Sample records for count lymphocyte count

  1. Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Predictor of CD4 Count

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan I Shapiro; David J Karras; Stephen H Leech; Katherine L Heilpern

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: To determine whether the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) (white blood count×lymphocyte percentage) can be used to predict a low CD4 count. Methods: We conducted a retrospective data analysis of consecutive CD4 count analyses performed between January 1, 1995, through December 1, 1995, at an urban university teaching hospital. Results of consecutive CD4 counts and simultaneously measured ALCs were

  2. Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Beck

    2006-12-08

    Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

  3. Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thwaites, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a counting system and number operations. Suggests six distinct areas in a "number" subject: one-to-one correspondences; simple counting process; complicated counting process; addition and multiplication; algorithms for the operations; and the decimal system. (YP)

  4. Sampling Site Matters When Counting Lymphocyte Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Peeters, Dieter; Hens, Niel; Malfait, Ronald; Van Tendeloo, Viggo; Van Damme, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and scientific work routinely relies on antecubital venipunctures for hematological, immunological or other analyses on blood. This study tested the hypothesis that antecubital veins can be considered to be a good proxy for other sampling sites. Using a hematocytometer and a flow cytometer, we analyzed the cell counts from samples coming from the radial artery, the dorsal hand veins and the antecubital veins from 18 volunteers. Most surprisingly, we identified the greatest difference not to exist between arterial and venous circulation, but between the distal (radial artery & dorsal hand veins) and proximal (antecubital veins) sampling sites. Naïve T cells had a higher cell count distally compared to proximally and the reverse was true for effector memory T cells. Despite these differences there were high correlations between the different sampling sites, which partially supports our initial hypothesis. Our findings are crucial for the future design and interpretation of immunological research, and for clinical practice. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for interval lymph nodes in the trafficking of lymphocytes. PMID:22848485

  5. Factors associated with CD4 lymphocyte counts in HIV-negative Senegalese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mair, C; Hawes, S E; Agne, H D; Sow, P S; N'doye, I; Manhart, L E; Fu, P L; Gottlieb, G S; Kiviat, N B

    2008-01-01

    CD4+ lymphocytes are a primary target of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and CD4 counts are one of the factors used to measure disease progression in HIV-positive individuals. CD4 counts vary in uninfected individuals and across populations due to a variety of demographic, environmental, immunological and genetic factors that probably persist throughout the course of HIV infection. This study sought to determine reference levels and identify factors that influence lymphocyte counts in 681 HIV-uninfected adults in Senegal, where residents are exposed to a variety of infectious diseases and other conditions that may affect CD4 counts. Lymphocyte counts were assessed in commercial sex workers, symptomatic men and women presenting to the University of Dakar infectious disease clinic for out-patient care and women seeking family planning services. CD4 and CD3 lymphocyte counts differed between the four study groups (P < 0·01). Men had the lowest mean CD4 count (711·6 cells/?l), while commercial sex workers had the highest levels (966·0 cells/?l). After adjustment for age and other behavioural and clinical factors, the difference in CD4 counts between the three groups of women did not remain. However, both gender and smoking were associated independently with CD4 counts, as men maintained lower mean CD4 counts (? = ?156·4 cells/?l, P < 0·01) and smokers had higher mean CD4 counts (? = 124·0 cells/?l, P < 0·01) than non-smokers in multivariable analyses. This study is the first to explore factors that may influence CD4 levels in Senegal and to estimate baseline CD4 levels among HIV-negatives, information that may guide clinicians in interpreting CD4 counts. PMID:18190600

  6. Prognostic Value of Baseline Lymphocyte Count in Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chel Hun; Kang, Heeseok; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Gie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Duk-Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: huna0@naver.com

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: This study examined factors predicting tumor response and progression-free survival in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 143 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2 to IVA) treated with CCRT were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to retrospectively evaluate prognostic factors, including baseline lymphocyte count, that affect tumor response and progression-free survival. Results: Of the variables evaluated, greater baseline lymphocyte count was the factor most predictive of a complete clinical response, followed by smaller tumor size (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed baseline lymphocyte count, which was treated as a continuous variable with every 1 x 10{sup 9} lymphocytes/L, to remain a prognostic factor with an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-7.23). In addition, a statistically significant association (p = 0.023) was found between baseline lymphocyte count and progression-free survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.89) in the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients and possible biologic variation existing in lymphocyte subset number and activity, these findings highlight the strong prognostic value of baseline lymphocyte count in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT. Therefore, a larger number of patients and analysis of lymphocyte subsets are needed.

  7. Changes in leukocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte counts following antenatal betamethasone administration to pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kadanali; M. Ingeç; T. Küçüközkan; B. Börekçi; Y. Kumtepe

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes are associated with a mild leukocytosis. However, we have observed a higher maternal leukocyte count after antenatal betamethasone therapy. We planned this study to evaluate the effects of antenatal betamethasone treatment on maternal leukocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte count. Methods: Forty-six pregnant women with the diagnosis of preterm labor between 28 and 33

  8. MBL or CLL: Which classification best categorizes the clinical course of patients with an absolute lymphocyte count ? 5 × 10 9 L ?1 but a B-cell lymphocyte count < 5 × 10 9 L ?1?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tait D. Shanafelt; Neil E. Kay; Tim G. Call; Clive S. Zent; Diane F. Jelinek; Betsy LaPlant; William G. Morice; Curtis A. Hanson

    2008-01-01

    To eliminate overlap with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL), some have proposed basing the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) on B lymphocyte count rather than absolute lymphocyte count (ALC). Such criteria should be based, in part, on patient outcomes. We evaluated the clinical implications of the proposed re-classification in 112 consecutive, newly diagnosed, Rai stage 0 patients. The new criteria

  9. Modeling absolute lymphocyte counts after treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Smith, David D; Goldstein, Leanne; Cheng, Mei; James, Danelle F; Kunkel, Lori A; Fardis, Maria; Hamdy, Ahmed; Izumi, Raquel; Buggy, Joseph J; Clow, Fong

    2015-02-01

    The objective in this study was to characterize the pattern of the treatment-related lymphocytosis curve in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients treated with ibrutinib, and assess the relationship between the baseline factors and absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC). The PCYC-1102-CA study was a five-arm phase Ib/II open-label, nonrandomized, multicenter study in CLL/SLL. The arms and accruals were 420 and 840 mg/day treatment-naive elderly CLL/SLL (N?=?27 and N?=?4, respectively), 420 and 840 mg/day relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL (N?=?27 and N?=?34, respectively), and 420 mg/day high-risk CLL/SLL (N?=?24). The results were generated through statistical modeling using data from a clinical trial (PCYC-1102) in five cohorts of treatment-naïve or relapsed/refractory CLL patients treated at 420 and 840 mg daily of ibrutinib. In cases in which the initial increase in ALC doubles by day 28, it takes patients longer to reach their maximum ALC when compared with those with a lower rate of increase. Our models show that all of the cohorts exhibited the same pattern of treatment-related lymphocytosis from ibrutinib, and there are no significant differences between cohorts, including no detectable dose effect. The ALC of the majority of patients return to baseline ALC values by the end of cycle 5. PMID:25178517

  10. Interaction of tamoxifen with concurrent cytotoxic adjuvant treatment affects lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets counts in breast cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marzio E. E. Sabbioni; Monica Castiglione; Christoph Hürny; Hans-Peter Siegrist; Marisa Bacchi; Jürg Bernhard; Beat Thürlimann; Hervé Bonnefoi; Lucien Perey; Aron Goldhirsch; Hans-Jörg Senn

    1999-01-01

    The effects and interaction of endocrine and cytotoxic adjuvant treatment on measures of cellular immunity were assessed\\u000a in 41 stage I–II breast cancer patients from International Breast Cancer Study Group trials. Counts of lymphocytes and lymphocyte\\u000a subsets [(T, T4, T8, B, natural killer (NK) and activated T (AT) cells] were assessed by flow cytometry immediately before\\u000a adjuvant therapy at baseline

  11. The relationship between absolute lymphocyte count with PFS in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Seshadri; M Pintilie; A Keating; M Crump; J Kuruvilla

    2008-01-01

    Previous reports in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) have demonstrated a significant association between the absolute lymphocyte count at day 15 (ALC-15) with survival. To evaluate this finding further, we analyzed 146 patients with relapsed\\/refractory HL who underwent AHCT to evaluate the relationship between lymphocyte counts at apheresis and at two time points (days 15

  12. On-chip counting the number and the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao-Nan Wang; Yuejun Kang; Dongyan Xu; Chan Hee Chon; Louise Barnett; Spyros A. Kalams; Deyu Lib; Dongqing Li

    2008-01-01

    A novel technique is reported for counting the number and the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. This system integrates optical fluorescence detection with resistive pulse sensing enhanced by a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). The MOSFET signal indicates the total number of the cells passing through the detection channel, while the concurrent fluorescence

  13. Effect of caffeine ingestion on lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo following strenuous cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolette C. Bishop; Christina Fitzgerald; Penny J. Porter; Gabriella A. Scanlon; Alice C. Smith

    2005-01-01

    Caffeine ingestion is associated with increases in the concentration of plasma epinephrine and epinephrine is associated with alterations in immune cell trafficking and function following intensive exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of caffeine ingestion on plasma epinephrine concentration, lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo, as measured by the expression the CD69 surface

  14. Clinical Value of Absolute Lymphocyte Counts before Bortezomib-Dexamethasone Therapy in Relapsed Multiple Myeloma Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moo-Kon Song; Joo-Seop Chung; Young-Don Joo; Sang-Min Lee; Gyeong-Won Lee; Ho-sup Lee; Sung-Hyun Kim; Eun-Young Yun; Young-Mi Seol; Seung-Geun Kim; Ho-Jin Shin; Young-Jin Choi; Goon-Jae Cho

    2010-01-01

    A high absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at diagnosis is known as a surrogate marker of favorable prognosis in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). Recent studies showed tumor sensitization and enhanced cytotoxicity of bortezomib. We hypothesized that a high ALC before bortezomib treatment would contribute to tumor sensitization and activated cytotoxicity of bortezomib in relapsed MM. Ninety-seven relapsed MM patients who

  15. Absolute lymphocyte count recovery after induction chemotherapy predicts superior survival in acute myelogenous leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Behl; L F Porrata; S N Markovic; L Letendre; R K Pruthi; C C Hook; A Tefferi; M A Elliot; S H Kaufmann; R A Mesa; M R Litzow

    2006-01-01

    Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery postautologous stem cell transplantation is an independent predictor for survival in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The role of ALC recovery after induction chemotherapy (IC) in AML is unknown. We hypothesize that ALC recovery after IC has a direct impact on survival. We have now evaluated the impact of ALC recovery after IC on overall survival

  16. Counting Quail

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

    2005-10-05

    at least three counts. Helicopter surveys Aerial surveys (conducted from a helicopter or airplane) are commonly used to count deer and pronghorn antelope in Texas, and have been used recently to survey quail. Generally, a quail survey is conducted...

  17. Let's Count!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Popwell

    2010-09-20

    Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...

  18. Count Around

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-23

    Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can find—and figure out "what counts." It’s easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.

  19. The ratio of absolute lymphocyte count at interim of therapy to absolute lymphocyte count at diagnosis predicts survival in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuping; Luo, Zebin; Yang, Shilong; Jia, Ming; Zhao, Haizhao; Xu, Weiqun; Tang, Yongmin

    2015-02-01

    Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) after therapy has been reported to be an independent prognostic factor for clinical outcome in leukemia. This study mainly analyzed ALC at interim of therapy on day 22 (ALC-22) and the ratio of ALC-22 to ALC at diagnosis (ALC-0) on the impact of survival and the relation of ALC to lymphocyte subsets in 119 pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. Univariate analysis revealed that ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio <10% was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio (HR)=12.24, P=0.0014) and event-free survival (EFS) (HR=3.3, P=0.0046). In multivariate analysis, ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio remained an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR=6.92, P=0.0181) and EFS (HR=2.78, P=0.0329) after adjusting for age, white blood cell (WBC) count and minimal residual disease (MRD) status. A Spearman correlation test showed that CD3+ T cells had a negative correlation with ALC-0 (r=-0.7204, P<0.0001) and a positive correlation with ALC-22 (r=0.5061, P=0.0071). These data suggest that ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio may serve as a more effective biomarker to predict survival in pediatric B-ALL and ALC is mainly associated with CD3+ T cells. PMID:25542697

  20. Emerging technologies for point-of-care CD4 T-lymphocyte counting

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, David S.; Hawkins, Kenneth R.; Steele, Matthew S.; Singhal, Mitra; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2012-01-01

    A CD4 T-lymphocyte count determines eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) with patients recently diagnosed with HIV and also monitors the efficacy of ART treatment thereafter. ART slows the progression of HIV to AIDS. In the developing world, CD4 tests are often performed in centralized laboratories, typically in urban areas. The expansion of ART programs into rural areas has created a need for rapid CD4 counting as logistical barriers can delay the timely dissemination of test results and affect patient care through delay in intervention or loss of follow-up care. CD4 measurement at the point-of-care (POC) in rural areas could help facilitating ART and monitoring of treatment. This review highlights recent technology developments with applications towards determining CD4 counts at the POC. PMID:21798607

  1. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts: ASR hip resurfacing prosthesis vs. standard THA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Wear particles from metal–on–metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above–average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts. Method In a randomized controlled trial, we followed 19 RHA patients and 19 THA patients. Lymphocyte subsets and chromium and cobalt ion concentrations were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, at 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years. Results The T–lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2–year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3+CD8+ in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of –0.04 × 109cells/year (95% CI: –0.08 to –0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect of cobalt ions in particular on T–cells with 2–year whole–blood cobalt regression coefficients for CD3+ of –0.10 (95% CI: –0.16 to –0.04) × 109 cells/parts per billion (ppb), for CD3+CD4+ of –0.06 (–0.09 to –0.03) × 109 cells/ppb, and for CD3+CD8+ of –0.02 (–0.03 to –0.00) × 109 cells/ppb. Interpretation Circulating T–lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions—particularly cobalt—may have a general depressive effect on T– and B–lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762 PMID:23597114

  2. Effects of the space flight environment on man's immune system. II - Lymphocyte counts and reactivity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, G. L.; Daniels, J. C.; Levin, W. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Cobb, E. K.; Ritzmann, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to assess the effects of the environment of space flights on the cellular division of the human immune system. Peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte counts were determined at various preflight and postflight intervals for the 21 crewmen of Apollo Missions 7-13. Mean lymphocyte numbers tended to exhibit a delayed significant but fluctuating increase shortly after recovery, although a variety of responses was seen in individual astronauts. The in vitro reactivity of lymphocytes, reflected by RNA and DNA synthesis rates by unstimulated and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes tissue-cultured preflight and postflight from the same participants, was found to remain within previously established normal ranges. These results indicate that functional integrity of cellular immune potential as reflected by in vitro techniques is maintained during this spaceflight experience.

  3. Treatment of childhood lymphocytic leukaemia with high white-cell counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Ekert; K D Waters; P J Smith; R N Matthews; W M Ellis

    1978-01-01

    Combination chemotherapy with cytosine arabinoside, cyclophosphamide and L-asparaginase (Asnase) was given to 22 children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) with a white-cell count greater than 30 X 10(9)\\/1, and other features suggestive of poor prognosis. Complete remission was induced in all patients--in 19 after 2 courses of chemotherapy and in the remainder after a third course. During induction, neutropenia occurred

  4. Photon counting.

    PubMed

    Morton, G A

    1968-01-01

    The fundamentals of photon counting using photomultipliers are described, including criteria for selecting suitable photomultipliers, some of the precautions that must be taken in using these devices, and methods of calculating the counting errors that may occur under various conditions of measurement. Problems of determining the time distribution of photons and, in particular, the coincident emission of photons which may be encountered in lasers and other simulated emission sources are also discussed. The question of photon counting with photoconductors is reviewed, and it is shown that it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to achieve photon counting with simple photoconductors. However, carrier multiplication with photoconductive multipliers should eventually make possible photon counting with photoconductors. Photoconductive multipliers in one form or another have high quantum efficiency and wide spectral response, and will almost inevitably replace photomultipliers for photon counting. PMID:20062394

  5. Absolute Lymphocyte Count on Day 30 Is a Surrogate for Robust Hematopoietic Recovery and Strongly Predicts Outcome after T Cell-Depleted Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bipin N. Savani; Stephan Mielke; Katayoun Rezvani; Aldemar Montero; Agnes S. Yong; Laura Wish; Jeannine Superata; Roger Kurlander; Anurag Singh; Richard Childs; A. John Barrett

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a higher lymphocyte count 3-4 weeks after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is associated with better transplant outcome. However, the factors determining early lymphocyte recovery are not defined. To further explore the relationship between lymphocyte recovery and outcome we analyzed lymphocyte counts and other engraftment parameters in 157 patients with leukemia (48 acute myelogenous leukemia,

  6. Higher Abnormal Leukocyte and Lymphocyte Counts 20 Years After Exposure to Severe Stress: Research and Clinical Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH A. BOSCARINO; JEANI CHANG

    and higher mean adjusted leukocyte (p 5 .042), lymphocyte (p 5 .01), T-cell (p 5 .008), and CD4 cell (p 5 .027) counts. Those with anxiety disorders have adjusted lymphocyte (OR 5 1.68, p 5 .048) and T-cell (OR 5 2.06, p 5 .011) counts above range. They also have test results indicating reactive delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity (OR 5 1.77,

  7. Counting Money

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bunn

    2010-10-30

    Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

  8. Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Predictor of Mortality in Emergency Department Patients with Paraquat Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Seong Chun; Lee, Soo Hoon; Jeong, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong Seob; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Background Paraquat (PQ) is a potent, highly toxic and widely used herbicide. The major medical problems associated with PQ are accidental or suicidal ingestion. There are several prognostic markers of PQ poisoning, with the serum PQ concentration considered to be the best indicator of outcome. However, the measurement of such markers is limited in many hospitals. Objective The present study was conducted to investigate the association of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and the 30-day mortality rate in patients with PQ poisoning. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to the emergency department after paraquat poisoning between January 2010 and April 2013. Independent risk factors including ALC for 30-day mortality were determined. The ALC was categorized in quartiles as ?1700, 1700 to 3200, 3200 to 5000, and >5000. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis were performed to determine the independent risk factors for mortality. Results A total of 136 patients were included in the study, and the 30-day mortality was 73.5%. ALC was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors. The highest ALC quartile (ALC>5000; hazard ratio, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.08–6.21) was associated with increased mortality in multivariate analysis. In addition, old age, lower arterial PaCO2, increased peripheral neutrophil count, and high serum levels of creatinine were associated with mortality. Conclusion The absolute lymphocyte count is associated with the 30-day mortality rate in patients with paraquat poisoning. PMID:24205140

  9. Absolute lymphocyte count and risk of short-term infection in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Hung; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Huang, Yu-Chung; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Chen, Ming-Huang; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Po-Min; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Liu, Chun-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) may be at increased risk of infection because of the steroids and other immunosuppressive agents used in its treatment. This study aimed to identify events that are associated with infection within 6 months of diagnosis and the impact that infection has on survival. We retrospectively evaluated 239 patients (107 men, 132 women; median age 61 years) diagnosed between January 1997 and August 2011. Every patient received steroid treatment according to the platelet count and the extent of bleeding. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with the development of infection within 6 months of ITP being diagnosed. Sixty-two patients (25.9 %) developed an infection within 6 months of diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that a lower absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at diagnosis (<1?×?10(9)/l) was an independent risk factor for infection (P?=?0.039; 95 % confidence interval, 1.033-3.599; odds ratio, 1.928). The time to infection event is significant shorter in those of low ALC, compared with those of higher ALC (P?=?0.032). Furthermore, the 1-year mortality rate after ITP diagnosis was significantly higher in those patients who developed an infection (P?=?0.001). ITP patients with a low absolute lymphocyte count at diagnosis have an increased risk of infection, and those who develop infections have lower 1-year survival. PMID:24441917

  10. Counting Coins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    thorsen

    2012-11-24

    We are learning about money and how to count coins. We need to learn about coins so we can pay for things we need to buy. These activities will help you practice counting money. Remember to record your learning as you work! Coin Paper We have been learning about coins. Listen to the coin song to remember the names of U.S. coins. U.S. Coin Song Before we can count coins, we need to know the names of the different coins and how much each coin is worth. Click the link below to review ...

  11. Clock Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. McDuffee

    2008-11-12

    Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

  12. Quantitative Profiling of Immune Repertoires for Minor Lymphocyte Counts Using Unique Molecular Identifiers.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Evgeny S; Merzlyak, Ekaterina M; Shelenkov, Andrew A; Britanova, Olga V; Sharonov, George V; Staroverov, Dmitriy B; Bolotin, Dmitriy A; Davydov, Alexey N; Barsova, Ekaterina; Lebedev, Yuriy B; Shugay, Mikhail; Chudakov, Dmitriy M

    2015-06-15

    Emerging high-throughput sequencing methods for the analyses of complex structure of TCR and BCR repertoires give a powerful impulse to adaptive immunity studies. However, there are still essential technical obstacles for performing a truly quantitative analysis. Specifically, it remains challenging to obtain comprehensive information on the clonal composition of small lymphocyte populations, such as Ag-specific, functional, or tissue-resident cell subsets isolated by sorting, microdissection, or fine needle aspirates. In this study, we report a robust approach based on unique molecular identifiers that allows profiling Ag receptors for several hundred to thousand lymphocytes while preserving qualitative and quantitative information on clonal composition of the sample. We also describe several general features regarding the data analysis with unique molecular identifiers that are critical for accurate counting of starting molecules in high-throughput sequencing applications. PMID:25957172

  13. Compressed Counting

    E-print Network

    Li, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Counting is among the most fundamental operations in computing. For example, counting the pth frequency moment has been a very active area of research, in theoretical computer science, databases, and data mining. When p=1, the task (i.e., counting the sum) can be accomplished using a simple counter. Compressed Counting (CC) is proposed for efficiently computing the pth frequency moment of a data stream signal A_t, where 0= 0, which includes the strict Turnstile model as a special case. For natural data streams encountered in practice, this restriction is minor. The underly technique for CC is what we call skewed stable random projections, which captures the intuition that, when p=1 a simple counter suffices, and when p = 1+/\\Delta with small \\Delta, the sample complexity of a counter system should be low (continuously as a function of \\Delta). We show at small \\Delta the sample complexity (number of projections) k = O(1/\\epsilon) instead of O(1/\\epsilon^2). Compressed Counting can serve a basic building block...

  14. Absolute monocyte and lymphocyte count prognostic score for patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Wan Kyu; Jeong, Da Wun; Chang, Hye Jung; Won, Kyu Yeoun; Choi, Sung Il; Kim, Se Hyun; Chun, Sung Wook; Oh, Young Lim; Lee, Tae Hwa; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Ki Hyung; Ji, Yong Il; Kim, Ari; Kim, Heung Yeol

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To measure the prognostic significance of absolute monocyte count/absolute lymphocyte count prognostic score (AMLPS) in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the combination of absolute monocyte count (AMC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) as prognostic variables in a cohort of 299 gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2013 and were followed at a single institution. Both AMC and ALC were dichotomized into two groups using cut-off points determined by receiving operator characteristic curve analysis. An AMLPS was generated, which stratified patients into three risk groups: low risk (both low AMC and high ALC), intermediate risk (either high AMC or low ALC), and high risk (both high AMC and low ALC). The primary objective of the study was to validate the impact of AMLPS on both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), and the second objective was to assess the AMLPS as an independent prognostic factor for survival in comparison with known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Using data from the entire cohort, the most discriminative cut-off values of AMC and ALC selected on the receiver operating characteristic curve were 672.4/?L and 1734/?L for DFS and OS. AMLPS risk groups included 158 (52.8%) patients in the low-risk, 128 (42.8%) in the intermediate-risk, and 13 (4.3%) in the high-risk group. With a median follow-up of 37.2 mo (range: 1.7-91.4 mo), five-year DFS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 83.4%, 78.7%, and 19.8%, respectively. And five-year OS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 89.3%, 81.1%, and 14.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis performed with patient- and tumor-related factors, we identified AMLPS, age, and pathologic tumor-node-metastasis stage as the most valuable prognostic factors impacting DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: AMLPS identified patients with a poor DFS and OS, and it was independent of age, pathologic stage, and various inflammatory markers. PMID:25759535

  15. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  16. Biodiversity Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

    In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

  17. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  18. Counting Coins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K12, Inc.

    2011-03-23

    In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

  19. Infused peripheral blood autograft absolute lymphocyte count correlates with day 15 absolute lymphocyte count and clinical outcome after autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L F Porrata; M R Litzow; D J Inwards; D A Gastineau; S B Moore; A A Pineda; K L Bundy; D J Padley; D Persky; S M Ansell; I N M Micallef; S N Markovic

    2004-01-01

    Absolute lymphocyte count at day 15 (ALC-15) after autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APHSCT) is an independent prognostic factor for survival in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Factors affecting ALC-15 remain unknown. We hypothesized that dose of infused autograft lymphocytes (A-ALC) directly impacts upon ALC-15. A total of 190 consecutive NHL patients received A-ALC between 1993 and 2001. The primary

  20. [A case of tuberculous meningitis associated with persistently reduced CD4+ T lymphocyte counts].

    PubMed

    Holub, M; Beran, O; Džupová, O; Rozsypal, H

    2015-03-01

    A case history is presented of a 35-year-old man admitted to the hospital with tuberculous meningitis complicated by caseous necrosis of cervical lymph nodes and thrombosis of the left jugular vein. Another complication, malignant brain edema, appeared more than one year after discharge from hospital and was managed at the neurosurgery department. The most probable cause was a post-inflammatory obstruction of the cerebrospinal fluid pathways. A challenging finding, observed repeatedly while in hospital and at follow ups after discharge, was medium significant CD4+ T cell lymphopenia, with the lowest CD4+ T cell count of 308 cells/?l of peripheral blood. For this reason, the patient was screened several times for anti-HIV antibodies, but always with a negative result. Active tuberculous infection was considered as another possible reason behind persistent CD4+ T cell lymphopenia. However, imaging and laboratory analyses were not suggestive of tuberculosis. The patient is currently in good condition and his CD4+ T lymphocyte counts returned to normal at seven years of follow-up. It is underlined that patients after tuberculous meningitis need a long-term follow-up. PMID:25872992

  1. Counting Money

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    areese

    2008-09-25

    Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

  2. Assessment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma by Absolute Lymphocyte Counts in 2,126 Patients: 20 Years of Experience at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apostolia M. Tsimberidou; Sijin Wen; Susan O'Brien; Peter McLaughlin; William G. Wierda; Alessandra Ferrajoli; Stefan Faderl; John Manning; Susan Lerner; Chinh V. Mai; Alma M. Rodriguez; Mark Hess; Emil J. Freireich; Hagop M. Kantarjian; L. Jeffrey Medeiros; Michael J. Keating

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are currently considered the same entity, but controversy remains over whether CLL and SLL should be treated similarly. We assessed whether characteristics of patients with CLL and SLL differ in ways other than the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and evaluated treatment outcomes and prognostic factors. Methods We searched the electronic

  3. Total blood lymphocyte counts in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity: relationship to severity of iron overload and HLA-A and B alleles and haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C Barton; Howard W Wiener; Ronald T Acton

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that some persons with hemochromatosis have low total blood lymphocyte counts, but the reason for this is unknown. METHODS: We measured total blood lymphocyte counts using an automated blood cell counter in 146 hemochromatosis probands (88 men, 58 women) with HFE C282Y homozygosity who were diagnosed in medical care. Univariate and multivariate analyses of total

  4. Biodiversity Counts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

  5. Counting whole numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hirst

    2007-10-12

    Identify and use whole numbers up to 100 Here are some links to help you learn more about counting Teach R Kids Math counting and number activity themes Here are some games to help you practice your counting counting cherrios Bunny Count Connect the Dots Game ...

  6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia and the CD4+ lymphocyte count as predictors of CMV disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Gérard, L; Leport, C; Flandre, P; Houhou, N; Salmon-Céron, D; Pépin, J M; Mandet, C; Brun-Vézinet, F; Vildé, J L

    1997-05-01

    We screened 192 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to examine the relation between CD4+ lymphocyte counts and cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia and the occurrence of CMV disease and subsequent duration of survival. When we stratified the viremic patients by CD4+ lymphocyte counts, the proportions were as follows: <50/mm3, 20 (25%) of 80 patients; 50-100/mm3, 2 (5.5%) of 36; 101-150/mm3, none of 14; and >150/mm3, 1 (1.5%) of 62. After a mean follow-up period of 8.5 months, 21 (11%) of 192 patients developed CMV disease. The probability of developing CMV disease at 6 months was 13% when the CD4+ lymphocyte count was <50/mm3, 3% when the CD4+ lymphocyte count was 50-100/mm3, and 0 when the CD4+ lymphocyte count was >100/mm3; this probability was 46% for viremic patients and 1% for nonviremic patients. In a multivariate analysis, CMV viremia was independently prognostic of CMV disease (relative risk, 22.03; 95% confidence interval, 6.49-78.97; P < .001), whereas a CD4+ lymphocyte count of <50/mm3 was not (P = .26). These results support the value of CMV viremia for predicting which HIV-infected patients are at risk of developing CMV disease and should therefore receive primary prophylaxis. PMID:9142778

  7. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions. ... to show up as orange-red granules. The technician then counts how ... white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count.

  8. Uncertainty of nuclear counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.; Fitzgerald, R.; Keightley, J.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear counting is affected by pulse pileup and system dead time, which induce rate-related count loss and alter the statistical properties of the counting process. Fundamental equations are presented to predict deviations from Poisson statistics due to non-random count loss in nuclear counters and spectrometers. Throughput and dispersion of counts are studied for systems with pileup, extending and non-extending dead time, before and also after compensation for count loss. Equations are provided for random fractions of the output events, applicable to spectrometry applications. Methods for loss compensation are discussed, including inversion of the throughput equation, live-time counting and loss-free counting. Secondary effects in live-time counting are addressed: residual interference from pileup in systems with imposed dead times and errors due to varying count rate when measuring short-lived radionuclides.

  9. Analysis of changes in the total lymphocyte and eosinophil count during immunotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: correlation with response and survival.

    PubMed

    Jeong, In Gab; Han, Kyung Seok; Joung, Jae Young; Choi, Woo Suk; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yang, Seung Ok; Seo, Ho Kyung; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2007-09-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze lymphocyte and eosinophil counts in consecutive peripheral blood samples taken during immunotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and to correlate the findings with objective response and survival. A total of 40 patients with mRCC who received immunotherapy with interleukin-2, interferon-alpha, and 5-fluorouracil were analyzed. Objective responses were observed in 14 patients, including 2 (5%) who showed a complete response (CR) and 12 (30%) who showed a partial response (PR). Eleven patients (27%) achieved stable disease (SD), and 15 patients (38%) had progressive disease (PD). Changes from baseline in the total lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the responding patients (CR+PR+SD) than in the non-responding patients (PD) (p=0.017), but no difference was seen in the total eosinophil counts (p=0.275). Univariate analysis identified the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (p=0.017), the presence of a primary renal tumor (p<0.001) and the peripheral lymphocyte counts at week 4 (p=0.034) as prognostic factors, but a low ECOG performance status (p=0.003) and the presence of a primary renal tumor (p=0.001) were identified as independent poor prognostic factors by multivariate analysis. This study provides further evidence that changes in blood lymphocyte counts may serve as an objective indicator of objective responses. PMID:17923738

  10. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  11. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePLUS

    All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued • If the total carbohydrate ...

  12. Lymphocyte counts and functions in arterial and venous splenic blood of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Evidence for elimination of spontaneously DNA synthesizing cells in the spleen.

    PubMed Central

    Björkholm, M; Holm, G; Askergren, J; Mellstedt, H

    1983-01-01

    Lymphocyte counts and functional competence of lymphocytes from arterial and venous splenic blood were studied in six patients with Hodgkin's disease subjected to splenectomy. One patient was untreated, four were tested after mantle field treatment and a sixth patient had a splenic relapse after total nodal radiotherapy. The percentage of E binding cells in splenic venous blood was lower than that of arterial blood though no significant differences were found in total lymphocyte or E binding cell counts. The spontaneous lymphocyte DNA synthesis was lower in venous than in arterial splenic lymphocytes in all patients. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced DNA synthesis was much lower in lymphocytes from splenic venous blood than in those from arterial blood in two patients and marginally decreased in another two. The pattern of concanavalin A response was similar to that of PWM. The elimination of lymphocytes over the spleen could not be related to the presence of lymphocytotoxic serum factors or to splenic weight or histologically verified tumour involvement. The results support the notion that some facets of the blood lymphocyte abnormalities in Hodgkin's disease may be explained by removal of functionally active lymphocyte subpopulations in the spleen. It is also concluded that spontaneously activated lymphoid cells are detained in the spleen. PMID:6872314

  13. Are albumin and total lymphocyte count significant and reliable predictors of mortality in fractured neck of femur patients?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Alva, Avinash; Akkena, Sudheer; Jones, Morgan; Murphy, Philip N; Clough, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Hip fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. It is important to identify factors that predict an increased mortality following hip fracture. The aim of this study was to identify significant predictors of mortality at 6 and 12 months following hip fractures. Three hundred patients above the age of 65 were identified who were admitted in to the hospital with fracture neck of femur. Two hundred and seventy-four patients were operated and were included into the study. Variables collected were age, gender, significant comorbidities, admission albumin level and admission total lymphocyte count (TLC). Admission time and subsequent time to surgery were also analysed. Our study showed that albumin and TLC were found to be the only clearly significant mortality predictors at 12 months and a delay of up to 4 days to surgery does not significantly increase the mortality at 12 months. PMID:23989803

  14. Counting Collections to 100

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy Saslow

    2013-01-01

    In this 6-minute video Theresa Tse's grade 1 students develop strategies for counting to 100 and beyond as they engage in activities designed to help them understand the structure of our number system. They participate in choral skip counting, counting collections of objects, grouping, and finding complements to 100. The page includes viewer reflection questions and a link to a transcript of the video (doc).

  15. Counting coins and value

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Christian

    2007-03-21

    Students will identify and add up coins. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Counting Money - Values of coins Game #2:Counting Money (harder) Game #3: Let s Compare (hardest) Game #4: Money Hard Game #5: Cash Out--Very Difficult Math Game ...

  16. Synchronized Counting Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hussien Aly; Z. Meral Özsoyoglu

    1989-01-01

    A direct extension to the counting method is presented which can deal efficiently with both acyclic and cyclic relations. The extension to cycle cases, called the synchronized counting method, is simulated and studied using a Petri net model. Worst-case analysis shows that n2 semijoin operations are required, where n is the number of nodes in the graph representing the relevant

  17. Counting Your Lucky Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shannon Ricles

    2013-01-30

    In this activity, learners sample a star field to estimate the number of stars in the universe. This activity simulates how astronomers use sampling instead of census (counting) to more easily collect data in space. Learners predict, count, approximate, and average the number of stars in a Star Field Sheet.

  18. Effect of moderate exercise on IgA levels and lymphocyte count in mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Viloria, María; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; López-Sánchez, Pedro; Rivera-Aguilar, Víctor; Salas-Casas, Andrés; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco J; García-Latorre, Ethel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of moderate exercise on the production and secretion of IgA in mouse duodenum, on lymphocyte levels in the lamina propria, and on gene expression encoding for cytokines that regulate the synthesis of ?-chain of IgA and the expression of pIgR in the lamina propria. Two groups of young Balb/c mice were fed ad libitum, one sedentary and the other with an exercise program (swimming) for 16 weeks. IgA levels in the duodenum were quantified by ELISA; the number of IgA containing cells as well as B cells, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the duodenal mucosa was determined by immunohistochemistry; gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, and the expression of proteins by Western blotting. Because of physical training, in the duodenum there was a decrease in the number of IgA producing cells, but an increase in the levels of IgA. Additionally, exercise increased the expression of the genes encoding for IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-? and TGF ?, cytokines that regulate the synthesis of IgA and pIgR, the inflammatory response, and the immune response in the intestine. Thus, the increased IgA found in the duodenal lumen is probably due to the increased production of IgA in the LP and the increased transport of the pIgA-pIgR complex across epithelial cells. Possibly the increased S-IgA levels in the bile also contribute to the change in IgA levels. PMID:21554181

  19. Great Backyard Bird Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cornell University

    Started in 1998, the Great Backyard Bird Count collects data on wild birds and to display results in near real-time. The event takes place in February in the U.S. and Canada in order to create a snapshot of bird distribution just before the start of spring migration. Participants create accounts and help to count birds for at least 15 minutes on one or more days during the yearly event. Data from past counts can be viewed at the website. A mobile app is available for entering data.

  20. Semantical Counting Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Noilhan; Miklos Santha

    2003-01-01

      \\u000a \\u000a Abstract. Counting functions can be defined syntactically or semantically depending on whether they count the number of witnesses in\\u000a a non-deterministic or in a deterministic computation on the input. In the Turing-machine-based model these two ways of defining\\u000a counting were proven to be equivalent for many important complexity classes. In the circuit-based model it was done for #P,\\u000a but

  1. The predictive Value of Total Neutrophil Count and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting In-hospital Mortality and Complications after STEMI

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Samad; Nadiri, Mehdi; Pourafkari, Leili; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Movasagpoor, Aliakbar; Rahmatvand, Neda; Rezazadeh Saatloo, Mohammadamin; Ahmadi, Mona; Nader, Nader D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Leukocytosis, predominantly neutrophilia, has previously been described following ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The exact contribution of this phenomenon to the clinical outcome of STEMI is yet to be shown. We examined cellular inflammatory response to STEMI in the blood and its association with in-hospital mortality and/or adverse clinical events. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 404 patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of acute STEMI at Madani Heart Hospital from March 2010 to March 2012 were studied. The complete blood cell count (CBC) was obtained from all patientswithin12-24 hours of the onset of symptoms. Total leukocytes were counted and differential count was obtained for neutrophils, lymphocytes and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were evaluated. Association of cellular response with the incidence of post-MI mortality/complications was assessed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: In-hospital mortality and post-STEMI complication rate were 3.7% and 43.6%, respectively. Higher age (P=0.04), female gender (0.002), lower ejection fraction (P<0.001) and absolute neutrophil count (P=0.04) were predictors of mortality. Pump failure in the form of acute pulmonary edema or cardiogenic shock occurred in 35 (8.9%) of patients. Higher leukocyte (P<0.03) and neutrophil counts (P<0.03) and higher NLR (P=0.01) were predictors of failure. The frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF) at the first day was associated with higher neutrophil count (P<0.001) and higher NLR level (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis neutrophil count was an independent predictor of mortality (OR=2.94; 1.1-8.4, P=0.04), and neutrophil count [OR=1.1, CI (1.01-1.20), P=0.02], female gender [OR=2.34, CI (1.02-4.88), P=0.04] and diabetes [OR=2.52, CI (1.21-5.2), P=0.003] were independent predictors of heart failure. Conclusion: A single CBC analysis may help to identify STEMI patients at risk for mortality and heart failure, and total neutrophil count is the most valuable in predicting both. PMID:24753830

  2. Ethnicity and discordance in plasma HIV1 RNA viral load and CD4+ lymphocyte count in a cohort of HIV1-infected individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penelope R Smith; Liat Sarner; Maurice Murphy; Beki James; Janice M Thomas; Celia J Skinner; Celia Aitken

    2003-01-01

    Background: Guidelines for commencing therapy for HIV infection have been based upon HIV-1 RNA and CD4 lymphocyte thresholds. The influence of confounding factors such as gender, ethnicity and co-infections is unproven. Objectives: To analyse ethnic discordance in plasma HIV-1 viral load (VL) and CD4+ count and its potential clinical significance in Black and Caucasian groups. Study design: Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational

  3. Quality Counts Certificate 

    E-print Network

    Chilek, Kevin

    2007-01-31

    Date Ag Science Teacher / County Extension Agent Be it known that has been trained in the eight core concepts of Quality Counts: Six Pillars of Character Purpose of 4-H/FFA Purpose of Livestock Projects Decision Making and Goal...

  4. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  5. Christmas Bird Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-04-01

    The longest running Citizen Science survey in the world, Christmas Bird Count provides critical data on population trends. Tens of thousands of participants know that it is also a lot of fun. Data from the over 2,300 circles are entered after the count and become available to query under the Data & Research link. Participants will be helping to preserve bird species, as the data is used by conservation biologists to understand and protect species and their habitats.

  6. On forecasting counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brajendra C. Sutradhar

    2008-01-01

    Forecasting for a time series of low counts, such as forecasting the number of patents to be awarded to an industry, is an important research topic in socio-economic sectors. Recently (2004), Freeland and McCabe introduced a Gaussian type stationary correlation model-based forecasting which appears to work well for the stationary time series of low counts. In practice, however, it may

  7. Machine Instruction Count Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Gaffney Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Machine Instruction Count Program (MIC Program) was originally developed in 1978 to produce 'operator' and 'operand' counts of object programs written for the AN\\/UYK-7 military computer. In 1981, its capability was expanded so that it could apply to the AN\\/UYS-1 (or “Advanced Signal Processor”) military computer. The former machine, made by UNIVAC, hosts the IBM-developed software for the sonar

  8. HawkCount

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    HawkCount is an online database that facilitates the tracking and reporting of raptor migrations. It includes site reports from hawk-watch sites in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Materials include an interactive map that provides links to hawk-watch sites; location maps and general information on watch sites; a summary of recent reports; and day and monthly summaries of counts by site.

  9. Obesity and Immune Cell Counts in Women

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Julie; Tien, Phyllis C.; Feldman, Joseph; Shin, Ja Hyun; Fennie, Kristopher; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge H.; Bacon, Melanie C.; Minkoff, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Objective Obesity is common in women and associated with a number of adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases, and cancer. We explore the relationship between obesity and immune cell counts in women. Design Longitudinal study of 322 women from 1999 through 2003 enrolled as HIV-negative comparators in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Methods Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (BMI 18.5 - 24.9), overweight (BMI 25 - 29.9), obese (BMI 30 - 34.9), and morbid obesity (BMI ?35). CD4 and CD8 counts and percents, total lymphocyte and white blood cell (WBC) counts were measured annually using standardized techniques. A mixed model repeated measures analysis was performed using an autoregressive correlation matrix. Results At the index visit, 61% of women were African-American; mean age was 35 years, and median BMI was 29 kg/m2. Immunologic parameters were in the normal range (median CD4 count: 995 cells/mm3; CD8 count: 488 cells/mm3; total lymphocyte count: 206 cells/mm3; median WBC: 6 × 103 cells/mm3). In multivariate analyses, being overweight, obese or morbidly obese were independently associated with higher CD4, total lymphocyte, and WBC counts than being normal weight; morbid obesity was associated with a higher CD8 count. The strongest associations between body weight and immune cell counts were demonstrated in the morbidly obese. Conclusion Increasing body weight is associated with higher CD4, CD8, total lymphocyte, and WBC counts in women. Investigation into the impact of obesity on immune function and long term adverse outcomes is needed. PMID:17570264

  10. Mathematical Modeling of the Interrelationship of CD4 Lymphocyte Count and Viral Load Changes Induced by the Protease Inhibitor Indinavir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE L. DRUSANO; DANIEL S. STEIN

    1998-01-01

    While CD4 cell counts are widely used to predict disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, they are poorly explanatory of the progression to AIDS or death after the introduction of chemotherapy. Changes in HIV load (as measured by RNA PCR) have been shown to be a much better predictor of the risk of disease progression. Since the interrelationship

  11. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  12. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  13. Apheresis instrument settings influence infused absolute lymphocyte count affecting survival following autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: the need to optimize instrument setting and define a lymphocyte collection target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Katipamula; L F Porrata; D A Gastineau; S N Markovic; S B Moore; C Greiner; E A Burgstaler; D J Padley; J L Winters

    2006-01-01

    Autograft absolute lymphocyte count (A-ALC) is an independent prognostic factor for survival after autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APHSCT) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Factors enhancing A-ALC collections are unknown. We hypothesize that apheresis instrument settings could affect A-ALC. Data from 127 NHL patients collected from 15 January 1999 to 30 July 2004 using a single apheresis instrument (COBE

  14. Counting on Frank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, based on the picture book "Counting on Frank" by Rod Clement, students explore and compare the volume of different containers using standard and non-standard units of measure. Through this activity students develop an understanding of why standard units may be preferable to non-standard units. The activity includes a suggested lesson sequence with guide questions throughout.

  15. Fraction Counting Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-17

    Students will make a book of fractions in which they choose a denominator and count up to a whole and greater than a whole. They will represent the fractions as pictures, in number form, word form, and on a number line.

  16. Quality Counts Exhibitor Card 

    E-print Network

    Chilek, Kevin; Gregory, Elizabeth

    2004-01-27

    This exhibitor card identifies young livestock exhibitors as participants in the Quality Counts! program. The card is printed with a leather-style background on heavy card stock. It features the 4-H clover and the FFA logo, as well as the logo...

  17. Counting digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.

  18. Counting or Playing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronsil, Matt

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how children learn to understand the decimal system in very concrete ways, while having fun using beads. When counting the beads, the children learn 5,491 is not simply "five thousand four hundred and ninety-one" but actually 5 thousands, 4 hundreds, 9 tens, and 1 unit. They begin to understand that as they get 10 units,…

  19. Radioactive Counting Clocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shankar Radhakrishnan; Amit Lal

    2006-01-01

    We report on a radioactive counting clock (RCC) based on radioactive beta emissions from nickel-63 thin films. We present a theoretical analysis of the clock that uses the radioactive source (physics package) to lock and stabilize the frequency of a voltage-to-frequency converter (local oscillator). We present frequency stability measurements of the RCC over 10 days of clock operation. We analyze

  20. RCT of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Delivered to HIV+ Patients in Iran: Effects on CD4+ T Lymphocyte Count and Medical and Psychological Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Jam, Sara; Foroughi, Maryam; Imani, AmirHossein; Mohraz, Minoo; Djavid, Gholamreza Esmaeeli; Black, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the immediate and longer-term effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) among treatment adherents on CD4+ T Lymphocyte Count (CD4 count) and medical and psychological symptoms among HIV+ patients in Tehran, Iran. Methods Using a randomized controlled trial design, data were analyzed from 173 HIV+ patients (CD4 Count > 250) not yet receiving antiretroviral therapy who participated in either an 8-week MBSR (n=87) or a brief education and support condition (ESC) (n=86) at the Imam Khomeini Hospital. Assessments included CD4 count, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R), and Medical Symptom Checklist (MSCL) at baseline, immediate post-test, and 3, 6, 9 and 12-month follow-up periods. Results The treatment adherent sample had a mean age of 35.1(SD = 6.5) years and 69% were male. Linear mixed model estimates indicated mean CD4 count increased from baseline up to 9 months post-treatment, then returned to baseline level at 12 months. Improvements in mean SCL-90R (up to 6 months) and MSCL (up to 12 months) scores were observed for the MBSR condition while ESC scores remained the same over time; however, only MSCL improvements significantly differed between groups and these changes lasted up to the final assessment. Conclusions Findings suggest that among treatment adherent Iranian HIV+ patients not yet receiving antiretroviral drug treatment, MBSR appears to have the strongest potential to improve self-reported physical symptomatology. Trial Registration Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT201106084076N2. PMID:22753635

  1. The Watt Count System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Watt Count System combines aerospace and computer technology, an engineering systems design approach and the environmental control expertise of a group of engineers who worked on Apollo. First step of the system is a computerized energy consumption analysis based on plans for a new home. Company calculates heating and cooling loads and customizes the most energy efficient system for the particular structure analyzed. A quality control engineer assures that insulation and ducting are installed to specifications. Analysis and design techniques are so accurate that company is able to give homeowner a two-year guarantee that the home's energy consumption will not exceed the kilowatt hour level determined by the computer in step one. In an annual energy performance comparison, a Watt Count home used 45 percent less energy than a conventionally equipped home.

  2. Great Backyard Bird Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A massive effort co-sponsored by Cornell University's Laboratory of Ornithology and the National Audubon Society, the Great Bird Count's goal is to "provide a detailed picture of how bird populations compare region-by-region, as counted by ordinary citizens at the time of year when most migratory birds are just getting ready to head back north from their wintering grounds." The site contains summary data on the number of observers reporting (by postal code, state, and hour), the total number of birds recorded (by species), and--of greatest value--color maps of species distributions (including all locations surveyed). In addition, 10-year trends from Project Feeder Watch are provided for comparison. Note that "raw data" maps and summaries are currently being added to provide immediate access to data; charts have not yet been checked for accuracy.

  3. Let's Count to 5

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grace M. Burton

    2000-01-01

    In this 5-lesson unit students make groups of zero through five objects and connect number words to the groups. They develop counting strategies and use numerals to record the size of a group. Lessons include familiar nursery rhymes and songs, links to interactive applets, and visual, auditory, and kinesthetic activities. Also included are student activity sheets, questions for students and teachers, assessment and extension ideas.

  4. Garden Butterflies Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    UK-based Butterfly Conservation presents the preliminary results of the Garden Butterfly Count (GBC), which enlisted the help of private residents to survey backyard butterflies and moths. Over 11,000 completed survey forms were returned to Butterfly Conservation at the end of the 2002 season, and the Web site provides a brief look at early results and analysis. The information is presented for a general audience, making this Web site an interesting stop for any reader.

  5. Count the Vowels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students are asked to count the vowels in a list of 15 words. They are then asked to write down as many WORDS as they can remember. They can usually remember only 3 - 4. Next students are told to look at the list of words and asked to memorize them. They can usually remember about half of them after trying to memorize the words. Finally, students are told that the words are listed in a certain way, with a guiding concept to the arrangements. They readily understand the words are listed according to number. After spending 30 seconds to memorize the words this time, students generally tend to remember 12 or more. Metacognitive components of the activityStudents learn that considering the organization of informaton is important to remember it. Metacognitive goals for this activity:To show students that they can significantly and immediately improve their learning. Assessing students' metacognitionStudents tell us in verbal or email communication that they have now "stopped counting vowels" and are learning information.

  6. VERITAS?: A Time for VERIQAS™ and a New Approach to Training, Education, and the Quality Assessment of CD4+ T Lymphocyte Counting (I)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of clinical laboratories is to produce accurate and reproducible results to enable effective and reliable clinical practice and patient management. The standard approach is to use both internal quality control (IQC) and external quality assessment (EQA). IQC serves, in many instances, as a “go, no go” tool to provide real time assurance that instruments and reagent or test systems are performing within defined specifications. EQA however, takes a snapshot at a specific point in time of the full testing process, results are compared to other laboratories performing similar testing but inevitably has some built in delay from sample issue to performance data review. In addition, if IQC or EQA identify areas of concern it can be difficult to determine the exact nature of the problem. In an attempt to address this problem, we have developed an instant QA panel that we have termed VERIQAS™, specifically for CD4+ T lymphocyte counting, and have undertaken a “proof of principle” pilot study to examine how the use of VERIQAS™ could result in improvement of laboratory performance. In addition, we have examined how this approach could be used as a training and education tool (in a domestic/international setting) and potentially be of value in instrument validation/switch studies (a switch study being defined as a laboratory changing from one method/instrument to a new method/instrument with the VERIQAS™ panel being used as an adjunct to their standard switch study protocol). Methods The basic panel consists of 20 stabilized samples, with predefined CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, that span low clinically relevant to normal counts, including some blinded replicates (singlet up to quadruplicate combinations). The CD4+ T lymphocyte target values for each specimen is defined as the trimmed mean ± 2 trimmed standard deviations, where the trimmed values are derived from the CD4+ T lymphocyte counts reported by the participating centers (~780 laboratories) that receive each UK NEQAS for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping send out. Results for the VERIQAS™ panel were returned online, via a specially designed website, and the participant was provided with an immediate assessment (pass or fail). Results To date, the panel has been preliminary trialed by eight laboratories to (i) assess pre-EQA qualification (two laboratories); (ii) address performance issues (two laboratories); or (iii) validate new instruments or techniques (four laboratories). Interestingly, even in this pilot study, the panel has been instrumental in identifying specific technical problems in laboratories with EQA performance issues as well as confirming that implementation of new techniques or instruments have been successful. Conclusion We report here a new and novel “proof of principle” pilot study to quality assessment, that we have termed VERIQAS™, designed to provide instant feedback on performance. Participating laboratories receive 20 “blinded” samples that are in singlet up to quadruplicate combinations. Once a centre reports its results via a website, immediate feedback is provided to both the participant and the EQA organizers, enabling, if required, the initiation of targeted remedial action. We have also shown that this approach has the potential to be used as a tool for prequalification, troubleshooting, training and instrument verification. Pilot phase field trials with VERIQAS™ have shown that the panel can highlight laboratory performance problems, such as suboptimal instrument set up, pipetting and gating strategies, in a rapid and efficient manner. VERIQAS™ will now be introduced, where appropriate, as a second phase study within UK NEQAS for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping to assist those laboratories that have performance issues and also made available to laboratories for training and education of staff and instrument validation studies. PMID:21998025

  7. Digital coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, S. M.; Ius, D.

    1996-02-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method.

  8. K.CC Counting Mat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Counting Mats * Small objects to count, such as bears or tiles. Action The teacher gives students the counting mat and many small objects t...

  9. Counting Books: Make Your Own!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    On the first night, I saw 5 stars in the desert. On the second night, I saw 10… What do you think I saw on the third night? Combine arts and crafts, literacy, and math by making a counting book. The activity comes with suggestions for what to count by, depending on level of challenge needed. Younger learners can count forward or backward by 1’s; older learners can base their counting books on multiples, fractions, or other number patterns. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF.

  10. Kids Count [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Wilson, Nancy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is combined with Families Count, and provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The first statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen deaths; (6) juvenile…

  11. % Read and echo names; count them. var count : int := 0

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    % Read and echo names; count them. var count : int := 0 % How many names so far? put "Please type a series of names." put "Tell me 'quit' at the end" loop put "Next name? " .. var person : string get, " people." 1 #12; Let's use the name­entering program. turingx example1.t Please type a series of names

  12. Youth Count: Exploring How KIDS COUNT Grantees Address Youth Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Ahlstrom, Alicia; Gaines, Elizabeth; Ferber, Thaddeus; Yohalem, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the 2004 Kids Count Databook essay, "Moving Youth From Risk to Opportunity," this new report highlights the history of data collection, challenges and innovative strategies of 12 Annie E. Casey Foundation KIDS COUNT grantees in their work to serve the needs of older youth. (Contains 3 figures, 2 tables, and 9 notes.)

  13. Pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic modelling of effects of dexamethasone and prednisolone in combination with endogenous cortisol on lymphocyte counts and systemic markers of bone turn over and inflammation in healthy and asthmatic men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. L. Dubois; M. G. M. Derks; D. H. Schweitzer; A. H. Zwinderman; P. N. R. Dekhuijzen; C. J. van Boxtel

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare potency and efficacy of dexamethasone (DEXA) and prednisolone (PRED) in assumed equipotent doses in combination with endogenous cortisol, using lymphocyte counts, plasma osteocalcin (OC), and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) as effect variables and to evaluate potential differences between healthy subjects and asthmatic patients. Methods Eight healthy subjects and six asthmatic patients who had stopped taking their regular

  14. Preschooler's Counting in Peer Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Reagan P.

    For this experiment, part of a larger study on preschoolers' counting competence, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds played a counting game with their peers after becoming familiar with the game during structured interviews with an adult. It was expected that the symmetrical nature of peer interaction would allow children to display quantitative knowledge in…

  15. KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    By providing policymakers and citizens with benchmarks of child well-being, KIDS COUNT seeks to enrich local, state, and national discussions concerning ways to secure better futures for all children. This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the 2005 "KIDS COUNT Data Book." The following sections are included: (1) Essay; (2) Charts on 10 Key…

  16. COUNTING IRREDUCIBLE COMPONENTS OF COMPLEX

    E-print Network

    Bürgisser, Peter

    COUNTING IRREDUCIBLE COMPONENTS OF COMPLEX ALGEBRAIC VARIETIES Peter B¨urgisser and Peter Scheiblechner Abstract. We present an algorithm for counting the irreducible com- ponents of a complex algebraic the irreducible components of the complex zero set of given polynomials f1, . . . , fr C[X1, . . . , Xn

  17. Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

  18. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  19. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  20. Counting Necklaces and Other Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Chris

    1990-01-01

    A method for helping students to find formulas involving symmetry under various conditions is explained. Necklace symmetries, orbit counting, tetrahedra and cubes, relationship patterns, and finding patterns are discussed. (CW)

  1. Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Gul, Z; Van Meter, E; Abidi, M; Ditah, I; Abdul-Hussein, M; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Lum, L G; Waller, E K; Ratanatharathorn, V; Uberti, J; Al-Kadhimi, Z

    2015-03-01

    Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. Lower ALC30 (?400 × 10(6)/L) was associated with lower OS and increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for the whole cohort as well as for recipients of SD and UD grafts separately. Lower ALC30 was associated with more severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; III-IV) for the entire cohort as well as for the SD and UD groups. No association was found between lower ALC30 and relapse. Pretransplant factors associated with lower ALC30 were: unrelated donors; HLA mismatch; older donors; lower recipient age; and lower CD34+ cell dose. In this large retrospective study, ALC30?400 × 10(6)/L was associated with worse OS, increased NRM and severe aGVHD. PMID:25599169

  2. January_2007 Variation of CD4 count and percentage among women receiving antiretroviral

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    whether the variation of T-lymphocyte CD4+ (CD4) absolute count and percentage prior and after delivery. Signed- rank test was used to compare the distributions of the CD4 absolute count and percentage values

  3. Response Count Summer Flextime Survey

    E-print Network

    Response Percent Response Count 45.2% 33 54.8% 40 73 1 Summer Flextime Survey skipped question Did;Response Percent Response Count 9.1% 3 36.4% 12 27.3% 9 3.0% 1 24.2% 8 33 41skipped question If so, how often did you use it? 9-11 weeks Only once answered question Summer Flextime Survey 5-8 weeks Answer

  4. Electron counting in quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Fominov, Yakov

    V] G2[mV] -7.5 -7 -6.5 -6 34 34.5 35 35.5 1 10 100 Counts/s #12;Microwave emission of a QPC · VoltageElectron counting in quantum dots Klaus Ensslin Solid State Physics ·Charge detection in quantum;Time-resolved detection of single electron transport source drain quantum dot kBT Schleser et al., APL

  5. Lowest ever CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4 nadir) as a predictor of current cognitive and neurological status in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection—The Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Valcour; Priscilla Yee; Andrew E. Williams; Bruce Shiramizu; Michael Watters; Ola Selnes; Robert Paul; Cecilia Shikuma; Ned Sacktor

    2006-01-01

    Low CD4 lymphocyte count was a marker for neurological disease in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); but is now\\u000a less common among patients with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy. In this study, the authors determine the reliability\\u000a of self-reported CD4 nadir and its predictive value for neurological status. The authors identify a high degree of reliability\\u000a (r =

  6. Correlates of CD4+ and CD8+ Lymphocyte Counts in High-Risk Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)Seronegative Women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek J. Nowicki; Roksana Karim; Wendy J. Mack; Howard Minkoff; Katherine Anastos; Mardge Cohen; Ruth M. Greenblatt; Mary A. Young; Stephen J. Gange; Alexandra M. Levine

    2007-01-01

    Studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often compare values from HIV-uninfected controls, including CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts. Nonetheless, little is known regarding factors associated with CD4 and CD8 cell numbers in HIV-uninfected individuals. To ascertain potential factors associated with differences in CD4 and CD8 cells among HIV negative women, we studied these cells in a group of 953

  7. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  8. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Galvin, David

    Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013 January 30, 2013 Math 10120 (Spring 2013) Counting (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 2 / 9 #12;Poker hands A poker hand consists (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 3 / 9 #12;Notre Dame Hockey Notre dame hockey has a 26

  10. AIDS: An Epidemiologic and Correlation Between HIV- Related Oral Lesions and plasma levels of CD4, CD8 T Lymphocytes Counts and Ratio Among 50 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Berberi, Antoine; Noujeim, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS patients and to determine their associations with plasma levels of CD4+, CD8+ count and CD4/CD8 ratio. Study design a descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and duration Unit of Odontology, St-Antoine Hospital, a two year period study. Methodology In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 50 patients with a proven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were evaluated. Based on the clinical findings and CD4+, CD8+ counts, the relationships between oral lesions and CD4+, CD8+ cell count and CD4/CD8 ratio were evaluated. Results The CD4+ count (cells/mm3) was < 200, 200–500, and > 500 in 32 cases (64%), 16 cases (32%) and 2 cases (4%) respectively, and the mean CD4+ count was 167.12 cells/mm3. The mean CD8+ count (cells/mm3) was 979.66 cells/mm3 and the mean CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.25. All patients showed at least one oral manifestation. The most common oral lesion identified was pseudo membranous candidiasis accounting for 76% (38/50) followed by periodontal disease 34% (17/50), herpetic lesions and hairy leukoplakia 10% for each (5/50), gingivitis 8% (4/50), oral ulceration 8% (4/50), Kaposi’s sarcoma 6% (3/50), and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2% (1/50). Conclusion The CD4+ count was decreasing the presence and the severity of oral lesions was increasing in this study. No relation was found between the presence of oral lesion and CD4/CD8 ratio. The presence of oral lesions may lead to a positive diagnostic of HIV. Disease progression is characterized by increased prevalence of some oral lesions as candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia and Kaposi sarcoma. The severity of oral lesions was more pronounced with a CD4+ count <200 cells/mm3. PMID:25750864

  11. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  12. Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.

    PubMed

    Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W

    2014-05-26

    Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. PMID:24862513

  13. Counting Bitangents with Stable Maps

    E-print Network

    David Ayala; Renzo Cavalieri

    2005-12-22

    This paper is an elementary introduction to the theory of moduli spaces of curves and maps. As an application to enumerative geometry, we show how to count the number of bitangent lines to a projective plane curve of degree $d$ by doing intersection theory on moduli spaces.

  14. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  15. KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

  16. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  17. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  18. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  19. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  20. Hexadecimal counting? Use your fingers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Srinivasan

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the note is to show how 'natural' the hexadecimal number system is and how one can count in this system using fingers at least as effortlessly as in the decimal system. The system uses the joints and tips of the four fingers of one hand.

  1. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  2. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    E-print Network

    Chanier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Maya had a very elaborate and accurate calendar. First, the Mayan Long Count Calendar (LCC) was used to point historical events from a selected "beginning of time". It is also characterized by the existence of a religious month Tzolk'in of 260 days and a civic year Haab' of 365 days. The LCC is supposed to begin on 11 August -3114 BC known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 corresponding to a period of approximately 5125 years or 13 Baktun. We propose here to explain the origin the 13 Baktun cycle, the Long Count Periods and the religious month Tzolk'in.

  3. Countdown: Counting with a Calendar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    Learners will count down the days to a special event. How much longer? Calendars, dates, and units of time mean much more when you’re anticipating a special event. Locate the date you’re waiting for on the calendar. Younger learners can keep track of how many days. Older learners can count down the hours, minutes, and even seconds as the time draws near. Or, challenge a multi-age group to find as many ways as they can to express the amount of time left (32 days, 4 weeks and 4 days, 1 month and 1 day..). Make this a routine: Each time you gather the group, check the countdown. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

  4. Constraint counting for frictional jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, D. A.; Henkes, S.; Schwarz, J. M.

    2012-02-01

    While the frictionless jamming transition has been intensely studied in recent years, more realistic frictional packings are less well understood. In frictionless sphere packings, the transition is predicted by a simple mean-field constraint counting argument, the isostaticity argument. For frictional packings, a modified constraint counting argument, which includes slipping contacts at the Coulomb threshold, has had limited success in accounting for the transition. We propose that the frictional jamming transition is not mean field and is triggered by the nucleation of unstable regions, which are themselves dynamical objects due to the Coulomb criterion. We create frictional packings using MD simulations and test for the presence and shape of rigid clusters with the pebble game to identify the partition of the packing into stable and unstable regions. To understand the dynamics of these unstable regions we follow perturbations at contacts crucial to the stability of the ``frictional house of cards.''

  5. Student Observation Network: Star Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this hands-on activity, students investigate whether people in different parts of the world see the same number of stars. They will learn how to construct a viewing tube, use it to count the stars in random samples of sky, make calculations, and record the data. They will then share their data online with other students from all over the world to find out why differences might occur.

  6. Counting Squares in a Square

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny

    2011-01-01

    This Java applet displays one way of counting the smaller grid squares nested inside a larger grid square, such as a checkerboard or chessboard. The applet allows the user to select the size of the smaller grid square and drag it to other positions, tracking the upper left corner of each new square. The explanation reveals the formula for total number of grid squares within a N x N grid square: the sum of the first N squares.

  7. Somatic Cell Counts in Holsteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. KENNEDY; M. S. SETHAR; A. K. W. TONG; J. E. MOXLEY; B. R. DOWNEY; Dairy Herd

    Between February and December, 1977, 133,493 test-day observations of somatic cell count were taken on 27,009 Holstein cows in 676 herds on the Quebec Dairy Herd Analysis Service. Data were transformed to a log (natural) scale, and analyses were separate within lacta- tion age group (42, 3, 4, 5, and \\/>6 yr). Joint estimates of fixed effects of month of

  8. K.CC Counting Cup

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials A plastic 24 ounce (or larger) cup. A collection of various counting manipulatives. Student booklets made from 10 sheets of plain white paper...

  9. KIDS COUNT Data Book 1998

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1998 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on ten statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, line graphs comparing indicators from various states, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. The particularly helpful line graph section of the online data book allows users to compare data for a single indicator. Users select a time range and up to eight areas to be included in a customized graph. Overall, this site does an excellent job of synthesizing child-related data from quality data sources.

  10. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erd?s, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  11. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  12. 46 CFR 185.504 - Passenger count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger count. 185.504 Section 185.504 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.504 Passenger count. The master of a...

  13. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  14. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  15. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  16. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  17. 7 CFR 1280.628 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.628 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-86 shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are no ineligibility...

  18. Counting by ones, twos, and tens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Christian

    2007-03-21

    There are 2 connect the dot activities (counting by 2\\'s) and a missing number game. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: #1 Connect the dots. Game #2: #2 Connect the dots. Game #3: Pick the number that is missing. Game #4:Ant Parade--Skip Counting Game #5:The Counting Game--Skip Counting ...

  19. Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-15

    This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

  20. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  1. Best Practice Recommendation for Forecasting Counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brajendra C. Sutradhar

    The existing techniques of forecasting a future count either treat the time series of counts as a Gaussian time series or use a random effects based dynamic Poisson model. The normality based approach may not yield valid forecasting, whereas the random effects based model usually generates a complex correlation structure for the time series of counts which may be impractical

  2. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  3. Design Editorial Finding and Counting Papers

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    Journal of Mechanical Design Editorial Finding and Counting Papers "Those who count count" an old on citation tracking in the sciences can be found in an article cited in another Wikidedia article (Bakkalbasi et al. Biomedical Digital Libraries 2006 3:7 doi: 10.1186/1742-5581-3-7) cited in http

  4. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  5. Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and

    E-print Network

    Heubach, Silvia

    Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions Mansour Department of Mathematics, Haifa University, Israel #12;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 3 Definitions · A composition = 12 . . . m of n N

  6. Instanton Counting and Matrix Model

    E-print Network

    Ta-Sheng Tai

    2007-09-07

    We construct an Imbimbo-Mukhi type matrix model, which reproduces exactly the partition function of ${\\mathbb{CP}^1}$ topological strings in the small phase space, Nekrasov's instanton counting in ${\\cal{N}}=2$ gauge theory and the large $N$ limit of the partition function in 2-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on a sphere. In addition, we propose a dual Stieltjes-Wigert type matrix model, which emerges when all-genus topological string amplitudes on certain simple toric Calabi-Yau manifolds are compared with the Imbimbo-Mukhi type model.

  7. K.CC Counting Overview

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: This standard asks students to count with automaticity and meaning, and to be able to record their findings. Lastly, students need to be able to compar...

  8. K.CC Choral Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-01

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The teacher will need a 100 chart or large number line and a pointer. As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to ...

  9. Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-10-01

    Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 ?m?×?15 ?m measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results. PMID:24898912

  10. Relationship of somatic cell count, physical, chemical and enzymatic properties to the bacterial standard plate count in dairy goat milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chingwen Ying; Han-Tsung Wang; Jih-Tay Hsu

    2002-01-01

    Weekly milk samples, collected from individual half mammary gland of three late lactation (experiment 1) and four early lactation (experiment 2) Alpine dairy goats in second lactation, were subjected to various physical and chemical measurements to examine the relationship of the logarithm of bacterial standard plate count (SPC) to electrical conductivity (EC), neutrophils\\/lymphocytes ratio, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tyrosine concentration, alkaline

  11. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  12. 2002 Kids Count Data Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Crafted by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Kids Count Data Book is a yearly publication that illuminates the status of Americaâ??s children by providing data on the "educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all across the U.S. By updating the book annually, viewers can assess the changes that have or have not been made by individual states and the nation at large. The report is divided into sections including graphs and color coded maps; profiles, which provides data on individual states or the nation as a whole; rankings, which contains data on all 50 states ranked according to an indicator; raw data, which allows downloading of the entire data book as "delimited files"; and PDF files, which allows downloading and printing of the data book using Adobe Acrobat. Those wanting a hard copy of the book can order a free copy from the home page.

  13. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  14. Estimating relative abundance from count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Much of the available information on large-scale patterns of animal abundance is based on count surveys. The data provided by such surveys are often influenced by nuisance factors affecting the numbers of animals counted, but unrelated to population size. Temporal and spatial patterns in nuisance factors may exist, causing simple summaries of counts to give a misleading view of patterns in population size. We develop models for count data that allows the incorporation of such factors, and describe methods for estimating spatial patterns of relative abundance from counts. We carry out spatial analyses of North American Breeding Bird Survey data, in which observer ability is a nuisance parameter nested within sites. In light of evidence that new observers tend to count more birds than the observers they replace, we model observer ability as a random effect with mean depending on observer initiation year.

  15. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index. PMID:25676369

  16. Body fluid cell counts by automated methods.

    PubMed

    Sandhaus, Linda M

    2015-03-01

    Automated cell counting for body fluids is gradually replacing manual cell counting by hemocytometer. Automation offers potential benefits of improved accuracy, efficiency, and standardization. The addition of body fluid modes to some hematology analyzers adapts the technology and software to meet the particular requirements of body fluid analysis. However, the functional sensitivity for low cell counts currently limits applicability of automated methods to all types of body fluid. Microscopic review is indicated when malignancy is a diagnostic consideration. PMID:25676374

  17. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, G.G.; Post, G. (Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MD (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

  18. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  19. Uncertainties in 4??–? coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R.; Bailat, C.; Bobin, C.; Keightley, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    The 4??–? coincidence counting method and its close relatives are widely used for the primary standardization of radioactivity. Both the general formalism and specific implementation of these methods have been well-documented. In particular, previous papers contain the extrapolation equations used for various decay schemes, methods for determining model parameters and, in some cases, tabulated uncertainty budgets. Two things often lacking from experimental reports are both the rationale for estimating uncertainties in a specific way and the details of exactly how a specific component of uncertainty was estimated. Furthermore, correlations among the components of uncertainty are rarely mentioned. To fill in these gaps, the present article shares the best-practices from a few practitioners of this craft. We explain and demonstrate with examples of how these approaches can be used to estimate the uncertainty of the reported massic activity. We describe uncertainties due to measurement variability, extrapolation functions, dead-time and resolving-time effects, gravimetric links, and nuclear and atomic data. Most importantly, a thorough understanding of the measurement system and its response to the decay under study can be used to derive a robust estimate of the measurement uncertainty.

  20. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  1. People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such as cranes species are monitored by CAR, of which 14 appear in the South African Red Data Book as Critically Endan gered, Vulnerable or NearThreatened. CAR counts began in 1993 and take place on the last Saturday

  2. Differential Leukocyte Count Method for Bovine Low Somatic Cell Count Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dosogne; F. Vangroenweghe; J. Mehrzad; A. M. Massart-Leën; C. Burvenich

    2003-01-01

    Whereas many differential leukocyte count methods for high somatic cell count (SCC) milk from mastitic cows are available, only a few have been developed for low SCC milk. We have developed a flow cytometric differential leukocyte count method for low SCC milk. The procedure consists of 1) 1.5 ml of diluted milk sam- ple (30%, vol\\/vol dilution with PBS), 2)

  3. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

  4. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  5. Track count estimator for DVD and CDROM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim M. Graba

    1998-01-01

    An estimator is shown to accurately count tracks during a seek in a DVD or CDROM storage device. The estimator states are position and velocity. Although the gains can be adapted via the recursive Kalman equations, the track count accuracy suffers little degradation if the gains are fixed. The position estimate's bandwidth can be matched to the seek system poles

  6. Photon counts from stellar occultation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

  7. Kids Count in Indiana: 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This Kids Count report is the third in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. The report combines statistics of special concern in Indiana with 10 national Kids Count well-being indicators: (1) percent low birthweight; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) birth rate to unmarried teens ages 15…

  8. Grain Counting Method Based On Image Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Ping; Li Yongkui

    2009-01-01

    Grain counting is very important for breeding and quality inspection. In order to improve the efficiency and precision of grain counting, a novel method based on MATLAB image processing technology and mechanical vibration technology was proposed. It can effectively resolve the overlaps and conglutinations among grains by mechanical vibration and image erosion processing respectively. Experiment results show that this method

  9. Part count and design of robust systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Frey; Joseph Palladino; John Sullivan; Malvern Atherton

    2007-01-01

    Systems engineering frequently includes efforts to reduce part count with the goal of cutting costs, enhancing performance, or improving reliability. This paper examines the engineering practices related to part count, applying three different theories -- the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, Axiomatic Design, and Highly Optimized Tolerance. Case studies from the jet engine industry are used to illustrate the complicated

  10. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  11. Automatic counting of immunocytochemically stained cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Arambula Cosio; J. A. Marquez Flores; M. A. Padilla Castaneda; S. Solano; P. Tato

    2003-01-01

    In this work is described the development of an automatic color image segmentation and cell counting system for immunocytochemical analysis of stained tissue samples. The system is designed to automatically count the total number of positive and negative cells in tissue samples treated with cytokines DNA probes of pigs naturally parasitized with Taenia solium metacestodes and using in situ hybridization.

  12. Optimization of direct cell counting in sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi L Gough; David A Stahl

    2003-01-01

    This study reports a method for optimizing direct counts of bacteria in sediment, designed to reduce the masking by sediment particles. The protocol was designed to determine appropriate dilution factors by incorporating counting statistics and was used to measure depth-associated changes in microbial abundance in metal-impacted freshwater sediments. We demonstrated a direct method to determine appropriate sample dilution for accurate

  13. "Knots on a Counting Rope": Teaching Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Daphne

    2001-01-01

    Argues that reflecting on important "marker" stories in people's lives by using counting ropes (based on the children's book "Knots on a Counting Rope" by Bill Martin Jr. and John Archambault) helps students and teachers make sense of their complex worlds. Describes how they are used in the author's language arts methods course. Describes a…

  14. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  17. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Procedures § 1221.228 Counting ballots. (a) Form LS-379 shall be counted by county FSA offices or the AMS office on the same day as the ballots are canvassed if there are...

  18. Prognostic roles of absolute monocyte and absolute lymphocyte counts in patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma in the rituximab era: an analysis from the FOLL05 trial of the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi.

    PubMed

    Marcheselli, Luigi; Bari, Alessia; Anastasia, Antonella; Botto, Barbara; Puccini, Benedetta; Dondi, Alessandra; Carella, Angelo M; Alvarez, Isabel; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Arcari, Annalisa; Salvi, Flavia; Federico, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    Recently, in an attempt to improve the discrimination power of the international prognostic index (IPI), patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were evaluated to determine the prognostic roles of peripheral blood absolute monocyte count (AMC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC). Here, we analysed data of 428 patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) enrolled in a prospective, randomized trial (FOLL05 study) conducted by Fondazione Italiana Linfomi, to assess the impact of AMC and ALC on progression-free survival (PFS). All patients had been treated with one of three treatment combinations: (i) rituximab (R) plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone; (ii) R plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone or (iii) R plus mitoxantrone and fludarabine. We showed that only AMC was a powerful predictor of PFS, and possibly overall survival, in patients with FL treated with combination chemotherapy regimens that contained R. The AMC can be used alone as a novel, simple factor that can predict survival outcome in patients with FL, independent of the immunochemotherapy regimen. It may therefore be widely used by clinicians, due to its simplicity and broad applicability. Additionally, it can be combined with other factors that determine the IPI or FLIPI, to increase the discriminating ability of these indices. PMID:25817296

  19. Letters to Analytical Chemistry Microfluidic CD4+ T-Cell Counting Device Using

    E-print Network

    Sia, Samuel K.

    This letter demonstrates a microfluidic platform for enumerating CD4+ T-lymphocytes from whole blood using are based on clinical symptoms and absolute CD4 counts.7 In addition to identifying the onset of AIDS in HIV

  20. White blood cell differential counts in severely leukopenic samples: a comparative analysis of different solutions available in modern laboratory hematology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) differential counts in severely leukopenic samples by the Hematoflow method and by automated hematology analyzers and compared the results with manual counts. Methods EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples (175 samples) with WBC counts of 40-990/µL were selected. Hematoflow differential counts were performed in duplicates employing flow cytometry using the CytoDiff reagent and analysis software. Differential counts were also performed using the DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter) and XE-2100 (Sysmex) automated hematology analyzers. The sum of the manual counts by a hematology technician and a resident were used as the manual counts. Results The total analysis time and hands-on time required by the Hematoflow method were shorter than those required by manual counting. Hematoflow counts were reproducible, showed a good correlation with automated analyzers, and also showed strong correlation with manual counts (r > 0.8) in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. None of the cases containing less than 4% blasts as analyzed by the Hematoflow method had blasts in the manual counts, but 8 cases of 21 cases (38.1%) with over 4% blasts by Hematoflow had blasts in manual counts. Conclusion Hematoflow counts of severely leukopenic samples were reproducible and showed a good correlation with manual counts in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The Hematoflow method also detected the presence of blasts. Manual slide review is recommended when over 4% blasts are found by Hematoflow. PMID:25025014

  1. A microfluidic device for practical label-free CD4+ T cell counting of HIV-infected subjects

    E-print Network

    Demirci, Utkan

    counting of a particular white blood cell subset, the CD4+ T lymphocyte. To address the limitations shear flow to specifically isolate CD4+ T lymphocytes with high efficiency directly from 10 microlitres cytometry among HIV-positive subjects over a wide range of absolute CD4 counts (R2 = 0.93). This CD4

  2. Differential white cell count and incident type 2 diabetes: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Hanley, Anthony J.; Haffner, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis White cell count has been shown to predict incident type 2 diabetes, but differential white cell count has received scant attention. We examined the risk of developing diabetes associated with differential white cell count and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and the effect of insulin sensitivity and subclinical inflammation on white cell associations. Methods Incident diabetes was ascertained in 866 participants aged 40–69 years in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study after a 5 year follow-up period. The insulin sensitivity index (SI) was measured by the frequently sampled IVGTT. Results C-reactive protein was directly and independently associated with neutrophil (p<0.001) and monocyte counts (p<0.01) and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (p<0.001), whereas SI was inversely and independently related to lymphocyte count (p<0.05). There were 138 (15.9%) incident cases of diabetes. Demographically adjusted ORs for incident diabetes, comparing the top and bottom tertiles of white cell (1.80 [95% CI 1.10, 2.92]), neutrophil (1.67 [1.04, 2.71]) and lymphocyte counts (2.30 [1.41, 3.76]), were statistically significant. No association was demonstrated for monocyte count (1.18 [0.73, 1.90]) or neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (0.89 [0.55, 1.45]). White cell and neutrophil associations were no longer significant after further adjusting for family history of diabetes, fasting glucose and smoking, but the OR comparing the top and bottom tertiles of lymphocyte count remained significant (1.92 [1.12, 3.29]). This last relationship was better explained by SI rather than C-reactive protein. Conclusions/interpretation A lymphocyte association with incident diabetes, which was the strongest association among the major white cell types, was partially explained by insulin sensitivity rather than subclinical inflammation. PMID:24141640

  3. Low cost crowd counting using audio tones

    E-print Network

    Kannan, Pravein Govindan

    With mobile devices becoming ubiquitous, collaborative applications have become increasingly pervasive. In these applications, there is a strong need to obtain a count of the number of mobile devices present in an area, ...

  4. Mood meter: counting smiles in the wild

    E-print Network

    Hernandez Rivera, Javier

    In this study, we created and evaluated a computer vision based system that automatically encouraged, recognized and counted smiles on a college campus. During a ten-week installation, passersby were able to interact with ...

  5. Counting Distinct Elements in a Data Stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziv Bar-yossef; T. S. Jayram; Ravi Kumar; D. Sivakumar; Luca Trevisan

    2002-01-01

    We present three algorithms to count the number of distinct elements in a data stream to within a factor of 1 ± ?. Our algorithms improve upon known algorithms for this problem, and offer a spectrum of time\\/space tradeoffs.

  6. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.28 - Counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.28 Counting. County FSA offices and FSA, Deputy Administrator for Field...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Requests for a referendum shall be counted as follows: (1) Total number of producers who returned a Request for Referendum form LS-51-1; (2) Number of ineligible producers requesting a referendum; (3) Number of eligible producers requesting...

  15. Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, O.

    1964-01-01

    To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

  16. Statistical modelling for falls count data.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2010-03-01

    Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle. PMID:20159058

  17. Dying dyons don't count

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miranda C. N. Cheng; Erik P. Verlinde

    2007-01-01

    The dyonic 1\\/4-BPS states in 4D string theory with = 4 spacetime supersymmetry are counted by a Siegel modular form. The pole structure of the modular form leads to a contour dependence in the counting formula obscuring its duality invariance. We exhibit the relation between this ambiguity and the (dis-)appearance of bound states of 1\\/2-BPS configurations. Using this insight we

  18. Birth-Death and Bug Counting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilhelm Kremer

    1983-01-01

    Many software reliability time-domain bug-counting models are, as fault counters, special cases of the stochastic process known as the death process. Generalization to a nonhomogeneous birth-death process achieves three ends: stochastic fault introduction, the synthesis of a time-dependent failure rate with imperfect debugging and fault introduction, and the mathematical unification of much bug-counting theory. Often, the price for generalization is

  19. Atom Counting in Expanding Ultracold Clouds

    E-print Network

    Sibylle Braungardt; Mirta Rodríguez; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen; Maciej Lewenstein

    2011-03-09

    We study the counting statistics of ultracold bosonic atoms that are released from an optical lattice. We show that the counting probability distribution of the atoms collected at a detector located far away from the optical lattice can be used as a method to infer the properties of the initially trapped states. We consider initial superfluid and insulating states with different occupation patterns. We analyze how the correlations between the initially trapped modes that develop during the expansion in the gravitational field are reflected in the counting distribution. We find that for detectors that are large compared to the size of the expanded wave function, the long-range correlations of the initial states can be distinguished by observing the counting statistics. We consider counting at one detector, as well as the joint probability distribution of counting particles at two detectors. We show that using detectors that are small compared to the size of the expanded wave function, insulating states with different occupation patterns, as well as supersolid states with different density distributions can be distinguished.

  20. A Survey on Counting Networks Brown University, Rhode Island, USA

    E-print Network

    Busch, Konstantin "Costas"

    A Survey on Counting Networks C. BUSCH Brown University, Rhode Island, USA M. HERLIHY Brown University, Rhode Island, USA Abstract In the counting problem, asynchronous concurrent processes repeatedly

  1. Counting by 10's with Zero the Hero and Little Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Darbianne Shannon

    2012-07-13

    In this lesson students will learn to count to 100 by 10's. The relationship between the numbers 1-10 and 10-100 will be made using the 100's chart followed by a power point story about Little Count the Caterpillar. Students will make their own Little Count the Caterpillar using circle body segments, where each circle represents the numerals 10, 20, 30...

  2. Using carbohydrate counting in diabetes clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, S J; Kulkarni, K D; Daly, A E

    1998-08-01

    Carbohydrate counting is a meal planning approach used with clients who have diabetes that focuses on carbohydrate as the primary nutrient affecting postprandial glycemic response. The concept of carbohydrate counting has been around since the 1920s, but it received renewed interest after being used as 1 of 4 meal planning approaches in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. In the trial, carbohydrate counting was found to be effective in meeting outcome goals and allowed flexibility in food choices. Recent practice pattern surveys have shown an increasing interest in and use of carbohydrate counting for medical nutrition therapy for persons with diabetes. Carbohydrate counting can be used by clients with type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Three levels of carbohydrate counting have been identified based on increasing levels of complexity. Level 1, or basic, introduces clients to the concept of carbohydrate counting and focuses on carbohydrate consistency. Level 2, or intermediate, focuses on the relationships among food, diabetes medications, physical activity, and blood glucose level and introduces the steps needed to manage these variables based on patterns of blood glucose levels. Level 3, or advanced, is designed to teach clients with type 1 diabetes who are using multiple daily injections or insulin infusion pumps how to match short-acting insulin to carbohydrate using carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios. All 3 levels emphasize portion control and offer opportunities for using creative teaching methods, such as "food labs," and use of a variety of carbohydrate resource tools and publications. In this article, glycemic effects of protein, fat, and fiber intake are discussed for persons with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Decision trees are introduced for each level of carbohydrate counting and show the usual progression through each level. Carbohydrate counting as a meal planning approach offers variability of food choices with the potential for improving glycemic control. Research opportunities are available for those interested in comparing carbohydrate counting with other meal planning approaches for clients with diabetes and the effects on clinical outcomes. PMID:9710660

  3. Sedimentation Counting and Morphology of Mycoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Harold W.

    1965-01-01

    Clark, Harold W. (The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.). Sedimentation counting and morphology of Mycoplasma. J. Bacteriol. 90:1373–1386. 1965.—The sedimentation technique for counting viral particles was applied to the quantitation and morphological identification of Mycoplasma in broth cultures. Mycoplasma, apparently in their native form, firmly adhered to the surface, when sedimented on glass cover slips or onto electron microscope grids. The sedimented cover slip preparations stained with crystal violet could be readily counted in the light microscope. The cultures sedimented onto electron microscope grids were readily counted at low magnification and provided excellent preparations for morphological examination at higher magnifications. It was found that air-dried Mycoplasma particles were enlarged considerably because of excessive flattening. Fixation of sedimented Mycoplasma particles in diluted OsO4 prior to air drying yielded a more realistic morphology, with various sizes and shapes in the stages of the growth cycle exhibited. A new technique of differentially staining Mycoplasma colonies on agar plates was developed to facilitate the quantitation of viable colony-forming units for comparison with total counts. The use of plastic or Parafilm gaskets for dry mounting was developed to facilitate the handling and examination of the stained cover slip preparations. The results of this investigation indicated that the growth cycle of some Mycoplasma species includes a stage of hexadic fission with the cleavage of minimal reproductive units (less than 100 m?) containing a limited deoxyribonucleic acid genetic coding molecule (approximately 4 × 106). Images PMID:5321487

  4. Stability of prepared iodine counting standards

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. (Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (US))

    1987-05-01

    This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

  5. Bovine Lymphocyte Antigen Class II Alleles as Risk Factors for High Somatic Cell Counts in Milk of Lactating Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan B. Dietz; Noah D. Cohen; Leo Timms; Marcus E. Kehrli Jr.

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lactating Holstein cows,(n = 1100) from,93 dairy herds in Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Illinois were,genotyped,at the,bovine,lymphocyte,antigen DRB3.2 locus by a genotyping,system,that used,poly- merase,chain,reaction,and,restriction,fragment length,polymorphisms.,Milk samples,were,obtained after routine,processing,at a Dairy Herd,Improve- ment,Association,facility and,returned,to the,Na- tional,Animal,Disease,Center,for DNA extraction. Somatic,cells were,used,to classify cows,that,had acutely elevated SCC (one test of SCC >500,000; group 1), or chronically elevated SCC (three consecu- tive tests of

  6. DOUBLE COUNTING PROPOSAL 5 Proposal to Eliminate Double Counting Restrictions for the LSP Modes of Inquiry

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    DOUBLE COUNTING PROPOSAL 5 Proposal to Eliminate Double Counting Restrictions for the LSP Modes the LSP Modes of Inquiry; Whereas currently students are not allowed to use courses in the required support for their majors to satisfy LSP Modes of Inquiry requirements unless explicitly allowed

  7. Patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma in partial response or stable disease after first-line R-CHOP: the prognostic value of the absolute lymphocyte count and impact of autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Man-Hsin; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Huang, Yu-Chung; Liu, Han-Tsung; Hong, Ying-Chung; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Po-Min; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Liu, Chun-Yu

    2012-12-01

    Certain portions of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) do not achieve a complete remission after first-line rituximab combining chemotherapy. This retrospective study aimed to characterize the outcome of patients with DLBCL that achieved partial remission or had stable disease after first-line R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone). The effects of subsequent treatments and factors associated with event-free survival (EFS) after second-line treatments were analyzed. A total of 103 patients were enrolled and 81 (76.8 %) patients received intensive chemotherapy, whereas the others (23.2 %) received either palliative chemotherapy or supportive care post first-line treatment. Patients receiving intensive chemotherapy had significantly higher EFS (median 7.9 months) than the others; 28 (34.6 %) patients in this group received autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), which may have further improved the EFS. An International Prognostic Index (IPI) >2 and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at diagnosis <1,000/UL were significant prognostic factors associated with worse EFS. The survival advantage of ASCT remained significant after adjustment for these factors. The results suggest intensive chemotherapy plus ASCT may provide modest disease control in patients with DLBCL who achieve PR or SD to first-line R-CHOP, particularly in those with a higher IPI score and/or low ALC at diagnosis. PMID:22885989

  8. Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J.A.; Wikle, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.

  9. State reduction in quantum-counting quantum nondemolition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Milburn, G.J.; Walls, D.F.

    1984-07-01

    We show how quantum-counting quantum nondemolition measurements may be made using standard demolition counting techniques (e.g., photoelectron counting) for two oscillators coupled via a four-wave-mixing interaction. The analysis reveals how the state of one oscillator is reduced to a number eigenstate during the irreversible demolition counting process occurring in another coupled oscillator.

  10. A robust method for counting people in complex indoor spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Ye

    2010-01-01

    People counting systems have wide potential applications including video surveillance and public resources management. This paper describes a robust method for counting people in complex indoor spaces. The method has counted the number of people using a single camera in the indoor spaces through four modules: image pre-processing module, morphology processing module, image marking module and people counting module, in

  11. Monitoring udder health and milk quality using somatic cell counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ynte H. Schukken; David J. Wilson; Francis Welcome; Linda Garrison-Tikofsky; Ruben N. Gonzalez

    2003-01-01

    In this article the use of somatic cell counts for monitoring udder health and milk quality is discussed. Somatic cell count dynamics at quarter, cow, herd and population level are discussed and illustrated with examples. Quarter and cow somatic cell counts directly represent the inflammatory status of the mammary gland. Herd and population somatic cell count are related to the

  12. Study on counting error in particle inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Mitsuaki; Ota, Kazuya; Taguchi, Takao; Suga, Osamu

    2010-05-01

    In EUV lithography (EUVL) it is important to protect a mask from the adhesion of particles because it is difficult to use a pellicle. At Selete, we evaluated a dual-pod carrier and reported on its ability to protect a mask from particles. In the evaluation the average number of particles added to the mask during several hundred handling-cycles was 0.4. Therefore, it is very important to precisely count the number of particle adders. However, according to the specification of the inspection tool, the counting error was greater than the average number of particle adders in the evaluation. In addition, it is known that the error increases for particles with a size near the detection limit. In the evaluation, we inspected a mask substrate four times and regarded signals detected multiple times as real particles. We studied the counting error by assuming that the detection probability followed a static statistical fluctuation. We found that the expected value of counting error was represented with the equation by the number of initial particles, particle adders, capture rate, and inspection times. Under our evaluation condition, even if no quasi-particles existed, the counting error by a single inspection was estimated to be approximately 4. However, the counting error by our evaluation (four inspections) was estimated to be approximately 0.05. Therefore, we found that the reliability by multiple inspections was much higher than that by a single inspection and that the number of particles near the detection limit could be found precisely by multiple inspections. * This work was supported by NEDO.

  13. Track count estimator for DVD and CDROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graba, James M.

    1998-10-01

    An estimator is shown to accurately count tracks during a seek in a DVD or CDROM storage device. The estimator states are position and velocity. Although the gains can be adapted via the recursive Kalman equations, the track count accuracy suffers little degradation if the gains are fixed. The position estimate's bandwidth can be matched to the seek system poles affording optimum filtering. Although the input is a nonlinear function of position, the estimator is constructed in such a way as to maintain linearity.

  14. Blackboard biracks and their counting invariants

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Sam

    2010-01-01

    A blackboard birack is an algebraic structure with axioms encoding the blackboard-framed Reidemeister moves, incorporating quandles, racks, strong biquandles and semiquandles as special cases. In this paper we describe a family of blackboard biracks generalizing Alexander quandles, $(t,s)$-racks, Alexander biquandles and Silver-Williams switches, known as $(\\tau,\\sigma,\\rho)$-biracks. We define a counting invariant of unframed classical and virtual knots and links using labelings of link diagrams by finite blackboard biracks, and we give enhancements of the counting invariant using writhe vectors, image subbiracks, and birack polynomials.

  15. Power counting in nuclear effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valderrama, M. Pavon

    2015-10-01

    The effective field theory formulation of nuclear forces is able to provide a systematic and model independent description of nuclear physics, where all processes involving nucleons and pions can be described in terms of the same set of couplings, the theoretical errors are known in advance and the connection with QCD is present. These features are a consequence of renormalization group invariance, which in turn determines the power counting of the theory. Here we present a brief outline of how to determine the power counting of nuclear effective field theory, what does it looks like and what are the predictions for the two-nucleon sector at lowest orders.

  16. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

  17. Bacterial Cell Counts in Goat Milk and Their Correlations with Somatic Cell Counts, Percent Fat, and Protein1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. W. Park; R. D. Humphrey

    1986-01-01

    Representative milk samples at morning and afternoon milking were collected periodically for 5 mo from 32 does in a Prairie View A&M University milking herd to test the concentrations of total bacterial, coliform, and staphylococcus counts and to determine the correlations among the bacterial cell counts, somatic cell counts, percent fat, and percent protein. Bacterial cell counts were assayed by

  18. WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark

    This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;…

  19. Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…

  20. KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

  1. Reading the World of University : What Counts?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Green; Gloria Latham

    2000-01-01

    This paper will address the issues encountered by first year students in reading and reshaping the culture of university. The interim findings of a six year study will be dismantled in order to uncover what counts in the experience of first year university and the ramifications for educational practice and discourse. Feedback from staff continues to indicate that there is

  2. Probing cosmology with weak lensing peak counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan M. Kratochvil; Zoltan Haiman; Morgan May

    2010-01-01

    We propose counting peaks in weak lensing (WL) maps, as a function of their height, to probe models of dark energy and to constrain cosmological parameters. Because peaks can be identified in two-dimensional WL maps directly, they can provide constraints that are free from potential selection effects and biases involved in identifying and determining the masses of galaxy clusters. As

  3. KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galano, Joseph; Nezlek, John B.; Wood, Lisa

    This KIDS COUNT data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on six general areas of children's well-being: (1) healthy births; (2) children's health; (3) school success; (4) risky behavior; (5) families; and (6) community well-being. Key indicators in these six areas include the…

  4. Mass Terms, Count Nouns, and Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler Burge

    From early childhood we learn to distinguish compact, enduring things from the stuffs of which they are constituted. We count\\u000a the former and measure the latter. We treat things as stable points of reference for action and experience; stuffs we think\\u000a of as amorphous and protean.

  5. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1995 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ. Medical Center, Omaha.

    While a vast majority of children in Nebraska are experiencing a safe, healthy, and nurturing childhood, a significant number are not, and some of these numbers are growing. This Kids Count report is the third annual comprehensive review of available data in nine areas of child health and well-being in the state. Presented with these statistics…

  6. Clinical utility of the band count

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Joanne Cornbleet

    2002-01-01

    Enumeration of band neutrophils as an indicator of acute infection is in- grained in clinical practice. Clinicians still use elevated band counts (bandemia) as evidence for serious bacterial infection, and even may view sequential changes as a correlate of response or nonresponse to therapy. Surprisingly, the clinical folklore of the band persists despite little mention of its diagnostic utility in

  7. COUNTING NONINTERSECTING LATTICE PATHS WITH TURNS

    E-print Network

    Krattenthaler, Christian

    COUNTING NONINTERSECTING LATTICE PATHS WITH TURNS C. Krattenthaler Institut f¨ur Mathematik der points and a given total number of North-East turns. These formulas are important for the computation with given starting and end points and a given total number of turns in certain regions. If one forgets about

  8. Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

  9. KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  10. KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

  11. Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

  12. KidsCount in Colorado! 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jenifer

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…

  13. KidsCount in Colorado! 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  14. Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  15. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassatt, Susan

    This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…

  16. Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

  17. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  18. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paula R.

    This Kids Count report provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Nevada. The report is comprised of eight sections: an overview; Nevada's demographic profile; key facts regarding children in the state; Nevada's comparison to the rest of the United States; trends in the state; indicators of child well-being;…

  19. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentz, Cara Anderson

    This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

  20. Reading Authentic Texts: What Counts as Cognate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements…

  1. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    We Can, Inc., Las Vegas, NV.

    This Kids Count data book is the first to examine statewide indicators of the well being of Nevada's children. The statistical portrait is based on 15 indicators of child well being: (1) percent low birth-weight babies; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) percent of children in poverty; (4) percent of children in single-parent families; (5) percent of…

  2. Illinois Kids Count 2001: Envisioning the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Brenda; Familia, Yahaira; Gifford, Amy; Knowlton, Gretchen; Matakis, Brian; Olson, Melissa; Owens, Tracy; Zasadny, Julie

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of family, education and child care, arts and recreation, safety, health, and economic security. The indicators are: (1) percent of children living in poverty; (2) number of children enrolled in…

  3. KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

  4. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

  5. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Stéphane; Schbath, Sophie; Vandewalle, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use. PMID:17346349

  6. ABC Learn Online: Count Us In

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ABC Learn Online hosts this website with many interactive games designed to help children learn basic number concepts. Basic concepts addressed include: counting, sorting, addition, subtraction, and identifying patterns. PC and Mac versions of games are also available for free to download. A section on Other Activities describes some activities that teachers can try in their classrooms.

  7. An Optical Bit-Counting Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Marilyn; Lapir, Gennadi M.; Berkovich, Simon

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the omnipresent problem of counting bits - an operation discussed since the very early stages of the establishing of computer science. The need for a quick bit-counting method acquires a special significance with the proliferation of search engines on the Internet. It arises in several other computer applications. This is especially true in information retrieval in which an array of binary vectors is used to represent a characteristic function (CF) of a set of qualified documents. The number of "I"s in the CF equals the cardinality of the set. The process of repeated evaluations of this cardinality is a pivotal point in choosing a rational strategy for deciding whether to constrain or broaden the search criteria to ensure selection of the desired items. Another need for bit-counting occurs when trying to determine the differences between given files, (images or text), in terms of the Hamming distance. An Exclusive OR operation applied to a pair of files results in a binary vector array of mismatches that must be counted.

  8. Counting on in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie White, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 "Counting On" program has evolved from a series that began in 1999 and which continued to expand and change until the current manifestation. The program has always had a twin learning focus upon both students and teachers. Thus it seeks to improve student mathematical outcomes while building capacity within the teachers by improving their…

  9. Primary Place. Math Projects That Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschman, Larry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Offers elementary math-centered recycling activities and ideas on transforming throwaways into valuable classroom resources. The math activities teach estimating, counting, measuring, weighing, graphing, patterning, thinking, comparing, proportion, and dimensions. The recycling ideas present ways to use pieces of trash to create educational games.…

  10. Numbers, Counting, and Infinity in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meconi, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of middle-school students' natural understanding of large numbers to introduce the concept of infinity. Presents activities that investigate infinite sets by demonstrating a one-to-one correspondence between the counting numbers and the given set. Examples include prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, fractions, even and odd numbers,…

  11. Implementing Graduation Counts: State Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides information on states' progress in implementing the graduation rate all 50 governors agreed by signing the Graduation Counts Compact in 2005 to adopt. The governors undertook this commitment because they understand the imperative to gather more accurate, comparable data on how many of their students graduate from high school…

  12. Some recent progress in count time series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Fokianos

    2011-01-01

    We review some regression models for the analysis of count time series. These models have been the focus of several investigations over the last years, but only recently simple conditions for stationarity and ergodicity were worked out in detail. This advancement makes possible the development of the maximum-likelihood estimation theory under minimal assumptions.

  13. Maine Kids Count 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children, with particular focus on child health care access. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in five areas: (1) child health care access; (2) physical and mental health; (3) community and family environment; (4) social and economic…

  14. COUNTING DEAD BIRDS: EXAMINATION OF METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Philibert; G. Wobeser; R. G. Clark

    We studied three methods (line transect, circular quadrat, complete count) for esti- mating density of dead birds, using models of sparrows and meadowlarks placed at a density of 50 birds of each type\\/ha. Line transects with a 500-m search line were used in cultivated pasture and native prairie habitats. The number of birds found by individual searchers in line transects

  15. Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune-

    E-print Network

    Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna

    Chapter 26 Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune- 400 Companies WHAT Zodiac birth sign WH Y Curiosity? 504 - D oes your zodiac sign determine how successful you will be in later life? Fortune magazine collected the zodiac signs of 256 heads of the largest 400 companies. Here are the number of births for each

  16. http://tsunami.gov When seconds count...

    E-print Network

    http://tsunami.gov When seconds count... TsunamiReady communities are prepared! Schools, playgrounds, hospitals, factories and homes are often built in areas vulnerable to tsunamis. The Tsunami in coastal areas to reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. How can I learn more

  17. "Wake Up Brains" with Skip Counting Songs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    In this 4-minute video teacher Jan Saul demonstrates how she incorporates music and kinesthetic activity in warm-up activities in her grade 3 class. The songs involve skip-counting, laying the foundation for memorization of multiplication facts. The page included a link to the vendor of the recordings and a transcript of the video (doc).

  18. Let's Count! Learning Numbers in Multiple Ways

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    In this 5-minute video Pre-K teacher Rosemary Kungu demonstrates a variety of activities that develop early number skills, including number recognition, counting and ordering numbers. The activities involve active participation and incorporate multiple senses and learning styles, music, and collaboration. A downloadable transcript of the video (doc) is included along with reflection questions for viewers.

  19. Count data models for demographic data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Winkelmann; Klaus F. Zimmermann

    1994-01-01

    Key demographic variables, such as the number of children and the number of marriages or divorces, can only take integer values. This papers deals with the estimation of single equation models in which the counts are regressed on a set of observed individual characteristics such as age, gender, or nationality. Most empirical work in population economics has neglected the fact

  20. Measuring Vulnerability Using the Counting Approach

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    assessment. In this paper we take a fresh look at measuring vulnerability, where we sep- arate out the identi;1 Introduction Vulnerability has become an integral part of any deprivation assessment. In recent years there hasMeasuring Vulnerability Using the Counting Approach Indranil Dutta Ajit Mishra University

  1. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

    This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…

  2. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

  3. Virginia KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: healthy births, adolescent well-being, health and safety, education, and economic security. Specific indicators examined are: (1) births to single women; (2) early prenatal…

  4. KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well being: health, safety, education, families, and economic factors. Key indicators in these five areas include: (1) prenatal care rates; (2) low birthweight; (3) child deaths; (4)…

  5. Kids Count in Indiana: 1995 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This Kids Count report is the second in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. After an introduction and an explanation of the statistics, sections of the statistical report contain data on several indicators of well-being: (1) Indiana's children and their families, including population estimates, ethnicity,…

  6. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…

  7. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

  8. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…

  9. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic diversity);…

  10. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count data book is the fourth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 28 indicators in five areas: (1) family and community; (2) economic well-being, including median household income, poverty rate, and percent of children in families receiving cash…

  11. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; And Others

    This Kids Count report examined statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters addressed the areas of: family and community; economic well-being; child health; safety; and education. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income;…

  12. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

  13. WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what…

  14. The automatic recognition and counting of cough

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samantha J Barry; Adrie D Dane; Alyn H Morice; Anthony D Walmsley

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cough recordings have been undertaken for many years but the analysis of cough frequency and the temporal relation to trigger factors have proven problematic. Because cough is episodic, data collection over many hours is required, along with real-time aural analysis which is equally time-consuming. A method has been developed for the automatic recognition and counting of coughs in sound

  15. South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  16. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These two Kids Count brief reports discuss issues related to the well-being of Rhode Island children. The first report identifies ways to measure the impact of state and federal welfare reform proposals on children who receive benefits through Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Potential measures of success for welfare reform include…

  17. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…

  18. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 1994 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is organized by county and is based on 11 outcome measures of children's well-being: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant…

  19. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowshen, Steven, Ed.; Greback, Robert, Ed.; Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Schooley, Teresa L., Ed.; Sturgis, Janice, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT report details statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths, age 1-14 years; (5) teen violent deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (6) juvenile…

  20. Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…

  1. COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve

    E-print Network

    #12;The Library of Congress catalogue card for this publication is as follows: Finucane, John H Counts. Library The Fish and Wildlife Service series, Special Scientific Report--Fisheries, is catalogued. Fisheries--Research. SH11.A335 Library of Congress 639.2072 59-60217 #12;CONTENTS Page Introduction 1

  2. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Cathy; Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom--from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards…

  3. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  4. Automated Fish Counting Using Image Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Toh; T. M. Ng; B. K. Liew

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a simple method of counting feeder fish automatically using image processing techniques. A video of a school of fish is taken and every frame is processed singly and independently. The first step is to obtain blobs marking the positions of the fish. Several ways of accomplishing this task are discussed. Noise and background objects are filtered from

  5. Approximate Frequency Counts over Data Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurmeet Singh Manku; Rajeev Motwani

    2002-01-01

    We present algorithms for computing frequency counts exceeding a user-specified threshold over data streams. Our algorithms are simple and have provably small memory footprints. Although the output is approximate, the error is guaranteed not to exceed a user-specified parameter. Our algo- rithms can easily be deployed for streams of single- ton items like those found in IP network monitor- ing.

  6. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  7. Weighted power counting and perturbative unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Dylan [Particle Theory Group, Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We consider the relationship between renormalizability and unitarity at a Lifshitz point in d dimensions. We test tree unitarity for theories containing only scalars and fermions, and for pure gauge theory. In both cases, we find the requirement of weighted power-counting renormalizability is equivalent to that of tree unitarity.

  8. Logics with counting: Very Challenging Presentation Topics

    E-print Network

    Pratt-Hartmann, Ian

    to hear about it. I have provided a few bibliographic suggestions to get you started by counting quantifiers in the general area of querying open-world databases. [2] 7. What would happen this feature: decidability is destroyed when it is assumed that certain predicates denote transitive relations

  9. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

  10. Kids Count Alaska, 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

  11. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

  12. The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Wan, X Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S; Wroe, Andrew J; Gridley, Daila S; Kennedy, Ann R

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of ?-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to ?-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (?-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435

  13. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, M. V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow District (Russian Federation); R and D Department, NIX Computer Company, Zvezdniy boulevard 19, 129085 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lesovik, G. B. [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117940 Moscow (Russian Federation); Blatter, G. [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-05-15

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  14. Effects of sampling strategy, detection probability, and independence of counts on the use of point counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Many factors affect the use of point counts for monitoring bird populations, including sampling strategies, variation in detection rates, and independence of sample points. The most commonly used sampling plans are stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling. Each of these might be most useful for different objectives or field situations. Variation in detection probabilities and lack of independence among sample points can bias estimates and measures of precision. All of these factors should be con-sidered when using point count methods.

  15. Reference ranges and sources of variability of CD4 counts in HIV-seronegative women and men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M K Maini; R J Gilson; N Chavda; S Gill; A Fakoya; E J Ross; A N Phillips; I V Weller

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD4 lymphocyte counts are used to monitor immune status in HIV disease. An understanding of the variability of CD4 counts which occurs in the absence of HIV infection is essential to their interpretation. The sources and degree of such variability have not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES: To establish reference ranges for CD4 counts in HIV-seronegative women and heterosexual men

  16. Airborne UV photon-counting radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Marc C.; Wilcher, George; Banks, Calvin R.; Wood, Ronald L.

    2000-11-01

    The radiometric measurements group at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) has developed new solar-blind radiometers for the SENSOR TALON flight test. These radiometers will be flown in an instrument pod by the 46th Test Wing at Eglin AFB. The radiometers are required to fit into a single quadrant of a 22-in.-diam sphere turret of the instrument pod. Because of minimal space requirements and photon-counting sensitivity needs, the radiometric measurements group used image intensifiers instead of the standard photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The new design concept improved the photon-counting sensitivity, dynamic range, and uniformity of the field of view as compared to standard PMTs. A custom data acquisition system was required to miniaturize the electronics and generate a pulse code-modulated (PCM) data stream to the standard tape recording system.

  17. Digital coincidence counting for radionuclide standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keightley, John; Park, Tae Soon

    2007-08-01

    The 4??-? coincidence method for the absolute determination of nuclear disintegration rates has for decades been successfully applied to a variety of radionuclides, via the use of suites of dedicated analogue electronic modules. The high cost of procurement and maintenance of such systems, as well as the requirement for highly experienced technicians to perform the data collection have prompted the design of more flexible data collection techniques. Recent advances in digital signal acquisition technology have facilitated the possibility of storing pulse information from multiple detector systems along with a time stamp for each recorded event, allowing various radionuclide standardization techniques (based on the concept of 4??-? coincidence counting) to be implemented 'offline' via the use of dedicated software routines. This brief paper reviews the progress in the development of such 'digital coincidence counting' systems used in the field of radionuclide metrology and may be viewed as a companion article to other papers (in this issue) on primary methods for radionuclide standardization.

  18. What Counts in the Immunological Synapse?

    PubMed Central

    Dustin, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular interactions at the interface between helper T cells and antigen-presenting B cells govern the ability to produce specific antibodies, which is a central event in protective immunity generated by natural infection or man-made vaccines. In order for a T cell to deliver effective help to a B cell and guide affinity maturation, it needs to provide feedback that is proportional to the amount of antigen the B cell collects with its surface antibody. This review focuses on mechanisms by which T and B cells manage to count the products of antigen capture and encourage B cells with the best receptors to dominate the response and make antibody-producing plasma cells. We discuss what is known about the proportionality of T cells responses to presented antigens and consider the mechanisms that B cells may use to keep count of positive feedback from T cells. PMID:24766889

  19. Total Building Air Management: When Dehumidification Counts

    E-print Network

    Chilton, R. L.; White, C. L.

    1996-01-01

    TOTAL BUILDING AIR MANAGEMENT: WHEN DEHUMIDIFICATION COUNTS Robert L. Chllton Vice President Sales ClimateMaster, hc. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma ABSTRACT Industry trends toward stringent indoor air quality codes, spearheaded by ASHRAE 62... STUDY OVERVIEW The project described in this paper is a 200,000 square foot supercenter located in Moore, Oklahoma. Within the building envelope are contained a complete super market and a retail store with a full range of household goods, dry...

  20. Physical characterization of photon-counting tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, Karl; Lundqvist, Mats; Cederström, Björn; Danielsson, Mats E.; Fredenberg, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Tomosynthesis is emerging as a next generation technology in mammography. Combined with photon-counting detectors with the ability for energy discrimination, a novel modality is enabled — spectral tomosynthesis. Further advantages of photon-counting detectors in the context of tomosynthesis include elimination of electronic noise, efficient scatter rejection (in some geometries) and no lag. Fourier-based linear-systems analysis is a well-established method for optimizing image quality in two-dimensional x-ray systems. The method has been successfully adapted to threedimensional imaging, including tomosynthesis, but several areas need further investigation. This study focuses on two such areas: 1) Adaption of the methodology to photon-counting detectors, and 2) violation of the shift-invariance and stationarity assumptions in non-cylindrical geometries. We have developed a Fourier-based framework to study the image quality in a photon-counting tomosynthesis system, assuming locally linear, stationary, and shift-invariant system response. The framework includes a cascaded-systems model to propagate the modulation-transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS) through the system. The model was validated by measurements of the MTF and NPS. High degrees of non-shift invariance and non-stationarity were observed, in particular for the depth resolution as the angle of incidence relative the reconstruction plane varied throughout the imaging volume. The largest effects on image quality in a given point in space were caused by interpolation from the inherent coordinate system of the x-rays to the coordinate system that was used for reconstruction. This study is part of our efforts to fully characterize the spectral tomosynthesis system, we intend to extend the model further to include the detective-quantum efficiency, observer modelling, and spectral effects.

  1. Count Your Lucky Stars: Sampling in Astronomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about sampling specifically in astronomy. Learners will make a sampling window in order to estimate the number of stars in the sky visible to the unaided eye. After, they will discuss how to estimate the effect of different variables on their counts, such as sky brightness, dark adaptation, cloud cover, etc. Please note use of a clear night sky is optimal for this activity.

  2. Language and counting: Some recent results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garry Bell

    1990-01-01

    It has long been recognised that the language of mathematics is an important variable in the learning of mathematics, and\\u000a there has been useful work in isolating and describing the linkage. Steffe and his co-workers at Georgia, for example, (Steffe,\\u000a von Glasersfeld, Richardson and Cobb, 1983) have suggested that young children may construct verbal countable items to count\\u000a objects which

  3. LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING OF NICKEL63

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Gleit; J. Dumot

    1961-01-01

    Liquid scintillation systems based on gels, ether, and toluene are ; investigated for counting nickel-63. A nickel complex of n-caproic acid ; dissolved in a solution of toluene containing 1,4-bis(2-(5-phenloxazolyl)-; benzene(POPOP) and 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) is found to be prefterable with ; respect to reproducibility, ease of preparation, and interpretation. The ; addition of a small quantity of ethyl alcohol produces

  4. Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim

    2006-10-01

    The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by background reduction, high detector efficiency, and long counting times. Backgrounds from cosmic-rays, construction materials, and radon are reduced by counting underground, active and passive shielding, (pre-WWII steel) and situation behind a Class 10,000 clean facility. High-detection efficiency is provided by a well detector for small samples and three large HPGe detectors. Sample concentration methods such as ashing or chemical separation are also used. Count times are measured in days. Recently, two SCUREF programs were completed with the University of South Carolina to further enhance UCF detection sensitivity. The first developed an ultra-low background HPGe detector and the second developed an anti-cosmic shield that further reduces the detector background. In this session, we will provide an overview status of the recent improvements made in the UCF and future directions for increasing sensitivity.

  5. Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Carin, Lawrence

    2013-10-17

    The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB) process. A gamma process is employed to model the rate measure of a Poisson process, whose normalization provides a random probability measure for mixture modeling and whose marginalization leads to a NB process for count modeling. A draw from the NB process consists of a Poisson distributed finite number of distinct atoms, each of which is associated with a logarithmic distributed number of data samples. We reveal relationships between various count- and mixture-modeling distributions distributions, and construct a Poisson-logarithmic bivariate distribution that connects the NB and Chinese restaurant table distributions. Fundamental properties of the models are developed, and we derive efficient Bayesian inference. It is shown that with augmentation and normalization, the NB process and gamma-NB process can be reduced to the Dirichlet process and hierarchical Dirichlet process, respectively. These relationships highlight theoretical, structural and computational advantages of the NB process. A variety of NB processes, including the beta-geometric, beta-NB, marked-beta-NB, marked-gamma-NB and zero-inflated-NB processes, with distinct sharing mechanisms, are also constructed. These models are applied to topic modeling, with connections made to existing algorithms under Poisson factor analysis. Example results show the importance of inferring both the NB dispersion and probability parameters. PMID:24144977

  6. The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This event, one of the cornerstone projects for the upcoming International Year of Astronomy, is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. The 2008 Star Count benefited from the current excitement in citizen science, with 15 nights of observing in October & November. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count is able to engage people around the world. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user- friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results of the 2007 and 2008 campaigns. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions. We will also discuss lessons learned and best practices, as well as our plans for the future, including IYA 2009.

  7. Duplication count distributions in DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindi, Suzanne S.; Hunt, Brian R.; Yorke, James A.

    2008-12-01

    We study quantitative features of complex repetitive DNA in several genomes by studying sequences that are sufficiently long that they are unlikely to have repeated by chance. For each genome we study, we determine the number of identical copies, the “duplication count,” of each sequence of length 40, that is of each “40-mer.” We say a 40-mer is “repeated” if its duplication count is at least 2. We focus mainly on “complex” 40-mers, those without short internal repetitions. We find that we can classify most of the complex repeated 40-mers into two categories: one category has its copies clustered closely together on one chromosome, the other has its copies distributed widely across multiple chromosomes. For each genome and each of the categories above, we compute N(c) , the number of 40-mers that have duplication count c , for each integer c . In each case, we observe a power-law-like decay in N(c) as c increases from 3 to 50 or higher. In particular, we find that N(c) decays much more slowly than would be predicted by evolutionary models where each 40-mer is equally likely to be duplicated. We also analyze an evolutionary model that does reflect the slow decay of N(c) .

  8. Enabling photon counting detectors with dynamic attenuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are being investigated as a replacement for conventional x-ray detectors because they promise several advantages, including better dose efficiency, higher resolution and spectral imaging. However, many of these advantages disappear when the x-ray flux incident on the detector is too high. We recently proposed a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator (or beam shaping filter) that can control the flux incident on the detector. This can restrict the operating range of the PCXD to keep the incident count rate below a given limit. We simulated a system with the piecewise-linear attenuator and a PCXD using raw data generated from forward projected DICOM files. We investigated the classic paralyzable and nonparalyzable PCXD as well as a weighted average of the two, with the weights chosen to mimic an existing PCXD (Taguchi et al, Med Phys 2011). The dynamic attenuator has small synergistic benefits with the nonparalyzable detector and large synergistic benefits with the paralyzable detector. Real PCXDs operate somewhere between these models, and the weighted average model still shows large benefits from the dynamic attenuator. We conclude that dynamic attenuators can reduce the count rate performance necessary for adopting PCXDs.

  9. Counting Problems Computationally Equivalent to Computing the Determinant

    E-print Network

    Portier, Natacha

    Counting Problems Computationally Equivalent to Computing the Determinant Seinosuke Toda Technical Computationally Equivalent to Computing the Determinant (author) Seinosuke Toda (affiliation) Department, Japan 1 #12;(abbreviated title) Counting Problems and the Determinant (mailing address) Seinosuke Toda

  10. Cytospin centrifuge in differential counts of milk somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Dulin, A M; Paape, M J; Weinland, B T

    1982-07-01

    A procedure was developed for a cytospin centrifuge to concentrate cells from milk onto microscope slides in a circle with 6 mm diameter. Differential somatic cell counts with cytospin were compared to the conventional hand smearing technique to ascertain variation in differential counts. Milk samples were from each of 30 cow quarters, 10 within each of three total milk somatic cell count ranges of less than .7, .7 to 1.5, and more than 1.5 x 10(6)/ml. Two prepared from each sample. All smears were air dried; and stained with modified Wright's stain, the first 200 cells were counted. Differential cell counts from smears prepared by the two procedures were not different. Variation between duplicate smears in differential cell counts was less for cytospin technique. Cytospin can be used to obtain rapid and accurate differential cell counts in milk over a wide range of total somatic cell counts. PMID:7050194

  11. 77 FR 65091 - National Character Counts Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...Proclamation 8891--National Character Counts Week, 2012 Proclamation 8892--National Forest Products Week, 2012 Presidential Documents Federal Register...October 19, 2012 National Character Counts Week, 2012 By the President of the United...

  12. Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis

    E-print Network

    Pisania, Anna

    Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, ...

  13. Pulse pileup effects in counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Alexei V.

    1998-12-01

    The problem of counting rates in a counting detection system is viewed as a stochastic problem of mean threshold crossing rates for a dynamic system driven by a stationary random force. A general formula is presented for calculating the rates of such a system at an arbitrary threshold for all values of event occurrence rates, given that the amplitude distribution of the incoming events and the impulse response of the detection system are known. Analysis of the general formula leads to the asymptotic expressions for counting rates at both limits of high and low incoming rates. A simple expression for the saturation counting rate of a detection system is given, and it is shown that for a high order pile-up the average intensity and variation of the incoming signal can be determined by measuring the counting rates at two thresholds. Two alternative treatments of the case of low incoming rates are presented, and it is shown that in the low-rate limit the unknown incoming distribution can be computed from the measured pulse-height spectrum. Based on the asymptotic results, construction of an approximation to the impulse response function of the detection system is demonstrated, which facilitates numerical evaluation of the general formula. The treatment for high intensity broad spectra is given, in particular for spectra decaying exponentially or as power-law. For each case, comparison with numerical experiments is presented, and it is illustrated how well-known experimental facts can be deduced from a single general formula. Based on the general treatment of the pulse pileup problem, a technique for computing the responses of charged particle detectors flown in space to solar X-ray events has been developed. This technique enables usage of charged particle detector systems flown on different spacecraft as solar X-ray measuring instruments. Data from the Energetic Particle Experiment (EPE) solid-state detector carried aboard the NASA IMP 8 (Explorer 50) satellite are used to compare the observed and computed responses. The effects of the dead time, in addition to pileup effects, on the apparent rates are discussed.

  14. Counting radioactive noble gas atoms: Lasers, accelerators or decay counters?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard E. Lehmann

    2001-01-01

    Radon-220 and Radon-222 in environmental air samples can be measured on-line with high temporal resolution by state-of-the-art alpha counting. Argon-37, Krypton-85 and Argon-39 are measured routinely by low level decay counting using high-pressure gas proportional counters in an underground laboratory. For Krypton-81 decay counting is not possible in environmental samples. Therefore, various attempts have been made to use atom counting

  15. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

  16. Standardization of 18F by digital coincidence counting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Joo; Park, Tae Soon; Lee, Jong Man; Shik Hahm, Don; Lee, K B

    2012-09-01

    The radioactivity of (18)F has been measured by a digital coincidence counting (DCC) system. The main advantages of the digital coincidence counting technique are a shortening of the measurement time as compared with conventional coincidence counting and an ability to obtain activities with various experimental parameters through off-line analysis. The measurement results of radioactivity for (18)F solution were compared with those of a conventional coincidence counting technique and a reference ion chamber method. PMID:22484142

  17. Differential Counting in Mixed Cultures with Coulter Counters

    PubMed Central

    Drake, J. F.; Tsuchiya, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    A critical comparison of Coulter, viable, and microscope counts for several mixed cultures of microorganisms has been made. This investigation shows that Coulter counting can provide reliable estimates of microbial numbers in mixed cultures. Precautions and limitations of Coulter counting in mixed cultures are discussed. PMID:4199341

  18. Application of generalized additive models to butterfly transect count data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rothery; David Roy

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the use of generalized additive models for describing patterns in butterfly transect counts during the flight period. Models were applied to sets of simulated data and to transect counts from the British Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (BMS) recorded at a large number of sites in the UK. The models successfully described patterns in counts in a range of species

  19. Approximate Counting Scheme for m n Contingency Tables

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    data from sample surveys. The problem of exactly counting the number of contingency tables with fixedApproximate Counting Scheme for m × n Contingency Tables Shuji Kijima and Tomomi Matsui METR 2003-01 JANUARY 2003 #12;Approximate Counting Scheme for m × n Contingency Tables Shuji Kijima and Tomomi Matsui

  20. 75 FR 64615 - National Character Counts Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...October 15, 2010 National Character Counts Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect upon the values of equality...commitment. During National Character Counts Week, let us take this opportunity to...

  1. Putting Counting to Work: Preschoolers' Understanding of Cardinal Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon, Kevin; Lewis, Charlie; Freeman, Norman H.

    2003-01-01

    Preschool children are often good at counting things but seem slow to learn that there is more to counting than simply finding out how many are in a single set. Counting is useful when comparing sets and when creating new sets to match existing ones. This is part of the numerical understanding that educators wish to foster in schools. In two…

  2. The Mayan Long Count Calendar T. Chanier1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Mayan Long Count Calendar T. Chanier1 1 Department of Physics, University of Namur, rue de of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were three other calendars used in addition

  3. RAPID GLUTARALDEHYDE FIXATION FOR COW MILK CELL COUNT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) is regarded as the reference method for counting somatic cells in cow milk. The use of an electronic particle by the for- maldehyde technique. Materials and Methods Somatic cell counts in 40 samples of milk were carriedRAPID GLUTARALDEHYDE FIXATION FOR COW MILK CELL COUNT BY COULTER COUNTER B. POUTREL G. DUBRAY INRA

  4. Leukocyte Count and Vascular Risk in Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Ovbiagele; Michael J. Lynn; Jeffrey L. Saver; Marc I. Chimowitz

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few data exist about the prognostic value of serum white blood cell (WBC) count among patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between WBC count and vascular risk in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease enrolled in the Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease(WASID) study. Methods: The relationships between baseline serum WBC count (categorized into quartiles) and both ischemic

  5. Counting Ability of Moderately and Mildly Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.

    1986-01-01

    The study examined basic counting competencies, difficulties, skill progressions, and variation among 36 moderately retarded and 64 mildly retarded students (ages 5-14). Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicated deficiencies in basic counting competencies and systematic oral- and object-counting errors. Striking individual differences in…

  6. Cerenkov Counting Technique for Beta Particles: Advantages and Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengan, K.

    1983-01-01

    Cerenkov counting is a useful technique for assaying medium/high energy beta emitters in aqueous solutions. Advantages of the technique include: (1) simple sample preparation; (2) being able to handle large volume of aqueous solution for counting; and (3) absence of chemical quenching. Cerenkov counting is also less expensive than other methods.…

  7. EVALUATING POINT COUNT VERSUS TERRITORY MAPPING CROPLAND BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species richness, composition and abundance of farmland birds were compared between point counts (50,100, and 150 m radius half circles) and territory mapping on three 40 ha plots in Quebec, Canada. oint counts of smaller radii tended to have larger density estimates than counts ...

  8. COUNTS OF RED-TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED

    E-print Network

    455: COUNTS OF RED-TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM F. Pautzke, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director COUNTS OF RED-TIDE Acknowledgment 4 Literature cited 5 Explanation of column headings 7 Station data 7 iii #12;#12;COUNTS OF RED-TIDE

  9. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. PMID:25386148

  10. Somatic Cell Counts and Infection Rates for Cows of Varying Somatic Cell Count in Initial Test of First Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. COFFEYfl; W. E. Vinson; R. E. Pearson

    1986-01-01

    Somatic cell counts (log, base 2)and rates of infection in first and subsequent lactations were examined by classes of somatic cell count in initial test day of first lactation to determine if cows with initially low\\

  11. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15 to 17 years; (2) births to teens 15 to 19 years; (3) low birth weight babies;…

  12. The automatic recognition and counting of cough

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Samantha J; Dane, Adrie D; Morice, Alyn H; Walmsley, Anthony D

    2006-01-01

    Background Cough recordings have been undertaken for many years but the analysis of cough frequency and the temporal relation to trigger factors have proven problematic. Because cough is episodic, data collection over many hours is required, along with real-time aural analysis which is equally time-consuming. A method has been developed for the automatic recognition and counting of coughs in sound recordings. Methods The Hull Automatic Cough Counter (HACC) is a program developed for the analysis of digital audio recordings. HACC uses digital signal processing (DSP) to calculate characteristic spectral coefficients of sound events, which are then classified into cough and non-cough events by the use of a probabilistic neural network (PNN). Parameters such as the total number of coughs and cough frequency as a function of time can be calculated from the results of the audio processing. Thirty three smoking subjects, 20 male and 13 female aged between 20 and 54 with a chronic troublesome cough were studied in the hour after rising using audio recordings. Results Using the graphical user interface (GUI), counting the number of coughs identified by HACC in an hour long recording, took an average of 1 minute 35 seconds, a 97.5% reduction in counting time. HACC achieved a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 96%. Reproducibility of repeated HACC analysis is 100%. Conclusion An automated system for the analysis of sound files containing coughs and other non-cough events has been developed, with a high robustness and good degree of accuracy towards the number of actual coughs in the audio recording. PMID:17007636

  13. Point count length and detection of forest neotropical migrant birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Smith, D.R.; Robbins, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of bird abundances among years or among habitats assume that the rates at which birds are detected and counted are constant within species. We use point count data collected in forests of the Mid-Atlantic states to estimate detection probabilities for Neotropical migrant bird species as a function of count length. For some species, significant differences existed among years or observers in both the probability of detecting the species and in the rate at which individuals are counted. We demonstrate the consequence that variability in species' detection probabilities can have on estimates of population change, and discuss ways for reducing this source of bias in point count studies.

  14. Perturbative tests of non-perturbative counting

    E-print Network

    Atish Dabholkar; Joao Gomes

    2009-11-03

    We observe that a class of quarter-BPS dyons in N=4 theories with charge vector (Q, P) and with nontrivial values of the arithmetic duality invariant I := gcd (Q wedge P) are nonperturbative in one frame but perturbative in another frame. This observation suggests a test of the recently computed nonperturbative partition functions for dyons with nontrivial values of the arithmetic invariant. For all values of I, we show that the nonperturbative counting yields vanishing indexed degeneracy for this class of states everywhere in the moduli space in precise agreement with the perturbative result.

  15. Numbers Count Workshop at Agnes Scott College

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Claudia Neuhauser (University of Minnesota Rochester; Health Sciences)

    2009-01-09

    These workshop resources were provided for faculty interested in addressing the gap between mathematics and its application in biological problem solving. To support the observation, experimentation and modeling of data, the Numbers Count workshop will provide an introduction to data, tools, and curricular materials for use with undergraduates. We also addressed the lack of context that impedes student learningâ??students rightfully ask themselves why should they need to integrate arcsin x if they want to become a physician? This event was held at Agnes Scott College in Atlanta in January 2009.

  16. Resources for the UTK Numbers Count Workshop

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Claudia Neuhauser (University of Minnesota Rochester; Health Sciences)

    2009-05-07

    These workshop resources were prepared for faculty interested in addressing the gap between mathematics and its application in biological problem solving. To support the observation, experimentation and modeling of data, the Numbers Count workshop provides an introduction to data, tools, and curricular materials for use with undergraduates. We also addressed the lack of context that impedes student learningâ??students rightfully ask themselves why should they need to integrate arcsin x if they want to become a physician? This event was held at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville in May 2009.

  17. 3.MD The Square Counting Shortcut

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Imagine that each square in the picture measures one centimeter on each side. What is the area of each letter? Try to work it out without counting each...

  18. A panoramic photon-counting detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Daniel; Hardy, Eduardo; Couture, Jean

    1987-07-01

    The characteristics and implementation of the Laval Image Photon-Counting System (LIPS) are described. LIPS is a flexible, compact, and transportable two-dimensional detector system which is currently in use in the spectroscopic mode on the 1.6 m telescope at the Mont Megantic Observatory. The detector is described, including the quantum efficiency, resolution, linearity, noise characteristics, and distortions. The data acquisition and display module is considered, including the computer, image display unit, Direct Memory Access Board which controls the detector, and control and data-acquisition program. Spectroscopy using LIPS is briefly addressed. The present assessment of the system and its future use are discussed.

  19. Markov counting models for correlated binary responses.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Forrest W; Zelterman, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We propose a class of continuous-time Markov counting processes for analyzing correlated binary data and establish a correspondence between these models and sums of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. Our approach generalizes many previous models for correlated outcomes, admits easily interpretable parameterizations, allows different cluster sizes, and incorporates ascertainment bias in a natural way. We demonstrate several new models for dependent outcomes and provide algorithms for computing maximum likelihood estimates. We show how to incorporate cluster-specific covariates in a regression setting and demonstrate improved fits to well-known datasets from familial disease epidemiology and developmental toxicology. PMID:25792624

  20. Total and differential bulk cow milk somatic cell counts and their relation with antioxidant factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houda Hamed; Abdelfettah El Feki; Ahmed Gargouri

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the relationship between total bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC), differential BMSCC (macrophage, lymphocyte, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes), and antioxidant enzymes was investigated. Forty-three samples of bulk milk were selected randomly from eight dairy farms in the region of Sfax (Tunisia) in winter, from November 2005 to February 2006. Bulk milk samples were analyzed for antioxidant enzymes

  1. Total and differential bulk cow milk somatic cell counts and their relation with lipolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Gargouri; Houda Hamed; Abdelfettah ElFeki

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the relationship between total bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC), differential BMSCC (macrophage, lymphocyte and polymorphonuclear leukocytes) and lipolysis level was investigated. Eighty samples of bulk milk were selected randomly from eight dairy farms in the region of Sfax (Tunisia) from November 2005 to April 2006. Bulk milk samples were analyzed for titratable acidity, total solids,

  2. Increased interleukin 1-driven neutrophil counts preserve anti-bacterial defense in absence of IKK

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    were identified by anti-B220 and T cells by anti-CD3 staining using flow cytometry. Absolute B) Cellcount(perµl) Supplementary Figure 2. The IKK deficiency has only a modest effect on lymphocyte counts and analyzed by flow cytometry. In both experiments, absolute cell numbers were calculated based on flow

  3. The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 31,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first 3 years. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from 2007—2010. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  4. The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This IYA Cornerstone Project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 18,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results of the 2007—2009. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  5. Dual-Color Photon-Counting Histogram

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Tekmen, Mohac; Hillesheim, Lindsey; Skinner, Joseph; Wu, Bin; Müller, Joachim D.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the development of dual-color photon-counting histogram (PCH) analysis. Dual-color PCH is an extension of regular PCH and considers the photon counts received in two detection channels instead of one. Because each detection channel records a different color, dual-color PCH distinguishes fluorescent species not only by differences in their brightness, but also according to their color. The additional discrimination by color increases the sensitivity of PCH in resolving a mixture of species considerably. Most dual-color fluorescence fluctuation experiments are performed on fluorophores with overlapping emission spectra. This overlap results in spectral cross talk between the detector channels, which reduces resolvability. Here, we demonstrate that dual-color PCH is able to resolve binary dye mixtures in the presence of cross talk from a single measurement without any additional information about the sample. We discuss the effect of sampling time on the fit parameters of dual-color PCH. Differences between dual-color fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and dual-color PCH will also be addressed. We quantitatively resolve a mixture of the two fluorescent proteins CFP and YFP, which is challenging because of the strong spectral overlap of their emission spectra. Dichroic mirrors are needed to direct the light into the two detection channels. We quantify the influence of these filters on dual-color PCH analysis and determine the optimal transition wavelength of the dichroic mirror for the CFP-YFP pair. PMID:15596506

  6. Quality Counts 2002: Building Blocks for Success

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This year's Quality Counts report (last mentioned in the January 12, 2001 Scout Report) focuses on the importance of high quality learning experiences for children prior to their K-12 school years. The benefits of offering quality education at this early point can be substantial; children perform with better cognitive skills during later educational stages. Not simply an endorsement of improved standards and programs, the report outlines the current state of affairs with supporting statistics and documentation for each state and the District of Columbia. The report examines tangible issues such as adequate pay for educators, evaluation criteria and measurement tools, and each state's "commitment to Kindergarten." The format of this report is much enhanced from prior publications. An Interactive data search, Excel and .pdf data tables, Web-only testing data (e.g., the table "Grade-by-Grade Testing Policies" is available online only), and inclusion of "new indicators of several school-quality categories" are all new features with the 2002 report. This report, as are all the Quality Counts Reports from Education Week and the Pew Charitable Trusts, is a thoughtful read for anyone concerned with education.

  7. Martian crater counts on Elysium Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Kathleen; Barlow, Nadine G.

    1990-01-01

    Without returned samples from the Martian surface, relative age chronologies and stratigraphic relationships provide the best information for determining the ages of geomorphic features and surface regions. Crater-size frequency distributions of six recently mapped geological units of Elysium Mons were measured to establish their relative ages. Most of the craters on Elysium Mons and the adjacent plains units are between 500 and 1000 meters in diameter. However, only craters 1 km in diameter or larger were used because of inadequate spatial resolution of some of the Viking images and to reduce probability of counting secondary craters. The six geologic units include all of the Elysium Mons construct and a portion of the plains units west of the volcano. The surface area of the units studied is approximately 128,000 sq km. Four of the geologic units were used to create crater distribution curves. There are no craters larger than 1 km within the Elysium Mons caldera. Craters that lacked raised rims, were irregularly shaped, or were arranged in a linear pattern were assumed to be endogenic in origin and not counted. A crater frequency distribution analysis is presented.

  8. Counting chiral operators in quiver gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butti, Agostino; Forcella, Davide; Hanany, Amihay; Vegh, David; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2007-11-01

    We discuss in detail the problem of counting BPS gauge invariant operators in the chiral ring of quiver gauge theories living on D-branes probing generic toric CY singularities. The computation of generating functions that include counting of baryonic operators is based on a relation between the baryonic charges in field theory and the Kähler moduli of the CY singularities. A study of the interplay between gauge theory and geometry shows that given geometrical sectors appear more than once in the field theory, leading to a notion of ``multiplicities". We explain in detail how to decompose the generating function for one D-brane into different sectors and how to compute their relevant multiplicities by introducing geometric and anomalous baryonic charges. The Plethystic Exponential remains a major tool for passing from one D-brane to arbitrary number N of D-branes. Explicit formulae are given for few examples, including Bbb C3/Bbb Z3, Bbb F0, and dP1.

  9. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  10. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1-bit comparator, which digitizes the input referenced to an adjustable threshold value. This results in four independent serial sample streams of binary 1s and 0s, which are ORed together at rates up to 10 GHz. This single serial stream is then deserialized by a factor of 16 to create 16 signal lines at a rate of 622.5 MHz or lower for input to a high-speed digital processor assembly. The new design and corresponding hardware can be employed with a quad-photon counting detector capable of handling photon rates on the order of multi-gigaphotons per second, whereas prior art was only capable of handling a single input at 1/4 the flux rate. Additionally, the hardware edge-detection algorithm has provided the ability to process 3-10 higher photon flux rates than previously possible by removing the limitation that photoncounting detector output pulses on multiple channels being ORed not overlap. Now, only the leading edges of the pulses are required to not overlap. This new photon counting digitizer hardware architecture supports a universal front end for an optical communications receiver operating at data rates from kilobits to over one gigabit per second to meet increased mission data volume requirements.

  11. Make Kids Count in '99: Hawai'i Kids Count 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Marcia

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator findings and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, family formation, births to teens, children in single-parent families, children…

  12. Direction Counts: A Comparative Study of Spatially Directional Counting Biases in Cultures with Different Reading Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.

    2012-01-01

    Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear…

  13. Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.

  14. Total Leucocyte Count, C-reactive Protein and Neutrophil Count: Diagnostic Aid in Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Sheikh Muzamil; Afsheen, Misbha; Reshi, Farooq A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value. PMID:19568576

  15. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15?L of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications. PMID:25721975

  16. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2013-08-08

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  17. On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Carlsson, Mats; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin

    Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.

  18. A particle counting EM calorimeter using MAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooren, G.; Rocco, E.

    2015-02-01

    The availability of full size MAPS sensors makes it possible to construct a calorimeter with pixelsize of a few tens of micrometers. This would be small enough to count individual shower particles and would allow a shower shape analysis on an unprecedented, small scale. Interesting features would be tracking capability for particle flow algorithms and a superior discrimination of single photons from neutral and charged pions at high momenta. A small Molière radius together with high transverse resolution would allow to separate close showers, induced by photons from neutral pion decay. A full scale (4 RM, 28 X0) prototype was constructed to demonstrate this. It features 30 micron pixelsize and a longitudinal sampling at 1 radiation length. We will show results from beam tests of this prototype at electron energies of 2 to 200 GeV.

  19. Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

    1998-11-01

    This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

  20. Counting primitive points of bounded height

    E-print Network

    Widmer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Let $k$ be a number field and $K$ a finite extension of $k$. We count points of bounded height in projective space over the field $K$ generating the extension $K/k$. As the height gets large we derive asymptotic estimates with a particularly good error term respecting the extension $K/k$. In a future paper we will use these results to get asymptotic estimates for the number of points of fixed degree over $k$. We also introduce the notion of an adelic Lipschitz height generalizing that of Masser and Vaaler. This will lead to further applications involving points of fixed degree on linear varieties and algebraic numbers of fixed degree satisfying certain subfield conditions.

  1. Rapid count of microbial cells in dialysate.

    PubMed

    Shimakita, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Hidenori; Naramura, Tomotaka; Fujimori, Akira; Ide, Takao; Tashiro, Yoshikazu; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2007-10-01

    An apparatus for the non-culture method (NCM) of microbial cell count was formerly developed and named a bioplorer. The bioplorer NCM is based on the double staining of cells with 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI) and the automatic analysis of their fluorescent microscopic images. Viable cells can be stained with DAPI, while dead cells can be stained with DAPI and PI. In this study, the bioplorer NCM has been applied to the dialysate. The viable and dead cells in dialysate could be counted within 20 min. The detection limit expressed by log(10)[cells/100 mL] was 2.0. When cell-spiked dialysate samples containing prescribed number of Bacillus subtilis cells were assayed, the numbers of cells determined by the bioplorer NCM (N(VIA)(NCM)) and a conventional culture method (CM) on R2A medium (N(VIA)(R2A-CM)) were similar in the range of 2.6-4.6 within the 95% confidence interval (NCM-CM equivalent range). When test solutions sampled from a practical facility in a hospital were assayed, N(VIA)(NCM) was greater than, but comparable to, N(VIA)(R2A-CM). The endotoxin (ET) in the test samples were assayed as well using a test kit for limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. The results of microbial cells and ET concentration indicated that the dialysate supplying line was clean and well maintained. The bioplorer NCM can determine if the microbial contamination of dialysate supplying facilities is greater than 2.6 (398 cells/100 mL). PMID:17845395

  2. Counting OCR errors in typeset text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Jonathan S.

    1995-03-01

    Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

  3. Modelling View-count Dynamics in YouTube

    E-print Network

    Richier, Cédric; Elazouzi, Rachid; Altman, Tania; Linares, Georges; Portilla, Yonathan

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the behaviour of view-count in YouTube. We first propose several bio-inspired models for the evolution of the view-count of YouTube videos. We show, using a large set of empirical data, that the view-count for 90% of videos in YouTube can indeed be associated to at least one of these models, with a Mean Error which does not exceed 5%. We derive automatic ways of classifying the view-count curve into one of these models and of extracting the most suitable parameters of the model. We study empirically the impact of videos' popularity and category on the evolution of its view-count. We finally use the above classification along with the automatic parameters extraction in order to predict the evolution of videos' view-count.

  4. Factors affecting aerobic colony counts for bottled water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J Parrington; A. N Sharpe

    1998-01-01

    The Canadian Official Method MFO-15 for aerobic colony counts of bottled waters and ice requires pour plating with plate count agar (PCA) tempered to 40–45°C and incubating 48 h at 35°C. The performance of hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMF), counted by computerized counter after 48 h incubation on various media, was compared against MFO-15 for 31 water samples collected across

  5. Three-dimensional photon counting double-random-phase encryption.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungjin; Javidi, Bahram

    2013-09-01

    In this Letter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) photon counting double-random-phase encryption (DRPE) technique using passive integral imaging. A 3D photon counting DRPE can encrypt a 3D scene and provides more security and authentications due to photon counting Poisson nonlinear transformation on the encrypted image. In addition, 3D imaging allows verification of the 3D object at different depths. Preliminary results and performance evaluation have been presented. PMID:23988912

  6. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  7. Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.

    1989-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.

  8. Counting in the dark: Non-intrusive laser scanning for population counting and identifying roosting bats

    PubMed Central

    Azmy, Suzanna Noor; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Ariffin, Azman; Majid, Zulkepli; Ismail, Muhamad Nor Akmal; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir

    2012-01-01

    Population surveys and species recognition for roosting bats are either based on capture, sight or optical-mechanical count methods. However, these methods are intrusive, are tedious and, at best, provide only statistical estimations. Here, we demonstrated the successful use of a terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) laser scanner for remotely identifying and determining the exact population of roosting bats in caves. LIDAR accurately captured the 3D features of the roosting bats and their spatial distribution patterns in minimal light. The high-resolution model of the cave enabled an exact count of the visibly differentiated Hipposideros larvatus and their roosting pattern within the 3D topology of the cave. We anticipate that the development of LIDAR will open up new research possibilities by allowing researchers to study roosting behaviour within the topographical context of a cave's internal surface, thus facilitating rigorous quantitative characterisations of cave roosting behaviour. PMID:22826802

  9. Statistical mapping of count survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J.A.; Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    We apply a Poisson mixed model to the problem of mapping (or predicting) bird relative abundance from counts collected from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). The model expresses the logarithm of the Poisson mean as a sum of a fixed term (which may depend on habitat variables) and a random effect which accounts for remaining unexplained variation. The random effect is assumed to be spatially correlated, thus providing a more general model than the traditional Poisson regression approach. Consequently, the model is capable of improved prediction when data are autocorrelated. Moreover, formulation of the mapping problem in terms of a statistical model facilitates a wide variety of inference problems which are cumbersome or even impossible using standard methods of mapping. For example, assessment of prediction uncertainty, including the formal comparison of predictions at different locations, or through time, using the model-based prediction variance is straightforward under the Poisson model (not so with many nominally model-free methods). Also, ecologists may generally be interested in quantifying the response of a species to particular habitat covariates or other landscape attributes. Proper accounting for the uncertainty in these estimated effects is crucially dependent on specification of a meaningful statistical model. Finally, the model may be used to aid in sampling design, by modifying the existing sampling plan in a manner which minimizes some variance-based criterion. Model fitting under this model is carried out using a simulation technique known as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Application of the model is illustrated using Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) counts from Pennsylvania BBS routes. We produce both a model-based map depicting relative abundance, and the corresponding map of prediction uncertainty. We briefly address the issue of spatial sampling design under this model. Finally, we close with some discussion of mapping in relation to habitat structure. Although our models were fit in the absence of habitat information, the resulting predictions show a strong inverse relation with a map of forest cover in the state, as expected. Consequently, the results suggest that the correlated random effect in the model is broadly representing ecological variation, and that BBS data may be generally useful for studying bird-habitat relationships, even in the presence of observer errors and other widely recognized deficiencies of the BBS.

  10. Accuracy and reliability of naevus self-counts.

    PubMed

    Fiessler, Cornelia; Pfahlberg, Annette; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    A high number of melanocytic naevi is one of the major risk factors for cutaneous melanoma. Therefore, counting the number of acquired naevi could be a useful strategy to identify individuals at an increased risk for targeted skin cancer screening. The aim of this study was to assess agreement between naevus self-counts and counts of trained examiners as well as to analyse potential determinants of the magnitude of agreement. In a large cross-sectional survey (n=1772), university students counted their naevi on both arms and were additionally examined by specifically trained examiners in a mutually blinded manner. Further data on other melanoma risk factors such as skin phototype, hair colour or freckling were collected by a questionnaire. The relative difference between the two naevus counts and the ratio of the counts were calculated to quantify agreement. Regression modelling was performed to identify independent determinants of agreement. The overall agreement was moderate, with participants counting on average 14% more naevi than the examiners. In terms of the potential determinants associated with agreement, skin type and medical education showed a strong effect. The difference in naevus counts was significantly larger for individuals with lighter skin types compared with those with a dark skin (Fitzpatrick type IV), and medical students yielded a naevus count more similar to the examiner's count than nonmedical students. Naevus self-counts can only provide a rough estimate of the number of naevi, but may not be accurate enough to reliably identify a high-risk group for melanoma screening, especially in individuals with light skin types. PMID:25014848

  11. Coincident count rates in absorbing dielectric media

    SciTech Connect

    Crosse, J. A.; Scheel, Stefan [Quantum Optics and Laser Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    A study of the effects of absorption on the nonlinear process of parametric down-conversion is presented. Absorption within the nonlinear medium is accounted for by employing the framework of macroscopic QED and the Green tensor quantization of the electromagnetic field. An effective interaction Hamiltonian, which describes the nonlinear interaction of the electric field and the linear noise polarization field, is used to derive the quantum state of the light leaving a nonlinear crystal. The signal and idler modes of this quantum state are found to be a superposition of the electric and noise polarization fields. Using this state, the expression for the coincident count rates for both type-I and type-II down-conversion are found. The nonlinear interaction with the noise polarization field was shown to cause an increase in the rate on the order of 10{sup -12} for absorption of 10% per centimeter. This astonishingly small effect is found to be negligible compared to the decay caused by linear absorption of the propagating modes. From the expressions for the biphoton amplitude, it can be seen that the maximally entangled states can still be produced even in the presence of strong absorption.

  12. Counting colorings of a regular graph

    E-print Network

    Galvin, David

    2012-01-01

    At most how many (proper) q-colorings does a regular graph admit? Galvin and Tetali conjectured that among all n-vertex, d-regular graphs with 2d|n, none admits more q-colorings than the disjoint union of n/2d copies of the complete bipartite graph K_{d,d}. In this note we give asymptotic evidence for this conjecture, giving an upper bound on the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph of the form a^n b^{n(1+o(1))/d} (where a and b depend on q and where o(1) goes to 0 as d goes to infinity) that agrees up to the o(1) term with the count of q-colorings of n/2d copies of K_{d,d}. An auxiliary result is an upper bound on the number of colorings of a regular graph in terms of its independence number. For example, we show that for all even q and fixed \\epsilon > 0 there is \\delta=\\delta(\\epsilon,q) such that the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph with no independent set of size n(1-\\epsilon)/2 is at most (a-\\delta)^n.

  13. Counting test facility for the Borexino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranucci, G.; Meroni, E.

    2014-05-01

    A fundamental breakthrough which opened the way to the realization of the Borexino detector was the demonstration of exceptionally low, unprecedented radioactive contaminations in the liquid scintillator, obtained with its pilot prototype Counting Test Facility. Though of limited dimension, with its 4.8 m3 of active liquid core, CTF has however been a key milestone not only for Borexino, but also for the entire field of the ultra-low background searches. Here, we succinctly remind the motivations, which concurred to lay down the project, as well as the specific radiopurity challenge, which guided the design. After the description of the technical elements of the detector, the main outcomes are summarized, both regarding optical and purity scintillator properties, with special emphasis on the exceptional achievements in term of ultra-low traces of radioactive contaminants. The discussion is completed with the description of how CTF was employed for the pre-qualification of the entire inventory of the Borexino scintillator, confirming also in the final phase of its life its essential role for the success of the overall Borexino solar neutrino program.

  14. First AID (Atom counting for Isotopic Determination).

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, J. L. (Jeffrey L.); Israel, K. M. (Kimberly M.); Steiner, R. E. (Robert E.); Duffy, C. J. (Clarence J.); Roench, F. R. (Fred R.)

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established an in vitro bioassay monitoring program in compliance with the requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. One aspect of this program involves monitoring plutonium levels in at-risk workers. High-risk workers are monitored using the ultra-sensitive Therrnal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) technique to ensure compliance with DOE standards. TIMS is used to measure atom ratios of 239Pua nd 240Puw ith respect to a tracer isotope ('Pu). These ratios are then used to calculate the amount of 239Pu and 240Pup resent. This low-level atom counting technique allows the calculation of the concentration levels of 239Pu and 240Pu in urine for at risk workers. From these concentration levels, dose assessments can be made and worker exposure levels can be monitored. Detection limits for TIMS analysis are on the order of millions of atoms, which translates to activity levels of 150 aCi 239Pua nd 500 aCi for 240Pu. pCi for Our poster presentation will discuss the ultra-sensitive, low-level analytical technique used to measure plutonium isotopes and the data verification methods used for validating isotopic measurements.

  15. Weighted power counting and chiral dimensional regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2014-06-01

    We define a modified dimensional-regularization technique that overcomes several difficulties of the ordinary technique, and is specially designed to work efficiently in chiral and parity violating quantum field theories, in arbitrary dimensions greater than 2. When the dimension of spacetime is continued to complex values, spinors, vectors and tensors keep the components they have in the physical dimension; therefore, the ? matrices are the standard ones. Propagators are regularized with the help of evanescent higher-derivative kinetic terms, which are of the Majorana type in the case of chiral fermions. If the new terms are organized in a clever way, weighted power counting provides an efficient control on the renormalization of the theory, and allows us to show that the resulting chiral dimensional regularization is consistent to all orders. The new technique considerably simplifies the proofs of properties that hold to all orders, and makes them suitable to be generalized to wider classes of models. Typical examples are the renormalizability of chiral gauge theories and the Adler-Bardeen theorem. The difficulty of explicit computations, on the other hand, may increase.

  16. Coincident count rates in absorbing dielectric media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosse, J. A.; Scheel, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    A study of the effects of absorption on the nonlinear process of parametric down-conversion is presented. Absorption within the nonlinear medium is accounted for by employing the framework of macroscopic QED and the Green tensor quantization of the electromagnetic field. An effective interaction Hamiltonian, which describes the nonlinear interaction of the electric field and the linear noise polarization field, is used to derive the quantum state of the light leaving a nonlinear crystal. The signal and idler modes of this quantum state are found to be a superposition of the electric and noise polarization fields. Using this state, the expression for the coincident count rates for both type-I and type-II down-conversion are found. The nonlinear interaction with the noise polarization field was shown to cause an increase in the rate on the order of 10-12 for absorption of 10% per centimeter. This astonishingly small effect is found to be negligible compared to the decay caused by linear absorption of the propagating modes. From the expressions for the biphoton amplitude, it can be seen that the maximally entangled states can still be produced even in the presence of strong absorption.

  17. Learning to count begins in infancy: evidence from 18 month olds' visual preferences

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Virginia; Itakura, Shoji; Kutsuki, Aya; Siegal, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We used a preferential looking paradigm to evaluate infants' preferences for correct versus incorrect counting. Infants viewed a video depicting six fish. In the correct counting sequence, a hand pointed to each fish in turn, accompanied by verbal counting up to six. In the incorrect counting sequence, the hand moved between two of the six fish while there was still verbal counting to six, thereby violating the one-to-one correspondence principle of correct counting. Experiment 1 showed that Australian 18 month olds, but not 15 month olds, significantly preferred to watch the correct counting sequence. In experiment 2, Australian infants' preference for correct counting disappeared when the count words were replaced by beeps or by Japanese count words. In experiment 3, Japanese 18 month olds significantly preferred the correct counting video only when counting was in Japanese. These results show that infants start to acquire the abstract principles governing correct counting prior to producing any counting behaviour. PMID:21325331

  18. Probing Cosmology with Weak Lensing Peak Counts and Minkowski Functionals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Michael Kratochvil; S. Wang; E. A. Lim; Z. Haiman; M. May

    2010-01-01

    The new method of counting peaks in weak lensing (WL) maps, as a function of their height, to probe models of dark energy and to constrain cosmological parameters offers advantages over similar, more traditional statistics like cluster counts: Because peaks can be identified in two-dimensional WL maps directly, they can provide constraints which are free from potential selection effects and

  19. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91...At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive...D, subpart 1 of Title I of the ESEA, an SEA must provide the Secretary with a...

  20. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91...At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive...D, subpart 1 of Title I of the ESEA, an SEA must provide the Secretary with a...

  1. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91...At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive...D, subpart 1 of Title I of the ESEA, an SEA must provide the Secretary with a...

  2. Magnitude Representations and Counting Skills in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Sophie; Keeble, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    When children learn to count, they map newly acquired symbolic representations of number onto preexisting nonsymbolic representations. The nature and timing of this mapping is currently unclear. Some researchers have suggested this mapping process helps children understand the cardinal principle of counting, while other evidence suggests that this…

  3. Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

  4. Count data control charts for the surveillance of infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H

    We present work on a new control chart for the change point detection in time series of counts - data, which typically arise in the routine surveillance of infectious diseases. The in-control mean in this statistical process control (SPC) setting is assumed to be time-varying and of generalized linear model (GLM) nature with intercept and seasonal components. Seasonality and count

  5. Alternative distributions for observation driven count series models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Drescher

    2005-01-01

    Observation-driven models provide a flexible framework for modelling time series of counts. They are able to capture a wide range of dependence structures. Many applications in this field of research are concerned with count series whose conditional distribution given past observations and explanatory variables is assumed to follow a Poisson distribution. This assumption is very convenient since the Poisson distribution

  6. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.43, confidence interval [CI]?=?0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR?=?0.22, CI?=?0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi. PMID:25809795

  7. 78 FR 62955 - National Character Counts Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...October 18, 2013 National Character Counts Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect on the ways we support one...values that keep our country strong. This week, we reaffirm our commitment to...

  8. 76 FR 65095 - National Character Counts Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ...October 14, 2011 National Character Counts Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...humanity. During National Character Counts Week, we celebrate our country's core values...country strong, prosperous, and free. This week, we resolve to stay true to the...

  9. Photon-counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri Dautet; Pierre Deschamps; Bruno Dion; Andrew D. MacGregor; Darleene MacSween; Robert J. McIntyre; Claude Trottier; Paul P. Webb

    1993-01-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD) have been used for photon counting for a number of years. This paper reviews their properties and the associated electronics required for photon counting in the Geiger mode. Significant improvements are reported in overall photon detection efficiencies (approaching 75% at 633 nm), and timing jitter (under 200 ps) achieved at high over-voltages (20 - 30 V).

  10. Virginia Tech Campaign to Count Gifts Made to Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strout, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech has decided to count gifts to a memorial fund for victims of the April 16 shootings toward its goal of raising $1-billion in a capital campaign. Higher-education fund-raising experts agree that counting the memorial-fund contributions toward the total does not break common donation-reporting guidelines. Many big college fund-raising…

  11. Phasor imaging with a widefield photon-counting detector

    E-print Network

    Michalet, Xavier

    Phasor imaging with a widefield photon- counting detector Ryan A. Colyer Oswald H. W. Siegmund Anton S. Tremsin John V. Vallerga Shimon Weiss Xavier Michalet Phasor imaging with a widefield photon Xavier Michalet #12;Phasor imaging with a widefield photon-counting detector Ryan A. Colyer,a Oswald H. W

  12. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  13. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

  14. Epidemiologic Considerations in Reporting Herd Somatic Cell Counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Hueston; L. E. Heider

    1986-01-01

    The reporting of herd summaries of individual cow somatic cell counts differs between the nine Dairy Records Pro- cessing Centers. The objectives of this paper are 1) to review the present re- porting; 2) to compare the methods used to calculate herd somatic cell counts; and 3) to discuss the epidemio- logic implications of these methods. Estimates of central tendency

  15. Heritabilities of Measures of Somatic Cell Count per Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Monardes; B. W. Kennedy; J. E. Moxley

    1983-01-01

    Measures per lactation of somatic cell count were developed from monthly test- day observations for 3,966 Holstein cows on the official test option of the Quebec Dairy Herd Analysis Service. Cows were daughters of 99 sires that had five or more daughters in two or more herds. Two lactation periods were considered. One was based on all somatic cell counts

  16. BINOMIAL COUNT SAMPLING FOR WESTERN FLOWER THRIPS IN GREENHOUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Counts of western flower thrips in garden impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) and cucumber flowers were fit to incidence-mean models to determine whether a generic model could be used for binomial count sampling. The crop did not significantly alter the parameters for incidence-mean models, and perform...

  17. Citation Counts, Prestige Measurement, and Graduate Training in Social Psychology

    E-print Network

    Ochsner, Kevin

    Citation Counts, Prestige Measurement, and Graduate Training in Social Psychology By Nia L that admit her or him. To a student interested in top-quality research training, the citation counts (e.g., Endler, Roediger & Rushton, 1978). If the number of citations a given work has is one

  18. Visualization of Document Co-Citation Counts Steven Noel

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    Visualization of Document Co-Citation Counts Steven Noel Center for Secure Information Systems that are related to each other by links, such as citations in formal publications. We present results of visualizing minimum spanning trees based on document co-citation counts and on document citation correlations

  19. Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    This document describes the contributions of African peoples to the science of mathematics. The development of a number system is seen as related to need. Names of numbers, time reckoning, gesture counting, and counting materials are examined. Mystical beliefs about numbers and special meanings in pattern are presented. Reproductions of patterns,…

  20. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were initiated to investigate the interactions between heterotrophic plate count bacteria and coliform organisms. The authors used spiked samples to show that heterotrophic plate count bacteria could reduce coliform densities by more than 3 logs within 8 days. Some hetero...

  1. Particle Filter-Based Predictive Tracking for Robust Fish Counting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erikson F. Morais; Mario Fernando Montenegro Campos; Flávio L. C. Pádua; Rodrigo L. Carceroni

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the use of computer vision tech- niques for for underwater visual tracking and counting of fishes in vivo. The methodology is based on the applica- tion of a Bayesian filtering technique that enables track- ing of objects whose number may vary over time. Unlike existing fish-counting methods, this approach provides ad- equate means for the

  2. Cell Counts in Cerebral Cortex of an Autistic Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Paul D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Numbers of neurons and glia were counted in the cerebral cortex of one case of autism and two age- and sex-matched controls. Cell counts were made in primary auditory cortex, Broca's speech area, and auditory association cortex. No consistent differences in cell density were found between brains of autistic and control patients. (Author/CL)

  3. DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS

    E-print Network

    DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS STUART W. SHERBURNE1 ABSTRACT In differential blood counts of 200 herring, Clupea haretll(us haretll(us. the percentages reported in the literature. Herring were sampled from February 1969 through July 1969 from the Boothbay

  4. Climatological Analysis of Tornado Report Counts Using a Hierarchical Bayesian

    E-print Network

    Climatological Analysis of Tornado Report Counts Using a Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio Recent evidence suggests that tornado report counts for monthly or longer peri- ods may be correlated to climate indices in space and time. However, climatologi- cal analysis of tornado reports is complicated

  5. COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND

    E-print Network

    369: COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROMKernan, Director COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST COAST, 1957

  6. An electronic pollen detection method using Coulter counting principle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Zhang; Jiang Zhe; Santanu Chandra; Jun Hu

    2005-01-01

    A method for detecting and counting pollen particles based on Coulter counting principle is presented. This approach also provides information on the size and surface charges of the micro particles, allowing for preliminary differentiation of pollens from other micro particles. Three samples are studied: polymethyl methacrylate particles, tree pollens from Juniperus Scopulorum and grass pollens from Secale Cerale. The samples,

  7. Automation of spot counting in interphase cytogenetics using brightfield microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Vrolijk, H.; Sloos, W.C.R.; Rijke, F.M. van de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others] [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); and others

    1996-06-01

    In situ hybridization techniques allow the enumeration of chromosomal abnormalities and form a great potential for many clinical applications. Although the use of fluorescent labels is preferable regarding sensitivity and colormultiplicity, chromogenic labels can provide an excellent alternative in relatively simple situations, e.g., where it is sufficient to use a centromere-specific probe to detect abnormalities of one specific chromosome. When the frequency of chromosomal aberrations is low, several hundreds or even thousands of cells have to be evaluated to achieve sufficient statistical confidence. Since manual counting is tedious, fatiguing, and time consuming, automation can assist to process the slides more efficiently. Therefore, a system has been developed for automated spot counting using brightfield microscopy. This paper addresses both the hardware system aspects and the software image analysis algorithms for nuclei and spot detection. As a result of the automated slide analysis the system provides the frequency spot distribution of the selected cells. The automatic classification can, however, be overruled by human interaction, since each individual cell is stored in a gallery and can be relocated for visual inspection. With this system a thousand cells can be automatically analyzed in approximately 10 min, while an extra 5-10 min is necessary for visual evaluation. The performance of the system was analyzed using a model system for trisomy consisting of a mixture of male and female lymphocytes hybridized with probes for chromosomes 7 and Y. The sensitivity for trisomy detection in the seeding experiment was such that a frequency of 3% trisomic cells could be picked up automatically as being abnormal according to the multiple proportion test, while trisomy as low as 1.5% could be detected after interaction. 26 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs

    E-print Network

    Bulatov, Andrei A; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by a desire to understand the computational complexity of counting constraint satisfaction problems (counting CSPs), particularly the complexity of approximation, we study functional clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which turns out to play a significant role in classifying counting CSPs. In our study, we assume that non-negative unary functions (weights) are available. Given this, we prove that there are no functional clones lying strictly between the clone of lsm functions and the total clone (containing all functions). Thus, any counting CSP that contains a single non-lsm function is computationally as hard as any problem in #P. Furthermore, any non-trivial functional clone (in a sense that will be made precise below) contains the binary function "implies". As a consequence, all non-trivial counting CSPs (with non-negative unary wei...

  9. Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chandrasekaran, V [MIT; Gamarmik, D [MIT; Shah, D [MIT; Sin, J [MIT

    2009-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

  10. The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces the impact of count rate loss with photon-counting detectors

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard, energy-integrating x-ray detectors but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a “hybrid” detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al, Med Phys 2011). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping (“bowtie”) filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of two to three. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors. PMID:24819415

  11. The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces the impact of count rate loss with photon-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-06-01

    Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard energy-integrating x-ray detectors, but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a ‘hybrid’ detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al 2011 Med. Phys. 38 1089-102 ). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping (‘bowtie’) filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of 2 to 3. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors.

  12. High speed photon counting processing for CdTe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, B.; Koike, A.; Morii, H.; Okunoyama, T.; Neo, Y.; Mimura, H.; Aoki, T.

    2009-08-01

    Recently practical X-ray measurement systems are demanded energy distinction function. Photon-counting CdTe semiconductor detectors have a high energy resolution in a low count rate condition at room temperature. However, the energy resolution is decreased by pile-up phenomenon in a high count rate condition. In conventional signal processing, processing time estimated X-ray photon energy from the pulse waveform is about tens of microseconds. This time is depended on the pulse decay time. This paper purposes to maintain the high energy resolution by changing the signal-processing algorithm which derived the pulse rise height of the output waveform from the CdTe detector in a high count rate condition. As a result, the pulse rise time required to estimate the pulse rise height was short about 100ns at incident X-ray energy 60keV. As the result of energy spectrum by using this data, the FWHM of about 11keV (at 60keV) when the count rate of 500kcps. This result show the possibility that the photon counting sensor has application for the high count rate imaging without decrease of the high energy resolution.

  13. Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

    2010-01-01

    The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

  14. Correlation between standard plate count and somatic cell count milk quality results for Wisconsin dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Borneman, Darand L; Ingham, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) monthly reported results for Wisconsin dairy producers. Such a correlation may indicate that Wisconsin producers effectively controlling sanitation and milk temperature (reflected in low SPC) also have implemented good herd health management practices (reflected in low SCC). The SPC and SCC results for all grade A and B dairy producers who submitted results to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, in each month of 2012 were analyzed. Grade A producer SPC results were less dispersed than grade B producer SPC results. Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between SPC and SCC, but the R(2) value was very small (0.02-0.03), suggesting that many other factors, besides SCC, influence SPC. Average SCC (across 12 mo) for grade A and B producers decreased with an increase in the number of monthly SPC results (out of 12) that were ? 25,000 cfu/mL. A chi-squared test of independence showed that the proportion of monthly SCC results >250,000 cells/mL varied significantly depending on whether the corresponding SPC result was ? 25,000 or >25,000 cfu/mL. This significant difference occurred in all months of 2012 for grade A and B producers. The results suggest that a generally consistent level of skill exists across dairy production practices affecting SPC and SCC. PMID:24630657

  15. Galaxy number counts - V. Ultradeep counts: the Herschel and Hubble Deep Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.; Campos, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Fong, R.

    2001-05-01

    We present u,b,r and i galaxy number counts and colours from both the North and South Hubble Space Telescope Deep Fields and the William Herschel Deep Field. The latter comprises a 7×7arcmin2 area of sky, reaching b~28.5 at its deepest. Following Metcalfe et al., we show that simple Bruzual & Charlot evolutionary models which assume exponentially increasing star formation rates with look-back time and q0=0.05 continue to give excellent fits to galaxy counts and colours in the deep imaging data. With q0=0.5, an extra population of `disappearing dwarf' galaxies is required to fit the optical counts. We further find that the (r-i):(b-r) colour-colour diagrams show distinctive features corresponding to two populations of early- and late-type galaxies which are well fitted by features in the Bruzual & Charlot models. The (r-i):(b-r) data also suggest the existence of an intrinsically faint population of early-types at z~0.1 with similar properties to the `disappearing dwarf' population required if q0=0.5. The outstanding issue remaining for the early-type models is the dwarf-dominated initial mass function (IMF), which we invoke to reduce the numbers of z>1 galaxies predicted at K<19. For the spiral models, the main issue is that even with the inclusion of internal dust absorption at the AB=0.3mag level, the model predicts too blue (u-b) colours for late-type galaxies at z~1. Despite these possible problems, we conclude that these simple models with monotonically increasing star formation rates broadly fit the data out to z~3. We compare these results for the star formation rate history with those from the different approach of Madau et al. We conclude that when the effects of internal dust absorption in spirals are taken into account the results from this latter approach are completely consistent with the ?=9Gyr, exponentially rising star formation rate density out to z~3 which fits the deepest, optical/IR galaxy count and colour data. When we compare the observed and predicted galaxy counts for UV dropouts in the range 2<~z<~3.5 from the data of Steidel et al. and Madau et al., and new data from the Herschel and HDF-S fields, we find excellent agreement, indicating that the space density of galaxies may not have changed much between z=0 and z=3, and identifying the Lyman-break galaxies with the bright end of the evolved spiral luminosity function. Making the same comparison for B dropout galaxies in the range 3.5<~z<~4.5 we find that the space density of intrinsically bright galaxies remains the same, but the space density of faint galaxies drops by a factor of ~5, consistent with the idea that L* galaxies were already in place at z~4 but that dwarf galaxies may have formed later at 3<~z<~4.

  16. High-detection probability broadband single-photon counting receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aina, Leye; Fathimulla, Ayub; Hier, Harry; Lecates, Mark; Babu, Sachi; Ghuman, Parminder; Foshee, Jim

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports the demonstration of single photon counting receivers with pulse detection efficiency as high as 68% for 2 photons and single photon counting probabilities as high as 44% at 1550-nm, 1 MHz rate and room temperature and with linear-mode (below the breakdown voltage), high speed response in the 450-1700 nm spectral band. The developed single photon counting receiver is based on Epitaxial Technologies' ultra high gain (>300000), low excess noise, linear-mode APDs, which have been fabricated in dimensions ranging from 25 to 200-?m and array formats up to 32 x 32.

  17. Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.

  18. Beam test results of high counting rate MRPCs at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xianglei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Jingbo; Li, Yuanjing; Cheng, Jianping

    2010-03-01

    The usage of electrodes made of semi-conductive glass is an inspiring way of improving the counting rate capability of resistive plate chamber. We developed 6 and 10-gap multi-gap resistive plate chambers (MRPCs) with low resistive silicate glass electrodes (bulk resistivity ˜1010 ?cm) for applications in time-of-flight (TOF) at high counting rates. These two prototypes were tested with secondary irradiation from 2.5 GeV proton beam at GSI. Time resolutions below 90 ps and efficiencies above 90% were obtained at counting rates up to 28 kHz/cm2 for the 10-gap MRPC.

  19. Vacuum Chuck Holds Filter Pad For Counting Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Anthony; Herren, Billy H.

    1991-01-01

    Microscope-stage holder keeps filter pad flat to keep it in focus. Specimen holder is special vacuum chuck that applies suction through flat screen. Suction keeps filter pad flat against specimen holder while microscope stage moving to scan areas denoted by grid. In microscope system equipped with video camera, image-analyzing/particle-counting computer, and automatic focus, use of stage speeds count considerably by eliminating need to stop frequently for manual refocusing. Technician free to perform other tasks while computer controls translation of stage and takes count automatically.

  20. Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitri [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe [Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, 98, bis Boulevard Arago, 75 014, Paris (France)

    2011-10-15

    In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

  1. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast (<1 ns) and have very simple construction: just two parallel metallic plates or mesh electrodes. Depending on the applied voltage they may work either in spark mode or avalanche mode. The advantage of the spark mode of operation is a large signal amplitude from the chamber, the disadvantage is that there is a large dead time (msec) for the entire chamber after an event. The main advantage of the avalanche mode is high rate capability 10{sup 5} counts/mm{sup 2}. A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity ({ge}10{sup 10} {Omega}{center_dot}cm) materials. In practice RPCs are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm{sup 2}, leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm`s law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases.

  2. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast (<1 ns) and have very simple construction: just two parallel metallic plates or mesh electrodes. Depending on the applied voltage they may work either in spark mode or avalanche mode. The advantage of the spark mode of operation is a large signal amplitude from the chamber, the disadvantage is that there is a large dead time (msec) for the entire chamber after an event. The main advantage of the avalanche mode is high rate capability 10[sup 5] counts/mm[sup 2]. A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity ([ge]10[sup 10] [Omega][center dot]cm) materials. In practice RPCs are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm[sup 2], leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases.

  3. Differential leukocyte counting and immunophenotyping in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Elisa; Kagina, Benjamin M N; Smit, Erica; Africa, Hadn; Steyn, Marcia; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Absolute cell counts are typically measured in fresh samples, but this is impractical in large field studies. We compared quantification of leukocyte proportions and absolute counts using reference real-time methods (stain and lyse/no-wash (LNW) or hematology analyser) with a novel assay that allows long-term cryopreservation of fixed leukocytes for later counting (DLC-ICE: differential leukocyte count and immunophenotype in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood). For the LNW method, whole blood (WB) was stained with fluorescent antibodies, then erythrocytes were lysed, and leukocytes fixed prior to flow cytometry. Alternatively, our novel DLC-ICE method entailed erythrocyte lysis and leukocyte fixation, cryopreservation and later staining of permeabilized cells prior to flow cytometry. Outcomes were proportions and absolute counts of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and activated T cells within the leukocyte population. We also compared leukocyte subset counts in fresh WB from 51 healthy infants measured by hematology analyser at a rural clinical site or by DLC-ICE method after 2 years of cryopreservation. We observed excellent agreement and strong correlations between absolute counts or cell proportions measured by the LNW and DLC-ICE methods on fresh WB from 10 healthy adults. Compared to LNW, DLC-ICE yielded similar or brighter staining even after cryopreservation. Duration of cryopreservation, assessed monthly for 1 year, had little effect on cell enumeration: median coefficients of variation were below 15% for all outcomes. Under field site conditions, we observed strong correlations between infant leukocyte numbers measured in fresh samples by hematology analyser and those measured by DLC-ICE up to 2 years of cryopreservation. Our novel DLC-ICE method allows accurate flow cytometric quantification of cell subsets from fixed WB even after long-term cryopreservation. This method is ideal for batched, retrospective analysis of samples from large field studies, or when advanced flow cytometry equipment is not available for clinical research purposes. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515205

  4. Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells. PMID:23450807

  5. Tracking system for photon-counting laser radar

    E-print Network

    Chang, Joshua TsuKang

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to build the tracking system for a photon-counting laser radar specifically a laser radar that has the ability to perform direct and coherent detection measurement at low signal levels with ...

  6. CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-print Network

    count than those repolted for other sharks. 10 Microns I I FIGURE I.-Mitosis-Prophase. Cell Differentials FIGURE 2.-Mitosis-Anaphase. The mean size of the POltuguese shark mature erythrocytes (Figure 3

  7. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A...

  11. ON GELMAN'S SUBGROUP COUNTING THEOREM ERIC FREDEN AND MICHAEL GRADY

    E-print Network

    Freden, Eric

    ON GELMAN'S SUBGROUP COUNTING THEOREM ERIC FREDEN AND MICHAEL GRADY Abstract. In a recent paper, E;2 ERIC FREDEN AND MICHAEL GRADY the powerful Todd-Coxeter procedure, which in general has no polynomial

  12. Simple pulse counting circuit computes sum of squares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D. H.

    1965-01-01

    Pulse counting circuit with an extra chain of flip-flops, delay lines, and gates computes the sum of the squares of the pulse sequences. A pulse train and the sum of the squares of the pulses are simultaneously completed.

  13. What I Need to Know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations There are many organizations who provide ... I need to know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes Page Content On this page: What is carbohydrate ...

  14. Somatic cells count in cow's bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Olechnowicz, Jan; Ja?kowski, Jedrzej M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was therefore to present factors affecting somatic cell counts in bovine bulk milk as a result of intramammary infections as well as non-infectious factors. The paper presents also the impact of on-farm management practices on the level of bulk milk somatic cell counts and presents quality indicators in bulk tank milk. At the farm level bulk milk bacterial infection takes place through three main sources: bacterial contamination from the external surface of the udder and teats, from the surface of the milking equipment, and from mastitis microorganisms within the udder. The threshold of 200,000 cells/ml identifies bacteriological negative quarters of the udder. The counts of mammary pathogens in bulk tank milk are relatively low, on average not exceeding 1,000 cfu/ml. Environmental pathogens predominate in bulk tank milk samples with somatic cells count <300 × 10(3) ml. PMID:22230979

  15. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air ... mouth, throat, eyes or ears. To control hay fever symptoms, it is important to monitor pollen counts ...

  16. Multiple Ion Counting in Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, U.; Baecker, B.; Trieloff, M.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the setup and operation of our Noblesse noble gas mass spectrometer with multiple ion counting detector. As a first project we have analyzed all noble gases (He though Xe) in micrometeorites collected in Antarctica.

  17. 29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...

  18. 29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...

  19. 29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...

  20. 29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...

  1. 29 CFR 788.13 - Counting the eight employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.13 Counting the eight...

  2. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A...

  3. A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

    1971-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

  4. Making Child Care Choices Count for Your Family

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Making Child Care Choices Count for Your Family Article Body For ... Child? There are three basic types of child care: In-home care: A caregiver comes into your ...

  5. Counting Protein Structures by DFS with Dynamic Decomposition

    E-print Network

    Will, Sebastian

    strategy. Similar ideas are discussed for SAT­solvers in [7]. As our main contribution, we demonstrate this idea to counting models of 3­SAT by a Davis­Putnam procedure [8] results in a very successful new

  6. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

    2012-04-01

    The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented and their differences discussed. Within the estimated uncertainties, the two methodologies agree. This shows the potential for a fully automated annual layer counting method to be operational for data sections where the annual layering is unknown.

  7. 25 CFR 39.209 - When may a school count a student for membership purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false When may a school count a student for membership purposes? 39.209...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications § 39.209 When may a school count a student for membership purposes? If...

  8. 25 CFR 39.209 - When may a school count a student for membership purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false When may a school count a student for membership purposes? 39.209...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications § 39.209 When may a school count a student for membership purposes? If...

  9. 25 CFR 39.209 - When may a school count a student for membership purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false When may a school count a student for membership purposes? 39.209...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications § 39.209 When may a school count a student for membership purposes? If...

  10. 25 CFR 39.217 - How are students counted for the purpose of funding residential services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 true How are students counted for the purpose of funding...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications Residential Programs § 39.217 How are students counted for the purpose of...

  11. 25 CFR 39.217 - How are students counted for the purpose of funding residential services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false How are students counted for the purpose of funding...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications Residential Programs § 39.217 How are students counted for the purpose of...

  12. 25 CFR 39.217 - How are students counted for the purpose of funding residential services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false How are students counted for the purpose of funding...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications Residential Programs § 39.217 How are students counted for the purpose of...

  13. 25 CFR 39.217 - How are students counted for the purpose of funding residential services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false How are students counted for the purpose of funding...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications Residential Programs § 39.217 How are students counted for the purpose of...

  14. 25 CFR 39.209 - When may a school count a student for membership purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false When may a school count a student for membership purposes? 39.209...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications § 39.209 When may a school count a student for membership purposes? If...

  15. 25 CFR 39.217 - How are students counted for the purpose of funding residential services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false How are students counted for the purpose of funding...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications Residential Programs § 39.217 How are students counted for the purpose of...

  16. 25 CFR 39.209 - When may a school count a student for membership purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 true When may a school count a student for membership purposes? 39.209...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications § 39.209 When may a school count a student for membership purposes? If...

  17. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864...Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a...

  18. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864...Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a...

  19. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864...Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a...

  20. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864...Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a...

  1. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864...Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a...

  2. Modeling Count Data in Risk Analysis and Reliability Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth D. Guikema; Jeremy P. Coffelt

    This chapter presents classical (non-Bayesian) regression models for count data. This includes traditional multivariate linear\\u000a regression, generalized regression models, and more recent semi-parametric and non-parametric regression models used in data\\u000a mining. Then, the Bayesian approach for handling count data is also presented. The focus here is on formulating priors. Finally,\\u000a the chapter concludes with a discussion of computational issues involved

  3. Estimation and specification tests of count data recreation demand functions 

    E-print Network

    Gomez, Irma Adriana

    1991-01-01

    Jones (Me er) , +, 'Q Badi . Baltagi (Me ber) A. Gene Nelson (Head of Department) December 199I ABSTRACT Estimation and Specification Tests of Count Data Recreation Demand Punctions. (December 1991) Irma Adriana G6mez B. S? Instituto Tecno16... the fitted count data model is adequate and whether a specific deficiency of any initially entertained model can be removed by progression to a less restrictive model (Cameron and Trivedi). At the present time, tests of this nature have not been...

  4. Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-01-01

    The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

  5. X-ray source counts in the COSMOS field

    E-print Network

    N. Cappelluti; G. Hasinger; M. Brusa; A. Comastri; G. Zamorani; H. Boehringer; H. Brunner; F. Civano; A. Finoguenov; F. Fiore; R. Gilli; R. E. Griffiths; V. Mainieri; I. Matute; T. Miyaji; J. Silverman

    2007-04-18

    We present the analysis of the source counts in the XMM-COSMOS survey using data of the first year of XMM-Newton observations. The survey covers ~2 deg^2 within the region of sky bounded by 9^h57.5^mCOSMOS and previous surveys can be largely explained as a combination of low counting statistics and cosmic variance introduced by the large scale structure.

  6. Proteolysis in Milk Associated with Increasing Somatic Cell Counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Senyk; D. M. Barbano; W. F. Shipe

    1985-01-01

    Individual cow samples were collected and preserved with potassium dichromate. Somatic cells counts were determined. Tyrosine value was used as an index of pro- teolysis. Sixty-six samples ranged in somatic cell count from < 50,000 to > 2,000,000\\/ml. Initial milk tyrosine values and tyrosine values for milks incubated for 24 h at 37°C showed proteolytic activity increased with increasing somatic

  7. Measuring What Counts: A Conceptual Guide for Mathematics Assessment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mathematical Sciences Education Board, National Research Council

    1993-01-01

    To achieve national goals for education, we must measure the things that really count. Measuring What Counts establishes crucial research-based connections between standards and assessment. Arguing for a better balance between educational and measurement concerns in the development and use of mathematics assessment, this book sets forth three principles--related to content, learning, and equity--that can form the basis for new assessments that support emerging national standards in mathematics education.

  8. A New Photon Counting Detector: Intensified CMOS-APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Bonanno; Massimiliano Belluso; Antonio Calì; Alessandro Carbone; Rosario Cosentino; Angelo Modica; Salvo Scuderi; Cristina Timpanaro; Michela Uslenghi

    2004-01-01

    A new type of position sensor (CMOS-APS) used as readout system in MCP-based intensified photon counter is presented. Thanks to CMOS technology, the pixel addressing and the readout circuits as well as the analogue-to-digital converters are integrated into the chip. These unique characteristics make the CMOS-APS a very compact, low power consumption, photon counting system. The more classical Photon Counting

  9. ROAD TRANSECT COUNTS FOR RAPTORS: HOW RELIABLE ARE THEY?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRIAN A. MILLSAP; MAURICE N. LEFRANC

    Biases in roadside counts of randomly placed three-dimensional models of perched Red- tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperil), and Sharp-shinned Hawks (A. striatus) were investigated. Counts were performed by seven, two-person survey teams in five vegetation types in September 1983 and March 1984 at Dulles International Airport in Fairfax and Loudoun counties, Virginia. Larger models were consistently seen

  10. Double counting in ecosystem services valuation: causes and countermeasures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo-Jie Fu; Chang-Hong Su; Yong-Ping Wei; Ian R. Willett; Yi-He Lü; Guo-Hua Liu

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on ecosystem services and double counting is a frequent problem that causes uncertainty and\\u000a poor reliability of estimating the value of ecosystem services. By referring to previous studies of ecosystem service valuation,\\u000a our research has identified the basic causes of double counting. These include ambiguous definitions and inconsistent classifications\\u000a of ecosystem services, poor understanding of

  11. Grouped zero-inflated count data models of coital frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Moffatt; Simon A. Peters

    2000-01-01

    .   Various count data models are applied to data collected from a sample of Norfolk young persons, who were asked how many times\\u000a they had had sexual intercourse during the previous two-week period. The models take account of the fact that the data are\\u000a “grouped”, meaning that for some observations, the count is not known exactly but is known to

  12. Photon Counting Techniques for the Bandlimited Optical Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Clement G.; Gray, Andrew A.

    2005-01-01

    Two methods of estimating received photon counts given a realistic noisy and bandlimited optical channel are presented. The function of estimating photon counts is critical in any optical communications receiver. The purpose of this work is to compare two methods, neither of which is generically optimal, with realistic channels-for the purpose of assessing which is more appropriate for application in a hardware receiver given the current state-of-the art.

  13. Bivariate zero-inflated regression for count data: a Bayesian approach with application to plant counts.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Anandamayee; Gries, Corinna

    2010-01-01

    Lately, bivariate zero-inflated (BZI) regression models have been used in many instances in the medical sciences to model excess zeros. Examples include the BZI Poisson (BZIP), BZI negative binomial (BZINB) models, etc. Such formulations vary in the basic modeling aspect and use the EM algorithm (Dempster, Laird and Rubin, 1977) for parameter estimation. A different modeling formulation in the Bayesian context is given by Dagne (2004). We extend the modeling to a more general setting for multivariate ZIP models for count data with excess zeros as proposed by Li, Lu, Park, Kim, Brinkley and Peterson (1999), focusing on a particular bivariate regression formulation. For the basic formulation in the case of bivariate data, we assume that Xi are (latent) independent Poisson random variables with parameters ? i, i = 0, 1, 2. A bi-variate count vector (Y1, Y2) response follows a mixture of four distributions; p0 stands for the mixing probability of a point mass distribution at (0, 0); p1, the mixing probability that Y2 = 0, while Y1 = X0 + X1; p2, the mixing probability that Y1 = 0 while Y2 = X0 + X2; and finally (1 - p0 - p1 - p2), the mixing probability that Yi = Xi + X0, i = 1, 2. The choice of the parameters {pi, ? i, i = 0, 1, 2} ensures that the marginal distributions of Yi are zero inflated Poisson (? 0 + ? i). All the parameters thus introduced are allowed to depend on co-variates through canonical link generalized linear models (McCullagh and Nelder, 1989). This flexibility allows for a range of real-life applications, especially in the medical and biological fields, where the counts are bivariate in nature (with strong association between the processes) and where there are excess of zeros in one or both processes. Our contribution in this paper is to employ a fully Bayesian approach consolidating the work of Dagne (2004) and Li et al. (1999) generalizing the modeling and sampling-based methods described by Ghosh, Mukhopadhyay and Lu (2006) to estimate the parameters and obtain posterior credible intervals both in the case where co-variates are not available as well as in the case where they are. In this context, we provide explicit data augmentation techniques that lend themselves to easier implementation of the Gibbs sampler by giving rise to well-known and closed-form posterior distributions in the bivariate ZIP case. We then use simulations to explore the effectiveness of this estimation using the Bayesian BZIP procedure, comparing the performance to the Bayesian and classical ZIP approaches. Finally, we demonstrate the methodology based on bivariate plant count data with excess zeros that was collected on plots in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compare the results with independent ZIP regression models fitted to both processes. PMID:21969981

  14. A High Count Rate Beam Monitor for Thermal Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Amanda [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Crow, Lowell [ORNL; Diawara, Yacouba [ORNL; Funk, Loren L [ORNL; Hayward, J P [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Menhard, Kocsis [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); Sedov, Vladislav N [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Beam monitors are an important diagnostic tool in neutron science facilities. Present beam monitors use either ionization chambers in integration mode, which are slow and have no timing information, or pulse counters which can easily be saturated by high beam intensities. Neutron beam monitors indicate the number of neutrons incident on a scattering sample and allow neutron experimental data to be analyzed even when the source strength varies with time. At high flux neutron scattering facilities, neutron beam monitors with very low efficiency (10-5) are presently selected to keep the counting rate within a feasible range, even when a higher efficiency would improve the counting statistics and yield a better measurement of the incident beam. In this work, we report on a high count rate neutron beam monitor which also offers position sensitivity to provide a beam profile. This beam monitor offers good timing (less than 1 s) in addition to position resolution and will therefore improve the counting statistics at neutron energies up to 10 eV and allow moderator studies. The detector s main characteristics will be presented including its background rate, its count rate capability which is an order of magnitude higher than present counting monitors, and its efficiency for thermal neutrons.

  15. A method for counting monosodium urate crystals in synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Montagna, P; Brizzolara, R; Ferrone, C; Cutolo, M; Paolino, S; Cimmino, M A

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to standardize the technique for counting monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with gout. A total of 52 SF specimens were examined under a polarized light microscope. The amount of SF ranged between 0.1 and 45 mL (median 3 mL). MSU crystals were counted in four areas with the same size at 400x magnification. Cytological examination of the same specimens was also performed. Median leukocyte count was 400 cells/mm3 (range 50-14,000 cells/mm3), with a median percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes of 9% (range 0%-98%). Median crystal count was 179.5 (range 3-1600). Inter- reader and intra-reader agreement in crystal counting were good with a weighed k of 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-0.94] and 0.89 (95% CI 0.84-0.93), respectively. Our data indicate that the SF MSU crystal count is a feasible and highly reliable technique. PMID:26150273

  16. Counting unstained, confluent cells by modified bright-field microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drey, L. Louis; Graber, Michael C.; Bieschke, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We present a very simple procedure yielding high-contrast images of adherent, confluent cells such as human neuroblastoma (SH-EP) cells by ordinary bright-field microscopy. Cells are illuminated through a color filter and a pinhole aperture placed between the condenser and the cell culture surface. Refraction by each cell body generates a sharp, bright spot when the image is defocused. The technique allows robust, automatic cell counting from a single bright-field image in a wide range of focal positions; it does this via free, readily available image-analysis tools. Contrast may be enhanced by swelling cell bodies by brief incubation in PBS. The procedure was benchmarked against manual counting and automated counting of fluorescently labeled cell nuclei.. Counts from day-old and freshly seeded plates were compared in a range of densities, from sparse to densely overgrown. On average bright-field images produced the same counts as fluorescent images, with less than 5% error. This method will allow routine cell counting using a plain bright-field microscope, absent cell-line modification or cell staining. PMID:23834382

  17. Avalanche photodiode photon counting receivers for space-borne lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

    1991-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; (2) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; and (3) APD's in analog mode when the received optical signal is extremely weak. Non-breakdown APD photon counters were shown experimentally to achieve an effective photon counting quantum efficiency of 5.0 percent at lambda = 820 nm with a dead time of 15 ns and a dark count rate of 7000/s which agreed with the theoretically predicted values. The interarrival times of the counts followed an exponential distribution and the counting statistics appeared to follow a Poisson distribution with no after pulsing. It is predicted that the effective photon counting quantum efficiency can be improved to 18.7 percent at lambda = 820 nm and 1.46 percent at lambda = 1060 nm with a dead time of a few nanoseconds by using more advanced commercially available electronic components.

  18. Relating Weight and Count Distributions of Stream Bed Gravel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, M. A.; Faustini, J. M.; Waters, A. J.; Vazquez, I. L.; Osterbur, A. K.

    2002-12-01

    The size distribution of particles in a stream bed reflects the stream hydrology as well as its physical and chemical water quality characteristics. In environmental assessments, the sediment particle size distribution indicates habitat quality for aquatic insects and stream suitability for spawning by various fish species. A common monitoring approach(e.g., Wolman count) assesses surface particles as size-count distribution. The method is convenient, but the distribution of subsurface particles, which cannot be assessed by size-count is also needed for water quality assessment. We collected surface and subsurface substrate samples from several coastal and inland streams in Oregon to develop methods of relating size-count and size-weight distributions of the surface material and their relationships with the size-weight distribution of the subsurface sample. In this study, we present examples of relationships of size- count and size-weight distributions of the surface particles. These distributions differ substantially, and depending on the method of calculation, the distribution means for the same sample can differ several fold. We converted the size-count to size-weight distribution using log-normal functions between two consecutive size groups. When used to calculate the median and the standard deviation of the distribution, the method yielded a more stable approach than two alternative calculations.

  19. Safety and Immunogenicity of H1/IC31®, an Adjuvanted TB Subunit Vaccine, in HIV-Infected Adults with CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts Greater than 350 cells/mm3: A Phase II, Multi-Centre, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reither, Klaus; Katsoulis, Lynn; Beattie, Trevor; Gardiner, Nicolene; Lenz, Nicole; Said, Khadija; Mfinanga, Elirehema; Pohl, Christian; Fielding, Katherine L.; Jeffery, Hannah; Kagina, Benjamin M.; Hughes, Elisabeth J.; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hanekom, Willem A.; Hoff, Søren T.; Bang, Peter; Kromann, Ingrid; Daubenberger, Claudia; Andersen, Peter; Churchyard, Gavin J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults. Methods HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or placebo was randomly allocated in a 5?1 ratio. The vaccine was administered intramuscularly at day 0 and 56. Safety assessment was based on medical history, clinical examinations, and blood and urine testing. Immunogenicity was determined by a short-term whole blood intracellular cytokine staining assay. Results 47 of the 48 randomised participants completed both vaccinations. In total, 459 mild or moderate and 2 severe adverse events were reported. There were three serious adverse events in two vaccinees classified as not related to the investigational product. Local injection site reactions were more common in H1/IC31 versus placebo recipients (65.0% vs. 12.5%, p?=?0.015). Solicited systemic and unsolicited adverse events were similar by study arm. The baseline CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load were similar by study arm and remained constant over time. The H1/IC31 vaccine induced a persistent Th1-immune response with predominately TNF-? and IL-2 co-expressing CD4+ T cells, as well as polyfunctional IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2 expressing CD4+ T cells. Conclusion H1/IC31 was well tolerated and safe in HIV-infected adults with a CD4+ Lymphocyte count greater than 350 cells/mm3. The vaccine did not have an effect on CD4+ T cell count or HIV-1 viral load. H1/IC31 induced a specific and durable Th1 immune response. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR) PACTR201105000289276 PMID:25490675

  20. Impact of Early Lactation Somatic Cell Count in Heifers on Somatic Cell Counts Over the First Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. De Vliegher; H. W. Barkema; H. Stryhn; G. Opsomer; A. de Kruif

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of somatic cell count in early lactation (SCCel) from Belgian dairy heifers on test-day somatic cell count (SCC) in first lactation. Geometric mean SCCel (5 to 14 d in milk (DIM)) of the 14,766 available samples was 104,000 cells\\/mL, and decreased from 178,000 at 5 DIM to 74,000 cells\\/mL at

  1. Characterization of a novel photon counting detector for clinical CT: count rate, energy resolution, and noise performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Barber; Einar Nygard; Jan S. Iwanczyk; Mengxi Zhang; Eric C. Frey; Benjamin M. W. Tsui; Jan C. Wessel; Nail Malakhov; Gregor Wawrzyniak; Neal E. Hartsough; Thulasi Gandhi; Katsuyuki Taguchi

    2009-01-01

    We report on a characterization study of a multi-row direct-conversion x-ray detector used to generate the first photon counting clinical x-ray computed tomography (CT) patent images. In order to provide the photon counting detector with adequate performance for low-dose CT applications, we have designed and fabricated a fast application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for data readout from the pixellated CdTe

  2. NONMALIGNANT LYMPHOCYTE DISORDERS

    E-print Network

    Decreased Absolute Lymphocyte Count T and B Lymphoid Systems decreased Sex-linked DIGEORGE SYNDROME9/16/2013 1 NONMALIGNANT LYMPHOCYTE DISORDERS LYMPHOCYTOSIS Infectious Mononucleosis-Virus Clinical ­ lethargy, headache, fever, chills, sore throat, nausea, lymphadenopathy Absolute lymphocytosis

  3. Association between diabetes complications and leukocyte counts in Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Sedigheh; Kerman, Scott Reza Jafarian; Rohani, Farzaneh; Salari, Fereshteh

    2012-01-01

    Background The long term complications of diabetes can be fatal. They are also renowned for being an economic burden. Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between inflammatory markers and complications of diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukocyte counts and these complications. Methods The study included 184 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The study was carried out in Iran during 2007 and 2008. Data collected on the subjects were as follows: age, gender, weight, height, blood pressure, smoking history, lipid profile including low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocyte count, albuminuria, and retinopathy. Furthermore, information on cardiac history for 100 patients was collected. The subjects were split into two groups according to their leukocyte levels: low (?7000/mm3) and high (>7000/mm3); and then analyzed by Student’s t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test as appropriate. Results The average leukocyte count in these patients was 7594 ± 1965/mm3. Leukocyte count was significantly different in patients with and without retinopathy and albuminuria (P < 0.0001). According to this analysis, a leukocyte count of 6750/mm3 with a sensitivity of 80.2% and a specificity of 56.4%, and a count of 7550/mm3 with a sensitivity of 63.2% and a specificity of 74.6% indicated at least one diabetes complication. Conclusion An elevated leukocyte count even within the normal range was associated with chronic complications in type 2 diabetes. PMID:22334791

  4. DAILY STEP COUNTS IN A US COHORT WITH COPD

    PubMed Central

    MOY, MARILYN L.; DANILACK, VALERY A.; WESTON, NICOLE A.; GARSHICK, ERIC

    2013-01-01

    Background Baseline values for daily step counts in US adults with COPD and knowledge of its accurate measurement, natural change over time, and independent relationships with measures of COPD severity are limited. Methods 127 persons with stable COPD wore the StepWatch Activity Monitor (SAM) for 14 days, and 102 of them wore it a median 3.9 months later. SAM counts were compared to manual counts in the clinic. We assessed change over time, the effect of season, and relationships with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted, 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, the modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea score, and the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Total Score (SGRQ-TS). Results 98% of subjects were males, with mean age 71 ± 8 years and FEV1 1.48 ± 0.54 L (52 ± 19 % predicted). All 4 GOLD stages were represented, with the most subjects in GOLD II (44%) and GOLD III (37%). The SAM had > 90% accuracy in 99% of subjects. Average step count was 5,680 steps/day, which decreased with increasing GOLD stage (p=0.0046). Subjects walked 645 fewer steps/day at follow-up, which was partly explained by season of monitoring (p=0.013). In a multivariate model, FEV1 % predicted, 6MWT distance and MMRC score were weakly associated with daily step counts, while SGRQ-TS was not. Conclusions These findings will aid the design of future studies using daily step counts in COPD. Accurately measured, daily step counts decline over time partly due to season and capture unique information about COPD status. PMID:22521225

  5. Biomolecular network motif counting and discovery by color coding

    PubMed Central

    Alon, Noga; Dao, Phuong; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Sahinalp, S. Cenk

    2008-01-01

    Protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks of many organisms share global topological features such as degree distribution, k-hop reachability, betweenness and closeness. Yet, some of these networks can differ significantly from the others in terms of local structures: e.g. the number of specific network motifs can vary significantly among PPI networks. Counting the number of network motifs provides a major challenge to compare biomolecular networks. Recently developed algorithms have been able to count the number of induced occurrences of subgraphs with k? 7 vertices. Yet no practical algorithm exists for counting non-induced occurrences, or counting subgraphs with k? 8 vertices. Counting non-induced occurrences of network motifs is not only challenging but also quite desirable as available PPI networks include several false interactions and miss many others. In this article, we show how to apply the ‘color coding’ technique for counting non-induced occurrences of subgraph topologies in the form of trees and bounded treewidth subgraphs. Our algorithm can count all occurrences of motif G? with k vertices in a network G with n vertices in time polynomial with n, provided k=O(log n). We use our algorithm to obtain ‘treelet’ distributions for k? 10 of available PPI networks of unicellular organisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Escherichia coli and Helicobacter Pyloris), which are all quite similar, and a multicellular organism (Caenorhabditis elegans) which is significantly different. Furthermore, the treelet distribution of the unicellular organisms are similar to that obtained by the ‘duplication model’ but are quite different from that of the ‘preferential attachment model’. The treelet distribution is robust w.r.t. sparsification with bait/edge coverage of 70% but differences can be observed when bait/edge coverage drops to 50%. Contact: cenk@cs.sfu.ca PMID:18586721

  6. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  7. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals' absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  8. Correction for nonlinear photon counting effects in lidar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, D. P.; Whiteway, J. A.; Carswell, A. I.

    1992-01-01

    Photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) employed in the photon counting (PC) mode of operation are widely used as detectors in lidar systems. In our laboratory, we have developed a versatile Nd:YAG lidar which is used for measurement of both the middle atmosphere and the troposphere. With this system, we encounter a very wide range of signal levels ranging from the extremely weak signals from the top of the mesosphere to the very strong returns from low level clouds. Although the system is capable of operating the PMT's in either the analog detection or photon counting mode, we find that often when we use photon counting we have portions of our lidar return which contain very useful information but are not within the linear operating regime of the PC system. We report the results of our efforts to explore the extent to which such high intensity PC signals can be quantitatively analyzed. In particular, a useful model relating the mean 'true' count rate and the observed count rate is presented and it's application to our system demonstrated. This model takes into account the variation in height of the PMT output pulses and the effect of the pulse height discrimination threshold.

  9. Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

  10. Automated counting of bacterial colonies by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Pei-Ju; Tseng, Min-Jen; He, Zong-Sian; Li, Chia-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Research on microorganisms often involves culturing as a means to determine the survival and proliferation of bacteria. The number of colonies in a culture is counted to calculate the concentration of bacteria in the original broth; however, manual counting can be time-consuming and imprecise. To save time and prevent inconsistencies, this study proposes a fully automated counting system using image processing methods. To accurately estimate the number of viable bacteria in a known volume of suspension, colonies distributing over the whole surface area of a plate, including the central and rim areas of a Petri dish are taken into account. The performance of the proposed system is compared with verified manual counts, as well as with two freely available counting software programs. Comparisons show that the proposed system is an effective method with excellent accuracy with mean value of absolute percentage error of 3.37%. A user-friendly graphical user interface is also developed and freely available for download, providing researchers in biomedicine with a more convenient instrument for the enumeration of bacterial colonies. PMID:25451456

  11. Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Richard A. (Powell, TN)

    1981-01-01

    A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for counting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensated circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

  12. Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

    We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

  13. Automating Single Subunit Counting of Membrane Proteins in Mammalian Cells*

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Hugo; Aurousseau, Mark R. P.; Bowie, Derek; Blunck, Rikard

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating subunit stoichiometry of neurotransmitter receptors is preferably carried out in a mammalian expression system where the rules of native protein assembly are strictly obeyed. Although successful in Xenopus oocytes, single subunit counting, manually counting photobleaching steps of GFP-tagged subunits, has been hindered in mammalian cells by high background fluorescence, poor control of expression, and low GFP maturation efficiency. Here, we present a fully automated single-molecule fluorescence counting method that separates tagged proteins on the plasma membrane from background fluorescence and contaminant proteins in the cytosol or the endoplasmic reticulum and determines the protein stoichiometry. Lower GFP maturation rates observed in cells cultured at 37 °C were partly offset using a monomeric version of superfolder GFP. We were able to correctly identify the stoichiometry of GluK2 and ?1 glycine receptors. Our approach permits the elucidation of stoichiometry for a wide variety of plasma membrane proteins in mammalian cells with any commercially available TIRF microscope. PMID:22930752

  14. Dynamics and regulation of bulk milk somatic cell counts.

    PubMed Central

    Schukken, Y H; Weersink, A; Leslie, K E; Martin, S W

    1993-01-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk is inversely related to dairy cow productivity and milk quality. In an effort to improve product quality, and indirectly farm productivity, regulatory limits on somatic cell counts have been established by many of the major dairy producing countries. The purpose of this paper was to assess the impact of regulations on bulk milk somatic cell counts in Ontario and to assist producers in meeting regulatory limits through development of prediction models. Through the use of a transfer function model, provincial SCC was found to have dropped by approximately 60,000 as a result of the reduction program. Limits of the regulatory program, seasonality and herd characteristics were found through time series cross-sectional models to have an impact on prediction of SCC at the farm level, but the major influence was historical SCC levels. PMID:8490807

  15. Models for predicting and explaining citation count of biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lawrence D; Aliferis, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The single most important bibliometric criterion for judging the impact of biomedical papers and their authors work is the number of citations received which is commonly referred to as citation count. This metric however is unavailable until several years after publication time. In the present work, we build computer models that accurately predict citation counts of biomedical publications within a deep horizon of ten years using only predictive information available at publication time. Our experiments show that it is indeed feasible to accurately predict future citation counts with a mixture of content-based and bibliometric features using machine learning methods. The models pave the way for practical prediction of the long-term impact of publication, and their statistical analysis provides greater insight into citation behavior. PMID:18999029

  16. Primary ionization cluster counting with low-pressure multistep detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Malamud, G.; Sauvage, D.

    1989-02-01

    The authors describe a new method of Primary ionization Cluster Counting (PCC), using a low-pressure multistep counter coupled to a conversion volume. Due to the small density of the primary clusters in the low-pressure gas, and to the high gain of the multistep amplification structure, the clusters are efficiently counted. Taking advantage of the enhanced relativistic rise at low gas pressures, and the reduced interference from delta-electrons, the PCC can be efficiently applied to dE/dx relativistic charged particle identification. The authors present here preliminary results obtained with relativistic electrons and a UV laser. For minimum ionizing electrons we counted about 2 primary clusters/cm, at 20 Torr of isobutane. The distribution is poissonian. The PCC is shown to be an efficient tool for the study of the primary ionization process in gas media.

  17. Loss-Free Counting with Digital Signal Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Markku Koskelo; Dave Hall; Martin Moslinger

    2000-11-12

    Loss-free-counting (LFC) techniques have frequently been used with traditional analog pulse processing systems to compensate for the time or pulses lost when a spectroscopy system is unavailable (busy) for processing an accepted pulse. With the availability of second-generation digital signal processing (DSP) electronics that offer a significantly improved performance for both high and low count rate applications, the LFC technique has been revisited. Specific attention was given to the high and ultra-high count rate behavior, using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with both transistor reset preamplifiers (TRP) and conventional RC preamplifiers. The experiments conducted for this work show that the known LFC techniques further benefit when combined with modern DSP pulse shaping.

  18. Assessment of the uncertainty budget associated with 4?? counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiam, C.; Bobin, C.; Maringer, F. J.; Peyres, V.; Pommé, S.

    2015-06-01

    The 4??-counting technique is recognized as a powerful primary method for the standardization of radionuclides decaying with abundant gamma emissions. Based on the use of a gamma detector in quasi 4?-geometry, a detection efficiency close to 100% and a low uncertainty can be achieved thanks to the summing effect of subsequent gamma transitions. Uncertainties have to be assigned to the realistic modelling of the source–detector geometry with respect to dimensions, density and material composition, the calculation of the total counting efficiency of the detector for the various emitted radiation, and the effect of possible flaws in the decay scheme of a radionuclide on the calculated total efficiency. Other uncertainty factors pertain to typical metrological sources of uncertainty, such as weighing, nuclear counting with pulse pile-up and system dead-time effects, impurity corrections, decay corrections, timing and frequency, etc. In order to ensure good metrological practices at NMIs, the uncertainties particular to the method are discussed.

  19. An electronic pollen detection method using Coulter counting principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Zhe, Jiang; Chandra, Santanu; Hu, Jun

    A method for detecting and counting pollen particles based on Coulter counting principle is presented. This approach also provides information on the size and surface charges of the micro particles, allowing for preliminary differentiation of pollens from other micro particles. Three samples are studied: polymethyl methacrylate particles, tree pollens from Juniperus Scopulorum and grass pollens from Secale Cerale. The samples, suspended in diluted KCl aqueous solutions in an electrochemical cell, were allowed to pass through a microchannel and the conductance of the microchannel was sampled with a Gamry ® Potentiostat. The changes in the conductance due to the passing of the micro particles was thus recorded and analyzed. The experimental results showed that tree pollens and grass pollens display distinctive behaviors. The phenomena may be attributed to the differences in the surface characteristics of the pollens and is potentially useful for counting and differentiating different micro particles.

  20. Student Count Mechanisms for Funding Purposes. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 2, Spring 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Lindsi M.; Spradlin, Terry E.; Wodicka, Christopher Y.

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief provides an overview of the student count mechanisms that are currently employed by states. It then reviews Indiana's outgoing count mechanism, the Single Count Date, and compares it with the newly enacted Multiple Count Dates mechanism. To conclude the discussion, the brief examines how other states use the Multiple…