda(sub 0) = 0 cosmology is shown to be consistent with the data.

  1. Anticoincidence counting of low intensity isomeric transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakosi, L.; Pavlicsek, I.; Tam, N. C.

    1994-01-01

    A new detector system was developed to count the highly converted low-energy isomeric transitions of long-lived 189mOs and 193mIr produced by (?, ?') reactions upon irradiating stable elemental Os and Ir samples with gamma photons from a 200 kV X-ray generator and high-activity 137Cs and 60Co sources. This system consists of multiwire flat 2? proportional chambers for internal counting, with sensitive areas 90, 20 and 6 cm 2, surrounded by two large 2? counters connected in anticoincidence to reduce background. Specific activities in the order of Bq g -1, corresponding to counting rates lower than 0.1 cpm, were obtained. Photoproduction of 193mIr was detected for the first time below an excitation energy of 2.75 MeV. Excitation of 189mOs by 200 keV endpoint energy X-rays due to an interaction via nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET) was also observed.

  2. Estimation of population trajectories from count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring of changes in animal population size is rarely possible through complete censuses; frequently, the only feasible means of monitoring changes in population size is to use counts of animals obtained by skilled observers as indices to abundance. Analysis of changes in population size can be severely biased if factors related to the acquisition of data are not adequately controlled for. In particular we identify two types of observer effects: these correspond to baseline differences in observer competence, and to changes through time in the ability of individual observers. We present a family of models for count data in which the first of these observer effects is treated as a nuisance parameter. Conditioning on totals of negative binomial counts yields a Dirichlet compound multinomial vector for each observer. Quasi-likelihood is used to estimate parameters related to population trajectory and other parameters of interest; model selection is carried out on the basis of Akaike's information criterion. An example is presented using data on Wood thrush from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

  3. Enabling photon counting detectors with dynamic attenuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are being investigated as a replacement for conventional x-ray detectors because they promise several advantages, including better dose efficiency, higher resolution and spectral imaging. However, many of these advantages disappear when the x-ray flux incident on the detector is too high. We recently proposed a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator (or beam shaping filter) that can control the flux incident on the detector. This can restrict the operating range of the PCXD to keep the incident count rate below a given limit. We simulated a system with the piecewise-linear attenuator and a PCXD using raw data generated from forward projected DICOM files. We investigated the classic paralyzable and nonparalyzable PCXD as well as a weighted average of the two, with the weights chosen to mimic an existing PCXD (Taguchi et al, Med Phys 2011). The dynamic attenuator has small synergistic benefits with the nonparalyzable detector and large synergistic benefits with the paralyzable detector. Real PCXDs operate somewhere between these models, and the weighted average model still shows large benefits from the dynamic attenuator. We conclude that dynamic attenuators can reduce the count rate performance necessary for adopting PCXDs.

  4. Full counting statistics for molecular spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Martin, Thierry

    2007-12-01

    We report our recent study on the full counting statistics (FCS) of transport through a molecular quantum dot magnet. Our analysis is theoretical, and its range of validity is restricted here to the incoherent tunneling regime. One of the original points is our Hamiltonian describing a single-level quantum dot, magnetically coupled to an additional local spin, the latter representing the total molecular spin s. We assume that the system is in the strong Coulomb blockade regime, i.e., double occupancy on the dot is forbidden. The master equation approach to FCS is applied to derive a generating function yielding the FCS of charge and current. In the master equation approach, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients appear in the transition probabilities, whereas the derivation of generating function reduces to solving the eigenvalue problem of a modified master equation with counting fields. The latter needs de facto only the eigenstate which collapses smoothly to the zero-eigenvalue stationary state in the limit of vanishing counting fields. Our main discovery is that in our problem with arbitrary spin s, some quartic relations among Clebsch-Gordan coefficients allow us to identify the desired eigenspace without solving the whole problem. Thus the FCS generating function is derived analytically and exactly in the framework of master equation approach. By considering more specific cases, some contour plots of the joint charge-current probability distribution function are obtained numerically.

  5. Curves, dynamical systems, and weighted point counting.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Gunther

    2013-06-11

    Suppose X is a (smooth projective irreducible algebraic) curve over a finite field k. Counting the number of points on X over all finite field extensions of k will not determine the curve uniquely. Actually, a famous theorem of Tate implies that two such curves over k have the same zeta function (i.e., the same number of points over all extensions of k) if and only if their corresponding Jacobians are isogenous. We remedy this situation by showing that if, instead of just the zeta function, all Dirichlet L-series of the two curves are equal via an isomorphism of their Dirichlet character groups, then the curves are isomorphic up to "Frobenius twists", i.e., up to automorphisms of the ground field. Because L-series count points on a curve in a "weighted" way, we see that weighted point counting determines a curve. In a sense, the result solves the analogue of the isospectrality problem for curves over finite fields (also know as the "arithmetic equivalence problem"): It states that a curve is determined by "spectral" data, namely, eigenvalues of the Frobenius operator of k acting on the cohomology groups of all ℓ-adic sheaves corresponding to Dirichlet characters. The method of proof is to show that this is equivalent to the respective class field theories of the curves being isomorphic as dynamical systems, in a sense that we make precise. PMID:23716684

  6. Photon counting ladar work at FOI, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Sjqvist, Lars; Henriksson, Markus

    2012-06-01

    Photon counting techniques using direct detection has recently gained considerable interest within the laser radar community. The high sensitivity is of special importance to achieve high area coverage in surveillance and mapping applications and long range with compact systems for imaging, profiling and ranging. New short pulse lasers including the super continuum laser is of interest for active spectral imaging. A special technique in photon counting is the "time correlated single photon counting" (TCSPC). This can be utilized together with short pulse (ps) lasers to achieve very high range resolution and accuracy (mm level). Low average power lasers in the mW range enables covert operation with respect to present laser warning technology. By analyzing the return waveform range and shape information from the target can be extracted. By scanning the beam high resolution 3D images are obtained. At FOI we have studied the TCSPC with respect to range profiling and imaging. Limitations due to low SNR and dwell times are studied in conjunction with varying daylight background and atmospheric turbulence. Examples of measurements will be presented and discussed with respect to some system applications.

  7. Particle Energy Spectrum, Revisited from a Counting Statistics Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-28

    In nuclear science, gamma and neutron spectra are counted energy by energy, and then particle by particle. Until recently, few studies have been performed on how exactly those energy spectra are counted, or how those counts are correlated. Because of lack of investigation, cross section covariance and correlation matrices are usually estimated using perturbation method. We will discuss a statistical counting scheme that shall mimic the gamma and neutron counting process used in nuclear science. From this counting scheme, the cross section covariance and correlation can be statistically derived.

  8. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. PMID:25386148

  9. Prognostic value of perioperative leukocyte count in resectable gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Jing; Pei, Dong; Zhou, Chen; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Zhu, Fang; He, Shao-Hua; Qian, Ying-Ying; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin; Li, Xiao; Ping, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Yi-Qian; Wang, Ping; Guo, Ren-Hua; Shu, Yong-Qian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of perioperative leukopenia in patients with resected gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 614 eligible gastric cancer patients who underwent curative D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. The relationship between pre- and postoperative hematologic parameters and overall survival was assessed statistically, adjusted for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: The mean white blood cell count (WBC) significantly decreased after surgery, and 107/614 (17.4%) patients developed p-leukopenia, which was defined as a preoperative WBC ≥ 4.0 × 109/L and postoperative WBC < 4.0 × 109/L, with an absolute decrease ≥ 0.5 × 109/L. The neutrophil count decreased significantly more than the lymphocyte count. P-leukopenia significantly correlated with poor tumor differentiation and preoperative WBC. A higher preoperative WBC and p-leukopenia were independent negative prognostic factors for survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.602, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.185-2.165; P = 0.002, and HR = 1.478, 95%CI: 1.149-1.902; P = 0.002, respectively] after adjusting for histology, Borrmann type, pTNM stage, vascular or neural invasion, gastrectomy method, resection margins, chemotherapy regimens, and preoperative WBC count. The patients with both higher preoperative WBC and p-leukopenia had a worse prognosis compared to those with lower baseline WBC and no p-leukopenia (27.5 mo vs 57.3 mo, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Preoperative leukocytosis alone or in combination with postoperative leukopenia could be independent prognostic factors for survival in patients with resectable gastric cancer. PMID:26973420

  10. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

  11. Transputer based image photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. K.; Cutler, R.; Patchett, B. E.; Read, P. D.; Waltham, N.

    1990-07-01

    A prototype microprocessor-based electronic processing system is described which performs the on-line data processing in an image photon-counting detector. The detector head consists of a microchannel-plate intersifier optically coupled to a CCD with rapid-scanned readout. The digitized data are passed to a group of transputers which separate out the events, calculate the event centers to subpixel accuracy and accumulate the results in an image buffer. In the prototype, all processing is done in software for evaluation purposes. This paper discusses the basic design of the system, the centroiding algorithm and fixed patterning correction, and the implications of the results for future systems.

  12. Robust small area prediction for counts.

    PubMed

    Tzavidis, Nikos; Ranalli, M Giovanna; Salvati, Nicola; Dreassi, Emanuela; Chambers, Ray

    2015-06-01

    A new semiparametric approach to model-based small area prediction for counts is proposed and used for estimating the average number of visits to physicians for Health Districts in Central Italy. The proposed small area predictor can be viewed as an outlier robust alternative to the more commonly used empirical plug-in predictor that is based on a Poisson generalized linear mixed model with Gaussian random effects. Results from the real data application and from a simulation experiment confirm that the proposed small area predictor has good robustness properties and in some cases can be more efficient than alternative small area approaches. PMID:24492792

  13. Mode counts in an aluminum foam.

    PubMed

    Lobkis, O I; Weaver, R L

    2001-06-01

    Measurements of the ultrasonic modal density of a disordered elastic frame, a 20 pore-per-inch open-celled aluminum foam, are reported. While the material is dissipative, with a Q only around 700, sufficiently careful signal processing has allowed reliable counts of the modes up through a few hundred, corresponding to wavelengths comparable to the strut lengths. The modal density is found to be essentially constant over this range, and to bear no resemblance to theoretical estimates based on long-wavelength effective moduli. PMID:11425105

  14. Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, M.; Schaller, G.; Brandes, T.

    2011-10-01

    We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of N radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from N to N2 in the current and to even higher powers of N in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source.

  15. Panoramic photon-counting detector system

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, D.; Hardy, E.; Couture, J.

    1987-07-01

    The characteristics and implementation of the Laval Image Photon-Counting System (LIPS) are described. LIPS is a flexible, compact, and transportable two-dimensional detector system which is currently in use in the spectroscopic mode on the 1.6 m telescope at the Mont Megantic Observatory. The detector is described, including the quantum efficiency, resolution, linearity, noise characteristics, and distortions. The data acquisition and display module is considered, including the computer, image display unit, Direct Memory Access Board which controls the detector, and control and data-acquisition program. Spectroscopy using LIPS is briefly addressed. The present assessment of the system and its future use are discussed. 5 references.

  16. Renormalization of singular potentials and power counting

    SciTech Connect

    Long, B. Kolck, U. van

    2008-06-15

    We use a toy model to illustrate how to build effective theories for singular potentials. We consider a central attractive 1/r{sup 2} potential perturbed by a 1/r{sup 4} correction. The power-counting rule, an important ingredient of effective theory, is established by seeking the minimum set of short-range counterterms that renormalize the scattering amplitude. We show that leading-order counterterms are needed in all partial waves where the potential overcomes the centrifugal barrier, and that the additional counterterms at next-to-leading order are the ones expected on the basis of dimensional analysis.

  17. Faint star counts in NGC 6397

    SciTech Connect

    Fahlman, G.G.; Richer, H.B.; Searle, L.; Thompson, I.B.; Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA )

    1989-08-01

    Star counts in the globular cluster NGC 6397, obtained in the Cousins I band, are presented. A mass-luminosity law is used to derive a mass function which extends to a mass of about 0.12 solar, just short of the hydrogen-burning limit. The dynamic range of this mass function exceeds by about a factor of four that achieved from the visual band observations typical of most other clusters. There is no evidence for a cutoff at the low-mass limit, strongly suggesting that the mass spectrum in the cluster extends into the brown dwarf regime. 13 refs.

  18. Statistical data filtration in neutron coincidence counting

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, D.H.; Menlove, H.O.

    1992-11-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of statistical data filtration to minimize the contribution of matrix materials in 200-{ell} drums to the nondestructive assay of plutonium. Those matrices were examined: polyethylene, concrete, aluminum, iron, cadmium, and lead. Statistical filtration of neutron coincidence data improved the low-end sensitivity of coincidence counters. Spurious data arising from electrical noise, matrix spallation, and geometric effects were smoothed in a predictable fashion by the statistical filter. The filter effectively lowers the minimum detectable mass limit that can be achieved for plutonium assay using passive neutron coincidence counting.

  19. 29 CFR 825.105 - Counting employees for determining coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counting employees for determining coverage. 825.105... Act 825.105 Counting employees for determining coverage. (a) The definition of employ for purposes... working day of the calendar week, and must be counted whether or not any compensation is received for...

  20. Putting Counting to Work: Preschoolers' Understanding of Cardinal Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon, Kevin; Lewis, Charlie; Freeman, Norman H.

    2003-01-01

    Preschool children are often good at counting things but seem slow to learn that there is more to counting than simply finding out how many are in a single set. Counting is useful when comparing sets and when creating new sets to match existing ones. This is part of the numerical understanding that educators wish to foster in schools. In two

  1. EVALUATING POINT COUNT VERSUS TERRITORY MAPPING CROPLAND BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species richness, composition and abundance of farmland birds were compared between point counts (50,100, and 150 m radius half circles) and territory mapping on three 40 ha plots in Quebec, Canada. oint counts of smaller radii tended to have larger density estimates than counts ...

  2. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y.; Ansari, Tameem; BenHamouda, Nadine; Gottwein, Judith; Laxmanan, Sreenivas; Levine, Steven M.; Loffredo, John T.; McArdle, Stephanie; Neudoerfl, Christine; Roen, Diana; Silina, Karina; Welch, Mackenzie; Lehmann, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-? ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot Analyzers by (A) Basic Count relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B) SmartCount, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV) for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount. Our data indicates that SmartCount allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators. PMID:25585297

  3. Tutorial on Using Regression Models with Count Outcomes Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Morgan, Grant B.

    2016-01-01

    Education researchers often study count variables, such as times a student reached a goal, discipline referrals, and absences. Most researchers that study these variables use typical regression methods (i.e., ordinary least-squares) either with or without transforming the count variables. In either case, using typical regression for count data can

  4. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y; Ansari, Tameem; BenHamouda, Nadine; Gottwein, Judith; Laxmanan, Sreenivas; Levine, Steven M; Loffredo, John T; McArdle, Stephanie; Neudoerfl, Christine; Roen, Diana; Silina, Karina; Welch, Mackenzie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-? ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot Analyzers by (A) Basic Count relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B) SmartCount, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV) for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount. Our data indicates that SmartCount allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators. PMID:25585297

  5. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count if... without cost and without regard to their income. (b) Expenditures on behalf of eligible families...

  6. 20 CFR 418.3310 - Whose income do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose income do we count? 418.3310 Section... Subsidies Income § 418.3310 Whose income do we count? (a) We count your income. If you are married and live with your spouse in the month you file for a subsidy, or when we redetermine your eligibility for...

  7. 20 CFR 418.3310 - Whose income do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whose income do we count? 418.3310 Section... Subsidies Income § 418.3310 Whose income do we count? (a) We count your income. If you are married and live with your spouse in the month you file for a subsidy, or when we redetermine your eligibility for...

  8. Help! They Still Don't Understand Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Faith H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has revealed new information about how preschoolers develop an understanding of counting, and offers exciting new strategies for teaching. These new strategies encourage children to problem solve and use reasoning to understand quantities and how counting works rather than simply providing them practice with counting procedures.…

  9. Counted Sb donors in Si quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Perry, Daniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is critical for donor spin qubits in semiconductor based quantum computing. We have developed techniques using a focused ion beam and a diode detector integrated next to a silicon MOS single electron transistor to gain such control. With the diode detector operating in linear mode, the numbers of ions implanted have been counted and single ion implants have been detected. Poisson statistics in the number of ions implanted have been observed. Transport measurements performed on samples with counted number of implants have been performed and regular coulomb blockade and charge offsets observed. The capacitances to various gates are found to be in agreement with QCAD simulations for an electrostatically defined dot. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Martian crater counts on Elysium Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Kathleen; Barlow, Nadine G.

    1990-01-01

    Without returned samples from the Martian surface, relative age chronologies and stratigraphic relationships provide the best information for determining the ages of geomorphic features and surface regions. Crater-size frequency distributions of six recently mapped geological units of Elysium Mons were measured to establish their relative ages. Most of the craters on Elysium Mons and the adjacent plains units are between 500 and 1000 meters in diameter. However, only craters 1 km in diameter or larger were used because of inadequate spatial resolution of some of the Viking images and to reduce probability of counting secondary craters. The six geologic units include all of the Elysium Mons construct and a portion of the plains units west of the volcano. The surface area of the units studied is approximately 128,000 sq km. Four of the geologic units were used to create crater distribution curves. There are no craters larger than 1 km within the Elysium Mons caldera. Craters that lacked raised rims, were irregularly shaped, or were arranged in a linear pattern were assumed to be endogenic in origin and not counted. A crater frequency distribution analysis is presented.

  11. Counting in everyday life: discrimination and enumeration.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yun; Knsche, Thomas R; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2006-01-01

    Enumerating the number of items in a set accurately and quickly is a basic mathematical skill. This ability is especially crucial in the more real-life situations, where relevant items have to be discriminated from irrelevant distracters. Although much work has been done on the brain mechanisms and neural correlates of the enumeration and/or discrimination process, no agreement has been reached yet. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to show the time course of brain activity elicited by a task that involved both enumeration and discrimination at the same time. We found that even though the two processes run to some extent in parallel, discrimination seems to take place mainly in an earlier time window (from 100 ms after the stimulus onset) than enumeration (beyond 200 ms after the stimulus onset). Moreover, electrophysiological evidence based on the N2 and P3 components make it reasonable to argue for the existence of a dichotomy between subitizing (for sets of less than four items) and counting (for sets of four and more items). Source estimation suggests that subitizing and counting, though being distinct brain processes, do recruit similar brain areas. PMID:16360184

  12. Spontaneous non-verbal counting in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment) to assess whether pre-counters would spontaneously deploy sequential (item-by-item) enumeration and whether this ability would rely on the object tracking system (OTS) or on the approximate number system (ANS). Two-and-a-half-year-olds watched the experimenter performing one-by-one insertion of 'food tokens' into an opaque animal puppet and then were asked to imitate the puppet-feeding behavior. The number of tokens varied between 1 and 6 and each numerosity was presented many times to obtain a distribution of responses during imitation. Many children demonstrated attention to the numerosity of the food tokens despite the lack of any explicit cueing to the number dimension. Most notably, the response distributions centered on the target numerosities and showed the classic variability signature that is attributed to the ANS. These results are consistent with previous studies on sequential enumeration in non-human primates and suggest that pre-counting children are capable of sequentially updating the numerosity of non-visible sets through additive operations and hold it in memory for reproducing the observed behavior. PMID:25754974

  13. Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland

    2011-12-01

    In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.

  14. Automated Counting of Particles To Quantify Cleanliness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, James

    2005-01-01

    A machine vision system, similar to systems used in microbiological laboratories to count cultured microbes, has been proposed for quantifying the cleanliness of nominally precisely cleaned hardware by counting residual contaminant particles. The system would include a microscope equipped with an electronic camera and circuitry to digitize the camera output, a personal computer programmed with machine-vision and interface software, and digital storage media. A filter pad, through which had been aspirated solvent from rinsing the hardware in question, would be placed on the microscope stage. A high-resolution image of the filter pad would be recorded. The computer would analyze the image and present a histogram of sizes of particles on the filter. On the basis of the histogram and a measure of the desired level of cleanliness, the hardware would be accepted or rejected. If the hardware were accepted, the image would be saved, along with other information, as a quality record. If the hardware were rejected, the histogram and ancillary information would be recorded for analysis of trends. The software would perceive particles that are too large or too numerous to meet a specified particle-distribution profile. Anomalous particles or fibrous material would be flagged for inspection.

  15. Digital coincidence counting for radionuclide standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keightley, John; Park, Tae Soon

    2007-08-01

    The 4πβ-γ coincidence method for the absolute determination of nuclear disintegration rates has for decades been successfully applied to a variety of radionuclides, via the use of suites of dedicated analogue electronic modules. The high cost of procurement and maintenance of such systems, as well as the requirement for highly experienced technicians to perform the data collection have prompted the design of more flexible data collection techniques. Recent advances in digital signal acquisition technology have facilitated the possibility of storing pulse information from multiple detector systems along with a time stamp for each recorded event, allowing various radionuclide standardization techniques (based on the concept of 4πβ-γ coincidence counting) to be implemented 'offline' via the use of dedicated software routines. This brief paper reviews the progress in the development of such 'digital coincidence counting' systems used in the field of radionuclide metrology and may be viewed as a companion article to other papers (in this issue) on primary methods for radionuclide standardization.

  16. Analysis of Parasite and Other Skewed Counts

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review methods for the statistical analysis of parasite and other skewed count data. Methods Statistical methods for skewed count data are described and compared, with reference to those used over a ten year period of Tropical Medicine and International Health. Two parasitological datasets are used for illustration. Results Ninety papers were identified, 89 with descriptive and 60 with inferential analysis. A lack of clarity is noted in identifying measures of location, in particular the Williams and geometric mean. The different measures are compared, emphasizing the legitimacy of the arithmetic mean for skewed data. In the published papers, the t test and related methods were often used on untransformed data, which is likely to be invalid. Several approaches to inferential analysis are described, emphasizing 1) non-parametric methods, while noting that they are not simply comparisons of medians, and 2) generalized linear modelling, in particular with the negative binomial distribution. Additional methods, such as the bootstrap, with potential for greater use are described. Conclusions Clarity is recommended when describing transformations and measures of location. It is suggested that non-parametric methods and generalized linear models are likely to be sufficient for most analyses. PMID:22943299

  17. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  18. Spectral counting label-free proteomics.

    PubMed

    Arike, Liisa; Peil, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Label-free proteome quantification methods used in bottom-up mass-spectrometry based proteomics are gaining more popularity as they are easy to apply and can be integrated into different workflows without any extra effort or cost. In the label-free proteome quantification approach, samples of interest are prepared and analyzed separately. Mass-spectrometry is generally not recognized as a quantitative method as the ionization efficiency of peptides is dependent on composition of peptides. Label-free quantification methods have to overcome this limitation by additional computational calculations. There are several algorithms available that take into account the sequence and length of the peptides and compute the predicted abundance of proteins in the sample. Label-free methods can be divided into two categories: peptide peak intensity based quantification and spectral counting quantification that relies on the number of peptides identified from a given protein.This protocol will concentrate on spectral counting quantification-exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI). Normalized emPAI, most commonly derived from Mascot search results, can be used for broad comparison of entire proteomes. Absolute quantification of proteins based on emPAI values with or without added standards will be demonstrated. Guidelines will be given on how to easily integrate emPAI into existing data; for example, calculating emPAI based absolute protein abundances from iTRAQ data without added standards. PMID:24791991

  19. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1-bit comparator, which digitizes the input referenced to an adjustable threshold value. This results in four independent serial sample streams of binary 1s and 0s, which are ORed together at rates up to 10 GHz. This single serial stream is then deserialized by a factor of 16 to create 16 signal lines at a rate of 622.5 MHz or lower for input to a high-speed digital processor assembly. The new design and corresponding hardware can be employed with a quad-photon counting detector capable of handling photon rates on the order of multi-gigaphotons per second, whereas prior art was only capable of handling a single input at 1/4 the flux rate. Additionally, the hardware edge-detection algorithm has provided the ability to process 3-10 higher photon flux rates than previously possible by removing the limitation that photoncounting detector output pulses on multiple channels being ORed not overlap. Now, only the leading edges of the pulses are required to not overlap. This new photon counting digitizer hardware architecture supports a universal front end for an optical communications receiver operating at data rates from kilobits to over one gigabit per second to meet increased mission data volume requirements.

  20. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15 to 17 years; (2) births to teens 15 to 19 years; (3) low birth weight babies;…

  1. Point count length and detection of forest neotropical migrant birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Smith, D.R.; Robbins, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of bird abundances among years or among habitats assume that the rates at which birds are detected and counted are constant within species. We use point count data collected in forests of the Mid-Atlantic states to estimate detection probabilities for Neotropical migrant bird species as a function of count length. For some species, significant differences existed among years or observers in both the probability of detecting the species and in the rate at which individuals are counted. We demonstrate the consequence that variability in species' detection probabilities can have on estimates of population change, and discuss ways for reducing this source of bias in point count studies.

  2. Learning to Count: School Finance Formula Count Methods and Attendance-Related Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Todd L.; Fermanich, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    School systems are under increasing pressure to improve student performance. Several states have recently explored adopting student count methods for school funding purposes that incentivize school attendance and continuous enrollment by adjusting funding for changes in enrollment or attendance over the course of the school year. However, no

  3. Direction Counts: A Comparative Study of Spatially Directional Counting Biases in Cultures with Different Reading Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.

    2012-01-01

    Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear

  4. Make Kids Count in '99: Hawai'i Kids Count 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Marcia

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator findings and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, family formation, births to teens, children in single-parent families, children

  5. Make Kids Count in '97: Hawai'i Kids Count 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Marcia; Davidson, Dana; Greenfield, Theresa; Grogan, Beverley

    This Kids Count report is the third to examine statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and

  6. Effects of Perceptually Rich Manipulatives on Preschoolers' Counting Performance: Established Knowledge Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Lori A.; McNeil, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Educators often use concrete objects to help children understand mathematics concepts. However, findings on the effectiveness of concrete objects are mixed. The present study examined how two factors--perceptual richness and established knowledge of the objects--combine to influence children's counting performance. In two experiments, preschoolers

  7. Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.

  8. Transition Years Count: An Adolescent Profile. KIDS COUNT County Data Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This Kids Count data book is the ninth to examine trends in the well-being of Kentucky children, focusing on the transition period of adolescence, based on the view that lessons learned and foundations laid in early adolescence directly impact the transition to adulthood. This statistical portrait is based on trends in indicators of well-being in

  9. Optimization of high count rate event counting detector with Microchannel Plates and quad Timepix readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Vallerga, J. V.; McPhate, J. B.; Siegmund, O. H. W.

    2015-07-01

    Many high resolution event counting devices process one event at a time and cannot register simultaneous events. In this article a frame-based readout event counting detector consisting of a pair of Microchannel Plates and a quad Timepix readout is described. More than 104 simultaneous events can be detected with a spatial resolution of ~55 ?m, while >103 simultaneous events can be detected with <10 ?m spatial resolution when event centroiding is implemented. The fast readout electronics is capable of processing >1200 frames/sec, while the global count rate of the detector can exceed 5108 particles/s when no timing information on every particle is required. For the first generation Timepix readout, the timing resolution is limited by the Timepix clock to 10-20 ns. Optimization of the MCP gain, rear field voltage and Timepix threshold levels are crucial for the device performance and that is the main subject of this article. These devices can be very attractive for applications where the photon/electron/ion/neutron counting with high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as energy resolved neutron imaging, Time of Flight experiments in lidar applications, experiments on photoelectron spectroscopy and many others.

  10. Full counting statistics of Majorana interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strbi, Grgory; Belzig, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Thomas L.; Bruder, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    We study the full counting statistics of interferometers for chiral Majorana fermions with two incoming and two outgoing Dirac fermion channels. In the absence of interactions, the FCS can be obtained from the 44 scattering matrix S that relates the outgoing Dirac fermions to the incoming Dirac fermions. After presenting explicit expressions for the higher-order current correlations for a modified Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometer, we note that the cumulant-generating function can be interpreted such that unit-charge transfer processes correspond to two independent half-charge transfer processes, or alternatively, to two independent electron-hole conversion processes. By a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we verify that this factorization property holds for a general SO(4) scattering matrix, i.e. for a general interferometer geometry.

  11. Number counts and dynamical vacuum cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, N. Chandrachani; Borges, H. A.; Carneiro, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2015-03-01

    We study non-linear structure formation in an interacting model of the dark sector of the Universe in which the dark energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, ρΛ ∝ H, leading to a constant-rate creation of cold dark matter. We derive all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density using the Sheth-Torman formalism and show that the effect of the interaction process is to increase the number of bound structures of large masses (M ≳ 1014 M⊙ h-1) when compared to the standard Λ cold dark matter model. Since these models are not reducible to each other, this number counts signature can in principle be tested in future surveys.

  12. Orbiting meteoroid and debris counting experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kinard, W.H.; Armstrong, D.; Crockett, S.K.; Jones, J.L. Jr.; Kassel, P.C. Jr.; Wortman, J.J.

    1995-02-01

    The Orbiting Meteoroid and Debris Counting Experiment (OMDC) flew for approximately 90 days in a highly elliptical earth orbit onboard the Clementine Interstage Adapter (ISA) Spacecraft. This experiment obtained data on the impact flux of natural micrometeoroids and it provided limited information on the population of small mass man-made debris as a function of altitude in near earth space. The flight of the OMDC experiment on the ISA spacecraft also demonstrated that the ultra-lightweight, low-power, particle impact detector system that was used is a viable system for flights on future spacecraft to monitor the population of small mass man-made debris particles and to map the cosmic dust environment encountered on interplanetary missions. An overview of the ISA spacecraft mission, the approach to the OMDC experiment, and the data obtained by the experiment are presented.

  13. Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Vogl, M. Schaller, G. Brandes, T.

    2011-10-15

    We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of N radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from N to N{sup 2} in the current and to even higher powers of N in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source. - Highlights: > Super-radiance transfers to super-transmittance in steady-state transport. > Higher cumulants are much more sensitive indicators for collective behavior than the first cumulant. > Effects should be measurable by pumped-cavity experiment.

  14. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2013-08-08

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  15. Orbiting meteoroid and debris counting experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Armstrong, Dwayne; Crockett, Sharon K.; Jones, James L., Jr.; Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Wortman, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Orbiting Meteoroid and Debris Counting Experiment (OMDC) flew for approximately 90 days in a highly elliptical earth orbit onboard the Clementine Interstage Adapter (ISA) Spacecraft. This experiment obtained data on the impact flux of natural micrometeoroids and it provided limited information on the population of small mass man-made debris as a function of altitude in near earth space. The flight of the OMDC experiment on the ISA spacecraft also demonstrated that the ultra-lightweight, low-power, particle impact detector system that was used is a viable system for flights on future spacecraft to monitor the population of small mass man-made debris particles and to map the cosmic dust environment encountered on interplanetary missions. An overview of the ISA spacecraft mission, the approach to the OMDC experiment, and the data obtained by the experiment are presented.

  16. The bispectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the dominant terms of the relativistic galaxy number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory on sub-Hubble scales and on intermediate to large redshifts. In particular, we determine their contribution to the bispectrum. In addition to the terms already known from Newtonian second order perturbation theory, we find that there are a series of additional `lensing-like' terms which contribute to the bispectrum. We derive analytical expressions for the full leading order bispectrum and we evaluate it numerically for different configurations, indicating how they can be measured with upcoming surveys. In particular, the new `lensing-like' terms are not negligible for wide redshift bins and even dominate the bispectrum at well separated redshifts. This offers us the possibility to measure them in future surveys.

  17. On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Carlsson, Mats; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin

    Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.

  18. Sampling and counting genome rearrangement scenarios

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Even for moderate size inputs, there are a tremendous number of optimal rearrangement scenarios, regardless what the model is and which specific question is to be answered. Therefore giving one optimal solution might be misleading and cannot be used for statistical inferring. Statistically well funded methods are necessary to sample uniformly from the solution space and then a small number of samples are sufficient for statistical inferring. Contribution In this paper, we give a mini-review about the state-of-the-art of sampling and counting rearrangement scenarios, focusing on the reversal, DCJ and SCJ models. Above that, we also give a Gibbs sampler for sampling most parsimonious labeling of evolutionary trees under the SCJ model. The method has been implemented and tested on real life data. The software package together with example data can be downloaded from http://www.renyi.hu/~miklosi/SCJ-Gibbs/ PMID:26452124

  19. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N.; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A. S.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.-H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.; Brierley, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  20. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  1. Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  2. Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

    1998-11-01

    This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

  3. Counting OCR errors in typeset text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Jonathan S.

    1995-03-01

    Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

  4. Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez-Daz, Sandra N; Rodrguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macas-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year. PMID:20819326

  5. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications. PMID:25721975

  6. Calculation of Photon-Count Number Distributions via Master Equations

    PubMed Central

    Palo, Kaupo; Mets, lo; Loorits, Vello; Kask, Peet

    2006-01-01

    Fitting of photon-count number histograms is a way of analysis of fluorescence intensity fluctuations, a successor to fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. First versions of the theory for calculating photon-count number distributions have assumed constant emission intensity by a molecule during a counting time interval. For a long time a question has remained unanswered: to what extent is this assumption violated in experiments? Here we present a theory of photon-count number distributions that takes account of intensity fluctuations during a counting time interval. Theoretical count-number distributions are calculated via a numerical solution of Master equations (ME), which is a set of differential equations describing diffusion, singlet-triplet transitions, and photon emission. Detector afterpulsing and dead-time corrections are also included. The ME-theory is tested by fitting a series of photon-count number histograms corresponding to different lengths of the counting time interval. Compared to the first version of fluorescence intensity multiple distribution analysis theory introduced in 2000, the fit quality is significantly improved. It is discussed how a theory of photon-count number distributions, which assumes constant emission intensity during a counting time interval, may also yield a good fit quality. We argue that the spatial brightness distribution used in calculations of the fit curve is not the true spatial brightness distribution. Instead, a number of dynamic processes, which cause fluorescence intensity fluctuations, are indirectly taken into account via the profile adjustment parameters. PMID:16387771

  7. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h. PMID:16349033

  8. Electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in AIDS diagnosis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, S; Xufr Ballesteros, C; Mart, M; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2015-12-15

    The counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes is a clinical parameter used for AIDS diagnosis and follow-up. As this disease is particularly prevalent in developing countries, simple and affordable CD4 cell counting methods are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. This paper describes an electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in whole blood. The CD4(+) T lymphocytes were isolated, preconcentrated and labeled from 100 ?L of whole blood by immunomagnetic separation with magnetic particles modified with antiCD3 antibodies. The captured cells were labeled with a biotinylated antiCD4 antibody, followed by the reaction with the electrochemical reporter streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. The limit of detection for the CD4 counting magneto-actuated biosensor in whole blood was as low as 44 cells ?L(-1) while the logistic range was found to be from 89 to 912 cells ?L(-1), which spans the whole medical interest range for CD4 counts in AIDS patients. The electrochemical detection together with the immunomagnetic separation confers high sensitivity, resulting in a rapid, inexpensive, robust, user-friendly method for CD4 counting. This approach is a promising alternative for the costly standard flow cytometry and suitable as diagnostic tool at decentralized practitioner sites in low resource settings, especially in less developed countries. PMID:26264263

  9. Counting in the dark: Non-intrusive laser scanning for population counting and identifying roosting bats

    PubMed Central

    Azmy, Suzanna Noor; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Ariffin, Azman; Majid, Zulkepli; Ismail, Muhamad Nor Akmal; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir

    2012-01-01

    Population surveys and species recognition for roosting bats are either based on capture, sight or optical-mechanical count methods. However, these methods are intrusive, are tedious and, at best, provide only statistical estimations. Here, we demonstrated the successful use of a terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) laser scanner for remotely identifying and determining the exact population of roosting bats in caves. LIDAR accurately captured the 3D features of the roosting bats and their spatial distribution patterns in minimal light. The high-resolution model of the cave enabled an exact count of the visibly differentiated Hipposideros larvatus and their roosting pattern within the 3D topology of the cave. We anticipate that the development of LIDAR will open up new research possibilities by allowing researchers to study roosting behaviour within the topographical context of a cave's internal surface, thus facilitating rigorous quantitative characterisations of cave roosting behaviour. PMID:22826802

  10. CD4 Cell Count: Declining Value for Antiretroviral Therapy Eligibility.

    PubMed

    Ying, Roger; Granich, Reuben M; Gupta, Somya; Williams, Brian G

    2016-04-15

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) policy for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has historically been based on clinical indications, such as opportunistic infections and CD4 cell counts. Studies suggest that CD4 counts early in HIV infection do not predict relevant public health outcomes such as disease progression, mortality, and HIV transmission in people living with HIV. CD4 counts also vary widely within individuals and among populations, leading to imprecise measurements and arbitrary ART initiation. To capture the clinical and preventive benefits of treatment, the global HIV response now focuses on increasing HIV diagnosis and ART coverage. CD4 counts for ART initiation were necessary when medications were expensive and had severe side effects, and when the impact of early ART initiation was unclear. However, current evidence suggests that although CD4 counts may still play a role in guiding clinical care to start prophylaxis for opportunistic infections, CD4 counts should cease to be required for ART initiation. PMID:26826372

  11. Cluster evolution and microwave source counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markevitch, M.; Blumenthal, G. R.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    We present the modeled counts for the expected Sunyaev-Zel'dovich microwave sources associated with clusters of galaxies, predicted for experiments with arcminute-scale spatial resolution, assuming self-similar cluster evolution, for different spectra of the primordial density fluctuations and values of the cosmological density parameter Omega. Our simulations show that the source counts should be a powerful test of the evolution of very high redshift clusters. Experiments with 1 - 2 min spatial resolution, with moderate sensitivity but covering a large area of the sky, would be most effective for studying the SZ source population. Recent arcminute-scale radio experiments, the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) RING experiment and VLA deep imaging, achieved sensitivity and sky coverage close to that needed for the detection of negative sources associated with very distant clusters. From the absence of cluster detections in these experiments, we rule out, with 90% confidence, models with Omega less than 0.3 and n = +1 as predicting too many bright sources; or there is no hot gas in clusters more distant than z(sub max) = 5 in such models. If the single negative source detected in the RING experiment is a distant cluster, the Omega = 1, n = -2 model also may be ruled out as it predicts too few sources. The new generation of telescopes, including the new SUZIE and Ryle instruments, will soon be able to detect distant clusters. The cluster population in the past has been modeled by scaling the observed present-day sample of X-ray clusters back to high redshifts, an approach which makes the best use of the observed cluster gas parameters, and makes the simulations robust to the assumed evolution at very early epochs. Although the pure self-similar model may be incompatible with the variety of observed evolutionary effects, we show that reasonable modifications to the intracluster gas history in that model, proposed to reconcile the self-similar evolution of cluster mass and the observed evolution of their X-ray luminosity, do not considerably change our microwave predictions made using the pure self-similar model. That is, the results of our simulations are applicable to the wide class of evolutionary models in which the cluster gas mass times gas temperature evolves as the dark mass times cluster virial temperature.

  12. Statistical mapping of count survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    We apply a Poisson mixed model to the problem of mapping (or predicting) bird relative abundance from counts collected from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). The model expresses the logarithm of the Poisson mean as a sum of a fixed term (which may depend on habitat variables) and a random effect which accounts for remaining unexplained variation. The random effect is assumed to be spatially correlated, thus providing a more general model than the traditional Poisson regression approach. Consequently, the model is capable of improved prediction when data are autocorrelated. Moreover, formulation of the mapping problem in terms of a statistical model facilitates a wide variety of inference problems which are cumbersome or even impossible using standard methods of mapping. For example, assessment of prediction uncertainty, including the formal comparison of predictions at different locations, or through time, using the model-based prediction variance is straightforward under the Poisson model (not so with many nominally model-free methods). Also, ecologists may generally be interested in quantifying the response of a species to particular habitat covariates or other landscape attributes. Proper accounting for the uncertainty in these estimated effects is crucially dependent on specification of a meaningful statistical model. Finally, the model may be used to aid in sampling design, by modifying the existing sampling plan in a manner which minimizes some variance-based criterion. Model fitting under this model is carried out using a simulation technique known as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Application of the model is illustrated using Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) counts from Pennsylvania BBS routes. We produce both a model-based map depicting relative abundance, and the corresponding map of prediction uncertainty. We briefly address the issue of spatial sampling design under this model. Finally, we close with some discussion of mapping in relation to habitat structure. Although our models were fit in the absence of habitat information, the resulting predictions show a strong inverse relation with a map of forest cover in the state, as expected. Consequently, the results suggest that the correlated random effect in the model is broadly representing ecological variation, and that BBS data may be generally useful for studying bird-habitat relationships, even in the presence of observer errors and other widely recognized deficiencies of the BBS.

  13. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f{sub 50} (spatial-frequency at which the MTF falls to a value of 0.50) by ∼30% with corresponding improvement in DQE. The range in exposure and additive noise for which PCDs yield intrinsically higher DQE was quantified, showing performance advantages under conditions of very low-dose, high additive noise, and high fidelity rejection of coincident photons. Conclusions: The model for PCD signal and noise performance agreed with measurements of detector signal, MTF, and NPS and provided a useful basis for understanding complex dependencies in PCD imaging performance and the potential advantages (and disadvantages) in comparison to EIDs as well as an important guide to task-based optimization in developing new PCD imaging systems.

  14. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 17 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f50 (spatial-frequency at which the MTF falls to a value of 0.50) by ?30% with corresponding improvement in DQE. The range in exposure and additive noise for which PCDs yield intrinsically higher DQE was quantified, showing performance advantages under conditions of very low-dose, high additive noise, and high fidelity rejection of coincident photons. Conclusions: The model for PCD signal and noise performance agreed with measurements of detector signal, MTF, and NPS and provided a useful basis for understanding complex dependencies in PCD imaging performance and the potential advantages (and disadvantages) in comparison to EIDs as well as an important guide to task-based optimization in developing new PCD imaging systems. PMID:25281959

  15. The Shane-Wirtanen counts - Observer and time-dependent effects. [in Lick galaxy count

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groth, Edward J.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    1986-01-01

    In a recent paper, de Lapparent, Kurtz, and Geller (1986) announce the discovery of possible observer and time-dependent effects in the counts of galaxies in the Lick catalog and suggest that these effects may have distorted the galaxy correlation function calculated by Groth and Peebles (1986) from the Lick counts. In particular, they suggest that these effects may have introduced a break where none exists or may have diluted a break stronger than that seen by Groth and Peebles. The Lick counts have been reexamined and it is found that the observer and time-dependent effects are marginal and that they can have had only a negligible effect on the estimates of the correlation functions. Correlation functions have been calculated for each observer and time period separately and it is found that they all depart from the small-angle power law at about the expected scale. Further, the average of these correlation functions agrees extremely well with the average correlation function published by Groth and Peebles.

  16. Three-dimensional photon counting double-random-phase encryption.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungjin; Javidi, Bahram

    2013-09-01

    In this Letter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) photon counting double-random-phase encryption (DRPE) technique using passive integral imaging. A 3D photon counting DRPE can encrypt a 3D scene and provides more security and authentications due to photon counting Poisson nonlinear transformation on the encrypted image. In addition, 3D imaging allows verification of the 3D object at different depths. Preliminary results and performance evaluation have been presented. PMID:23988912

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY COUNTING MEASURES RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN THE BODY. DESIGNED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RADIATION, BODY COUNTING ROOMS ARE CONSTRUCTED OF PRE-WORLD WAR II (WWII) STEEL. PRE-WWII STEEL, WHICH HAS NOT BEEN AFFECTED BY NUCLEAR FALLOUT, IS LOWER IS RADIOACTIVITY THAN STEEL CREATED AFTER WWII. (10/25/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.

    1989-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.

  1. Weighted power counting and chiral dimensional regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2014-06-01

    We define a modified dimensional-regularization technique that overcomes several difficulties of the ordinary technique, and is specially designed to work efficiently in chiral and parity violating quantum field theories, in arbitrary dimensions greater than 2. When the dimension of spacetime is continued to complex values, spinors, vectors and tensors keep the components they have in the physical dimension; therefore, the γ matrices are the standard ones. Propagators are regularized with the help of evanescent higher-derivative kinetic terms, which are of the Majorana type in the case of chiral fermions. If the new terms are organized in a clever way, weighted power counting provides an efficient control on the renormalization of the theory, and allows us to show that the resulting chiral dimensional regularization is consistent to all orders. The new technique considerably simplifies the proofs of properties that hold to all orders, and makes them suitable to be generalized to wider classes of models. Typical examples are the renormalizability of chiral gauge theories and the Adler-Bardeen theorem. The difficulty of explicit computations, on the other hand, may increase.

  2. Advanced Reference Counting Pointers for Better Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinholtz, William

    2007-01-01

    A computer program implements reference counting pointers (RCPs) that are lock-free, thread-safe, async-safe, and operational on a multiprocessor computer. RCPs are powerful and convenient means of managing heap memory in C++ software. Most prior RCP programs use locks to ensure thread safety and manage concurrency. The present program was developed in a continuing effort to explore ways of using the C++ programming language to develop safety-critical and mission- critical software. This effort includes exploration of lock-free algorithms because they offer potential to avoid some costly and difficult verification problems. Unlike previously published RCP software, the present program does not use locks (meaning that no thread can block progress on another thread): Instead, this program implements algorithms that exploit capabilities of central-processing- unit hardware so as to avoid locks. Once locks are eliminated, it becomes possible to realize the other attributes mentioned in the first sentence. In addition to the abovementioned attributes, this program offers several advantages over other RCP programs that use locks: It is smaller (and, hence, is faster and uses less memory), it is immune to priority inversion, and there is no way for it to cause a C++ exception.

  3. Estimating resource selection with count data.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Ryan M; Sawyer, Hall

    2013-07-01

    Resource selection functions (RSFs) are typically estimated by comparing covariates at a discrete set of "used" locations to those from an "available" set of locations. This RSF approach treats the response as binary and does not account for intensity of use among habitat units where locations were recorded. Advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology allow animal location data to be collected at fine spatiotemporal scales and have increased the size and correlation of data used in RSF analyses. We suggest that a more contemporary approach to analyzing such data is to model intensity of use, which can be estimated for one or more animals by relating the relative frequency of locations in a set of sampling units to the habitat characteristics of those units with count-based regression and, in particular, negative binomial (NB) regression. We demonstrate this NB RSF approach with location data collected from 10 GPS-collared Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range enclosure. We discuss modeling assumptions and show how RSF estimation with NB regression can easily accommodate contemporary research needs, including: analysis of large GPS data sets, computational ease, accounting for among-animal variation, and interpretation of model covariates. We recommend the NB approach because of its conceptual and computational simplicity, and the fact that estimates of intensity of use are unbiased in the face of temporally correlated animal location data. PMID:23919165

  4. Counting test facility for the Borexino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranucci, G.; Meroni, E.

    2014-05-01

    A fundamental breakthrough which opened the way to the realization of the Borexino detector was the demonstration of exceptionally low, unprecedented radioactive contaminations in the liquid scintillator, obtained with its pilot prototype Counting Test Facility. Though of limited dimension, with its 4.8 m3 of active liquid core, CTF has however been a key milestone not only for Borexino, but also for the entire field of the ultra-low background searches. Here, we succinctly remind the motivations, which concurred to lay down the project, as well as the specific radiopurity challenge, which guided the design. After the description of the technical elements of the detector, the main outcomes are summarized, both regarding optical and purity scintillator properties, with special emphasis on the exceptional achievements in term of ultra-low traces of radioactive contaminants. The discussion is completed with the description of how CTF was employed for the pre-qualification of the entire inventory of the Borexino scintillator, confirming also in the final phase of its life its essential role for the success of the overall Borexino solar neutrino program.

  5. Ether, Luminosity and Galactic Source Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    1998-08-01

    An interpretation of the cosmological redshift in terms of a cosmic ether is given. We study a Robertson-Walker cosmology in which the ether is phenomenologically defined by a homogeneous and isotropic permeability tensor. The speed of light becomes so a function of cosmic time like in a dielectric medium. However, the cosmic ether is dispersion free, it does not lead to a broadening of spectral lines. Locally, in Euclidean frames, the scale factors of the permeability tensor get absorbed in the fundamental constants. Mass and charge scale with cosmic time, and so do atomic energy levels. This substantially changes the interpretation of the cosmological redshift as a Doppler shift. Photon frequencies are independent of the expansion factor; their time scaling is determined by the permeability tensor. The impact of the ether on the luminosity-distance, on the distance-redshift relation, and on galactic number counts is discussed. The Hubble constant is related to the scale factors of the metric and the permeability tensor. We study the effects of the ether at first in comoving Robertson-Walker coordinates, and then, in the context of a flat but expanding space- time, in the globally geodesic rest frames of galactic observers.

  6. Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Chandrasekaran, V; Gamarmik, D; Shah, D; Sin, J

    2009-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

  7. From particle counting to Gaussian tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, K. R.; Sengupta, Ritabrata

    2015-12-01

    The momentum and position observables in an n-mode boson Fock space ?(?n) have the whole real line ? as their spectrum. But the total number operator N has a discrete spectrum ?+ = {0, 1, 2,}. An n-mode Gaussian state in ?(?n) is completely determined by the mean values of momentum and position observables and their covariance matrix which together constitute a family of n(2n + 3) real parameters. Starting with N and its unitary conjugates by the Weyl displacement operators and operators from a representation of the symplectic group Sp(2n) in ?(?n), we construct n(2n + 3) observables with spectrum ?+ but whose expectation values in a Gaussian state determine all its mean and covariance parameters. Thus measurements of discrete-valued observables enable the tomography of the underlying Gaussian state and it can be done by using five one-mode and four two-mode Gaussian symplectic gates in single and pair mode wires of ?(?n) = ?(?)?n. Thus the tomography protocol admits a simple description in a language similar to circuits in quantum computation theory. Such a Gaussian tomography applied to outputs of a Gaussian channel with coherent input states permit a tomography of the channel parameters. However, in our procedure the number of counting measurements exceeds the number of channel parameters slightly. Presently, it is not clear whether a more efficient method exists for reducing this tomographic complexity. As a byproduct of our approach an elementary derivation of the probability generating function of N in a Gaussian state is given. In many cases the distribution turns out to be infinitely divisible and its underlying Lvy measure can be obtained. However, we are unable to derive the exact distribution in all cases. Whether this property of infinite divisibility holds in general is left as an open problem.

  8. Impact of weight on immune cell counts among HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Roediger, Mollie; Eberly, Lynn E; Ganesan, Anuradha; Weintrob, Amy; Johnson, Erica; Agan, Brian K

    2011-06-01

    Prior studies have shown that weight may impact immune cell counts. However, few data exist about the relationship of weight and immune cell counts among HIV-infected patients. We examined documented HIV seroconverters (mean window, 15.7 months) in a prospective U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (1 January 1986 to 20 January 2010). We estimated the association of the time-updated body mass index (BMI) category with changes in immune cell counts from HIV diagnosis across time (mean follow-up of 5.1 years) using multiply adjusted longitudinal linear mixed-effects models. Of 1,097 HIV seroconverters, 448 (41%) were overweight and 93 (8%) were obese at HIV diagnosis. Immune cell counts at HIV diagnosis did not significantly differ by BMI category. In the longitudinal models for those diagnosed before the advent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, mean postdiagnosis decreases in the white cell count, total lymphocyte count, CD4 count, CD4 percentage, and CD4/CD8 ratio were less as the BMI category increased (all with P values of <0.05). Among HIV seroconverters diagnosed in the HAART era, obese compared to normal-weight patients had significantly smaller increases in CD4 counts, CD4 percentages, and the CD4/CD8 ratio (all with P values of <0.05). Similar findings were also noted among underweight versus normal-weight patients. In conclusion, although BMI was not associated with immune cell levels at the time of HIV diagnosis, weight appears to affect immune cells counts over the course of infection. In the HAART era, being either underweight or obese was associated with smaller increases in several important immune cell levels, including the CD4/CD8 ratio. PMID:21525303

  9. Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r = 0.9937, p < 0.001) was found between the increased WBC count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p < 0.05. Interestingly, in citrated blood, WBC counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p > 0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC. PMID:25275874

  10. Preoperative Peripheral Blood Count in Breast Carcinoma: Predictor of Prognosis or a Routine Test

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manjit; Zonunsanga, B.; Puri, Arun; Kuka, Amarjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peripheral blood count is the first investigation to be done in every patient before surgery. As strong relationship exists between cancer and immune response of the body, clinical stage at presentation and altered hematological parameters can influence the progression of cancer and vice versa. Settings and Design. It is a case control study of total 50 cases (35 cases of carcinoma breast and 15 cases of benign breast disease). Methods. A case control study was carried out; 35 cases of breast cancer patients were taken prior to surgery and chemotherapy with 15 cases of benign breast disease as control. Clinical staging according to the tumor, node, and metastasis classification (TNMc) was done and was correlated with complete blood count (CBC). Results. All the cancer patients were females with overall mean age of 47.96 13.84 years. Amongst all altered blood parameters, correlation of absolute lymphocytic count (p value 0.001) with TNMc staging was found significant. Particularly, decrease in absolute leucocytic count was observed with increase in stage of breast carcinoma. Conclusions. The stage-specific mean values of absolute lymphocytic counts of preoperative breast cancer patients can be used as an economical tool to know the evolution of disease. PMID:26697229

  11. Preoperative Peripheral Blood Count in Breast Carcinoma: Predictor of Prognosis or a Routine Test.

    PubMed

    Rana, Amrit Pal Singh; Kaur, Manjit; Zonunsanga, B; Puri, Arun; Kuka, Amarjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peripheral blood count is the first investigation to be done in every patient before surgery. As strong relationship exists between cancer and immune response of the body, clinical stage at presentation and altered hematological parameters can influence the progression of cancer and vice versa. Settings and Design. It is a case control study of total 50 cases (35 cases of carcinoma breast and 15 cases of benign breast disease). Methods. A case control study was carried out; 35 cases of breast cancer patients were taken prior to surgery and chemotherapy with 15 cases of benign breast disease as control. Clinical staging according to the tumor, node, and metastasis classification (TNMc) was done and was correlated with complete blood count (CBC). Results. All the cancer patients were females with overall mean age of 47.96 13.84 years. Amongst all altered blood parameters, correlation of absolute lymphocytic count (p value 0.001) with TNMc staging was found significant. Particularly, decrease in absolute leucocytic count was observed with increase in stage of breast carcinoma. Conclusions. The stage-specific mean values of absolute lymphocytic counts of preoperative breast cancer patients can be used as an economical tool to know the evolution of disease. PMID:26697229

  12. 47 CFR 1.6006 - Counting of violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Counting of violations. 1.6006 Section 1.6006 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Implementation of Section 325(e... Against Satellite Carriers for Retransmission Without Consent 1.6006 Counting of violations. Each day...

  13. Preschoolers' Use of Count Information to Judge Relative Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Reagan; Okamoto, Yukari; Weckbacher, Lisa Marie

    2009-01-01

    We examined preschool children's use of count information in making quantity judgments. Study 1 involved 35 children 3-5 years old using a balance-scale task to judge relative quantity with or without count information provided. Study 2 replicated and extended the exploration as 54 children 3-4 years old judged relative quantity in multiple

  14. Magnitude Representations and Counting Skills in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Sophie; Keeble, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    When children learn to count, they map newly acquired symbolic representations of number onto preexisting nonsymbolic representations. The nature and timing of this mapping is currently unclear. Some researchers have suggested this mapping process helps children understand the cardinal principle of counting, while other evidence suggests that this

  15. Pinochle Poker: An Activity for Counting and Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroughton, Jacqueline; Nolan, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Understanding counting rules is challenging for students; in particular, they struggle with determining when and how to implement combinations, permutations, and the multiplication rule as tools for counting large sets and computing probability. We present an activity--using ideas from the games of poker and pinochle--designed to help students

  16. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...

  17. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...

  18. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...

  19. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...

  20. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...

  1. Virginia Tech Campaign to Count Gifts Made to Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strout, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech has decided to count gifts to a memorial fund for victims of the April 16 shootings toward its goal of raising $1-billion in a capital campaign. Higher-education fund-raising experts agree that counting the memorial-fund contributions toward the total does not break common donation-reporting guidelines. Many big college fund-raising

  2. Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    This document describes the contributions of African peoples to the science of mathematics. The development of a number system is seen as related to need. Names of numbers, time reckoning, gesture counting, and counting materials are examined. Mystical beliefs about numbers and special meanings in pattern are presented. Reproductions of patterns,…

  3. Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)

  4. 12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special counting requirements. 1282.16 Section 1282.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals 1282.16 Special counting requirements. (a) General. FHFA shall determine whether an Enterprise shall receive...

  5. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method...

  6. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method...

  7. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method...

  8. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method...

  9. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method...

  10. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

  11. 75 FR 64615 - National Character Counts Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-26554 Filed 10-19-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Counts Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's strength... National Character Counts Week, we reflect upon the values of equality, fairness, and compassion that...

  12. Counting and determining the viability of cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Richard; Phelan, Katy

    2008-01-01

    Determining the number of cells in culture is important in standardization of culture conditions and in performing accurate quantitation experiments. A hemacytometer is a thick glass slide with a central area designed as a counting chamber. Cell suspension is applied to a defined area and counted so cell density can be calculated. PMID:19066550

  13. Cleanroom Design Practices and Their Influence on Particle Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper will discuss the adverse effects of deficient cleanroom design practices on airborne particle counts and the rather curious correlation of particle count variations with external environmental pressure fluctuations. Data is also presented that demonstrates that APL building 23 cleanrooms ran well below ISO class 7 (FED class 10,000) during New Horizons and STEREO integration.

  14. Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    This document describes the contributions of African peoples to the science of mathematics. The development of a number system is seen as related to need. Names of numbers, time reckoning, gesture counting, and counting materials are examined. Mystical beliefs about numbers and special meanings in pattern are presented. Reproductions of patterns,

  15. New Jersey Kids Count 2011: The State of Our Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "New Jersey Kids Count 2011" again documents both advances and setbacks in key areas that affect child well-being--poverty, health, child protection, education, including early learning, and adolescent well-being. To better gauge New Jersey's progress in essential areas, a "New Jersey Kids Count Report Card" that identifies trends in 15 key

  16. On Optimal Differentially Private Mechanisms for Count-Range Queries*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chen; Cai, Jin-Yi; Lu, Pinyan; Naughton, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large and growing body of literature on differentially private mechanisms for answering various classes of queries, to the best of our knowledge count-range queries have not been studied. These are a natural class of queries that ask is the number of rows in a relation satisfying a given predicate between two integers ?1 and ?2? Such queries can be viewed as a simple form of SQL having queries. We begin by developing a provably optimal differentially private mechansim for count-range queries for a single consumer. For count queries (in contrast to count-range queries), Ghosh et al. [9] have provided a differentially private mechanism that simultaneously maximizes utility for multiple consumers. This raises the question of whether such a mechanism exists for count-range queries. We prove that the answer is no for count range queries, no such mechanism exists. However, perhaps surprisingly, we prove that such a mechanism does exist for threshold queries, which are simply count-range queries for which either ?1 = 0 or ?2 = +?. Furthermore, we prove that this mechanism is a two-approximation for general count-range queries. PMID:25364783

  17. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were initiated to investigate the interactions between heterotrophic plate count bacteria and coliform organisms. The authors used spiked samples to show that heterotrophic plate count bacteria could reduce coliform densities by more than 3 logs within 8 days. Some hetero...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1104 - Income we count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Income we count. 416.1104 Section 416.1104... DISABLED Income General § 416.1104 Income we count. We have described generally what income is and is not for SSI purposes (§ 416.1103). There are different types of income, earned and unearned, and we...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1104 - Income we count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income we count. 416.1104 Section 416.1104... DISABLED Income General § 416.1104 Income we count. We have described generally what income is and is not for SSI purposes (§ 416.1103). There are different types of income, earned and unearned, and we...

  20. 12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special counting requirements. 1282.16 Section 1282.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.16 Special counting requirements. (a) General. FHFA shall determine whether an Enterprise shall receive...

  1. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  2. Counting Method for Measuring and Linearity Checking Photometry Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvaldin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of calibration and linearity check of optical detectors in a wide dynamic range by method of counting separate parts of energy is investigated. Counting method permits nonselective energy change of measuring optical pulse more then 105 times. A construction of working source of radiation with GaAs LED is described. Results of experimental investigation are presented.

  3. Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

  4. Epidemiological assessment of occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Milby, T.H.; Whorton, D.

    1980-02-01

    Occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression is a recently recognized problem, first brought to light in connection with the manufacture and formulation of dibromochloropropane (DBCP). The authors studied sperm count data from four occupational cohorts - two exposed to DBCP and two exposed to epichlorohydrin (ECH). In both DBCP cohorts there was a significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between sperm count distribution functions of the exposed group and of the non-exposed group. A much higher percentage of exposed men was oligospermic and the median sperm count for each exposed group was substantially lower than that for the respective non-exposed group. In the ECH cohorts there was no significant difference between sperm count data for the exposed group and for the non-exposed group. The authors concluded that exposure to DBCP, but not to ECH, was positively associated with detectable sperm count suppression. It is suggested that the key to identifying and assessing occupationally related sperm count suppression lies in the proper classification and interpretation of group sperm count data.

  5. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E. J.; Axelrod, A. E.

    2012-07-01

    A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which originally was developed for use in machine speech-recognition. The strength of the layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to an ice core record from Greenland. The algorithm shows high skill in reproducing the results from manual layer counts.

  6. On the refined counting of graphs on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Wen, Congkao

    2013-05-01

    Ribbon graphs embedded on a Riemann surface provide a useful way to describe the double-line Feynman diagrams of large N computations and a variety of other QFT correlator and scattering amplitude calculations, e.g. in MHV rules for scattering amplitudes, as well as in ordinary QED. Their counting is a special case of the counting of bi-partite embedded graphs. We review and extend relevant mathematical literature and present results on the counting of some infinite classes of bi-partite graphs. Permutation groups and representations as well as double cosets and quotients of graphs are useful mathematical tools. The counting results are refined according to data of physical relevance, such as the structure of the vertices, faces and genus of the embedded graph. These counting problems can be expressed in terms of observables in three-dimensional topological field theory with Sd gauge group which gives them a topological membrane interpretation.

  7. Somatic cell counts: associated factors and relationship to production.

    PubMed Central

    Salsberg, E; Meek, A H; Martin, S W

    1984-01-01

    Factors affecting somatic cell counts and the association between somatic cell counts and milk production were evaluated. Data were collected from 748 Ontario Dairy Herd Improvement Corporation supervised herds that were on production and somatic cell count programs between April 1981 and March 1983. Two data files were created; one, the lactation summary file, contained one record per cow on each of 9406 Holsteins and the other, the test day file, included results of all tests during the complete lactation on each of the above cows. The latter file contained 85,236 records. Multiple curvilinear least squares regression was used to create five separate models. The dependent variables used in the models were natural logarithms (Loge) of the geometric mean of the somatic cell count for the lactation, 305 day milk production and breed class average for milk from the lactation summary file, and loge of the 24 hour somatic cell count and 24 hour milk production from the test day file. The somatic cell count at both the lactation and test day level increased with age up to approximately ten years and thereafter slowly decreased. The variable "days in milk" was not significantly associated with the lactation average somatic cell count. A curvilinear relationship was found between days in lactation at the time of test and the somatic cell count of 24 hour milk production. The somatic cell count increased until approximately 250 days in lactation and thereafter slowly decreased. It was found that the highest cell counts occurred in summer and the lowest in winter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6478296

  8. You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers

    PubMed Central

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing. PMID:22133748

  9. You can count on the motor cortex: finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers.

    PubMed

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H; Pulvermller, Friedemann

    2012-02-15

    The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing. PMID:22133748

  10. Poor CD4 count is a predictor of untreated depression in human immunodeficiency virus-positive African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Amanor-Boadu, Sasraku; Hipolito, MariaMananita S; Rai, Narayan; McLean, Charlee K; Flanagan, Kyla; Hamilton, Flora T; Oji, Valerie; Lambert, Sharon F; Le, Huynh Nhu; Kapetanovic, Suad; Nwulia, Evaristus A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine if efforts to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence minimizes the negative impact of depression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a clinic-based cohort of 158 HIV seropositive (HIV+) African Americans screened for major depressive disorder (MDD) in 2012. CD4 T lymphocyte (CD4+) counts were obtained from these individuals. Self-report on adherence to ART was determined from questionnaire administered during clinic visits. The primary outcome measure was conditional odds of having a poorer CD4+ count (< 350 cells/mm3). Association between CD4+ count and antidepressant-treated or untreated MDD subjects was examined controlling for self-reported adherence and other potential confounders. RESULTS: Out of 147 individuals with available CD4+ T lymphocyte data, 31% hadCD4+ count < 350 cells/mm3 and 28% reported poor ART adherence. As expected the group with > 350 cells/mm3 CD4+ T lymphocyte endorsed significantly greater ART adherence compared to the group with < 350 cells/mm3 CD4+ T lymphocyte count (P < 0.004). Prevalence of MDD was 39.5% and 66% of individuals with MDD took antidepressants. Poor CD4+ T lymphocyte count was associated with poor ART adherence and MDD. Adjusting for ART adherence, age, sex and education, which were potential confounders, the association between MDD and poor CD4+ T lymphocyte remained significant only in the untreated MDD group. CONCLUSION: Therefore, CD4+ count could be a clinical marker of untreated depression in HIV+. Also, mental health care may be relevant to primary care of HIV+ patients. PMID:27014603

  11. Do Not Divide Count Data with Count Data; A Story from Pollination Ecology with Implications Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Reitan, Trond; Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Studies in ecology are often describing observed variations in a certain ecological phenomenon by use of environmental explanatory variables. A common problem is that the numerical nature of the ecological phenomenon does not always fit the assumptions underlying traditional statistical tests. A text book example comes from pollination ecology where flower visits are normally reported as frequencies; number of visits per flower per unit time. Using visitation frequencies in statistical analyses comes with two major caveats: the lack of knowledge on its error distribution and that it does not include all information found in the data; 10 flower visits in 20 flowers is treated the same as recording 100 visits in 200 flowers. We simulated datasets with various “flower visitation distributions” over various numbers of flowers observed (exposure) and with different types of effects inducing variation in the data. The different datasets were then analyzed first with the traditional approach using number of visits per flower and then by using count data models. The analysis of count data gave a much better chance of detecting effects than the traditionally used frequency approach. We conclude that if the data structure, statistical analyses and interpretations of results are mixed up, valuable information can be lost. PMID:26872136

  12. Do Not Divide Count Data with Count Data; A Story from Pollination Ecology with Implications Beyond.

    PubMed

    Reitan, Trond; Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Studies in ecology are often describing observed variations in a certain ecological phenomenon by use of environmental explanatory variables. A common problem is that the numerical nature of the ecological phenomenon does not always fit the assumptions underlying traditional statistical tests. A text book example comes from pollination ecology where flower visits are normally reported as frequencies; number of visits per flower per unit time. Using visitation frequencies in statistical analyses comes with two major caveats: the lack of knowledge on its error distribution and that it does not include all information found in the data; 10 flower visits in 20 flowers is treated the same as recording 100 visits in 200 flowers. We simulated datasets with various "flower visitation distributions" over various numbers of flowers observed (exposure) and with different types of effects inducing variation in the data. The different datasets were then analyzed first with the traditional approach using number of visits per flower and then by using count data models. The analysis of count data gave a much better chance of detecting effects than the traditionally used frequency approach. We conclude that if the data structure, statistical analyses and interpretations of results are mixed up, valuable information can be lost. PMID:26872136

  13. The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces the impact of count rate loss with photon-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-06-01

    Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard energy-integrating x-ray detectors, but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a ‘hybrid’ detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al 2011 Med. Phys. 38 1089-102 ). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping (‘bowtie’) filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of 2 to 3. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors.

  14. Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

    2010-01-01

    The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

  15. Activity standardisation of ?Ra by 4?? liquid scintillation counting method.

    PubMed

    Havelka, Miroslav; Blu?ovsk, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Activity of (226)Ra in radium daughter products free solution was determined by 4?? liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method, where the detection efficiency of radium decay is practically equal to 1. The sources were prepared from solution with known (226)Ra mass concentration, from which, immediately before LS counting, (222)Rn and its daughter nuclides were removed by solvent extraction. LS counting results were corrected practically only for a <0.6% loss of radium from measured sample and for the ingrowth of (222)Rn and (218)Po concentrations in the sample after the separation was completed. The combined relative standard uncertainty was estimated to be lower than 0.34%. PMID:23602705

  16. Galaxy number counts to second order and their bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dio, Enea Di; Durrer, Ruth; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco E-mail: Ruth.Durrer@unige.ch E-mail: Francesco.Montanari@unige.ch

    2014-12-01

    We determine the number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory in the Poisson gauge and allowing for anisotropic stress. The calculation is performed using an innovative approach based on the recently proposed ''geodesic light-cone'' gauge. This allows us to determine the number counts in a purely geometric way, without using Einstein's equation. The result is valid for general dark energy models and (most) modified gravity models. We then evaluate numerically some relevant contributions to the number counts bispectrum. In particular we consider the terms involving the density, redshift space distortion and lensing.

  17. Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitri; Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe

    2011-10-15

    In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

  18. Bubble Counts for Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Using Image Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P L; Gezahegne, A G; Cook, A W; Cabot, W H; Kamath, C

    2007-01-24

    We describe the use of image analysis to count bubbles in 3-D, large-scale, LES [1] and DNS [2] of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We analyze these massive datasets by first converting the 3-D data to 2-D, then counting the bubbles in the 2-D data. Our plots for the bubble count indicate there are four distinct regimes in the process of the mixing of the two fluids. We also show that our results are relatively insensitive to the choice of parameters in our analysis algorithms.

  19. Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.

  20. Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-05-01

    In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media, incubation temperatures (20 degrees C, 28 degrees C or 35 degrees C), plating methods (pour plate (PP), spread plate and membrane filter) and range of incubation times (24, 48, 72 h and 5-7 days) provide great flexibility in the application of the HPC analysis to drinking water. PMID:15145589

  1. Thermostable cocktail for the liquid scintillation counting of heterogeneous media

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.C.; Shand, J.H.; Wagstaff, H.F.

    1982-05-01

    Considerable analytical errors arise in the liquid scintillation counting of heterogeneous media as a consequence of gel instability. With large sample numbers, a major causative factor of this instability is temperature changes during the counting period. An emulsifier-scintillation cocktail has been designed to provide stable counting conditions for heterogeneous media over a temperature range of 10-30/sup 0/C, i.e., the wide range of temperature likely to be encountered in liquid scintillation counters lacking sample cooling facilities. A comparison was made with a conventional commercially available emulsifier-scintillator.

  2. Early occipital injury affects numerosity counting but not simple arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Chen, Chuansheng; Sun, Zhaohui; Lin, Jiuluan; Zhou, Wenjing; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of early occipital injury on the development of counting and simple arithmetic abilities in an occipital epileptic patient. This patient had obvious softening lesions in the bilateral occipital regions due to viral encephalitis at the age of 1.5 years. Results showed that she could perform subitizing and simple arithmetic very well, but could not perform numerosity counting tasks. These results suggest that the occipital cortex plays an important role in the development of numerosity counting skills, but not in the development of subitizing and simple arithmetic. PMID:25771703

  3. Quantification of P-32 removed during leukapheresis by bremsstrahlung counting

    SciTech Connect

    Evdokimoff, V.N.; Weintraub, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    The activity of P-32 removed during leukapheresis of a patient previously administered P-32 for therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) was determined. The bremsstrahlung produced by P-32 beta rays in the pheresis bags allowed the quantitation of radioactivity by well counting in a sodium iodide detector and by a gamma camera. Bremsstrahlung counting demonstrated that leukapheresis removes such a small amount of radioactivity that the therapeutic effect of a previously administered P-32 dose was still valid. Bremsstrahlung counting offers advantages to a Nuclear Medicine Department over the conventional use of a liquid scintillation counter to detect P-32 beta rays in that it is simpler and more readily available.

  4. Automatic Pedestrian Detection and Counting Applied to Urban Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelat, Thomas; Hueber, Nicolas; Raymond, Pierre; Pichler, Alexander; Schaal, Pascal; Dugaret, Bernard

    The statistical knowledge of human flows in the streets is mandatory for urban planning. Today many cities use the expensive method of manual pedestrian counting, since there is no reliable automatic counting device. This project aims at achieving the first efficient, real-time, embedded and autonomous system that provides high-level data. Our first work focused on the development of a reliable counting method under MatlabTM. On the basis of video sequences recorded in the city of Mulhouse we have validated the robustness of our approach.

  5. Elevation of serum IgE level and peripheral eosinophil count during T lymphocyte-directed gene therapy for ADA deficiency: implication of Tc2-like cells after gene transduction procedure.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, N; Ariga, T; Ohtsu, M; Yamada, M; Tame, A; Furuta, H; Kobayashi, I; Okano, M; Yanagihara, Y; Sakiyama, Y

    1998-11-01

    We have successfully carried out T-cell-directed gene therapy for a boy with severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA SCID) and unexpectedly found an elevation of serum IgE level and peripheral eosinophil count during the course. More than 90% of transduced cells cultured for 7-11 days before infusion into the patient were positive for CD8 and expressed Th2-type cytokine genes such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Furthermore, CD4(+) T-depleted PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from the patient synthesized IgE in vitro by stimulation with IL-4. Collectively, these results suggested that Tc2-like cells in the transduced cells have distinct immunological functions to help IgE synthesis and activate eosinophils. PMID:9865602

  6. Bivariate zero-inflated regression for count data: a Bayesian approach with application to plant counts.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Anandamayee; Gries, Corinna

    2010-01-01

    Lately, bivariate zero-inflated (BZI) regression models have been used in many instances in the medical sciences to model excess zeros. Examples include the BZI Poisson (BZIP), BZI negative binomial (BZINB) models, etc. Such formulations vary in the basic modeling aspect and use the EM algorithm (Dempster, Laird and Rubin, 1977) for parameter estimation. A different modeling formulation in the Bayesian context is given by Dagne (2004). We extend the modeling to a more general setting for multivariate ZIP models for count data with excess zeros as proposed by Li, Lu, Park, Kim, Brinkley and Peterson (1999), focusing on a particular bivariate regression formulation. For the basic formulation in the case of bivariate data, we assume that Xi are (latent) independent Poisson random variables with parameters λ i, i = 0, 1, 2. A bi-variate count vector (Y1, Y2) response follows a mixture of four distributions; p0 stands for the mixing probability of a point mass distribution at (0, 0); p1, the mixing probability that Y2 = 0, while Y1 = X0 + X1; p2, the mixing probability that Y1 = 0 while Y2 = X0 + X2; and finally (1 - p0 - p1 - p2), the mixing probability that Yi = Xi + X0, i = 1, 2. The choice of the parameters {pi, λ i, i = 0, 1, 2} ensures that the marginal distributions of Yi are zero inflated Poisson (λ 0 + λ i). All the parameters thus introduced are allowed to depend on co-variates through canonical link generalized linear models (McCullagh and Nelder, 1989). This flexibility allows for a range of real-life applications, especially in the medical and biological fields, where the counts are bivariate in nature (with strong association between the processes) and where there are excess of zeros in one or both processes. Our contribution in this paper is to employ a fully Bayesian approach consolidating the work of Dagne (2004) and Li et al. (1999) generalizing the modeling and sampling-based methods described by Ghosh, Mukhopadhyay and Lu (2006) to estimate the parameters and obtain posterior credible intervals both in the case where co-variates are not available as well as in the case where they are. In this context, we provide explicit data augmentation techniques that lend themselves to easier implementation of the Gibbs sampler by giving rise to well-known and closed-form posterior distributions in the bivariate ZIP case. We then use simulations to explore the effectiveness of this estimation using the Bayesian BZIP procedure, comparing the performance to the Bayesian and classical ZIP approaches. Finally, we demonstrate the methodology based on bivariate plant count data with excess zeros that was collected on plots in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compare the results with independent ZIP regression models fitted to both processes. PMID:21969981

  7. Studies of bone marrow and leucocyte counts in peripheral blood in fetal and newborn foals.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, P; Brown, G; Ousey, J C; Silver, M; Cottrill, C; Fowden, A L; McGladdery, A J; Rossdale, P D

    1991-01-01

    Clinical and pathological records of 124 foals were studied. The foals were assigned to six groups; normal, premature, dysmature, bacterially infected, neonatal maladjustment syndrome and Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infected. Also, 6 pony fetuses were sampled via catheters in the umbilical vein and artery between 280 and 310 days gestation. Bone marrow aspiration was performed on a further 14 foals. Premature foals had significantly lower neutrophil counts than normal foals up to 5 h. Foals with bacterial infections had significantly lower neutrophil counts up to age 12 h. EHV-1 infected foals had significantly lower neutrophil counts up to age 24 h and significantly lower lymphocyte counts than all other groups up to age 12 h. Premature foals showed a higher neutrophil count and neutrophil/lymphocyte (N:L) ratio in survivors compared with non-survivors when all ages were considered, although the differences were not significant before 35 h. Discriminant analysis showed a 99% chance that the EHV-1 group could be identified from all other groups except dysmature foals, where discrimination between the two groups was about 90%. In catheterized fetuses, age-related increases in neutrophil counts and the N:L ratio occur from 280 to 310 days of gestation. In one preparation available for study leading up to parturition, the N:L ratio widened during the 3 days pre-partum. The bone marrow aspirates showed no significant changes in the myeloid:erythroid (M:E) ratio during the first 4 days post partum. The left shift (LS) index was significantly higher in foals suffering bacterial infection compared with normal or dysmature foals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1665520

  8. Counting Craters on MOC Images: Production Functions and Other Complications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    New crater counts on MOC images and associated Viking Orbiter images are used to address the issue of the crater production function at Mars, and to infer aspects of resurfacing processes. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Counts of low-Redshift SDSS quasar candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Zeljko Ivezic et al.

    2004-03-12

    We analyze the counts of low-redshift quasar candidates selected using nine-epoch SDSS imaging data. The co-added catalogs are more than 1 mag deeper than single-epoch SDSS data, and allow the selection of low-redshift quasar candidates using UV-excess and also variability techniques. The counts of selected candidates are robustly determined down to g = 21.5. This is about 2 magnitudes deeper than the position of a change in the slope of the counts reported by Boyle et al. (1990, 2000) for a sample selected by UV-excess, and questioned by Hawkins & Veron (1995), who utilized a variability-selected sample. Using SDSS data, we confirm a change in the slope of the counts for both UV-excess and variability selected samples, providing strong support for the Boyle et al. results.

  10. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Miklas S.; Dueholm, Jacob V.; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences. PMID:26742047

  11. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

    1980-05-23

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  12. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, James A. (Madison, WI); Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  13. Somatic cells count in cow's bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Olechnowicz, Jan; Ja?kowski, Jedrzej M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was therefore to present factors affecting somatic cell counts in bovine bulk milk as a result of intramammary infections as well as non-infectious factors. The paper presents also the impact of on-farm management practices on the level of bulk milk somatic cell counts and presents quality indicators in bulk tank milk. At the farm level bulk milk bacterial infection takes place through three main sources: bacterial contamination from the external surface of the udder and teats, from the surface of the milking equipment, and from mastitis microorganisms within the udder. The threshold of 200,000 cells/ml identifies bacteriological negative quarters of the udder. The counts of mammary pathogens in bulk tank milk are relatively low, on average not exceeding 1,000 cfu/ml. Environmental pathogens predominate in bulk tank milk samples with somatic cells count <300 10(3) ml. PMID:22230979

  14. Correlated neutron counting for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G

    2010-12-01

    Correlated neutron counting techniques, such as neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting, are widely employed at nuclear fuel cycle facilities for the accountancy of nuclear material such as plutonium. These techniques need to be improved and enhanced to meet the challenges of complex measurement items and future nuclear safeguards applications, for example; the non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel, high counting rate applications, small sample measurements, and Helium-3 replacement. At the same time simulation tools, used for the design of detection systems based on these techniques, are being developed in anticipation of future needs. This seminar will present the theory and current state of the practice of temporally correlated neutron counting. A range of future safeguards applications will then be presented in the context of research projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  15. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Miklas S; Dueholm, Jacob V; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences. PMID:26742047

  16. A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

    1971-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

  17. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: Prognostic Factors and the Association of Leukocyte Counts with Mortality.

    PubMed

    Bastug, Aliye; Kayaaslan, Bircan; Kazancioglu, Sumeyye; Aslaner, Halide; But, Ayse; Akinci, Esragul; Yetkin, Meltem Arzu; Eren, Selim; Bodur, Hurrem

    2016-01-21

    We aimed to determine the relationship between leukocyte counts and the survival of patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), a life-threatening illness. This is the first study to do so. A total of 220 patients with CCHF were evaluated retrospectively. The mortality rate was 16.4%. Analysis of the relationship between leukocyte counts and mortality rates provided insight into the pathogenesis of CCHF. Receiving operating curve analysis revealed that leukocyte counts ?2,950/mm(3) on the day of admission predicted mortality rate with 62.1% sensitivity. The mean hospitalization stay in patients with fatal disease was 4.3 days; therefore, leukocyte counts were compared on the day of admission and day 3 of the hospital stay. Increases in neutrophil levels and decreases in lymphocyte and monocyte levels were identified as significant risk factors for mortality (P = 0.01, 0.037, and 0.001, respectively). The mortality risk was 7-12 fold higher in patients whose levels of leukocytes (2,950 ?L), lactate dehydrogenase (967.5 U/L), and alanine aminotransferase (>119.5 U/L) and activated partial thromboplastin time (42.4 s) exceeded the cut-off values; these were identified as independent predictors of mortality. Depletion of monocytes and lymphocytes and accumulation of neutrophils correlated with poor outcome. These results highlight the importance of the mononuclear immune response for the survival of patients with CCHF. PMID:26073733

  18. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

    2012-04-01

    The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented and their differences discussed. Within the estimated uncertainties, the two methodologies agree. This shows the potential for a fully automated annual layer counting method to be operational for data sections where the annual layering is unknown.

  19. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43, confidence interval [CI] = 0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR = 0.22, CI = 0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi. PMID:25809795

  20. The Argonne low level /sup 14/C counting system

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.; Rymas, S.J.; Studebaker, L.D.; Yule, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    A low level /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ counting system is described. This system was used to process several thousand CO/sub 2/ samples derived from atmospheric collections at various altitudes. Special features include counter construction utilizing electrolytic copper and shielding with neutron moderating and absorbing paraffin containing sodium metaborate. The effect of steel shielding thickness is shown, and the anticoincidence counters are described. Purification of the CO/sub 2/ for proportional counting is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Sherif

    2015-12-01

    A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image. PMID:26380843

  2. Effect of aliquot volume on count and disintegration rates

    SciTech Connect

    Woodmansee, R.A.

    1985-11-01

    Measurements of the rate of photosynthesis of phytoplankton are frequently based on a sample disintegration rate determined from a count rate and counting efficiency of a single aliquot, which may vary considerably in volume. In view of the data presented herein, it is evident that, if such a procedure is followed in shallow estuarine systems, the results are apt to be of limited comparative value and will probably be too low.

  3. Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-01-01

    The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

  4. Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image. PMID:26380843

  5. Effects of Counting and Matching on Conservation of Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuson, Karen C.; And Others

    Forty-five children aged four-and-a-half to five-and-a-half years old were given number conservation tasks in three conditions: (1) a count condition in which children were helped to count each set after the transformation; (2) a match condition in which children were helped to connect by a string each animal with its peanut; and (3) the standard

  6. Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.

    PubMed

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2005-08-01

    Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

  7. Photon Counting Techniques for the Bandlimited Optical Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Clement G.; Gray, Andrew A.

    2005-01-01

    Two methods of estimating received photon counts given a realistic noisy and bandlimited optical channel are presented. The function of estimating photon counts is critical in any optical communications receiver. The purpose of this work is to compare two methods, neither of which is generically optimal, with realistic channels-for the purpose of assessing which is more appropriate for application in a hardware receiver given the current state-of-the art.

  8. Relating Weight and Count Distributions of Stream Bed Gravel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, M. A.; Faustini, J. M.; Waters, A. J.; Vazquez, I. L.; Osterbur, A. K.

    2002-12-01

    The size distribution of particles in a stream bed reflects the stream hydrology as well as its physical and chemical water quality characteristics. In environmental assessments, the sediment particle size distribution indicates habitat quality for aquatic insects and stream suitability for spawning by various fish species. A common monitoring approach(e.g., Wolman count) assesses surface particles as size-count distribution. The method is convenient, but the distribution of subsurface particles, which cannot be assessed by size-count is also needed for water quality assessment. We collected surface and subsurface substrate samples from several coastal and inland streams in Oregon to develop methods of relating size-count and size-weight distributions of the surface material and their relationships with the size-weight distribution of the subsurface sample. In this study, we present examples of relationships of size- count and size-weight distributions of the surface particles. These distributions differ substantially, and depending on the method of calculation, the distribution means for the same sample can differ several fold. We converted the size-count to size-weight distribution using log-normal functions between two consecutive size groups. When used to calculate the median and the standard deviation of the distribution, the method yielded a more stable approach than two alternative calculations.

  9. Atmospheric mold spore counts in relation to meteorological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katial, R. K.; Zhang, Yiming; Jones, Richard H.; Dyer, Philip D.

    Fungal spore counts of Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum were studied during 8 years in Denver, Colorado. Fungal spore counts were obtained daily during the pollinating season by a Rotorod sampler. Weather data were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. Daily averages of temperature, relative humidity, daily precipitation, barometric pressure, and wind speed were studied. A time series analysis was performed on the data to mathematically model the spore counts in relation to weather parameters. Using SAS PROC ARIMA software, a regression analysis was performed, regressing the spore counts on the weather variables assuming an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) error structure. Cladosporium was found to be positively correlated (P<0.02) with average daily temperature, relative humidity, and negatively correlated with precipitation. Alternaria and Epicoccum did not show increased predictability with weather variables. A mathematical model was derived for Cladosporium spore counts using the annual seasonal cycle and significant weather variables. The model for Alternaria and Epicoccum incorporated the annual seasonal cycle. Fungal spore counts can be modeled by time series analysis and related to meteorological parameters controlling for seasonallity; this modeling can provide estimates of exposure to fungal aeroallergens.

  10. Platelet Counts and Platelet Activation Markers in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Justo, Dan; Rogowski, Ori; Saar, Nili; Abu-Abeid, Subchi; Shenkerman, Galina; Shapira, Itzhak; Berliner, Shlomo; Tomer, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Objective. In this work we studied the correlation between platelet count, platelet activation, and systemic inflammation in overweight, obese, and morbidly obese individuals. Methods and subjects. A total of 6319 individuals participated in the study. Complete blood counts, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) serum levels, and body mass index (BMI) were measured during routine checkups. Platelet activation markers were studied among 30 obese (BMI = 41 8?kg/m2) and 35 nonobese (BMI = 24 3?kg/m2) individuals. Platelet activation status was evaluated by flow cytometry using specific antibodies against the activated platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, p-selectin (CD-62 p), and binding of Annexin-V to platelet anionic phospholipids. Results. Overweight, obese, and morbidly obese females had significantly elevated platelet counts ( P < .0001) compared with normal-weight females. No significant elevation of platelet counts was observed in the male subgroups. A significant age adjusted correlation between BMI and platelet counts ( P < .0001) was found among females. This correlation was attenuated (P = .001) after adjustment for hs-CRP concentrations. The flow cytometry analysis of platelets showed no significant differences in activation marker expression between nonobese and obese individuals. Discussion. Obesity may be associated with elevated platelet counts in females with chronic inflammation. Obesity is not associated with increased platelet activation. PMID:18385810

  11. A method for counting monosodium urate crystals in synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Montagna, P; Brizzolara, R; Ferrone, C; Cutolo, M; Paolino, S; Cimmino, M A

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to standardize the technique for counting monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with gout. A total of 52 SF specimens were examined under a polarized light microscope. The amount of SF ranged between 0.1 and 45 mL (median 3 mL). MSU crystals were counted in four areas with the same size at 400x magnification. Cytological examination of the same specimens was also performed. Median leukocyte count was 400 cells/mm3 (range 50-14,000 cells/mm3), with a median percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes of 9% (range 0%-98%). Median crystal count was 179.5 (range 3-1600). Inter- reader and intra-reader agreement in crystal counting were good with a weighed k of 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-0.94] and 0.89 (95% CI 0.84-0.93), respectively. Our data indicate that the SF MSU crystal count is a feasible and highly reliable technique. PMID:26150273

  12. High-speed optical switch fabrics with large port count.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Yong-Kee; Xu, Zhaowen; Wang, Dawei; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Yixin; Cheng, Tee-Hiang

    2009-06-22

    We report a novel architecture that can be used to construct optical switch fabrics with very high port count and nanoseconds switching speed. It is well known that optical switch fabrics with very fast switching time and high port count are challenging to realize. Currently, one of the most promising solutions is based on a combination of wavelength-tunable lasers and the arrayed waveguide grating router (AWGR). To scale up the number of ports in such switches, a direct method is to use AWGRs with a high channel count. However, such AWGRs introduce very large crosstalk noise due to the close wavelength channel spacing. In this paper, we propose an architecture for realizing a high-port count optical switch fabric using a combination of low-port count AWGRs, optical ON-OFF gates and WDM couplers. Using this new methodology, we constructed a proof-of concept experiment to demonstrate the feasibility of a 256 x 256 optical switch fabric. To our knowledge, this port count is the highest ever reported for switch fabrics of this type. PMID:19550498

  13. Estimation of platelet counts on feline blood smears.

    PubMed

    Sverine, Tasker; Cripps, Peter J.; Mackin, Andrew J.

    1999-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 50 cats admitted for hematologic evaluation at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies. Manual platelet counts were done using a hemacytometer, and the average number of platelets per oil immersion field (1,000X magnification) was determined on stained blood smears. A hemacytometer count was not obtained for one sample because of a failure in erythrocyte lysing. In nine samples, obvious platelet clumps in the blood smear prevented accurate determination of the number of platelets per oil immersion field. Hemacytometer counts on these nine samples ranged from 260-587 X 10 (3) platelets/microliter, suggesting that platelet clumps on a blood smear were usually associated with adequate platelet numbers. Simple regression analysis of hemacytometer counts and the average umber of platelets per oil immersion field for the remaining 40 samples yielded correlation coefficients (r) of 0.776 on untransformed data, and 0.892 on log10-transformed data. Each platelet per oil immersion field represented a circulating platelet count of approximately 20 X 10(3)/microliter, similar to conversion factors reported for dogs and human beings. It was concluded that estimation of platelet number on stained blood smears is a simple and quick method that appears to be reliable over a wide range of platelet counts in cats. PMID:12075521

  14. Avalanche photodiode photon counting receivers for space-borne lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

    1991-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; (2) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; and (3) APD's in analog mode when the received optical signal is extremely weak. Non-breakdown APD photon counters were shown experimentally to achieve an effective photon counting quantum efficiency of 5.0 percent at lambda = 820 nm with a dead time of 15 ns and a dark count rate of 7000/s which agreed with the theoretically predicted values. The interarrival times of the counts followed an exponential distribution and the counting statistics appeared to follow a Poisson distribution with no after pulsing. It is predicted that the effective photon counting quantum efficiency can be improved to 18.7 percent at lambda = 820 nm and 1.46 percent at lambda = 1060 nm with a dead time of a few nanoseconds by using more advanced commercially available electronic components.

  15. Impulsivity-related Traits Are Associated with Higher White Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N=5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again three years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: For every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.101.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. PMID:22190235

  16. Atmospheric remote sensing to detect effects of temperature inversions on sputum cell counts in airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julie; Nair, Parameswaran; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2010-08-01

    Temperature inversions result in the accumulation of air pollution, often to levels exceeding air quality criteria. The respiratory response may be detectable in sputum cell counts. This study investigates the effect of boundary layer temperature inversions on sputum cell counts. Total and differential cell counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages and lymphocytes were quantified in sputum samples of patients attending an outpatient clinic. Temperature inversions were identified using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, an atmospheric sensor on the Aqua spacecraft which was launched in 2002 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. On inversion days, a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were neutrophils was observed in stable patients. There was also a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were macrophages, in exacerbated patients. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between temperature inversions and cell counts, controlling patients' age, smoking status, medications and meteorological variables of temperature and humidity. The analyses indicate that, in the stable and exacerbated groups, percent neutrophils and macrophages increased by 12.6% and 2.5%, respectively, on inversion days. These results suggest that temperature inversions need consideration as an exacerbating factor in bronchitis and obstructive airway disease. The effects of air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, were investigated. We identified no significant associations with any pollutant. However, we found that monthly averages of total cell counts were strongly correlated with monthly nitrogen dioxide concentrations, an association not previously identified in the literature. PMID:20704033

  17. A Microchip CD4 Counting Method for HIV Monitoring in Resource-Poor Settings

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background More than 35 million people in developing countries are living with HIV infection. An enormous global effort is now underway to bring antiretroviral treatment to at least 3 million of those infected. While drug prices have dropped considerably, the cost and technical complexity of laboratory tests essential for the management of HIV disease, such as CD4 cell counts, remain prohibitive. New, simple, and affordable methods for measuring CD4 cells that can be implemented in resource-scarce settings are urgently needed. Methods and Findings Here we describe the development of a prototype for a simple, rapid, and affordable method for counting CD4 lymphocytes. Microliter volumes of blood without further sample preparation are stained with fluorescent antibodies, captured on a membrane within a miniaturized flow cell and imaged through microscope optics with the type of charge-coupled device developed for digital camera technology. An associated computer algorithm converts the raw digital image into absolute CD4 counts and CD4 percentages in real time. The accuracy of this prototype system was validated through testing in the United States and Botswana, and showed close agreement with standard flow cytometry (r = 0.95) over a range of absolute CD4 counts, and the ability to discriminate clinically relevant CD4 count thresholds with high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Advances in the adaptation of new technologies to biomedical detection systems, such as the one described here, promise to make complex diagnostics for HIV and other infectious diseases a practical global reality. PMID:16013921

  18. Measuring PET scanner sensitivity; Relating count rates to image signal-to-noise ratios using noise equivalent counts

    SciTech Connect

    Strother, S.C. ); Casey, M.E. ); Hoffman, E.J. . Nuclear Medicine Lab.)

    1990-04-01

    Sensitivity parameters derived from a plot of a scanner's true coincidence count (TCC) rates as a function of activity in a 20 cm cylindrical phantom have no direct link to image quality. Noise equivalent count (NEC) rate curves, which incorporate the noise effects of subtracting the randoms and scatter count components provide a direct link between image signal-to-noise ratios and the scatter, randoms and trues coincidence count rates. The authors have measured TCC and NEC curves with a standardized 20 cm diameter nylon cylinder for five different PET scanners with several scanner-collimator combinations. In addition, the authors have compared TCC and NEC curves on one scanner with those from an Alderson brain phantom.

  19. Determination of confidence limits for experiments with low numbers of counts. [Poisson-distributed photon counts from astrophysical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Ralph P.; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Two different methods, classical and Bayesian, for determining confidence intervals involving Poisson-distributed data are compared. Particular consideration is given to cases where the number of counts observed is small and is comparable to the mean number of background counts. Reasons for preferring the Bayesian over the classical method are given. Tables of confidence limits calculated by the Bayesian method are provided for quick reference.

  20. The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Mller, J D; So, P T; Gratton, E

    1999-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is generally used to obtain information about the number of fluorescent particles in a small volume and the diffusion coefficient from the autocorrelation function of the fluorescence signal. Here we demonstrate that photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis constitutes a novel tool for extracting quantities from fluorescence fluctuation data, i.e., the measured photon counts per molecule and the average number of molecules within the observation volume. The photon counting histogram of fluorescence fluctuation experiments, in which few molecules are present in the excitation volume, exhibits a super-Poissonian behavior. The additional broadening of the PCH compared to a Poisson distribution is due to fluorescence intensity fluctuations. For diffusing particles these intensity fluctuations are caused by an inhomogeneous excitation profile and the fluctuations in the number of particles in the observation volume. The quantitative relationship between the detected photon counts and the fluorescence intensity reaching the detector is given by Mandel's formula. Based on this equation and considering the fluorescence intensity distribution in the two-photon excitation volume, a theoretical expression for the PCH as a function of the number of molecules in the excitation volume is derived. For a single molecular species two parameters are sufficient to characterize the histogram completely, namely the average number of molecules within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling time epsilon. The PCH for multiple molecular species, on the other hand, is generated by successively convoluting the photon counting distribution of each species with the others. The influence of the excitation profile upon the photon counting statistics for two relevant point spread functions (PSFs), the three-dimensional Gaussian PSF conventionally employed in confocal detection and the square of the Gaussian-Lorentzian PSF for two photon excitation, is explicitly treated. Measured photon counting distributions obtained with a two-photon excitation source agree, within experimental error with the theoretical PCHs calculated for the square of a Gaussian-Lorentzian beam profile. We demonstrate and discuss the influence of the average number of particles within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling interval upon the super-Poissonian character of the photon counting distribution. PMID:10388780

  1. Peripheral leukocyte counts and outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease that carries a 30 day mortality of approximately 45%. Only 20% of survivors return to independent function at 6 months. The role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of ICH is increasingly recognized. Several clinical studies have demonstrated an association between inflammatory markers and outcomes after ICH; however the relationship between serum biomarkers and functional outcomes amongst survivors has not been previously evaluated. Activation of the inflammatory response as measured by change in peripheral leukocyte count was examined and assessment of mortality and functional outcomes after ICH was determined. Findings Patients with spontaneous ICH admitted to a tertiary care center between January 2005 and April 2010 were included. The change in leukocyte count was measured as the difference between the maximum leukocyte count in the first 72 hours and the leukocyte count on admission. Mortality was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were mortality at 1 year, discharge disposition and the modified Barthel index (MBI) at 3 months compared to pre-admission MBI. 423 cases were included. The in-hospital mortality was 30.4%. The change in leukocyte count predicted worse discharge disposition (OR = 1.258, p = 0.009). The change in leukocyte count was also significantly correlated with a decline in the MBI at 3 months. These relationships remained even after removal of all patients with evidence of infection. Conclusions Greater changes in leukocyte count over the first 72 hours after admission predicted both worse short term and long term functional outcomes after ICH. PMID:22087759

  2. SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca

    2009-12-20

    We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg{sup 2} map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 mum; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 mum, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 mum, over the range approx0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.

  3. What makes counting count? Verbal and visuo-spatial contributions to typical and atypical number development.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Daniel; Donlan, Chris; Thomas, Michael S C; Ewing, Sandra A; Peen, Tiffany; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2003-05-01

    Williams Syndrome (WS) is marked by a relative strength in verbal cognition coupled with a serious impairment in non-verbal cognition. A strong deficit in numerical cognition has been anecdotally reported in this disorder; however, its nature has not been systematically investigated. Here, we tested 14 children with WS (mean age=7 years 2 months), 14 typically developing controls individually matched on visuo-spatial ability (mean age=3 years 5 months) as well as a larger group of typically developing controls (mean age=3 years 4 months) on two tasks to assess their understanding that counting determines the exact quantity of sets (cardinality principle). The understanding of the cardinality principle in children with WS is extremely delayed and only at the level predicted by their visuo-spatial MA. In this clinical group, only language accounted for a significant amount of the variance in cardinality understanding, whereas in the normal comparison group only visuo-spatial competence predicted the variance. The present findings suggest that visuo-spatial ability plays a greater role than language ability in the actual development of cardinality understanding in typically developing children, whereas the opposite obtains for the clinical group. PMID:12742762

  4. Development of a stained cell nuclei counting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsina, Niranjan; Moffatt, Christopher; Okada, Kazunori

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel cell counting system which exploits the Fast Radial Symmetry Transformation (FRST) algorithm [1]. The driving force behind our system is a research on neurogenesis in the intact nervous system of Manduca Sexta or the Tobacco Hornworm, which was being studied to assess the impact of age, food and environment on neurogenesis. The varying thickness of the intact nervous system in this species often yields images with inhomogeneous background and inconsistencies such as varying illumination, variable contrast, and irregular cell size. For automated counting, such inhomogeneity and inconsistencies must be addressed, which no existing work has done successfully. Thus, our goal is to devise a new cell counting algorithm for the images with non-uniform background. Our solution adapts FRST: a computer vision algorithm which is designed to detect points of interest on circular regions such as human eyes. This algorithm enhances the occurrences of the stained-cell nuclei in 2D digital images and negates the problems caused by their inhomogeneity. Besides FRST, our algorithm employs standard image processing methods, such as mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. We have evaluated the developed cell counting system with fourteen digital images of Tobacco Hornworm's nervous system collected for this study with ground-truth cell counts by biology experts. Experimental results show that our system has a minimum error of 1.41% and mean error of 16.68% which is at least forty-four percent better than the algorithm without FRST.

  5. Skull counting in late stages after internal contamination by actinides.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Shutt, Arron; Kurihara, Osamu; Kosako, Toshiso

    2015-02-01

    Monitoring preparation for internal contamination with actinides (e.g. Pu and Am) is required to assess internal doses at nuclear fuel cycle-related facilities. In this paper, the authors focus on skull counting in case of single-incident inhalation of (241)Am and propose an effective procedure for skull counting with an existing system, taking into account the biokinetic behaviour of (241)Am in the human body. The predicted response of the system to skull counting under a certain counting geometry was found to be only ?1.0 10(-5) cps Bq(-1) 1y after intake. However, this disadvantage could be remedied by repeated measurements of the skull during the late stage of the intake due to the predicted response reaching a plateau at about the 1000th day after exposure and exceeding that in the lung counting. Further studies are needed for the development of a new detection system with higher sensitivity to perform reliable internal dose estimations based on direct measurements. PMID:24920571

  6. Association of TNFSF8 Polymorphisms With Peripheral Neutrophil Count

    PubMed Central

    Arruda-Olson, Adelaide M.; Roger, Vronique L.; Chai, High S.; de Andrade, Mariza; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Gabriel, Sherine E.; Bielinski, Suzette J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between 347 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within candidate genes of the tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6 families with neutrophil count. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four hundred cases with heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI) were matched by age, sex, and date of incident MI to 694 controls (MI without post-MI heart failure). Both genotypes and neutrophil count at admission for incident MI were available in 314 cases and 515 controls. RESULTS: We found significant associations between the TNFSF8 poly morphisms rs927374 (P=5.1 x 105) and rs2295800 (P=1.3 x 104) and neutrophil count; these single-nucleotide polymorphisms are in high linkage disequilibrium (r2=0.97). Associations persisted after controlling for clinical characteristics and were unchanged after adjusting for case-control status. For rs927374, the neutrophil count of GG homozygotes (7.65.1) was 16% lower than that of CC homozygotes (9.05.2). CONCLUSION: The TNFSF8 polymorphisms rs927374 and rs2295800 were associated with neutrophil count. This finding suggests that post-MI inflammatory response is genetically modulated. PMID:22033252

  7. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E. J.; Axelrod, A. E.

    2012-11-01

    A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of hidden Markov models (HMMs), which originally was developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of the layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to two ice core records from Greenland: one displaying a distinct annual signal and one which is more challenging. The algorithm shows high skill in reproducing the results from manual layer counts, and the resulting timescale compares well to absolute-dated volcanic marker horizons where these exist.

  8. Salivary lactobacillus counts in the prediction of caries activity.

    PubMed

    Crossner, C G

    1981-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and clinical value for prediction of caries activity of determining the number of lactobacilli in saliva, the salivary secretion rate and the presence of yeasts in the saliva. For this purpose one entire age group of pupils (115 14-year-olds) attending one of the compulsory 9-year comprehensive schools in Orebro was selected for longitudinal examination. Over a period of 64 weeks three clinical recordings were made and seven salivary samples were collected. The correlations between caries activity, caries frequency (DFS), lactobacillus counts, yeasts in saliva, salivary secretion rate and gingivitis were examined. The results showed that in spite of a well-organized dental health service, including adequate preventive measures, a pronounced variation in caries activity remained and thus a means of predicting the onset of caries would be a valuable asset. Statistically significant correlations were found between caries activity on the one hand and caries frequency and lactobacillus counts on the other. The lactobacillus count was found to be a suitable measure in predicting caries activity. It was concluded that the lactobacillus count should be used for caries prediction in healthy, properly treated patients. It is important that there are no areas of microbial retention on the teeth such as open carious lesions, poorly executed restorations, dentures or orthodontic bands. In such situations, the lactobacillus count seems to reflect the frequency of ingested fermentable carbohydrates and thus, indirectly, the risk of initiating carious lesions. PMID:6949671

  9. Multiscale Methods and the Processing of Images Resulting from Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijaoui, A.; Bourdin, H.; Slezak, E.; Jammal, G.

    2002-12-01

    Astrophysicists are often involved in the processing of event counts: determination of the probability density functions (PDF) of stellar parameters, estimation of the galaxy density, restoration of an image obtained with a counting detector. Under the assumption of statistical independence of events, the empirical distribution is perturbed by a Poisson noise. As this noise depends on the bin scale, it is natural to introduce a mathematical decomposition which takes into account this scale characteristic. Thus, multiscale transforms and particularly the wavelet ones appeared well-suited tools for processing counts. After a short description of the definition and properties of the wavelet transforms, the ingredients for the applications to counts will be reviewed: choice the wavelet transform, PDF of the wavelet coefficients, thresholding and softening functions (in particular in case of a Bayesian approach), the regularized reconstruction and the inversion algorithm in case of deconvolution. The Anscombe transform will be introduced as an efficient mean for stabilizing the variance. A step by step algorithm will be described. Finally, some astrophysical applications will be given: density of galaxies from their counts and restoration of images observed with the X-ray satellite XMM-Newton.

  10. Cypermethrin reversibly alters sperm count without altering fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdani, Nada M H; Yajurvedi, H N

    2010-07-01

    Administration of cypermethrin (CYP), orally by gavage (3 doses: 1.38, 2.76, and 5.52 mg/kg body weight) to mice either for 6 (D1) or 12 (D2) weeks caused a significant reduction in epididymal spermatozoa count and an increase in abnormal spermatozoa count when compared to controls. These counts returned to normal levels 6 weeks after cessation of 1.38 or 2.76 mg/kg body weight (BW) treatment either after D1 or D2. In 5.52 mg/kg BW treated mice the counts returned to normal levels following D1 but not after D2. Mice in all the treatment groups showed normal fertility. Weight of the litter born to mice mated with CYP treated (all three doses) males either in D1 or D2 was significantly lower than controls whereas gestation period and litter size did not significantly vary from controls. This is the first report revealing that CYP as low as 1.38 mg/kg BW adversely affects spermatogenesis and that the effect is reversible up to 2.76 mg/kg BW/kg BW exposure for 3 months. The results further reveal that despite reduction in sperm count and increase in proportion of abnormal spermatozoa, normal fertility is possible. Hence, in reproductive toxicity evaluation of pesticides, fertility test alone is misleading. PMID:20435348

  11. Automated counting of bacterial colonies by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Pei-Ju; Tseng, Min-Jen; He, Zong-Sian; Li, Chia-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Research on microorganisms often involves culturing as a means to determine the survival and proliferation of bacteria. The number of colonies in a culture is counted to calculate the concentration of bacteria in the original broth; however, manual counting can be time-consuming and imprecise. To save time and prevent inconsistencies, this study proposes a fully automated counting system using image processing methods. To accurately estimate the number of viable bacteria in a known volume of suspension, colonies distributing over the whole surface area of a plate, including the central and rim areas of a Petri dish are taken into account. The performance of the proposed system is compared with verified manual counts, as well as with two freely available counting software programs. Comparisons show that the proposed system is an effective method with excellent accuracy with mean value of absolute percentage error of 3.37%. A user-friendly graphical user interface is also developed and freely available for download, providing researchers in biomedicine with a more convenient instrument for the enumeration of bacterial colonies. PMID:25451456

  12. Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

    We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

  13. Prognostic significance of early platelet count decline in preterm newborns

    PubMed Central

    Elmoneim, Abeer Abd; Zolaly, Mohammed; El-Moneim, Ehab Abd; Sultan, Eisa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Decline of platelets with or without thrombocytopenia is observed in critically ill preterm newborns. Prognostic significance of platelets count in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit focused on outcome after thrombocytopenia. We aimed to estimate the changes in platelets count within the first 7 days of life in preterm newborns and its relation to final outcomes. Methods: Retrospectively, the platelets count during the first 7 days of life, and its association with mortality, length of stay among survivors (LOS), and later severe morbidities were determined. Appropriate regression analyses were used to examine possible relations between studied variables. Results and Discussion: Platelets drop that did not reach thrombocytopenia level in the first 7 days of life happened in 61.7%. Platelets count drop in the first 7 days of life was a predictor of mortality, LOS, and major morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage and necrotizing enterocolitis. Conclusions: Platelets count drop within the first 7 days of life independent of thrombocytopenia can be used to predict increased mortality, LOS, and the development of later severe morbidities in critically ill preterm neonates. PMID:26321804

  14. A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ∼2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ∼15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

  15. Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Richard A.

    1981-01-01

    A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for counting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensated circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

  16. Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

  17. Rescaled box counting for the topological analysis of spatial data

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1994-04-01

    Topological analysis of surfaces of natural objects can provide information about surface features (ridges, fragmentation, dendritic patterns) and surface roughness. Box counting is a general method useful for such surfaces, but it is currently limited to cases where the x, y, and z directions are all in the same metric. A method, rescaled box counting, is presented for overcoming these limitations. The local first omnidirectional semivariance (lag 1) is calculated for boxes of different sizes. If the semivariance is not small for small box sizes, then the z data need to be scaled up to allow detection of a difference between patches that are significantly different This rescaling converts the z metric into a distance equivalent (z units are converted into distances based on the horizontal distance over which a significant change in z is found to occur). Once rescaling is done, box counting can be used to quantify surface topology.

  18. Gasolines as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernndez, Ascensin; Ma Pinto, Rosa; Sillero, Antonio

    1986-11-01

    Gasolines from several commercial sources have been used as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting of dry and aqueous samples of either 3H- or 14C-labeled compounds. Dry samples can be counted only by the addition of fluors to the gasolines, and compared to a standard liquid scintillator, efficiencies of around 75% were attained. For the counting of aqueous samples, gasolines must also be supplemented with secondary solvents (i.e., 10% naphthalene, 5% Triton X-100, or 10% methanol). Simply with Triton X-100, efficiencies similar to those obtained with a dioxane-based liquid scintillator were observed in the case of some gasolines. Drawbacks to gasoline are the higher toxicity and the variation of efficiency, probably depending on the presence of color markers. On the positive side is the low price of the gasolines, compared with either toluene or dioxane, and the facility of purchasing.

  19. Three-dimensional photon counting microscopy using Bayesian estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M.

    2014-09-01

    We present three-dimensional photon counting microscopy using Bayesian estimation. To record the light intensity information of objects in photon-starved conditions, photon counting imaging can be used. In conventional photon counting imaging, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) or Bayesian estimation with uniform statistical parameters has been used for 3D visualization. Since MLE does not use the prior information of the estimated target, its visual quality is not enough to recognize 3D microorganisms when low number of photons is used. In addition, because Bayesian estimation with uniform statistical parameters uses fixed statistical parameters over the whole image, the estimated image seems to be image with boost-up light intensity. On the other hand, our proposed method uses the nonuniform statistical parameters for prior information of microorganisms to estimate 3D profile of them. Therefore, this method may enhance the visual quality of 3D microscopy results with low number of photons.

  20. Advantages of Photon Counting Detectors for Terahertz Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Ezawa, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    For astronomical observation at terahertz frequencies, a variety of cryogenic detector technologies are being developed to achieve background-limited observation from space, where a noise equivalent power (NEP) of less than 10^{-18} W/Hz^{0.5} is often required. When each photon signal is resolved in time, the requirements on NEP are reduced and 1 ns time resolution corresponds to an NEP of approximately 10^{-17} W/Hz^{0.5} at THz frequencies. Furthermore, fast photon counting detectors have a high dynamic range to observe bright terahertz sources such as stars and active galactic nuclei. Applications of photon counting detector are discussed for cosmic microwave background and photon counting terahertz interferometry.