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1

Predictions of CD4 lymphocytescount in HIV patients from complete blood count  

PubMed Central

Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/?L3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ? C) ? (B ? D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytescount from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

2013-01-01

2

Absolute Lymphocyte Count Is Not a Suitable Alternative to CD4 Count for Determining Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Fiji  

PubMed Central

Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ?500?cells/mm3. Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350?cells/mm3?or 500?cells/mm3. The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ?2300?cells/?L had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ?350 cells/mm3 and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ?500?cells/mm3 it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji. PMID:25400669

Balak, Dashika A.; Ram, Sharan; Devi, Rachel R.; Graham, Stephen M.

2014-01-01

3

T-cell count  

MedlinePLUS

Thymus derived lymphocyte count; T-lymphocyte count ... T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are white blood cells. They make up part of the immune system. T cells help the body fight diseases or harmful ...

4

Eosinophil Count and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Bacteremia: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is scarce evidence on the use of eosinophil count as a marker of outcome in patients with infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in eosinophil count, as well as the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), could be used as clinical markers of outcome in patients with bacteremia.MethodsWe performed a retrospective study of patients with a

Roser Terradas; Santiago Grau; Jordi Blanch; Marta Riu; Pere Saballs; Xavier Castells; Juan Pablo Horcajada; Hernando Knobel

2012-01-01

5

Prognostic Value of Baseline Lymphocyte Count in Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study examined factors predicting tumor response and progression-free survival in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 143 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2 to IVA) treated with CCRT were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to retrospectively evaluate prognostic factors, including baseline lymphocyte count, that affect tumor response and progression-free survival. Results: Of the variables evaluated, greater baseline lymphocyte count was the factor most predictive of a complete clinical response, followed by smaller tumor size (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed baseline lymphocyte count, which was treated as a continuous variable with every 1 x 10{sup 9} lymphocytes/L, to remain a prognostic factor with an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-7.23). In addition, a statistically significant association (p = 0.023) was found between baseline lymphocyte count and progression-free survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.89) in the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients and possible biologic variation existing in lymphocyte subset number and activity, these findings highlight the strong prognostic value of baseline lymphocyte count in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT. Therefore, a larger number of patients and analysis of lymphocyte subsets are needed.

Choi, Chel Hun; Kang, Heeseok; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Gie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Duk-Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: huna0@naver.com

2008-05-01

6

Modeling absolute lymphocyte counts after treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with ibrutinib.  

PubMed

The objective in this study was to characterize the pattern of the treatment-related lymphocytosis curve in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients treated with ibrutinib, and assess the relationship between the baseline factors and absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC). The PCYC-1102-CA study was a five-arm phase Ib/II open-label, nonrandomized, multicenter study in CLL/SLL. The arms and accruals were 420 and 840 mg/day treatment-naive elderly CLL/SLL (N?=?27 and N?=?4, respectively), 420 and 840 mg/day relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL (N?=?27 and N?=?34, respectively), and 420 mg/day high-risk CLL/SLL (N?=?24). The results were generated through statistical modeling using data from a clinical trial (PCYC-1102) in five cohorts of treatment-naïve or relapsed/refractory CLL patients treated at 420 and 840 mg daily of ibrutinib. In cases in which the initial increase in ALC doubles by day 28, it takes patients longer to reach their maximum ALC when compared with those with a lower rate of increase. Our models show that all of the cohorts exhibited the same pattern of treatment-related lymphocytosis from ibrutinib, and there are no significant differences between cohorts, including no detectable dose effect. The ALC of the majority of patients return to baseline ALC values by the end of cycle 5. PMID:25178517

Smith, David D; Goldstein, Leanne; Cheng, Mei; James, Danelle F; Kunkel, Lori A; Fardis, Maria; Hamdy, Ahmed; Izumi, Raquel; Buggy, Joseph J; Clow, Fong

2015-02-01

7

Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)  

SciTech Connect

Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

1980-03-01

8

Effect of caffeine ingestion on lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo following strenuous cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine ingestion is associated with increases in the concentration of plasma epinephrine and epinephrine is associated with alterations in immune cell trafficking and function following intensive exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of caffeine ingestion on plasma epinephrine concentration, lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo, as measured by the expression the CD69 surface

Nicolette C. Bishop; Christina Fitzgerald; Penny J. Porter; Gabriella A. Scanlon; Alice C. Smith

2005-01-01

9

Platelet count  

MedlinePLUS

A platelet count is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of ... LOW PLATELET COUNT A low platelet count is below 150,000. If you do not have enough platelets, you may ...

10

Counting Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how counting collections of objects helps elementary-age children develop number sense and number relations. The authors provide evidence that counting collections offers multiple entry points for children at different places on the counting trajectory. It is suggested that the teacher's role is one of noticing, questioning,…

Schwerdtfeger, Julie Kern; Chan, Angela

2007-01-01

11

Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia  

PubMed Central

Background: Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA. Methods: In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared. Results: Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043). Conclusion: This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection. PMID:22135572

Reza Keramati, Mohammad; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Khajedaluea, Mohammad; Tavasolian, Houman; Borzouei, Anahita

2011-01-01

12

The ratio of absolute lymphocyte count at interim of therapy to absolute lymphocyte count at diagnosis predicts survival in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) after therapy has been reported to be an independent prognostic factor for clinical outcome in leukemia. This study mainly analyzed ALC at interim of therapy on day 22 (ALC-22) and the ratio of ALC-22 to ALC at diagnosis (ALC-0) on the impact of survival and the relation of ALC to lymphocyte subsets in 119 pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. Univariate analysis revealed that ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio <10% was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio (HR)=12.24, P=0.0014) and event-free survival (EFS) (HR=3.3, P=0.0046). In multivariate analysis, ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio remained an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR=6.92, P=0.0181) and EFS (HR=2.78, P=0.0329) after adjusting for age, white blood cell (WBC) count and minimal residual disease (MRD) status. A Spearman correlation test showed that CD3+ T cells had a negative correlation with ALC-0 (r=-0.7204, P<0.0001) and a positive correlation with ALC-22 (r=0.5061, P=0.0071). These data suggest that ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio may serve as a more effective biomarker to predict survival in pediatric B-ALL and ALC is mainly associated with CD3+ T cells. PMID:25542697

Cheng, Yuping; Luo, Zebin; Yang, Shilong; Jia, Ming; Zhao, Haizhao; Xu, Weiqun; Tang, Yongmin

2015-02-01

13

Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts: ASR hip resurfacing prosthesis vs. standard THA  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Wear particles from metal–on–metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above–average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts. Method In a randomized controlled trial, we followed 19 RHA patients and 19 THA patients. Lymphocyte subsets and chromium and cobalt ion concentrations were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, at 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years. Results The T–lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2–year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3+CD8+ in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of –0.04 × 109cells/year (95% CI: –0.08 to –0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect of cobalt ions in particular on T–cells with 2–year whole–blood cobalt regression coefficients for CD3+ of –0.10 (95% CI: –0.16 to –0.04) × 109 cells/parts per billion (ppb), for CD3+CD4+ of –0.06 (–0.09 to –0.03) × 109 cells/ppb, and for CD3+CD8+ of –0.02 (–0.03 to –0.00) × 109 cells/ppb. Interpretation Circulating T–lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions—particularly cobalt—may have a general depressive effect on T– and B–lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762 PMID:23597114

2013-01-01

14

Effects of the space flight environment on man's immune system. II - Lymphocyte counts and reactivity.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present studies were undertaken to assess the effects of the environment of space flights on the cellular division of the human immune system. Peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte counts were determined at various preflight and postflight intervals for the 21 crewmen of Apollo Missions 7-13. Mean lymphocyte numbers tended to exhibit a delayed significant but fluctuating increase shortly after recovery, although a variety of responses was seen in individual astronauts. The in vitro reactivity of lymphocytes, reflected by RNA and DNA synthesis rates by unstimulated and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes tissue-cultured preflight and postflight from the same participants, was found to remain within previously established normal ranges. These results indicate that functional integrity of cellular immune potential as reflected by in vitro techniques is maintained during this spaceflight experience.

Fischer, G. L.; Daniels, J. C.; Levin, W. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Cobb, E. K.; Ritzmann, S. E.

1972-01-01

15

Lymphocyte T subset counts in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine blood lymphocyte T subset counts in children with elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We studied 107 children, ages 2.0 to 15.9 years, from 79 families who were referred to our Lipid Research Clinic because total cholesterol serum levels higher than 200 mg\\/dl had been detected in at least one child. At

A. Sarría; L. A. Moreno; M. Mur; A. Lázaro; M. P. Lasierra; L. Roda; A. Giner; L. Larrad; M. Bueno

1995-01-01

16

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

Bunn, Ms.

2010-10-30

17

Counting carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

18

Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Illustrative Mathematics

2012-07-31

19

A quartz nanopillar hemocytometer for high-yield separation and counting of CD4+ T lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of a novel quartz nanopillar (QNP) array cell separation system capable of selectively capturing and isolating a single cell population including primary CD4+ T lymphocytes from the whole pool of splenocytes. Integrated with a photolithographically patterned hemocytometer structure, the streptavidin (STR)-functionalized-QNP (STR-QNP) arrays allow for direct quantitation of captured cells using high content imaging. This technology exhibits an excellent separation yield (efficiency) of ~95.3 +/- 1.1% for the CD4+ T lymphocytes from the mouse splenocyte suspensions and good linear response for quantitating captured CD4+ T-lymphoblasts, which is comparable to flow cytometry and outperforms any non-nanostructured surface capture techniques, i.e. cell panning. This nanopillar hemocytometer represents a simple, yet efficient cell capture and counting technology and may find immediate applications for diagnosis and immune monitoring in the point-of-care setting.We report the development of a novel quartz nanopillar (QNP) array cell separation system capable of selectively capturing and isolating a single cell population including primary CD4+ T lymphocytes from the whole pool of splenocytes. Integrated with a photolithographically patterned hemocytometer structure, the streptavidin (STR)-functionalized-QNP (STR-QNP) arrays allow for direct quantitation of captured cells using high content imaging. This technology exhibits an excellent separation yield (efficiency) of ~95.3 +/- 1.1% for the CD4+ T lymphocytes from the mouse splenocyte suspensions and good linear response for quantitating captured CD4+ T-lymphoblasts, which is comparable to flow cytometry and outperforms any non-nanostructured surface capture techniques, i.e. cell panning. This nanopillar hemocytometer represents a simple, yet efficient cell capture and counting technology and may find immediate applications for diagnosis and immune monitoring in the point-of-care setting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11338d

Kim, Dong-Joo; Seol, Jin-Kyeong; Wu, Yu; Ji, Seungmuk; Kim, Gil-Sung; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Yong; Lim, Hyuneui; Fan, Rong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

2012-03-01

20

Counting Quail  

E-print Network

away from the noises of the engine cooling down. Note the time (a stopwatch is recommended), and then count (a) the number of different cocks heard, and (b) the total number of calls heard. Marking the location of various cocks calling on the data... sheet (Fig. 6) will help you determine if a bird you hear calling has been identifi ed previously. Experi- ence shows that spring call counts are fairly accurate until the number of calling cocks is greater than eight birds per listening post. Each...

Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

2005-10-05

21

Shared Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're interested in checking out the social media shares for various websites, the Shared Count tool is a nice find. Visitors just need to enter the URL in question and then can find out how often the site has been shared on a range of social media platforms. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-03-27

22

Counting Penguins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

1998-01-01

23

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.

2011-03-23

24

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

25

Counting Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

26

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

areese

2008-09-25

27

Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

1998-01-01

28

Pulmonary resection for lung cancer in HIV-positive patients with low (<200 lymphocytes/mm(3)) CD4(+) count.  

PubMed

The clinical improvement obtained with combination treatment has modified the therapeutic approach of lung cancer in HIV-positive patients. Aggressive surgical treatment has become a viable option for those patients in whom the CD4(+) cell count was greater than 200 lymphocytes/mm(3). We recently extended our surgical indications to include two HIV-positive patients with lung cancer (stage IIIA and IIB) and low (<200 lymphocytes/mm(3)) CD4(+) count. Both patients underwent a lobectomy and mediastinal nodal dissection. The postoperative course was uneventful. No evidence of recurrent cancer was seen at 12 and 20 months after the operation. Based on this limited experience, we conclude that a low CD4(+) count should not represent, per se, an exclusion criterion for the surgical treatment of pleuropulmonary conditions in HIV-positive patients. PMID:10963845

Massera, F; Rocco, G; Rossi, G; Robustellini, M; Pona, C D; Meroni, A; Rizzi, A

2000-08-01

29

Money Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.

PBS

2012-01-01

30

[Corrected count].  

PubMed

The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected. PMID:12286542

1991-11-27

31

Counting whole numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify and use whole numbers up to 100 Here are some links to help you learn more about counting Teach R Kids Math counting and number activity themes Here are some games to help you practice your counting counting cherrios Bunny Count Connect the Dots Game ...

Hirst, Ms.

2007-10-12

32

Immunologic differentiation of absolute lymphocyte count with an integrated flow cytometric system: a new concept for absolute T cell subset determinations.  

PubMed

We describe a method to obtain results for immune status monitoring that uses a three-test panel, comprised of isotype control and 2 specific Mab tests (CD4/CD8/CD3 and CD16/CD19/CD3), in conjunction with a flow cytometer that directly measures absolute counts. Automated software is used for lineage-specific gating of three-color immunofluorescence to determine lymphocyte and lymphocyte subset counts. The autogating function of this software is shown to yield equivalent results to manual analysis by an expert user, and to be effective when as few as 25 target cells are present. The software is also shown to perform automatic quality control checks of the sample preparation, reagent, and automated analysis. We demonstrate that the sum of T (CD3+), B (CD19+), and natural killer (NK, CD16 + CD3-) cells, as a determination of all lymphocytes, correlates well with lymphocytes measured using a light scatter differential. Moreover, T + B + NK lymphocyte count is shown to be less error-prone than lymphocyte count from light scatter differential, and to minimize errors that arise from between-technician variation in sample preparation. Our data suggest that the new approach that we describe could offer an alternative to the traditional two-stage methods for measuring absolute counts of lymphocyte subsets for immune status monitoring. As such this method could reduce, through objective automated analysis, testing cost and complexity, without sacrificing the quality of results. PMID:7587734

Mercolino, T J; Connelly, M C; Meyer, E J; Knight, M D; Parker, J W; Stelzer, G T; DeChirico, G

1995-03-15

33

Assignment 2 Counting Cells  

E-print Network

Assignment 2 Counting Cells This assignment is based on funny cells. Please look up the following, you are expected to program Counting Cells that can count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map in a distributed manner. Objective The objective is to count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map. When

Prasad, Sanjiva

34

Complete Blood Count  

MedlinePLUS

... Materialistic Choosing Safe Toys Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Checkups: What to Expect Blood Test: Complete Blood Count KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Print ...

35

All about Carbohydrate Counting  

MedlinePLUS

All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued • If the total carbohydrate ...

36

Partitioned counting digital filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-speed variation of counting digital filter implements count in a way which allows shortest permissible spacing between samples of input signal to be small fraction of time it takes to compute output sample.

Zohar, S.

1977-01-01

37

The Combination of Platelet Count and Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Is a Predictive Factor in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The prognostic value of inflammation indexes in esophageal cancer was not established. In this study, therefore, both prognostic values of Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were investigated and compared. METHODS: This retrospective study included 375 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. The cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was assessed by the log-rank test. The GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein (> 10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (< 35 g/l) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0, respectively. The COP-NLR was calculated as follows: patients with elevated platelet count (> 300 × 109/l) and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (> 3) were assigned to COP-NLR2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to COP-NLR1 or COP-NLR0, respectively. RESULTS: The 5-year CSS in patients with GPS0, 1, and 2 was 50.0%, 27.0%, and 12.5%, respectively (P < .001). The 5-year CSS in patients with COP-NLR0, 1, and 2 was 51.8%, 27.0%, and 11.6%, respectively (P < .001). Multivariate analysis showed that both GPS (P = .003) and COP-NLR (P = .003) were significant predictors in such patients. In addition, our study demonstrated a similar hazard ratio (HR) between COP-NLR and GPS (HR = 1.394 vs HR = 1.367). CONCLUSIONS: COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC. We conclude that COP-NLR predicts survival in ESCC similar to GPS. PMID:25389458

Feng, Ji-Feng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qi-Xun

2014-01-01

38

Clipart ETC: Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains over 630 clipart images that can be used for counting. There are Florida-themed flash cards for numbers 0 - 10 offered in English, Spanish, and bilingual options. Illustrations of hands depicting finger counting in both American style (beginning with the index finger) and European style (beginning with the thumb) are available. There are also images of 3-dimensional designs made of cubes and illustrations of bundles of sticks and dominoes for teaching skip-counting, addition, and place value.

Etc, Florida C.

2010-07-19

39

White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.  

PubMed

Background: Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster.Methods: The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012.Results: Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically.Conclusions: No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

2014-10-11

40

White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone.

Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

2015-01-01

41

Counting Transitive Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to count partial orders on a set of n points, it seems necessary to explicitly construct a representative of every isomorphism type. While that is done, one might as well determine their automorphism groups. In this note it is shown how several other types of binary relations can be counted, based on an explicit enumeration of the partial

Gotz Pfeifier; Galway Ireland

42

Counting coins and value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will identify and add up coins. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Counting Money - Values of coins Game #2:Counting Money (harder) Game #3: Let s Compare (hardest) Game #4: Money Hard Game #5: Cash Out--Very Difficult Math Game ...

Christian, Mrs.

2007-03-21

43

Counting Sheep in Basque  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

Araujo, Frank P.

1975-01-01

44

Counting Your Lucky Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners sample a star field to estimate the number of stars in the universe. This activity simulates how astronomers use sampling instead of census (counting) to more easily collect data in space. Learners predict, count, approximate, and average the number of stars in a Star Field Sheet.

Ricles, Shannon; Hatok, Tim; Taylor, Berlina

2013-01-30

45

Clinical utility of counting intraepithelial lymphocytes in celiac disease intestinal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background\\/aims: Our aims were to establish the cli- nical utility of assessing the intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) density in intestinal biopsies from a large series of individuals and to determine the best threshold dis- criminating celiac disease (CD) patients and controls in two populations with different pre-test prevalence. Methods: We prospectively performed intestinal biopsy and CD-related serology in 349 subjects

Ana Cabanne; Horacio Vázquez; Julio Argonz; María L. Moreno; Fabio Nachman; Sonia Niveloni; Roberto Mazure; Zulema Kogan; Juan C. Gómez; Eduardo Mauriño; Julio C. Bai

2007-01-01

46

Automated counting of pedestrians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in automatic building management systems and in road traffic monitoring systems have highlighted a need for accurate real time data relating to occupancy and flow of pedestrians in relatively unconstrained physical areas. In buildings where constrained pedestrian flow is possible to arrange either light beams or turn stiles have been used to count people, but in less constrained areas, counting has been achieved by some manual means i.e. hand counting of live or recorded scenes. The ESPRIT PEDMON (PEDestrian MONitoring) project is focused on the development of technologies to enable the automated counting of pedestrians in unconstrained areas, with the target of producing a cost effective real time demonstration at the projects conclusion. A number of mechanisms are being investigated within the project and image processing is taking a leading role in the development of wide area monitoring and counting systems. This report will describe the image processing work performed by the authors in fulfillment of the project.

Sexton, Graham G.; Zhang, Xiaowei

1994-09-01

47

Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in apparently healthy Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between leukocyte subtype counts and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia,\\u000a and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Logistic regressions using hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia\\u000a as a dependent variable and total leukocyte, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts as an independent\\u000a variable were calculated adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

Eiji Oda; Ryu Kawai; Yoshifusa Aizawa

48

Great Backyard Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1998, the Great Backyard Bird Count collects data on wild birds and to display results in near real-time. The event takes place in February in the U.S. and Canada in order to create a snapshot of bird distribution just before the start of spring migration. Participants create accounts and help to count birds for at least 15 minutes on one or more days during the yearly event. Data from past counts can be viewed at the website. A mobile app is available for entering data.

University, Cornell

49

Make Your Calories Count  

MedlinePLUS

... Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label . Use the Nutrition Facts Label for Healthy Weight Management Make Your Calories Count ... It's only three steps Glossary Definitions of food label and nutrition terms used in this presentation. Resources Additional food ...

50

Christmas Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The longest running Citizen Science survey in the world, Christmas Bird Count provides critical data on population trends. Tens of thousands of participants know that it is also a lot of fun. Data from the over 2,300 circles are entered after the count and become available to query under the Data & Research link. Participants will be helping to preserve bird species, as the data is used by conservation biologists to understand and protect species and their habitats.

Chapman, Frank

51

Machine Instruction Count Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Machine Instruction Count Program (MIC Program) was originally developed in 1978 to produce 'operator' and 'operand' counts of object programs written for the AN\\/UYK-7 military computer. In 1981, its capability was expanded so that it could apply to the AN\\/UYS-1 (or “Advanced Signal Processor”) military computer. The former machine, made by UNIVAC, hosts the IBM-developed software for the sonar

John E. Gaffney Jr.

1982-01-01

52

HawkCount  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HawkCount is an online database that facilitates the tracking and reporting of raptor migrations. It includes site reports from hawk-watch sites in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Materials include an interactive map that provides links to hawk-watch sites; location maps and general information on watch sites; a summary of recent reports; and day and monthly summaries of counts by site.

53

The predictive Value of Total Neutrophil Count and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting In-hospital Mortality and Complications after STEMI  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Leukocytosis, predominantly neutrophilia, has previously been described following ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The exact contribution of this phenomenon to the clinical outcome of STEMI is yet to be shown. We examined cellular inflammatory response to STEMI in the blood and its association with in-hospital mortality and/or adverse clinical events. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 404 patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of acute STEMI at Madani Heart Hospital from March 2010 to March 2012 were studied. The complete blood cell count (CBC) was obtained from all patientswithin12-24 hours of the onset of symptoms. Total leukocytes were counted and differential count was obtained for neutrophils, lymphocytes and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were evaluated. Association of cellular response with the incidence of post-MI mortality/complications was assessed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: In-hospital mortality and post-STEMI complication rate were 3.7% and 43.6%, respectively. Higher age (P=0.04), female gender (0.002), lower ejection fraction (P<0.001) and absolute neutrophil count (P=0.04) were predictors of mortality. Pump failure in the form of acute pulmonary edema or cardiogenic shock occurred in 35 (8.9%) of patients. Higher leukocyte (P<0.03) and neutrophil counts (P<0.03) and higher NLR (P=0.01) were predictors of failure. The frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF) at the first day was associated with higher neutrophil count (P<0.001) and higher NLR level (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis neutrophil count was an independent predictor of mortality (OR=2.94; 1.1-8.4, P=0.04), and neutrophil count [OR=1.1, CI (1.01-1.20), P=0.02], female gender [OR=2.34, CI (1.02-4.88), P=0.04] and diabetes [OR=2.52, CI (1.21-5.2), P=0.003] were independent predictors of heart failure. Conclusion: A single CBC analysis may help to identify STEMI patients at risk for mortality and heart failure, and total neutrophil count is the most valuable in predicting both. PMID:24753830

Ghaffari, Samad; Nadiri, Mehdi; Pourafkari, Leili; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Movasagpoor, Aliakbar; Rahmatvand, Neda; Rezazadeh Saatloo, Mohammadamin; Ahmadi, Mona; Nader, Nader D

2014-01-01

54

Response to treatment, mortality, and CD4 lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected persons with tuberculosis in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the severity of immune deficiency in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Côte d'lvoire and assessed its effect on mortality and response to treatment. Consecutive patients attending a tuberculosis treatment centre in Abidjan with smear-positive pulmonary or clinically diagnosed extrapulmonary tuberculosis were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections and had CD4 lymphocyte counts measured. Patients received standard short-course chemotherapy.

A. N Ackah; H Digbeu; K Daillo; A. E Greenberg; D Coulibaly; I-M Coulibaly; K. M Vetter; K. M de Cock

1995-01-01

55

Prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma following thermal ablation: a retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (RHCC) following thermal ablation. Materials and methods We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between preoperative ALC and the clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in 423 RHCC patients who underwent curative thermal ablation. Correlation analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) calculation, Kaplan–Meier curves, and multivariate regression were used for statistical analysis. Results The median time to recurrence was 12 months for RHCC patients after thermal ablation. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, preoperative ALC was an independent risk factor for cancer recurrence, along with tumor differentiation and ?-fetoprotein level. ALC ?1.64×109/L defined by ROC calculation was associated with prolonged survival (area under the curve 0.741, P<0.001). Patients with ALC ?1.64×109/L showed a mean survival of 20.2 months versus 11.6 months for patients with ALC <1.64×109/L (P<0.001). Patients were stratified into high and low groups according to ALC status. After excluding the basic parameters between groups, the 1- and 3-year recurrence rates in the high group were 20.9% and 29.5%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the low group (58.4% and 71.9%, respectively; P<0.001). The recurrence-free survival rates in the two groups analyzed by Kaplan–Meier curves were significantly different (P<0.001). Conclusion Preoperative ALC is a powerful prognostic factor for RHCC recurrence after thermal ablation, which suggests that maintaining a high ALC in RHCC patients might improve cancer outcomes. PMID:25336974

Li, Xin; Han, Zhiyu; Cheng, Zhigang; Yu, Jie; Yu, Xiaoling; Liang, Ping

2014-01-01

56

Counting the Homeless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These seven articles focus on Shelter and Street Night, a recent Census Bureau effort to include components of the nation's homeless population in the 1990 census count. The success of investigators in Chicago (Illinois), New York City, Los Angeles (California), Phoenix (Arizona), and New Orleans (Louisiana) is analyzed. (SLD)

Wright, James D., Ed.

1992-01-01

57

Reticulocyte Count Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Levin, M. (2007 March 8, Updated). Reticulocyte Count. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/ ...

58

What Counts as Evidence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

2014-01-01

59

Counting digital filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.

Zohar, S. (inventor)

1973-01-01

60

Fraction Counting Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will make a book of fractions in which they choose a denominator and count up to a whole and greater than a whole. They will represent the fractions as pictures, in number form, word form, and on a number line.

2012-12-17

61

Every Square Inch Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do scientists measure the abundance of rocky intertidal organisms? How does the subtidal zone differ from the rocky intertidal zone in organisms and abundance? Every Square Inch Counts is an activity that compares the rocky intertidal habitats of Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary to the subtidal benthic habitat in Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary.

62

Great Backyard Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A massive effort co-sponsored by Cornell University's Laboratory of Ornithology and the National Audubon Society, the Great Bird Count's goal is to "provide a detailed picture of how bird populations compare region-by-region, as counted by ordinary citizens at the time of year when most migratory birds are just getting ready to head back north from their wintering grounds." The site contains summary data on the number of observers reporting (by postal code, state, and hour), the total number of birds recorded (by species), and--of greatest value--color maps of species distributions (including all locations surveyed). In addition, 10-year trends from Project Feeder Watch are provided for comparison. Note that "raw data" maps and summaries are currently being added to provide immediate access to data; charts have not yet been checked for accuracy.

1998-01-01

63

Count the Beat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article discusses the Count the Beat project, which incorporates music into math instruction. The instructors in this project began each lesson with a brief math exercise followed by a more in-depth music task utilizing number lines, fractions, ratios, and/or probability. While music professionals carried out this project the article does offer some suggestions for application in the math classroom without music professional.

Goulder, Nicky; Lodge, Samantha

2013-01-01

64

Quality Counts Certificate  

E-print Network

Date Ag Science Teacher / County Extension Agent Be it known that has been trained in the eight core concepts of Quality Counts: Six Pillars of Character Purpose of 4-H/FFA Purpose of Livestock Projects Decision Making and Goal... Setting Livestock Project Impact on Red Meat Industry Responsibility of Producing a Safe Product Medication Usage and Labeling Animal Care and Well-Being Trustworthiness Respect Responsibility Fairness Caring Citizenship 4-H 2?5 11-06 ...

Chilek, Kevin

2007-01-31

65

Garden Butterflies Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UK-based Butterfly Conservation presents the preliminary results of the Garden Butterfly Count (GBC), which enlisted the help of private residents to survey backyard butterflies and moths. Over 11,000 completed survey forms were returned to Butterfly Conservation at the end of the 2002 season, and the Web site provides a brief look at early results and analysis. The information is presented for a general audience, making this Web site an interesting stop for any reader.

66

RCT of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Delivered to HIV+ Patients in Iran: Effects on CD4+ T Lymphocyte Count and Medical and Psychological Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the immediate and longer-term effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) among treatment adherents on CD4+ T Lymphocyte Count (CD4 count) and medical and psychological symptoms among HIV+ patients in Tehran, Iran. Methods Using a randomized controlled trial design, data were analyzed from 173 HIV+ patients (CD4 Count > 250) not yet receiving antiretroviral therapy who participated in either an 8-week MBSR (n=87) or a brief education and support condition (ESC) (n=86) at the Imam Khomeini Hospital. Assessments included CD4 count, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R), and Medical Symptom Checklist (MSCL) at baseline, immediate post-test, and 3, 6, 9 and 12-month follow-up periods. Results The treatment adherent sample had a mean age of 35.1(SD = 6.5) years and 69% were male. Linear mixed model estimates indicated mean CD4 count increased from baseline up to 9 months post-treatment, then returned to baseline level at 12 months. Improvements in mean SCL-90R (up to 6 months) and MSCL (up to 12 months) scores were observed for the MBSR condition while ESC scores remained the same over time; however, only MSCL improvements significantly differed between groups and these changes lasted up to the final assessment. Conclusions Findings suggest that among treatment adherent Iranian HIV+ patients not yet receiving antiretroviral drug treatment, MBSR appears to have the strongest potential to improve self-reported physical symptomatology. Trial Registration Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT201106084076N2. PMID:22753635

SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Jam, Sara; Foroughi, Maryam; Imani, AmirHossein; Mohraz, Minoo; Djavid, Gholamreza Esmaeeli; Black, David S.

2012-01-01

67

Skip Count by 5s  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help the Third Little Pig skip count to 1,000 bricks in groups of 5. (Note students are not expected to count from 0-1,000 by 5s, but this activity allows them to experience counting within a variety of contexts between 0 and 1,000.)

Jayne Hartman

2012-07-23

68

The complexity of approximate counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several computational problems that can be formulated as problems of counting the number of objects having a certain property. Valiant [22] has introduced the class #P which includes a variety of counting problems such as counting the number of perfect matchings in a graph, computing the permanent of a matrix [22], finding the size of a backtrack search

Larry Stockmeyer

1983-01-01

69

AN ADJUSTABLE COUNTING TRAY FOR \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A counting tray is described which enables large bulky samples, of from ; 1 to 100 grams, to be counted as infinitely-thick sources, for any beta energy, ; with exactly reproducible geometry. The counting tray is designed to fit the ; standard 1271 A G-M counter support. (auth);

1957-01-01

70

Semi-physiological pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling and simulation of 5-fluorouracil for the whole time course of alterations in leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in rats.  

PubMed

1. We aimed to develop a simple pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model to predict the onset and degree of severe toxic side effects that severely limit the use of many anticancer agents, such as myelosuppression, in rats. 2. Our PK-PD model consisted of a two-compartment PK model, with one compartment representing proliferative cells and some transit compartments consisting of maturing cells, while the other compartment represented circulating blood cells for the PD model. 3. The semi-physiological PK-PD model effectively captured the features of myelosuppression and the degree of the off-target toxicities observed after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy, and helped simultaneously simulate the whole time course for alterations in leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts after 5-FU treatment in rats. Interestingly, by plotting the nadir period of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts as determined by PK-PD analytical simulation curves against the area under the plasma 5-FU concentration-time curve (AUC0-?) after intravenous administration of 5-FU, a linear relationship was inferred, with r2=0.989, 0.877 and 0.956, respectively. 4. The semi-physiological PK-PD model is a valuable tool for evaluating a variety of novel cancer chemopreventive agents or emerging therapeutic strategies that are difficult to address in humans. PMID:24650147

Kobuchi, Shinji; Ito, Yukako; Hayakawa, Taro; Kuwano, Shota; Baba, Akiko; Shinohara, Kota; Nishimura, Asako; Shibata, Nobuhito; Takada, Kanji

2014-09-01

71

Count the Vowels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to count the vowels in a list of 15 words. They are then asked to write down as many WORDS as they can remember. They can usually remember only 3 - 4. Next students are told to look at the list of words and asked to memorize them. They can usually remember about half of them after trying to memorize the words. Finally, students are told that the words are listed in a certain way, with a guiding concept to the arrangements. They readily understand the words are listed according to number. After spending 30 seconds to memorize the words this time, students generally tend to remember 12 or more. Metacognitive components of the activityStudents learn that considering the organization of informaton is important to remember it. Metacognitive goals for this activity:To show students that they can significantly and immediately improve their learning. Assessing students' metacognitionStudents tell us in verbal or email communication that they have now "stopped counting vowels" and are learning information.

72

Count Us In  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Online division, this interactive site contains age-appropriate and visually-appealing games designed to help young people understand basic number concepts. There are fifteen games in total, all of which may be downloaded for use in the classroom or at home, at no charge. Some of the games include activities that allow students to design patterns using objects contained with a bookshelf or the ever-popular sheep counting game, where participants must move sheep from left to right until there are the same number of sheep in each paddock. Additionally, there is a section that explains the purpose of each game, and a help feature within each game that helps users become acclimated to the goal of each activity. The site is rounded out by a selection of teacher resources designed to complement each game on the site.

73

ICF's Annual Midwest Crane Count: Counting Beyond Cranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to develop a Program Plan for the Crane Count. The Program Plan establishes a mission, goals, and objectives for the Crane Count, with specific recommendations for future improvements and direction. This plan was created through a variety of sequential steps including: a) review and content analysis of historic program documents, b) assessment of current

Brian T. Barch

74

Seroprevalence of helicobacter pylori in human immunodeficiency virus-positive Patients and it's correlation with CD4+ Lymphocyte Count  

PubMed Central

Background: This study assessed the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies among Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It also examines whether anti H. pylori seroprevalence was associated with the severity of the HIV infection or the antiretroviral treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 114 HIV-infected patients and 114 age and sex-matched controls, without symptoms referable to upper gastrointestinal tract were recruited. Blood samples were obtained from all subjects. Serum IgG and IgA against H. pylori measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The rate of anti H. pylori IgG seropositivity was 57.9% in HIV-infected patients and 28.95% in controls (P < 0.001), while the rate of IgA seropositivity was 2.64% in HIV patients and 31.57% in controls (P < 0.001). Although there was an increasing trend of higher IgG and IgA titre by increasing CD4 cell count in HIV-positive patients, it was not reach statistical significance. There was no statistical difference in the serology of anti H. pylori IgG and IgA between patients receiving antiretroviral therapy comparing untreated HIV patients. Conclusions: This study showed higher seroprevalence of H. pylori IgG along with lower seroprevalence of H. pylori IgA in HIV-positive patients compared matched controls. PMID:24970974

Abdollahi, Alireza; Shoar, Saeed; Jafari, Siroos; Emadi-Kochak, Hamid

2014-01-01

75

Field evaluation in Chad of community usage of CD4 T lymphocyte counting by alternative single-platform flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Background Field and community evaluation of the routine usage of CD4 T counting platforms is essential in resource-poor countries for efficient and cost-effective monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children attending health care centers. Methods We herein addressed the principal issues raised by the implementation of the single-platform, volumetric Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) in 8 community HIV monitoring laboratories of different levels throughout Chad. This is a country with particularly difficult conditions, both in terms of climate and vast geographical territory, making the decentralization of the therapeutic management of HIV-infected patients challenging. Results The routine usage of the Auto40 flow cytometers for a period of 5 years (2008–2013) confirms the reliability and robustness of the analyzer for community-based CD4 T cell enumeration in terms of both absolute numbers and percentages to enable accurate monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children. However, our observations suggest that the Auto40 mini flow cytometer is not suitable for all laboratories as it is oversized and ultimately very expensive. Conclusion The Chad experience with the Auto40 flow cytometer suggests that its usage in resource-limited settings should be mainly reserved to reference (level 1) or district (level 2) laboratories, rather than to laboratories of health care centres (level 3). PMID:24083615

2013-01-01

76

AN AUTOMATED MOSQUITO COUNTING TRAP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An automated mosquito counting trap has been designed and tested in laboratory cages. It employs a custom designed infrared beam sensor head retrofit into a commercial counter-flow technology trap (MM-X, American Biophysics Corp.). The trap provides time-stamped insect counts that can be downloaded...

77

Counting cases in substitope algorithms.  

PubMed

We describe how to count the cases that arise in a family of visualization techniques, including Marching Cubes, Sweeping Simplices, Contour Meshing, Interval Volumes, and Separating Surfaces. Counting the cases is the first step toward developing a generic visualization algorithm to produce substitopes (geometric substitutions of polytopes). We demonstrate the method using "GAP," a software system for computational group theory. The case-counts are organized into a table that provides a taxonomy of members of the family; numbers in the table are derived from actual lists of cases, which are computed by our methods. The calculations confirm previously reported case-counts for four dimensions that are too large to check by hand and predict the number of cases that will arise in substitope algorithms that have not yet been invented. We show how Pólya theory produces a closed-form upper bound on the case counts. PMID:18579966

Banks, David C; Linton, Stephen A; Stockmeyer, Paul K

2004-01-01

78

Uncertainty in measurements by counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

2012-02-01

79

Count the Dots: Binary Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data in computers is stored and transmitted as a series of zeros and ones. Learners explore how to represent numbers using just these two symbols, through a binary system of cards. When the card's dots are showing, its value is 1 and the dots are counted. When the card's dots are not showing, its value is 0 and the dots are not counted. Learners model binary counting to discover patterns and represent numbers. This activity includes three worksheet activities (1 introductory and 2 extensions) for learners to complete and background information for the instructor.

Technology, National C.

2012-12-13

80

Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Donald Buckley (Quinnipiac University;Biology)

2006-05-20

81

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

82

Counting Graylings on the Tundra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article profiles Linda Deegan, scientist with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site in the Kuparuk River region of Alaska, as she counts and tags Arctic grayling as they migrate from streams to lakes in the fall.

Landis, Carol

83

Normalization of lymphocyte count after high ablative dose of I-131 in a patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia and secondary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Case report.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a 70-year-old male patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia who presented subsequently a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with metastases to regional lymph nodes. The patient was treated with surgical thyroidectomy with regional and cervical lymph node excision and radioiodine therapy (I-131). The protocolar control scintigraphy 4 days after the radioactive dose showed I-131 uptake in both axillae and even in the inguinal regions. PET/CT showed faint FDG-F-18 uptake in one lymph node of the left axilla. An ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy of this lymph node identified by I-131 SPECT/CT and FDG-F-18 PET/CT revealed lymphoma cells and was negative for thyroid tissue and thyroglobulin content. The sequential blood counts done routinely after radiation treatment showed a marked fall until return to normal values of leucocytes and lymphocytes (absolute and relative), which were still normal in the last control 19 months after the radioiodine administration. Chest computed tomography showed a decrease in size of axillary and para-aortic lymph nodes. By immunohistochemistry, cells of the lymphoid B lineage decreased from 52% before radioiodine therapy to 5% after the procedure. The authors speculate about a possible sodium iodide symporter expression by the cells of this lymphoma, similar to some other non-thyroid tumors, such as breast cancer cells. PMID:24728254

Thom, Anneliese Rosmarie Gertrud Fischer; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Teles, Verônica Goes; Osawa, Akemi; Santos, Fabio Pires de Souza; Pasqualin, Denise da Cunha; Wagner, Jairo; Yamaga, Lilian Yuri Itaya; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Campos Neto, Guilherme de Carvalho; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão

2014-01-01

84

Hanford whole body counting manual  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

1990-06-01

85

GalaxyCount: Galaxy counts and variance calculator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GalaxyCount calculates the number and standard deviation of galaxies in a magnitude limited observation of a given area. The methods to calculate both the number and standard deviation may be selected from different options. Variances may be computed for circular, elliptical and rectangular window functions.

Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Ellis, Simon

2013-12-01

86

Role of the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio in the Differential Diagnosis between Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Differential diagnosis between pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often challenging. The neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLR), a convenient marker of inflammation, has been demonstrated to be a useful biomarker for predicting bacteremia. We investigated the usefulness of the NLR for discriminating pulmonary TB from bacterial CAP in an intermediate TB-burden country. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of 206 patients suspected of having pulmonary TB or bacterial CAP from January 2009 to February 2011. The diagnostic ability of the NLR for differential diagnosis was evaluated and compared with that of C-reactive protein. Results Serum NLR levels were significantly lower in patients with pulmonary TB than in patients with bacterial CAP (3.67±2.12 vs. 14.64±9.72, P<0.001). A NLR <7 was an optimal cut-off value to discriminate patients with pulmonary TB from patients with bacterial CAP (sensitivity 91.1%, specificity 81.9%, positive predictive value 85.7%, negative predictive value 88.5%). The area under the curve for the NLR (0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-0.98) was significantly greater than that of C-reactive protein (0.83, 95% CI, 0.76-0.88; P=0.0015). Conclusions The NLR obtained at the initial diagnostic stage is a useful laboratory marker to discriminate patients with pulmonary TB from patients with bacterial CAP in an intermediate TB-burden country. PMID:23482854

Yoon, Neul-Bom; Son, Choonhee

2013-01-01

87

Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

Boeke, Kaye

88

Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

89

Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

90

Flap over Census 2000 Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Friday, Commerce Secretary Don Evans announced that he, not the Census Bureau, would make the final call on whether to adjust the 2000 Census results to include the estimated undercount of just above one percent. This set off a storm of criticism from congressional Democrats who claimed the Bush administration was politicizing the Census count. (Most analysts believe that an adjusted count will lead to re-districtings favoring the Democrat's chances in the next congressional election.) The White House countered that such a decision is mandated to the appointed representatives of the elected President, not to bureaucrats. Former President Clinton had given the final say to the Director of the Census Bureau, ostensibly to de-politicize the process. But with re-districting stakes so high, it is unlikely that either Republicans or Democrats are ready to approach this issue as one of mere statistics. Indeed, the controversy of the last few years over sampling (a process whereby the Census Bureau makes statistical estimates of uncounted households using surveys of counted ones) has already made the issue the subject of two Supreme Court rulings. The acting director of the Census must make his recommendations by the first of March. Secretary Evans will issue a decision and final count by March 5th.

Charbonneau, David D.

2001-01-01

91

Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

92

Mathline Activity I -- Borda Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mock-election demonstrating the Borda Electoral Count, a ranking system of elections that is rarely used for governmental elections, but often used to rank in non-governmental settings such as student governments or college sports teams. This activity is especially useful when used in conjunction with other electoral simulations.

2000-01-01

93

Common Errors in Counting Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics teachers are often asked, "What is the most difficult topic for you to teach?" Their answer is teaching students to count. The concepts can be challenging and slippery to apply in problems. Many times, no rigid procedures or formulas can be used to solve the problems directly, and students simply do not know where or how to approach…

Annin, Scott A.; Lai, Kevin S.

2010-01-01

94

Carbon fiber counting. [aircraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed for characterizing the number and lengths of carbon fibers accidentally released by the burning of composite portions of civil aircraft structure in a jet fuel fire after an accident. Representative samplings of carbon fibers collected on transparent sticky film were counted from photographic enlargements with a computer aided technique which also provided fiber lengths.

Pride, R. A.

1980-01-01

95

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

96

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

97

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book presents findings of the Kids Count Project on current conditions faced by Oklahoma children age birth through 18. This second annual factbook organizes state and county data over a period of time to enable conditions for children in each county to be compared and ranked. The benchmark indicators studied include low birthweight…

Ingraham, Sandy

98

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

99

Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.  

PubMed

Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. PMID:24862513

Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W

2014-05-26

100

The counting recursive digital filter.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the bit-level operations involved in the convolutions realizing recursive digital filters leads to hardware designs of such filters based on the operation of counting. Various designs realizing both the canonic and 'direct' forms are presented with particular emphasis on low-cost low-speed high-flexibility machines.

Zohar, S.

1973-01-01

101

KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

102

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

103

South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

104

South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

105

Number Systems: Finger Counting (Session 1)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will examine number systems from various cultures around the world. Session 1: First let's begin by examining how other cultures finger count. First examine Image of Ancient Chinese finger counting system. 1.What do you notice about this counting system? 2.How are the fingers used in this system? Now watch the Youtube video finger counting to 10 in Chinese. Now Learn how to finger count to 10 in Chinese. What numbers are similar to our own finger counting system? At what point ...

Nunes-Bufford, Mrs.

2008-12-01

106

Countdown: Counting with a Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will count down the days to a special event. How much longer? Calendars, dates, and units of time mean much more when youâre anticipating a special event. Locate the date youâre waiting for on the calendar. Younger learners can keep track of how many days. Older learners can count down the hours, minutes, and even seconds as the time draws near. Or, challenge a multi-age group to find as many ways as they can to express the amount of time left (32 days, 4 weeks and 4 days, 1 month and 1 day..). Make this a routine: Each time you gather the group, check the countdown. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

107

Corticosteroid treatment in pulmonary sarcoidosis: do serial lavage lymphocyte counts, serum angiotensin converting enzyme measurements, and gallium-67 scans help management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty two patients with persisting pulmonary sarcoidosis fulfilling defined criteria for treatment were managed according to a standard clinical protocol. In this an attempt was made to achieve and maintain maximal radiographic and physiological improvement with individually titrated doses of corticosteroids. Lavage cell counts, serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) determinations, and gallium-67 scans were planned at standard intervals but were

M Turner-Warwick; W McAllister; R Lawrence; A Britten; P L Haslam

1986-01-01

108

Counting Squares in a Square  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet displays one way of counting the smaller grid squares nested inside a larger grid square, such as a checkerboard or chessboard. The applet allows the user to select the size of the smaller grid square and drag it to other positions, tracking the upper left corner of each new square. The explanation reveals the formula for total number of grid squares within a N x N grid square: the sum of the first N squares.

Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny

2011-01-01

109

Student Observation Network: Star Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity, students investigate whether people in different parts of the world see the same number of stars. They will learn how to construct a viewing tube, use it to count the stars in random samples of sky, make calculations, and record the data. They will then share their data online with other students from all over the world to find out why differences might occur.

110

Electron counting in quantum dots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use time-resolved charge detection techniques to investigate single-electron tunneling in semiconductor quantum dots. The ability to detect individual charges in real-time makes it possible to count electrons one-by-one as they pass through the structure. The setup can thus be used as a high-precision current meter for measuring ultra-low currents, with resolution several orders of magnitude better than that of

S. Gustavsson; R. Leturcq; M. Studer; I. Shorubalko; T. Ihn; K. Ensslin; D. C. Driscoll; A. C. Gossard

2009-01-01

111

KIDS COUNT Data Book 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1998 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on ten statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, line graphs comparing indicators from various states, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. The particularly helpful line graph section of the online data book allows users to compare data for a single indicator. Users select a time range and up to eight areas to be included in a customized graph. Overall, this site does an excellent job of synthesizing child-related data from quality data sources.

112

Variations in leucocyte count during menstrual cycle.  

PubMed

The neutrophil counts of seven women, three tkaing oral contraceptives and four nottaking them, showed cyclical variations during the menstrual cycle, most consistentlya fall in the neutrophil count at menstuation. The neutrophil count in women not taking oral contraceptives rose to a peak twice during each cycle. One womennot taking oral contraceptives was studied in detail over eight consecutive menstrualcycles. She showed two neutrophil peaks per cycle and a similiar variation in themonocyte count. The eosinophil count showed a reciprocal relation with the neutrophil count and the basophil count fell in mid-cycle. The changes in her neutrophil count seemed to follow changes in oestrogen level with a delay of one to two days. Oestrogen probably promotes release of neutrophils from the bone marrow rather than from the marginated pool. PMID:1148661

Bain, B J; England, J M

1975-05-31

113

Modeling and Simulation of Count Data  

PubMed Central

Count data, or number of events per time interval, are discrete data arising from repeated time to event observations. Their mean count, or piecewise constant event rate, can be evaluated by discrete probability distributions from the Poisson model family. Clinical trial data characterization often involves population count analysis. This tutorial presents the basics and diagnostics of count modeling and simulation in the context of pharmacometrics. Consideration is given to overdispersion, underdispersion, autocorrelation, and inhomogeneity. PMID:25116273

Plan, E L

2014-01-01

114

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON  

E-print Network

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION Marine Biological Laboratory AUG 1 1 1958, Commissioner RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern and- Dipt iman 1958 #12;RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern, Diptiman

115

Radix Sorts key-indexed counting  

E-print Network

1 Radix Sorts key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix quicksort applicationAt(int k); public int length(int); } #12;4 key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix is possible and practical #12;8 key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix quicksort

Sedgewick, Robert

116

Effect of "HAART" on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV seropositive south-Indian individuals--a follow up study.  

PubMed

Because of the drastic cut down in the prices of antiretroviral drugs, the antiretroviral therapy has become more affordable in India. 16 HIV-1 infected individuals who were on HAART were followed up for 12 months. The CD4 + T Cell count estimation was done at mean intervals of 6 months and 12 months. Antiretroviral therapy showed good response in 14(87.5%) and deterioration in 2 (12.5%) cases. PMID:16758693

Shahapur, Praveen R; Bairy, Indira; Shivananda, P G

2005-04-01

117

The interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism is associated with elevated leukocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts and reduced physical fitness in young healthy smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking and interleukin-6 are important factors in driving inflammation. This study assessed the relationship between smoking, interleukin-6 genotype, physical fitness, and peripheral blood count in healthy young men. For this interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism -174 genotype-phenotype association study 1,929 healthy German male aviators recruited at the central German Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine were stratified by smoking habits. Cardiovascular fitness

J. R. Ortlepp; J. Metrikat; K. Vesper; V. Mevissen; F. Schmitz; M. Albrecht; P. Maya-Pelzer; P. Hanrath; C. Weber; K. Zerres; R. Hoffmann

2003-01-01

118

Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers  

PubMed Central

Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n?=?3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992–4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. Results All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p?=?0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively), while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all). Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1–2 µm wider venular caliber. Conclusions These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation. PMID:25036459

Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

2014-01-01

119

Ed Week: Technology Counts 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ed Week (see also Scout Report from September 13, 1996) publishes the annual Technology Counts report, now on its eighth edition, which reports on the status of technology and education. This years' report "tracks the economic and policy forces that are converging to push changes at the federal, state, and local levels." The article reports that the previous focus on funding instructional technologies, such as personal computers and learning software, is being superseded by a growing emphasis on data-management technologies. They trace this need for online student-data systems to "the expansive reporting requirements and ambitious student-achievement goals set forth in the federal No Child Left Behind Act." The article discusses these shifts and offers links to Web resources relating to data management technologies, student achievement reporting requirements, and more. Note that visitors must complete a simple and free registration form to view the articles in Ed Week.

120

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

121

Association of Psychological Stress Response of Fatigue with White Blood Cell Count in Male Daytime Workers  

PubMed Central

Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts. PMID:24975105

NISHITANI, Naoko; SAKAKIBARA, Hisataka

2014-01-01

122

Full counting statistics of multiple Andreev reflection.  

PubMed

We derive the full counting statistics of charge transfer through a voltage biased superconducting junction. We find that, for measurement times much longer than the inverse Josephson frequency, the counting statistics describes a correlated transfer of quanta of multiple electron charges, each quantum associated with the transfer of a single quasiparticle. An expression for the counting statistics in terms of the quasiparticle scattering amplitudes is derived. PMID:14611307

Johansson, Göran; Samuelsson, Peter; Ingerman, Ake

2003-10-31

123

Electron counting in quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use time-resolved charge detection techniques to investigate single-electron tunneling in semiconductor quantum dots. The ability to detect individual charges in real-time makes it possible to count electrons one-by-one as they pass through the structure. The setup can thus be used as a high-precision current meter for measuring ultra-low currents, with resolution several orders of magnitude better than that of conventional current meters. In addition to measuring the average current, the counting procedure also makes it possible to investigate correlations between charge carriers. Electron correlations are conventionally probed in noise measurements, which are technically challenging due to the difficulty to exclude the influence of external noise sources in the experimental setup. Using real-time charge detection techniques, we circumvent the problem by studying the electron correlation directly from the counting statistics of the tunneling electrons. In quantum dots, we find that the strong Coulomb interaction makes electrons try to avoid each other. This leads to electron anti-bunching, giving stronger correlations and reduced noise compared to a current carried by statistically independent electrons. The charge detector is implemented by monitoring changes in conductance in a nearby capacitively coupled quantum point contact. We find that the quantum point contact not only serves as a detector but also causes a back-action onto the measured device. Electron scattering in the quantum point contact leads to emission of microwave radiation. The radiation is found to induce an electronic transition between two quantum dots, similar to the absorption of light in real atoms and molecules. Using a charge detector to probe the electron transitions, we can relate a single-electron tunneling event to the absorption of a single photon. Moreover, since the energy levels of the double quantum dot can be tuned by external gate voltages, we use the device as a frequency-selective single-photon detector operating at microwave energies. The ability to put an on-chip microwave detector close to a quantum conductor opens up the possibility to investigate radiation emitted from mesoscopic structures and gives a deeper understanding of the role of electron-photon interactions in quantum conductors. A central concept of quantum mechanics is the wave-particle duality; matter exhibits both wave- and particle-like properties and cannot be described by either formalism alone. To investigate the wave properties of the electrons, we perform experiments on a structure containing a double quantum dot embedded in the Aharonov-Bohm ring interferometer. Aharonov-Bohm rings are traditionally used to study interference of electron waves traversing different arms of the ring, in a similar way to the double-slit setup used for investigating interference of light waves. In our case, we use the time-resolved charge detection techniques to detect electrons one-by-one as they pass through the interferometer. We find that the individual particles indeed self-interfere and give rise to a strong interference pattern as a function of external magnetic field. The high level of control in the system together with the ability to detect single electrons enables us to make direct observations of non-intuitive fundamental quantum phenomena like single-particle interference or time-energy uncertainty relations.

Gustavsson, S.; Leturcq, R.; Studer, M.; Shorubalko, I.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Driscoll, D. C.; Gossard, A. C.

2009-06-01

124

Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

2014-01-01

125

Multiaxial cycle counting for critical plane methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical plane method has proven to be a popular analytical tool for estimating multiaxial fatigue. Based on the strain-life approach to fatigue, the method relies on a cycle counting routine to identify cycles and a damage model to assess damage for each cycle. Researchers have traditionally borrowed cycle counting methods from established uniaxial methods. This work will show how

T. E Langlais; J. H Vogel; T. R Chase

2003-01-01

126

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve  

E-print Network

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner COUNTS OF RED TIDE of red tide organisms, Gymnodinium breve, and associated oceanographic data from Florida west coast, 1954

127

Optical Channels: Practical Limits with Photon Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In optical communication, ideal amplification of the received signal leads to a limiting signaling rate of 1 nat per photon. This is much inferior to the optimum limit ofkTjoules\\/nat, which we can theoretically approach by counting photons. Practically, the rates we can attain by photon counting will be limited by how elaborate codes we can instrument rather than by thermal

J. Pierce; J. R. PIERCE

1978-01-01

128

2009 KidsCount in Colorado!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

2009-01-01

129

Grain Counting Method Based On Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain counting is very important for breeding and quality inspection. In order to improve the efficiency and precision of grain counting, a novel method based on MATLAB image processing technology and mechanical vibration technology was proposed. It can effectively resolve the overlaps and conglutinations among grains by mechanical vibration and image erosion processing respectively. Experiment results show that this method

Zhao Ping; Li Yongkui

2009-01-01

130

Automated counting of mammalian cell colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigating the effect of low-dose radiation exposure on cells using assays of colony-forming ability requires large cell samples to maintain statistical accuracy. Manually counting the resulting colonies is a laborious task in which consistent objectivity is hard to achieve. This is true especially with some mammalian cell lines which form poorly defined or `fuzzy' colonies, typified by glioma or fibroblast cell lines. A computer-vision-based automated colony counter is presented in this paper. It utilizes novel imaging and image-processing methods involving a modified form of the Hough transform. The automated counter is able to identify less-discrete cell colonies typical of these cell lines. The results of automated colony counting are compared with those from four manual (human) colony counts for the cell lines HT29, A172, U118 and IN1265. The results from the automated counts fall well within the distribution of the manual counts for all four cell lines with respect to surviving fraction (SF) versus dose curves, SF values at 2 Gy (SF2) and total area under the SF curve (Dbar). From the variation in the counts, it is shown that the automated counts are generally more consistent than the manual counts.

Barber, Paul R.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Kelly, Jane; Mayes, Catherine R.; Boulton, Peter; Woodcock, Michael; Joiner, Michael C.

2001-01-01

131

CD4 cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We evaluated 85 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients with tuberculosis for clinical features and CD4 cell counts. Thirty-seven patients had low CD4 cell counts (mean +/- SD, 341 +/- 116 cells/microL), and 48 patients had normal CD4 cell counts (mean +/- SD, 830 +/- 254 cells/microL). CD4 cell counts were most strongly correlated with total lymphocyte counts (r = 0.84). If total lymphocyte count was excluded, depressed CD4 cell counts were significantly associated with low serum albumin levels, extensive pulmonary disease, low body-mass index, and low hematocrit. Of these four variables, multivariate linear discriminant analysis revealed that the serum albumin level was the best single predictor of low CD4 cell counts and that the other three variables did not improve predictive value. Because these four variables are markers of severe tuberculosis, these findings suggest that disease severity is associated with greater depression of the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts. The CD4 cell counts returned to normal levels in most patients after 1 month of therapy. PMID:9142808

Jones, B E; Oo, M M; Taikwel, E K; Qian, D; Kumar, A; Maslow, E R; Barnes, P F

1997-05-01

132

B Counting at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

McGregor, Grant Duncan

2008-12-16

133

Nonparametric Comparison for Multivariate Panel Count Data  

PubMed Central

Multivariate panel count data often occur when there exist several related recurrent events or response variables defined by occurrences of related events. For univariate panel count data, several nonparametric treatment comparison procedures have been developed. However, it does not seem to exist a nonparametric procedure for multivariate cases. Based on differences between estimated mean functions, this paper proposes a class of nonparametric test procedures for multivariate panel count data. The asymptotic distribution of the new test statistics is established and a simulation study is conducted. Also the new procedures are applied to a skin cancer problem that motivated this study. PMID:24465081

Zhao, Hui; Virkler, Kate; Sun, Jianguo

2014-01-01

134

Taxonomic counts of cognition in the wild  

PubMed Central

In 1985, Kummer & Goodall pleaded for an ecology of intelligence and proposed that innovations might be a good way to measure cognition in the wild. Counts of innovation per taxonomic group are now available in hundreds of avian and primate species, as are counts of tactical deception, tool use and social learning. Robust evidence suggests that innovation rate and its neural correlates allow birds and mammals to cope better with environmental change. The positive correlations between taxonomic counts, and the increasing number of cognitive and neural measures found to be associated with ecological variables, suggest that domain general processes might be more pervasive than previously thought in the evolution of intelligence. PMID:20719769

Lefebvre, Louis

2011-01-01

135

Argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region counts and prognosis in pharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

The prognostic significance of argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs) has been evaluated in biopsy specimens from 61 primary squamous and undifferentiated carcinomas of the pharynx prior to therapy. The univariate Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis showed a significant correlation between 3- and 5-year survival rates and the mean AgNOR number per tumour cell (P less than 0.001). No significant correlation was found between prognosis and patients age and sex, tumour location, clinical stage, histologic grade, extent of lymphocytic infiltration, HMFG-2 positivity of tumour cells and UCHL1, LN2, MB2 positivity of infiltrating lymphocytes. There was no significant association between AgNOR counts and tumour histologic grade or clinical stage. Multivariate survival analysis showed that only two variables were significantly correlated with prognosis: AgNOR counts (P less than 0.001) and the extent of lymphocytic infiltration (P less than 0.027). Our results indicate the prognostic value of AgNOR counts and suggest the use of this method as a significant parameter in the pretherapeutic assessment of the aggressiveness of pharyngeal carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1716455

Pich, A.; Pisani, P.; Kzengli, M.; Cappello, N.; Navone, R.

1991-01-01

136

Mood meter: counting smiles in the wild  

E-print Network

In this study, we created and evaluated a computer vision based system that automatically encouraged, recognized and counted smiles on a college campus. During a ten-week installation, passersby were able to interact with ...

Hernandez Rivera, Javier

137

Shadow Count 2013 Decoy Registration Form  

E-print Network

of the DHS annual count of homeless individuals. Placing decoys throughout the 5 boroughs of NYC (including you ever been homeless? Yes No Add additional information if desired: Are you currently homeless? Yes

Qiu, Weigang

138

Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

Graham, O.

1964-01-01

139

Low cost crowd counting using audio tones  

E-print Network

With mobile devices becoming ubiquitous, collaborative applications have become increasingly pervasive. In these applications, there is a strong need to obtain a count of the number of mobile devices present in an area, ...

Kannan, Pravein Govindan

140

Counting Fields Carl Pomerance, Dartmouth College  

E-print Network

Counting Fields Carl Pomerance, Dartmouth College joint work with Karim Belabas, Universit´e Bordeaux 1 Manjul Bhargava, Princeton University #12;Thanks to: Roger Baker, Henri Cohen, Michael Jacobson

Pomerance, Carl

141

Statistical modelling for falls count data.  

PubMed

Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle. PMID:20159058

Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

2010-03-01

142

Power counting to better jet observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia 8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

2014-12-01

143

Power Counting to Better Jet Observables  

E-print Network

Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

Andrew J. Larkoski; Ian Moult; Duff Neill

2014-09-22

144

Recursive algorithms for phylogenetic tree counting  

PubMed Central

Background In Bayesian phylogenetic inference we are interested in distributions over a space of trees. The number of trees in a tree space is an important characteristic of the space and is useful for specifying prior distributions. When all samples come from the same time point and no prior information available on divergence times, the tree counting problem is easy. However, when fossil evidence is used in the inference to constrain the tree or data are sampled serially, new tree spaces arise and counting the number of trees is more difficult. Results We describe an algorithm that is polynomial in the number of sampled individuals for counting of resolutions of a constraint tree assuming that the number of constraints is fixed. We generalise this algorithm to counting resolutions of a fully ranked constraint tree. We describe a quadratic algorithm for counting the number of possible fully ranked trees on n sampled individuals. We introduce a new type of tree, called a fully ranked tree with sampled ancestors, and describe a cubic time algorithm for counting the number of such trees on n sampled individuals. Conclusions These algorithms should be employed for Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inference when fossil data are included or data are serially sampled. PMID:24164709

2013-01-01

145

24 CFR 81.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...purchases and count toward achievement of the housing goals when: (A) The...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2) Real estate mortgage...MRB shall count toward achievement of the goals where: (A)...

2014-04-01

146

24 CFR 81.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...purchases and count toward achievement of the housing goals when: (A) The...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2) Real estate mortgage...MRB shall count toward achievement of the goals where: (A)...

2013-04-01

147

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...that would count toward achievement of each goal, as determined by FHFA...that would count toward achievement of each goal and subgoal, as determined...dwelling unit) counts toward achievement of any goal and new data is...

2014-01-01

148

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that would count toward achievement of each goal, as determined by FHFA...that would count toward achievement of each goal and subgoal, as determined...dwelling unit) counts toward achievement of any goal and new data is...

2013-01-01

149

24 CFR 81.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...purchases and count toward achievement of the housing goals when: (A) The...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2) Real estate mortgage...MRB shall count toward achievement of the goals where: (A)...

2011-04-01

150

12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...properties that count toward achievement of a particular housing goal. (2) The denominator...shall count toward the achievement of each housing goal for which such purchase...purchase counts toward achievement of any housing goal, and new data is...

2014-01-01

151

12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purchases and count toward achievement of the housing goals when: (A) The...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2) Real estate mortgage...bond shall count toward achievement of the goals where: (A)...

2010-01-01

152

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that would count toward achievement of each goal, as determined by FHFA...that would count toward achievement of each goal and subgoal, as determined...dwelling unit) counts toward achievement of any goal and new data is...

2011-01-01

153

12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...properties that count toward achievement of a particular housing goal. (2) The denominator...shall count toward the achievement of each housing goal for which such purchase...purchase counts toward achievement of any housing goal, and new data is...

2011-01-01

154

12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...properties that count toward achievement of a particular housing goal. (2) The denominator...shall count toward the achievement of each housing goal for which such purchase...purchase counts toward achievement of any housing goal, and new data is...

2013-01-01

155

24 CFR 81.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...purchases and count toward achievement of the housing goals when: (A) The...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2) Real estate mortgage...MRB shall count toward achievement of the goals where: (A)...

2012-04-01

156

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that would count toward achievement of each goal, as determined by FHFA...that would count toward achievement of each goal and subgoal, as determined...dwelling unit) counts toward achievement of any goal and new data is...

2012-01-01

157

12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...properties that count toward achievement of a particular housing goal. (2) The denominator...shall count toward the achievement of each housing goal for which such purchase...purchase counts toward achievement of any housing goal, and new data is...

2012-01-01

158

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2012-01-01

159

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2014-01-01

160

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2013-01-01

161

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2011-01-01

162

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2010-01-01

163

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2014-04-01

164

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2010-04-01

165

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2013-04-01

166

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2011-04-01

167

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2012-04-01

168

Counting by 10's with Zero the Hero and Little Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will learn to count to 100 by 10's. The relationship between the numbers 1-10 and 10-100 will be made using the 100's chart followed by a power point story about Little Count the Caterpillar. Students will make their own Little Count the Caterpillar using circle body segments, where each circle represents the numerals 10, 20, 30...

Shannon, Darbianne

2012-07-13

169

Prognostic value of AgNOR counting.  

PubMed

The prognostic significance of the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in tumour pathology is still a matter of debate. A prospective study was performed in a series of renal cell carcinomas to clarify the prognostic value of AgNOR counting. Sections from 21 renal cell carcinomas were stained in 1990 with the method of Ploton. Black dots within the nucleus from 200 tumour cells were counted: the mean AgNOR count for the whole series was 6.13, the median 5.94 and the SD 1.78. Patients were then followed up for at least 6 years or to death: at the time of the survival analysis (June 1996), 13 patients were alive without evidence of recurrence or metastasis, 6 had died of the disease and 2 of myocardial infarction. All the patients with 5.94 AgNORs per cell or fewer were alive at 6-year follow-up, while only 60% of patients with more than 5.94 AgNORs per cell survived (p=0.01). In the multivariate analysis, only AgNOR count (p=0.015) retained an independent prognostic significance. With the limitation due to the small number of cases, this prospective study clearly indicates that AgNOR count has a significant prognostic role, at least in renal cell carcinoma. PMID:21590133

Pich, A; Margaria, E; Chiusa, L; Formiconi, A

1997-01-01

170

Genetic regulatory networks that count to 3.  

PubMed

Sensing a graded input and differentiating between its different levels is at the core of many developmental decisions. Here, we want to examine how this can be realized for a simple system. We model gene regulatory circuits that reach distinct states when setting the underlying gene copy number to 1, 2 and 3. This distinction can be considered as counting the copy number. We explore different circuits that allow for counting and keeping memory of the count after resetting the copy number to 1. For this purpose, we sample different architectures and parameters, only considering circuits that contain repressive links, which we model by Michaelis-Menten terms. Interestingly, we find that counting to 3 does not require a hierarchy in Hill coefficients, in contrast to counting to 2, which is known from lambda phage. Furthermore, we find two main circuit architectures: one design also found in the vertebrate neural tube in a development governed by the sonic hedgehog morphogen and the more robust design of a repressilator supplemented with a weak repressilator acting in the opposite direction. PMID:23567648

Lehmann, Malte; Sneppen, Kim

2013-07-21

171

Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.  

PubMed

The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

2008-06-01

172

Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System  

PubMed Central

The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H.; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

2008-01-01

173

DOUBLE COUNTING PROPOSAL 5 Proposal to Eliminate Double Counting Restrictions for the LSP Modes of Inquiry  

E-print Network

DOUBLE COUNTING PROPOSAL 5 Proposal to Eliminate Double Counting Restrictions for the LSP Modes the LSP Modes of Inquiry; Whereas currently students are not allowed to use courses in the required support for their majors to satisfy LSP Modes of Inquiry requirements unless explicitly allowed

Gering, Jon C.

174

Fast Counting of Triangles in Large Real Networks without Counting: Algorithms and Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can we quickly find the number of triangles in a large graph, without actually counting them? Triangles are important for real world social networks, lying at the heart of the clustering coefficient and of the transitivity ratio. However, straight-forward and even approximate counting algorithms can be slow, trying to execute or approximate the equivalent of a 3-way database join.

Charalampos E. Tsourakakis

2008-01-01

175

Counting atoms in a deep optical microtrap.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a method to count small numbers of atoms held in a deep, microscopic optical dipole trap by collecting fluorescence from atoms exposed to a standing wave of light that is blue detuned from resonance. While scattering photons, the atoms are cooled by a Sisyphus mechanism that results from the spatial variation in light intensity. The use of a small blue detuning limits the losses due to light-assisted collisions, thereby making the method suitable for counting several atoms in a microscopic volume. PMID:21478976

McGovern, Matthew; Hilliard, Andrew J; Grünzweig, Tzahi; Andersen, Mikkel F

2011-04-01

176

Optical planar waveguide for cell counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

2012-01-01

177

Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

Haven, Terry, Ed.

178

What Counts as Knowing? The Development of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Counting from Kindergarten through Grade 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual…

LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

2006-01-01

179

Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

180

KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

Shulman, Shanna

181

Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…

Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

182

Let's Count! Learning Numbers in Multiple Ways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video Pre-K teacher Rosemary Kungu demonstrates a variety of activities that develop early number skills, including number recognition, counting and ordering numbers. The activities involve active participation and incorporate multiple senses and learning styles, music, and collaboration. A downloadable transcript of the video (doc) is included along with reflection questions for viewers.

2013-01-01

183

A Topological Constraint Language with Component Counting  

E-print Network

A Topological Constraint Language with Component Counting Ian Pratt-Hartmann Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester, U.K. ipratt@cs.man.ac.uk ABSTRACT. A topological constraint language, topological constraint languages typically allow us to make assertions such as "region ¢¡ touches

Pratt-Hartmann, Ian

184

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

185

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

186

KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…

Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

187

KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…

Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

188

KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1999 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well being: health, safety, education, families, and economic factors. Key indicators in these five areas include: (1) prenatal care rates; (2) low birthweight; (3) child deaths; (4)…

Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

189

County Data Book 1995: Kentucky Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book presents findings of the Kids Count project on current conditions faced by Kentucky children age birth through 19. For each county, and for the state, comparisons are provided between the base years of 1980-1982 and the most recent years 1992-1994. Counties are ranked against each other and trend graphs are provided for the studied…

Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

190

KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

191

Kids Count in Missouri 1998 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on outcome measures of general areas of children's well being: (1) students free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

192

Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

193

Alabama Kids Count 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being for Alabama's children. The statistical portrait is based on 17 indicators in the areas of health, education, safety, and security. The indicators are: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention;…

Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

194

Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…

Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

195

On probabilistic inference by weighted model counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent and eective approach to probabilistic inference calls for reducing the problem to one of weighted model counting (WMC) on a propositional knowledge base. Specically, the approach calls for encoding the probabilistic model, typically a Bayesian network, as a propositional knowledge base in conjunctive normal form (CNF) with weights associated to each model according to the network parameters. Given

Mark Chavira; Adnan Darwiche

2008-01-01

196

Atom counting in expanding ultracold clouds  

SciTech Connect

We study the counting statistics of ultracold bosonic atoms that are released from an optical lattice. We show that the counting probability distribution of the atoms collected at a detector located far away from the optical lattice can be used to characterize the initially trapped states. We consider trapped superfluid and insulating states with different occupation patterns. We analyze how the correlations between the modes that develop during the expansion in the gravitational field appear in the counting distribution and find that the ratio of the detector size with respect to the expanded wave function determines whether short-range or long-range correlations of the initial state are reflected in the counting statistics. We find that detectors which are large compared to the size of the expanded wave function distinguish insulating and superfluid phases irrespective of the occupation pattern. We show that using detectors that are small compared to the size of the expanded wave function, occupation patterns in insulating and supersolid states can be distinguished. Finally, we show how the magnetic phase patterns are dramatically reflected in the number distribution.

Braungardt, Sibylle [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Rodriguez, Mirta [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Passeig Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-10-15

197

Reading Authentic Texts: What Counts as Cognate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements…

Balling, Laura Winther

2013-01-01

198

Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…

Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara

199

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report details statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths, age 1-14 years; (5) teen violent deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (6) juvenile…

Dowshen, Steven, Ed.; Greback, Robert, Ed.; Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Schooley, Teresa L., Ed.; Sturgis, Janice, Ed.

200

Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

1991-01-01

201

On Count/Mass Distinction in Slovene  

E-print Network

construe counting grape M by inserting divs to say, for instance, that one has eaten three bowls of grapes (32’a) or, alterna- tively, use grape C to imply that three individual grapes have been eaten (-b). 130 Slovenski jezik – Slovene Linguistic...

Mitrovi?, Moreno

2011-01-01

202

KidsCount in Colorado! 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…

Boeke, Kaye

203

South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

204

Weighted power counting and perturbative unitarity  

SciTech Connect

We consider the relationship between renormalizability and unitarity at a Lifshitz point in d dimensions. We test tree unitarity for theories containing only scalars and fermions, and for pure gauge theory. In both cases, we find the requirement of weighted power-counting renormalizability is equivalent to that of tree unitarity.

Albrecht, Dylan [Particle Theory Group, Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

2011-02-15

205

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

Johnston, Janet M.

206

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…

Johnston, Janet M.

207

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

Johnston, Janet M.

208

Crowd Counting and Profiling: Methodology and Evaluation  

E-print Network

, and Tao Xiang Abstract Video imagery based crowd analysis for population profiling and density estimation for video imagery based crowd counting, and provides a systematic evalu- ation of different methods using [35]. For instance, a crowd crush at the 2010 Love Parade music festival in Germany, caused a death

Gong, Shaogang

209

Concurrent Cycle Collection in Reference Counted Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic storage reclamation via reference counting has important advantages, but has always suffered from a major weakness due to its inability to reclaim cyclic data structures. We describe a novel cycle collection algorithm that is both concurrent — it is capable of collecting garbage even in the presence of simultaneous mutation — and localized — it never needs to perform

David F. Bacon; V. T. Rajan

2001-01-01

210

AN APPROXIMATION ALGORITHM FOR COUNTING CONTINGENCY TABLES  

E-print Network

AN APPROXIMATION ALGORITHM FOR COUNTING CONTINGENCY TABLES Alexander Barvinok, Zur Luria, Alex, the permanent approximation algo­ rithm, and an integral representation for the number of contingency tables. 1 # i=1 r i = n # j=1 c j = N. A contingency table with margins (R, C) is an m � n non­negative integer

Yong, Alexander

211

AN APPROXIMATION ALGORITHM FOR COUNTING CONTINGENCY TABLES  

E-print Network

AN APPROXIMATION ALGORITHM FOR COUNTING CONTINGENCY TABLES Alexander Barvinok, Zur Luria, Alex algo- rithm, and an integral representation for the number of contingency tables. 1. Introduction Let R = N. A contingency table with margins (R, C) is an m Ã? n non-negative integer matrix D = (dij

Barvinok, Alexander

212

http://tsunami.gov When seconds count...  

E-print Network

http://tsunami.gov When seconds count... TsunamiReady communities are prepared! Schools, playgrounds, hospitals, factories and homes are often built in areas vulnerable to tsunamis. The Tsunami in coastal areas to reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. How can I learn more

213

Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

214

Kids Count Report in Nebraska, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trend data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 of the report presents U.S. Census data on population trends in Nebraska as well as child poverty rates, and urges Nebraskans to work together to ensure that its youngest citizens have the best start possible. Section 2, the bulk of this…

Johnston, Janet M.

215

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examined statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters addressed the areas of: family and community; economic well-being; child health; safety; and education. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income;…

Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; And Others

216

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic diversity);…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

217

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book is the fourth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 28 indicators in five areas: (1) family and community; (2) economic well-being, including median household income, poverty rate, and percent of children in families receiving cash…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

218

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

219

Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching Assistants (Rhea R.…

Education Week, 2007

2007-01-01

220

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

221

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

Cochran, Carole

222

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

223

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

224

South Dakota KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) low birth…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

225

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

Bentz, Cara Anderson

226

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

227

Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)…

Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

228

WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what…

Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan

229

"Wake Up Brains" with Skip Counting Songs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 4-minute video teacher Jan Saul demonstrates how she incorporates music and kinesthetic activity in warm-up activities in her grade 3 class. The songs involve skip-counting, laying the foundation for memorization of multiplication facts. The page included a link to the vendor of the recordings and a transcript of the video (doc).

2012-01-01

230

Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers  

SciTech Connect

We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

Suslov, M. V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow District (Russian Federation); R and D Department, NIX Computer Company, Zvezdniy boulevard 19, 129085 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lesovik, G. B. [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117940 Moscow (Russian Federation); Blatter, G. [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-05-15

231

Dual porosity CNL count rate processing  

SciTech Connect

The standard method of computing porosity for the two-detector Compensated Neutron Log (CNL) is to use the ratio of near to far detector count rates. This procedure has the advantage that, to first order, environmental effects tend to cancel, leaving only residual effects to be corrected using a series of departure curves. Recently, a new four-detector Dual Porosity CNL tool has been introduced which uses two epithermal neutron detectors in addition to the two standard thermal neutron detectors. Two separate porosity measurements are thus obtained, one from each pair of detectors. In clean formations, the measured porosities agree. However, in shaly formations containing high neutron absorbers the porosity measured by the epithermal detectors reads lower and agrees more closely with density derived porosity. To maintain reasonable count rates, the epithermal detectors are spaced closer to the neutron source than the thermal neutron detectors. As a result of a detailed study of the tool response to many environmental variables, a new data processing technique has been developed using individual detector count rates. The method is analogous to the ''spine-and-ribs'' analysis developed for the FDC tool. Parameters which have been studied are borehole size, tool standoff, mudcake thickness, mud weight, borehole salinity, formation salinity, formation matrix, formation gas, temperature and pressure. Examples are given of how some of these parameters affect the individual count rates. The new processing method can be used to compute both epithermal and thermal neutron porosity. In the latter case, however, additional input parameters relating to neutron absorbers should be specified. Examples illustrating the improvements obtained with count rate processing are presented.

Scott, H.D.; Flaum, C.; Sherman

1982-09-01

232

A New Prognostic Score for Elderly Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP: The Prognostic Role of Blood Monocyte and Lymphocyte Counts Is Absent  

PubMed Central

Background Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) have been documented as independent predictors of survival in patients with newly diagnosed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Analysis of the prognostic impact of ALC and AMC in the context of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and other significant variables in elderly population treated in the R-CHOP regime has not been carried out yet. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective study, a cohort of 443 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients with age ?60 was analyzed. All patients were treated with the R-CHOP therapy. An extensive statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors of 3-year overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, only three predictors proved significant: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG), age and bulky disease presence. These predictors were dichotomized (ECOG ?1, age ?70, bulk ?7.5) to create a novel four-level score. This score predicted 3-year OS of 94.0%, 77.4%, 62.7% and 35.4% in the low-, low-intermediate, high-intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively (P<0.001). Further, a three-level score was tested which stratifies the population better (3-year OS: 91.9%, 67.2%, 36.2% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively) but is more difficult to interpret. Both the 3- and 4-level scores were compared to standard scoring systems and, in our population, were shown to be superior in terms of patients risk stratification with respect to 3-year OS prediction. The results were successfully validated on an independent cohort of 162 patients of similar group characteristics. Conclusions The prognostic role of baseline ALC, AMC or their ratio (LMR) was not confirmed in the multivariate context in elderly population with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. The newly proposed age-specific index stratifies the elderly population into risk groups more precisely than the conventional IPI and its existing variants. PMID:25058337

Procházka, Vít; Pytlík, Robert; Janíková, Andrea; Belada, David; Šálek, David; Papajík, Tomáš; Campr, Vít; Fürst, Tomáš; Furstova, Jana; Trn?ný, Marek

2014-01-01

233

CCCP: A CCD Controller for Counting Photons  

E-print Network

CCCP, a CCD Controller for Counting Photons, is presented. This new controller uses a totally new clocking architecture and allows to drive the CCD in a novel way. Its design is optimized for the driving of EMCCDs at up to 20MHz of pixel rate and fast vertical transfer. Using this controller, the dominant source of noise of EMCCDs at low flux level and high frame rate, the Clock Induced Charges, were reduced to 0.001 - 0.0018 electron/pixel/frame (depending of the electron multiplying gain), making efficient photon counting possible. CCCP will be deployed in 2009 on the ESO NTT through the 3D-NTT1 project and on the SOAR through the BTFI project.

Olivier Daigle; Jean-Luc Gach; Christian Guillaume; Simon Lessard; Claude Carignan; Sebastien Blais-Ouellette

2008-07-02

234

An Extendable Galaxy Number Count Model  

E-print Network

I review galaxy number count models and present ncmod, an extendable and general purpose model for comparing and interpreting the results of field galaxy survey data. I develop techniques and software for converting the results of a survey done in one filter into another filter, for direct comparison with other surveys. Comparison of the data from surveys which differ greatly in wavelength coverage or sensitivity is of necessity model-dependent, but comparison between similar surveys can be done in a relatively model-independent way. I extrapolate existing number counts into the ultraviolet and thermal infrared. The model is used to predict the results of future space missions, including STIS and NICMOS on HST, ISO, SIRTF and NGST.

Jonathan P. Gardner

1998-02-03

235

Delta-count rate-monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A delta-count rate-monitoring system for detection of small changes of low-level gamma radiation was designed for Group HSE-8's environmental surveillance and accident response van. The system is used to locate areas of radioactive contaminants in the environment where surveys with standard instruments would be very difficult because of large areas to cover. An audible alarm sounds when the detected radiation

D. Van Etten; W. Olsen

1983-01-01

236

Method of detecting and counting bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (inventors)

1976-01-01

237

Methods for counting particles in microfluidic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfluidic particle counters are important tools in biomedical diagnostic applications such as flow cytometry analysis.\\u000a Major methods of counting particles in microfluidic devices are reviewed in this paper. The microfluidic resistive pulse sensor\\u000a advances in sensitivity over the traditional Coulter counter by improving signal amplification and noise reduction techniques.\\u000a Nanopore-based methods are used for single DNA molecule analysis and the

Hongpeng Zhang; Chan Hee Chon; Xinxiang Pan; Dongqing Li

2009-01-01

238

Count Your Lucky Stars: Sampling in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about sampling specifically in astronomy. Learners will make a sampling window in order to estimate the number of stars in the sky visible to the unaided eye. After, they will discuss how to estimate the effect of different variables on their counts, such as sky brightness, dark adaptation, cloud cover, etc. Please note use of a clear night sky is optimal for this activity.

239

Computer-interfaced digital pulse counting circuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electronic circuit is presented which can be used in digital pulse counting applications such as ESCA, Auger spectroscopy, UPS, etc. It consists of a quartz crystal clock and integrated circuits, and can be interfaced easily to a laboratory computer through a parallel board. A modification allows this circuit to be used as a counter with a time delay, thus making it useful in applications involving time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Gilbert, Richard E.; Cox, David F.; Hoflund, Gar B.

1982-08-01

240

Spatial prediction of counts and rates.  

PubMed

In this paper we provide both theoretical and empirical comparisons of marginal and conditional methods for analysing spatial count data. We focus on methods for spatial prediction developed from a generalized linear mixed model framework and compare them with the traditional linear (kriging) predictor. Prediction methods are illustrated and compared through a case study based on real data and through a detailed simulation study. The paper emphasizes a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. PMID:12704606

Gotway, Carol A; Wolfinger, Russell D

2003-05-15

241

Counts of galaxies in a merger model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for the photometric evolution of galaxies has been developed and has been applied to the problem of galaxy counts. The integrated colors of galaxies are calculated using the most recently computed evolutionary tracks from Maeder and collaborators complemented with evolutionary tracks derived by other authors. The asymptotic giant branch lifetime is left as a free parameter. A series of cosmological models using different values of the cosmological constant, lambda(sub 0), and the density parameter, omega(sub 0), have been computed. The universality hypothesis of the luminosity function of galaxies has been abandoned. The influence of galaxy merging on the counts has been considered in a simple manner by assuming that the number of strongly interacting galaxies in a comoving volume increases with redshift as a power law given by (1 + z)(exp 3.8). Taking a Schechter parametrization for the luminosity function of the different types of galaxies, we are able to reproduce the observations reasonably well. We have also considered models with a Gaussian distribution for the luminosity function of the brighter galaxies that provide a poorer fit to the observations. It is shown that galaxy count data are not yet able to make unambiguous cosmological statements since evolutionary assumptions are critical. In particular, an omega(sub 0) = 1, lambda(sub 0) = 0 cosmology is shown to be consistent with the data.

Colin, P.; Schramm, D. N.; Peimbert, M.

1994-01-01

242

Homeostatic regulation of blood neutrophil counts  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil counts in blood are determined by the differentiation and proliferation of precursor cells in the bone marrow, release of mature neutrophils into the blood, margination in organs like the lung and spleen, and transmigration through the endothelial lining followed by neutrophil apoptosis and uptake by phagocytes. This brief review summarizes how the regulation of neutrophil production by G-CSF is in part controlled by IL-17 and IL-23. Neutrophils are retained in the bone marrow through interaction of CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4. The relevance of this mechanism is illustrated by rare diseases in which disrupting the desensitization of CXCR4 results in neutrophil accumulation in the bone marrow. Although blood neutrophil numbers in inbred mouse strains and individual human subjects are tightly controlled, the large variation of blood neutrophil counts among outbred populations suggests genetic control. One example is benign ethnic neutropenia, which is found in about 5% of African Americans. Reduced and elevated neutrophil counts, even within the normal range, are associated with excess all-cause mortality. PMID:18832668

von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Ley, Klaus

2009-01-01

243

Duplication count distributions in DNA sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantitative features of complex repetitive DNA in several genomes by studying sequences that are sufficiently long that they are unlikely to have repeated by chance. For each genome we study, we determine the number of identical copies, the “duplication count,” of each sequence of length 40, that is of each “40-mer.” We say a 40-mer is “repeated” if its duplication count is at least 2. We focus mainly on “complex” 40-mers, those without short internal repetitions. We find that we can classify most of the complex repeated 40-mers into two categories: one category has its copies clustered closely together on one chromosome, the other has its copies distributed widely across multiple chromosomes. For each genome and each of the categories above, we compute N(c) , the number of 40-mers that have duplication count c , for each integer c . In each case, we observe a power-law-like decay in N(c) as c increases from 3 to 50 or higher. In particular, we find that N(c) decays much more slowly than would be predicted by evolutionary models where each 40-mer is equally likely to be duplicated. We also analyze an evolutionary model that does reflect the slow decay of N(c) .

Sindi, Suzanne S.; Hunt, Brian R.; Yorke, James A.

2008-12-01

244

Estimation of population trajectories from count data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring of changes in animal population size is rarely possible through complete censuses; frequently, the only feasible means of monitoring changes in population size is to use counts of animals obtained by skilled observers as indices to abundance. Analysis of changes in population size can be severely biased if factors related to the acquisition of data are not adequately controlled for. In particular we identify two types of observer effects: these correspond to baseline differences in observer competence, and to changes through time in the ability of individual observers. We present a family of models for count data in which the first of these observer effects is treated as a nuisance parameter. Conditioning on totals of negative binomial counts yields a Dirichlet compound multinomial vector for each observer. Quasi-likelihood is used to estimate parameters related to population trajectory and other parameters of interest; model selection is carried out on the basis of Akaike's information criterion. An example is presented using data on Wood thrush from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

1997-01-01

245

Photon counting ladar work at FOI, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon counting techniques using direct detection has recently gained considerable interest within the laser radar community. The high sensitivity is of special importance to achieve high area coverage in surveillance and mapping applications and long range with compact systems for imaging, profiling and ranging. New short pulse lasers including the super continuum laser is of interest for active spectral imaging. A special technique in photon counting is the "time correlated single photon counting" (TCSPC). This can be utilized together with short pulse (ps) lasers to achieve very high range resolution and accuracy (mm level). Low average power lasers in the mW range enables covert operation with respect to present laser warning technology. By analyzing the return waveform range and shape information from the target can be extracted. By scanning the beam high resolution 3D images are obtained. At FOI we have studied the TCSPC with respect to range profiling and imaging. Limitations due to low SNR and dwell times are studied in conjunction with varying daylight background and atmospheric turbulence. Examples of measurements will be presented and discussed with respect to some system applications.

Steinvall, Ove; Sjöqvist, Lars; Henriksson, Markus

2012-06-01

246

Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling.  

PubMed

The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB) process. A gamma process is employed to model the rate measure of a Poisson process, whose normalization provides a random probability measure for mixture modeling and whose marginalization leads to a NB process for count modeling. A draw from the NB process consists of a Poisson distributed finite number of distinct atoms, each of which is associated with a logarithmic distributed number of data samples. We reveal relationships between various count- and mixture-modeling distributions distributions, and construct a Poisson-logarithmic bivariate distribution that connects the NB and Chinese restaurant table distributions. Fundamental properties of the models are developed, and we derive efficient Bayesian inference. It is shown that with augmentation and normalization, the NB process and gamma-NB process can be reduced to the Dirichlet process and hierarchical Dirichlet process, respectively. These relationships highlight theoretical, structural and computational advantages of the NB process. A variety of NB processes, including the beta-geometric, beta-NB, marked-beta-NB, marked-gamma-NB and zero-inflated-NB processes, with distinct sharing mechanisms, are also constructed. These models are applied to topic modeling, with connections made to existing algorithms under Poisson factor analysis. Example results show the importance of inferring both the NB dispersion and probability parameters. PMID:24144977

Zhou, Mingyuan; Carin, Lawrence

2013-10-17

247

Photon counting threshold optimization in mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of detection threshold on the performance of ideal photon counting sensors is investigated in mammography for several X-ray tube anode/filter combinations and various breast thicknesses. Based on linear X-ray system theory, a method is proposed to take into consideration detector contrast modulation in the domain of X-ray energy as well as effects related to scattered radiation. Breast screening procedures are modelled as radiographic tasks in which low-contrast objects (tumours or microcalcifications) have to be detected in a noisy image background. For ideal photon counting detectors, results at zero spatial frequency show that higher detection thresholds must be implemented when imaging a thick compressed breast, compared to a thin compressed breast. In practice, the photon counting threshold also affects the image noise and the spatial resolution of hybrid pixel detectors, by tuning the amount of charge-shared events. To be generalized to more realistic imaging situations, this analysis must be performed over the full range of spatial frequencies and include additional detector noise parameters.

Marchal, Julien; Hussein, Khalid; John, Lester R.; Vaughan, Christopher L.

2006-07-01

248

The Audubon Christmas Bird Count: A Valuable Teaching Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explains how he uses the Audubon Christmas Bird Count to teach a laboratory exercise in vertebrate population dynamics. Problems and limitations associated with using these Christmas Counts are also enumerated. Graphs illustrate the material. (MA)

Ferner, John W.

1977-01-01

249

45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...true When do educational expenditures count? 263.4 Section...FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF...4 When do educational expenditures count? (a)...

2014-10-01

250

45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4 Section...FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF...4 When do educational expenditures count? (a)...

2010-10-01

251

45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4 Section...FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF...4 When do educational expenditures count? (a)...

2011-10-01

252

45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4 Section...FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF...4 When do educational expenditures count? (a)...

2012-10-01

253

45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true When do educational expenditures count? 263.4 Section...FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF...4 When do educational expenditures count? (a)...

2013-10-01

254

77 FR 65091 - National Character Counts Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8891--National Character Counts Week, 2012 Proclamation 8892--National Forest Products Week, 2012 Presidential Documents Federal Register...October 19, 2012 National Character Counts Week, 2012 By the President of the United...

2012-10-24

255

Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms  

SciTech Connect

New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

1981-06-01

256

Counting Ability of Moderately and Mildly Handicapped Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined basic counting competencies, difficulties, skill progressions, and variation among 36 moderately retarded and 64 mildly retarded students (ages 5-14). Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicated deficiencies in basic counting competencies and systematic oral- and object-counting errors. Striking individual differences in…

Baroody, Arthur J.

1986-01-01

257

Rainflow Counting and Energy Dissipation for Hysteresis Models in Elastoplasticity  

E-print Network

Republic Abstract The rainflow counting method is widely used in the context of fatigue analy- sis. The rainflow counting method due to Endo is widely used to decompose an arbitrary sequence of (scalar) loadsRainflow Counting and Energy Dissipation for Hysteresis Models in Elastoplasticity Martin Brokate

Krejcí, Pavel

258

Differential Counting in Mixed Cultures with Coulter Counters  

PubMed Central

A critical comparison of Coulter, viable, and microscope counts for several mixed cultures of microorganisms has been made. This investigation shows that Coulter counting can provide reliable estimates of microbial numbers in mixed cultures. Precautions and limitations of Coulter counting in mixed cultures are discussed. PMID:4199341

Drake, J. F.; Tsuchiya, H. M.

1973-01-01

259

EVALUATING POINT COUNT VERSUS TERRITORY MAPPING CROPLAND BIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Species richness, composition and abundance of farmland birds were compared between point counts (50,100, and 150 m radius half circles) and territory mapping on three 40 ha plots in Quebec, Canada. oint counts of smaller radii tended to have larger density estimates than counts ...

260

COUNTS OF RED-TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED  

E-print Network

455: COUNTS OF RED-TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM F. Pautzke, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director COUNTS OF RED-TIDE Acknowledgment 4 Literature cited 5 Explanation of column headings 7 Station data 7 iii #12;#12;COUNTS OF RED-TIDE

261

Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a

Alexander W. Lightstone; Andrew D. MacGregor; Darlene E. MacSween; Robert J. McIntyre; Claude Trottier; Paul P. Webb

1989-01-01

262

75 FR 64615 - National Character Counts Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...October 15, 2010 National Character Counts Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect upon the values of equality...commitment. During National Character Counts Week, let us take this opportunity to...

2010-10-20

263

Approximate Counting Scheme for m n Contingency Tables  

E-print Network

Approximate Counting Scheme for m Ã? n Contingency Tables Shuji Kijima and Tomomi Matsui METR 2003-01 JANUARY 2003 #12;Approximate Counting Scheme for m Ã? n Contingency Tables Shuji Kijima and Tomomi Matsui. In this paper, we propose a new counting scheme for m Ã? n contingency tables. Our scheme is a modification

Yamamoto, Hirosuke

264

AT-A-GLANCE ARTICLE Counting in oogenesis  

E-print Network

AT-A-GLANCE ARTICLE Counting in oogenesis Delbert A. Green II & Didem P. Sarikaya & Cassandra G discuss counting mechanisms that operate during ovarian development and oogenesis. Keywords Oogenesis understood in Drosophila, we will focus on two major instances of counting necessary for Drosophila oogenesis

Extavour, Cassandra

265

High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories.  

PubMed

The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-? ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A) Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B) SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV) for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators. PMID:25585297

Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y; Ansari, Tameem; BenHamouda, Nadine; Gottwein, Judith; Laxmanan, Sreenivas; Levine, Steven M; Loffredo, John T; McArdle, Stephanie; Neudoerfl, Christine; Roen, Diana; Silina, Karina; Welch, Mackenzie; Lehmann, Paul V

2015-01-01

266

Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Methods Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. Results The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P <0.001). The MLCR discriminated best between malaria cases and controls (AUC =?0.691; AUC =?0.741 in non-immune travellers), whereas the NLCR better predicted severe malaria, especially in semi-immune patients (AUC =?0.788). Conclusion Malaria causes typical but non-specific alterations of the differential blood count. The predictive value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity. PMID:24758172

2014-01-01

267

Association of leukocyte subtype counts with coronary atherosclerotic regression following pravastatin treatment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to clarify the relation between differential leukocyte counts and inhibition of the development of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease. A 6-month prospective study was conducted in 84 patients treated with pravastatin. Plaque volume, as assessed by volumetric analysis using intravascular ultrasound, decreased significantly by 12.6% (p <0.0001 vs baseline) after treatment; furthermore, a corresponding decrease of total leukocyte count (8.9%, p <0.01 vs baseline) was seen. Change in plaque volume was correlated with changes in monocyte (r = 0.35, p = 0.002) and lymphocyte (r = 0.25, p = 0.03) counts but not with changes in neutrophil, eosinophil, or basophil counts. In a multivariate regression analysis with changes in serum lipids, traditional risk factors, and medications as covariates, the decrease in monocyte count was identified as an independent predictor of coronary plaque regression (beta coefficient 0.313, 95% confidence interval 0.089 to 0.353, p = 0.0014). No correlation was found between change in monocyte count and changes in any other lipid levels. This study demonstrated that monocyte count was the only leukocyte type significantly and independently associated with coronary atherosclerotic regression, even after adjustment for changes in any lipid levels. In conclusion, the decrease in monocyte count as a nonlipid-lowering effect of statins may be used as a novel marker of coronary atherosclerotic regression. PMID:19660595

Tani, Shigemasa; Nagao, Ken; Anazawa, Takeo; Kawamata, Hirofumi; Furuya, Shingo; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Iida, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Michiaki; Washio, Takehiko; Kumabe, Narimichi; Hirayama, Atsushi

2009-08-15

268

3.MD The Square Counting Shortcut  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Imagine that each square in the picture measures one centimeter on each side. What is the area of each letter? Try to work it out without counting each...

269

Robust small area prediction for counts.  

PubMed

A new semiparametric approach to model-based small area prediction for counts is proposed and used for estimating the average number of visits to physicians for Health Districts in Central Italy. The proposed small area predictor can be viewed as an outlier robust alternative to the more commonly used empirical plug-in predictor that is based on a Poisson generalized linear mixed model with Gaussian random effects. Results from the real data application and from a simulation experiment confirm that the proposed small area predictor has good robustness properties and in some cases can be more efficient than alternative small area approaches. PMID:24492792

Tzavidis, Nikos; Ranalli, M Giovanna; Salvati, Nicola; Dreassi, Emanuela; Chambers, Ray

2014-02-01

270

Ortec: AN34 Experiment 2 - Geiger Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with the Geiger-Mueller counter. This counter is a widely used pulse-counting instrument that uses gas amplification, which makes it remarkably sensitive, but whose simple construction makes it relatively inexpensive. The experiments that are designed to accomplish this purpose deal with the operating plateau of the Geiger tube, half-life determinations, resolving-time corrections, and the basic nuclear considerations involved. This document is part of Ortec's AN34 Publication, a collection of nuclear physics experiments for undergraduate laboratories.

2009-02-06

271

Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis  

PubMed Central

Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, and we combined it with morphological analysis by light microscopy (LM) for estimating the volume fraction of islets in impure preparations. Cells and islets were disrupted with lysis solution and shear, and accuracy of counting successively diluted nuclei suspensions was verified with: (1) visual counting in a hemacytometer after staining with crystal violet, and automatic counting by (2) aperture electrical resistance measurement and (3) flow cytometer measurement after staining with 7-aminoactinomycin-D. DNA content averaged 6.5 and 6.9 pg DNA/cell for rat and human islets, respectively, in agreement with literature estimates. With pure rat islet preparations, precision improved with increasing counts, and samples with about 160 or more islets provided a coefficient of variation of about 6%. Aliquots of human islet preparations were processed for LM analysis by stereological point counting. Total nuclei counts and islet volume fraction from LM analysis were combined to obtain the number of islet equivalents (IE). Total number of IE by the standard method of dithizone staining/manual counting was overestimated by about 90% compared to LM/nuclei counting for 12 freshly isolated human islet research preparations. Nuclei counting combined with islet volume fraction measurements from light microscopy is a novel method for achieving accurate islet enumeration. PMID:20697375

Pisania, Anna; Papas, Klearchos K.; Powers, Daryl E.; Rappel, Michael J.; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C.; Colton, Clark K.

2010-01-01

272

Improving count rate of attosecond streak camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the measurement of 140-attosecond single isolated extreme ultraviolet pulses generated with 9-fs carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers. The temporal shape and phase of the isolated attosecond pulses were characterized using the attosecond streaking technique, whereby electrons ionized by the attosecond pulse are momentum-shifted by a near-infrared laser field. Due to the limited flux of attosecond pulses, low electron count rate is a major problem in the streaking measurement. In our setup, the streaked photoelectrons were detected by a COLTRIMS (Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) type time-of-flight detector. A uniform magnetic field was applied along the flight axis between the detection gas jet and the MCP to increase the full acceptance angle to more than 28 degrees. Instead of measuring the photoelectron energy, the electron momentum was measured, which allows us to examine the effect of the acceptance angle on the accuracy of the pulse characterization. Differential pumping was successfully applied, which allows high gas target pressure for increasing the XUV photoionization efficiency. When the isolated attosecond pulses were generated with argon gas and detected with neon gas, the improved count rate allowed the streaking measurement to be done in the time period that the laser could maintain carrier-envelope phase locking.

Feng, Ximao; Gilbertson, Steve; Mashiko, Hiroki; Wang, He; Khan, Sabih; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu

2009-05-01

273

It's not the pixel count, you fool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

Kriss, Michael A.

2012-01-01

274

Analysis of Parasite and Other Skewed Counts  

PubMed Central

Objective To review methods for the statistical analysis of parasite and other skewed count data. Methods Statistical methods for skewed count data are described and compared, with reference to those used over a ten year period of Tropical Medicine and International Health. Two parasitological datasets are used for illustration. Results Ninety papers were identified, 89 with descriptive and 60 with inferential analysis. A lack of clarity is noted in identifying measures of location, in particular the Williams and geometric mean. The different measures are compared, emphasizing the legitimacy of the arithmetic mean for skewed data. In the published papers, the t test and related methods were often used on untransformed data, which is likely to be invalid. Several approaches to inferential analysis are described, emphasizing 1) non-parametric methods, while noting that they are not simply comparisons of medians, and 2) generalized linear modelling, in particular with the negative binomial distribution. Additional methods, such as the bootstrap, with potential for greater use are described. Conclusions Clarity is recommended when describing transformations and measures of location. It is suggested that non-parametric methods and generalized linear models are likely to be sufficient for most analyses. PMID:22943299

Alexander, Neal

2012-01-01

275

Transition Years Count: An Adolescent Profile. KIDS COUNT County Data Book, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book is the ninth to examine trends in the well-being of Kentucky children, focusing on the transition period of adolescence, based on the view that lessons learned and foundations laid in early adolescence directly impact the transition to adulthood. This statistical portrait is based on trends in indicators of well-being in…

Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

276

Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.

Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

1999-01-01

277

Make Kids Count in '95: Hawai'i Kids Count 1995 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT statistical report is the first to examine indicators of children's well-being in Hawaii. The bulk of the report is comprised of the indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and children…

Hawaii Kids Count, Honolulu.

278

Make Kids Count in '97: Hawai'i Kids Count 1997 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the third to examine statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and…

Hartsock, Marcia; Davidson, Dana; Greenfield, Theresa; Grogan, Beverley

279

Make Kids Count in '96: Hawai'i Kids Count 1996 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT statistical report is the second to examine indicators of children's well-being in Hawaii. The bulk of the report is comprised of the indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and…

Hawaii Kids Count, Honolulu.

280

Make Kids Count in '99: Hawai'i Kids Count 1999 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator findings and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, family formation, births to teens, children in single-parent families, children…

Hartsock, Marcia

281

Faint Submillimeter Galaxy Counts at 450 ?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of SCUBA-2 observations at 450 ?m and 850 ?m of the field lensed by the massive cluster A370. With a total survey area >100 arcmin2 and 1? sensitivities of 3.92 and 0.82 mJy beam-1 at 450 and 850 ?m, respectively, we find a secure sample of 20 sources at 450 ?m and 26 sources at 850 ?m with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 4. Using the latest lensing model of A370 and Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the number counts at both wavelengths. The 450 ?m number counts probe a factor of four deeper than the counts recently obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope at similar wavelengths, and we estimate that ~47%-61% of the 450 ?m extragalactic background light resolved into individual sources with 450 ?m fluxes greater than 4.5 mJy. The faint 450 ?m sources in the 4? sample have positional accuracies of 3 arcsec, while brighter sources (S/N >6?) are good to 1.4 arcsec. Using a deep radio map (1? ~ 6 ?Jy) we find that the percentage of submillimeter sources having secure radio counterparts is 85% for 450 ?m sources with intrinsic fluxes >6 mJy and 67% for 850 ?m sources with intrinsic fluxes >4 mJy. We also find that 67% of the >4? 450 ?m sources are detected at 850 ?m, while the recovery rate at 450 ?m of >4? 850 ?m sources is 54%. Combined with the source redshifts estimated using millimetric flux ratios, the recovered rate is consistent with the scenario where both 450 ?m and 20 cm emission preferentially select lower redshift dusty sources, while 850 ?m emission traces a higher fraction of dusty sources at higher redshifts. We identify potential counterparts in various wavelengths from X-ray to mid-infrared and measure the multiwavelength photometry, which we then use to analyze the characteristics of the sources. We find three X-ray counterparts to our robust submillimeter sample (S/N > 5), giving an active galactic nucleus fraction for our 450 (850) ?m sample of 3/8 (3/9) or 38% (33%). We also find a correlation between the Ks band and the 850 ?m/20 cm flux ratio.

Chen, Chian-Chou; Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J.; Casey, Caitlin. M.; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, David B.; Wang, Wei-Hao; Williams, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

282

Galaxy Counts at 24 ?m in the SWIRE Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents galaxy source counts at 24 ?m in the six Spitzer Wide-field InfraRed Extragalactic (SWIRE) fields. The source counts are compared to counts in other fields, and to model predictions that have been updated since the launch of Spitzer. This analysis confirms a very steep rise in the Euclidean-normalized differential number counts between 2 mJy and 0.3 mJy. Variations in the counts between fields show the effects of sample variance in the flux range of 0.5-10 mJy, up to 100% larger than Poisson errors. Nonetheless, a "shoulder" in the normalized counts persists at around 3 mJy. The peak of the normalized counts at 0.3 mJy is higher and narrower than most models predict. In the ELAIS N1 field, the 24 ?m data are combined with Spitzer-IRAC data and five-band optical imaging, and these band-merged data are fit with photometric redshift templates. Above 1 mJy the counts are dominated by galaxies at z < 0.3. By 300 ?Jy, about 25% are between z ~ 0.3 and 0.8, and a significant fraction are at z ~ 1.3-2. At low redshifts the counts are dominated by spirals, and starbursts rise in number density to outnumber the spirals' contribution to the counts below 1 mJy.

Shupe, David L.; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Masci, Frank; Evans, Tracey; Fang, Fan; Oliver, Sebastian; Vaccari, Mattia; Rodighiero, Giulia; Padgett, Deborah; Surace, Jason A.; Xu, C. Kevin; Berta, Stefano; Pozzi, Francesca; Franceschini, Alberto; Babbedge, Thomas; Gonzales-Solares, Eduardo; Siana, Brian D.; Farrah, Duncan; Frayer, David T.; Smith, H. E.; Polletta, Maria; Owen, Frazer; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael

2008-03-01

283

Calculation of Photon-Count Number Distributions via Master Equations  

PubMed Central

Fitting of photon-count number histograms is a way of analysis of fluorescence intensity fluctuations, a successor to fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. First versions of the theory for calculating photon-count number distributions have assumed constant emission intensity by a molecule during a counting time interval. For a long time a question has remained unanswered: to what extent is this assumption violated in experiments? Here we present a theory of photon-count number distributions that takes account of intensity fluctuations during a counting time interval. Theoretical count-number distributions are calculated via a numerical solution of Master equations (ME), which is a set of differential equations describing diffusion, singlet-triplet transitions, and photon emission. Detector afterpulsing and dead-time corrections are also included. The ME-theory is tested by fitting a series of photon-count number histograms corresponding to different lengths of the counting time interval. Compared to the first version of fluorescence intensity multiple distribution analysis theory introduced in 2000, the fit quality is significantly improved. It is discussed how a theory of photon-count number distributions, which assumes constant emission intensity during a counting time interval, may also yield a good fit quality. We argue that the spatial brightness distribution used in calculations of the fit curve is not the true spatial brightness distribution. Instead, a number of dynamic processes, which cause fluorescence intensity fluctuations, are indirectly taken into account via the profile adjustment parameters. PMID:16387771

Palo, Kaupo; Mets, Ülo; Loorits, Vello; Kask, Peet

2006-01-01

284

Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2013-08-08

285

On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.

Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Carlsson, Mats; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin

286

Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions  

SciTech Connect

We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of N radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from N to N{sup 2} in the current and to even higher powers of N in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source. - Highlights: > Super-radiance transfers to super-transmittance in steady-state transport. > Higher cumulants are much more sensitive indicators for collective behavior than the first cumulant. > Effects should be measurable by pumped-cavity experiment.

Vogl, M., E-mail: malte.vogl@tu-berlin.de; Schaller, G., E-mail: gernot.schaller@tu-berlin.de; Brandes, T.

2011-10-15

287

Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment  

PubMed Central

Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

Williams, R.; Kelly, N.; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A. S.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.-H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.; Brierley, A. S.

2014-01-01

288

Orbiting meteoroid and debris counting experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orbiting Meteoroid and Debris Counting Experiment (OMDC) flew for approximately 90 days in a highly elliptical earth orbit onboard the Clementine Interstage Adapter (ISA) Spacecraft. This experiment obtained data on the impact flux of natural micrometeoroids and it provided limited information on the population of small mass man-made debris as a function of altitude in near earth space. The flight of the OMDC experiment on the ISA spacecraft also demonstrated that the ultra-lightweight, low-power, particle impact detector system that was used is a viable system for flights on future spacecraft to monitor the population of small mass man-made debris particles and to map the cosmic dust environment encountered on interplanetary missions. An overview of the ISA spacecraft mission, the approach to the OMDC experiment, and the data obtained by the experiment are presented.

Kinard, William H.; Armstrong, Dwayne; Crockett, Sharon K.; Jones, James L., Jr.; Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Wortman, J. J.

1995-01-01

289

Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

1998-11-01

290

Counting OCR errors in typeset text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

Sandberg, Jonathan S.

1995-03-01

291

Modelling View-count Dynamics in YouTube  

E-print Network

The goal of this paper is to study the behaviour of view-count in YouTube. We first propose several bio-inspired models for the evolution of the view-count of YouTube videos. We show, using a large set of empirical data, that the view-count for 90% of videos in YouTube can indeed be associated to at least one of these models, with a Mean Error which does not exceed 5%. We derive automatic ways of classifying the view-count curve into one of these models and of extracting the most suitable parameters of the model. We study empirically the impact of videos' popularity and category on the evolution of its view-count. We finally use the above classification along with the automatic parameters extraction in order to predict the evolution of videos' view-count.

Richier, Cédric; Elazouzi, Rachid; Altman, Tania; Linares, Georges; Portilla, Yonathan

2014-01-01

292

Cycle counting methods for bi-modal stationary Gaussian processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cycle counting procedure is a fundamental step in the fatigue analysis of structures. This paper is devoted to cycle counting methods, starting from the spectral properties of the loading process. Cycle counting methods for stationary Gaussian narrow-band and broad-band processes proposed in literature are discussed. Focusing attention on bi-modal processes, which are usual in dynamic response of structures, the

M. P. Repetto

2005-01-01

293

VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY COUNTING MEASURES RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN THE BODY. DESIGNED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RADIATION, BODY COUNTING ROOMS ARE CONSTRUCTED OF PRE-WORLD WAR II (WWII) STEEL. PRE-WWII STEEL, WHICH HAS NOT BEEN AFFECTED BY NUCLEAR FALLOUT, IS LOWER IS RADIOACTIVITY THAN STEEL CREATED AFTER WWII. (10/25/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

294

Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space  

DOEpatents

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-06-05

295

Counting in the dark: Non-intrusive laser scanning for population counting and identifying roosting bats  

PubMed Central

Population surveys and species recognition for roosting bats are either based on capture, sight or optical-mechanical count methods. However, these methods are intrusive, are tedious and, at best, provide only statistical estimations. Here, we demonstrated the successful use of a terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) laser scanner for remotely identifying and determining the exact population of roosting bats in caves. LIDAR accurately captured the 3D features of the roosting bats and their spatial distribution patterns in minimal light. The high-resolution model of the cave enabled an exact count of the visibly differentiated Hipposideros larvatus and their roosting pattern within the 3D topology of the cave. We anticipate that the development of LIDAR will open up new research possibilities by allowing researchers to study roosting behaviour within the topographical context of a cave's internal surface, thus facilitating rigorous quantitative characterisations of cave roosting behaviour. PMID:22826802

Azmy, Suzanna Noor; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Ariffin, Azman; Majid, Zulkepli; Ismail, Muhamad Nor Akmal; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir

2012-01-01

296

Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.

Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.

1989-01-01

297

Submillimeter Galaxy Number Counts in a Semi-analytic Model: the ``Count Matching" Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent interferometric observations of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South show that the brightest sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) detected by single-dish telescopes are comprised by emission from multiple fainter sources. With the aim of exploring the properties of SMGs, and in analogy to the now-standard abundance matching approach, we perform a ``Count Matching" approach through light-cones drawn from a semi-analytic model. We choose various physical galaxy properties given by the model as proxies for their sub-millimeter fluxes, assuming a monotonic relationship so that the combined LABOCA plus bright-end ALMA observed number counts are reproduced. After turning the catalogs of galaxy positions and fluxes given by the different proxies into sub-millimeter maps, we perform a source extraction. With this we study the effects of the observational process in the recovered counts, as well as the galaxy properties derived from the detected sources for each proxy. Comparing the recovered redshift, stellar mass and host halo mass distributions with observational data, the best proxy can be found.

Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Navarrete, F. P.; Padilla, N. D.; Cora, S. A.; Gawiser, E.; Kurczynski, P.; Ruiz, A. N.

2014-10-01

298

Use of the harmonic mean: On averaging count-rate data for variable-time, fixed-count intervals  

SciTech Connect

The average of count rates from measurements performed by accumulating a fixed total number of counts over a variable time interval should be obtained with harmonic mean. Use of an arithmetic mean in these cases will give intuitively incorrect results. Uncertainty estimators for this harmonically averaged counting rate, such as the standard deviation, must also be suitably transformed to correspond to that for the harmonic mean.

Colle, R.

1996-09-01

299

Accuracy and reliability of naevus self-counts.  

PubMed

A high number of melanocytic naevi is one of the major risk factors for cutaneous melanoma. Therefore, counting the number of acquired naevi could be a useful strategy to identify individuals at an increased risk for targeted skin cancer screening. The aim of this study was to assess agreement between naevus self-counts and counts of trained examiners as well as to analyse potential determinants of the magnitude of agreement. In a large cross-sectional survey (n=1772), university students counted their naevi on both arms and were additionally examined by specifically trained examiners in a mutually blinded manner. Further data on other melanoma risk factors such as skin phototype, hair colour or freckling were collected by a questionnaire. The relative difference between the two naevus counts and the ratio of the counts were calculated to quantify agreement. Regression modelling was performed to identify independent determinants of agreement. The overall agreement was moderate, with participants counting on average 14% more naevi than the examiners. In terms of the potential determinants associated with agreement, skin type and medical education showed a strong effect. The difference in naevus counts was significantly larger for individuals with lighter skin types compared with those with a dark skin (Fitzpatrick type IV), and medical students yielded a naevus count more similar to the examiner's count than nonmedical students. Naevus self-counts can only provide a rough estimate of the number of naevi, but may not be accurate enough to reliably identify a high-risk group for melanoma screening, especially in individuals with light skin types. PMID:25014848

Fiessler, Cornelia; Pfahlberg, Annette; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf

2014-12-01

300

Advanced Reference Counting Pointers for Better Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program implements reference counting pointers (RCPs) that are lock-free, thread-safe, async-safe, and operational on a multiprocessor computer. RCPs are powerful and convenient means of managing heap memory in C++ software. Most prior RCP programs use locks to ensure thread safety and manage concurrency. The present program was developed in a continuing effort to explore ways of using the C++ programming language to develop safety-critical and mission- critical software. This effort includes exploration of lock-free algorithms because they offer potential to avoid some costly and difficult verification problems. Unlike previously published RCP software, the present program does not use locks (meaning that no thread can block progress on another thread): Instead, this program implements algorithms that exploit capabilities of central-processing- unit hardware so as to avoid locks. Once locks are eliminated, it becomes possible to realize the other attributes mentioned in the first sentence. In addition to the abovementioned attributes, this program offers several advantages over other RCP programs that use locks: It is smaller (and, hence, is faster and uses less memory), it is immune to priority inversion, and there is no way for it to cause a C++ exception.

Reinholtz, William

2007-01-01

301

Estimating resource selection with count data  

PubMed Central

Resource selection functions (RSFs) are typically estimated by comparing covariates at a discrete set of “used” locations to those from an “available” set of locations. This RSF approach treats the response as binary and does not account for intensity of use among habitat units where locations were recorded. Advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology allow animal location data to be collected at fine spatiotemporal scales and have increased the size and correlation of data used in RSF analyses. We suggest that a more contemporary approach to analyzing such data is to model intensity of use, which can be estimated for one or more animals by relating the relative frequency of locations in a set of sampling units to the habitat characteristics of those units with count-based regression and, in particular, negative binomial (NB) regression. We demonstrate this NB RSF approach with location data collected from 10 GPS-collared Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range enclosure. We discuss modeling assumptions and show how RSF estimation with NB regression can easily accommodate contemporary research needs, including: analysis of large GPS data sets, computational ease, accounting for among-animal variation, and interpretation of model covariates. We recommend the NB approach because of its conceptual and computational simplicity, and the fact that estimates of intensity of use are unbiased in the face of temporally correlated animal location data. PMID:23919165

Nielson, Ryan M; Sawyer, Hall

2013-01-01

302

The LAMBDA photon-counting pixel detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Medipix3 photon-counting detector chip has a number of novel features that are attractive for synchrotron experiments, such as a high frame rate with zero dead time and high spatial resolution. DESY are developing a large-area Medipix3-based detector array (LAMBDA). A single LAMBDA module consists of 2 by 6 Medipix3 chips on a ceramic carrier board, bonded to either a single large silicon sensor or two smaller high-Z sensors. The readout system fits behind the carrier board to allow module tiling, and uses a large on-board RAM and multiple 10 Gigabit Ethernet links to permit high-speed readout. Currently, the first large silicon modules have been constructed and read out at low speed, and the firmware for highspeed readout is being developed. In addition to these silicon sensors, we are developing a germanium hybrid pixel detector in collaboration with Canberra for higher-energy beamlines. Canberra have produced a set of 256-by-256-pixel planar germanium sensors with 55?m pitch, and these are currently being bonded to Medipix3 readout chips by Fraunhofer IZM (Berlin).

Pennicard, D.; Lange, S.; Smoljanin, S.; Hirsemann, H.; Graafsma, H.; Epple, M.; Zuvic, M.; Lampert, M.-O.; Fritzsch, T.; Rothermund, M.

2013-03-01

303

Counting on co-transcriptional splicing  

PubMed Central

Splicing is the removal of intron sequences from pre-mRNA by the spliceosome. Researchers working in multiple model organisms – notably yeast, insects and mammalian cells – have shown that pre-mRNA can be spliced during the process of transcription (i.e. co-transcriptionally), as well as after transcription termination (i.e. post-transcriptionally). Co-transcriptional splicing does not assume that transcription and splicing machineries are mechanistically coupled, yet it raises this possibility. Early studies were based on a limited number of genes, which were often chosen because of their experimental accessibility. Since 2010, eight studies have used global datasets as counting tools, in order to quantify co-transcriptional intron removal. The consensus view, based on four organisms, is that the majority of splicing events take place co-transcriptionally in most cells and tissues. Here, we discuss the nature of the various global datasets and how bioinformatic analyses were conducted. Considering the broad differences in experimental approach and analysis, the level of agreement on the prevalence of co-transcriptional splicing is remarkable. PMID:23638305

2013-01-01

304

First AID (Atom counting for Isotopic Determination).  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established an in vitro bioassay monitoring program in compliance with the requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. One aspect of this program involves monitoring plutonium levels in at-risk workers. High-risk workers are monitored using the ultra-sensitive Therrnal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) technique to ensure compliance with DOE standards. TIMS is used to measure atom ratios of 239Pua nd 240Puw ith respect to a tracer isotope ('Pu). These ratios are then used to calculate the amount of 239Pu and 240Pup resent. This low-level atom counting technique allows the calculation of the concentration levels of 239Pu and 240Pu in urine for at risk workers. From these concentration levels, dose assessments can be made and worker exposure levels can be monitored. Detection limits for TIMS analysis are on the order of millions of atoms, which translates to activity levels of 150 aCi 239Pua nd 500 aCi for 240Pu. pCi for Our poster presentation will discuss the ultra-sensitive, low-level analytical technique used to measure plutonium isotopes and the data verification methods used for validating isotopic measurements.

Roach, J. L. (Jeffrey L.); Israel, K. M. (Kimberly M.); Steiner, R. E. (Robert E.); Duffy, C. J. (Clarence J.); Roench, F. R. (Fred R.)

2002-01-01

305

An approximation algorithm for counting contingency tables  

E-print Network

We present a randomized approximation algorithm for counting contingency tables, mxn non-negative integer matrices with given row sums R=(r_1, ..., r_m) and column sums C=(c_1, ..., c_n). We define smooth margins (R,C) in terms of the typical table and prove that for such margins the algorithm has quasi-polynomial N^{O(ln N)} complexity, where N=r_1+...+r_m=c_1+...+c_n. Various classes of margins are smooth, e.g., when m=O(n), n=O(m) and the ratios between the largest and the smallest row sums as well as between the largest and the smallest column sums are strictly smaller than the golden ratio (1+sqrt{5})/2 = 1.618. The algorithm builds on Monte Carlo integration and sampling algorithms for log-concave densities, the matrix scaling algorithm, the permanent approximation algorithm, and an integral representation for the number of contingency tables.

Barvinok, Alexander; Samorodnitsky, Alex; Yong, Alexander

2008-01-01

306

Counting test facility for the Borexino experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental breakthrough which opened the way to the realization of the Borexino detector was the demonstration of exceptionally low, unprecedented radioactive contaminations in the liquid scintillator, obtained with its pilot prototype Counting Test Facility. Though of limited dimension, with its 4.8 m3 of active liquid core, CTF has however been a key milestone not only for Borexino, but also for the entire field of the ultra-low background searches. Here, we succinctly remind the motivations, which concurred to lay down the project, as well as the specific radiopurity challenge, which guided the design. After the description of the technical elements of the detector, the main outcomes are summarized, both regarding optical and purity scintillator properties, with special emphasis on the exceptional achievements in term of ultra-low traces of radioactive contaminants. The discussion is completed with the description of how CTF was employed for the pre-qualification of the entire inventory of the Borexino scintillator, confirming also in the final phase of its life its essential role for the success of the overall Borexino solar neutrino program.

Ranucci, G.; Meroni, E.

2014-05-01

307

Viability of soil bacteria: Optimization of plate-counting technique and comparison between total counts and plate counts within different size groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viable counts of heterotropic soil bacteria were 3–5 times higher on low-nutrient agar media compared with a series of conventional agar media. Substantial amounts of monosaccharides and amino acids were present in solid media made from distilled water and agar powder, and a salt-solution agar medium (without organic substrates added) gave practically the same colony counts as the low nutrient

Rolf A. Olsen; Lars R. Bakken

1987-01-01

308

Climatological Analysis of Tornado Report Counts Using a Hierarchical Bayesian  

E-print Network

Climatological Analysis of Tornado Report Counts Using a Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio Recent evidence suggests that tornado report counts for monthly or longer peri- ods may be correlated to climate indices in space and time. However, climatologi- cal analysis of tornado reports is complicated

309

Cell counts in cerebral cortex of an autistic patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numbers of neurons and glia were counted in the cerebral cortex of one well-documented case of autism and two age and sexmatched controls. Areas in which cell counts were made were primary auditory cortex, Broca's speech area, and auditory association cortex. No consistent differences in cell density were found between the brains of the autistic patient and the control patients.

Paul D. Coleman; John Romano; Lowell Lapham; William Simon

1985-01-01

310

Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the contributions of African peoples to the science of mathematics. The development of a number system is seen as related to need. Names of numbers, time reckoning, gesture counting, and counting materials are examined. Mystical beliefs about numbers and special meanings in pattern are presented. Reproductions of patterns,…

Zaslavsky, Claudia

311

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND  

E-print Network

369: COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROMKernan, Director COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST COAST, 1957

312

Energy harvesting using AC machines with high effective pole count  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, ways to improve the power conversion of rotating generators at low rotor speeds in energy harvesting applications were investigated. One method is to increase the pole count, which increases the generator back-emf without also increasing the I2R losses, thereby increasing both torque density and conversion efficiency. One machine topology that has a high effective pole count is

Richard Theodore Geiger

2010-01-01

313

HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

314

New Jersey Kids Count 2011: The State of Our Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"New Jersey Kids Count 2011" again documents both advances and setbacks in key areas that affect child well-being--poverty, health, child protection, education, including early learning, and adolescent well-being. To better gauge New Jersey's progress in essential areas, a "New Jersey Kids Count Report Card" that identifies trends in 15 key…

Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2011

2011-01-01

315

Visualization of Document Co-Citation Counts Steven Noel  

E-print Network

Visualization of Document Co-Citation Counts Steven Noel Center for Secure Information Systems}@cacs.louisiana.edu Abstract Visualization can facilitate the understanding of the structures of a collection of documents of visualizing minimum spanning trees based on document co-citation counts and on document citation correlations

Noel, Steven

316

Ultrasensitive examination of environmental samples with SRL Underground Counting Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to detect contaminants at very low-levels in environmental samples promises early identification and correction of harmful industrial practices. To achieve this capability, the Savannah River Laboratory Underground Counting Facility (SRLUCF) was developed. This paper appraises resulting improvements in detection sensitivity, and discusses recent applications. SRLUCF utilizes hardware and software customized for low-level counting. An uninterruptible power supply limits

Winn

1987-01-01

317

Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)

Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others

1989-01-01

318

Development of Counting Strategies in Congenitally Blind Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various counting tasks were presented to 24 congenitally, totally blind children, aged 3-13, to determine the behaviors employed to ensure accurate counting. Three dimensions of tactile strategies were found, including "scanning,""organizing," and "partitioning." A developmental progression in the ontogenesis of each of these dimensions of…

Sicilian, S. P.

1988-01-01

319

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were initiated to investigate the interactions between heterotrophic plate count bacteria and coliform organisms. The authors used spiked samples to show that heterotrophic plate count bacteria could reduce coliform densities by more than 3 logs within 8 days. Some hetero...

320

Photon-counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD) have been used for photon counting for a number of years. This paper reviews their properties and the associated electronics required for photon counting in the Geiger mode. Significant improvements are reported in overall photon detection efficiencies (approaching 75% at 633 nm), and timing jitter (under 200 ps) achieved at high over-voltages (20 - 30 V).

Henri Dautet; Pierre Deschamps; Bruno Dion; Andrew D. MacGregor; Darleene MacSween; Robert J. McIntyre; Claude Trottier; Paul P. Webb

1993-01-01

321

78 FR 62955 - National Character Counts Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...October 18, 2013 National Character Counts Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect on the ways we support one...values that keep our country strong. This week, we reaffirm our commitment to...

2013-10-23

322

76 FR 65095 - National Character Counts Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...October 14, 2011 National Character Counts Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...humanity. During National Character Counts Week, we celebrate our country's core values...country strong, prosperous, and free. This week, we resolve to stay true to the...

2011-10-20

323

Clinical usefulness of white blood cell count after cesarean delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine changes in white blood cell (WBC) count after cesarean and estimate risk of postoperative infection.Methods: We measured complete blood cell counts at admission and on postoperative day 1 for 458 women who had cesareans. Information from charts was abstracted, and definitions of infectious outcomes and fever were applied by three physicians masked to laboratory results. We examined

Katherine E. Hartmann; Katherine E. Barrett; Virgil C. Reid; Michael J. MCMahon; William C. Miller

2000-01-01

324

A Polynomial-time Algorithm to Approximately Count Contingency Tables  

E-print Network

A Polynomial-time Algorithm to Approximately Count Contingency Tables when the Number of Rows of contingency tables with given row and column sums. This problem is known to be #P -complete, even when scheme for counting contingency tables when the number of rows is constant. A novel feature of our

Cryan, Mary

325

Phonics: A Large Phoneme-Grapheme Frequency Count Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a summary and simplification of a very large phoneme-grapheme frequency count done by Hanna et al. phoneme-grapheme frequency count done by Hanna et al. T(1966). Although the results and data from the original study have implications for teaching phonics and spelling, they were presented in a complicated and unwieldy manner.…

Fry, Edward

2004-01-01

326

An electronic pollen detection method using Coulter counting principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for detecting and counting pollen particles based on Coulter counting principle is presented. This approach also provides information on the size and surface charges of the micro particles, allowing for preliminary differentiation of pollens from other micro particles. Three samples are studied: polymethyl methacrylate particles, tree pollens from Juniperus Scopulorum and grass pollens from Secale Cerale. The samples,

Zheng Zhang; Jiang Zhe; Santanu Chandra; Jun Hu

2005-01-01

327

Virginia Tech Campaign to Count Gifts Made to Victims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virginia Tech has decided to count gifts to a memorial fund for victims of the April 16 shootings toward its goal of raising $1-billion in a capital campaign. Higher-education fund-raising experts agree that counting the memorial-fund contributions toward the total does not break common donation-reporting guidelines. Many big college fund-raising…

Strout, Erin

2007-01-01

328

Counting mental strategies as new mathematical operations DAVID WOMACK  

E-print Network

271 Counting mental strategies as new mathematical operations DAVID WOMACK Abstract:Drawing on my). The distinctive characteristic of this mental model, is that there are two `subtractive' strategies, referred. For example, 11 ­ 6 can be mentally calculated as `count back 6 from 11' (to reach position number 5

Spagnolo, Filippo

329

AUTOMATIC RED BLOOD CELL AND WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNTING FOR  

E-print Network

A complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test used to evaluate the overall health and diagnose a wide range of disorders, including anaemia, infection and leukaemia etc. CBC test infer about the kinds and numbers of cells in the blood such as Red Blood Cells(RBC), White Blood Cells(WBC) , Platelet. This blood cell count infers about the disorders against normal healthy blood cell count. Haematology analysis to be specific, accurate & reliable in the blood cell counts to mitigate diagnosis. Conventional haematology analysis triggers visit to clinic and is laboratory specialist dependent carried either manually (inaccurate) or by haematology analyser (costlier). Both are not affordable to the remote / rural areas. This paper introduces an cost effective automatic RBC and WBC counting accurately using image analysis technique for remote or rural areas using telemedicine approach independent of specialist to generate patient RBC and WBC report.

Vinutha H Reddy

330

Full counting statistics of persistent current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a method for the calculation of charge-transfer statistics of persistent current in nanostructures in terms of the cumulant generating function (CGF) of transferred charge. We consider a simply connected one-dimensional system (a wire) and develop a procedure for the calculation of the CGF of persistent currents when the wire is closed into a ring via a weak link. For the noninteracting system we derive a general formula in terms of the two-particle Green's functions. We show that, contrary to the conventional tunneling contacts, the resulting cumulant generating function has a doubled periodicity as a function of the counting field. We apply our general formula to short tight-binding chains and show that the resulting CGF perfectly reproduces the known evidence for the persistent current. Its second cumulant turns out to be maximal at the switching points and vanishes identically at zero temperature. Furthermore, we apply our formalism for a computation of the charge-transfer statistics of genuinely interacting systems. First we consider a ring with an embedded Anderson impurity and employing a self-energy approximation find an overall suppression of persistent current as well as of its noise. Finally, we compute the charge-transfer statistics of a double-quantum-dot system in the deep Kondo limit using an exact analytical solution of the model at the Toulouse point. We analyze the behavior of the resulting cumulants and compare them with those of a noninteracting double-quantum-dot system and find several pronounced differences, which can be traced back to interaction effects.

Komnik, A.; Langhanke, G. W.

2014-10-01

331

Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation  

SciTech Connect

The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chandrasekaran, V [MIT; Gamarmik, D [MIT; Shah, D [MIT; Sin, J [MIT

2009-01-01

332

You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers  

PubMed Central

The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing. PMID:22133748

Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2012-01-01

333

Factor of merit and minimum detectable activity for 90Sr determinations by gas-flow proportional counting or Cherenkov counting.  

PubMed

The determination of 90Sr in environmental samples can be done by using a gas-flow proportional counter (beta-counting) or a liquid-scintillation spectrometer (Cherenkov counting). In this work, we present the factor of merit (FOM) and the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for both the counters. Quantitative relationships are proposed for FOM and MDA determination. PMID:11761109

Vaca, F; Manjón, G; Cuéllar, S; García-León, M

2001-12-01

334

Effects of Sampling Strategy, Detection Probability, and Independence of Counts on the Use of Point Counts1  

E-print Network

. The most commonly used sampling plans are stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling of these factors should be con- sidered when using point count methods. Sampling strategies, variable detectionEffects of Sampling Strategy, Detection Probability, and Independence of Counts on the Use of Point

Standiford, Richard B.

335

The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces the impact of count rate loss with photon-counting detectors.  

PubMed

Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard energy-integrating x-ray detectors, but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a 'hybrid' detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al 2011 Med. Phys. 38 1089-102). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping ('bowtie') filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of 2 to 3. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors. PMID:24819415

Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

2014-06-01

336

Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

2010-01-01

337

[Validity of the AgNOR count in cervical pathology].  

PubMed

Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were counted on ten cases each of normal ectocervix, CIN 1, 2 and 3 to verify the possibility of a differentiation between the various grades of CIN and between them and condylomata. Counts were performed on the full thickness of the tissue, layer by layer (stratified counts). A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the means of normal tissue toward condylomata and CIN 2 and 3 and between CIN 1 and CIN 2 and 3. There was no significance (p < 0.05) between normal tissue and CIN 1, between CIN 2 and 3 and between condylomata and CIN 2 and 3. The range of variations on the counts was associated with overlapping between the various cases. Our data showed also a progressive rise in mean NOR values from normal tissue to CIN 3. The stratified counts showed in all the groups a rise from basal to parabasal cells. Counts on parabasal and intermediate layers distinguished two groups of cases. In one there was either the same number of dots or a further rise from one layer to the next, while in the other a definite decrease was seen. The former pattern may be related to a potential for malignant evolution of the lesion. NORs should be counted in all cases of CIN and condylomata to treat more aggressively those lesions which present the pattern of a progressive rise of NORs from basal to intermediate cells. PMID:1465312

Leopardi, O; Colecchia, M; Colavecchio, A

1992-01-01

338

Value of AgNOR counts in cervical pathology.  

PubMed

Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were counted on normal tissue, condylomata, CIN 1, 2 and 3, to verify the possibility of a differentiation between the various grades of CIN and between them and condylomata. Counts were performed on the full thickness of the tissue, layer by layer (stratified counts). A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the mean of normal tissue in relation to condylomata and CIN 2 and 3 and between CIN 1, and CIN 2 and 3. There was no significance (p > 0.05) between normal tissue and CIN 1, between CIN 2 and 3 and between condylomata and CIN 2 and 3. The range of variations in the counts was associated with overlapping between the various cases. Our data showed also a progressive rise in mean NOR values from normal tissue to CIN 3. The stratified counts showed in all the groups a rise from basal to parabasal cells. Counts on parabasal and intermediate layers distinguished two groups of cases. In one there was either the same number of dots or a further rise while in the other a definite decrease was seen. The former pattern may be related to a potential for malignant evolution of the lesion. NORs should be counted in all cases of CIN and condylomata to treat more aggressively those lesions which present the patterns of a progressive rise of NORs from basal to intermediate cells. PMID:1473536

Leopardi, O; Colavecchio, M; Colecchia, M; Dedè, A

1992-01-01

339

Single photon counting linear mode avalanche photodiode technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The false count rate of a single-photon-sensitive photoreceiver consisting of a high-gain, low-excess-noise linear-mode InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) and a high-bandwidth transimpedance amplifier (TIA) is fit to a statistical model. The peak height distribution of the APD's multiplied dark current is approximated by the weighted sum of McIntyre distributions, each characterizing dark current generated at a different location within the APD's junction. The peak height distribution approximated in this way is convolved with a Gaussian distribution representing the input-referred noise of the TIA to generate the statistical distribution of the uncorrelated sum. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) representing count probability as a function of detection threshold is computed, and the CDF model fit to empirical false count data. It is found that only k=0 McIntyre distributions fit the empirically measured CDF at high detection threshold, and that false count rate drops faster than photon count rate as detection threshold is raised. Once fit to empirical false count data, the model predicts the improvement of the false count rate to be expected from reductions in TIA noise and APD dark current. Improvement by at least three orders of magnitude is thought feasible with further manufacturing development and a capacitive-feedback TIA (CTIA).

Williams, George M.; Huntington, Andrew S.

2011-10-01

340

Finger counting habits modulate spatial-numerical associations.  

PubMed

This study explored the contribution of finger counting habits to the association of numbers with space (the SNARC effect). First, a questionnaire study indicated that two-thirds of 445 adults started counting on their left hand, regardless of their handedness. Secondly, a group of 53 "left-starters" but not a group of 47 "right-starters" showed a SNARC effect in a parity task. A significant difference in the strength of the effect between groups suggests that finger counting habits indeed contribute to the association between numbers and space in adults. PMID:18387569

Fischer, Martin H

2008-04-01

341

L3CCD results in pure photon counting mode  

E-print Network

Theoretically, L3CCDs are perfect photon counting devices promising high quantum efficiency ($\\sim$90%) and sub-electron readout noise ($\\sigma$<0.1 e-). We discuss how a back-thinned 512x512 frame-transfer L3CCD (CCD97) camera operating in pure photon counting mode would behave based on experimental data. The chip is operated at high electromultiplication gain, high analogic gain and high frame rate. Its performance is compared with a modern photon counting camera (GaAs photocathode, QE $\\sim$28%) to see if L3CCD technology, in its current state, could supersede photocathode-based devices.

Olivier Daigle; Jean-Luc Gach; Christian Guillaume; Claude Carignan; Philippe Balard; Olivier Boissin

2004-07-15

342

Activity standardisation of ²²?Ra by 4?? liquid scintillation counting method.  

PubMed

Activity of (226)Ra in radium daughter products free solution was determined by 4?? liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method, where the detection efficiency of radium decay is practically equal to 1. The sources were prepared from solution with known (226)Ra mass concentration, from which, immediately before LS counting, (222)Rn and its daughter nuclides were removed by solvent extraction. LS counting results were corrected practically only for a <0.6% loss of radium from measured sample and for the ingrowth of (222)Rn and (218)Po concentrations in the sample after the separation was completed. The combined relative standard uncertainty was estimated to be lower than 0.34%. PMID:23602705

Havelka, Miroslav; Blu?ovský, Richard

2013-11-01

343

Bubble Counts for Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Using Image Analysis  

SciTech Connect

We describe the use of image analysis to count bubbles in 3-D, large-scale, LES [1] and DNS [2] of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We analyze these massive datasets by first converting the 3-D data to 2-D, then counting the bubbles in the 2-D data. Our plots for the bubble count indicate there are four distinct regimes in the process of the mixing of the two fluids. We also show that our results are relatively insensitive to the choice of parameters in our analysis algorithms.

Miller, P L; Gezahegne, A G; Cook, A W; Cabot, W H; Kamath, C

2007-01-24

344

Errors in automated reticulocyte counts due to Heinz bodies.  

PubMed Central

Serial reticulocyte counts on a patient with an unstable haemoglobin haemolytic anaemia whose red cells contained Heinz bodies were obtained by two automated methods. One false low and several false high counts were obtained with standard threshold settings; each was accompanied by activation of the appropriate alarm. With the FACScan a bimodal red cell distribution was found, corresponding to the proportions of Heinz body positive and negative cells. This case illustrates the fact that Heinz bodies can interfere with automated reticulocyte counting methods, and to a degree that could be clinically important. PMID:8227446

Hinchliffe, R F

1993-01-01

345

Errors in automated reticulocyte counts due to Heinz bodies.  

PubMed

Serial reticulocyte counts on a patient with an unstable haemoglobin haemolytic anaemia whose red cells contained Heinz bodies were obtained by two automated methods. One false low and several false high counts were obtained with standard threshold settings; each was accompanied by activation of the appropriate alarm. With the FACScan a bimodal red cell distribution was found, corresponding to the proportions of Heinz body positive and negative cells. This case illustrates the fact that Heinz bodies can interfere with automated reticulocyte counting methods, and to a degree that could be clinically important. PMID:8227446

Hinchliffe, R F

1993-09-01

346

Automatic Pedestrian Detection and Counting Applied to Urban Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical knowledge of human flows in the streets is mandatory for urban planning. Today many cities use the expensive method of manual pedestrian counting, since there is no reliable automatic counting device. This project aims at achieving the first efficient, real-time, embedded and autonomous system that provides high-level data. Our first work focused on the development of a reliable counting method under MatlabTM. On the basis of video sequences recorded in the city of Mulhouse we have validated the robustness of our approach.

Michelat, Thomas; Hueber, Nicolas; Raymond, Pierre; Pichler, Alexander; Schaal, Pascal; Dugaret, Bernard

347

Galaxy number counts to second order and their bispectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory in the Poisson gauge and allowing for anisotropic stress. The calculation is performed using an innovative approach based on the recently proposed ``geodesic light-cone" gauge. This allows us to determine the number counts in a purely geometric way, without using Einstein's equation. The result is valid for general dark energy models and (most) modified gravity models. We then evaluate numerically some relevant contributions to the number counts bispectrum. In particular we consider the terms involving the density, redshift space distortion and lensing.

Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco

2014-12-01

348

Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps  

SciTech Connect

In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

Pogosyan, Dmitri [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe [Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, 98, bis Boulevard Arago, 75 014, Paris (France)

2011-10-15

349

RADIOSENSITIVITY OF LEUKEMIC AND NONLEUKEMIC LYMPHOCYTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ten patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 13 patients with nonleukemic diagnoses have been treated with total body radiation in small divided doses. The response of the hemoglobin count, platelet count, and absolute neutrophil count was similar for both groups of patients. The absolute lymphocyte counts were markedly reduced in the leukemic patients as com pared to the nonleukemic

RALPH E. JOHNSON

1967-01-01

350

Atmospheric remote sensing to detect effects of temperature inversions on sputum cell counts in airway diseases.  

PubMed

Temperature inversions result in the accumulation of air pollution, often to levels exceeding air quality criteria. The respiratory response may be detectable in sputum cell counts. This study investigates the effect of boundary layer temperature inversions on sputum cell counts. Total and differential cell counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages and lymphocytes were quantified in sputum samples of patients attending an outpatient clinic. Temperature inversions were identified using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, an atmospheric sensor on the Aqua spacecraft which was launched in 2002 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. On inversion days, a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were neutrophils was observed in stable patients. There was also a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were macrophages, in exacerbated patients. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between temperature inversions and cell counts, controlling patients' age, smoking status, medications and meteorological variables of temperature and humidity. The analyses indicate that, in the stable and exacerbated groups, percent neutrophils and macrophages increased by 12.6% and 2.5%, respectively, on inversion days. These results suggest that temperature inversions need consideration as an exacerbating factor in bronchitis and obstructive airway disease. The effects of air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, were investigated. We identified no significant associations with any pollutant. However, we found that monthly averages of total cell counts were strongly correlated with monthly nitrogen dioxide concentrations, an association not previously identified in the literature. PMID:20704033

Wallace, Julie; Nair, Parameswaran; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

2010-08-01

351

Impulsivity-related traits are associated with higher white blood cell counts.  

PubMed

A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity-impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation-are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N = 5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again 3 years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: for every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.10-1.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. PMID:22190235

Sutin, Angelina R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B; Terracciano, Antonio

2012-12-01

352

Differential leukocyte counting and immunophenotyping in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood.  

PubMed

Absolute cell counts are typically measured in fresh samples, but this is impractical in large field studies. We compared quantification of leukocyte proportions and absolute counts using reference real-time methods (stain and lyse/no-wash (LNW) or hematology analyser) with a novel assay that allows long-term cryopreservation of fixed leukocytes for later counting (DLC-ICE: differential leukocyte count and immunophenotype in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood). For the LNW method, whole blood (WB) was stained with fluorescent antibodies, then erythrocytes were lysed, and leukocytes fixed prior to flow cytometry. Alternatively, our novel DLC-ICE method entailed erythrocyte lysis and leukocyte fixation, cryopreservation and later staining of permeabilized cells prior to flow cytometry. Outcomes were proportions and absolute counts of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and activated T cells within the leukocyte population. We also compared leukocyte subset counts in fresh WB from 51 healthy infants measured by hematology analyser at a rural clinical site or by DLC-ICE method after 2 years of cryopreservation. We observed excellent agreement and strong correlations between absolute counts or cell proportions measured by the LNW and DLC-ICE methods on fresh WB from 10 healthy adults. Compared to LNW, DLC-ICE yielded similar or brighter staining even after cryopreservation. Duration of cryopreservation, assessed monthly for 1 year, had little effect on cell enumeration: median coefficients of variation were below 15% for all outcomes. Under field site conditions, we observed strong correlations between infant leukocyte numbers measured in fresh samples by hematology analyser and those measured by DLC-ICE up to 2 years of cryopreservation. Our novel DLC-ICE method allows accurate flow cytometric quantification of cell subsets from fixed WB even after long-term cryopreservation. This method is ideal for batched, retrospective analysis of samples from large field studies, or when advanced flow cytometry equipment is not available for clinical research purposes. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515205

Nemes, Elisa; Kagina, Benjamin M N; Smit, Erica; Africa, Hadn; Steyn, Marcia; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J

2015-02-01

353

Highly stable high-rate discriminator for nuclear counting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse amplitude discriminator is specially designed for nuclear counting applications. At very high rates, the threshold is stable. The output-pulse width and the dead time change negligibly. The unit incorporates a provision for automatic dead-time correction.

English, J. J.; Howard, R. H.; Rudnick, S. J.

1969-01-01

354

Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates  

DOEpatents

A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

1980-05-23

355

Multiple Ion Counting in Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the setup and operation of our Noblesse noble gas mass spectrometer with multiple ion counting detector. As a first project we have analyzed all noble gases (He though Xe) in micrometeorites collected in Antarctica.

Ott, U.; Baecker, B.; Trieloff, M.

2014-11-01

356

12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or no credit toward achievement of any of the housing goals for a transaction...transaction toward achievement of any of the housing goals as provided in...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2)...

2013-01-01

357

12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or no credit toward achievement of any of the housing goals for a transaction...transaction toward achievement of any of the housing goals as provided in...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2)...

2012-01-01

358

12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...or no credit toward achievement of any of the housing goals for a transaction...transaction toward achievement of any of the housing goals as provided in...activities to count toward achievement of the housing goals. (2)...

2014-01-01

359

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

360

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

361

Simple pulse counting circuit computes sum of squares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse counting circuit with an extra chain of flip-flops, delay lines, and gates computes the sum of the squares of the pulse sequences. A pulse train and the sum of the squares of the pulses are simultaneously completed.

Schaefer, D. H.

1965-01-01

362

Exercise Counts: How Many Calories Will Your Activity Burn?  

MedlinePLUS

... ACS » + - Text Size Exercise Counts How many calories will your activity burn? Find the calories burned in ... are estimated for a 150 lb. person, and will vary depending on weight, body composition, and level ...

363

What I Need to Know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... amount of carbohydrate in foods is measured in grams. To count grams of carbohydrate in foods you eat, you’ll ... contain carbohydrates learn to estimate the number of grams of carbohydrate in the foods you eat add ...

364

Correlated neutron counting for the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

Correlated neutron counting techniques, such as neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting, are widely employed at nuclear fuel cycle facilities for the accountancy of nuclear material such as plutonium. These techniques need to be improved and enhanced to meet the challenges of complex measurement items and future nuclear safeguards applications, for example; the non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel, high counting rate applications, small sample measurements, and Helium-3 replacement. At the same time simulation tools, used for the design of detection systems based on these techniques, are being developed in anticipation of future needs. This seminar will present the theory and current state of the practice of temporally correlated neutron counting. A range of future safeguards applications will then be presented in the context of research projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-01

365

Making Child Care Choices Count for Your Family  

MedlinePLUS

... for Your Family Family Life Listen Making Child Care Choices Count for Your Family Article Body For ... Child? There are three basic types of child care: In-home care: A caregiver comes into your ...

366

The Effects of Fault Counting Methods on Fault Model Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we describe three other fault-counting techniques and compare the models resulting from the application of two of those methods to the models obtained from the application of our proposed definition.

Nikora, Allen P.; Munson, John C.

2004-01-01

367

24 CFR 81.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.16 Special counting requirements. (a) General. HUD shall determine whether a...

2010-04-01

368

Tracking system for photon-counting laser radar  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to build the tracking system for a photon-counting laser radar specifically a laser radar that has the ability to perform direct and coherent detection measurement at low signal levels with ...

Chang, Joshua TsuKang

2007-01-01

369

29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...

2014-07-01

370

29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...

2013-07-01

371

29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...

2012-07-01

372

29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...

2011-07-01

373

29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...

2010-07-01

374

Interferometer combines laser light source and digital counting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of small linear displacements in digital readouts with extreme accuracy and sensitivity is achieved by an interferometer. The instrument combines a digital electro-optical fringe-counting system and a laser light source.

1965-01-01

375

Bivariate zero-inflated regression for count data: a Bayesian approach with application to plant counts.  

PubMed

Lately, bivariate zero-inflated (BZI) regression models have been used in many instances in the medical sciences to model excess zeros. Examples include the BZI Poisson (BZIP), BZI negative binomial (BZINB) models, etc. Such formulations vary in the basic modeling aspect and use the EM algorithm (Dempster, Laird and Rubin, 1977) for parameter estimation. A different modeling formulation in the Bayesian context is given by Dagne (2004). We extend the modeling to a more general setting for multivariate ZIP models for count data with excess zeros as proposed by Li, Lu, Park, Kim, Brinkley and Peterson (1999), focusing on a particular bivariate regression formulation. For the basic formulation in the case of bivariate data, we assume that Xi are (latent) independent Poisson random variables with parameters ? i, i = 0, 1, 2. A bi-variate count vector (Y1, Y2) response follows a mixture of four distributions; p0 stands for the mixing probability of a point mass distribution at (0, 0); p1, the mixing probability that Y2 = 0, while Y1 = X0 + X1; p2, the mixing probability that Y1 = 0 while Y2 = X0 + X2; and finally (1 - p0 - p1 - p2), the mixing probability that Yi = Xi + X0, i = 1, 2. The choice of the parameters {pi, ? i, i = 0, 1, 2} ensures that the marginal distributions of Yi are zero inflated Poisson (? 0 + ? i). All the parameters thus introduced are allowed to depend on co-variates through canonical link generalized linear models (McCullagh and Nelder, 1989). This flexibility allows for a range of real-life applications, especially in the medical and biological fields, where the counts are bivariate in nature (with strong association between the processes) and where there are excess of zeros in one or both processes. Our contribution in this paper is to employ a fully Bayesian approach consolidating the work of Dagne (2004) and Li et al. (1999) generalizing the modeling and sampling-based methods described by Ghosh, Mukhopadhyay and Lu (2006) to estimate the parameters and obtain posterior credible intervals both in the case where co-variates are not available as well as in the case where they are. In this context, we provide explicit data augmentation techniques that lend themselves to easier implementation of the Gibbs sampler by giving rise to well-known and closed-form posterior distributions in the bivariate ZIP case. We then use simulations to explore the effectiveness of this estimation using the Bayesian BZIP procedure, comparing the performance to the Bayesian and classical ZIP approaches. Finally, we demonstrate the methodology based on bivariate plant count data with excess zeros that was collected on plots in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compare the results with independent ZIP regression models fitted to both processes. PMID:21969981

Majumdar, Anandamayee; Gries, Corinna

2010-01-01

376

A tutorial on count regression and zero-altered count models for longitudinal substance use data  

PubMed Central

Critical research questions in the study of addictive behaviors concern how these behaviors change over time - either as the result of intervention or in naturalistic settings. The combination of count outcomes that are often strongly skewed with many zeroes (e.g., days using, number of total drinks, number of drinking consequences) with repeated assessments (e.g., longitudinal follow-up after intervention or daily diary data) present challenges for data analyses. The current article provides a tutorial on methods for analyzing longitudinal substance use data, focusing on Poisson, zero-inflated, and hurdle mixed models, which are types of hierarchical or multilevel models. Two example datasets are used throughout, focusing on drinking-related consequences following an intervention and daily drinking over the past 30 days, respectively. Both datasets as well as R, SAS, Mplus, Stata, and SPSS code showing how to fit the models are available on a supplemental website. PMID:22905895

Atkins, David C.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Zheng, Cheng; Gallop, Robert J.; Neighbors, Clayton

2012-01-01

377

Estimation and specification tests of count data recreation demand functions  

E-print Network

ESTIMATION AND SPECIFICATION TESTS OF COUNT DATA RECREATION DEMAND FUNCTIONS A Thesis IRMA ADRIANA GOMEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics ESTIMATION AND SPECIFICATION TESTS OF COUNT DATA RECREATION DEMAND FUNCTIONS A Thesis by IRMA ADRIANA GOMEZ Approved as to style and content by: T o a, Jr. (C a' of Committee) Lonnie...

Gomez, Irma Adriana

1991-01-01

378

Effects of Counting and Matching on Conservation of Number.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-five children aged four-and-a-half to five-and-a-half years old were given number conservation tasks in three conditions: (1) a count condition in which children were helped to count each set after the transformation; (2) a match condition in which children were helped to connect by a string each animal with its peanut; and (3) the standard…

Fuson, Karen C.; And Others

379

Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

2011-01-01

380

STL and Local Regression for Modeling Disease Surveillance Counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project Scope: Seasonal decomposition of time series by Loess (STL) is a well-proven, flexible method for modeling time series with periodic components. We are using STL to model daily disease counts for syndromic surveillance. Loess decomposes the square root daily counts into inter-annual, intra-seasonal, periodic day-of-the week, and remainder components. The inter-annual component models long term trends such as a

David E. Anderson; Cheng Zheng; Ross Maciejewski; Ryan Hafen; Mourad Ouzzani; Shaun J. Grannis; RVAC COE

381

Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.  

PubMed

Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2005-08-01

382

Characterization of a new computer-ready photon counting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photon-counting system seems to be the best solution for extremely low optical power measurements. The Hamamatsu HC135 photon counting module has a built-in high-voltage power supply amplifier, discriminator, micro-controller with an RS232 serial output. It requires only a +5V supply voltage and an IBM PC or compatible computer to run. The system is supplied with an application software. This talk is about the testing of the device.

Andor, Gyorgy

1998-08-01

383

Spitzer 70 Micron Source Counts in GOODS-North  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present ultradeep Spitzer 70 ?m observations of GOODS-North (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey). For the first time, the turnover in the 70 ?m Euclidean-normalized differential source counts is observed. We derive source counts down to a flux density of 1.2 mJy. From the measured source counts and fluctuation analysis, we estimate a power-law approximation of the faint 70 ?m source counts of dN/dS~S-1.6, consistent with that observed for the faint 24 ?m sources. An extrapolation of the 70 ?m source counts to zero flux density implies a total extragalactic background light (EBL) of 7.4+/-1.9 nW m-2 sr-1. The source counts above 1.2 mJy account for about 60% of the estimated EBL. From fluctuation analysis, we derive a photometric confusion level of ?c=0.30+/-0.15 mJy (q=5) for the Spitzer 70 ?m band.

Frayer, D. T.; Huynh, M. T.; Chary, R.; Dickinson, M.; Elbaz, D.; Fadda, D.; Surace, J. A.; Teplitz, H. I.; Yan, L.; Mobasher, B.

2006-08-01

384

Avalanche photodiode photon counting receivers for space-borne lidars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; (2) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; and (3) APD's in analog mode when the received optical signal is extremely weak. Non-breakdown APD photon counters were shown experimentally to achieve an effective photon counting quantum efficiency of 5.0 percent at lambda = 820 nm with a dead time of 15 ns and a dark count rate of 7000/s which agreed with the theoretically predicted values. The interarrival times of the counts followed an exponential distribution and the counting statistics appeared to follow a Poisson distribution with no after pulsing. It is predicted that the effective photon counting quantum efficiency can be improved to 18.7 percent at lambda = 820 nm and 1.46 percent at lambda = 1060 nm with a dead time of a few nanoseconds by using more advanced commercially available electronic components.

Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

1991-01-01

385

Counting unstained, confluent cells by modified bright-field microscopy  

PubMed Central

We present a very simple procedure yielding high-contrast images of adherent, confluent cells such as human neuroblastoma (SH-EP) cells by ordinary bright-field microscopy. Cells are illuminated through a color filter and a pinhole aperture placed between the condenser and the cell culture surface. Refraction by each cell body generates a sharp, bright spot when the image is defocused. The technique allows robust, automatic cell counting from a single bright-field image in a wide range of focal positions; it does this via free, readily available image-analysis tools. Contrast may be enhanced by swelling cell bodies by brief incubation in PBS. The procedure was benchmarked against manual counting and automated counting of fluorescently labeled cell nuclei.. Counts from day-old and freshly seeded plates were compared in a range of densities, from sparse to densely overgrown. On average bright-field images produced the same counts as fluorescent images, with less than 5% error. This method will allow routine cell counting using a plain bright-field microscope, absent cell-line modification or cell staining. PMID:23834382

Drey, L. Louis; Graber, Michael C.; Bieschke, Jan

2013-01-01

386

Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle Basics of Probability  

E-print Network

Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle Topic 5 Combinations Pascal's Triangle Outline Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle 2 / 14 #12;Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal

Watkins, Joseph C.

387

Determination of confidence limits for experiments with low numbers of counts. [Poisson-distributed photon counts from astrophysical sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different methods, classical and Bayesian, for determining confidence intervals involving Poisson-distributed data are compared. Particular consideration is given to cases where the number of counts observed is small and is comparable to the mean number of background counts. Reasons for preferring the Bayesian over the classical method are given. Tables of confidence limits calculated by the Bayesian method are provided for quick reference.

Kraft, Ralph P.; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.

1991-01-01

388

DAILY STEP COUNTS IN A US COHORT WITH COPD  

PubMed Central

Background Baseline values for daily step counts in US adults with COPD and knowledge of its accurate measurement, natural change over time, and independent relationships with measures of COPD severity are limited. Methods 127 persons with stable COPD wore the StepWatch Activity Monitor (SAM) for 14 days, and 102 of them wore it a median 3.9 months later. SAM counts were compared to manual counts in the clinic. We assessed change over time, the effect of season, and relationships with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted, 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, the modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea score, and the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Total Score (SGRQ-TS). Results 98% of subjects were males, with mean age 71 ± 8 years and FEV1 1.48 ± 0.54 L (52 ± 19 % predicted). All 4 GOLD stages were represented, with the most subjects in GOLD II (44%) and GOLD III (37%). The SAM had > 90% accuracy in 99% of subjects. Average step count was 5,680 steps/day, which decreased with increasing GOLD stage (p=0.0046). Subjects walked 645 fewer steps/day at follow-up, which was partly explained by season of monitoring (p=0.013). In a multivariate model, FEV1 % predicted, 6MWT distance and MMRC score were weakly associated with daily step counts, while SGRQ-TS was not. Conclusions These findings will aid the design of future studies using daily step counts in COPD. Accurately measured, daily step counts decline over time partly due to season and capture unique information about COPD status. PMID:22521225

MOY, MARILYN L.; DANILACK, VALERY A.; WESTON, NICOLE A.; GARSHICK, ERIC

2013-01-01

389

Interaural Comparison of Spiral Ganglion Cell Counts in Profound Deafness  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study is designed to measure the degree to which spiral ganglion cell (SGC) survival in the left and right ears is similar in profoundly hearing-impaired human patients with symmetric (right/left) etiology and sensitivity. This is of interest because a small difference between ears would imply that one ear could be used as a control ear in temporal bone studies evaluating the impact on SGC survival of a medical intervention in the other ear. Materials and Methods Forty-two temporal bones from 21 individuals with bilaterally symmetric profound hearing impairment were studied. Both ears in each individual were impaired by the same etiology. Rosenthal’s canal was reconstructed in two dimensions and segmental and total SGCs were counted. Correlation analysis and t-tests were used to compare segmental and total counts of left and right ears. Statistical power calculations illustrate how the results can be used to estimate the effect size (right/left difference in SGC count) that can be reliably identified as a function of sample size. Results Left counts (segmental and total) were significantly correlated with those in the right ears (p<0.01) and the coefficients of determination for segments 1 to 4 and total count were respectively 0.64, 0.91, 0.93, 0.91 and 0.98. The hypothesis that mean segmental and total counts of right and left are the same could not be rejected by paired t-test. Conclusion The variance in the between-ear difference across the temporal bones studied indicates that useful effect sizes can be reliably identified using subject numbers that are practical for temporal bone studies. For instance, there is 95% likelihood that an interaural difference in SGC count of approximately 1000 cells associated with a treatment/manipulation of one ear will be reliably detected in a bilaterally-symmetric profound hearing loss population of temporal bones from approximately 10 subjects. PMID:22008826

Seyyedi, Mohammad; Eddington, Donald K; Nadol, Joseph B

2011-01-01

390

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center study examines predicting ovarian cancer by counting tumor-attacking immune cells  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have developed a new method for counting a special class of cancer-fighting cells – called tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes, or TILs – reliably, quickly and cheaply in patients with early stage and advanced ovarian cancer.

391

Safety and Immunogenicity of H1/IC31®, an Adjuvanted TB Subunit Vaccine, in HIV-Infected Adults with CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts Greater than 350 cells/mm3: A Phase II, Multi-Centre, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults. Methods HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or placebo was randomly allocated in a 5?1 ratio. The vaccine was administered intramuscularly at day 0 and 56. Safety assessment was based on medical history, clinical examinations, and blood and urine testing. Immunogenicity was determined by a short-term whole blood intracellular cytokine staining assay. Results 47 of the 48 randomised participants completed both vaccinations. In total, 459 mild or moderate and 2 severe adverse events were reported. There were three serious adverse events in two vaccinees classified as not related to the investigational product. Local injection site reactions were more common in H1/IC31 versus placebo recipients (65.0% vs. 12.5%, p?=?0.015). Solicited systemic and unsolicited adverse events were similar by study arm. The baseline CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load were similar by study arm and remained constant over time. The H1/IC31 vaccine induced a persistent Th1-immune response with predominately TNF-? and IL-2 co-expressing CD4+ T cells, as well as polyfunctional IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2 expressing CD4+ T cells. Conclusion H1/IC31 was well tolerated and safe in HIV-infected adults with a CD4+ Lymphocyte count greater than 350 cells/mm3. The vaccine did not have an effect on CD4+ T cell count or HIV-1 viral load. H1/IC31 induced a specific and durable Th1 immune response. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR) PACTR201105000289276 PMID:25490675

Reither, Klaus; Katsoulis, Lynn; Beattie, Trevor; Gardiner, Nicolene; Lenz, Nicole; Said, Khadija; Mfinanga, Elirehema; Pohl, Christian; Fielding, Katherine L.; Jeffery, Hannah; Kagina, Benjamin M.; Hughes, Elisabeth J.; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hanekom, Willem A.; Hoff, Søren T.; Bang, Peter; Kromann, Ingrid; Daubenberger, Claudia; Andersen, Peter; Churchyard, Gavin J.

2014-01-01

392

Quality Control Methods in Accelerometer Data Processing: Identifying Extreme Counts  

PubMed Central

Background Accelerometers are designed to measure plausible human activity, however extremely high count values (EHCV) have been recorded in large-scale studies. Using population data, we develop methodological principles for establishing an EHCV threshold, propose a threshold to define EHCV in the ActiGraph GT1M, determine occurrences of EHCV in a large-scale study, identify device-specific error values, and investigate the influence of varying EHCV thresholds on daily vigorous PA (VPA). Methods We estimated quantiles to analyse the distribution of all accelerometer positive count values obtained from 9005 seven-year old children participating in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. A threshold to identify EHCV was derived by differentiating the quantile function. Data were screened for device-specific error count values and EHCV, and a sensitivity analysis conducted to compare daily VPA estimates using three approaches to accounting for EHCV. Results Using our proposed threshold of ? 11,715 counts/minute to identify EHCV, we found that only 0.7% of all non-zero counts measured in MCS children were EHCV; in 99.7% of these children, EHCV comprised < 1% of total non-zero counts. Only 11 MCS children (0.12% of sample) returned accelerometers that contained negative counts; out of 237 such values, 211 counts were equal to ?32,768 in one child. The medians of daily minutes spent in VPA obtained without excluding EHCV, and when using a higher threshold (?19,442 counts/minute) were, respectively, 6.2% and 4.6% higher than when using our threshold (6.5 minutes; p<0.0001). Conclusions Quality control processes should be undertaken during accelerometer fieldwork and prior to analysing data to identify monitors recording error values and EHCV. The proposed threshold will improve the validity of VPA estimates in children’s studies using the ActiGraph GT1M by ensuring only plausible data are analysed. These methods can be applied to define appropriate EHCV thresholds for different accelerometer models. PMID:24454804

Rich, Carly; Geraci, Marco; Griffiths, Lucy; Sera, Francesco; Dezateux, Carol; Cortina-Borja, Mario

2014-01-01

393

Counting unstained, confluent cells by modified bright-field microscopy.  

PubMed

We present a very simple procedure yielding high-contrast images of adherent, confluent cells such as human neuroblastoma (SH-EP) cells by ordinary bright-field microscopy. Cells are illuminated through a color filter and a pinhole aperture placed between the condenser and the cell culture surface. Refraction by each cell body generates a sharp, bright spot when the image is defocused. The technique allows robust, automatic cell counting from a single bright-field image in a wide range of focal positions using free, readily available image-analysis tools. Contrast may be enhanced by swelling cell bodies with a brief incubation in PBS. The procedure was benchmarked against manual and automated counting of fluorescently labeled cell nuclei. Counts from day-old and freshly seeded plates were compared in a range of densities, from sparse to densely overgrown. On average, bright-field images produced the same counts as fluorescence images, with less than 5% error. This method will allow routine cell counting using a plain bright-field microscope without cell-line modification or cell staining. PMID:23834382

Drey, L Louis; Graber, Michael C; Bieschke, Jan

2013-07-01

394

Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

395

Photon counting spectroscopy as done with a Thomson scattering diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

The measurement and reduction of photon counting spectral data is demonstrated within the context of a Thomson scattering diagnostic. This diagnostic contains a microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) as the photon sensing device. The MCP PMT is not an ideal photon sensor, the loss of photoelectrons at the MCP input and the broad charge pulse distribution at the output add to the uncertainty in recorded data. Computer simulations are used to demonstrate an approach to quantification of this added uncertainty and to develop an understanding of its source; the methodology may be applicable to the development of an understanding of photon detectors other than an MCP PMT. Emphasis is placed on the Poisson statistical character of the data, because the assumption that a Gaussian probability distribution is a reasonable statistical description of photon counting data is often questionable. When the count rate is low, the product the possible number of photon counts and the probability of measurement of a single photon is usually not sufficiently large to justify Gaussian statistics. Rather, because probabilities of measurement are so low, the Poisson probability distribution best quantifies the inherent statistical fluctuations in such counting measurements. The method of maximum likelihood is applied to derive the Poisson statistics equivalent of {sub X}{sup 2}. A Poisson statistics based data fitting code is implemented using the Newton-Raphson method of multi-dimensional root finding; we also demonstrate an algorithm to estimate the uncertainties in derived quantities.

Den Hartog, D.J.; Ruppert, D.E.

1993-11-01

396

A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.  

PubMed

The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ?2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ?15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

2014-12-01

397

Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter  

DOEpatents

A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for counting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensated circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

Todd, Richard A. (Powell, TN)

1981-01-01

398

High and unchanged sperm counts of Finnish men.  

PubMed

Several recent reports have suggested that the sperm counts of normal men are declining in most countries. In this study the sperm counts of Finnish men, and their possible changes during the past 28 years, were investigated. The material consisted of semen samples from 238 normal healthy men of unknown fertility and 5481 men from infertile couples. The means (medians) of semen volume, sperm density and total sperm count in normal men were 3.3 (3.0) ml, 133.9 (94.0) x 10(6)/ml and 396.6 (309.0) x 10(6), respectively. These parameters and the relative frequency distribution of the sperm density were similar to those reported elsewhere in the 1940s. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant decrease in semen volume, whereas sperm density and total sperm count of infertile men had not changed significantly during the past 28 years. In addition, no change in sperm counts was associated with the year of men's birth. PMID:8698532

Vierula, M; Niemi, M; Keiski, A; Saaranen, M; Saarikoski, S; Suominen, J

1996-02-01

399

Skull counting in late stages after internal contamination by actinides.  

PubMed

Monitoring preparation for internal contamination with actinides (e.g. Pu and Am) is required to assess internal doses at nuclear fuel cycle-related facilities. In this paper, the authors focus on skull counting in case of single-incident inhalation of (241)Am and propose an effective procedure for skull counting with an existing system, taking into account the biokinetic behaviour of (241)Am in the human body. The predicted response of the system to skull counting under a certain counting geometry was found to be only ?1.0 × 10(-5) cps Bq(-1) 1y after intake. However, this disadvantage could be remedied by repeated measurements of the skull during the late stage of the intake due to the predicted response reaching a plateau at about the 1000th day after exposure and exceeding that in the lung counting. Further studies are needed for the development of a new detection system with higher sensitivity to perform reliable internal dose estimations based on direct measurements. PMID:24920571

Tani, Kotaro; Shutt, Arron; Kurihara, Osamu; Kosako, Toshiso

2015-02-01

400

Automated counting of bacterial colonies by image analysis.  

PubMed

Research on microorganisms often involves culturing as a means to determine the survival and proliferation of bacteria. The number of colonies in a culture is counted to calculate the concentration of bacteria in the original broth; however, manual counting can be time-consuming and imprecise. To save time and prevent inconsistencies, this study proposes a fully automated counting system using image processing methods. To accurately estimate the number of viable bacteria in a known volume of suspension, colonies distributing over the whole surface area of a plate, including the central and rim areas of a Petri dish are taken into account. The performance of the proposed system is compared with verified manual counts, as well as with two freely available counting software programs. Comparisons show that the proposed system is an effective method with excellent accuracy with mean value of absolute percentage error of 3.37%. A user-friendly graphical user interface is also developed and freely available for download, providing researchers in biomedicine with a more convenient instrument for the enumeration of bacterial colonies. PMID:25451456

Chiang, Pei-Ju; Tseng, Min-Jen; He, Zong-Sian; Li, Chia-Hsun

2015-01-01

401

Programmer's guide for LIFE2's rainflow counting algorithm  

SciTech Connect

The LIFE2 computer code is a fatique/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. The numerical formulation of the code uses a series of cycle count matrices to describe the cyclic stress states imposed upon the turbine. In this formulation, each stress cycle is counted or binsed'' according to the magnitude of its mean stress and alternating stress components and by the operating condition of the turbine. A set of numerical algorithms has been incorporated into the LIFE2 code. These algorithms determine the cycle count matrices for a turbine component using stress-time histories of the imposed stress states. This paper describes the design decisions that were made and explains the implementation of these algorithms using Fortran 77. 7 refs., 7 figs.

Schluter, L.L.

1991-01-01

402

Platelet count on slow induction to high altitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platelet counts were estimated at sea level in 50 lowlanders. They were divided at random in two groups (A and B) of 25 each. Group A went up by train/road transport to 3658 m, while group B reached the same height after 8 days of acclimatisation enroute. Platelet counts were estimated serially in both groups at high altitude. Symptoms of high altitude exposure were also recorded. No significant change in the counts was noted in either group and none became “Symptomatic”. All were brought back to sea level by air and deinduction studies carried out on days 1 and 4 of return. The importance of these findings in the light of our existing knowledge is discussed.

Sharma, Subhash C.

1986-03-01

403

Dynamics and regulation of bulk milk somatic cell counts.  

PubMed Central

Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk is inversely related to dairy cow productivity and milk quality. In an effort to improve product quality, and indirectly farm productivity, regulatory limits on somatic cell counts have been established by many of the major dairy producing countries. The purpose of this paper was to assess the impact of regulations on bulk milk somatic cell counts in Ontario and to assist producers in meeting regulatory limits through development of prediction models. Through the use of a transfer function model, provincial SCC was found to have dropped by approximately 60,000 as a result of the reduction program. Limits of the regulatory program, seasonality and herd characteristics were found through time series cross-sectional models to have an impact on prediction of SCC at the farm level, but the major influence was historical SCC levels. PMID:8490807

Schukken, Y H; Weersink, A; Leslie, K E; Martin, S W

1993-01-01

404

An electronic pollen detection method using Coulter counting principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for detecting and counting pollen particles based on Coulter counting principle is presented. This approach also provides information on the size and surface charges of the micro particles, allowing for preliminary differentiation of pollens from other micro particles. Three samples are studied: polymethyl methacrylate particles, tree pollens from Juniperus Scopulorum and grass pollens from Secale Cerale. The samples, suspended in diluted KCl aqueous solutions in an electrochemical cell, were allowed to pass through a microchannel and the conductance of the microchannel was sampled with a Gamry ® Potentiostat. The changes in the conductance due to the passing of the micro particles was thus recorded and analyzed. The experimental results showed that tree pollens and grass pollens display distinctive behaviors. The phenomena may be attributed to the differences in the surface characteristics of the pollens and is potentially useful for counting and differentiating different micro particles.

Zhang, Zheng; Zhe, Jiang; Chandra, Santanu; Hu, Jun

405

An analysis of dependency of counting efficiency on worker anatomy for in vivo measurements: whole-body counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo radiobioassay is integral to many health physics and radiological protection programs dealing with internal exposures. The Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) physical phantom has been widely used for whole-body counting calibrations. However, the shape of BOMAB phantoms—a collection of plastic, cylindrical shells which contain no bones or internal organs—does not represent realistic human anatomy. Furthermore, workers who come in contact with radioactive materials have rather different body shape and size. To date, there is a lack of understanding about how the counting efficiency would change when the calibrated counter is applied to a worker with complicated internal organs or tissues. This paper presents a study on various in vivo counting efficiencies obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of two BOMAB phantoms and three tomographic image-based models (VIP-Man, NORMAN and CNMAN) for a scenario involving homogeneous whole-body radioactivity contamination. The results reveal that a phantom's counting efficiency is strongly dependent on the shape and size of a phantom. Contrary to what was expected, it was found that only small differences in efficiency were observed when the density and material composition of all internal organs and tissues of the tomographic phantoms were changed to water. The results of this study indicate that BOMAB phantoms with appropriately adjusted size and shape can be sufficient for whole-body counting calibrations when the internal contamination is homogeneous.

Zhang, Binquan; Mille, Matthew; Xu, X. George

2008-07-01

406

Coherent state statistics from time-resolved photon counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time resolved photon counting was used to separate the different photon states emitted from a strongly attenuated laser source. We first describe a method to quantify the efficiency of our gated avalanche photo-detector, by relying on known Poissonian statistics. The detector was then optimized under different temperature and bias voltage conditions using the noise equivalent power as a metric. Finally, coherent pulses are sent into a ring cavity, such that the tapped output from the cavity forms a series of time multiplexed pulses, which then yield the photon counting statistics. We observed good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental observations, to as low as 0.01% probability of detection.

Ravi, Harish; Prabhakar, Anil

2011-01-01

407

Power-counting renormalizability of generalized Horava gravity  

E-print Network

In an earlier article [arXiv:0902.0590 [hep-th], Phys. Rev D80 (2009) 025011], I discussed the potential benefits of allowing Lorentz symmetry breaking in quantum field theories. In particular I discussed the perturbative power-counting finiteness of the normal-ordered :P(phi)^{z>=d}_{d+1}: scalar quantum field theories, and sketched the implications for Horava's model of quantum gravity. In the current rather brief addendum, I will tidy up some dangling issues and fill out some of the technical details of the argument indicating the power-counting renormalizability of a z>=d variant of Horava gravity in (d+1) dimensions.

Matt Visser

2009-12-24

408

Technology demonstrator of radiation resistant photon counting detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, construction and performance test results of photon counting detector technology demonstrator based on silicon avalanche photodiodes is reported. This photon counting device have been designed and optimized for extremely high stability of their detection delay with applications in fundamental metrology and optical time transfer in space. The sensor is operated in an active quenching and gating mode. The single shot timing resolution is better than 25 ps rms over entire active area. Its detection delay is stable within 1 ps over several days of operation. All components in demonstrator have radiation resistant equivalents.

Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Kodet, Jan

2014-10-01

409

Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by photon counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of radiation signals is at the heart of precision metrology and sensing. In this article we show how the fluctuations in photon-counting signals can be exploited to optimally extract information about the physical parameters that govern the dynamics of the emitter. For a simple two-level emitter subject to photon counting, we show that the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound based on the full detection record can be evaluated from the waiting-time distribution in the fluorescence signal which can, in turn, be calculated for both perfect and imperfect detectors by a quantum trajectory analysis. We provide an optimal estimator achieving that bound.

Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

2014-05-01

410

Mystery Jars: Make Your Own: Estimating and Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners make a counting/estimating jar to exchange with friends or bring home. Each learner fills a clear plastic cup with small objects such as beads or pennies and keeps count of exactly how many are in the cup. Others have to estimate how many are in the cup. Younger learners use larger objects, so only up to about 15 fill the cup; older ones can use smaller objects, so 50 or more fill the cup. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

411

Dawn Grand Raw (edr) Vesta Counts V1.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GRaND EDR are a time-ordered collection of gamma ray and neutron counting data and histograms acquired by GRaND during all phases of the Dawn mission. The dataset includes state-of-health data, such as temperature and voltage readings, needed for the analysis of the counting data. The EDR is an intermediate data product derived from the raw data records using reversible operations. All higher order data products are derived from the EDR. An automated pipeline is used to process the EDR from the raw data records.

Prettyman, T. H.

2014-06-01

412

An Experimental Study on Preventing First Graders from Finger Counting in Basic Calculations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: When counting is taught to students at primary stage of schooling, they are generally allowed to use their fingers as a counting tool. Therefore, some students continue using their fingers to count, while others stop this habit later. The students who have the habit of using their fingers to count have difficulty when their fingers…

Albayrak, Mustafa

2010-01-01

413

A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...

414

Photon Counting Detectors for the 1.0 - 2.0 Micron Wavelength Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe results on the development of greater than 200 micron diameter, single-element photon-counting detectors for the 1-2 micron wavelength range. The technical goals include quantum efficiency in the range 10-70%; detector diameter greater than 200 microns; dark count rate below 100 kilo counts-per-second (cps), and maximum count rate above 10 Mcps.

Krainak, Michael A.

2004-01-01

415

Generational Reference Counting: A Reduced-Communication Distributed Storage Reclamation Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes generational reference counting, a new distributed storage reclamation scheme for loosely-coupled multiprocessors. It has a significantly lower communication overhead than dis- tributed versions of conventional reference counting. Although generational reference counting has greater computational and space requirements than ordinary reference counting, it may provide a significant sav- ing in overall execution time on machines in which message

Benjamin Goldberg

1989-01-01

416

Polynomialtime Algorithm to Approximately Count Contingency Tables when the Number of Rows  

E-print Network

Polynomial­time Algorithm to Approximately Count Contingency Tables when the Number of Rows counting contingency tables when number is constant. A feature of algorithm is hybrid of an count approximately count contingency tables when column large. case, show that solution approximating volume a convex

Cryan, Mary

417

Modelling habitat associations with fingernail clam (Family: Sphaeriidae) counts at multiple spatial scales using hierarchical count models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Macroinvertebrate count data often exhibit nested or hierarchical structure. Examples include multiple measurements along each of a set of streams, and multiple synoptic measurements from each of a set of ponds. With data exhibiting hierarchical structure, outcomes at both sampling (e.g. Within stream) and aggregated (e.g. Stream) scales are often of interest. Unfortunately, methods for modelling hierarchical count data have received little attention in the ecological literature. 2. We demonstrate the use of hierarchical count models using fingernail clam (Family: Sphaeriidae) count data and habitat predictors derived from sampling and aggregated spatial scales. The sampling scale corresponded to that of a standard Ponar grab (0.052 m(2)) and the aggregated scale to impounded and backwater regions within 38-197 km reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Impounded and backwater regions were resampled annually for 10 years. Consequently, measurements on clams were nested within years. Counts were treated as negative binomial random variates, and means from each resampling event as random departures from the impounded and backwater region grand means. 3. Clam models were improved by the addition of covariates that varied at both the sampling and regional scales. Substrate composition varied at the sampling scale and was associated with model improvements, and reductions (for a given mean) in variance at the sampling scale. Inorganic suspended solids (ISS) levels, measured in the summer preceding sampling, also yielded model improvements and were associated with reductions in variances at the regional rather than sampling scales. ISS levels were negatively associated with mean clam counts. 4. Hierarchical models allow hierarchically structured data to be modelled without ignoring information specific to levels of the hierarchy. In addition, information at each hierarchical level may be modelled as functions of covariates that themselves vary by and within levels. As a result, hierarchical models provide researchers and resource managers with a method for modelling hierarchical data that explicitly recognises both the sampling design and the information contained in the corresponding data.

Gray, B.R.; Haro, R.J.; Rogala, J.T.; Sauer, J.S.

2005-01-01

418

Analysis of Sample Size, Counting Time, and Plot Size from an Avian Point Count Survey on Hoosier National Forest, Indiana1  

E-print Network

Analysis of Sample Size, Counting Time, and Plot Size from an Avian Point Count Survey on Hoosier of a point count survey of breeding birds on Hoosier National Forest in Indiana. We determined sample size detection rates. Sample size requirements ranged from 100 to >1000 points with Type I and II error rates

Standiford, Richard B.

419

Uninsured Children in Pennsylvania. Kids Count Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Pennsylvania ranks in the top 5 among states with the lowest rates of uninsured children under 19, 8.3 percent of the state's 3 million children lack health insurance. This Kids Count special report provides information on Pennsylvania's uninsured children. The report indicates that more than one-fourth are estimated to be eligible for…

Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children, Harrisburg.

420

Breaking the Cycle: A Special Report by Arkansas Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to federal welfare reform legislation, Arkansas created the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program in April 1997. The goal of this Kids Count report is to increase awareness regarding issues underlying the early implementation of TEA, focusing on caseload reductions, demographic composition of the caseload, level of support…

Huddleston, Rich; Duran, Angela

421

Counting and RAN: Predictors of Arithmetic Calculation and Reading Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether counting and rapid automatized naming (RAN) could operate as significant predictors of both later arithmetic calculation and reading fluency. The authors also took an important step to clarify the cognitive mechanisms underlying these predictive relationships by controlling for the effect of phonological awareness and…

Koponen, Tuire; Salmi, Paula; Eklund, Kenneth; Aro, Tuija

2013-01-01

422

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 1998-99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including children living in poverty, children in single-parent households, and births…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

423

Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter  

DOEpatents

A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for couting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensation circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

Todd, R.A.

1980-05-12

424

Cox's Regression Model for Counting Processes: A Large Sample Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cox regression model for censored survival data specifies that covariates have a proportional effect on the hazard function of the life-time distribution of an individual. In this paper we discuss how this model can be extended to a model where covariate processes have a proportional effect on the intensity process of a multivariate counting process. This permits a statistical

P. K. Andersen; R. D. Gill

1982-01-01

425

Counting Alleles with Rarefaction: Private Alleles and Hierarchical Sampling Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of alleles (allelic richness) in a population is a fundamental measure of genetic variation, and a useful statistic for identifying populations for conservation. Estimating allelic richness is complicated by the effects of sample size: large samples are expected to have more alleles. Rarefaction solves this problem. This communication extends the rarefaction procedure to count private alleles and to

Steven T. Kalinowski

2004-01-01

426

Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. PMID:24995861

Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

2014-12-01

427

DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS  

E-print Network

DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS STUART W. SHERBURNE1 of white cell types and immature erythrocytes in the blood were found to be different from those previously- ences in the occurrence of blood cell types of Atlantic herring, Glupea harellgus harellgus, from

428

The State of Texas Children: 2003. Texas Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details trends in the well-being of children in Texas. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of: (1) family and community population; (2) economic resources, security, and opportunity; (3) early care and education; (4) school success; (5) teens at risk; (6) physical, social, and emotional health; (7)…

Texas Univ., Austin. Center for Public Policy Priorities.

429

Direct determination of lead-210 by liquid-scintillation counting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soft betas, the internal conversion electrons, and unconverted gamma rays from lead-210 are efficiently detected in a liquid scintillation counting system with efficiency of 97 percent. The counter is interfaced with a multichannel pulse height analyzer. The spectra obtained is stored on paper tape and plotted on an x-y plotter.

Fairman, W. D.; Sedlet, J.

1969-01-01

430

Illinois Kids Count, 2002: Supporting the Changing Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of family, health, safety, education, and economic security. The indicators are: (1) living arrangements for children; (2) teen births; (3) children in foster/substitute care; (4) foster…

Parker, Trisha; Warner, Lindsay; Zasadny, Julie

431

Spatial Modelling of Count Data: A Case Study in  

E-print Network

American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is conducted each breed- ing season by volunteer observers (e consider the BBS modeling problem from a hierarchical perspective, modeling the count data as Poisson over extensive prediction domains. The BBS sampling unit is a roadside route 39.2 km in length. Over

432

A comprehensive evaluation of motion sensor step-counting error.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the effect that walking speed, gender, leg length, motion sensor tilt angle, brand, and placement have on motion sensor step-counting error. Fifty-nine participants performed treadmill walking trials at 6 speeds while wearing 5 motion sensor brands placed on the anterior (Digiwalker, DW; Walk4Life, WFL; New Lifestyles, NL; Omron, OM), midaxillary (DW; WFL; NL; ActiGraph, AG), and posterior (DW, WFL, NL) aspects of the waistline. The anterior-placed NL and midaxillary-placed AG were the most accurate motion sensors. Motion sensor step-count error tended to decrease at faster walking speeds, with lesser tilt angles, and with an anterior waistline placement. Gender and leg length had no effect on motion sensor step-count error. We conclude that the NL and AG yielded the most accurate step counts at a range of walking speeds in individuals with different physical characteristics. PMID:21326392

Abel, Mark G; Peritore, Nicole; Shapiro, Robert; Mullineaux, David R; Rodriguez, Kelly; Hannon, James C

2011-02-01

433

BREEDING BIRD SURVEY COUNTS AS RELATED TO HABITAT AND DATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Breeding Bird Survey (hereafter BBS) is a standardized technique designed to measure year-to-year changes in numbers of breeding birds (Robbins and Van Velzen 1967, 1969; Van Velzen and Robbins 1971). It has been carried out over much of North America each year since 1966. The factors causing variability in BBS counts, such as time of day, weather, and time

WAYNE C. WEBER; JOHN B. THEBERGE

434

Enhancing counting bloom filters through Huffman-coded multilayer structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloom Filters are efficient randomized data structures for membership queries on a set with a certain known false positive probability. Counting Bloom Filters (CBFs) allow the same operation on dynamic sets that can be updated via insertions and deletions with larger memory requirements. This paper first presents a simple tight upper bound for counters overflow probability in CBFs, which is

Domenico Ficara; Andrea Di Pietro; Stefano Giordano; Gregorio Procissi; Fabio Vitucci

2010-01-01

435

Counting Digraphs with Restrictions on the Strong Components  

E-print Network

concepts may be found in the book [1] by Harary. Two nodes are in the same strong component of a digraph DCounting Digraphs with Restrictions on the Strong Components Robert W. Robinson \\Lambda Computer.S.A. Abstract The principle of inclusion­exclusion is specialized in order to count la­ beled digraphs

Robinson, Robert W.

436

Counting parties and identifying dominant party systems in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

By most definitions, the third wave of democratisation has given rise to dominant parties and dominant party systems in Africa. The effective number of parties, the most widely used method to count parties, does not adequately capture this fact. An analysis of 59 election results in 18 sub-Saharan African countries shows that classifications of party systems on the basis of

Matthijs Bogaards

2004-01-01

437

KIDS COUNT in Virginia 1996: Kids and Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is organized into six general areas of children's well-being: (1) healthy births; (2) children's health; (3) school success; (4) risky behavior; (5) families; and (6) community well-being. Key indicators in these six areas include…

Nezlek, John B.; Galano, Joseph; Gholston, Susan E.

438

Note on refined topological vertex, Jack polynomials and instanton counting  

E-print Network

In this article, we calculated the refined topological vertex for the one parameter case using the Jack symmetric functions. Also, we obtain the partition function for elliptic N=2 models, the results coincide with those of Nekrasov instanton counting partition functions for the $N=2^{\\ast}$ theories.

Jianfeng Wu

2010-12-10

439

Energy harvesting using AC machines with high effective pole count  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate ways to improve the power conversion of small, rotating, permanent magnet AC machines at low rotor speeds in energy harvesting applications. One method is to increase the pole count, which increases the generator back-emf without also increasing the I2R losses, thereby increasing both torque density and conversion efficiency. One machine topology that has a high

Richard Geiger; Heath Hofmann

2008-01-01

440

Energy dispersive photon counting detectors for breast imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our efforts toward the development of silicon (Si) strip detectors for energy-resolved clinical breast imaging. Typically, x-ray integrating detectors based on scintillating cesium iodide CsI(Tl) or amorphous selenium (a- Se) are used in most commercial systems. Recently, mammography instrumentation has been introduced based on photon counting silicon Si strip detectors. Mammography requires high flux from the x-ray generator, therefore, in order to achieve energy resolved single photon counting, a high output count rate (OCR) for the detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel, provided that the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions. We present our methods and results from the optimization of prototype detectors based on Si strip structures. We describe the detector optimization and the development of ASIC readout electronics that provide the required spatial resolution, low noise, high count rate capabilities and minimal power consumption.

Barber, William C.; Wessel, Jan C.; Malakhov, Nail; Wawrzyniak, Gregor; Hartsough, Neal E.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan; Nygard, Einar; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

2013-09-01

441

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2002. Tenth Annual Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Dakotas children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economics, and safety. The indicators include: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) racial groups; (3) single age years; (4) households and families; (5) infant…

Cochran, Carole; Nelson-Kraayenbrink, Briana

442

About Neighborhood Counting Measure Metric and Minimum Risk Metric  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 2006 TPAMI paper, Wang proposed the neighborhood counting measure, a similarity measure for the k-NN algorithm. In his paper, Wang mentioned the minimum risk metric (MRM,), an early distance measure based on the minimization of the risk of misclassification. Wang did not compare NCM to MRM because of its allegedly excessive computational load. In this comment paper, we

Andrea Argentini; Enrico Blanzieri

2010-01-01

443

Effect of jewellery on surface bacterial counts of operating theatres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty items of three jewellery types were studied. Finger rings, nose and ear piercings increased local surface bacterial counts when in situ, and especially after removal (P<0.0001). Although in the UK the National Association of Theatre Nurses' guidelines suggest that all jewellery should be removed before scrubbing, we suggest that jewellery worn on noses and ears should be left in

G. E. Bartlett; T. C. B. Pollard; K. E. Bowker; G. C. Bannister

2002-01-01

444

Analyzing Historical Count Data: Poisson and Negative Binomial Regression Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that traditional approaches to multivariate analysis, including standard linear regression techniques, ignore the special character of count data. Explicates three suitable alternatives to standard regression techniques, a simple Poisson regression, a modified Poisson regression, and a negative binomial model. (MJP)

Beck, E. M.; Tolnay, Stewart E.

1995-01-01

445

Child Support in Minnesota. KIDS COUNT Minnesota, Fall 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the child support collection system is an important source of economic support for many Minnesota children and that child support contributes significantly to children's well-being beyond providing financial benefits, this special Kids Count report examines the child support system in Minnesota. The report provides information about…

Children's Defense Fund-Minnesota, St. Paul.

446

KIDS COUNT, 2001: State of the Child in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Tennessee's children. The statistical portrait is based on 34 indicators of children's well-being in 5 broad areas: (1) infant, child, and teen health, including enrollment in the TennCare (replacement for Tennessee's Medicaid Program) insurance program, prenatal, low…

Brown, Pam; Delk, Fay L.; Henderson, Crystal; Huddleston, Jennifer; Petty, Steve; Wynn, Debbie; Young, Carmen

447

Kids Count Data Book on Louisiana's Children, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book provides statistics on the well-being of children in Louisiana. Data are provided for the state as a whole and for each of Louisiana's 64 parishes. An introduction summarizes findings for 1999, and a final section summarizes trends in the data over the past several years. Indicators used in the report to measure child…

Agenda for Children, New Orleans, LA.

448

KIDS COUNT, 2002: The State of the Child in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Tennessee's children. The statistical portrait is based on 34 indicators of children's well-being in 5 broad areas: (1) infant, child, and teen health, including enrollment in the TennCare (replacement for Tennessee's Medicaid Program) insurance program, prenatal, low…

Brown, Pam; Chappell, Edwina; Delk, Fay L.; Jones, Ben; Petty, Steve; Tomlin, D'Andrea; Wynn, Debbie

449

Generalized estimators of avian abundance from count survey data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I consider modeling avian abundance from spatially referenced bird count data collected according to common protocols such as capture?recapture, multiple observer, removal sampling and simple point counts. Small sample sizes and large numbers of parameters have motivated many analyses that disregard the spatial indexing of the data, and thus do not provide an adequate treatment of spatial structure. I describe a general framework for modeling spatially replicated data that regards local abundance as a random process, motivated by the view that the set of spatially referenced local populations (at the sample locations) constitute a metapopulation. Under this view, attention can be focused on developing a model for the variation in local abundance independent of the sampling protocol being considered. The metapopulation model structure, when combined with the data generating model, define a simple hierarchical model that can be analyzed using conventional methods. The proposed modeling framework is completely general in the sense that broad classes of metapopulation models may be considered, site level covariates on detection and abundance may be considered, and estimates of abundance and related quantities may be obtained for sample locations, groups of locations, unsampled locations. Two brief examples are given, the first involving simple point counts, and the second based on temporary removal counts. Extension of these models to open systems is briefly discussed.

Royle, J.A.

2004-01-01

450

The Labeling Strategy: Moving beyond Order in Counting Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Permutations and combinations are used to solve certain kinds of counting problems, but many students have trouble distinguishing which of these concepts applies to a given problem. An "order heuristic" is usually used to distinguish the two, but this heuristic can cause confusion when problems do not explicitly mention order. This…

CadwalladerOlsker, Todd

2013-01-01

451

Does Learning to Count Involve a Semantic Induction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the hypothesis that, when children learn to correctly count sets, they make a semantic induction about the meanings of their number words. We tested the logical understanding of number words in 84 children that were classified as "cardinal-principle knowers" by the criteria set forth by Wynn (1992). Results show that these children often…

Davidson, Kathryn; Eng, Kortney; Barner, David

2012-01-01

452

Counting States of Near-Extremal Black Holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six-dimensional black string is considered and its Bekenstein-Hawking entropy computed. It is shown that to leading order above extremality this entropy precisely counts the number of string states with the given energy and charges. This identification implies that Hawking decay of the near-extremal black string can be analyzed in string perturbation theory and is perturbatively unitary.

Gary T. Horowitz; Andrew Strominger

1996-01-01

453

Enhanced performance photon-counting time-of-flight sensor  

E-print Network

Carthy, Andrew M. Wallace, Sergio Hernandez-Marin, Sergio Cova*, Robert A. Lamb and Gerald S. Buller Heriot. Rech, I. LaBanca, M. Ghioni and S. Cova, "Modified single photon counting modules for optimal timing. Pellegrini, G.S. Buller, J.M. Smith, A.M. Wallace, S. Cova, "Laser-based distance measurement using

Buller, Gerald S.

454

Little Change in Fast Food Calorie Counts, Salt Content  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Little Change in Fast Food Calorie Counts, Salt Content Researchers tracked popular items from 3 major ... Mundell Wednesday, December 31, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Sodium Nutrition Weight Control WEDNESDAY, Dec. 31, 2014 (HealthDay ...

455

Counting up to 20 Objects: 1.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage discusses the extension of children's counting skills beyond 10. It illustrates the difficulties resulting from the irregularity of English number names in the teens as well as the challenge of maintaining one-to-one correspondence with larger numbers. Several teaching strategies and activities are suggested to help students overcome these difficulties.

2009-09-25

456

How to Scan Blood Smears, Identify, and Count Parasites  

E-print Network

How to Scan Blood Smears, Identify, and Count Parasites 1. Scanning for Leucocytozoon in bird blood in the blood, but are large parasites and can be spotted even under low power. 2. For Plasmodium. For bird smears, each field must be inspected because the parasite density (parasitemia) tends to be low. 4

Schall, Joseph J.

457

Reducing the Child Poverty Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, nearly one in five or 18 percent of children in the U.S. lived in poverty (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Many of these children come from minority backgrounds. African American (35 percent), American Indian (33 percent) and Latino (27 percent) children are more likely to live in poverty than their white (11 percent) and Asian (12…

Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

2009-01-01

458

ION-COUNTING NANODOSEMETER WITH PARTICLE TRACKING CAPABILITIES  

E-print Network

, Irvington, NY 10533, USA 4 Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW-counting nanodosemeter (ND) yielding the distribution of radiation-induced ions in a low-pressure gas within. The performance of this tracking ND was tested with a broad 250 MeV proton beam at Loma Linda University Medical

459

Pin-Count-Aware Online Testing of Digital Microfluidic Biochips  

E-print Network

Pin-Count-Aware Online Testing of Digital Microfluidic Biochips Yang Zhao and Krishnendu, and bioassay malfunctions in microfluidic biochips. To reduce product cost for disposable biochips, testing as a powerful driver for research on computer-aided design (CAD) and test automa- tion tools for biochips

Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

460

Reducing the Teen Death Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Life continues to hold considerable risk for adolescents in the United States. In 2006, the teen death rate stood at 64 deaths per 100,000 teens (13,739 teens) (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Although it has declined by 4 percent since 2000, the rate of teen death in this country remains substantially higher than in many peer nations, based…

Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

2009-01-01

461

Yours, Mine or Ours: What Counts as Innovation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I argue that research and development organizations (R&DOs) have particular perspectives on what counts as an innovation whereas the potential adopting users usually have quite different often diverse perspectives. If these "worldviews" do not overlap or speak to each other, then what R&DOs consider innovative might constitute a…

Cooksey, Ray W.

2011-01-01

462

COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS FOR COUNTING HUMAN SPERMATOZOA  

EPA Science Inventory

COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS FOR COUNTING HUMAN SPERMATOZOA SC Jeffay1, LF Strader1, RA Morris1, JE Schmid1, AF Olshan2, LW Lansdell2, SD Perreault1. 1US EPA/ORD, RTP, NC; 2UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC. The IDENT feature of the HTM-IVOS semen analyzer (Hamilton Thorne Research, Bev...

463

Automating Partial Period Bond Valuation with Excel's Day Counting Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Excel model for calculating the actual price of bonds under a 30 day/month, 360 day/year day counting assumption by nesting the DAYS360 function within the PV function is developed. When programmed into an Excel spreadsheet, the model can accommodate annual and semiannual payment bonds sold on or between interest dates using six fundamental…

Vicknair, David; Spruell, James

2009-01-01

464

Lagrangian approach to the physical degree of freedom count  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a Lagrangian method that allows the physical degree of freedom count for any Lagrangian system without having to perform neither Dirac nor covariant canonical analyses. The essence of our method is to establish a map between the relevant Lagrangian parameters of the current approach and the Hamiltonian parameters that enter in the formula for the counting of the physical degrees of freedom as is given in Dirac's method. Once the map is obtained, the usual Hamiltonian formula for the counting can be expressed in terms of Lagrangian parameters only, and therefore we can remain in the Lagrangian side without having to go to the Hamiltonian one. Using the map, it is also possible to count the number of first and second-class constraints within the Lagrangian formalism only. For the sake of completeness, the geometric structure underlying the current approach—developed for systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom—is uncovered with the help of the covariant canonical formalism. Finally, the method is illustrated in several examples, including the relativistic free particle.

Díaz, Bogar; Higuita, Daniel; Montesinos, Merced

2014-12-01

465

MODELING AVIAN ABUNDANCE FROM REPLICATED COUNTS USING BINOMIAL MIXTURE MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 12100 Beech Forest Rd., Laurel, Maryland 20708 USA Abstract. Abundance estimation in ecology is usually accomplished by capture-re- capture, removal, or distance sampling methods. These may be hard to implement at large spatial scales. In contrast, binomial mixture models enable abundance estimation without individual identification, based simply on temporally and spatially replicated counts. Here,

Marc Kéry; J. Andrew Royle; Hans Schmid

2005-01-01

466

Counting Rational Curves of Arbitrary Shape in Projective Spaces  

E-print Network

Low-Degree Numbers 91 List of Tables 1 One-Component Rational Triple-Pointed Curves in P2Counting Rational Curves of Arbitrary Shape in Projective Spaces Aleksey Zinger April 4, 2005 Abstract We present an approach to a large class of enumerative problems concerning rational curves

Zinger, Aleksey

467

New FUV Detector Maximum Local Count Rate Specification  

E-print Network

was raised as to the nature of the scientific driver of the 10 cnts/sec/pore value. In fact, this number has............................................................................................................. 1 2. Scientific Rationale was raised about the scientific rationale for section 3.12 entitled Maximum Local Count Rate. The initial

Colorado at Boulder, University of

468

APPROXIMATELY COUNTING INTEGRAL FLOWS AND CELL-BOUNDED CONTINGENCY TABLES  

E-print Network

APPROXIMATELY COUNTING INTEGRAL FLOWS AND CELL-BOUNDED CONTINGENCY TABLES MARY CRYAN, MARTIN DYER of contingency tables with prescribed cell bounds when the number of rows is constant, but the row sums, column) for standard contingency tables, but the analysis here is considerably more intricate. Key words. lattice

Cryan, Mary

469

Approximately Counting Integral Flows and Cell-Bounded Contingency Tables  

E-print Network

Approximately Counting Integral Flows and Cell-Bounded Contingency Tables Mary Cryan , Martin Dyer of contingency tables with prescribed cell bounds when the number of rows is constant, but the row sums, column) for standard contingency tables, but the analysis here is considerably more intricate. 1 Introduction

Dyer, Martin

470

Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

471

Kids Voices Count: Listening to Delaware's Children Talk about Tobacco.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count special report examines attitudes of adolescents in Delaware toward smoking and the use of tobacco products. Data are based on interviews with middle and high school students conducted by journalism students at Glasgow High School under the supervision of their teacher, and on statewide data. The report presents statewide data and…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

472

The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) database  

PubMed Central

Background The differential blood cell count provides valuable information about a person’s state of health. Together with a variety of biochemical variables, these analyses describe important physiological and pathophysiological relations. There is a need for research databases to explore associations between these parameters, concurrent comorbidities, and future disease outcomes. Methods and results The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory is the only laboratory serving general practitioners in the Copenhagen area, covering approximately 1.2 million inhabitants. The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory has registered all analytical results since July 1, 2000. The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database contains all differential blood cell count results (n=1,308,022) from July 1, 2000 to January 25, 2010 requested by general practitioners, along with results from analysis of various other blood components. This data set is merged with detailed data at a person level from The Danish Cancer Registry, The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, and The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Conclusion This paper reviews methodological issues behind the construction of the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database as well as the distribution of characteristics of the population it covers and the variables that are recorded. Finally, it gives examples of its use as an inspiration to peers for collaboration. PMID:24966694

Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Karlslund, Willy; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Felding, Peter; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; de Fine Olivarius, Niels

2014-01-01

473

Making Hawai'i's Kids Count. Issue Paper Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue paper from Hawai'i Kids Count addresses the issue of teen pregnancy and birth rates. The paper notes that teen pregnancy and birth rates are declining both nationally and in Hawaii and describes key risk factors associated with having a baby before age 20: (1) early school failure; (2) early behavioral problems; (3) family dysfunction;…

Hawaii Univ., Manoa. Center on the Family.

474

Counting independent sets up to the tree threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of approximately counting\\/sampling weighted independent sets of a graph G with activity ?, i.e., where the weight of an independent set I is ?|I|. We present a novel analysis yielding a deterministic approximation scheme which runs in polynomial time for any graph of maximum degreeand ? < ?c = (? ? 1)??1\\/(? ? 2)?. This improves

Dror Weitz

2006-01-01

475

Does Autonomy Count in Favor of Labeling Genetically Modified Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue that consumerautonomy does not count in favor of thelabeling of genetically modified foods (GMfoods) more than for the labeling of non-GMfoods. Further, reasonable considerationssupport the view that it is non-GM foods ratherthan GM foods that should be labeled.

Kirsten Hansen

2004-01-01

476

Counting Free Binary Trees Admitting a Given Height Frank Harary  

E-print Network

Counting Free Binary Trees Admitting a Given Height Frank Harary Computer Science Department New some rooting as a binary tree of height h. Numerical results are calculated using these formulae. 1 that the root has degree at most 2. The height of T is the maximum distance from the root node to an endnode

Robinson, Robert W.

477

The Average Height of Catalan Trees by Counting Lattice Paths  

E-print Network

The Average Height of Catalan Trees by Counting Lattice Paths Nachum Dershowitz Christian to a leaf. The height of a tree is the number of nodes on a maximal path from 1 #12;email from Me subject as a Catalan tree Figure 2: Catalan tree of height 5 and size 13. root to leaf; for example, travel down

Dershowitz, Nachum

478

Counting Free Binary Trees Admitting a Given Height Frank Harary  

E-print Network

Counting Free Binary Trees Admitting a Given Height Frank Harary Computer Science Department New trees which have some rooting as a binary tree of height h. Numerical results are calculated using at most 3, except that the root has degree at most 2. The height of T is the maximum distance from

Robinson, Robert W.

479

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

2007-01-01

480

KANSAS KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2000: Kansas Children at Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT Data Book provides state and county data on the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 22 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children living in poverty; (3) children receiving free school meals; (4) children in families receiving economic assistance; (5) childhood deaths; (6)…

Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

481

New York State Touchstones/KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book examines trends in the well-being of New York's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general areas of children's well-being: (1) economic security; (2) physical and emotional health; (3) education; (4) citizenship; (5) family; and (6) community. Following an introductory section which describes the features…

Bogardus, Frank, Ed.; Chavis, Karen, Ed.; Donohue, Patti, Ed.; McLain, Ford, Ed.; Rider, Renee, Ed.

482

No Safe Place: KIDS COUNT Report on Children and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing increasing concerns about rising youth-related crime in Missouri, this Kids Count report on children and violence examines the impact of community and family violence on young perpetrators and victims, and explores characteristics of successful programs to prevent or reduce family and community violence in Missouri. Data suggest that…

Hensley, Melissa; And Others

483

Quantity Judgments and Individuation: Evidence that Mass Nouns Count  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be ''more'' than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns…

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2005-01-01

484

A Method of Recording and Predicting the Pollen Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hair dryer, plastic funnel, and microscope slide can be used for predicting pollen counts on a day-to-day basis. Materials, methods for assembly, collection technique, meteorological influences, and daily patterns are discussed. Data collected using the apparatus suggest that airborne grass products other than pollen also affect hay fever…

Buck, M.

1985-01-01

485

KIDS COUNT, 2000: The State of the Child in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Tennessee's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in five broad areas: (1) healthy babies, including enrollment in the TennCare insurance program, prenatal care, infant mortality and child deaths, and immunizations; (2) healthy…

Tennessee State Commission on Children and Youth, Nashville.

486

An alternative calibration method for counting P-32 reactor monitors  

SciTech Connect

Radioactivation of sulfur is a common technique used to measure fast neutron fluences in test and research reactors. Elemental sulfur can be pressed into pellets and used as monitors. The {sup 32}S(n, p) {sup 32}P reaction has a practical threshold of about 3 MeV and its cross section and associated uncertainties are well characterized [1]. The product {sup 32P} emits a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1710 keV [2]. This energetic beta particle allows pellets to be counted intact. ASTM Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32 (E265) [3] details a method of calibration for counting systems and subsequent analysis of results. This method requires irradiation of sulfur monitors in a fast-neutron field whose spectrum and intensity are well known. The resultant decay-corrected count rate is then correlated to the known fast neutron fluence. The Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia has traditionally performed calibration irradiations of sulfur pellets using the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron source at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) [4] as a transfer standard. However, decay has reduced the intensity of NIST's source; thus lowering the practical upper limits of available fluence. As of May 2010, neutron emission rates have decayed to approximately 3 e8 n/s. In practice, this degradation of capabilities precludes calibrations at the highest fluence levels produced at test reactors and limits the useful range of count rates that can be measured. Furthermore, the reduced availability of replacement {sup 252}Cf threatens the long-term viability of the NIST {sup 252}Cf facility for sulfur pellet calibrations. In lieu of correlating count rate to neutron fluence in a reference field the total quantity of {sup 32}P produced in a pellet can be determined by absolute counting methods. This offers an attractive alternative to extended {sup 252}Cf exposures because it can be performed regardless of the characterization of the exposure environment. Count rates produced by sulfur pellets are correlated to the measured quantity of separated {sup 32}P. A posteriori spectral and cross section determination can be used to correlate the quantity of phosphorus back to a neutron fluence in a reference field. This paper outlines a method for the setup, calibration, and use of the detector systems, {sup 32}P sample preparation, and analysis of the beta spectrum. An uncertainty analysis and comparison to ASTM E265 is also included. (authors)

Quirk, T.J. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, MS 1143, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1143 (United States); Vehar, D.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1143 (United States)

2011-07-01

487

Maximum entropy deconvolution of low-count nuclear medicine images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing-step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were obtained than those achieved by a Wiener pre-filtering approach and a scatter-subtracted attenuation corrected filtered back projection method. Maximum entropy optimised for low counts holds promise for nuclear medicine applications where counts are necessarily low, and may facilitate reduction of the administered activity for other applications. The algorithm was in fact deemed advantageous for the processing of low count Poisson data in general.

McGrath, Deirdre Maria

488

Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323  

SciTech Connect

A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway Meriden CT 06450 (United States)] [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway Meriden CT 06450 (United States)

2013-07-01

489

Houston KIDS COUNT: A Snapshot of Children Living in Houston and Harris County. 2005 Texas KIDS COUNT Special Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Houston KIDS COUNT data book examines the status of children in Houston and Harris County and identifies trends in their general welfare. These data provide a portrait of Harris County's children that can be used for developing sound and effective local policy. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Children in Families; (2)…

Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2005

2005-01-01

490

On the importance of controlling for effort in analysis of count survey data: Modeling population change from Christmas Bird Count data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Count survey data are commonly used for estimating temporal and spatial patterns of population change. Since count surveys are not censuses, counts can be influenced by 'nuisance factors' related to the probability of detecting animals but unrelated to the actual population size. The effects of systematic changes in these factors can be confounded with patterns of population change. Thus, valid analysis of count survey data requires the identification of nuisance factors and flexible models for their effects. We illustrate using data from the Christmas Bird Count (CBC), a midwinter survey of bird populations in North America. CBC survey effort has substantially increased in recent years, suggesting that unadjusted counts may overstate population growth (or understate declines). We describe a flexible family of models for the effect of effort, that includes models in which increasing effort leads to diminishing returns in terms of the number of birds counted.

Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

1999-01-01

491

Reference ranges and sources of variability of CD4 counts in HIV-seronegative women and men.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: CD4 lymphocyte counts are used to monitor immune status in HIV disease. An understanding of the variability of CD4 counts which occurs in the absence of HIV infection is essential to their interpretation. The sources and degree of such variability have not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES: To establish reference ranges for CD4 counts in HIV-seronegative women and heterosexual men attending a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic, and to identify possible differences according to gender and cigarette smoking and, in women, any effect of the menstrual cycle, oral contraceptive use and cigarette smoking. DESIGN: Female and heterosexual male patients attending a GUM clinic and requesting an HIV-antibody test were recruited prospectively. Results from an earlier study of CD4 counts in homosexual men were available for comparison. METHODS: Lymphocyte subpopulation analysis on whole blood by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The absolute CD4 count and percentage of CD4 cells (CD4%) were significantly higher in women (n = 195) than heterosexual men (n = 91) [difference between the means 111 x 106/1 (95% CI 41, 180) and 3.1% (1.30, 4.88)]. The absolute CD4 count and CD4% were also significantly higher in smokers (n = 143) than non-smokers (n = 140) [difference 143 (79, 207) and 2.1% (0.43, 3.81)]. Reference ranges for absolute CD4 counts (geometric mean +/- 2SD) were calculated on log transformed data as follows; female smokers 490-1610, female non-smokers 430-1350, heterosexual male smokers 380-1600, heterosexual male non-smokers 330-1280. Among other variables examined, combined oral contraceptive pill use was associated with a trend towards a lower absolute CD4 count. Changes were seen in CD4% with the menstrual cycle. CD4 counts and CD4% did not differ significantly between heterosexual men and homosexual men (n = 45). CONCLUSION: There is a significant gender and smoking effect on CD4 counts. The effects of oral contraceptive use and the menstrual cycle warrant further investigation. PMID:8655163

Maini, M K; Gilson, R J; Chavda, N; Gill, S; Fakoya, A; Ross, E J; Phillips, A N; Weller, I V

1996-01-01

492

Photon counting photodiode array detector for far ultraviolet (FUV) astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact, stable, single-stage intensified photodiode array detector designed for photon-counting, far ultraviolet astronomy applications employs a saturable, 'C'-type MCP (Galileo S. MCP 25-25) to produce high gain pulses with a narrowly peaked pulse height distribution. The P-20 output phosphor exhibits a very short decay time, due to the high current density of the electron pulses. This intensifier is being coupled to a self-scanning linear photodiode array which has a fiber optic input window which allows direct, rigid mechanical coupling with minimal light loss. The array was scanned at a 250 KHz pixel rate. The detector exhibits more than adequate signal-to-noise ratio for pulse counting and event location. Previously announced in STAR as N82-19118

Hartig, G. F.; Moos, H. W.; Pembroke, R.; Bowers, C.

1982-01-01

493

Analysing panel count data with informative observation times  

PubMed Central

Summary In this paper, we study panel count data with informative observation times. We assume nonparametric and semiparametric proportional rate models for the underlying event process, where the form of the baseline rate function is left unspecified and a subject-specific frailty variable inflates or deflates the rate function multiplicatively. The proposed models allow the event processes and observation times to be correlated through their connections with the unobserved frailty; moreover, the distributions of both the frailty variable and observation times are considered as nuisance parameters. The baseline rate function and the regression parameters are estimated by maximising a conditional likelihood function of observed event counts and solving estimation equations. Large-sample properties of the proposed estimators are studied. Numerical studies demonstrate that the proposed estimation procedures perform well for moderate sample sizes. An application to a bladder tumour study is presented. PMID:23729818

HUANG, CHIUNG-YU; WANG, MEI-CHENG; ZHANG, YING

2013-01-01

494

An image-processing program for automated counting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An image-processing program developed by the National Institute of Health, IMAGE, was modified in a cooperative project between remote sensing specialists at the Ohio State University Center for Mapping and scientists at the Alaska Science Center to facilitate estimating numbers of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) in flocks at Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The modified program, DUCK HUNT, runs on Apple computers. Modifications provide users with a pull down menu that optimizes image quality; identifies objects of interest (e.g., brant) by spectral, morphometric, and spatial parameters defined interactively by users; counts and labels objects of interest; and produces summary tables. Images from digitized photography, videography, and high- resolution digital photography have been used with this program to count various species of waterfowl.

Cunningham, D.J.; Anderson, W.H.; Anthony, R.M.

1996-01-01

495

Facilitated sequence counting and assembly by template mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Presently, inferring the long-range structure of the DNA templates is limited by short read lengths. Accurate template counts suffer from distortions occurring during PCR amplification. We explore the utility of introducing random mutations in identical or nearly identical templates to create distinguishable patterns that are inherited during subsequent copying. We simulate the applications of this process under assumptions of error-free sequencing and perfect mapping, using cytosine deamination as a model for mutation. The simulations demonstrate that within readily achievable conditions of nucleotide conversion and sequence coverage, we can accurately count the number of otherwise identical molecules as well as connect variants separated by long spans of identical sequence. We discuss many potential applications, such as transcript profiling, isoform assembly, haplotype phasing, and de novo genome assembly. PMID:25313059

Levy, Dan; Wigler, Michael

2014-01-01

496

D0-D6 States Counting and GW Invariants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a correspondence between the Donaldson-Thomas invariants enumerating D0-D6 bound states on a Calabi-Yau 3-fold and certain Gromov-Witten invariants counting rational curves in a family of blowups of weighted projective planes. This is a variation on a correspondence found by Gross-Pandharipande, with D0-D6 bound states replacing representations of generalised Kronecker quivers. We build on a small part of the theories developed by Joyce-Song and Kontsevich-Soibelman for wall-crossing formulae and by Gross-Pandharipande-Siebert for factorisations in the tropical vertex group. Along the way we write down an explicit formula for the BPS state counts which arise up to rank 3 and prove their integrality. We also compare with previous "noncommutative DT invariants" computations in the physics literature.

Stoppa, Jacopo

2012-11-01

497

[The cell count in sheep and goat milk].  

PubMed

The udder health of 404 sheep from 23 flocks and 397 goats from 15 herds in Lower Austria was examined. In order to determine cell levels, the Schalm Test (equivalent to the California mastitis test) and a fluoroscopic "Fossomatic" cell count appliance were employed. The resultant physiological median levels of somatic cell content were established as 71,000 cells/ml for sheep milk and 415,000 cells/ml for goat milk. Significant factors influencing the cell count levels were the milking technique in both species and age in sheep but not in goats. The pathogens most frequently isolated as causes of chronic or latent mastitis were coagulase-positive and -negative cocci. PMID:1796462

Pernthaner, A; Deutz, A; Schlerka, G; Baumgartner, W

1991-12-01

498

High rate 4. pi. beta. -. gamma. coincidence counting system  

SciTech Connect

A high count rate 4..pi.. ..beta..-..gamma.. coincidence counting system for the determination of absolute disintegration rates of short half-life radionuclides is described. With this system the dead time per pulse is minimized by not stretching any pulses beyond the width necessary to satisfy overlap coincidence requirements. The equations used to correct for the ..beta.., ..gamma.., and coincidence channel dead times and for accidental coincidences are presented but not rigorously developed. Experimental results are presented for a decaying source of /sup 56/Mn initially at 2 x 10/sup 6/ d/s and a set of /sup 60/Co sources of accurately known source strengths varying from 10/sup 3/ to 2 x 10/sup 6/ d/s. A check of the accidental coincidence equation for the case of two independent sources with varying source strengths is presented.

Johnson, L.O.; Gehrke, R.J.

1978-01-01

499

Photon-counting multifactor optical encryption and authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multifactor optical encryption authentication method [Opt. Lett., 31 721-3 (2006)] reinforces optical security by allowing the simultaneous authentication of up to four factors. In this work, the photon-counting imaging technique is applied to the multifactor encrypted function so that a sparse phase-only distribution is generated for the encrypted data. The integration of both techniques permits an increased capacity for signal hiding with simultaneous data reduction for better fulfilling the general requirements of protection, storage and transmission. Cryptanalysis of the proposed method is carried out in terms of chosen-plaintext and chosen-ciphertext attacks. Although the multifactor authentication process is not substantially altered by those attacks, its integration with the photon-counting imaging technique prevents from possible partial disclosure of any encrypted factor, thus increasing the security level of the overall process. Numerical experiments and results are provided and discussed.

Pérez-Cabré, E.; Mohammed, E. A.; Millán, M. S.; Saadon, H. L.

2015-02-01

500

Photon-counting image sensors for the ultraviolet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation on specific performance details of photon counting, ultraviolet image sensors having 2-dimensional formats is reviewed. In one study, controlled experiments were performed which compare the quantum efficiencies, in pulse counting mode, of CsI photocathodes deposited on: (1) the front surface of a microchannel plate (MCP), (2) a solid surface in front of an MCP, and (3) an intensified CCD image sensor (ICCD) where a CCD is directly bombarded by accelerated photoelectrons. Tests indicated that the detection efficiency of the CsI-coated MCP at 1026 A is lower by a factor of 2.5 than that of the MCP with a separate, opaque CsI photocathode, and the detection efficiency ratio increases substantially at longer wavelengths (ratio is 5 at 1216 A and 20 at 1608 A).

Jenkins, E. B.

1985-01-01