Sampling site matters when counting lymphocyte subpopulations.
Ogunjimi, Benson; Peeters, Dieter; Hens, Niel; Malfait, Ronald; Van Tendeloo, Viggo; Van Damme, Pierre; Beutels, Philippe; Smits, Evelien
2012-01-01
Clinical and scientific work routinely relies on antecubital venipunctures for hematological, immunological or other analyses on blood. This study tested the hypothesis that antecubital veins can be considered to be a good proxy for other sampling sites. Using a hematocytometer and a flow cytometer, we analyzed the cell counts from samples coming from the radial artery, the dorsal hand veins and the antecubital veins from 18 volunteers. Most surprisingly, we identified the greatest difference not to exist between arterial and venous circulation, but between the distal (radial artery & dorsal hand veins) and proximal (antecubital veins) sampling sites. Naïve T cells had a higher cell count distally compared to proximally and the reverse was true for effector memory T cells. Despite these differences there were high correlations between the different sampling sites, which partially supports our initial hypothesis. Our findings are crucial for the future design and interpretation of immunological research, and for clinical practice. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for interval lymph nodes in the trafficking of lymphocytes. PMID:22848485
Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count
2013-01-01
Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/?L3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ? C) ? (B ? D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560
Terradas, Roser; Grau, Santiago; Blanch, Jordi; Riu, Marta; Saballs, Pere; Castells, Xavier; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Knobel, Hernando
2012-01-01
Introduction There is scarce evidence on the use of eosinophil count as a marker of outcome in patients with infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in eosinophil count, as well as the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), could be used as clinical markers of outcome in patients with bacteremia. Methods We performed a retrospective study of patients with a first episode of community-acquired or healthcare-related bacteremia during hospital admission between 2004 and 2009. A total of 2,311 patients were included. Cox regression was used to analyze the behaviour of eosinophil count and the NLCR in survivors and non-survivors. Results In the adjusted analysis, the main independent risk factor for mortality was persistence of an eosinophil count below 0.0454·103/uL (HR?=?4.20; 95% CI 2.66–6.62). An NLCR value >7 was also an independent risk factor but was of lesser importance. The mean eosinophil count in survivors showed a tendency to increase rapidly and to achieve normal values between the second and third day. In these patients, the NLCR was <7 between the second and third day. Conclusion Both sustained eosinopenia and persistence of an NLCR >7 were independent markers of mortality in patients with bacteremia. PMID:22912753
Choi, Chel Hun; Kang, Heeseok; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Lee, Je-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo
2008-05-01
Purpose: This study examined factors predicting tumor response and progression-free survival in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 143 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2 to IVA) treated with CCRT were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to retrospectively evaluate prognostic factors, including baseline lymphocyte count, that affect tumor response and progression-free survival. Results: Of the variables evaluated, greater baseline lymphocyte count was the factor most predictive of a complete clinical response, followed by smaller tumor size (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed baseline lymphocyte count, which was treated as a continuous variable with every 1 x 10{sup 9} lymphocytes/L, to remain a prognostic factor with an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-7.23). In addition, a statistically significant association (p = 0.023) was found between baseline lymphocyte count and progression-free survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.89) in the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients and possible biologic variation existing in lymphocyte subset number and activity, these findings highlight the strong prognostic value of baseline lymphocyte count in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT. Therefore, a larger number of patients and analysis of lymphocyte subsets are needed.
Shi, Yi-Yun; Li, Zhi-Ying; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Chen, Min
2015-01-01
Abstract Patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody associated vasculitis (AAV) have a high prevalence of infection during immunosuppressive therapy, and the total lymphocyte count (TLC) has been demonstrated to be an independent predictor of infection. The current study investigated the value of the TLC and its subsets, particularly the CD4 count, for predicting infections of AAV in a single Chinese cohort. A total of 124 AAV patients were retrospectively recruited in our department from December 1997 to October 2013. Multivariate Cox models with the CD4 count or TLC measured at three typical time points, that is, at baseline, at the beginning of immunosuppressant dose reduction, and at the last visit before infection or censoring, or with the measurements included as time-varying covariates, were compared to select the most predictive time point for infection. A time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC(t)) for the TLC (AUC(t)TLC) and the CD4 count (AUC(t)CD4count) measured at the most predictive time point were calculated and compared. During an average follow-up of 11.5 (range 0.5–142) months, 55 of the 124 patients (44.3%) experienced a microbiologically confirmed infection. Independent predictors of overall infection were initial creatinine clearance (P?=?0.02 and 0.04), pulmonary interstitial fibrosis (P?=?.04 and .05), pulmonary nodule or cavity (P?=?0.002 and .002), CD4 count (P?count or TLC from the last visit measured by AUC showed that the AUC(t)CD4count (62.8–70.2%) was almost always higher than AUC(t)TLC (55.2–58.1%) during the first 2 years of immunosuppressive therapy (P?=?0.01–0.2). In terms of different pathogens, both the CD4 count and TLC performed well for non-bacterial infection (AUC(t) 69.2–82.7%), and the difference between them was not significant (P?>?0.1). The TLC and CD4 count were both independent risk factors of overall infection and non-bacterial infection in AAV patients. The CD4 count had a higher predictive value than the TLC for overall infections, particularly during the first 2 years of immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25950695
Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.
1980-03-01
Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.
Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... is 4,500 to 10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges may vary ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal One ...
Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean
2005-10-05
Landowners and managers need a way of estimating quail populations to determine whether quail management practices are successful. Several direct and indirect methods of counting quail are described, including roadside counts, helicopter surveys...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischer, G. L.; Daniels, J. C.; Levin, W. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Cobb, E. K.; Ritzmann, S. E.
1972-01-01
The present studies were undertaken to assess the effects of the environment of space flights on the cellular division of the human immune system. Peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte counts were determined at various preflight and postflight intervals for the 21 crewmen of Apollo Missions 7-13. Mean lymphocyte numbers tended to exhibit a delayed significant but fluctuating increase shortly after recovery, although a variety of responses was seen in individual astronauts. The in vitro reactivity of lymphocytes, reflected by RNA and DNA synthesis rates by unstimulated and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes tissue-cultured preflight and postflight from the same participants, was found to remain within previously established normal ranges. These results indicate that functional integrity of cellular immune potential as reflected by in vitro techniques is maintained during this spaceflight experience.
Ludden, Manon J W; Li, Xiao; Greve, Jan; van Amerongen, Aart; Escalante, Maryana; Subramaniam, Vinod; Reinhoudt, David N; Huskens, Jurriaan
2008-06-01
The assembly of complex bionanostructures onto beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) monolayers has been investigated with the aims of antibody recognition and cell adhesion. The formation of these assemblies relies on host-guest, protein-ligand, and protein-protein interactions. The buildup of a structure consisting of a divalent bis(adamantyl)-biotin linker, streptavidin (SAv), biotinylated protein A (bt-PA), and an Fc fragment of a human immunoglobin G (IgG-Fc) was studied with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Patterns of this bionanostructure were obtained via microcontact printing of the divalent linker at the molecular printboard, followed by the subsequent attachment of the proteins. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the buildup of these bionanostructures on the betaCD monolayers is highly specific. On the basis of these results, bionanostructures were made in which whole antibodies (ABs) were used instead of the IgG-Fc. These ABs were bound to the SAv layer via biotinylated protein G (bt-PG) or via a biotinylated AB. These constructions yielded specifically bound ABs with a less than maximal density, as shown by SPR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Finally, the immobilization of ABs to the molecular printboard was used to create platforms for lymphocyte cell count purposes. Monoclonal ABs (MABs) were attached to the SAv layer using bt-PG, an engineered biotin functionality, or through nonspecific adsorption. The binding specificity of the immobilized cells was the highest on the buildup made from bt-PG, which is attributed to an optimized orientation of the antibodies. An approximately linear relationship between the numbers of seeded cells and counted cells was demonstrated, rendering the platform potentially suitable for lymphocyte cell counting. PMID:18461928
A T-cell count measures the number of T cells in the blood. Your doctor may order this test if you ... T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are white blood cells. They make up part of the immune ...
Karanth, Suman S.; Rau, N. R.; Gupta, Anurag; Kamath, Asha; Shanbhogue, Vikram; Pruthvi, B. C.
2014-01-01
Background: Standard methods of CD4 counts and plasma viral load estimation require specialized equipment, highly trained personnel and are extremely expensive. This remains a major challenge for the initiation of anti-retroviral therapy for patients in resource-limited settings. Objective: To assess the clinical utility of the total lymphocyte count (TLC) to serve as a surrogate marker for predicting a CD4 counts <350 cell/mm3 in patients with HIV. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 200 consecutive newly detected highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) naïve HIV patients admitted over a one year period was conducted. Linear regression, Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the relationship between TLC and CD4 counts. Results: A significant correlation between TLC and CD4 count was observed (r = 0.682, P < 0.001). TLC cut off of 1200 cell/mm3 as a predictor of CD4 count <350 cell/mm3 had 73.1% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value (PPV) and 51.4% negative predictive value (NPV). Raising the cutoff to 1500 cells/mm3 improved the sensitivity to 82.1% with 88.2% specificity, 96.5% PPV, 44.4% NPV. The ROC curve demonstrated highest area under curve (AUC = 0.8) for TLC of 1500 cell/mm3. Conclusion: The study showed that TLC cutoff value of 1500 cells/mm3 was a cost effective surrogate marker for CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3 in resource-limited settings. PMID:24678463
Absolute monocyte and lymphocyte count prognostic score for patients with gastric cancer
Eo, Wan Kyu; Jeong, Da Wun; Chang, Hye Jung; Won, Kyu Yeoun; Choi, Sung Il; Kim, Se Hyun; Chun, Sung Wook; Oh, Young Lim; Lee, Tae Hwa; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Ki Hyung; Ji, Yong Il; Kim, Ari; Kim, Heung Yeol
2015-01-01
AIM: To measure the prognostic significance of absolute monocyte count/absolute lymphocyte count prognostic score (AMLPS) in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the combination of absolute monocyte count (AMC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) as prognostic variables in a cohort of 299 gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2013 and were followed at a single institution. Both AMC and ALC were dichotomized into two groups using cut-off points determined by receiving operator characteristic curve analysis. An AMLPS was generated, which stratified patients into three risk groups: low risk (both low AMC and high ALC), intermediate risk (either high AMC or low ALC), and high risk (both high AMC and low ALC). The primary objective of the study was to validate the impact of AMLPS on both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), and the second objective was to assess the AMLPS as an independent prognostic factor for survival in comparison with known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Using data from the entire cohort, the most discriminative cut-off values of AMC and ALC selected on the receiver operating characteristic curve were 672.4/?L and 1734/?L for DFS and OS. AMLPS risk groups included 158 (52.8%) patients in the low-risk, 128 (42.8%) in the intermediate-risk, and 13 (4.3%) in the high-risk group. With a median follow-up of 37.2 mo (range: 1.7-91.4 mo), five-year DFS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 83.4%, 78.7%, and 19.8%, respectively. And five-year OS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 89.3%, 81.1%, and 14.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis performed with patient- and tumor-related factors, we identified AMLPS, age, and pathologic tumor-node-metastasis stage as the most valuable prognostic factors impacting DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: AMLPS identified patients with a poor DFS and OS, and it was independent of age, pathologic stage, and various inflammatory markers. PMID:25759535
Rowe, Anthony; McMaster, Kate; Emery, David; Sangster, Nicholas
2008-05-31
Two experiments were conducted to elucidate the timing and nature of the sheep immune response to Haemonchus contortus (Barber's pole worm). The first experiment examined the establishment of H. contortus populations and the immune response by comparing a bolus infection of third-stage larvae in naïve sheep with a group previously primed by a trickle infection. The second experiment used staggered doses of ivermectin-resistant larvae to compare the development of adult worms during different durations of trickle infection with ivermectin-sensitive larvae. Infections successfully generated pathological signs of haemonchosis such as anaemia. Image analysis software was used to measure the area and perimeter of worms collected at post-mortem, and the number of eggs present in individual adult females (fecundity) was significantly correlated with worm size. A significant inverse correlation was found between blood lymphocyte counts and worm fecundity. The absence of correlation between worm fecundity and other leukocyte and erythrocyte counts highlighted the specificity of the lymphocyte response. This is the first report of a link between haematology profiles and worm fecundity in haemonchosis. The correlation observed between adult worm size and egg content leads to the hypothesis that egg production in H. contortus is limited by immune regulation of worm size and presumably growth. Mean worm size and fecundity declined as sheep received more prolonged trickle infections before necropsy, confirming previous reports that immune responses to adult worms are enhanced by ongoing larval challenge. Immunohistochemical results showed trends consistent with a Th2 (humoral) immune response which has been implicated in reducing nematode burdens in several species. PMID:18337014
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Damonte, Kathleen
2004-01-01
Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurley, Dana M.
2014-11-01
I am a counter by nature. I count things as an effective way to occupy my mind. How many people are in this room? How many are women? How many are wearing glasses? How many people are using a Mac versus a PC?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary
1998-01-01
Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)
Rathunde, L; Kussen, G M B; Beltrame, M P; Dalla Costa, L M; Raboni, S M
2014-11-01
CD4?+?lymphocyte counts are routinely ordered during the early phases of antiretroviral therapy and for prophylaxis of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients. Flow cytometry is the standard methodology for CD4 counts in Brazilian reference laboratories. However, these laboratories are located in large cities, frequently distant from patients, thus limiting patient access and delaying results. We compared a point-of-care test with flow cytometry determination of CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts in HIV patients. We analysed 107 consecutive samples by both methods. Overall, the point-of-care test performed well, with excellent agreement between it and the standard method. Test results were concordant for patients with CD4(+) T lymphocyte values above and below 200 cells/mm?(3). The performance characteristics obtained were sensitivity 94% (95% CI 89.5-98.5%), specificity 93% (95% CI 88.2-97.8%), positive predictive value 86% (95% CI 79.4-92.6%), and negative predictive value 97% (95% CI 94-100%). The high sensitivity and specificity of the point-of-care test methodology suggest its utility as an alternative method for rapid measurement of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients with limited access to reference laboratories, enabling prompt therapeutic intervention for patients at risk of progression to AIDS. PMID:24616116
Shi, Yi-Yun; Li, Zhi-Ying; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Chen, Min
2015-05-01
Patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody associated vasculitis (AAV) have a high prevalence of infection during immunosuppressive therapy, and the total lymphocyte count (TLC) has been demonstrated to be an independent predictor of infection. The current study investigated the value of the TLC and its subsets, particularly the CD4 count, for predicting infections of AAV in a single Chinese cohort.A total of 124 AAV patients were retrospectively recruited in our department from December 1997 to October 2013. Multivariate Cox models with the CD4 count or TLC measured at three typical time points, that is, at baseline, at the beginning of immunosuppressant dose reduction, and at the last visit before infection or censoring, or with the measurements included as time-varying covariates, were compared to select the most predictive time point for infection. A time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC(t)) for the TLC (AUC(t)TLC) and the CD4 count (AUC(t)CD4count) measured at the most predictive time point were calculated and compared.During an average follow-up of 11.5 (range 0.5-142) months, 55 of the 124 patients (44.3%) experienced a microbiologically confirmed infection. Independent predictors of overall infection were initial creatinine clearance (P?=?0.02 and 0.04), pulmonary interstitial fibrosis (P?=?.04 and .05), pulmonary nodule or cavity (P?=?0.002 and .002), CD4 count (P?count or TLC from the last visit measured by AUC showed that the AUC(t)CD4count (62.8-70.2%) was almost always higher than AUC(t)TLC (55.2-58.1%) during the first 2 years of immunosuppressive therapy (P?=?0.01-0.2). In terms of different pathogens, both the CD4 count and TLC performed well for non-bacterial infection (AUC(t) 69.2-82.7%), and the difference between them was not significant (P?>?0.1).The TLC and CD4 count were both independent risk factors of overall infection and non-bacterial infection in AAV patients. The CD4 count had a higher predictive value than the TLC for overall infections, particularly during the first 2 years of immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25950695
Kumagai, Shogo; Tashima, Masaharu; Fujikawa, Jun; Iwasaki, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshihiro; Sueki, Yuki; Fukunaga, Akiko; Yanagita, Soshi; Nishikori, Momoko; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Arima, Nobuyoshi
2014-06-01
The prognosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) is significantly associated with host immunity and tumor microenvironment. Lymphopenia has been identified as a negative prognostic factor for FL. The association between monocytosis and progression-free survival (PFS) in FL remains controversial. It is unknown whether the ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count (ALC/AMC) at diagnosis is associated with FL prognosis. We studied 99 consecutive patients with FL who were treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy at Kitano Hospital or Kyoto University Hospital between 2000 and 2012. We analyzed individual variables associated with the ALC/AMC ratio before treatment, as well as known prognostic factors of FL, and found that an ALC/AMC ratio of 4.7 was the best cut-off value for PFS. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was associated with inferior PFS (P = 0.022). Multivariate analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was a significant poor prognostic factor independent of other variables (hazard ratio, 2.714; 95 % confidence interval, 1.060-6.948; P = 0.037). The ALC/AMC ratio before treatment may be a significant prognostic factor predicting PFS of FL. PMID:24756873
Dhamangaonkar, AC; Mathew, A; Pazare, AR
2014-01-01
ABSTRACT Aim: To find a sensitive and low-cost surrogate marker for CD4 count for initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) [CD4 < 200 /mm3], in the form of total lymphocyte count (TLC) < 1200 /mm3 combined with haemoglobin (Hb) with multiple Hb cut-offs. Method: Two hundred and three consecutive treatment-naïve adult HIV positive outpatients attending the virology clinic in World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage 1, 2 or 3 were enrolled in the study. Their complete blood counts and CD4 counts were done. Descriptive statistics was done by two methods correlating TLC alone with CD4 and the other using combined marker of TLC and Hb with CD4 count. Result: Total lymphocyte count alone did not correlate well with CD4 counts (r = 0.13; p = 0.065). Sensitivity of TLC < 1200 /mm3 to predict CD4 < 200 /mm3 was low (23.27%) and the sensitivity of the combined marker (TLC + Hb) increased with higher Hb cut-offs. Conclusion: Adding Hb to TLC markedly improved the sensitivity of the marker to predict CD4 count < 200/mm3. We also recommend a trade-off Hb cut-off of 10.5 g/dL for optimum sensitivity and specificity in this population subset. PMID:25781283
All about Carbohydrate Counting
Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...
Uncertainty of nuclear counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pommé, S.; Fitzgerald, R.; Keightley, J.
2015-06-01
Nuclear counting is affected by pulse pileup and system dead time, which induce rate-related count loss and alter the statistical properties of the counting process. Fundamental equations are presented to predict deviations from Poisson statistics due to non-random count loss in nuclear counters and spectrometers. Throughput and dispersion of counts are studied for systems with pileup, extending and non-extending dead time, before and also after compensation for count loss. Equations are provided for random fractions of the output events, applicable to spectrometry applications. Methods for loss compensation are discussed, including inversion of the throughput equation, live-time counting and loss-free counting. Secondary effects in live-time counting are addressed: residual interference from pileup in systems with imposed dead times and errors due to varying count rate when measuring short-lived radionuclides.
Qin, Min; Brummel, Sean; Singh, Kumud K.; Fenton, Terry; Spector, Stephen A.
2014-01-01
Background CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) counts and HIV plasma RNA concentration (RNA) are two key HIV disease markers. The complex interplay between virus and host genetics may contribute to differences in viral set point and CD4 status. Determining the effects of host genetic variation on HIV disease markers is often complicated by the use of antiretroviral therapy. In this study, the association between genetic variants and baseline HIV RNA and CD4 counts was examined in a large cohort of antiretroviral naïve children. Methods Specimens from 1053 HIV-infected children were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 78 regions from 17 genes. Linear regression with a robust variance estimator was used to test the association between genetic markers with HIV RNA and CD4count, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and study. False discovery rate (FDR) controlling was used to adjust for multiple testing. Results The study population was 60% black, 26% Hispanic and 13% white; median age 2.35 years; 55% female. Baseline median CD4 count was 780/mm3; median log10 HIV RNA was 5.17 copies/mL. For analyses of the associations of genetic makers with baseline CD4+, 6 HLA and 4 additional markers exhibited p-values <0.05, but none met the criteria for statistical significance with FDR controlled at 0.05. For baseline HIV RNA, HLA DRB1*15, DRB1*10, B-27/57, B-14, Cw-8, B57 were statistically significant with FDR controlled at 0.05. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence that HLA DRB1*15, DRB1*10, B-27/57, B-14, Cw-8, B57 are associated with HIV RNA, and play a role in HIV pathogenesis in infected children. PMID:24797997
Unknown
2011-09-05
The counting of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) used as alpha particle detectors is made quick and easy through a computer-assisted counting program. The software was developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The use...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny
1981-01-01
Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)
Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi
2015-01-01
Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030
Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Campbell, Patrick; Zhou, Yinmei; Sandlund, John T.; Jeha, Sima; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Inaba, Hiroto; Bhojwani, Deepa; Relling, Mary V.; Howard, Scott C.; Campana, Dario; Pui, Ching-Hon
2013-01-01
Background Absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) during treatment have been associated with outcome in children and adults with hematologic malignancies. However, the impact of ALC relative to that of other prognostic factors on the outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated in recent trials is unknown. Methods Outcomes of 399 patients ? 18 years of age with newly diagnosed ALL who were enrolled in the Total Therapy XV study at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital were analyzed according to ALC at the end of remission induction therapy. Results ALC ? 500 cell/?L was significantly more prevalent among patients with B-lineage ALL, favorable presenting features and in those who achieved minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity on day 43 of treatment. Both overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were superior among patients with higher ALC, but only the association with OS was statistically significant in a univariate analysis. In multivariable analyses, ALC was not a significant predictor of outcome after controlling for age, leukocyte count, lineage, risk group, and MRD at the end of induction (p > 0.1 for all comparisons). However, among MRD-negative patients, those with low ALC had a 5-year OS of 84.2% ± 8.9% versus 97.3 ± 1.0 for patients with higher ALC (P = .036). Conclusion ALC at the end of induction is related to favorable presenting features and good initial treatment response but does not independently predict outcome in the context of contemporary, MRD-guided, therapy. PMID:23456849
A CSF cell count is a test to measure the number of red and white blood cells that are in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is ... The CSF cell count may help detect: Meningitis and infection of the brain or spinal cord Tumor, abscess, or area of ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Araujo, Frank P.
1975-01-01
Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)
Li, Xin; Han, Zhiyu; Cheng, Zhigang; Yu, Jie; Yu, Xiaoling; Liang, Ping
2014-01-01
Purpose To investigate the prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (RHCC) following thermal ablation. Materials and methods We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between preoperative ALC and the clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in 423 RHCC patients who underwent curative thermal ablation. Correlation analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) calculation, Kaplan–Meier curves, and multivariate regression were used for statistical analysis. Results The median time to recurrence was 12 months for RHCC patients after thermal ablation. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, preoperative ALC was an independent risk factor for cancer recurrence, along with tumor differentiation and ?-fetoprotein level. ALC ?1.64×109/L defined by ROC calculation was associated with prolonged survival (area under the curve 0.741, P<0.001). Patients with ALC ?1.64×109/L showed a mean survival of 20.2 months versus 11.6 months for patients with ALC <1.64×109/L (P<0.001). Patients were stratified into high and low groups according to ALC status. After excluding the basic parameters between groups, the 1- and 3-year recurrence rates in the high group were 20.9% and 29.5%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the low group (58.4% and 71.9%, respectively; P<0.001). The recurrence-free survival rates in the two groups analyzed by Kaplan–Meier curves were significantly different (P<0.001). Conclusion Preoperative ALC is a powerful prognostic factor for RHCC recurrence after thermal ablation, which suggests that maintaining a high ALC in RHCC patients might improve cancer outcomes. PMID:25336974
Chilek, Kevin; Gregory, Elizabeth
2004-01-27
This exhibitor card identifies young livestock exhibitors as participants in the Quality Counts! program. The card is printed with a leather-style background on heavy card stock. It features the 4-H clover and the FFA logo, ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.
2013-01-01
To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.
Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer; Oladimeji, Ajayi Akande; Temi, Adegun Patrick; Adeseye, Ajayi Iyiade; Akinyeye, Ojo Abiodun; Taiwo, Raimi Hussean
2011-01-01
Background Ekiti State of Nigeria is known to have the lowest prevalence of HIV in Nigeria. University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Ado Ekiti was recently upgraded to serve as one of the three centres for HIV/AIDS referral, diagnosis and treatment in Ekiti State. We evaluated the baseline immunologic and biochemical parameters of patients presenting at the ART clinic of University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State. Methods All HIV seropositive patients not yet on antiretroviral therapy, who presented at the ART Clinic within the study period had at the first visit to the clinic, their blood sample taken for CD4 cell counts estimation, HBsAg and anti- HCV screening, ALT, AST as well as hemoglobin estimation as part of the routine workup to assess their disease health status and need for antiretroviral therapy. Statistical significance was taken as p< 0.05. Results A total of 273 patients comprising 79 (28.9%) males and 194 (71.1%) females were included in the study (F:M = 2.46: 1). The mean age of the study population was 36.21± 10.20 years with mean age of males (39.52 ± 9.95years) significantly higher than females (34.88 ± 10.02; p=0.001). The overall prevalence of HBsAg in the study population was 6.6% with a sex specific prevalence of 8.1% and 6% for males and females, respectively. No statistically significance difference in the mean serum alanine transaminase, serum aspartate transaminase, hemoglobin and CD4+ T- Lymphocytes cell count of those who had HBsAg negative status compared to those who had HBsAg positive status. Two (0.7%) of the patients had positive serum anti HCV antibodies. The CD4+ T- Lymphocytes cell count ranged between 5 – 1050 cells/µl with a mean of 286.19 ± 233.31 cells/µl. The majority of patients (71.8%) had a CD4+ T- Lymphocytes cell count < 350 cells/µl. Conclusion At the time of presentation, majority of our patients had a CD4+ T- Lymphocytes cell count less than 350 cells/µl consistent with significant immune-suppression. More sustained and vigorous awareness campaigns still need to be done in Ekiti State to diagnose this disease early. There is also a need to accelerate the integration of hepatitis B virus screening and treatment programme into HIV/AIDS programme because of the morbidity and mortality implication of HBV and HIV co-infection. PMID:22145054
Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting
Swansen, J.E.
1985-03-05
An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.
Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting
Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)
1987-01-01
An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.
Fernandes, Michelle S; Bhat, Ramesh M
2015-05-01
In this study, 100 HIV-positive cases (63 men, 37 women) with skin findings were included. The mean CD4 T cell count was 253?cells/mm(3). A total of 235 dermatological manifestations were seen. The common infectious dermatoses were candidiasis (21%), Staphylococcal skin infections (20%), dermatophytoses (14%) and herpes zoster (6%). Among the non-infectious dermatoses were papular pruritic eruptions (20%), xerosis/ichthyosis (20%) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (16%). Statistically significant association (p?count was seen in pyodermas, dermatophytoses and papular pruritic eruptions. Adverse drug reactions, diffuse hair loss, straightening of hairs and pigmentary changes were also noted. Although there was an absence of Kaposi's sarcoma in our study, a case of verrucous carcinoma of penis was noted. PMID:25015936
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zohar, S. (inventor)
1973-01-01
Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.
... Blood Test: Hemoglobin Blood Culture Anemia Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Helping Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests All About Allergies Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures (Video Landing Page) Getting a ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.
2014-01-01
Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…
every moment countS Our Highlights 2013/14
Bentley, Katie
, by diagnosing more cancers at a point when they can be successfully treated. Thank you for your support. Youevery moment countS Our Highlights 2013/14 #12;FOR EVERYONE TOUCHED BY CANCER, EVERY MOMENT COUNTS. ONE DAY WE WILL BEAT CANCER. THROUGH RESEARCH WE WILL MAKE IT SOONER. #12;BEATING CANCER SOONER Half
High background photon counting lidar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lentz, W. J.
1992-01-01
Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.
Sergei Gukov
2015-03-04
Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence --- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.
2013-01-01
Background Field and community evaluation of the routine usage of CD4 T counting platforms is essential in resource-poor countries for efficient and cost-effective monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children attending health care centers. Methods We herein addressed the principal issues raised by the implementation of the single-platform, volumetric Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) in 8 community HIV monitoring laboratories of different levels throughout Chad. This is a country with particularly difficult conditions, both in terms of climate and vast geographical territory, making the decentralization of the therapeutic management of HIV-infected patients challenging. Results The routine usage of the Auto40 flow cytometers for a period of 5 years (2008–2013) confirms the reliability and robustness of the analyzer for community-based CD4 T cell enumeration in terms of both absolute numbers and percentages to enable accurate monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children. However, our observations suggest that the Auto40 mini flow cytometer is not suitable for all laboratories as it is oversized and ultimately very expensive. Conclusion The Chad experience with the Auto40 flow cytometer suggests that its usage in resource-limited settings should be mainly reserved to reference (level 1) or district (level 2) laboratories, rather than to laboratories of health care centres (level 3). PMID:24083615
Counting on Using a Number Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Betts, Paul
2015-01-01
Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…
Ruiz, F S; Andersen, M L; Zager, A; Martins, R C S; Tufik, S
2007-05-01
The objective of the present study was to determine whether sleep deprivation (SD) would promote changes in lymphocyte numbers in a type 1 diabetes model (non-obese diabetic, NOD, mouse strain) and to determine whether SD would affect female and male NOD compared to Swiss mice. The number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood after 24 and 96 h of SD (by multiple platform method) or equivalent period of time in home-cage controls was examined prior to the onset of diabetes. SD for 96 h significantly reduced lymphocytes in male Swiss mice compared to control (8.6 +/- 2.1 vs 4.1 +/- 0.7 10(3)/microL; P < 0.02). In male NOD animals, 24- and 96-h SD caused a significant decrease of lymphocytes compared to control (4.4 +/- 0.3 vs 1.6 +/- 0.5; P < 0.001 and 4.4 +/- 0.3 vs 0.9 +/- 0.1 10(3)/microL; P < 0.00001, respectively). Both 24- and 96-h SD induced a reduction in the number of lymphocytes in female Swiss (7.5 +/- 0.5 vs 4.5 +/- 0.5, 4.4 +/- 0.6 10(3)/microL; P < 0.001, respectively) and NOD mice (4 +/- 0.6 vs 1.8 +/- 0.2, 1.2 +/- 0.4 10(3)/microL; P < 0.01, respectively) compared to the respective controls. Loss of sleep induced lymphopenia in peripheral blood in both genders and strains used. Since many cases of autoimmunity present reduced numbers of lymphocytes and, in this study, it was more evident in the NOD strain, our results suggest that SD should be considered a risk factor in the onset of autoimmune disorders. PMID:17464424
Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate
Millard, H.T., Jr.
1984-01-01
Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.
Counting Statistics I. ESSENTIAL EQUATIONS
Kavanagh, Karen L.
if the half-life is "short"). III. FOR HOW LONG SHOULD I COUNT ? For how long should I count to get the net of signal and life is easy. A problem arises when S > 1 while S 1. In this case, given to do it: the result is considered accurate within the quoted interval 19 times out of 20). EXAMPLE
AN AUTOMATED MOSQUITO COUNTING TRAP
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
An automated mosquito counting trap has been designed and tested in laboratory cages. It employs a custom designed infrared beam sensor head retrofit into a commercial counter-flow technology trap (MM-X, American Biophysics Corp.). The trap provides time-stamped insect counts that can be downloaded...
Gul, Z; Van Meter, E; Abidi, M; Ditah, I; Abdul-Hussein, M; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Lum, L G; Waller, E K; Ratanatharathorn, V; Uberti, J; Al-Kadhimi, Z
2015-03-01
Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. Lower ALC30 (?400 × 10(6)/L) was associated with lower OS and increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for the whole cohort as well as for recipients of SD and UD grafts separately. Lower ALC30 was associated with more severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; III-IV) for the entire cohort as well as for the SD and UD groups. No association was found between lower ALC30 and relapse. Pretransplant factors associated with lower ALC30 were: unrelated donors; HLA mismatch; older donors; lower recipient age; and lower CD34+ cell dose. In this large retrospective study, ALC30?400 × 10(6)/L was associated with worse OS, increased NRM and severe aGVHD. PMID:25599169
Understanding RFID Counting Protocols Binbin Chen
Yu, Haifeng
Understanding RFID Counting Protocols Binbin Chen Advanced Digital Sciences Center binbin of Singapore haifeng@comp.nus.edu.sg December 2013 Abstract Counting the number of RFID tags, or RFID counting of RFID counting (i.e., to reduce the time needed to do the counting). This paper aims to gain deeper
White blood cell counting system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.
Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.
Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.
2010-07-01
We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.
Blood leucocyte count in the human fetus.
Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Jenkins, E; Layton, D M; Nicolaides, K H
1992-01-01
Total and differential leucocyte counts were measured in cord blood samples obtained by cordocentesis (n = 316) or at elective caesarean section (n = 11) from normal fetuses of between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation. The total fetal leucocyte count increased exponentially from 2.8 x 10(9)/l at 18 weeks to 11.8 x 10(9)/l at term. The lymphocyte and monocyte counts increased linearly and the number of neutrophils increased exponentially from a mean value of 0.2 x 10(9)/l at 18 weeks to 0.8 x 10(9)/l at 31 weeks and then 8.5 x 10(9)/l at term. Early myeloid cells, eosinophils, and basophils were observed in 24%, 55%, and 15% of the blood films respectively; they contributed less than 2% to the total leucocyte count and there were no significant changes with gestation. The physiological leucopenia observed in fetuses early in the third trimester may partly explain the predisposition of premature neonates to infection. PMID:1586178
Hanford whole body counting manual
Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.
1990-06-01
This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.
Photon Counting - One More Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanton, Richard H.
2012-05-01
Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.
Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013
Galvin, David
Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013 January 30, 2013 Math 10120 (Spring 2013) Counting (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 2 / 9 #12;Poker hands A poker hand consists (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 3 / 9 #12;Notre Dame Hockey Notre dame hockey has a 26
___ Nature Notes, Vol. 71, No. 3, 1999 2 Counting Warblers: A TimetableCounting Warblers: A TimetableCounting Warblers: A TimetableCounting Warblers: A Timetable for the Spring Songbirdfor the Spring Songbirdfor the Spring Songbirdfor the Spring Songbird MigrMigrMigrMigraaaation Through Saint Louistion
Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salley, Valerie
This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…
Counting a Culture of Mealworms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ashbrook, Peggy
2007-01-01
Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…
KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.
This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…
Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Donevska-Todorova, Ana
2015-01-01
Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.
Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boeke, Kaye
This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…
Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon
This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…
On Counting the Rational Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Almada, Carlos
2010-01-01
In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…
Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.
This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…
Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ingraham, Sandy
This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…
Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ingraham, Sandy
This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…
Electron counting in quantum dots
Fominov, Yakov
Electron counting in quantum dots Klaus Ensslin Solid State Physics ·Charge detection in quantum dots ·Time-resolved single electron interference ·Backaction ·Graphene quantum dots Zürichwith B. Küng T. Choi S. Gustavsson I. Shorubalko U. Gasser T. Ihn #12;Spectroscopy of electronic states source
Kids Count New Hampshire, 1996.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Terry, Susan Palmer; Hall, Douglas E.
This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 14 indicators of child well being: (1) children in poverty; (2) fatherless families; (3) maternal education; (4) teen births; (5) births to unmarried mothers; (6) low birth weight births; (7) insurance coverage; (8)…
Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.
This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…
Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.
Erd?s, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos
2015-01-01
In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994
Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations
2015-01-01
In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994
7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...
7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...
7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...
7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...
7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...
Low white blood cell count and cancer
Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...
Modeling and Simulation of Count Data
Plan, E L
2014-01-01
Count data, or number of events per time interval, are discrete data arising from repeated time to event observations. Their mean count, or piecewise constant event rate, can be evaluated by discrete probability distributions from the Poisson model family. Clinical trial data characterization often involves population count analysis. This tutorial presents the basics and diagnostics of count modeling and simulation in the context of pharmacometrics. Consideration is given to overdispersion, underdispersion, autocorrelation, and inhomogeneity. PMID:25116273
SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN
Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...
DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DC Action for Children, 2012
2012-01-01
This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…
RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON
RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION Marine Biological Laboratory AUG 1 1 1958, Commissioner RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern and- Dipt iman 1958 #12;RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern, Diptiman
Counting Morse Functions Liviu I. Nicolaescu
Counting Morse Functions Liviu I. Nicolaescu 2011 Liviu I. Nicolaescu (Notre Dame) Counting Morse functions 2011 1 / 48 #12;1 Arnold's snakes 2 Morse functions on S1 3 Morse functions on S2 General facts Morse perestroika Reeb graphs Counting Morse trees 4 A problem of V.I. Arnold Liviu I. Nicolaescu (Notre
Radix Sorts key-indexed counting
Sedgewick, Robert
1 Radix Sorts key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix quicksort applicationAt(int k); public int length(int); } #12;4 key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix is possible and practical #12;8 key-indexed counting LSD radix sort MSD radix sort 3-way radix quicksort
Count-doubling time safety circuit
Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)
1981-01-01
There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.
Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.
This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…
Counting Patterns in Degenerated Sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuel, Grégory
Biological sequences like DNA or proteins, are always obtained through a sequencing process which might produce some uncertainty. As a result, such sequences are usually written in a degenerated alphabet where some symbols may correspond to several possible letters (ex: IUPAC DNA alphabet). When counting patterns in such degenerated sequences, the question that naturally arises is: how to deal with degenerated positions ? Since most (usually 99%) of the positions are not degenerated, it is considered harmless to discard the degenerated positions in order to get an observation, but the exact consequences of such a practice are unclear. In this paper, we introduce a rigorous method to take into account the uncertainty of sequencing for biological sequences (DNA, Proteins). We first introduce a Forward-Backward approach to compute the marginal distribution of the constrained sequence and use it both to perform a Expectation-Maximization estimation of parameters, as well as deriving a heterogeneous Markov distribution for the constrained sequence. This distribution is hence used along with known DFA-based pattern approaches to obtain the exact distribution of the pattern count under the constraints. As an illustration, we consider a EST dataset from the EMBL database. Despite the fact that only 1% of the positions in this dataset are degenerated, we show that not taking into account these positions might lead to erroneous observations, further proving the interest of our approach.
NISHITANI, Naoko; SAKAKIBARA, Hisataka
2014-01-01
Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts. PMID:24975105
Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer
Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.
1994-01-01
Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.
Counting solutions from finite samplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun
2012-02-01
We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.
Low Background Counting At SNOLAB
Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce
2011-04-27
It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.
Photon counting compressive depth mapping.
Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C
2013-10-01
We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293
Flynn, C; Bahcall, J N; Flynn, Chris; Gould, Andrew; Bahcall, John
1998-01-01
We describe a program of star counts in the range 19 1.0) stars at these magnitudes are primarily disk and spheroid M dwarfs. The stars are found both on dedicated images as part of the parallel program and by using appropriate archive data. We measure the faint end of the luminosity functions of the disk and spheroid (i.e. stellar halo). We measure the low mass end of the mass function and show that M dwarfs do not dominate the total disk or spheroid mass. We place strong I-band constraints on the amount of halo dark matter in the form of low mass stars (such as M dwarfs or cool white dwarfs). The disk and spheroid contribute only a minor amount of optical depth toward the Magellanic clouds.
Well coincidence counting and analysis
Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T.; Ceo, R.N.; Collins, L.L.
1994-03-01
In several recent papers a physical/mathematical model was developed to describe the nuclear multiplicative processes in samples containing fissile material from a general statistical viewpoint, starting with the basic underlying physical phenomena. The results of this model agreed with the established picture used in ``standard`` HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) measurements, but considerably extended them, and allowed a more detailed interpretation of the underlying physical mechanisms and of the higher moments of the neutron counts. The present paper examines some recent measurements made at Y-12 (Oak Ridge) using the AWCC, in the light of this model. The results show internal consistency under a variety of conditions, and give good agreement between experiment and theory.
Estimating relative abundance from count data
Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.
1998-01-01
Much of the available information on large-scale patterns of animal abundance is based on count surveys. The data provided by such surveys are often influenced by nuisance factors affecting the numbers of animals counted, but unrelated to population size. Temporal and spatial patterns in nuisance factors may exist, causing simple summaries of counts to give a misleading view of patterns in population size. We develop models for count data that allows the incorporation of such factors, and describe methods for estimating spatial patterns of relative abundance from counts. We carry out spatial analyses of North American Breeding Bird Survey data, in which observer ability is a nuisance parameter nested within sites. In light of evidence that new observers tend to count more birds than the observers they replace, we model observer ability as a random effect with mean depending on observer initiation year.
Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting
Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )
1990-07-01
A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.
Uncertainties in 4??-? coincidence counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzgerald, R.; Bailat, C.; Bobin, C.; Keightley, J. D.
2015-06-01
The 4??-? coincidence counting method and its close relatives are widely used for the primary standardization of radioactivity. Both the general formalism and specific implementation of these methods have been well-documented. In particular, previous papers contain the extrapolation equations used for various decay schemes, methods for determining model parameters and, in some cases, tabulated uncertainty budgets. Two things often lacking from experimental reports are both the rationale for estimating uncertainties in a specific way and the details of exactly how a specific component of uncertainty was estimated. Furthermore, correlations among the components of uncertainty are rarely mentioned. To fill in these gaps, the present article shares the best-practices from a few practitioners of this craft. We explain and demonstrate with examples of how these approaches can be used to estimate the uncertainty of the reported massic activity. We describe uncertainties due to measurement variability, extrapolation functions, dead-time and resolving-time effects, gravimetric links, and nuclear and atomic data. Most importantly, a thorough understanding of the measurement system and its response to the decay under study can be used to derive a robust estimate of the measurement uncertainty.
Low Background Counting at LBNL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.
The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.
Low Background Counting at LBNL
Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.
2015-03-24
The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.
Low Background Counting at LBNL
Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.
2015-03-24
The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more »or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less
It's OK to Count on Your Fingers!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zaslavsky, Claudia
1979-01-01
In presenting a rationale for allowing--even encouraging--children to count on their fingers, the author illustrates finger counting systems from African and American Indian tribes and the medieval European system cataloged by the Venerable Bede. She cites number words from many languages which derive from names for gestures. (SJL)
2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013
2013-01-01
"Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009
2009-01-01
"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…
COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve
COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner COUNTS OF RED TIDE of red tide organisms, Gymnodinium breve, and associated oceanographic data from Florida west coast, 1954
Early Concepts of Number and Counting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul
2004-01-01
Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008
2008-01-01
"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…
Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling
Carin, Lawrence
1 Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling Mingyuan Zhou and Lawrence Carin Abstract The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB process, gamma process, hierarchical Dirichlet process, mixed membership modeling, mixture modeling
Kids Count in Indiana: 1996 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erickson, Judith B.
This Kids Count report is the third in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. The report combines statistics of special concern in Indiana with 10 national Kids Count well-being indicators: (1) percent low birthweight; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) birth rate to unmarried teens ages 15…
Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret
2014-01-01
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...
Enhancements of counting invariants: the column group
Hennig, Johanna
2009-01-01
The column group is a subgroup of the symmetric group on the elements of a finite rack (or quandle) which is invariant under rack (or quandle) isomorphism. We use this group to define enhancements of the rack and quandle counting invariants which specialize to the standard counting invariants but contain more information in general.
Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.
This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…
Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.
This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…
People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such
de Villiers, Marienne
species are monitored by CAR, of which 14 appear in the South African Red Data Book as Critically EndanPeople taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such as cranes gered, Vulnerable or NearThreatened. CAR counts began in 1993 and take place on the last Saturday
Miranda C. N. Cheng; Erik Verlinde
2008-10-31
The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with N=4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the "immortal dyons" that are stable everywhere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Verlinde, Erik P.
2007-09-01
The dyonic 1/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with Script N = 4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we propose a precise moduli-dependent contour prescription for the counting formula. We then show that the degeneracies are duality-invariant and are correctly adjusted at the walls of marginal stability to account for the (dis-)appearance of the two-centered bound states. Especially, for large black holes none of these bound states exists at the attractor point and none of these ambiguous poles contributes to the counting formula. Using this fact we also propose a second, moduli-independent contour which counts the ``immortal dyons" that are stable everywhere.
Althoff, Keri N.; Buchacz, Kate; Hall, H. Irene; Zhang, Jinbing; Hanna, David B.; Rebeiro, Peter; Gange, Stephen J.; Moore, Richard D.; Kitahata, Mari; Gebo, Kelly A.; Martin, Jeffrey; Justice, Amy C.; Horberg, Michael; Hogg, Robert S.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Cescon, Angela; Klein, Marina B.; Thorne, Jennifer; Crane, Heidi; Mugavero, Michael J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Kirk, Gregory D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Brooks, John T.
2012-01-01
Background The U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy targets for 2015 include increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for persons living with HIV in the United States (PLWH-US). Objective To demonstrate the utility of the NA-ACCORD (North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design) for monitoring trends in the HIV epidemic in the United States and to present trends in HIV treatment and related health outcomes. Design Trends from annual cross-sectional analyses comparing patients from pooled, multicenter, prospective, clinical HIV cohort studies with PLWH-US, as reported to national surveillance systems in 40 states. Setting U.S. HIV outpatient clinics. Patients HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any calendar year from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2008. Measurements Annual rates of antiretroviral therapy use, HIV VL, and CD4 cell count at death. Results 45 529 HIV-infected persons received care in an NA-ACCORD–participating U.S. clinical cohort from 2000 to 2008. In 2008, the 26 030 NA-ACCORD participants in care and the 655 966 PLWH-US had qualitatively similar demographic characteristics. From 2000 to 2008, the proportion of participants prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy increased by 9 percentage points to 83% (P < 0.001), whereas the proportion with suppressed HIV VL (?2.7 log10 copies/mL) increased by 26 percentage points to 72% (P < 0.001). Median CD4 cell count at death more than tripled to 0.209 × 109 cells/L (P < 0.001). Limitation The usual limitations of observational data apply. Conclusion The NA-ACCORD is the largest cohort of HIV-infected adults in clinical care in the United States that is demographically similar to PLWH-US in 2008. From 2000 to 2008, increases were observed in the percentage of prescribed HAART, the percentage who achieved a suppressed HIV VL, and the median CD4 cell count at death. Primary Funding Source National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian HIV Trials Network, and the government of British Columbia, Canada. PMID:22944874
McGregor, Grant Duncan
2008-12-16
In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.
Clinical relevance of spore and pollen counts.
Portnoy, Jay; Barnes, Charles
2003-08-01
Many people with allergies monitor daily pollen and spore counts with the belief that they can act on that information to improve their health. Because many factors can affect personal exposure, the value of community-wide counts for an individual is questionable. These factors include the presence of local pollen and spore sources, diurnal variations, weather effects, air pollution, and a particle-free bioaerosol. To take advantage of bioparticulate counts, the public needs to be informed about their meaning and factors that can influence personal exposure. PMID:14524382
Li, Wenjie; Gao, Yan; Pappas, Dimitri
2015-12-01
We describe a tandem affinity microfluidic separation that measures the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes from blood samples. It is performed by injecting 2 ?L of lysed blood samples at 1800-2700 cells ?L(-1) into a microfluidic device containing two serially linked affinity regions, followed with a stop flow incubation that captures CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes on the corresponding affinity regions. Fluorophore conjugated antibodies are then injected at a controlled shear stress of 1.7 dyn cm(-2) to label target cells while eluting non-specific cells; and at last the CD4/CD8 ratio is calculated after the cell enumeration. The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes achieved by our tandem affinity microfluidic system was in close agreement with that performed using conventional flow cytometry (R (2) ?=?0.97) over a wide range (0.4-2.5) that covered the reference values from immune deficient patients to healthy people. This approach may represent an inexpensive and powerful tool in diagnosis of immunodeficiency disorders including HIV or mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:26559198
Mood meter: counting smiles in the wild
Hernandez Rivera, Javier
In this study, we created and evaluated a computer vision based system that automatically encouraged, recognized and counted smiles on a college campus. During a ten-week installation, passersby were able to interact with ...
Counting Independent Sets Using the Bethe Approximation
Chandrasekaran, Venkat
We consider the #P-complete problem of counting the number of independent sets in a given graph. Our interest is in understanding the effectiveness of the popular belief propagation (BP) heuristic. BP is a simple iterative ...
On Count/Mass Distinction in Slovene
Mitrovi?, Moreno
2011-01-01
oznacuje oblikoslovno. V clanku so predlagane pomenoslovne in skladenjske analize števnosti slovenskega samostalnika. ENG: This paper is a model-theoretic investigation into the count/mass distinction in Slovene. It overviews and accounts for Slovene nouns...
White blood cell count - series (image)
... Indications for a WBC count include infectious and inflammatory diseases; leukemia and lymphoma; and bone marrow disorders. ... numbers of WBCs (leukocytosis) may indicate: infectious diseases ... (such as rheumatoid arthritis or allergy) leukemia severe ...
7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...
7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...
7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...
7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...
7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...
Low cost crowd counting using audio tones
Kannan, Pravein Govindan
With mobile devices becoming ubiquitous, collaborative applications have become increasingly pervasive. In these applications, there is a strong need to obtain a count of the number of mobile devices present in an area, ...
Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graham, O.
1964-01-01
To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.
Dawson, Russell D.
Patterns of variation in leucocyte counts of female tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor April 2008 Keywords: Costs of reproduction Heterophil to lymphocyte ratio Leucocyte differentials by researchers during the capture and handling of animals. Leucocyte counts, specifically the heterophil
Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1999-06-03
This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor''s hardware.
Rack Module Enhancements of Counting Invariants
Haas, Aaron; Nelson, Sam; Yuen, Jonah; Zhan, Qingcheng
2010-01-01
We introduce a modified rack algebra Z[X] for racks X with finite rack rank N. We use representations of Z[X] into rings, known as rack modules, to define enhancements of the rack counting invariant for classical and virtual knots and links. We provide computations and examples to show that the new invariants are strictly stronger than the unenhanced counting invariant and are not determined by the Jones or Alexander polynomials.
7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of...
7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of...
7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of...
7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of...
7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of...
7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...
7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...
7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...
7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...
7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in the container may be specified by numerical count...
7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...
7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...
7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...
7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...
7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...
Stability of prepared iodine counting standards
McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. )
1987-05-01
This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.
Protecting count queries in study design
Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A
2012-01-01
Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018
High efficiency photon counting using stopped light
A. Imamoglu
2002-05-31
Single-photon detection and photon counting play a central role in a large number of quantum communication and computation protocols. While the efficiency of state-of-the-art photo-detectors is well below the desired limits, quantum state measurements in trapped ions can be carried out with efficiencies approaching 100%. Here, we propose a method that can in principle achieve ideal photon counting, by combining the techniques of photonic quantum memory and ion-trap fluorescence detection: after mapping the quantum state of a propagating light pulse onto metastable collective excitations of a trapped cold atomic gas, it is possible to monitor the resonance fluorescence induced by an additional laser field that only couples to the metastable excited state. Even with a photon collection/detection efficiency as low as 10%, it is possible to achieve photon counting with efficiency approaching 100%.
Sub electron readout noise & photon counting devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gach, J.-L.; Balard, Ph.; Daigle, O.; Destefanis, G.; Feautrier, Ph.; Guillaume, Ch.; Rothman, J.
We present recent advances on ultra low noise visible detectors at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, photon counting and EMCCD developments in collaboration with Observatoire de haute provence, Laboratoire d'astrophysique de l'observatoire de Grenoble and Laboratoire d'Astrophysique Experimentale (Montreal). After a review of the progress with third generation Image Photon Counting Systems (IPCS), we present the OCAM camera, based on the E2V CCD220 EMCCD, part of the Opticon JRA2 programme, and the CCCP controller, a new controller for the 3DNTT instrument that reduces the clock induced charge of an EMCCD by a factor 10, making it competitive with IPCS detectors for very faint fluxes. We will finally present the RAPID project and the concept of photon counting avalanche photodiode CMOS device (in collaboration with CEA-LETI) which is foreseen to be the ultimate detector for the visible-IR range providing no readout noise, high QE and extremely fast readout.
20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We count... account or set aside for your use. We determine wages for each month. We count wages for...
20 CFR 416.1123 - How we count unearned income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we count unearned income. 416.1123... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Unearned Income § 416.1123 How we count unearned income. (a) When we count unearned income. We count unearned income at the earliest of the following points: when...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...
21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...
45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they meet... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count...
45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they meet... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count...
Power counting in nuclear effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valderrama, M. Pavon
2015-10-01
The effective field theory formulation of nuclear forces is able to provide a systematic and model independent description of nuclear physics, where all processes involving nucleons and pions can be described in terms of the same set of couplings, the theoretical errors are known in advance and the connection with QCD is present. These features are a consequence of renormalization group invariance, which in turn determines the power counting of the theory. Here we present a brief outline of how to determine the power counting of nuclear effective field theory, what does it looks like and what are the predictions for the two-nucleon sector at lowest orders.
Radio Source Counts at 232 MHZ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, X.
The Miyun Synthesis Radio Telescope(MSRT), Beijing Astronomical Observatory, has been used in a moderately deep meter-wave survey at 232 MHz, covering the sky area noth of declination 30o. The catalogue contains about 33000 radio sources. The results on source counts with this catalogue are presented in this paper. The sample consists of three sub-samples which correspond to high, middle, and low galactic latitude. The logN- logS curves for steep spectrum sources and flat spectrum sources were obtained. results on the counts are discussed.
Optical planar waveguide for cell counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.
2012-01-01
Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.
Optical planar waveguide for cell counting
LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.
2012-01-01
Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960
Progress on photon-counting intensified APS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uslenghi, Michela C.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Belluso, Massimiliano; Cali, Antonio; Timpanaro, Cristina; Cosentino, Rosario; Scuderi, Salvatore; Modica, Angelo
2003-02-01
We report on the progress of the activity, started one year ago, to obtain a photon counting, MCP-based detector, optimized for high count-rate. A new electronic board, hosting both the APS and the electronics processing unit, has been developed. The new architecture of the system, designed to drive the detector, to acquire the images and compute the photon event centers, is described in detail in this paper. We also report the functional tests carried out on the sub-parts of the detector along with a preliminary characterization of the system.
Blackboard biracks and their counting invariants
Nelson, Sam
2010-01-01
A blackboard birack is an algebraic structure with axioms encoding the blackboard-framed Reidemeister moves, incorporating quandles, racks, strong biquandles and semiquandles as special cases. In this paper we describe a family of blackboard biracks generalizing Alexander quandles, $(t,s)$-racks, Alexander biquandles and Silver-Williams switches, known as $(\\tau,\\sigma,\\rho)$-biracks. We define a counting invariant of unframed classical and virtual knots and links using labelings of link diagrams by finite blackboard biracks, and we give enhancements of the counting invariant using writhe vectors, image subbiracks, and birack polynomials.
Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haven, Terry, Ed.
This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi
2006-01-01
The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual…
Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salley, Valerie
This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…
Counting zeros of zeta functions Maciej Zworski
Baladi, Viviane
+ c, c zeta function associated with this map is givenCounting zeros of zeta functions Maciej Zworski The purpose of the talks is to explain the bounds on the dynamical zeta functions in strips in terms of the dimension of the limit set (in the case of hyperbolic
Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jelcich, Susan, Ed.
This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…
Counting overlapfree binary words Julien Cassaigne
Provence Aix-Marseille I, UniversitÃ© de
Counting overlapÂfree binary words Julien Cassaigne ' Ecole Normale Sup'erieure, Paris AMS Mathematics Subject Classification: 05A15 Abstract A word on a finite alphabet A is said to be overlapÂfree if it contains no factor of the form xuxux, where x is a letter and u a (possibly empty) word. In this paper we
Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.
This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)…
Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.
This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…
Kids Count in Missouri 1998 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.
This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on outcome measures of general areas of children's well being: (1) students free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant mortality; (5)…
Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.
This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine…
Maine Kids Count 1999 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.
This Kids Count Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children, with particular focus on child health care access. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in five areas: (1) child health care access; (2) physical and mental health; (3) community and family environment; (4) social and economic…
Arithmetic Circuits and Counting Complexity Eric Allender
Allender, Eric
Arithmetic Circuits and Counting Complexity Classes Eric Allender Dept. of Computer Science Rutgers circuits are the focus of renewed attention in the complexity theory community. It is easy to list a few, in some cases, providing lower bounds on arithmetic circuit size can yield consequences about Boolean
Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune-
Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna
Chapter 26 Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune- 400 Companies WHAT Zodiac birth sign WH Y Curiosity? 504 - D oes your zodiac sign determine how successful you will be in later life? Fortune magazine collected the zodiac signs of 256 heads of the largest 400 companies. Here are the number of births for each
High-rate counting efficiency of VLPC
Hogue, Henry H.
1998-11-09
A simple model is applied to describe dependencies of Visible Light Photon Counter (VLPC) characteristics on temperature and operating voltage. Observed counting efficiency losses at high illumination, improved by operating at higher temperature, are seen to be a consequence of de-biasing within the VLPC structure. A design improvement to minimize internal de-biasing for future VLPC generations is considered.
COUNTING MORSE CURVES AND LINKS ALEXANDER POSTNIKOV
Postnikov, Alexander
COUNTING MORSE CURVES AND LINKS ALEXANDER POSTNIKOV Abstract. We investigate the connected components of the space of Morse curves. This leads to new interesting combinatorial sequences related several conjectures. 1. Morse curves Let M be a real differentiable manifold, and let h : M R be a smooth
COUNTING MORSE CURVES AND LINKS ALEXANDER POSTNIKOV
Postnikov, Alexander
COUNTING MORSE CURVES AND LINKS ALEXANDER POSTNIKOV Abstract. We investigate the connected components of the space of Morse curves. This leads to new interesting combinatorial sequences related several conjectures. 1. Morse curves Let M be a real di#erentiable manifold, and let h : M# R be a smooth
What Counts as Teacher Research?: An Essay.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raphael, Taffy
1999-01-01
Describes the "Book Club Plus Inquiry Group," a group of classroom teachers and university teacher educators in Michigan involved in practitioner research. Offers perspectives from the group on the question of what counts as teacher research. Concludes with a model of their conception. (SR)
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief, 1996.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.
1996-01-01
These two Kids Count brief reports discuss issues related to the well-being of Rhode Island children. The first report identifies ways to measure the impact of state and federal welfare reform proposals on children who receive benefits through Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Potential measures of success for welfare reform include…
WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan
This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what…
An Introduction to Adults Count Too.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benn, Roseanne
This paper provides an overview of a book entitled "Adults Count Too: Mathematics for Empowerment". The introduction to the book details why the author spent three years writing about adults learning mathematics, and outlines the shape and structure of the book. A chapter from the book, entitled "A Matrix of Factors," is presented as an example of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Staberg, Christine
This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shulman, Shanna
This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...
7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...
KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.
This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…
Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, Janet M.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…
KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2001 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.
This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…
Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bentz, Cara Anderson
This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…
Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davey, Lynn
This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boeke, Kaye
This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…
KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2000 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.
This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…
Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.
This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…
Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, Janet M.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…
PALAEODIVERSITY AND FORMATION COUNTS: REDUNDANCY OR BIAS?
Benton, Michael
comprises finds from Europe and North America, where new formation discoveries reached their half-life outside Europe and North America and the formation half-life for these `new' lands is 1986, showing vertebrates at least, formation counts of various kinds are poor predictors of sampling, missing, for example
Kids Count in Indiana: 1994 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erickson, Judith B.
This booklet provides data on a series of related measures of child and family well-being in Indiana, following national guidelines established by the Kids Count project to help Americans better understand the problems faced by children and adolescents and to foster greater commitment to improving outcomes for vulnerable children and their…
False Negative Problem of Counting Bloom Filter
Liu, Yunhao
False Negative Problem of Counting Bloom Filter Deke Guo, Member, IEEE, Yunhao Liu, Senior Member a false positive, but it will never return a false negative under well-behaved operations. By investigating the mainstream variants, however, we observe that a Bloom filter does return false negatives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buck, Beverly R.
This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…
Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.
This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…
Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cassatt, Susan
This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…
Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.
This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Staberg, Christine
This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…
Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1997.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
We Can, Inc., Las Vegas, NV.
This Kids Count data book is the first to examine statewide indicators of the well being of Nevada's children. The statistical portrait is based on 15 indicators of child well being: (1) percent low birth-weight babies; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) percent of children in poverty; (4) percent of children in single-parent families; (5) percent of…
Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1998.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ford, Paula R.
This Kids Count report provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Nevada. The report is comprised of eight sections: an overview; Nevada's demographic profile; key facts regarding children in the state; Nevada's comparison to the rest of the United States; trends in the state; indicators of child well-being;…
Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara
This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…
Fast Probabilistic Planning Through Weighted Model Counting
Domshlak, Carmel
Fast Probabilistic Planning Through Weighted Model Counting Carmel Domshlak J¨org Hoffmann Technion Fast Probabilistic Planning Through Weighted Model Countin #12;Talk Outline Probabilistic Planning Conclusion Carmel Domshlak, J¨org Hoffmann Fast Probabilistic Planning Through Weighted Model Countin #12
Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don
This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…
South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cochran, Carole, Ed.
This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…
Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leask, Linda, Ed.
This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…
Alabama Kids Count 2001 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don
This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being for Alabama's children. The statistical portrait is based on 17 indicators in the areas of health, education, safety, and security. The indicators are: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention;…
All Our Children: Massachusetts Kids Count 1994.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diamond, Franna, Ed.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends from 1990 to 1994 in the well-being of Massachusetts' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being in five areas: (1) economic well-being of children and their families, including child poverty rate, family income, job loss, earnings of male high school dropouts and…
Montana Kids Count 1996 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.
This 1996 KIDS COUNT data book presents comparative data on child well-being for each county in Montana and for the state as a whole. Data in the county profiles, which comprise the bulk of the report, are grouped into: background facts (demographic, mental health, education, security, and income support information); charts showing changes in…
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1995.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters address the areas of family and community, economic well-being, child health, safety, and education. The statistical portrait is based on 20 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income; (3)…
Kids Count in Nebraska: 1995 Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nebraska Univ. Medical Center, Omaha.
While a vast majority of children in Nebraska are experiencing a safe, healthy, and nurturing childhood, a significant number are not, and some of these numbers are growing. This Kids Count report is the third annual comprehensive review of available data in nine areas of child health and well-being in the state. Presented with these statistics…
Restricted Schur polynomials and finite N counting
Collins, Storm
2009-01-15
Restricted Schur polynomials have been posited as orthonormal operators for the change of basis from N=4 SYM to type IIB string theory. In this paper we briefly expound the relationship between the restricted Schur polynomials and the operators forwarded by Brown, Heslop, and Ramgoolam. We then briefly examine the finite N counting of the restricted Schur polynomials.
GUIDE TO CAREERS Work experience counts
Birmingham, University of
GUIDE TO CAREERS #12;Work experience counts We know that having a good degree is only part that they can take steps towards their career goals. If you'd like to know more about our work experience their employability skills and articulate them effectively to potential Parents and carers guide to careers
Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.
1991-01-01
An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.
Illinois Kids Count 2001: Envisioning the Future.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Brenda; Familia, Yahaira; Gifford, Amy; Knowlton, Gretchen; Matakis, Brian; Olson, Melissa; Owens, Tracy; Zasadny, Julie
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of family, education and child care, arts and recreation, safety, health, and economic security. The indicators are: (1) percent of children living in poverty; (2) number of children enrolled in…
Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…
Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…
Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1998.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This Kids Count data book is the fourth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 28 indicators in five areas: (1) family and community; (2) economic well-being, including median household income, poverty rate, and percent of children in families receiving cash…
Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1997.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; And Others
This Kids Count report examined statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters addressed the areas of: family and community; economic well-being; child health; safety; and education. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income;…
Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria
2010-01-01
Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…
Triple-label beta liquid scintillation counting.
Bukowski, T R; Moffett, T C; Revkin, J H; Ploger, J D; Bassingthwaighte, J B
1992-07-01
The detection of radioactive compounds by liquid scintillation has revolutionized modern biology, yet few investigators make full use of the power of this technique. Even though multiple isotope counting is considerably more difficult than single isotope counting, many experimental designs would benefit from using more than one isotope. The development of accurate isotope counting techniques enabling the simultaneous use of three beta-emitting tracers has facilitated studies in our laboratory using the multiple tracer indicator dilution technique for assessing rates of transmembrane transport and cellular metabolism. The details of sample preparation, and of stabilizing the liquid scintillation spectra of the tracers, are critical to obtaining good accuracy. Reproducibility is enhanced by obtaining detailed efficiency/quench curves for each particular set of tracers and solvent media. The numerical methods for multiple-isotope quantitation depend on avoiding error propagation (inherent to successive subtraction techniques) by using matrix inversion. Experimental data obtained from triple-label beta counting illustrate reproducibility and good accuracy even when the relative amounts of different tracers in samples of protein/electrolyte solutions, plasma, and blood are changed. PMID:1514684
Kids Count in Nebraska 1996 Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Nebraska's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven general areas of children's well-being: (1) early care and education; (2) physical and behavioral health; (3) child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence; (4) out of home care; (5) education; (6) economic…
Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leask, Linda, Ed.
This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…
Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009
2009-01-01
"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…
Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008
2008-01-01
"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…
Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006
2006-01-01
"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…
Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007
2007-01-01
"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vasquez, Jenifer
This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boeke, Kaye
This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…
Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.
This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic diversity);…
Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Education Week, 2007
2007-01-01
"Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching Assistants (Rhea R.…
Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.
2011-05-01
We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012316 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number n
Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers
Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.
2011-05-15
We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number n
Pendleton, G.W.
1995-01-01
Many factors affect the use of point counts for monitoring bird populations, including sampling strategies, variation in detection rates, and independence of sample points. The most commonly used sampling plans are stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling. Each of these might be most useful for different objectives or field situations. Variation in detection probabilities and lack of independence among sample points can bias estimates and measures of precision. All of these factors should be con-sidered when using point count methods.
Genetic heteroscedasticity of teat count in pigs.
Felleki, M; Lundeheim, N
2015-10-01
The genetic improvement in pig litter size has been substantial. The number of teats on the sow must thus increase as well to meet the needs of the piglets, because each piglet needs access to its own teat. We applied a genetic heterogeneity model to teat counts in pigs, and estimated a medium heritability for teat counts (0.35), but found a low heritability for residual variance (0.06), indicating that selection for reduced residual variance might have a limited effect. A numerically positive correlation (0.8) was estimated between the breeding values for the mean and the residual variance. However, because of the low heritability of the residual variance, the residual variance will probably increase very slowly with the mean. PMID:25817797
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volk, Tyler
I have come to a similar conclusion as Emiliani [1994] in one main point: that marking time from the event of Christ's birth has no significance for many of the world's cultures; indeed, the ubiquitous spread of the common era count is a common error [Volk, 1995]. Thus perhaps Agnew [1994], who believes that “Emiliani is the only person who has trouble with our calendar,” should talk to some Buddhists or Muslims. Agnew, however, does damage Emiliani's proposed solution (to start a new great count at the beginning of the Holocene by establishing the birth of Christ at the year 10,000), which Agnew points out is too arbitrary. And, I might add, Emiliani's suggestion continues the essential cultural error—Christ's birth is now merely offset by a power of ten. This was also noted by Schaffer [1994].
Physical characterization of photon-counting tomosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berggren, Karl; Lundqvist, Mats; Cederström, Björn; Danielsson, Mats E.; Fredenberg, Erik
2015-03-01
Tomosynthesis is emerging as a next generation technology in mammography. Combined with photon-counting detectors with the ability for energy discrimination, a novel modality is enabled — spectral tomosynthesis. Further advantages of photon-counting detectors in the context of tomosynthesis include elimination of electronic noise, efficient scatter rejection (in some geometries) and no lag. Fourier-based linear-systems analysis is a well-established method for optimizing image quality in two-dimensional x-ray systems. The method has been successfully adapted to threedimensional imaging, including tomosynthesis, but several areas need further investigation. This study focuses on two such areas: 1) Adaption of the methodology to photon-counting detectors, and 2) violation of the shift-invariance and stationarity assumptions in non-cylindrical geometries. We have developed a Fourier-based framework to study the image quality in a photon-counting tomosynthesis system, assuming locally linear, stationary, and shift-invariant system response. The framework includes a cascaded-systems model to propagate the modulation-transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS) through the system. The model was validated by measurements of the MTF and NPS. High degrees of non-shift invariance and non-stationarity were observed, in particular for the depth resolution as the angle of incidence relative the reconstruction plane varied throughout the imaging volume. The largest effects on image quality in a given point in space were caused by interpolation from the inherent coordinate system of the x-rays to the coordinate system that was used for reconstruction. This study is part of our efforts to fully characterize the spectral tomosynthesis system, we intend to extend the model further to include the detective-quantum efficiency, observer modelling, and spectral effects.
Method of detecting and counting bacteria
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (inventors)
1976-01-01
An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.
Shuffler bias corrections using calculated count rates
Rinard, Phillip M.; Hurd, J. R.; Hsue, F.
2001-04-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory has two identical shufflers that have been calibrated with a dozen U{sub 3}O{sub 8} certified standards from 10 g {sup 235}U to 3600 g {sup 235}U. The shufflers are used to assay a wide variety of material types for their {sup 235}U contents. When the items differ greatly in chemical composition or shape from the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} standards a bias is introduced because the calibration is not appropriate. Recently a new tool has been created to calculate shuffler count rates accurately, and this has been applied to generate bias correction factors. The tool has also been used to verify the masses and count rates of some uncertified U{sub 3}O{sub 8} standards up to 8.0 kg of {sup 235}U which were used to provisionally extend the calibration beyond the 3.6 kg of {sup 235}U mass when a special need arose. Metallic uranium has significantly different neutronic properties from the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} standards and measured count rates from metals are biased low when the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} calibration is applied. The application of the calculational tool to generate bias corrrections for assorted metals will be described. The accuracy of the calculational tool was verified using highly enriched metal disk standards that could be stacked to form cylinders or put into spread arrays.
Enabling photon counting detectors with dynamic attenuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.
2014-03-01
Photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are being investigated as a replacement for conventional x-ray detectors because they promise several advantages, including better dose efficiency, higher resolution and spectral imaging. However, many of these advantages disappear when the x-ray flux incident on the detector is too high. We recently proposed a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator (or beam shaping filter) that can control the flux incident on the detector. This can restrict the operating range of the PCXD to keep the incident count rate below a given limit. We simulated a system with the piecewise-linear attenuator and a PCXD using raw data generated from forward projected DICOM files. We investigated the classic paralyzable and nonparalyzable PCXD as well as a weighted average of the two, with the weights chosen to mimic an existing PCXD (Taguchi et al, Med Phys 2011). The dynamic attenuator has small synergistic benefits with the nonparalyzable detector and large synergistic benefits with the paralyzable detector. Real PCXDs operate somewhere between these models, and the weighted average model still shows large benefits from the dynamic attenuator. We conclude that dynamic attenuators can reduce the count rate performance necessary for adopting PCXDs.
Estimation of population trajectories from count data
Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.
1997-01-01
Monitoring of changes in animal population size is rarely possible through complete censuses; frequently, the only feasible means of monitoring changes in population size is to use counts of animals obtained by skilled observers as indices to abundance. Analysis of changes in population size can be severely biased if factors related to the acquisition of data are not adequately controlled for. In particular we identify two types of observer effects: these correspond to baseline differences in observer competence, and to changes through time in the ability of individual observers. We present a family of models for count data in which the first of these observer effects is treated as a nuisance parameter. Conditioning on totals of negative binomial counts yields a Dirichlet compound multinomial vector for each observer. Quasi-likelihood is used to estimate parameters related to population trajectory and other parameters of interest; model selection is carried out on the basis of Akaike's information criterion. An example is presented using data on Wood thrush from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.
Full counting statistics for molecular spintronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Martin, Thierry
2007-12-01
We report our recent study on the full counting statistics (FCS) of transport through a molecular quantum dot magnet. Our analysis is theoretical, and its range of validity is restricted here to the incoherent tunneling regime. One of the original points is our Hamiltonian describing a single-level quantum dot, magnetically coupled to an additional local spin, the latter representing the total molecular spin s. We assume that the system is in the strong Coulomb blockade regime, i.e., double occupancy on the dot is forbidden. The master equation approach to FCS is applied to derive a generating function yielding the FCS of charge and current. In the master equation approach, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients appear in the transition probabilities, whereas the derivation of generating function reduces to solving the eigenvalue problem of a modified master equation with counting fields. The latter needs de facto only the eigenstate which collapses smoothly to the zero-eigenvalue stationary state in the limit of vanishing counting fields. Our main discovery is that in our problem with arbitrary spin s, some quartic relations among Clebsch-Gordan coefficients allow us to identify the desired eigenspace without solving the whole problem. Thus the FCS generating function is derived analytically and exactly in the framework of master equation approach. By considering more specific cases, some contour plots of the joint charge-current probability distribution function are obtained numerically.
Deep UV photon-counting detectors and applications
Geboff, Adam B.
Photon counting detectors are used in many diverse applications and are well-suited to situations in which a weak signal is present in a relatively benign background. Examples of successful system applications of photon-counting ...
21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS... REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210...bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of...
29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Counting the eight employees. 788.13 Section 788.13 Labor...OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight employees. The determination of the...
Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis
Pisania, Anna
Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, ...
Ayuba, Godwin I.; Jensen, Gitte S.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Okubena, Ademola M.
2014-01-01
Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a traditional herbal preparation, Jobelyn,® for its effects on anemia and CD4+ T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus–positive (HIV+) patients in Nigeria. Design: An open-label pilot study involving 10 confirmed (HIV+) patients who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ARVT) was performed, in which the patients consumed Jobelyn for 8 weeks, at a dose of 500?mg twice daily. The pilot study was followed by a controlled trial involving 51 patients, all confirmed HIV+, where the patients with CD4+ T-cell counts below 350 cells/?L were receiving ARVT. The eight patients with baseline CD4+ T-cell counts above 350 cells/?L received Jobelyn. The remaining patients who all received ARVT were randomized to ARVT alone versus ARVT+Jobelyn for 12 weeks. Results: Patients receiving ARVT showed a statistically significant improvement in their CD4+ T-cell counts across the 12-week study period (p<0.01). Patients receiving ARVT+Jobelyn showed a faster improvement, reaching a high level of statistical significance compared to baseline already at 6 weeks (p<0.001), and remained highly significant at 12 weeks (p<0.001). Conclusions: This is the first controlled study conducted to evaluate efficacy of Jobelyn on immune status in HIV+ patients. The data suggest that consumption of Jobelyn contributed to improved hemoglobin levels and increased CD4+ T-cell counts in Nigerian HIV+ patients. Further studies are needed to examine similar effects in other populations, and to elaborate on the underlying mechanisms, specifically, whether the consumption of Jobelyn supported multiple aspects of bone marrow function. PMID:24283768
Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms
Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.
1981-06-01
New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.
On Set Partitions, Words, Approximate Counting and Digital Search Trees
Fuchs, Michael
On Set Partitions, Words, Approximate Counting and Digital Search Trees (joint with Chung-Kuei Lee, Taiwan Changsha, June 28, 2013 Michael Fuchs (NCTU) Words, Approximate Counting, DSTs Changsha, China 1} with three blocks. Michael Fuchs (NCTU) Words, Approximate Counting, DSTs Changsha, China 2 / 32 #12;Set
High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories
Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y.; Ansari, Tameem; BenHamouda, Nadine; Gottwein, Judith; Laxmanan, Sreenivas; Levine, Steven M.; Loffredo, John T.; McArdle, Stephanie; Neudoerfl, Christine; Roen, Diana; Silina, Karina; Welch, Mackenzie; Lehmann, Paul V.
2015-01-01
The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-? ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A) Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B) SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV) for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators. PMID:25585297
COUNTS OF RED-TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED
455: COUNTS OF RED-TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM F. Pautzke, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director COUNTS OF RED-TIDE Acknowledgment 4 Literature cited 5 Explanation of column headings 7 Station data 7 iii #12;#12;COUNTS OF RED-TIDE
75 FR 64615 - National Character Counts Week, 2010
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-10-20
...October 15, 2010 National Character Counts Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect upon the values of equality...commitment. During National Character Counts Week, let us take this opportunity to...
EVALUATING POINT COUNT VERSUS TERRITORY MAPPING CROPLAND BIRDS
Species richness, composition and abundance of farmland birds were compared between point counts (50,100, and 150 m radius half circles) and territory mapping on three 40 ha plots in Quebec, Canada. oint counts of smaller radii tended to have larger density estimates than counts ...
Counting molecules in single organelles with superresolution microscopy allows tracking
Lim, Wendell
Counting molecules in single organelles with superresolution microscopy allows tracking organelles, but a deeper understanding of this process is technically limited by our inability to track organelles as well as accurately count absolute numbers of molecules, by correcting for under- counting owing
A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness
Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.
2014-01-01
Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. PMID:25386148
Electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in AIDS diagnosis and monitoring.
Carinelli, S; Xufré Ballesteros, C; Martí, M; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I
2015-12-15
The counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes is a clinical parameter used for AIDS diagnosis and follow-up. As this disease is particularly prevalent in developing countries, simple and affordable CD4 cell counting methods are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. This paper describes an electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in whole blood. The CD4(+) T lymphocytes were isolated, preconcentrated and labeled from 100 ?L of whole blood by immunomagnetic separation with magnetic particles modified with antiCD3 antibodies. The captured cells were labeled with a biotinylated antiCD4 antibody, followed by the reaction with the electrochemical reporter streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. The limit of detection for the CD4 counting magneto-actuated biosensor in whole blood was as low as 44 cells ?L(-1) while the logistic range was found to be from 89 to 912 cells ?L(-1), which spans the whole medical interest range for CD4 counts in AIDS patients. The electrochemical detection together with the immunomagnetic separation confers high sensitivity, resulting in a rapid, inexpensive, robust, user-friendly method for CD4 counting. This approach is a promising alternative for the costly standard flow cytometry and suitable as diagnostic tool at decentralized practitioner sites in low resource settings, especially in less developed countries. PMID:26264263
Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.
This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15 to 17 years; (2) births to teens 15 to 19 years; (3) low birth weight babies;…
Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hume, D. B.; Stroescu, I.; Joos, M.; Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Oberthaler, M. K.
2013-12-01
Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.
Accurate atom counting in mesoscopic ensembles.
Hume, D B; Stroescu, I; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K
2013-12-20
Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles. PMID:24483741
Robust small area prediction for counts.
Tzavidis, Nikos; Ranalli, M Giovanna; Salvati, Nicola; Dreassi, Emanuela; Chambers, Ray
2015-06-01
A new semiparametric approach to model-based small area prediction for counts is proposed and used for estimating the average number of visits to physicians for Health Districts in Central Italy. The proposed small area predictor can be viewed as an outlier robust alternative to the more commonly used empirical plug-in predictor that is based on a Poisson generalized linear mixed model with Gaussian random effects. Results from the real data application and from a simulation experiment confirm that the proposed small area predictor has good robustness properties and in some cases can be more efficient than alternative small area approaches. PMID:24492792
Transputer based image photon counting detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, M. K.; Cutler, R.; Patchett, B. E.; Read, P. D.; Waltham, N.
1990-07-01
A prototype microprocessor-based electronic processing system is described which performs the on-line data processing in an image photon-counting detector. The detector head consists of a microchannel-plate intersifier optically coupled to a CCD with rapid-scanned readout. The digitized data are passed to a group of transputers which separate out the events, calculate the event centers to subpixel accuracy and accumulate the results in an image buffer. In the prototype, all processing is done in software for evaluation purposes. This paper discusses the basic design of the system, the centroiding algorithm and fixed patterning correction, and the implications of the results for future systems.
Counted Sb donors in Si quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Perry, Daniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael
2015-03-01
Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is critical for donor spin qubits in semiconductor based quantum computing. We have developed techniques using a focused ion beam and a diode detector integrated next to a silicon MOS single electron transistor to gain such control. With the diode detector operating in linear mode, the numbers of ions implanted have been counted and single ion implants have been detected. Poisson statistics in the number of ions implanted have been observed. Transport measurements performed on samples with counted number of implants have been performed and regular coulomb blockade and charge offsets observed. The capacitances to various gates are found to be in agreement with QCAD simulations for an electrostatically defined dot. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Automated Counting of Particles To Quantify Cleanliness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhode, James
2005-01-01
A machine vision system, similar to systems used in microbiological laboratories to count cultured microbes, has been proposed for quantifying the cleanliness of nominally precisely cleaned hardware by counting residual contaminant particles. The system would include a microscope equipped with an electronic camera and circuitry to digitize the camera output, a personal computer programmed with machine-vision and interface software, and digital storage media. A filter pad, through which had been aspirated solvent from rinsing the hardware in question, would be placed on the microscope stage. A high-resolution image of the filter pad would be recorded. The computer would analyze the image and present a histogram of sizes of particles on the filter. On the basis of the histogram and a measure of the desired level of cleanliness, the hardware would be accepted or rejected. If the hardware were accepted, the image would be saved, along with other information, as a quality record. If the hardware were rejected, the histogram and ancillary information would be recorded for analysis of trends. The software would perceive particles that are too large or too numerous to meet a specified particle-distribution profile. Anomalous particles or fibrous material would be flagged for inspection.
Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.
2010-01-01
New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1-bit comparator, which digitizes the input referenced to an adjustable threshold value. This results in four independent serial sample streams of binary 1s and 0s, which are ORed together at rates up to 10 GHz. This single serial stream is then deserialized by a factor of 16 to create 16 signal lines at a rate of 622.5 MHz or lower for input to a high-speed digital processor assembly. The new design and corresponding hardware can be employed with a quad-photon counting detector capable of handling photon rates on the order of multi-gigaphotons per second, whereas prior art was only capable of handling a single input at 1/4 the flux rate. Additionally, the hardware edge-detection algorithm has provided the ability to process 3-10 higher photon flux rates than previously possible by removing the limitation that photoncounting detector output pulses on multiple channels being ORed not overlap. Now, only the leading edges of the pulses are required to not overlap. This new photon counting digitizer hardware architecture supports a universal front end for an optical communications receiver operating at data rates from kilobits to over one gigabit per second to meet increased mission data volume requirements.
Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data
Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.
1999-01-01
The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petersen, Lori A.; McNeil, Nicole M.
2013-01-01
Educators often use concrete objects to help children understand mathematics concepts. However, findings on the effectiveness of concrete objects are mixed. The present study examined how two factors--perceptual richness and established knowledge of the objects--combine to influence children's counting performance. In two experiments, preschoolers…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tremsin, A. S.; Vallerga, J. V.; McPhate, J. B.; Siegmund, O. H. W.
2015-07-01
Many high resolution event counting devices process one event at a time and cannot register simultaneous events. In this article a frame-based readout event counting detector consisting of a pair of Microchannel Plates and a quad Timepix readout is described. More than 104 simultaneous events can be detected with a spatial resolution of ~55 ?m, while >103 simultaneous events can be detected with <10 ?m spatial resolution when event centroiding is implemented. The fast readout electronics is capable of processing >1200 frames/sec, while the global count rate of the detector can exceed 5×108 particles/s when no timing information on every particle is required. For the first generation Timepix readout, the timing resolution is limited by the Timepix clock to 10-20 ns. Optimization of the MCP gain, rear field voltage and Timepix threshold levels are crucial for the device performance and that is the main subject of this article. These devices can be very attractive for applications where the photon/electron/ion/neutron counting with high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as energy resolved neutron imaging, Time of Flight experiments in lidar applications, experiments on photoelectron spectroscopy and many others.
Full counting statistics of Majorana interferometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strübi, Grégory; Belzig, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Thomas L.; Bruder, Christoph
2015-11-01
We study the full counting statistics of interferometers for chiral Majorana fermions with two incoming and two outgoing Dirac fermion channels. In the absence of interactions, the FCS can be obtained from the 4×4 scattering matrix S that relates the outgoing Dirac fermions to the incoming Dirac fermions. After presenting explicit expressions for the higher-order current correlations for a modified Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometer, we note that the cumulant-generating function can be interpreted such that unit-charge transfer processes correspond to two independent half-charge transfer processes, or alternatively, to two independent electron-hole conversion processes. By a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we verify that this factorization property holds for a general SO(4) scattering matrix, i.e. for a general interferometer geometry.
Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting
D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker
1998-11-01
This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.
Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB
Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce
2013-08-08
Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.
Counting gauge invariants: the plethystic program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Bo; Hanany, Amihay; He, Yang-Hui
2007-03-01
We propose a programme for systematically counting the single and multi-trace gauge invariant operators of a gauge theory. Key to this is the plethystic function. We expound in detail the power of this plethystic programme for world-volume quiver gauge theories of D-branes probing Calabi-Yau singularities, an illustrative case to which the programme is not limited, though in which a full intimate web of relations between the geometry and the gauge theory manifests herself. We can also use generalisations of Hardy-Ramanujan to compute the entropy of gauge theories from the plethystic exponential. In due course, we also touch upon fascinating connections to Young Tableaux, Hilbert schemes and the MacMahon Conjecture.
Sampling and counting genome rearrangement scenarios
2015-01-01
Background Even for moderate size inputs, there are a tremendous number of optimal rearrangement scenarios, regardless what the model is and which specific question is to be answered. Therefore giving one optimal solution might be misleading and cannot be used for statistical inferring. Statistically well funded methods are necessary to sample uniformly from the solution space and then a small number of samples are sufficient for statistical inferring. Contribution In this paper, we give a mini-review about the state-of-the-art of sampling and counting rearrangement scenarios, focusing on the reversal, DCJ and SCJ models. Above that, we also give a Gibbs sampler for sampling most parsimonious labeling of evolutionary trees under the SCJ model. The method has been implemented and tested on real life data. The software package together with example data can be downloaded from http://www.renyi.hu/~miklosi/SCJ-Gibbs/ PMID:26452124
Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment
Williams, R.; Kelly, N.; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A. S.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.-H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.; Brierley, A. S.
2014-01-01
Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821
Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions
Vogl, M. Schaller, G. Brandes, T.
2011-10-15
We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of N radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from N to N{sup 2} in the current and to even higher powers of N in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source. - Highlights: > Super-radiance transfers to super-transmittance in steady-state transport. > Higher cumulants are much more sensitive indicators for collective behavior than the first cumulant. > Effects should be measurable by pumped-cavity experiment.
Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.
Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S
2014-01-01
Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821
Radioactive Krypton Background Evaluation Using Atom Counting
D. N. McKinsey; C. Orzel
2004-06-23
The beta-decay of $\\rm^{85}Kr$ is a significant radioactive background for experiments that use liquified noble gases to search for dark matter and measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux. While there are several proposed methods for reducing Kr levels in these experiments, an independent technique is needed for measuring very low Kr levels. By selectively exciting Kr atoms to a metastable state, capturing them in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and detecting fluorescence from the trapped atoms, individual Kr atoms can be counted with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This approach could be used to ascertain Kr impurity levels in other noble gases, with an estimated sensitivity of $3\\times 10^{-14}$.
Counting Lattice Animals in High Dimensions
Luther, Sebastian; 10.1088/1742-5468/2011/09/P09026
2011-01-01
We present an implementation of Redelemeier's algorithm for the enumeration of lattice animals in high dimensional lattices. The implementation is lean and fast enough to allow us to extend the existing tables of animal counts, perimeter polynomials and series expansion coefficients in $d$-dimensional hypercubic lattices for $3 \\leq d\\leq 10$. From the data we compute formulas for perimeter polynomials for lattice animals of size $n\\leq 11$ in arbitrary dimension $d$. When amended by combinatorial arguments, the new data suffices to yield explicit formulas for the number of lattice animals of size $n\\leq 14$ and arbitrary $d$. We also use the enumeration data to compute numerical estimates for growth rates and exponents in high dimensions that agree very well with Monte Carlo simulations and recent predictions from field theory.
Number counts and dynamical vacuum cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devi, N. Chandrachani; Borges, H. A.; Carneiro, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.
2015-03-01
We study non-linear structure formation in an interacting model of the dark sector of the Universe in which the dark energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, ?? ? H, leading to a constant-rate creation of cold dark matter. We derive all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density using the Sheth-Torman formalism and show that the effect of the interaction process is to increase the number of bound structures of large masses (M ? 1014 M? h-1) when compared to the standard ? cold dark matter model. Since these models are not reducible to each other, this number counts signature can in principle be tested in future surveys.
Neutron triples counting data for uranium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Croft, Stephen; LaFleur, Adrienne M.; McElroy, Robert D.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.
2015-06-01
Correlated neutron counting using multiplicity shift register logic extracts the first three factorial moments from the detected neutron pulse train. The descriptive properties of the measurement item (mass, the ratio of (?,n) to spontaneous fission neutron production, and leakage self-multiplication) are related to the observed singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (T) rates, and this is the basis of the widely used multiplicity counting assay method. The factorial moments required to interpret and invert the measurement data in the framework of the point kinetics model may be calculated from the spontaneous fission prompt neutron multiplicity distribution P(?). In the case of 238U very few measurements of P(?) are available and the derived values, especially for the higher factorial moments, are not known with high accuracy. In this work, we report the measurement of the triples rate per gram of 238U based on the analysis of a set of measurements in which a collection of 10 cylinders of UO2F2, each containing about 230 g of compound, were measured individually and in groups. Special care was taken to understand and compensate the recorded multiplicity histograms for the effect of random cosmic-ray induced background neutrons, which, because they also come in bursts and mimic fissions but with a different and harder multiplicity distribution. We compare our fully corrected (deadtime, background, efficiency, multiplication) experimental results with first principles expectations based on evaluated nuclear data. Based on our results we suspect that the current evaluated nuclear data is biased, which points to a need to undertake new basic measurements of the 238U prompt neutron multiplicity distribution.
Preoperative Peripheral Blood Count in Breast Carcinoma: Predictor of Prognosis or a Routine Test
Kaur, Manjit; Zonunsanga, B.; Puri, Arun; Kuka, Amarjit Singh
2015-01-01
Background. Peripheral blood count is the first investigation to be done in every patient before surgery. As strong relationship exists between cancer and immune response of the body, clinical stage at presentation and altered hematological parameters can influence the progression of cancer and vice versa. Settings and Design. It is a case control study of total 50 cases (35 cases of carcinoma breast and 15 cases of benign breast disease). Methods. A case control study was carried out; 35 cases of breast cancer patients were taken prior to surgery and chemotherapy with 15 cases of benign breast disease as control. Clinical staging according to the tumor, node, and metastasis classification (TNMc) was done and was correlated with complete blood count (CBC). Results. All the cancer patients were females with overall mean age of 47.96 ± 13.84 years. Amongst all altered blood parameters, correlation of absolute lymphocytic count (p value 0.001) with TNMc staging was found significant. Particularly, decrease in absolute leucocytic count was observed with increase in stage of breast carcinoma. Conclusions. The stage-specific mean values of absolute lymphocytic counts of preoperative breast cancer patients can be used as an economical tool to know the evolution of disease. PMID:26697229
Preoperative Peripheral Blood Count in Breast Carcinoma: Predictor of Prognosis or a Routine Test.
Rana, Amrit Pal Singh; Kaur, Manjit; Zonunsanga, B; Puri, Arun; Kuka, Amarjit Singh
2015-01-01
Background. Peripheral blood count is the first investigation to be done in every patient before surgery. As strong relationship exists between cancer and immune response of the body, clinical stage at presentation and altered hematological parameters can influence the progression of cancer and vice versa. Settings and Design. It is a case control study of total 50 cases (35 cases of carcinoma breast and 15 cases of benign breast disease). Methods. A case control study was carried out; 35 cases of breast cancer patients were taken prior to surgery and chemotherapy with 15 cases of benign breast disease as control. Clinical staging according to the tumor, node, and metastasis classification (TNMc) was done and was correlated with complete blood count (CBC). Results. All the cancer patients were females with overall mean age of 47.96 ± 13.84 years. Amongst all altered blood parameters, correlation of absolute lymphocytic count (p value 0.001) with TNMc staging was found significant. Particularly, decrease in absolute leucocytic count was observed with increase in stage of breast carcinoma. Conclusions. The stage-specific mean values of absolute lymphocytic counts of preoperative breast cancer patients can be used as an economical tool to know the evolution of disease. PMID:26697229
Changes in the Differential Leukocyte Count of Chicks Inoculated with Salmonella1
Anderson, E. L.; Stephens, J. F.
1970-01-01
Studies were conducted to determine the effects of Salmonella anatum and S. heidelberg infections on the differential leukocyte counts of baby chickens. Newly hatched broiler-type chicks were inoculated in the yolk sac with suspensions of either S. anatum or S. heidelberg. At 0, 24, 48, and 72 hr after inoculation, blood was taken by heart puncture from chicks of both inoculated groups and from a group of uninoculated chicks. The averages of the leukocyte counts of three or four chicks from each group were used as the blood values for specific time intervals. The six classes of leukocytes counted were lymphocytes, monocytes, juveniles, heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils. The leukocytes classified as juveniles were immature or degenerate heterophils and were found almost exclusively in the infected chicks. Changes in heterophil, juvenile, and lymphocyte counts were affected by both the number of cells in the inoculum (300 versus 3 million cells of S. anatum) and species (S. anatum and S. heidelberg). Infection with either Salmonella species resulted in the development of a severe heterophilic leukopenia, and a significant increase in the percentage of both juveniles and lymphocytes by 48 hr postinoculation. Mortality rate was higher in groups of chicks inoculated with S. heidelberg than in groups given S. anatum. PMID:5422304
Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space
Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.
2015-12-01
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space
Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)
2012-06-05
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY ...
VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY COUNTING MEASURES RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN THE BODY. DESIGNED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RADIATION, BODY COUNTING ROOMS ARE CONSTRUCTED OF PRE-WORLD WAR II (WWII) STEEL. PRE-WWII STEEL, WHICH HAS NOT BEEN AFFECTED BY NUCLEAR FALLOUT, IS LOWER IS RADIOACTIVITY THAN STEEL CREATED AFTER WWII. (10/25/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO
Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.
1989-01-01
Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.
Azmy, Suzanna Noor; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Ariffin, Azman; Majid, Zulkepli; Ismail, Muhamad Nor Akmal; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir
2012-01-01
Population surveys and species recognition for roosting bats are either based on capture, sight or optical-mechanical count methods. However, these methods are intrusive, are tedious and, at best, provide only statistical estimations. Here, we demonstrated the successful use of a terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) laser scanner for remotely identifying and determining the exact population of roosting bats in caves. LIDAR accurately captured the 3D features of the roosting bats and their spatial distribution patterns in minimal light. The high-resolution model of the cave enabled an exact count of the visibly differentiated Hipposideros larvatus and their roosting pattern within the 3D topology of the cave. We anticipate that the development of LIDAR will open up new research possibilities by allowing researchers to study roosting behaviour within the topographical context of a cave's internal surface, thus facilitating rigorous quantitative characterisations of cave roosting behaviour. PMID:22826802
Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors
Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.
2014-01-01
Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f50 (spatial-frequency at which the MTF falls to a value of 0.50) by ?30% with corresponding improvement in DQE. The range in exposure and additive noise for which PCDs yield intrinsically higher DQE was quantified, showing performance advantages under conditions of very low-dose, high additive noise, and high fidelity rejection of coincident photons. Conclusions: The model for PCD signal and noise performance agreed with measurements of detector signal, MTF, and NPS and provided a useful basis for understanding complex dependencies in PCD imaging performance and the potential advantages (and disadvantages) in comparison to EIDs as well as an important guide to task-based optimization in developing new PCD imaging systems. PMID:25281959
Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors
Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.
2014-10-15
Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f{sub 50} (spatial-frequency at which the MTF falls to a value of 0.50) by ?30% with corresponding improvement in DQE. The range in exposure and additive noise for which PCDs yield intrinsically higher DQE was quantified, showing performance advantages under conditions of very low-dose, high additive noise, and high fidelity rejection of coincident photons. Conclusions: The model for PCD signal and noise performance agreed with measurements of detector signal, MTF, and NPS and provided a useful basis for understanding complex dependencies in PCD imaging performance and the potential advantages (and disadvantages) in comparison to EIDs as well as an important guide to task-based optimization in developing new PCD imaging systems.
Sample Size Determination for Clustered Count Data
Amatya, A.; Bhaumik, D.; Gibbons, R.D.
2013-01-01
We consider the problem of sample size determination for count data. Such data arise naturally in the context of multi-center (or cluster) randomized clinical trials, where patients are nested within research centers. We consider cluster-specific and population-average estimators (maximum likelihood based on generalized mixed-effects regression and generalized estimating equations respectively) for subject-level and cluster-level randomized designs respectively. We provide simple expressions for calculating number of clusters when comparing event rates of two groups in cross-sectional studies. The expressions we derive have closed form solutions and are based on either between-cluster variation or inter-cluster correlation for cross-sectional studies. We provide both theoretical and numerical comparisons of our methods with other existing methods. We specifically show that the performance of the proposed method is better for subject-level randomized designs, whereas the comparative performance depends on the rate ratio for the cluster-level randomized designs. We also provide a versatile method for longitudinal studies. Results are illustrated by three real data examples. PMID:23589228
Counting test facility for the Borexino experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranucci, G.; Meroni, E.
2014-05-01
A fundamental breakthrough which opened the way to the realization of the Borexino detector was the demonstration of exceptionally low, unprecedented radioactive contaminations in the liquid scintillator, obtained with its pilot prototype Counting Test Facility. Though of limited dimension, with its 4.8 m3 of active liquid core, CTF has however been a key milestone not only for Borexino, but also for the entire field of the ultra-low background searches. Here, we succinctly remind the motivations, which concurred to lay down the project, as well as the specific radiopurity challenge, which guided the design. After the description of the technical elements of the detector, the main outcomes are summarized, both regarding optical and purity scintillator properties, with special emphasis on the exceptional achievements in term of ultra-low traces of radioactive contaminants. The discussion is completed with the description of how CTF was employed for the pre-qualification of the entire inventory of the Borexino scintillator, confirming also in the final phase of its life its essential role for the success of the overall Borexino solar neutrino program.
New Jersey Kids Count 2011: The State of Our Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2011
2011-01-01
"New Jersey Kids Count 2011" again documents both advances and setbacks in key areas that affect child well-being--poverty, health, child protection, education, including early learning, and adolescent well-being. To better gauge New Jersey's progress in essential areas, a "New Jersey Kids Count Report Card" that identifies trends in 15 key…
Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...
High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.
Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique
2015-10-01
A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.43, confidence interval [CI]?=?0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR?=?0.22, CI?=?0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi. PMID:25809795
What Do Pupils with Severe Learning Difficulties Understand about Counting?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Porter, Jill
1993-01-01
This study of 15 pupils (ages 7-10) with severe learning difficulties found that mental age (as measured by the British Picture Vocabulary Scale--a measure of receptive language ability) was correlated with counting performance. The study also found that being able to count accurately did not automatically lead to understanding the principles of…
Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...
20 CFR 416.1104 - Income we count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income we count. 416.1104 Section 416.1104... DISABLED Income General § 416.1104 Income we count. We have described generally what income is and is not for SSI purposes (§ 416.1103). There are different types of income, earned and unearned, and we...
Pinochle Poker: An Activity for Counting and Probability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wroughton, Jacqueline; Nolan, Joseph
2012-01-01
Understanding counting rules is challenging for students; in particular, they struggle with determining when and how to implement combinations, permutations, and the multiplication rule as tools for counting large sets and computing probability. We present an activity--using ideas from the games of poker and pinochle--designed to help students…
Magnitude Representations and Counting Skills in Preschool Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Batchelor, Sophie; Keeble, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla
2015-01-01
When children learn to count, they map newly acquired symbolic representations of number onto preexisting nonsymbolic representations. The nature and timing of this mapping is currently unclear. Some researchers have suggested this mapping process helps children understand the cardinal principle of counting, while other evidence suggests that this…
76 FR 12694 - The 2010 Census Count Question Resolution Program
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-03-08
...On May 26, 2010, the Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) published in the Federal Register an initial notice relating to the 2010 Census Count Question Resolution (CQR) Program (75 FR 29508). This notice provides final information concerning the CQR Program. The CQR Program will address requests for corrections to the 2010 Census count of housing units and/or group quarters (GQs) and......
Crowd++: Unsupervised Speaker Count with Smartphones , Sugang Li
Campbell, Andrew T.
Crowd++: Unsupervised Speaker Count with Smartphones Chenren Xu , Sugang Li , Gang Liu§ , Yanyong, Experimentation, Human Factors Author Keywords Audio Sensing, Smartphone Sensing, Speaker Counting INTRODUCTION The most direct form of social interaction occurs through the spoken language and conversations. Given its
Structural Tractability of Counting of Solutions to Conjunctive Queries
BÃ¼rgisser, Peter
Structural Tractability of Counting of Solutions to Conjunctive Queries Arnaud Durand IMJ UMR 7586@mail.uni-paderborn.de March 8, 2013 In this paper we explore the problem of counting solutions to conjunctive queries. We are spread in . We show that for conjunctive queries that admit nice decomposition properties (such as being
The Complexity of Weighted Counting for Acyclic Conjunctive Queries
BÃ¼rgisser, Peter
The Complexity of Weighted Counting for Acyclic Conjunctive Queries Arnaud Durand IMJ UMR 7586 This paper is a study of weighted counting of the solutions of acyclic conjunctive queries (ACQ Introduction Conjunctive query answering (CQ for short) is a fundamental problem from database theory
20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section 416.1111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We...
20 CFR 416.1123 - How we count unearned income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How we count unearned income. 416.1123 Section 416.1123 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Unearned Income § 416.1123 How we count unearned income. (a) When...
20 CFR 416.1104 - Income we count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Income we count. 416.1104 Section 416.1104 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income General § 416.1104 Income we count. We have described generally what income is and is...
COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND
369: COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROMKernan, Director COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST COAST, 1957
34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...
34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...
34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...
34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...
34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1...
Cell Counts in Cerebral Cortex of an Autistic Patient.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coleman, Paul D.; And Others
1985-01-01
Numbers of neurons and glia were counted in the cerebral cortex of one case of autism and two age- and sex-matched controls. Cell counts were made in primary auditory cortex, Broca's speech area, and auditory association cortex. No consistent differences in cell density were found between brains of autistic and control patients. (Author/CL)
*Make your undergraduate education count. "Among the many treasures
Yale.* *Make your undergraduate education count. #12;"Among the many treasures of this university education at a global university. Ideas Count. Academics, Research & Innovation, and Majors & Special% enroll fewer than 10 6:1student-to-faculty ratio 3:1 student-to-faculty ratio in STEM disciplines 96
HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES
ABSTRACT
In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...
78 FR 62955 - National Character Counts Week, 2013
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-10-23
.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-24986 Filed 10-22-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... Counts Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As Americans, we are..., and that, above all, we are one people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect on the...
75 FR 64615 - National Character Counts Week, 2010
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-10-20
... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-26554 Filed 10-19-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Counts Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's strength... National Character Counts Week, we reflect upon the values of equality, fairness, and compassion that...
76 FR 65095 - National Character Counts Week, 2011
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-10-20
... thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-27314 Filed 10-19-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Counts Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In times of adversity... humanity. During National Character Counts Week, we celebrate our country's core values and commit...
Visualization of Document Co-Citation Counts Steven Noel
Noel, Steven
Visualization of Document Co-Citation Counts Steven Noel Center for Secure Information Systems that are related to each other by links, such as citations in formal publications. We present results of visualizing minimum spanning trees based on document co-citation counts and on document citation correlations
Climatological Analysis of Tornado Report Counts Using a Hierarchical Bayesian
Climatological Analysis of Tornado Report Counts Using a Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio Recent evidence suggests that tornado report counts for monthly or longer peri- ods may be correlated to climate indices in space and time. However, climatologi- cal analysis of tornado reports is complicated
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS
Studies were initiated to investigate the interactions between heterotrophic plate count bacteria and coliform organisms. The authors used spiked samples to show that heterotrophic plate count bacteria could reduce coliform densities by more than 3 logs within 8 days. Some hetero...
Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others
1989-01-01
Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)
Epidemiological assessment of occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression
Milby, T.H.; Whorton, D.
1980-02-01
Occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression is a recently recognized problem, first brought to light in connection with the manufacture and formulation of dibromochloropropane (DBCP). The authors studied sperm count data from four occupational cohorts - two exposed to DBCP and two exposed to epichlorohydrin (ECH). In both DBCP cohorts there was a significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between sperm count distribution functions of the exposed group and of the non-exposed group. A much higher percentage of exposed men was oligospermic and the median sperm count for each exposed group was substantially lower than that for the respective non-exposed group. In the ECH cohorts there was no significant difference between sperm count data for the exposed group and for the non-exposed group. The authors concluded that exposure to DBCP, but not to ECH, was positively associated with detectable sperm count suppression. It is suggested that the key to identifying and assessing occupationally related sperm count suppression lies in the proper classification and interpretation of group sperm count data.
CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF
CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF A PORTUGUESE SHARK describe the cell types, differential cell counts, and measurements of both the erythrocytes and leukocytes unusually large cell Sizes in all cell categories. Cell measurements revealed erythrocytes larger than those
The Hidden Costs of Reconciling Surgical Sponge Counts.
Steelman, Victoria M; Schaapveld, Ann G; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Storm, Hillary E; Mathias, Michelle
2015-11-01
Retained surgical sponges are serious adverse events that can result in negative patient outcomes. The primary method of prevention is the sponge count. Searching for sponges to reconcile counts can result in inefficient use of OR time. The purpose of this descriptive study was to estimate the cost of nonproductive OR time (ie, time spent not moving forward with the surgical procedure) spent reconciling surgical sponge counts and the cost of using radiography to rule out the presence of retained sponges. We included 13,322 patient surgeries during a nine-month period. Perioperative personnel required from one to 90 minutes of additional time to reconcile each of 212 incorrect/unresolved counts. The total annualized cost of OR time spent searching for sponges and ruling out the presence of potentially retained sponges using radiography was $219,056. These costs should be included in comprehensive cost analyses when considering alternatives to supplement the surgical count. PMID:26514707
Development of spatial preferences for counting and picture naming.
Knudsen, Birgit; Fischer, Martin H; Aschersleben, Gisa
2015-11-01
The direction of object enumeration reflects children's enculturation but previous work on the development of such spatial preferences has been inconsistent. Therefore, we documented directional preferences in finger counting, object counting, and picture naming for children (4 groups from 3 to 6 years, N = 104) and adults (N = 56). We found a right-side preference for finger counting in 3- to 6-year-olds and a left-side preference for counting objects and naming pictures by 6 years of age. Children were consistent in their special preferences when comparing object counting and picture naming, but not in other task pairings. Finally, spatial preferences were not related to cardinality comprehension. These results, together with other recent work, suggest a gradual development of spatial-numerical associations from early non-directional mappings into culturally constrained directional mappings. PMID:25326847
An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E. J.; Axelrod, A. E.
2012-07-01
A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which originally was developed for use in machine speech-recognition. The strength of the layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to an ice core record from Greenland. The algorithm shows high skill in reproducing the results from manual layer counts.
Jensen, E. J.; Pedersen, B.; Frederiksen, R.; Dahl, R.
1998-01-01
BACKGROUND—The influence of smoking and of nicotine substitution on the counts of total blood leucocytes and leucocyte subsets and the relations between the counts and lung function was investigated.?METHODS—The study was a combined cross sectional and prospective study of 298 smokers and 136 non-smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured in all participants at baseline and six months after quitting smoking in 160 ex-smokers (quitters) and 138 persons with smoking relapse. Blood samples were obtained from all participants at baseline and from 160 quitters and 30continuing smokers two, six, 12, and 26 weeks after smoking cessation and from 92 quitters one year after the cessation of smoking.?RESULTS—Blood leucocyte counts and leucocyte subsets were all higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In cigarette smokers total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts showed a dose dependent relationship with the daily cigarette consumption and pack years consumption. In smokers the neutrophil blood count was independently associated negatively with FEV1 residuals. After quitting smoking total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts decreased during the first 26 weeks and after one year lymphocyte blood counts were higher than in non-smokers. In quitters substituted with nicotine chewing gum (2 mg) the accumulated number of pieces of chewing gum used in the 12 weeks had an inverse relationship with the decrease in the total lymphocyte blood count at 12 weeks after smoking cessation.?CONCLUSIONS—Leucocyte blood counts are raised in smokers and decrease after smoking cessation. Neutrophil blood counts had an inverse relationship with lung function and nicotine may increase lymphocyte blood counts in smokers.?? PMID:10319062
Maher, I; Tennant, K V; Papasouliotis, K
2010-10-01
The effect of 24- and 48-hour storage at room temperature on automated total nucleated cell count (TNCC), differential cell count (DCC) and cell morphology was assessed, and the effect of initial total protein concentration on canine and feline body cavity effusion samples (2 to 5 ml) was evaluated. At 24 and 48 hours, TNCC and absolute numbers of neutrophils, macrophages and small lymphocytes were significantly decreased and numbers of unrecognisable cells were significantly increased. Neoplastic cells and intracellular bacteria identified in fresh samples were missed at 24 and 48 hours. The initial total protein concentration was associated with an effect on percentage of unrecognisable cells and small lymphocytes over time. Change in TNCC over time would have resulted in misclassification of the effusion type in four of 47 samples. PMID:21257397
Full counting statistics of persistent current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komnik, A.; Langhanke, G. W.
2014-10-01
We develop a method for the calculation of charge-transfer statistics of persistent current in nanostructures in terms of the cumulant generating function (CGF) of transferred charge. We consider a simply connected one-dimensional system (a wire) and develop a procedure for the calculation of the CGF of persistent currents when the wire is closed into a ring via a weak link. For the noninteracting system we derive a general formula in terms of the two-particle Green's functions. We show that, contrary to the conventional tunneling contacts, the resulting cumulant generating function has a doubled periodicity as a function of the counting field. We apply our general formula to short tight-binding chains and show that the resulting CGF perfectly reproduces the known evidence for the persistent current. Its second cumulant turns out to be maximal at the switching points and vanishes identically at zero temperature. Furthermore, we apply our formalism for a computation of the charge-transfer statistics of genuinely interacting systems. First we consider a ring with an embedded Anderson impurity and employing a self-energy approximation find an overall suppression of persistent current as well as of its noise. Finally, we compute the charge-transfer statistics of a double-quantum-dot system in the deep Kondo limit using an exact analytical solution of the model at the Toulouse point. We analyze the behavior of the resulting cumulants and compare them with those of a noninteracting double-quantum-dot system and find several pronounced differences, which can be traced back to interaction effects.
Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation
Chertkov, Michael; Chandrasekaran, V; Gamarmik, D; Shah, D; Sin, J
2009-01-01
The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.
Dark-count-less photon-counting x-ray computed tomography system using a YAP-MPPC detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Eiichi; Sato, Yuich; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun
2012-10-01
A high-sensitive X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for decreasing absorbed dose for patients, and a dark-count-less photon-counting CT system was developed. X-ray photons are detected using a YAP(Ce) [cerium-doped yttrium aluminum perovskite] single crystal scintillator and an MPPC (multipixel photon counter). Photocurrents are amplified by a high-speed current-voltage amplifier, and smooth event pulses from an integrator are sent to a high-speed comparator. Then, logical pulses are produced from the comparator and are counted by a counter card. Tomography is accomplished by repeated linear scans and rotations of an object, and projection curves of the object are obtained by the linear scan. The image contrast of gadolinium medium slightly fell with increase in lower-level voltage (Vl) of the comparator. The dark count rate was 0 cps, and the count rate for the CT was approximately 250 kcps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.
2014-06-01
Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard energy-integrating x-ray detectors, but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a ‘hybrid’ detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al 2011 Med. Phys. 38 1089-102 ). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping (‘bowtie’) filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of 2 to 3. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors.
Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.
2010-01-01
The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".
Photon Counting Airborne Laser Swath Mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, K. C.
2004-05-01
During the past decade airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) has brought topographic mapping to the forefront of geodesy. ALSM has made it possible, for the first time, to study natural geo-surficial processes on spatial scales extending from meters to hundreds of kilometers, all in a consistent geodetic frame of reference. The conventional approach to ALSM has been to use lasers with enough energy per pulse, and optics with large enough collecting areas, to obtain returns of thousands of photons per shot. This approach minimizes the impact of spurious range values caused by noise, such as background solar radiation and sensor thermal noise, but also constrains the minimum size, weight and power consumption of the hardware. Current systems typically operate at rates approaching 100,000 pulses per second, and another order of magnitude increase would be needed to provide contiguous coverage with a spatial resolution of 30 cm or better. This high signal-to-noise ratio approach affords little scalability for significantly downsizing the hardware, or reducing the costs. University of Florida (UF) researchers are developing an ALSM unit based on a different paradigm, which we refer to as photon counting ALSM, or simply PC-ALSM. The approach is to transmit relatively low energy laser pulses, and to illuminate a surface `patch' about an order of magnitude larger than the typical footprint of a conventional ALSM system. The returning signal will have far fewer photons per unit area of the receive optics, making it more difficult to discriminate between return signal and noise. If a single channel detector were used, the spatial resolution would also be degraded. However, by using a multi-channel photomultiplier tube to detect the returns, the surface patch can be divided into an array of groundals, and by using a multi-stop timing system false ranges can be filtered out of the data during post flight processing. Researchers at NASA GSFC have already tested a first generation system based on this new paradigm, operated from a high altitude aircraft, to develop a satellite based instrument. Details of the preliminary UF design for a second generation system that will operate from a light aircraft flying less than 1000 meters above local ground level and providing contiguous coverage of the terrain with 30 cm spatial resolution will be presented.
Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farr, William H.
2009-01-01
Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.
Galaxy number counts to second order and their bispectrum
Dio, Enea Di; Durrer, Ruth; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco E-mail: Ruth.Durrer@unige.ch E-mail: Francesco.Montanari@unige.ch
2014-12-01
We determine the number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory in the Poisson gauge and allowing for anisotropic stress. The calculation is performed using an innovative approach based on the recently proposed ''geodesic light-cone'' gauge. This allows us to determine the number counts in a purely geometric way, without using Einstein's equation. The result is valid for general dark energy models and (most) modified gravity models. We then evaluate numerically some relevant contributions to the number counts bispectrum. In particular we consider the terms involving the density, redshift space distortion and lensing.
Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps
Pogosyan, Dmitri; Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe
2011-10-15
In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.
The distribution of controlled drugs on banknotes via counting machines.
Carter, James F; Sleeman, Richard; Parry, Joanna
2003-03-27
Bundles of paper, similar to sterling banknotes, were counted in banks in England and Wales. Subsequent analysis showed that the counting process, both by machine and by hand, transferred nanogram amounts of cocaine to the paper. Crystalline material, similar to cocaine hydrochloride, could be observed on the surface of the paper following counting. The geographical distribution of contamination broadly followed Government statistics for cocaine usage within the UK. Diacetylmorphine, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) were not detected during this study. PMID:12711189
Early occipital injury affects numerosity counting but not simple arithmetic.
Zhang, Han; Chen, Chuansheng; Sun, Zhaohui; Lin, Jiuluan; Zhou, Wenjing; Zhou, Xinlin
2016-02-01
This study investigated the effects of early occipital injury on the development of counting and simple arithmetic abilities in an occipital epileptic patient. This patient had obvious softening lesions in the bilateral occipital regions due to viral encephalitis at the age of 1.5 years. Results showed that she could perform subitizing and simple arithmetic very well, but could not perform numerosity counting tasks. These results suggest that the occipital cortex plays an important role in the development of numerosity counting skills, but not in the development of subitizing and simple arithmetic. PMID:25771703
Differential leukocyte counting and immunophenotyping in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood.
Nemes, Elisa; Kagina, Benjamin M N; Smit, Erica; Africa, Hadn; Steyn, Marcia; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J
2015-02-01
Absolute cell counts are typically measured in fresh samples, but this is impractical in large field studies. We compared quantification of leukocyte proportions and absolute counts using reference real-time methods (stain and lyse/no-wash (LNW) or hematology analyser) with a novel assay that allows long-term cryopreservation of fixed leukocytes for later counting (DLC-ICE: differential leukocyte count and immunophenotype in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood). For the LNW method, whole blood (WB) was stained with fluorescent antibodies, then erythrocytes were lysed, and leukocytes fixed prior to flow cytometry. Alternatively, our novel DLC-ICE method entailed erythrocyte lysis and leukocyte fixation, cryopreservation and later staining of permeabilized cells prior to flow cytometry. Outcomes were proportions and absolute counts of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and activated T cells within the leukocyte population. We also compared leukocyte subset counts in fresh WB from 51 healthy infants measured by hematology analyser at a rural clinical site or by DLC-ICE method after 2 years of cryopreservation. We observed excellent agreement and strong correlations between absolute counts or cell proportions measured by the LNW and DLC-ICE methods on fresh WB from 10 healthy adults. Compared to LNW, DLC-ICE yielded similar or brighter staining even after cryopreservation. Duration of cryopreservation, assessed monthly for 1 year, had little effect on cell enumeration: median coefficients of variation were below 15% for all outcomes. Under field site conditions, we observed strong correlations between infant leukocyte numbers measured in fresh samples by hematology analyser and those measured by DLC-ICE up to 2 years of cryopreservation. Our novel DLC-ICE method allows accurate flow cytometric quantification of cell subsets from fixed WB even after long-term cryopreservation. This method is ideal for batched, retrospective analysis of samples from large field studies, or when advanced flow cytometry equipment is not available for clinical research purposes. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515205
Correlated neutron counting for the 21st century
Evans, Louise G
2010-12-01
Correlated neutron counting techniques, such as neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting, are widely employed at nuclear fuel cycle facilities for the accountancy of nuclear material such as plutonium. These techniques need to be improved and enhanced to meet the challenges of complex measurement items and future nuclear safeguards applications, for example; the non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel, high counting rate applications, small sample measurements, and Helium-3 replacement. At the same time simulation tools, used for the design of detection systems based on these techniques, are being developed in anticipation of future needs. This seminar will present the theory and current state of the practice of temporally correlated neutron counting. A range of future safeguards applications will then be presented in the context of research projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Counts of low-Redshift SDSS quasar candidates
Zeljko Ivezic et al.
2004-03-12
We analyze the counts of low-redshift quasar candidates selected using nine-epoch SDSS imaging data. The co-added catalogs are more than 1 mag deeper than single-epoch SDSS data, and allow the selection of low-redshift quasar candidates using UV-excess and also variability techniques. The counts of selected candidates are robustly determined down to g = 21.5. This is about 2 magnitudes deeper than the position of a change in the slope of the counts reported by Boyle et al. (1990, 2000) for a sample selected by UV-excess, and questioned by Hawkins & Veron (1995), who utilized a variability-selected sample. Using SDSS data, we confirm a change in the slope of the counts for both UV-excess and variability selected samples, providing strong support for the Boyle et al. results.
29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...
29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...
29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...
Universal Count Correction for High-Throughput Sequencing
Hashimoto, Tatsunori Benjamin
We show that existing RNA-seq, DNase-seq, and ChIP-seq data exhibit overdispersed per-base read count distributions that are not matched to existing computational method assumptions. To compensate for this overdispersion ...
A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes
Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.
1971-01-01
The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.
RESEARCH ARTICLE Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood
Yang, Changhuei
and circulate throughout the bloodstream and lymphatic system. An infection or a physical injury results and manual counting methods. Introduction White blood cells are the effector cells of the immune system
Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates
Hanson, James A. (Madison, WI); Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)
1981-01-01
A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.
Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates
Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.
1980-05-23
A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.
Nonequilibrium fluctuations, fluctuation theorems, and counting statistics in quantum systems
Mukamel, Shaul
maintained in a nonequilibrium steady state by nonequilibrium boundary conditions, are derived from a unifiedNonequilibrium fluctuations, fluctuation theorems, and counting statistics in quantum systems FTs , which describe some universal properties of nonequilibrium fluctuations, are examined from
29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...
Counting Craters on MOC Images: Production Functions and Other Complications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plaut, J. J.
2001-01-01
New crater counts on MOC images and associated Viking Orbiter images are used to address the issue of the crater production function at Mars, and to infer aspects of resurfacing processes. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Nonparametric Decentralized Detection Based on Weighted Count Kernel
Xing, Eric P.
statistical environments. A learning-based nonparametric linear regression problem was studied in [6], [7Nonparametric Decentralized Detection Based on Weighted Count Kernel Jiayao Hu and Yingbin Liang. The nonparametric decentralized detection problem is investigated, in which the joint distribution
The Power Counting Theorem for Feynman Integrals with Massless Propagators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lowenstein, J. H.; Zimmermann, W.
Dyson's power counting theorem is extended to the case where some of the mass parameters vanish. Weinberg's ultraviolet convergence conditions are supplemented by infrared convergence conditions which combined are sufficient for the convergence of Feynman integrals.
Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras.
Kristoffersen, Miklas S; Dueholm, Jacob V; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B
2016-01-01
The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences. PMID:26742047
Personalized low polygon count facial models for real time applications
Mitchell, Ryan Troy
2002-01-01
Low polycount facial models are useful in interactive applications such as games or interactive virtual reality environments. In this thesis, I present an approach to create a wide range of low polygon count facial models. Using this approach, I...
Calorie Counts on Menus May Prompt Healthier Offerings
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155502.html Calorie Counts on Menus May Prompt Healthier Offerings Study ... that used them tended to offer more lower-calorie choices To use the sharing features on this ...
Photon Counting Techniques for the Bandlimited Optical Channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Clement G.; Gray, Andrew A.
2005-01-01
Two methods of estimating received photon counts given a realistic noisy and bandlimited optical channel are presented. The function of estimating photon counts is critical in any optical communications receiver. The purpose of this work is to compare two methods, neither of which is generically optimal, with realistic channels-for the purpose of assessing which is more appropriate for application in a hardware receiver given the current state-of-the art.
Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting.
Abbas, Sherif
2015-12-01
A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image. PMID:26380843
Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.
2011-01-01
The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.
Effects of Counting and Matching on Conservation of Number.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuson, Karen C.; And Others
Forty-five children aged four-and-a-half to five-and-a-half years old were given number conservation tasks in three conditions: (1) a count condition in which children were helped to count each set after the transformation; (2) a match condition in which children were helped to connect by a string each animal with its peanut; and (3) the standard…
Area law corrections from state counting and supergravity
Gabriel Lopes Cardoso; Bernard de Wit; Thomas Mohaupt
1999-10-22
Modifications of the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for black holes are crucial in order to find agreement between the microscopic entropy based on state counting and the macroscopic entropy based on an effective field theory computation. We discuss this and related issues for the case of four-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric black holes. We also briefly comment on the state counting for N=4 and N=8 black holes.
Effective Circle Count for Apollonian packings and Closed horospheres
Lee, Min
2012-01-01
The main result of this paper is an effective count for Apollonian circle packings that are either bounded or contain two parallel lines. We obtain this by proving an effective equidistribution of closed horospheres in the unit tangent bundle of a geometrically finite hyperbolic 3-manifold of infinite volume, whose fundamental group has critical exponent bigger than 1. Non-effective versions of equidistribution and counting in this context were known previously.
Counting function for a sphere of anisotropic quartz
N. Sondergaard; T. Guhr; M. Oxborrow; K. Schaadt; C. Ellegaard
2005-04-06
We calculate the leading Weyl term of the counting function for a mono-crystalline quartz sphere. In contrast to other studies of counting functions, the anisotropy of quartz is a crucial element in our investigation. Hence, we do not obtain a simple analytical form, but we carry out a numerical evaluation. To this end we employ the Radon transform representation of the Green's function. We compare our result to a previously measured unique data set of several tens of thousands of resonances.
A tutorial on count regression and zero-altered count models for longitudinal substance use data.
Atkins, David C; Baldwin, Scott A; Zheng, Cheng; Gallop, Robert J; Neighbors, Clayton
2013-03-01
Critical research questions in the study of addictive behaviors concern how these behaviors change over time: either as the result of intervention or in naturalistic settings. The combination of count outcomes that are often strongly skewed with many zeroes (e.g., days using, number of total drinks, number of drinking consequences) with repeated assessments (e.g., longitudinal follow-up after intervention or daily diary data) present challenges for data analyses. The current article provides a tutorial on methods for analyzing longitudinal substance use data, focusing on Poisson, zero-inflated, and hurdle mixed models, which are types of hierarchical or multilevel models. Two example datasets are used throughout, focusing on drinking-related consequences following an intervention and daily drinking over the past 30 days, respectively. Both datasets as well as R, SAS, Mplus, Stata, and SPSS code showing how to fit the models are available on a supplemental website. PMID:22905895
Avalanche photodiode photon counting receivers for space-borne lidars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.
1991-01-01
Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; (2) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; and (3) APD's in analog mode when the received optical signal is extremely weak. Non-breakdown APD photon counters were shown experimentally to achieve an effective photon counting quantum efficiency of 5.0 percent at lambda = 820 nm with a dead time of 15 ns and a dark count rate of 7000/s which agreed with the theoretically predicted values. The interarrival times of the counts followed an exponential distribution and the counting statistics appeared to follow a Poisson distribution with no after pulsing. It is predicted that the effective photon counting quantum efficiency can be improved to 18.7 percent at lambda = 820 nm and 1.46 percent at lambda = 1060 nm with a dead time of a few nanoseconds by using more advanced commercially available electronic components.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kraft, Ralph P.; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.
1991-01-01
Two different methods, classical and Bayesian, for determining confidence intervals involving Poisson-distributed data are compared. Particular consideration is given to cases where the number of counts observed is small and is comparable to the mean number of background counts. Reasons for preferring the Bayesian over the classical method are given. Tables of confidence limits calculated by the Bayesian method are provided for quick reference.
The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.
Chen, Y; Müller, J D; So, P T; Gratton, E
1999-01-01
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is generally used to obtain information about the number of fluorescent particles in a small volume and the diffusion coefficient from the autocorrelation function of the fluorescence signal. Here we demonstrate that photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis constitutes a novel tool for extracting quantities from fluorescence fluctuation data, i.e., the measured photon counts per molecule and the average number of molecules within the observation volume. The photon counting histogram of fluorescence fluctuation experiments, in which few molecules are present in the excitation volume, exhibits a super-Poissonian behavior. The additional broadening of the PCH compared to a Poisson distribution is due to fluorescence intensity fluctuations. For diffusing particles these intensity fluctuations are caused by an inhomogeneous excitation profile and the fluctuations in the number of particles in the observation volume. The quantitative relationship between the detected photon counts and the fluorescence intensity reaching the detector is given by Mandel's formula. Based on this equation and considering the fluorescence intensity distribution in the two-photon excitation volume, a theoretical expression for the PCH as a function of the number of molecules in the excitation volume is derived. For a single molecular species two parameters are sufficient to characterize the histogram completely, namely the average number of molecules within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling time epsilon. The PCH for multiple molecular species, on the other hand, is generated by successively convoluting the photon counting distribution of each species with the others. The influence of the excitation profile upon the photon counting statistics for two relevant point spread functions (PSFs), the three-dimensional Gaussian PSF conventionally employed in confocal detection and the square of the Gaussian-Lorentzian PSF for two photon excitation, is explicitly treated. Measured photon counting distributions obtained with a two-photon excitation source agree, within experimental error with the theoretical PCHs calculated for the square of a Gaussian-Lorentzian beam profile. We demonstrate and discuss the influence of the average number of particles within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling interval upon the super-Poissonian character of the photon counting distribution. PMID:10388780
Full blood count pattern of pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients in Lagos, Nigeria
Akinbami, Akinsegun; Popoola, Abiodun; Adediran, Adewumi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Adebola, Philip; Ajibola, Sarah
2013-01-01
Background: Full blood count has been shown to predict disease severity and mortality risk in cancer patients. This study aimed to highlight the degree of derangements of full blood count parameters and provide mean values in pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients compared with apparently normal control subjects. Methods:This was an unmatched case-control study among breast cancer patients attending Oncology clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja and the nurses of the institution as control. A total of 4.5 mls of blood was collected from each participant into EDTA bottle for full blood count analysis, done on the same day of collection. Results: A total of 100 histologically diagnosed, consenting, pre-chemotherapy patients of the clinic (cases) and 50 nurses of the institution as controls were studied. Anemia was found in 58%, 43% and 20% of cases compared with 38%, 36% and 2% of controls using PCV< 36%, 30-36% and 30%, respectively. The mean MCV, MCH, MCHC (82.62±7.48 fl, 26.01±2.78 pg, 30.73±4.06 g/l respectively) of cases were lower than the controls (85.36±5.74 fl, 27.24±1.90 pg, 31.81±0.8 g/l, respectively and RDW of cases (15.61±3.53) was higher than the control (14.24±0.75). The mean WBC counts, neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages of cases (6.96±7.22, 54.75±13.1% and 38.19±12.70%, respectively) were higher than the controls (5.47±1.57, 44.39±8.78% and 8.82±15.97%, respectively). The mean platelet count of cases 291.51±103.38 was also higher than the controls (222.82±57.62). Conclusion: Breast cancer patients presented with deranged full blood count pattern, consequent to the disease compared with the controls. PMID:24009939
Platelet count in 100 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension.
Rahim, R; Nahar, K; Khan, I A
2010-01-01
Hypertensive disorders are most common medical complication of pregnancy and the major causes of maternal & perinatal disease and death worldwide. The aim of the study was to see the platelet count in pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). It was a prospective study. The study was done on 100 cases of PIH patients in Gynae & Obstetrics department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) during the period of January to July 2006. Among the 100 cases 60 were eclamptic, 34 were pre eclamptic (PE) and 06 were gestational hypertensive (GH) patients. All the necessary informations and data were collected by interviewing the patients or their attendants on a pre-designed data collection sheet. Blood sample were collected from the patients and required investigations were done. Most of the eclampsia cases were from below average socioeconomic status of family, and other two groups were from average socioeconomic status of family. Among eclamptic patients 76.60% were primigravida. In eclamptic group 93.33% did not get any antenatal care but 83.33% GH cases had regular antenatal care. Among the eclamptic group mean maternal age was 23.12 years. In our study 47.00% had low platelet count (<1,50,000/cmm). Among eclampsia group 60.00% had low platelet count (<1,50,000/cmm). In our study 12% cases developed postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and among them 66.67% had low platelet count (<1,50,000/cmm). Although there is chance of development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and Liver Failure in patients with low platelet count, but in our study there is no such incidence. In our study mortality was 3% and all were in eclamptic group. Those patients had low platelet count 74.28% had low birth weight (LBW) babies. Platelet count is a very important investigation for antenatal mother having PIH, as it is directly related to maternal and perinatal outcome. PMID:20046164
SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS
Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca
2009-12-20
We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg{sup 2} map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 mum; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 mum, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 mum, over the range approx0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.
Quality Control Methods in Accelerometer Data Processing: Identifying Extreme Counts
Rich, Carly; Geraci, Marco; Griffiths, Lucy; Sera, Francesco; Dezateux, Carol; Cortina-Borja, Mario
2014-01-01
Background Accelerometers are designed to measure plausible human activity, however extremely high count values (EHCV) have been recorded in large-scale studies. Using population data, we develop methodological principles for establishing an EHCV threshold, propose a threshold to define EHCV in the ActiGraph GT1M, determine occurrences of EHCV in a large-scale study, identify device-specific error values, and investigate the influence of varying EHCV thresholds on daily vigorous PA (VPA). Methods We estimated quantiles to analyse the distribution of all accelerometer positive count values obtained from 9005 seven-year old children participating in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. A threshold to identify EHCV was derived by differentiating the quantile function. Data were screened for device-specific error count values and EHCV, and a sensitivity analysis conducted to compare daily VPA estimates using three approaches to accounting for EHCV. Results Using our proposed threshold of ? 11,715 counts/minute to identify EHCV, we found that only 0.7% of all non-zero counts measured in MCS children were EHCV; in 99.7% of these children, EHCV comprised < 1% of total non-zero counts. Only 11 MCS children (0.12% of sample) returned accelerometers that contained negative counts; out of 237 such values, 211 counts were equal to ?32,768 in one child. The medians of daily minutes spent in VPA obtained without excluding EHCV, and when using a higher threshold (?19,442 counts/minute) were, respectively, 6.2% and 4.6% higher than when using our threshold (6.5 minutes; p<0.0001). Conclusions Quality control processes should be undertaken during accelerometer fieldwork and prior to analysing data to identify monitors recording error values and EHCV. The proposed threshold will improve the validity of VPA estimates in children’s studies using the ActiGraph GT1M by ensuring only plausible data are analysed. These methods can be applied to define appropriate EHCV thresholds for different accelerometer models. PMID:24454804
Counting cells with a low-cost integrated microfluidics-waveguide sensor
Garcia, Daniel; Ghansah, Isaac; LeBlanc, John; Butte, Manish J.
2012-01-01
The capability to count cells from biofluids at low cost has important diagnostic implications in resource-poor settings. Many approaches have been developed to address this important need, and while most envision a low per-test cost, the detector instrument can be quite expensive. In this report, we present a novel device that enables low-cost and rapid counting of cells from a drop of blood. We demonstrate a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by ion exchange in glass that underlies a microfluidic structure for capturing cells. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated by the number of metal nanoparticles tagged to the cells because of the interaction of the metal particles with the evanescent field of the waveguide. Calibration of the sensor using bead-tagged lymphocytes captured from human blood showed that the sensor could semi-quantitatively count as few as 100 cells/µL of blood. This technology enables the enumeration of specifically captured cells, allowing for a point-of-care, hand-held device for fast and affordable cell counting in screening, remote, or resource-poor settings. PMID:22454696
HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts
Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
2015-01-01
Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498
A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.
Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu
2014-12-01
The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ?2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ?15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644
Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred
We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.
Salivary lactobacillus counts in the prediction of caries activity.
Crossner, C G
1981-08-01
The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and clinical value for prediction of caries activity of determining the number of lactobacilli in saliva, the salivary secretion rate and the presence of yeasts in the saliva. For this purpose one entire age group of pupils (115 14-year-olds) attending one of the compulsory 9-year comprehensive schools in Orebro was selected for longitudinal examination. Over a period of 64 weeks three clinical recordings were made and seven salivary samples were collected. The correlations between caries activity, caries frequency (DFS), lactobacillus counts, yeasts in saliva, salivary secretion rate and gingivitis were examined. The results showed that in spite of a well-organized dental health service, including adequate preventive measures, a pronounced variation in caries activity remained and thus a means of predicting the onset of caries would be a valuable asset. Statistically significant correlations were found between caries activity on the one hand and caries frequency and lactobacillus counts on the other. The lactobacillus count was found to be a suitable measure in predicting caries activity. It was concluded that the lactobacillus count should be used for caries prediction in healthy, properly treated patients. It is important that there are no areas of microbial retention on the teeth such as open carious lesions, poorly executed restorations, dentures or orthodontic bands. In such situations, the lactobacillus count seems to reflect the frequency of ingested fermentable carbohydrates and thus, indirectly, the risk of initiating carious lesions. PMID:6949671
Development of a stained cell nuclei counting system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timilsina, Niranjan; Moffatt, Christopher; Okada, Kazunori
2011-03-01
This paper presents a novel cell counting system which exploits the Fast Radial Symmetry Transformation (FRST) algorithm [1]. The driving force behind our system is a research on neurogenesis in the intact nervous system of Manduca Sexta or the Tobacco Hornworm, which was being studied to assess the impact of age, food and environment on neurogenesis. The varying thickness of the intact nervous system in this species often yields images with inhomogeneous background and inconsistencies such as varying illumination, variable contrast, and irregular cell size. For automated counting, such inhomogeneity and inconsistencies must be addressed, which no existing work has done successfully. Thus, our goal is to devise a new cell counting algorithm for the images with non-uniform background. Our solution adapts FRST: a computer vision algorithm which is designed to detect points of interest on circular regions such as human eyes. This algorithm enhances the occurrences of the stained-cell nuclei in 2D digital images and negates the problems caused by their inhomogeneity. Besides FRST, our algorithm employs standard image processing methods, such as mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. We have evaluated the developed cell counting system with fourteen digital images of Tobacco Hornworm's nervous system collected for this study with ground-truth cell counts by biology experts. Experimental results show that our system has a minimum error of 1.41% and mean error of 16.68% which is at least forty-four percent better than the algorithm without FRST.
Skull counting in late stages after internal contamination by actinides.
Tani, Kotaro; Shutt, Arron; Kurihara, Osamu; Kosako, Toshiso
2015-02-01
Monitoring preparation for internal contamination with actinides (e.g. Pu and Am) is required to assess internal doses at nuclear fuel cycle-related facilities. In this paper, the authors focus on skull counting in case of single-incident inhalation of (241)Am and propose an effective procedure for skull counting with an existing system, taking into account the biokinetic behaviour of (241)Am in the human body. The predicted response of the system to skull counting under a certain counting geometry was found to be only ?1.0 × 10(-5) cps Bq(-1) 1y after intake. However, this disadvantage could be remedied by repeated measurements of the skull during the late stage of the intake due to the predicted response reaching a plateau at about the 1000th day after exposure and exceeding that in the lung counting. Further studies are needed for the development of a new detection system with higher sensitivity to perform reliable internal dose estimations based on direct measurements. PMID:24920571
Multiscale Methods and the Processing of Images Resulting from Counts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijaoui, A.; Bourdin, H.; Slezak, E.; Jammal, G.
2002-12-01
Astrophysicists are often involved in the processing of event counts: determination of the probability density functions (PDF) of stellar parameters, estimation of the galaxy density, restoration of an image obtained with a counting detector. Under the assumption of statistical independence of events, the empirical distribution is perturbed by a Poisson noise. As this noise depends on the bin scale, it is natural to introduce a mathematical decomposition which takes into account this scale characteristic. Thus, multiscale transforms and particularly the wavelet ones appeared well-suited tools for processing counts. After a short description of the definition and properties of the wavelet transforms, the ingredients for the applications to counts will be reviewed: choice the wavelet transform, PDF of the wavelet coefficients, thresholding and softening functions (in particular in case of a Bayesian approach), the regularized reconstruction and the inversion algorithm in case of deconvolution. The Anscombe transform will be introduced as an efficient mean for stabilizing the variance. A step by step algorithm will be described. Finally, some astrophysical applications will be given: density of galaxies from their counts and restoration of images observed with the X-ray satellite XMM-Newton.
An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E. J.; Axelrod, A. E.
2012-11-01
A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of hidden Markov models (HMMs), which originally was developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of the layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to two ice core records from Greenland: one displaying a distinct annual signal and one which is more challenging. The algorithm shows high skill in reproducing the results from manual layer counts, and the resulting timescale compares well to absolute-dated volcanic marker horizons where these exist.
Gasolines as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting
Fernandez, A.; Ma Pinto, R.; Sillero, A.
1986-11-01
Gasolines from several commercial sources have been used as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting of dry and aqueous samples of either /sup 3/H- or /sup 14/C-labeled compounds. Dry samples can be counted only by the addition of fluors to the gasolines, and compared to a standard liquid scintillator, efficiencies of around 75% were attained. For the counting of aqueous samples, gasolines must also be supplemented with secondary solvents (i.e., 10% naphthalene, 5% Triton X-100, or 10% methanol). Simply with Triton X-100, efficiencies similar to those obtained with a dioxane-based liquid scintillator were observed in the case of some gasolines. Drawbacks to gasoline are the higher toxicity and the variation of efficiency, probably depending on the presence of color markers. On the positive side is the low price of the gasolines, compared with either toluene or dioxane, and the facility of purchasing.
Accuracy enhancement of fatigue damage counting using design sensitivity analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Chan-Jung; Lee, Bong-Hyun; Kang, Yeon June; Ahn, Hyeong-Joon
2014-06-01
Recent studies have suggested fatigue damage counting of a linear elastic system using only the output data; design sensitivity analysis based on the transmissibility function was studied in order to identify the most sensitive response location under intact conditions. The design sensitivity index was derived to be proportional to the response energy at the measured point through reformulation of the previous equation for the sensitivity index. The accuracy of the damage counting method can be enhanced with design sensitivity analysis by selecting the location with the maximum response energy; the method is optimally robust against unexpected noise in the output data. Simulation and testing of a notched simple specimen under uniaxial excitation were used to verify that sensitivity analysis enhances the accuracy of the predicted damage counting.
Electron counting in a silicon single-electron pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanttu, Tuomo; Rossi, Alessandro; Yen Tan, Kuan; Huhtinen, Kukka-Emilia; Chan, Kok Wai; Möttönen, Mikko; Dzurak, Andrew S.
2015-10-01
We report electron counting experiments in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot architecture which has been previously demonstrated to generate a quantized current in excess of 80 pA with uncertainty below 30 parts per million. Single-shot detection of electrons pumped into a reservoir dot is performed using a capacitively coupled single-electron transistor. We extract the full probability distribution of the transfer of n electrons per pumping cycle for n=0,1,2,3,{and} 4. We find that the probabilities extracted from the counting experiment are in agreement with direct current measurements in a broad range of dc electrochemical potentials of the pump. The electron counting technique is also used to confirm the improving robustness of the pumping mechanism with increasing electrostatic confinement of the quantum dot.
Rescaled box counting for the topological analysis of spatial data
Loehle, C.
1994-04-01
Topological analysis of surfaces of natural objects can provide information about surface features (ridges, fragmentation, dendritic patterns) and surface roughness. Box counting is a general method useful for such surfaces, but it is currently limited to cases where the x, y, and z directions are all in the same metric. A method, rescaled box counting, is presented for overcoming these limitations. The local first omnidirectional semivariance (lag 1) is calculated for boxes of different sizes. If the semivariance is not small for small box sizes, then the z data need to be scaled up to allow detection of a difference between patches that are significantly different This rescaling converts the z metric into a distance equivalent (z units are converted into distances based on the horizontal distance over which a significant change in z is found to occur). Once rescaling is done, box counting can be used to quantify surface topology.
Single-molecule localization software applied to photon counting imaging.
Hirvonen, Liisa M; Kilfeather, Tiffany; Suhling, Klaus
2015-06-01
Centroiding in photon counting imaging has traditionally been accomplished by a single-step, noniterative algorithm, often implemented in hardware. Single-molecule localization techniques in superresolution fluorescence microscopy are conceptually similar, but use more sophisticated iterative software-based fitting algorithms to localize the fluorophore. Here, we discuss common features and differences between single-molecule localization and photon counting imaging and investigate the suitability of single-molecule localization software for photon event localization. We find that single-molecule localization software packages designed for superresolution microscopy-QuickPALM, rapidSTORM, and ThunderSTORM-can work well when applied to photon counting imaging with a microchannel-plate-based intensified camera system: photon event recognition can be excellent, fixed pattern noise can be low, and the microchannel plate pores can easily be resolved. PMID:26192667
Assessment of the uncertainty budget associated with 4?? counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiam, C.; Bobin, C.; Maringer, F. J.; Peyres, V.; Pommé, S.
2015-06-01
The 4??-counting technique is recognized as a powerful primary method for the standardization of radionuclides decaying with abundant gamma emissions. Based on the use of a gamma detector in quasi 4?-geometry, a detection efficiency close to 100% and a low uncertainty can be achieved thanks to the summing effect of subsequent gamma transitions. Uncertainties have to be assigned to the realistic modelling of the source-detector geometry with respect to dimensions, density and material composition, the calculation of the total counting efficiency of the detector for the various emitted radiation, and the effect of possible flaws in the decay scheme of a radionuclide on the calculated total efficiency. Other uncertainty factors pertain to typical metrological sources of uncertainty, such as weighing, nuclear counting with pulse pile-up and system dead-time effects, impurity corrections, decay corrections, timing and frequency, etc. In order to ensure good metrological practices at NMIs, the uncertainties particular to the method are discussed.
FAR-ULTRAVIOLET NUMBER COUNTS OF FIELD GALAXIES
Voyer, Elysse N.; De Mello, Duilia F.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.
2011-08-01
The far-ultraviolet (FUV) number counts of galaxies constrain the evolution of the star formation rate density of the universe. We report the FUV number counts computed from FUV imaging of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and small areas within the GOODS-North and South fields. These data were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts sample an FUV AB magnitude range from 21 to 29 and cover a total area of 15.9 arcmin{sup 2}, {approx}4 times larger than the most recent HST FUV study. Our FUV counts intersect bright FUV Galaxy Evolution Explorer counts at 22.5 mag and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytic models based on dark matter 'merger trees' by R. S. Somerville et al. We show that the number counts are {approx}35% lower than in previous HST studies that use smaller areas. The differences between these studies are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more lines of sight and more area than previous HST FUV studies. The integrated light from field galaxies is found to contribute between 65.9{sup +8}{sub -8} and 82.6{sup +12}{sub -12} photons s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1} to the FUV extragalactic background. These measurements set a lower limit for the total FUV background light.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.
2015-11-01
Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring "long" data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (˜80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.
Peronio, P; Acconcia, G; Rech, I; Ghioni, M
2015-11-01
Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring "long" data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (?80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed. PMID:26628115
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lara, Lindsi M.; Spradlin, Terry E.; Wodicka, Christopher Y.
2012-01-01
This Education Policy Brief provides an overview of the student count mechanisms that are currently employed by states. It then reviews Indiana's outgoing count mechanism, the Single Count Date, and compares it with the newly enacted Multiple Count Dates mechanism. To conclude the discussion, the brief examines how other states use the Multiple…
Photon Counting Detectors for the 1.0 - 2.0 Micron Wavelength Range
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krainak, Michael A.
2004-01-01
We describe results on the development of greater than 200 micron diameter, single-element photon-counting detectors for the 1-2 micron wavelength range. The technical goals include quantum efficiency in the range 10-70%; detector diameter greater than 200 microns; dark count rate below 100 kilo counts-per-second (cps), and maximum count rate above 10 Mcps.
20 CFR 418.3320 - How do we count your earned income?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do we count your earned income? 418.3320... Subsidies Income § 418.3320 How do we count your earned income? (a) Wages. We count your wages at the... set aside for your use. (b) Net earnings from self-employment. We count net earnings from...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taibat, Adiat B.; Ahmad, Aznan Che; Ghazali, Munirah
2013-01-01
This study investigates counting procedure in number counting based on gender among students with mild intellectual disability. Quantitative approach was used for testing counting procedure in number counting among these students. The samples for the study comprise fifteen male and fifteen female students with intellectual disability. Descriptive…
A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES
Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...
Growth Curve Models for Zero-Inflated Count Data: An Application to Smoking Behavior
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Hui; Powers, Daniel A.
2007-01-01
This article applies growth curve models to longitudinal count data characterized by an excess of zero counts. We discuss a zero-inflated Poisson regression model for longitudinal data in which the impact of covariates on the initial counts and the rate of change in counts over time is the focus of inference. Basic growth curve models using a…
Applying direct liquid scintillation counting to low level tritium measurement.
Varlam, C; Stefanescu, I; Duliu, O G; Faurescu, I; Popescu, I
2009-05-01
Different types of procedures could be applied to measure environmental tritium level, but usually all are based on measuring tritium concentration in extracted samples water by liquid scintillation counting techniques. There are two standard methods published for tritium measurement in aqueous samples. The recommended tritium activities for tritium standard solutions can be found in these reference procedures. This paper reports the results from a comparative study carried out for different tritium standard solutions, in order to measure the counting efficiency using liquid scintillation method. PMID:19230692
Photon counting for Bragg spectroscopy of quantum gases
Pino, J. M.; Wild, R. J.; Makotyn, P.; Jin, D. S.; Cornell, E. A.
2011-03-15
We demonstrate a photon-counting technique for detecting Bragg excitation of an ultracold gas of atoms. By measuring the response of the light field to the atoms, we derive a signal independent of traditional time-of-flight atom-imaging techniques. With heterodyne detection we achieve photon shot-noise limited detection of the amplification or depletion of one of the Bragg laser beams. Photon counting for Bragg spectroscopy will be useful for strongly interacting gases where atom-imaging detection fails. In addition, this technique provides the ability to resolve the evolution of excitations as a function of pulse duration.
Power-counting renormalizability of generalized Horava gravity
Matt Visser
2009-12-24
In an earlier article [arXiv:0902.0590 [hep-th], Phys. Rev D80 (2009) 025011], I discussed the potential benefits of allowing Lorentz symmetry breaking in quantum field theories. In particular I discussed the perturbative power-counting finiteness of the normal-ordered :P(phi)^{z>=d}_{d+1}: scalar quantum field theories, and sketched the implications for Horava's model of quantum gravity. In the current rather brief addendum, I will tidy up some dangling issues and fill out some of the technical details of the argument indicating the power-counting renormalizability of a z>=d variant of Horava gravity in (d+1) dimensions.
A New Photon Counting Detector: Intensified CMOS-APS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonanno, G.; Belluso, M.; Cali, A.; Carbone, A.; Cosentino, R.; Modica, A.; Scuderi, S.; Timpanaro, C.; Uslenghi, M.
A new type of position sensor (CMOS-APS) used as readout system in MCP-based intensified photon counter is presented. Thanks to CMOS technology, the pixel addressing and the readout circuits as well as the analogue-to-digital converters are integrated into the chip. These unique characteristics make the CMOS-APS a very compact, low power consumption, photon counting system. The more classical Photon Counting Intensified CCDs (PC-ICCD), the selected CMOS-APS, the driving and interface electronics based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and the adopted algorithm to compute the center of the luminous spot on the MCP phosphor screen are described.
Affordable CD4(+) T-cell counts on 'single-platform' flow cytometers I. Primary CD4 gating.
Janossy, G; Jani, I; Göhde, W
2000-12-01
Here, we demonstrate the flow cytometric concept of 'primary CD4 gating' utilizing three different CD4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) conjugated with five different fluorochromes. CD4(+) lymphocytes were defined by an autogate in a single histogram of CD4 fluorescence intensity (FI) (y-axis) vs. side light scatter (x-axis). A wide range of absolute counts for > 600 individuals, including HIV(+) patients, were compared with those obtained by 'state-of-the-art' single-platform flow cytometers such as the volumetric Ortho CytoronAbsolute and the Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur using TruCount beads. The correlation between CD4 counts obtained with primary CD4 gating and the full test panel on the Ortho Cytoron was excellent (R(2) = 0.999). Bland-Altman statistics showed a mean difference of -2 cells/mm(3) [confidence interval (CI) 95% = -3 to -1; limits of agreement -27 to +23]. In addition to absolute CD4 counts, CD4% values and CD4/CD8 ratios are also frequently requested. To obtain these, lymphocytes need to be counted using scatter gates, and a second tube stained with a CD8 mAb to count CD8(++) lymphocytes can be incorporated. We conclude that primary CD4 gating on single-platform volumetric flow cytometers is one of the most economical and flexible technologies for routine cost-conscious service work, particularly during the follow-up of patients undergoing anti-HIV therapy and/or vaccination in the developing world. PMID:11167762
Gray, B.R.; Haro, R.J.; Rogala, J.T.; Sauer, J.S.
2005-01-01
1. Macroinvertebrate count data often exhibit nested or hierarchical structure. Examples include multiple measurements along each of a set of streams, and multiple synoptic measurements from each of a set of ponds. With data exhibiting hierarchical structure, outcomes at both sampling (e.g. Within stream) and aggregated (e.g. Stream) scales are often of interest. Unfortunately, methods for modelling hierarchical count data have received little attention in the ecological literature. 2. We demonstrate the use of hierarchical count models using fingernail clam (Family: Sphaeriidae) count data and habitat predictors derived from sampling and aggregated spatial scales. The sampling scale corresponded to that of a standard Ponar grab (0.052 m(2)) and the aggregated scale to impounded and backwater regions within 38-197 km reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Impounded and backwater regions were resampled annually for 10 years. Consequently, measurements on clams were nested within years. Counts were treated as negative binomial random variates, and means from each resampling event as random departures from the impounded and backwater region grand means. 3. Clam models were improved by the addition of covariates that varied at both the sampling and regional scales. Substrate composition varied at the sampling scale and was associated with model improvements, and reductions (for a given mean) in variance at the sampling scale. Inorganic suspended solids (ISS) levels, measured in the summer preceding sampling, also yielded model improvements and were associated with reductions in variances at the regional rather than sampling scales. ISS levels were negatively associated with mean clam counts. 4. Hierarchical models allow hierarchically structured data to be modelled without ignoring information specific to levels of the hierarchy. In addition, information at each hierarchical level may be modelled as functions of covariates that themselves vary by and within levels. As a result, hierarchical models provide researchers and resource managers with a method for modelling hierarchical data that explicitly recognises both the sampling design and the information contained in the corresponding data.
Generating Function in Quantum Mechanics: An Application to Counting Problems
Li Han
2007-11-19
In this paper we present a generating function approach to two counting problems in elementary quantum mechanics. The first is to find the total ways of distributing identical particles among different states. The second is to find the degeneracies of energy levels in a quantum system with multiple degrees of freedom. Our approach provides an alternative to the methods in textbooks.
Improved photon counting efficiency calibration using superconducting single photon detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Sun, Ruoduan; Feng, Guojin; Wang, Yanfei; Ma, Chong; Lin, Yandong; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng
2015-10-01
The quantum efficiency of photon counters can be measured with standard uncertainty below 1% level using correlated photon pairs generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Normally a laser in UV, blue or green wavelength range with sufficient photon energy is applied to produce energy and momentum conserved photon pairs in two channels with desired wavelengths for calibration. One channel is used as the heralding trigger, and the other is used for the calibration of the detector under test. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector with advantages such as high photon counting speed (<20 MHz), low dark count rate (<50 counts per second), and wideband responsivity (UV to near infrared) is used as the trigger detector, enabling correlated photons calibration capabilities into shortwave visible range. For a 355nm single longitudinal mode pump laser, when a superconducting nanowire single photon detector is used as the trigger detector at 1064nm and 1560nm in the near infrared range, the photon counting efficiency calibration capabilities can be realized at 532nm and 460nm. The quantum efficiency measurement on photon counters such as photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes can be then further extended in a wide wavelength range (e.g. 400-1000nm) using a flat spectral photon flux source to meet the calibration demands in cutting edge low light applications such as time resolved fluorescence and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, super resolution microscopy, deep space observation, and so on.
Diplomas Count 2013: Second Chances--Turning Dropouts into Graduates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Education Week, 2013
2013-01-01
The 2013 edition of "Diplomas Count," entitled "Second Chances: Turning Dropouts into Graduates," examines dropout recovery and innovative strategies for returning to the educational fold the 1 million students who leave school without a diploma each year. "Education Week's" journalists investigate interventions that provide second chances to…
Counting Mutagenized Genomes and Optimizing Genetic Screens in Caenorhabditis elegans
Shaham, Shai
Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we review general principles of genetic screens in C. elegans, and use a modified algorithm for optimizing genetic screens in this organism. Here we examine such an optimization approach. WeCounting Mutagenized Genomes and Optimizing Genetic Screens in Caenorhabditis elegans Shai Shaham
Quantity Judgments and Individuation: Evidence that Mass Nouns Count
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse
2005-01-01
Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be ''more'' than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns…
COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS FOR COUNTING HUMAN SPERMATOZOA
COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS FOR COUNTING HUMAN SPERMATOZOA SC Jeffay1, LF Strader1, RA Morris1, JE Schmid1, AF Olshan2, LW Lansdell2, SD Perreault1. 1US EPA/ORD, RTP, NC; 2UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC.
The IDENT feature of the HTM-IVOS semen analyzer (Hamilton Thorne Research, Bev...
Count ratio model reveals bias affecting NGS fold changes.
Erhard, Florian; Zimmer, Ralf
2015-11-16
Various biases affect high-throughput sequencing read counts. Contrary to the general assumption, we show that bias does not always cancel out when fold changes are computed and that bias affects more than 20% of genes that are called differentially regulated in RNA-seq experiments with drastic effects on subsequent biological interpretation. Here, we propose a novel approach to estimate fold changes. Our method is based on a probabilistic model that directly incorporates count ratios instead of read counts. It provides a theoretical foundation for pseudo-counts and can be used to estimate fold change credible intervals as well as normalization factors that outperform currently used normalization methods. We show that fold change estimates are significantly improved by our method by comparing RNA-seq derived fold changes to qPCR data from the MAQC/SEQC project as a reference and analyzing random barcoded sequencing data. Our software implementation is freely available from the project website http://www.bio.ifi.lmu.de/software/lfc. PMID:26160885
Direct determination of lead-210 by liquid-scintillation counting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fairman, W. D.; Sedlet, J.
1969-01-01
Soft betas, the internal conversion electrons, and unconverted gamma rays from lead-210 are efficiently detected in a liquid scintillation counting system with efficiency of 97 percent. The counter is interfaced with a multichannel pulse height analyzer. The spectra obtained is stored on paper tape and plotted on an x-y plotter.
Making It Count (First Offering). Course Evaluation Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eggert, John D.
"Making It Count," a multimedia computer course designed to be offered on public television for college credit at the sophomore level, was offered by the State University of Nebraska in 1975. The course was developed by the Boeing Computer Services. The course enrollment was 79, with 64 enrolled for credit. The mean student age was 36.5, and over…
Illinois Kids Count 2003: The Window of Opportunity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parente, Julie
This Kids Count report examines trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of family, economic security, education, safety, and health. The indicators are: (1) child population and births; (2) language spoken at home; (3) children in two-parent families; (4) grandparents raising…
Make Kids Count: The State of Arizona's Children, 2000.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hudgins, Elizabeth; Naimark, Dana Wolfe
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends between 1990 and 1998 in the well-being of Arizona's children. The statistical portrait is based on several indicators of well-being, including: (1) children in poverty; (2) babies born at risk; (3) children in families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF); (4) children in…
21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section 864.8175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator...
21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section 864.8175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator...
21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section 864.8175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator...
Automating Partial Period Bond Valuation with Excel's Day Counting Functions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vicknair, David; Spruell, James
2009-01-01
An Excel model for calculating the actual price of bonds under a 30 day/month, 360 day/year day counting assumption by nesting the DAYS360 function within the PV function is developed. When programmed into an Excel spreadsheet, the model can accommodate annual and semiannual payment bonds sold on or between interest dates using six fundamental…
Does Learning to Count Involve a Semantic Induction?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davidson, Kathryn; Eng, Kortney; Barner, David
2012-01-01
We tested the hypothesis that, when children learn to correctly count sets, they make a semantic induction about the meanings of their number words. We tested the logical understanding of number words in 84 children that were classified as "cardinal-principle knowers" by the criteria set forth by Wynn (1992). Results show that these children often…
21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section 864.8175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator...
21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section 864.8175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator...
Counting to Infinity The Principle of Mathematical Induction
Kraehmer, Ulrich
Counting to Infinity The Principle of Mathematical Induction Uli KrÂ¨ahmer University of GlasgowÂ¨ahmer (University of Glasgow) Mathematical induction Masterclass funded byThe Edinburgh Mathem / 25 #12;The natural, but we won't need them today. Uli KrÂ¨ahmer (University of Glasgow) Mathematical induction Masterclass
Standardless Atom Counting in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy
Melbourne, University of
Standardless Atom Counting in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy James M. LeBeau,*, Scott D electron microscopy allows for quantification of the number and location of all atoms in a three transmission electron microscope. KEYWORDS Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), gold, nanoscale
Reducing the Teen Death Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara
2009-01-01
Life continues to hold considerable risk for adolescents in the United States. In 2006, the teen death rate stood at 64 deaths per 100,000 teens (13,739 teens) (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Although it has declined by 4 percent since 2000, the rate of teen death in this country remains substantially higher than in many peer nations, based…
Estimating departure times from traffic counts using dynamic assignment
Janson, B.N.; Southworth, F.
1989-05-01
A dynamic traffic assignment algorithm and observed traffic counts are used to estimate the distribution of departure times in a trip matrix. The objective is to find the maximum entropy distribution of departure times by origin zone subject to observed traffic counts on a subset of network links. The procedure results in the estimated number of trip departures from each origin in 10-15 minute time intervals of the full analysis period. Such an analysis period will typically range from one to three hours long. We first review the dynamic assignment algorithm developed and tested in a previous paper, and then describe its use with traffic counts to estimate the departure times of a trip matrix. We present an application to a Pittsburgh network in which trip departures are estimated for each 10-minute interval of a peak-hour survey trip matrix. Computational advances such as parallel computing will enable the procedure to be run on large networks while counts are being monitored. Such an application may provide near real-time detection of temporal trip departure profiles by origin zone. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Estimating departure times from traffic counts using dynamic assignment
Janson, B.N.; Southworth, F. )
1989-07-01
A dynamic traffic assignment algorithm and observed traffic counts are used to estimate the distribution of departure times in a trip matrix. The objective is to find the maximum entropy distribution of departure times by origin zone subject to observed traffic counts on a subset of network links. The procedure results in the estimated number of trip departures from each origin in 10-15 minute time intervals of the full analysis period. Such an analysis period will typically range from one to three hours long. We first review the dynamic assignment algorithm developed and tested in a previous paper, and then describe its use with traffic counts to estimate the departure times of a trip matrix. We present an application to a Pittsburgh network in which trip departures are estimated for each 10-minute interval of a peak-hour survey trip matrix. Computational advances such as parallel computing will enable the procedure to be run on large networks while counts are being monitored. Such an application may provide near real-time detection of temporal trip departure profiles by origin zone. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Class Counts: An Overview and Response to Mr. Cooper's Review
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ornstein, Allan
2009-01-01
This article presents Allan Ornstein's response to highly respected scholar, Bruce Cooper's review of Ornstein's 2007 book, "Class Counts: Education, Inequality and the Shrinking Middle Class." Here Ornstein attempts to elaborate on a few points that he felt Cooper missed in his review.
Child Care You Can Count On: Model Programs and Policies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.
This document is composed of an overview of the 1998 Kids Count data book, a pocket guide summarizing findings, and information sheets on various aspects of child care. The overview discusses the need for child care, examines its cost, presents information on the quality of available child care, describes potential solutions to make child care…
Counting States of Near-Extremal Black Holes
Gary Horowitz; Andrew Strominger
1996-02-15
A six-dimensional black string is considered and its Bekenstein-Hawking entropy computed. It is shown that to leading order above extremality, this entropy precisely counts the number of string states with the given energy and charges. This identification implies that Hawking decay of the near-extremal black string can be analyzed in string perturbation theory and is perturbatively unitary.
Counting Mountain-Valley Assignments for Flat Folds
Hull, Thomas C.
Counting Mountain-Valley Assignments for Flat Folds Thomas Hull Department of Mathematics Merrimack), a mountain-valley (MV) assignment is a function f : E {M,V} which indicates which crease lines are con- vex can be thought of as a structural blueprint of the fold.) Creases come in two types: mountain creases
Generalized estimators of avian abundance from count survey data
Royle, J. Andrew
2004-01-01
I consider modeling avian abundance from spatially referenced bird count data collected according to common protocols such as capture?recapture, multiple observer, removal sampling and simple point counts. Small sample sizes and large numbers of parameters have motivated many analyses that disregard the spatial indexing of the data, and thus do not provide an adequate treatment of spatial structure. I describe a general framework for modeling spatially replicated data that regards local abundance as a random process, motivated by the view that the set of spatially referenced local populations (at the sample locations) constitute a metapopulation. Under this view, attention can be focused on developing a model for the variation in local abundance independent of the sampling protocol being considered. The metapopulation model structure, when combined with the data generating model, define a simple hierarchical model that can be analyzed using conventional methods. The proposed modeling framework is completely general in the sense that broad classes of metapopulation models may be considered, site level covariates on detection and abundance may be considered, and estimates of abundance and related quantities may be obtained for sample locations, groups of locations, unsampled locations. Two brief examples are given, the first involving simple point counts, and the second based on temporary removal counts. Extension of these models to open systems is briefly discussed.
Phasor imaging with a widefield photon-counting detector
Michalet, Xavier
, fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for imaging fixed samples, live cells, or even live animals due). [DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.17.1.016008] Keyword: detectors; fluorescence; imaging; laser-induced fluorescencePhasor imaging with a widefield photon- counting detector Ryan A. Colyer Oswald H. W. Siegmund
Passive microsensor for binary counting of numerous threshold events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehner, Hannes; Schwebke, Silvan; Leopold, Steffen; Hoffmann, Martin
2015-05-01
Microsystems for autonomous limit monitoring can be used for triggering maintenance and thus help to reduce costs. We present a fully integrated passive microsystem for binary counting of off-limit conditions. The mechanical design and a mechanical characterization of the system fabricated using SOI (silicon-on-insulator) technology are shown. The binary counting mechanism is realized by utilizing mechanical coupling elements between bit elements. The mechanical energy needed for switching the first bit to the state "high" was found to be 0.1 ?J by moving the entrance 37 ?m and applying a force of up to 8.2 mN. 0.36 ?J was determined for switching the bit back to the state "low" by applying a 69 ?m distance and a force of up to 10.2 mN. The system needs input energy for counting only, not for storing the counter value. Expanding the design to up to ten bit elements would offer a passive microsensor able to detect 1023 off-limit conditions. A mechanical binary microcounter is presented that does not require electrical energy supply. It is suitable for counting any physical event that can be converted into an adequate force-travel-characteristic.
KIDS COUNT, 2002: The State of the Child in Tennessee.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Pam; Chappell, Edwina; Delk, Fay L.; Jones, Ben; Petty, Steve; Tomlin, D'Andrea; Wynn, Debbie
This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Tennessee's children. The statistical portrait is based on 34 indicators of children's well-being in 5 broad areas: (1) infant, child, and teen health, including enrollment in the TennCare (replacement for Tennessee's Medicaid Program) insurance program, prenatal, low…
The GLOBE Earth Day 2004 Contrail Count-a-Thon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chambers, Lin H.; Cole, Julia
2004-01-01
Early in 2004 the GLOBE Science team suggested a contrail count activity to celebrate Earth Day 2004, which was held this year on April 22nd in the United States and some other countries around the world. The GLOBE contrail team embraced this idea and developed a simplified data collection sheet for this special project. Information about the event was shared through the GLOBE site, UCAR and NASA press releases, the NASA portal (http://www.nasa.gov) and the CERES S'COOL Project (http://scool.larc.nasa.gov). On Earth Day, about 120 observations were received through the GLOBE Contrail Count-a-Thon website, about 70 contrail observations were received through regular GLOBE data reporting, and 19 contrail observations were received through regular S'COOL data reporting. Only observations between 11:00 and 13:00 local time were included in the Count-a-Thon. The event was reported in the Boulder Daily Camera beforehand and in the Oregon Register-Guard after the fact. It was also reported on National Public Radio s Day-to-Day show; whose host even submitted an observation. This poster discusses the Count-a-Thon experience and reports the results.
Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Executive Summary
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007
2007-01-01
"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…
Portrait of the Future: 1994 Kansas Kids Count Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hardman, Sydney, Ed.; And Others
This Kids Count data book presents a statistical portrait of the well-being of and conditions faced by the children of Kansas, based on key indicators. Nineteen indicators are detailed in five subject areas: (1) economic well-being; (2) physical health and safety; (3) educational achievement; (4) emotional well-being; and (5) social behavior and…
New York State Touchstones/KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chavis, Karen, Ed.
This KIDS COUNT data book examines trends in the well-being of New York's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general areas of children's well-being: (1) economic security; (2) physical and emotional health; (3) education; (4) citizenship; (5) family; and (6) community. Following an introductory section addressing the 2000 census…
Counting master integrals: integration by parts vs. differential reduction
Mikhail Yu. Kalmykov; Bernd A. Kniehl
2011-06-29
The techniques of integration by parts and differential reduction differ in the counting of master integrals. This is illustrated using as an example the two-loop sunset diagram with on-shell kinematics. A new algebraic relation between the master integrals of the two-loop sunset diagram that does not follow from the integration-by-parts technique is found.
29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Counting the eight employees. 788.13 Section 788.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH...
29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Counting the eight employees. 788.13 Section 788.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH...
29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Counting the eight employees. 788.13 Section 788.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH...
Synchronous Symmetry Breaking in Neurons with Different Neurite Counts
Yanik, Mehmet Fatih
Synchronous Symmetry Breaking in Neurons with Different Neurite Counts Zachary D. Wissner-Gross1, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America Abstract As neurons develop, several immature processes (i.e., neurites) grow out of the cell body. Over time, each neuron breaks symmetry when only one
Exploiting Radio Irregularity in Wireless Networks for Automated People Counting
T, suffers from radio irregularity a phenomenon referring to radio waves being selectively absorbedExploiting Radio Irregularity in Wireless Networks for Automated People Counting Wei-Chuan Lin. Radio irregularity is often regarded as a problem in wireless communications but, with the envisioned
DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS
DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS STUART W. SHERBURNE1 of white cell types and immature erythrocytes in the blood were found to be different from those previously- ences in the occurrence of blood cell types of Atlantic herring, Glupea harellgus harellgus, from
USING DIFFERENT TRANSFORMATIONS IN ANALYSES OF FECAL EGG COUNT DATA
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Fecal egg count (FEC) is used to identify and quantify gastrointestinal parasite infestations. However, FEC values are not distributed normally, and a small percentage of the herd is responsible for a majority of parasite transmission. Non-normality is a possible source of error when (co)variance co...
77 FR 65091 - National Character Counts Week, 2012
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-10-24
... and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-26342 Filed 10-23-12; 11:15 am] Billing code... October 24, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8891--National Character Counts Week, 2012 Proclamation 8892--National Forest Products Week, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0;...
Kids Voices Count: Listening to Delaware's Children Talk about Tobacco.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.
This Kids Count special report examines attitudes of adolescents in Delaware toward smoking and the use of tobacco products. Data are based on interviews with middle and high school students conducted by journalism students at Glasgow High School under the supervision of their teacher, and on statewide data. The report presents statewide data and…
Friday, March 16, 2007 MARS CRATERING: COUNTS AND CATASTROPHES?
Rathbun, Julie A.
Friday, March 16, 2007 MARS CRATERING: COUNTS AND CATASTROPHES? 8:30 a.m. Crystal Ballroom A Chairs. Bridges N. T. HiRISE Team HiRISE Observations of Small Impact Craters on Mars [#2009] HiRISE observations of small impact craters on Mars are providing striking new results relevant to hard-hitting debates about
Breaking the Cycle: A Special Report by Arkansas Kids Count.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huddleston, Rich; Duran, Angela
In response to federal welfare reform legislation, Arkansas created the Transitional Employment Assistance (TEA) program in April 1997. The goal of this Kids Count report is to increase awareness regarding issues underlying the early implementation of TEA, focusing on caseload reductions, demographic composition of the caseload, level of support…
Chip Space and Transistor Count Estimator Marc Steinhaus
Ungerer, Theo
Chip Space and Transistor Count Estimator Marc Steinhaus FakultÃ¤t fÃ¼r Informatik, UniversitÃ¤t Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany and RapidSolution Software GmbH, Karlsruhe General The transistor die area and the number of transistors of a simulated processor. To reach this goal, it is necessary
Cycle counts for authenticated encryption Daniel J. Bernstein
Bernstein, Daniel
Cycle counts for authenticated encryption Daniel J. Bernstein Department of Mathematics, Statistics1305 384 rabbit-poly1305 128 Rabbit Poly1305 256 rc4-poly1305 256 RC4 Poly1305 384 salsa20-8-poly1305, and SOSEMANUK, but also ABC, CryptMT, DICING, NLS, Polar Bear, and Rabbit. I did not exclude ciphers for which
Optical bistability and nonclassical photon counting statistics with few atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martini, Ullrich; Ginzel, Christian; Schenzle, Axel
1993-10-01
The behavior of a collection of atoms that are strongly coupled to a resonant cavity is numerically studied. Atoms and mode are coupled to individual heat baths. The mode is coupled to a classical driving field. The system exhibits interesting properties like optical bistability and nonclassical photon counting statistics.
Connecting Kids to Technology: Challenges and Opportunities. KIDS COUNT Snapshot.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilhelm, Tony; Carmen, Delia; Reynolds, Megan
The 2000 KIDS COUNT Data Book examined the isolation that plagues many low-income families. The lack of home Internet access will only deepen the isolation as opportunities and meaningful connections to support services become primarily available online. This snapshot examines the demographics of the digital divide between those who have and those…
A Method of Recording and Predicting the Pollen Count.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buck, M.
1985-01-01
A hair dryer, plastic funnel, and microscope slide can be used for predicting pollen counts on a day-to-day basis. Materials, methods for assembly, collection technique, meteorological influences, and daily patterns are discussed. Data collected using the apparatus suggest that airborne grass products other than pollen also affect hay fever…
The Labeling Strategy: Moving beyond Order in Counting Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
CadwalladerOlsker, Todd
2013-01-01
Permutations and combinations are used to solve certain kinds of counting problems, but many students have trouble distinguishing which of these concepts applies to a given problem. An "order heuristic" is usually used to distinguish the two, but this heuristic can cause confusion when problems do not explicitly mention order. This…
What will count as mathematics in 2100? Keith Devlin
Devlin, Keith
times throughout history. Up to 500 B.C. or thereabouts, mathematics was--if it was anything to be givenWhat will count as mathematics in 2100? Keith Devlin What is mathematics today? What is mathematics? That's one of the most basic questions in the philosophy of mathematics. The answer has changed several
Gift Acceptance and Counting Policies Effective: 10/1/2013
McQuade, D. Tyler
Gift Acceptance and Counting Policies Effective: 10/1/2013 Revised: 7/1/2015 1 | P a g e #12;Vision the right to be: assured their gifts are used for the intended purposes; protected from improper for proven achievements 2 | P a g e #12;SECTION 1.0 GIFT AGREEMENTS The terms of all gifts of $25,000 or more
Counting Prime Numbers with Short Binary Signed Representation
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Counting Prime Numbers with Short Binary Signed Representation Josâ??e de Jesâ??us Angel Angel number, e.g. no longer than the length of a computer word (16Â32 bits). When a modulus n is of this form in e#cient implementations. In this paper we study the density of primes with binary signed
Implementation of counted layers for coherent ice core chronology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Bazin, L.; Landais, A.; Toyé Mahamadou Kele, H.; Guillevic, M.; Kindler, P.; Parrenin, F.; Martinerie, P.
2015-06-01
A recent coherent chronology has been built for four Antarctic ice cores and the NorthGRIP (NGRIP) Greenland ice core (Antarctic Ice Core Chronology 2012, AICC2012) using a Bayesian approach for ice core dating (Datice). When building the AICC2012 chronology, and in order to prevent any confusion with official ice core chronology, the AICC2012 chronology for NGRIP was forced to fit exactly the GICC05 chronology based on layer counting. However, such a strong tuning did not satisfy the hypothesis of independence of background parameters and observations for the NGRIP core, as required by Datice. We present here the implementation in Datice of a new type of markers that is better suited for constraints deduced from layer counting: the duration constraints. Estimating the global error on chronology due to such markers is not straightforward and implies some assumption on the correlation between individual counting errors for each interval of duration. We validate this new methodological implementation by conducting twin experiments and a posteriori diagnostics on the NGRIP ice core. Several sensitivity tests on marker sampling and correlation between counting errors were performed to provide some guidelines when using such a method for future dating experiments. Finally, using these markers for NGRIP in a five-core dating exercise with Datice leads to new chronologies that do not differ by more than 410 years from AICC2012 for Antarctic ice cores and 150 years from GICC05 for NGRIP over the last 60 000 years.
South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2002. Tenth Annual Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cochran, Carole; Nelson-Kraayenbrink, Briana
This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Dakotas children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economics, and safety. The indicators include: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) racial groups; (3) single age years; (4) households and families; (5) infant…
A Study of Sexism in the Illustrations of Counting Books.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westbrook, Lynn
Sexism in math books for juveniles has created much discussion and controversy. In particular, sexist examples in arithmetic books suggest that math is a "masculine" subject and foster traditional, male-dominated sex roles. Just as with math texts, many adults read the words of counting books, and from these words alone, draw their conclusions as…
Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2008. Executive Summary
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008
2008-01-01
"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…
Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Executive Summary
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009
2009-01-01
"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…
Organization mechanism and counting algorithm on vertex-cover solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Wei; Zhang, Renquan; Niu, Baolong; Guo, Binghui; Zheng, Zhiming
2015-04-01
Counting the solution number of combinational optimization problems is an important topic in the study of computational complexity, which is concerned with Vertex-Cover in this paper. First, we investigate organizations of Vertex-Cover solution spaces by the underlying connectivity of unfrozen vertices and provide facts on the global and local environment. Then, a Vertex-Cover Solution Number Counting Algorithm is proposed and its complexity analysis is provided, the results of which fit very well with the simulations and have a better performance than those by 1-RSB in the neighborhood of c = e for random graphs. Based on the algorithm, variation and fluctuation on the solution number the statistics are studied to reveal the evolution mechanism of the solution numbers. Furthermore, the marginal probability distributions on the solution space are investigated on both the random graph and scale-free graph to illustrate the different evolution characteristics of their solution spaces. Thus, doing solution number counting based on the graph expression of the solution space should be an alternative and meaningful way to study the hardness of NP-complete and #P-complete problems and the appropriate algorithm design can help to achieve better approximations of solving combinational optimization problems and the corresponding counting problems.
KIDS COUNT, 2000: The State of the Child in Tennessee.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tennessee State Commission on Children and Youth, Nashville.
This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Tennessee's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in five broad areas: (1) healthy babies, including enrollment in the TennCare insurance program, prenatal care, infant mortality and child deaths, and immunizations; (2) healthy…
Yours, Mine or Ours: What Counts as Innovation?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cooksey, Ray W.
2011-01-01
In this paper, I argue that research and development organizations (R&DOs) have particular perspectives on what counts as an innovation whereas the potential adopting users usually have quite different often diverse perspectives. If these "worldviews" do not overlap or speak to each other, then what R&DOs consider innovative might constitute a…
21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section 1210.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection...
An alternative calibration method for counting P-32 reactor monitors
Quirk, T.J.; Vehar, D.W.
2011-07-01
Radioactivation of sulfur is a common technique used to measure fast neutron fluences in test and research reactors. Elemental sulfur can be pressed into pellets and used as monitors. The {sup 32}S(n, p) {sup 32}P reaction has a practical threshold of about 3 MeV and its cross section and associated uncertainties are well characterized [1]. The product {sup 32P} emits a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1710 keV [2]. This energetic beta particle allows pellets to be counted intact. ASTM Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32 (E265) [3] details a method of calibration for counting systems and subsequent analysis of results. This method requires irradiation of sulfur monitors in a fast-neutron field whose spectrum and intensity are well known. The resultant decay-corrected count rate is then correlated to the known fast neutron fluence. The Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia has traditionally performed calibration irradiations of sulfur pellets using the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron source at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) [4] as a transfer standard. However, decay has reduced the intensity of NIST's source; thus lowering the practical upper limits of available fluence. As of May 2010, neutron emission rates have decayed to approximately 3 e8 n/s. In practice, this degradation of capabilities precludes calibrations at the highest fluence levels produced at test reactors and limits the useful range of count rates that can be measured. Furthermore, the reduced availability of replacement {sup 252}Cf threatens the long-term viability of the NIST {sup 252}Cf facility for sulfur pellet calibrations. In lieu of correlating count rate to neutron fluence in a reference field the total quantity of {sup 32}P produced in a pellet can be determined by absolute counting methods. This offers an attractive alternative to extended {sup 252}Cf exposures because it can be performed regardless of the characterization of the exposure environment. Count rates produced by sulfur pellets are correlated to the measured quantity of separated {sup 32}P. A posteriori spectral and cross section determination can be used to correlate the quantity of phosphorus back to a neutron fluence in a reference field. This paper outlines a method for the setup, calibration, and use of the detector systems, {sup 32}P sample preparation, and analysis of the beta spectrum. An uncertainty analysis and comparison to ASTM E265 is also included. (authors)
Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot
De La Cruz, Vivian M.; Di Nuovo, Alessandro; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo
2013-01-01
Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags) to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting) and linguistic skills (using number words). The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers. PMID:24550795
Cord blood full blood count parameters in Lagos, Nigeria
Adewumi, Adediran; Titilope A, Adeyemo; Akinsegun, Akinbami A; Abidoye, Gbadegesin; Ebele, Uche; Sulaimon, Akanmu A
2014-01-01
Introduction Full blood count (FBC), one of the most frequently requested for laboratory investigations, is a simple, fast and cheap test and is a reliable indicator of health. Due to its usefulness in the assessment of health status of individuals, its parameters in cord blood, a major source of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation and an ideal source for laboratory investigations for newborns were determined to provide a useful guide to local neonatologists and stem cell transplant physicians. Methods Three millilitres of umbilical cord blood was collected from 130 normal birth weight newborns (69 males and 61 females) whose cord were clamped immediately after delivery, at a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria and full blood count parameters were determined using Sysmex autoanalyzer, model KX-21N. Consented mothers of the newborns were selected based on, age between 18 and 45 years; uneventful pregnancy and delivery and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration ? 10 g/dL. Results There were no statistical gender differences in the mean values of Hb concentrations (M = 13.27 ±1.60 g/dL; F = 13.32±1.61g/dL; p = 0.93), total white cell count (M = 3.16±5.43 × 109/L; F = 13.07±4.98 × 109/L; p= 0.92), platelet count (M= 223.64± 64.21 × 109/L; F = 226.69±80.83 × 109/L; p = 0.81) and other parameters. Conclusion Mean values of full blood count parameters obtained in this study are comparable to reports from other studies in developing countries and could be a useful guide for neonatologists and stem cell transplant physicians in our geographical location. PMID:25396018
Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.
Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela
2014-07-01
Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R (2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R (2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out. PMID:25001206
Predicting U.S. Tuberculosis Case Counts through 2020
Woodruff, Rachel S. Y e l k; Winston, Carla A.; Miramontes, Roque
2013-01-01
In 2010, foreign-born persons accounted for 60% of all tuberculosis (TB) cases in the United States. Understanding which national groups make up the highest proportion of TB cases will assist TB control programs in concentrating limited resources where they can provide the greatest impact on preventing transmission of TB disease. The objective of our study was to predict through 2020 the numbers of U.S. TB cases among U.S.-born, foreign-born and foreign-born persons from selected countries of birth. TB case counts reported through the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System from 2000–2010 were log-transformed, and linear regression was performed to calculate predicted annual case counts and 95% prediction intervals for 2011–2020. Data were analyzed in 2011 before 2011 case counts were known. Decreases were predicted between 2010 observed and 2020 predicted counts for total TB cases (11,182 to 8,117 [95% prediction interval 7,262–9,073]) as well as TB cases among foreign-born persons from Mexico (1,541 to 1,420 [1,066–1,892]), the Philippines (740 to 724 [569–922]), India (578 to 553 [455–672]), Vietnam (532 to 429 [367–502]) and China (364 to 328 [249–433]). TB cases among persons who are U.S.-born and foreign-born were predicted to decline 47% (4,393 to 2,338 [2,113–2,586]) and 6% (6,720 to 6,343 [5,382–7,476]), respectively. Assuming rates of declines observed from 2000–2010 continue until 2020, a widening gap between the numbers of U.S.-born and foreign-born TB cases was predicted. TB case count predictions will help TB control programs identify needs for cultural competency, such as languages and interpreters needed for translating materials or engaging in appropriate community outreach. PMID:23785416
Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot.
De La Cruz, Vivian M; Di Nuovo, Alessandro; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo
2014-01-01
Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags) to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting) and linguistic skills (using number words). The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers. PMID:24550795
Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323
Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier
2013-07-01
A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)