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1

Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

Mrs. Beck

2006-12-08

2

Is total lymphocyte count a predictor for CD4 cell count in initiation antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients?  

PubMed Central

Background: Since laboratory assessments of HIV-infected patients by flow cytometric methods are expensive and unavailable in resource-limited countries, total lymphocyte count by haematology cell counter is supposed to be a suitable surrogate marker to initiate and monitor course of the disease in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study 560 HIV-positive individuals evaluated for total and CD4 lymphocyte count. For correlation between CD4 count and total lymphocyte count, haemoglobin and haematocrit we defined cut-off values as 200 cell/?l, 1200 cell/?l, 12 gr/dl and 30%, respectively, and compared CD4 count with each parameter separately. Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of varying total lymphocyte count cutoffs were computed for CD4 count ? 200 cell/?l and ? 350 cell/?l. Results: Strong degree of correlation was noted between CD4 and total lymphocyte count (r: 0.610, P < 0.001). Mean and standard deviation of total lymphocyte count, haemoglobin and haematocrit in relation to CD4 count were calculated which indicated significant correlation between these variables. Kappa coefficient for agreement was also calculated which showed fair correlation between CD4 200 cell/?l and total lymphocyte count 1200 cell/?l (0.35). Conclusion: This study reveals that despite low sensitivity and specificity of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4, total lymphocyte count is of great importance and benefit in resource-limited settings. PMID:25114362

Abdollahi, Alireza; Saffar, Hana; Shoar, Saeed; Jafari, Siroos

2014-01-01

3

Absolute Lymphocyte Count Is Not a Suitable Alternative to CD4 Count for Determining Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Fiji  

PubMed Central

Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ?500?cells/mm3. Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350?cells/mm3?or 500?cells/mm3. The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ?2300?cells/?L had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ?350 cells/mm3 and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ?500?cells/mm3 it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji. PMID:25400669

Balak, Dashika A.; Ram, Sharan; Devi, Rachel R.; Graham, Stephen M.

2014-01-01

4

Decreased Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Counts in Alexithymia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alexithymia is a psychological trait characterized by a difficulty in verbalizing feelings, which has been associated with a number of illnesses, including bronchial asthma and cancer. Methods: In order to understand how psychological variables such as alexithymia affect physical health, we compared the lymphocyte subsets of men (n = 97, mean 30.6) rated as high and low alexithymic when

Ratnin Dewaraja; Takeshi Tanigawa; Shunichi Araki; Akinori Nakata; Noriyuki Kawamura; Yukihiro Ago; Yuji Sasaki

1997-01-01

5

Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte count in relation to blood bicarbonate concentration in peritoneal dialysis patients.  

PubMed

Metabolic acidosis negatively influences dietary intake, increases protein catabolism, and deteriorates nutritional status. In the present study, we evaluated in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients whether parameters of blood acid-base equilibrium influence total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs), which are markers of the immunologic and nutritional status of dialyzed patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients, mean age 50.9 +/- 12.4 years, treated with PD for a mean of 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of blood acid-base equilibrium were measured simultaneously with evaluation of TLC and SLCs. (Antigens CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD19, CD16+56 were determined using flow cytometry.) The study patients showed compensated metabolic acidosis (pH: 7.40 +/- 0.04; HCO3-: 22.9 +/- 2.4 mmol/L). Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations of bicarbonate blood concentration and base excess with TLC and with CD3, CD5, and CD8 cell counts, but not with CD19 and CD16+56 cell counts. The CD4 cell count correlated only with blood bicarbonate level. Patients on PD who show better correction of metabolic acidosis also show higher TLC and CD3, CD4, CD5, and CD8 cell counts. The numbers of B lymphocytes (CD19) and natural killer cells (CD16+56) are not directly related to bicarbonate blood concentration, at least in the examined range. PMID:16686281

Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

2005-01-01

6

Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. METHODS: Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers. PMID:25789525

Monteiro da Silva, Angela M; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

2015-01-01

7

Significance of lymphocyte counts at diagnosis in the management of ITP: the relationship between lymphocyte counts and treatment success in H. pylori-infected patients.  

PubMed

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, increased platelet destruction, and the inhibition of platelet production by specific autoantibodies. Previous studies have reported improvements in ITP following the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. We, herein, investigated the relationship between initial therapy for ITP and lymphocyte counts at diagnosis. We retrospectively examined 52 adult patients with ITP between March 1998 and March 2013. Standard H. pylori eradication therapy was performed in 31 patients, and lymphocyte counts were compared before and after this therapy. At the diagnosis of ITP, lymphocyte counts in H. pylori-infected patients were significantly higher than those in H. pylori-negative patients (1.92 ± 0.68 × 10(9)/L vs. 1.42 ± 0.67 × 10(9)/L; p = 0.010). H. pylori eradication was successful in 6/11 patients (54.5 %) and the platelet count increased in 4/11 H. pylori-positive patients (36.4 %) who received eradication therapy. On the other hand, eradication therapy was also administered to 15 patients without H. pylori infection, and responses were obtained in some H. pylori-negative patients receiving eradication therapy (9/15). Furthermore, lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in patients who achieved a complete response receiving H. pylori eradication therapy than in patients who did not achieve a complete response (2.4 ± 0.59 × 10(9)/L vs. 1.37 ± 0.60 × 10(9)/L, p = 0.0023). The response of ITP patients to the initial treatment may be predicted by measuring the lymphocyte count at diagnosis. Further studies that analyze lymphocyte subsets and the cytokine network are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25628102

Nagata, Akihisa; Sekiguchi, Naohiro; Kurimoto, Miwa; Noto, Satoshi; Takezako, Naoki

2015-03-01

8

Prognostic Value of Baseline Lymphocyte Count in Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study examined factors predicting tumor response and progression-free survival in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 143 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2 to IVA) treated with CCRT were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to retrospectively evaluate prognostic factors, including baseline lymphocyte count, that affect tumor response and progression-free survival. Results: Of the variables evaluated, greater baseline lymphocyte count was the factor most predictive of a complete clinical response, followed by smaller tumor size (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed baseline lymphocyte count, which was treated as a continuous variable with every 1 x 10{sup 9} lymphocytes/L, to remain a prognostic factor with an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-7.23). In addition, a statistically significant association (p = 0.023) was found between baseline lymphocyte count and progression-free survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.89) in the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients and possible biologic variation existing in lymphocyte subset number and activity, these findings highlight the strong prognostic value of baseline lymphocyte count in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT. Therefore, a larger number of patients and analysis of lymphocyte subsets are needed.

Choi, Chel Hun; Kang, Heeseok; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Gie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Duk-Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: huna0@naver.com

2008-05-01

9

Counting Craze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners practice counting objects found on patterned wrapping paper or fabric. Repeated experiences with counting will help young learners understand that the last number they say when counting objects tells them "how many" objects in all.

2014-09-19

10

WBC count  

MedlinePLUS

Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... in the blood is 4,500-10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 ...

11

Modeling absolute lymphocyte counts after treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with ibrutinib.  

PubMed

The objective in this study was to characterize the pattern of the treatment-related lymphocytosis curve in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients treated with ibrutinib, and assess the relationship between the baseline factors and absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC). The PCYC-1102-CA study was a five-arm phase Ib/II open-label, nonrandomized, multicenter study in CLL/SLL. The arms and accruals were 420 and 840 mg/day treatment-naive elderly CLL/SLL (N?=?27 and N?=?4, respectively), 420 and 840 mg/day relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL (N?=?27 and N?=?34, respectively), and 420 mg/day high-risk CLL/SLL (N?=?24). The results were generated through statistical modeling using data from a clinical trial (PCYC-1102) in five cohorts of treatment-naïve or relapsed/refractory CLL patients treated at 420 and 840 mg daily of ibrutinib. In cases in which the initial increase in ALC doubles by day 28, it takes patients longer to reach their maximum ALC when compared with those with a lower rate of increase. Our models show that all of the cohorts exhibited the same pattern of treatment-related lymphocytosis from ibrutinib, and there are no significant differences between cohorts, including no detectable dose effect. The ALC of the majority of patients return to baseline ALC values by the end of cycle 5. PMID:25178517

Smith, David D; Goldstein, Leanne; Cheng, Mei; James, Danelle F; Kunkel, Lori A; Fardis, Maria; Hamdy, Ahmed; Izumi, Raquel; Buggy, Joseph J; Clow, Fong

2015-02-01

12

Counting Quail  

E-print Network

Landowners and managers need a way of estimating quail populations to determine whether quail management practices are successful. Several direct and indirect methods of counting quail are described, including roadside counts, helicopter surveys...

Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

2005-10-05

13

Counting Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skip-counting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity.

2010-01-01

14

Let's Count!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...

Ms. Popwell

2010-09-20

15

Count Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can find—and figure out "what counts." It’s easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.

2011-08-23

16

Predictive value of lymphocytopenia and the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio for severe imported malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphocytopenia has frequently been described in patients with malaria, but studies on its association with disease severity have yielded conflicting results. The neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been introduced as a parameter for systemic inflammation in critically ill patients and was found, together with lymphocytopenia, to be a better predictor of bacteraemia than routine parameters like C-reactive protein and total leukocyte count. In the present study, the predictive value of the NLCR and lymphocytopenia for severe disease was evaluated in patients with imported malaria. Methods All patients diagnosed with malaria at the Harbour Hospital between January 1st 1999 and January 1st 2012 with differential white cell counts determined within the first 24 hours after admission were included in this retrospective study. Severe malaria was defined according to the WHO criteria. The performance of the NLCR and lymphocytopenia as a marker of severe malarial disease was compared back-to-back with that of C-reactive protein as a reference biomarker. Results A total of 440 patients (severe falciparum malaria n = 61, non-severe falciparum malaria n = 259, non-falciparum malaria n=120) were included in the study. Lymphocytopenia was present in 52% of all patients and the median NLCR of all patients was 3.2. Total lymphocyte counts and NLCR did not differ significantly between groups. A significant correlation of total leukocyte count and NLCR, but not lymphocyte count, with parasitaemia was found. ROC analysis revealed a good negative predictive value but a poor positive predictive value of both lymphocytopenia and NLCR and performance was inferior to that of C-reactive protein. After complete parasite clearance a significant rise in total leukocyte count and lymphocyte count and a significant decrease in NLCR was observed. Conclusion The NLCR was found to correlate with parasitaemia, but both lymphocytopenia and the NLCR were inferior to C-reactive protein as markers for severe disease in patients with imported malaria. The NLCR and lymphocytopenia are not useful as predictive markers for severe disease in imported malaria in the acute care setting. PMID:23506136

2013-01-01

17

Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant  

PubMed Central

Delayed immune recovery is a characteristic feature of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult recipients. Although recipient thymic T-cell neogenesis contributes to T-cell regeneration after transplantation, thymic recovery in the transplant recipient decreases with increasing age, and is diminished by intensive preconditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease. In adult recipients, most events that determine transplant success or failure occur during the period when the majority of circulating T cells is derived from the donor’s post thymic T-cell repertoire. As a result, the make-up of the donor lymphocyte compartment may strongly influence immune recovery and transplant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine donor lymphocyte counts in a series of patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant to identify the potential contribution of donor regulatory and conventional T lymphocyte populations to immune recovery and transplant outcomes. We examined donor lymphocyte subset counts in relation to post-transplant lymphocyte recovery and transplant events in 220 consecutive myeloablative, T-cell-depleted, HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies. In a multivariate analysis, absolute numbers of donor CD4+ recent thymic emigrants were associated with overall survival (P=0.032). The donors’ absolute lymphocyte count and thymic production of regulatory T cells were both associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.002 and P=0.022, respectively). In conclusion, these results identify donor immune characteristics that are associated with lymphocyte recovery, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, and survival in the recipient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study reported here was performed using peripheral blood samples drawn from donors and patients enrolled in the ClinicalTrials.gov-registered trials NCT00001623, NCT00001873, NCT00353860, NCT00066300, NCT00079391, and NCT00398346. PMID:23065508

McIver, Zachariah; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Wu, Colin; Grim, Andrew; Ito, Sawa; Cho, Irene; Hensel, Nancy; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, Austin John

2013-01-01

18

Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant.  

PubMed

Delayed immune recovery is a characteristic feature of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult recipients. Although recipient thymic T-cell neogenesis contributes to T-cell regeneration after transplantation, thymic recovery in the transplant recipient decreases with increasing age, and is diminished by intensive preconditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease. In adult recipients, most events that determine transplant success or failure occur during the period when the majority of circulating T cells is derived from the donor's post thymic T-cell repertoire. As a result, the make-up of the donor lymphocyte compartment may strongly influence immune recovery and transplant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine donor lymphocyte counts in a series of patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant to identify the potential contribution of donor regulatory and conventional T lymphocyte populations to immune recovery and transplant outcomes. We examined donor lymphocyte subset counts in relation to post-transplant lymphocyte recovery and transplant events in 220 consecutive myeloablative, T-cell-depleted, HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies. In a multivariate analysis, absolute numbers of donor CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants were associated with overall survival (P=0.032). The donors' absolute lymphocyte count and thymic production of regulatory T cells were both associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.002 and P=0.022, respectively). In conclusion, these results identify donor immune characteristics that are associated with lymphocyte recovery, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, and survival in the recipient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study reported here was performed using peripheral blood samples drawn from donors and patients enrolled in the ClinicalTrials.gov-registered trials NCT00001623, NCT00001873, NCT00353860, NCT00066300, NCT00079391, and NCT00398346. PMID:23065508

McIver, Zachariah; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Wu, Colin; Grim, Andrew; Ito, Sawa; Cho, Irene; Hensel, Nancy; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, Austin John

2013-03-01

19

The ratio of absolute lymphocyte count at interim of therapy to absolute lymphocyte count at diagnosis predicts survival in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) after therapy has been reported to be an independent prognostic factor for clinical outcome in leukemia. This study mainly analyzed ALC at interim of therapy on day 22 (ALC-22) and the ratio of ALC-22 to ALC at diagnosis (ALC-0) on the impact of survival and the relation of ALC to lymphocyte subsets in 119 pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. Univariate analysis revealed that ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio <10% was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio (HR)=12.24, P=0.0014) and event-free survival (EFS) (HR=3.3, P=0.0046). In multivariate analysis, ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio remained an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR=6.92, P=0.0181) and EFS (HR=2.78, P=0.0329) after adjusting for age, white blood cell (WBC) count and minimal residual disease (MRD) status. A Spearman correlation test showed that CD3+ T cells had a negative correlation with ALC-0 (r=-0.7204, P<0.0001) and a positive correlation with ALC-22 (r=0.5061, P=0.0071). These data suggest that ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio may serve as a more effective biomarker to predict survival in pediatric B-ALL and ALC is mainly associated with CD3+ T cells. PMID:25542697

Cheng, Yuping; Luo, Zebin; Yang, Shilong; Jia, Ming; Zhao, Haizhao; Xu, Weiqun; Tang, Yongmin

2015-02-01

20

Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts: ASR hip resurfacing prosthesis vs. standard THA  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Wear particles from metal–on–metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above–average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts. Method In a randomized controlled trial, we followed 19 RHA patients and 19 THA patients. Lymphocyte subsets and chromium and cobalt ion concentrations were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, at 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years. Results The T–lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2–year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3+CD8+ in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of –0.04 × 109cells/year (95% CI: –0.08 to –0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect of cobalt ions in particular on T–cells with 2–year whole–blood cobalt regression coefficients for CD3+ of –0.10 (95% CI: –0.16 to –0.04) × 109 cells/parts per billion (ppb), for CD3+CD4+ of –0.06 (–0.09 to –0.03) × 109 cells/ppb, and for CD3+CD8+ of –0.02 (–0.03 to –0.00) × 109 cells/ppb. Interpretation Circulating T–lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions—particularly cobalt—may have a general depressive effect on T– and B–lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762 PMID:23597114

2013-01-01

21

Effects of the space flight environment on man's immune system. II - Lymphocyte counts and reactivity.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present studies were undertaken to assess the effects of the environment of space flights on the cellular division of the human immune system. Peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte counts were determined at various preflight and postflight intervals for the 21 crewmen of Apollo Missions 7-13. Mean lymphocyte numbers tended to exhibit a delayed significant but fluctuating increase shortly after recovery, although a variety of responses was seen in individual astronauts. The in vitro reactivity of lymphocytes, reflected by RNA and DNA synthesis rates by unstimulated and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes tissue-cultured preflight and postflight from the same participants, was found to remain within previously established normal ranges. These results indicate that functional integrity of cellular immune potential as reflected by in vitro techniques is maintained during this spaceflight experience.

Fischer, G. L.; Daniels, J. C.; Levin, W. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Cobb, E. K.; Ritzmann, S. E.

1972-01-01

22

Fetal Growth Influences Lymphocyte Subset Counts at Birth: The Generation R Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Preterm born and low-birth-weight infants are at risk for severe infections in infancy. It has been suggested that these infants have an immature immune system. Objective:To assess the associations of gestational age, birth weight and fetal growth with absolute lymphocyte subset counts at birth. Methods: This study was conducted in 571 infants participating in the Generation R Study, a

Liesbeth Duijts; Liesbeth E. Bakker-Jonges; Joost A. M. Labout; Vincent W. V. Jaddoe; Albert Hofman; Eric A. P. Steegers; Jacques J. M. van Dongen; Herbert Hooijkaas; Henriëtte A. Moll

2009-01-01

23

Platelet count  

MedlinePLUS

A platelet count is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of the blood that help the ... The number of platelets in your blood can be affected by many ... Platelets may be counted to monitor or diagnose diseases, or ...

24

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

Ms. Bunn

2010-10-30

25

Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Predictor of Mortality in Emergency Department Patients with Paraquat Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background Paraquat (PQ) is a potent, highly toxic and widely used herbicide. The major medical problems associated with PQ are accidental or suicidal ingestion. There are several prognostic markers of PQ poisoning, with the serum PQ concentration considered to be the best indicator of outcome. However, the measurement of such markers is limited in many hospitals. Objective The present study was conducted to investigate the association of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and the 30-day mortality rate in patients with PQ poisoning. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to the emergency department after paraquat poisoning between January 2010 and April 2013. Independent risk factors including ALC for 30-day mortality were determined. The ALC was categorized in quartiles as ?1700, 1700 to 3200, 3200 to 5000, and >5000. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis were performed to determine the independent risk factors for mortality. Results A total of 136 patients were included in the study, and the 30-day mortality was 73.5%. ALC was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors. The highest ALC quartile (ALC>5000; hazard ratio, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.08–6.21) was associated with increased mortality in multivariate analysis. In addition, old age, lower arterial PaCO2, increased peripheral neutrophil count, and high serum levels of creatinine were associated with mortality. Conclusion The absolute lymphocyte count is associated with the 30-day mortality rate in patients with paraquat poisoning. PMID:24205140

Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Seong Chun; Lee, Soo Hoon; Jeong, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong Seob; Kim, Dong Hoon

2013-01-01

26

Counting carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

27

Clock Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

Ms. McDuffee

2008-11-12

28

Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Illustrative Mathematics

2012-07-31

29

Count On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Count On is an educational mathematics Web site based in the United Kingdom. Mainly intended for elementary school students, Count On offers a variety of online multimedia games and modules that serve as a fun way to practice math concepts or learn new ones. The Explorer section is a good place to start when first visiting the site; it has everything from basic numbers to fractions to mathematical art. The Matrix is a virtual museum of mathematics, where users can learn about historical figures and innovations by exploring each room. The games section has many instructive resources, but it is difficult to see the connection to mathematics for a couple of them.

30

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.

2011-03-23

31

Counting Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

32

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

33

Absolute monocyte and lymphocyte count prognostic score for patients with gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To measure the prognostic significance of absolute monocyte count/absolute lymphocyte count prognostic score (AMLPS) in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the combination of absolute monocyte count (AMC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) as prognostic variables in a cohort of 299 gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2013 and were followed at a single institution. Both AMC and ALC were dichotomized into two groups using cut-off points determined by receiving operator characteristic curve analysis. An AMLPS was generated, which stratified patients into three risk groups: low risk (both low AMC and high ALC), intermediate risk (either high AMC or low ALC), and high risk (both high AMC and low ALC). The primary objective of the study was to validate the impact of AMLPS on both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), and the second objective was to assess the AMLPS as an independent prognostic factor for survival in comparison with known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Using data from the entire cohort, the most discriminative cut-off values of AMC and ALC selected on the receiver operating characteristic curve were 672.4/?L and 1734/?L for DFS and OS. AMLPS risk groups included 158 (52.8%) patients in the low-risk, 128 (42.8%) in the intermediate-risk, and 13 (4.3%) in the high-risk group. With a median follow-up of 37.2 mo (range: 1.7-91.4 mo), five-year DFS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 83.4%, 78.7%, and 19.8%, respectively. And five-year OS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 89.3%, 81.1%, and 14.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis performed with patient- and tumor-related factors, we identified AMLPS, age, and pathologic tumor-node-metastasis stage as the most valuable prognostic factors impacting DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: AMLPS identified patients with a poor DFS and OS, and it was independent of age, pathologic stage, and various inflammatory markers. PMID:25759535

Eo, Wan Kyu; Jeong, Da Wun; Chang, Hye Jung; Won, Kyu Yeoun; Choi, Sung Il; Kim, Se Hyun; Chun, Sung Wook; Oh, Young Lim; Lee, Tae Hwa; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Ki Hyung; Ji, Yong Il; Kim, Ari; Kim, Heung Yeol

2015-01-01

34

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

areese

2008-09-25

35

Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students "an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem." Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been "field tested" in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

36

Money Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.

PBS

2012-01-01

37

Significance of Preoperative Total Lymphocyte Count as a Prognostic Criterion in Adult Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Evaluation of operational risk is a consequential goal in perioperative management of patients in cardiac surgery. Preoperative total lymphocyte count (PTLC) is a prognostic criterion of adverse major cardiovascular outcomes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of PTLC as an independent predictor of postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. Patients and Methods: Of 1604 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery between September, 2012 and March, 2013, a total of 1171 consecutive patients underwent elective primary valvular heart surgery and coronary artery bypass grafting. The patients were divided to three groups according to their PTLCs. The baseline characteristics and postoperative mortality and morbidity of the patients as well as the intensive care unit (ICU) stay according to the PTLCs were recorded and analyzed. The only inclusion criterion was a preoperative complete blood count. Exclusion criteria included: ages under 18 or over 80 years old, emergency surgery, adult patients with congenital heart disease and previous open heart surgery, and patients with any bacterial or viral infection during two weeks before the surgery. Protocol of anesthetic medications was used in all the patients similarly and according to standard. All the patients were admitted to the ICU after the surgery. Results: A PTLC < 1500 cells/µL was associated with significantly high mortality and morbidity (P = 0.0001). In-hospital mortality and major composite morbidity were 9.65% and 28.4%, respectively. Low PTLC was associated with more frequent need for inotropic and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support (P < 0.001), dialysis-dependent acute renal failure (P = 0.0001), postoperative superficial wound infections (P = 0.0001) and prolong ICU stay (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Our study results showed that low PTLC was an independent, valuable prognostic criterion, with high sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. PMID:25289377

Aghdaii, Nahid; Ferasatkish, Rasoul; Mohammadzadeh Jouryabi, Ali; Hamidi, Seyed Hosein

2014-01-01

38

Evaluation of the Alere Pima™ for CD4+ T lymphocytes counts in HIV-positive outpatients in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

CD4?+?lymphocyte counts are routinely ordered during the early phases of antiretroviral therapy and for prophylaxis of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients. Flow cytometry is the standard methodology for CD4 counts in Brazilian reference laboratories. However, these laboratories are located in large cities, frequently distant from patients, thus limiting patient access and delaying results. We compared a point-of-care test with flow cytometry determination of CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts in HIV patients. We analysed 107 consecutive samples by both methods. Overall, the point-of-care test performed well, with excellent agreement between it and the standard method. Test results were concordant for patients with CD4(+) T lymphocyte values above and below 200 cells/mm?(3). The performance characteristics obtained were sensitivity 94% (95% CI 89.5-98.5%), specificity 93% (95% CI 88.2-97.8%), positive predictive value 86% (95% CI 79.4-92.6%), and negative predictive value 97% (95% CI 94-100%). The high sensitivity and specificity of the point-of-care test methodology suggest its utility as an alternative method for rapid measurement of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients with limited access to reference laboratories, enabling prompt therapeutic intervention for patients at risk of progression to AIDS. PMID:24616116

Rathunde, L; Kussen, G M B; Beltrame, M P; Dalla Costa, L M; Raboni, S M

2014-11-01

39

Assignment 2 Counting Cells  

E-print Network

Assignment 2 Counting Cells This assignment is based on funny cells. Please look up the following, you are expected to program Counting Cells that can count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map in a distributed manner. Objective The objective is to count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map. When

Prasad, Sanjiva

40

Lymphocyte percentage and counts provided by Coulter Counter S+II: comparison with optical method and three automatical leukocyte analyzers (Hemalog D, H 6000, Diff 3).  

PubMed

The Coulter Counter Model S+II is an automatic analyzer designed to measure the routine hematological parameters and to carry out distribution curve analysis of platelets, erythrocytes and leukocytes. The leukocyte histogram analysis is used as a basis for calculation of both lymphocyte percentages and absolute counts. In this study, we compared the differential count obtained by light microscopy studies of 2355 blood smears with the percentage of lymphocytes in the leukocyte population as determined by the S+II. A comparison was also performed between the S+II and Hemalog D, H 6000, and Diff 3 System on a smaller sample number. There was a good correlation between lymphocyte percentages and counts given by the S+II and other methods. Furthermore, reproducibility studies, performed with the Coulter Counter Model S+II, suggested that the lymphocyte percentage given by this instrument was accurate, except for extreme values. Lack of calculation of lymphocyte parameters by the instrument was often found to correspond to spontaneous platelet aggregation and/or to abnormalities of differential counts. It is suggested that lymphocyte analysis provided by the S+II may be used as a basis for a new approach to white blood cell (WBC) analysis, which could exclude differential counts in most routine cases. PMID:6709496

Forestier, F; Amirault, P; Carré, C; Sassier, P; Potron, G; Guinebretière, J; Therme, J P

1984-01-01

41

The Big Pumpkin Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

1981-01-01

42

White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

2015-01-01

43

Clipart ETC: Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains over 630 clipart images that can be used for counting. There are Florida-themed flash cards for numbers 0 - 10 offered in English, Spanish, and bilingual options. Illustrations of hands depicting finger counting in both American style (beginning with the index finger) and European style (beginning with the thumb) are available. There are also images of 3-dimensional designs made of cubes and illustrations of bundles of sticks and dominoes for teaching skip-counting, addition, and place value.

Florida Center for Instructional Technology Clipart ETC

2010-07-19

44

Counting Sheep in Basque  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

Araujo, Frank P.

1975-01-01

45

Counting coins and value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will identify and add up coins. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Counting Money - Values of coins Game #2:Counting Money (harder) Game #3: Let s Compare (hardest) Game #4: Money Hard Game #5: Cash Out--Very Difficult Math Game ...

Mrs. Christian

2007-03-21

46

Counting Your Lucky Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners sample a star field to estimate the number of stars in the universe. This activity simulates how astronomers use sampling instead of census (counting) to more easily collect data in space. Learners predict, count, approximate, and average the number of stars in a Star Field Sheet.

Shannon Ricles

2013-01-30

47

Shadow Count 2012: Help New York City's Homeless Be Counted!  

E-print Network

! Shadow Count 2012: Help New York City's Homeless Be Counted! Become a Shadow Count Decoy Shadow Count 2012 What: Monday Jan. 30th ­ 31st (overnight), the NYC Department of Homeless Services (DHS) will send hundreds of volunteers all across the city to count NYC's unsheltered homeless people

Qiu, Weigang

48

Shadow Count 2012: Help New York City's Homeless Be Counted!  

E-print Network

! Shadow Count 2012: Help New York City's Homeless Be Counted! Become a Shadow Count Decoy Shadow Count 2013 What: Monday Jan. 28th ­ 29th (overnight), the NYC Department of Homeless Services (DHS) will send hundreds of volunteers all across the city to count NYC's unsheltered homeless people

Qiu, Weigang

49

Great Backyard Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1998, the Great Backyard Bird Count collects data on wild birds and to display results in near real-time. The event takes place in February in the U.S. and Canada in order to create a snapshot of bird distribution just before the start of spring migration. Participants create accounts and help to count birds for at least 15 minutes on one or more days during the yearly event. Data from past counts can be viewed at the website. A mobile app is available for entering data.

Cornell University

50

Complete Blood Count  

MedlinePLUS

... bruising or bleeding. Red blood cells: The CBC's measurements of red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (the ... lungs to the rest of the body. These measurements are usually done to test for anemia, a ...

51

Eosinophil count - absolute  

MedlinePLUS

An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of white blood cells called eosinophils. Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions.

52

Counting glycans revisited.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for counting glycan topologies of order n that improves on previously described algorithms by a factor n in both time and space. More generally, we provide such an algorithm for counting rooted or unrooted d-ary trees with labels or masses assigned to the vertices, and we give a "recipe" to estimate the asymptotic growth of the resulting sequences. We provide constants for the asymptotic growth of d-ary trees and labeled quaternary trees (glycan topologies). Finally, we show how a classical result from enumeration theory can be used to count glycan structures where edges are labeled by bond types. Our method also improves time bounds for counting alkanes. PMID:23974240

Böcker, Sebastian; Wagner, Stephan

2014-10-01

53

Christmas Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The longest running Citizen Science survey in the world, Christmas Bird Count provides critical data on population trends. Tens of thousands of participants know that it is also a lot of fun. Data from the over 2,300 circles are entered after the count and become available to query under the Data & Research link. Participants will be helping to preserve bird species, as the data is used by conservation biologists to understand and protect species and their habitats.

2014-04-01

54

HawkCount  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HawkCount is an online database that facilitates the tracking and reporting of raptor migrations. It includes site reports from hawk-watch sites in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Materials include an interactive map that provides links to hawk-watch sites; location maps and general information on watch sites; a summary of recent reports; and day and monthly summaries of counts by site.

55

Whose interests count?  

PubMed

Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside. PMID:25274878

Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

2014-10-01

56

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

DOEpatents

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

57

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

DOEpatents

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, J.E.

1985-03-05

58

Logical Definability of Counting Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between counting functions and logical expressibility is explored. The most well studied class of counting functions is P, which consists of the functions counting the accepting computation paths of a nondeterministic polynomial-time Turing machine. For a logic L, L is the class of functions on finite structures (of a fixed signature) counting the tuples (T¯, c¯) satisfying a

Kevin J. Compton; Erich Grädel

1994-01-01

59

Counting on Frank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, based on the picture book "Counting on Frank" by Rod Clement, students explore and compare the volume of different containers using standard and non-standard units of measure. Through this activity students develop an understanding of why standard units may be preferable to non-standard units. The activity includes a suggested lesson sequence with guide questions throughout.

2010-01-01

60

Radioactive Counting Clocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a radioactive counting clock (RCC) based on radioactive beta emissions from nickel-63 thin films. We present a theoretical analysis of the clock that uses the radioactive source (physics package) to lock and stabilize the frequency of a voltage-to-frequency converter (local oscillator). We present frequency stability measurements of the RCC over 10 days of clock operation. We analyze

Shankar Radhakrishnan; Amit Lal

2006-01-01

61

Every Square Inch Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do scientists measure the abundance of rocky intertidal organisms? How does the subtidal zone differ from the rocky intertidal zone in organisms and abundance? Every Square Inch Counts is an activity that compares the rocky intertidal habitats of Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary to the subtidal benthic habitat in Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary.

62

What Counts as Evidence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

2014-01-01

63

Dinosaur Count and Sort  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners sort and count different colored plastic dinosaurs by various attributes including tail length, whether or not the dinosaurs have horns, etc. Learners discuss the basis of their sorting, describe individual dinosaurs as well as groups and count the whole as well as subsets of the whole. This identification, sorting and grouping based on different traits (physical attributes, diet, habitat) provides a strong foundation for the development of the concept of species. The lesson plan also explains that dinosaurs lived a long time ago, but because they are no longer alive today, they are said to be extinct. Reasons for their extinction and the concept of endangered species can be explored.

OMSI

2004-01-01

64

Quality Counts Certificate  

E-print Network

Date Ag Science Teacher / County Extension Agent Be it known that has been trained in the eight core concepts of Quality Counts: Six Pillars of Character Purpose of 4-H/FFA Purpose of Livestock Projects Decision Making and Goal... Setting Livestock Project Impact on Red Meat Industry Responsibility of Producing a Safe Product Medication Usage and Labeling Animal Care and Well-Being Trustworthiness Respect Responsibility Fairness Caring Citizenship 4-H 2?5 11-06 ...

Chilek, Kevin

2007-01-31

65

Count the Beat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article discusses the Count the Beat project, which incorporates music into math instruction. The instructors in this project began each lesson with a brief math exercise followed by a more in-depth music task utilizing number lines, fractions, ratios, and/or probability. While music professionals carried out this project the article does offer some suggestions for application in the math classroom without music professional.

Nicky Goulder

2013-01-01

66

Garden Butterflies Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UK-based Butterfly Conservation presents the preliminary results of the Garden Butterfly Count (GBC), which enlisted the help of private residents to survey backyard butterflies and moths. Over 11,000 completed survey forms were returned to Butterfly Conservation at the end of the 2002 season, and the Web site provides a brief look at early results and analysis. The information is presented for a general audience, making this Web site an interesting stop for any reader.

67

[Photon counting CT].  

PubMed

Photon counting CT is a new technology that enables us to improve the quality of images by a conventional CT, in which the detection of transmitted photons is conducted by an integration of photon energies. This paper describes the features and advantages of the photon counting detection compared to the energy integration detection. They are (1) reduction of electrical noise and improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, (2) improvement of the image contrast using the weighting factors to images acquired with energy bins, (3) k-edge imaging by setting two energy bins at the k-edge of some contrast media such as gadopenteto megruminacid and gold-nanoparticles, and (4) material decomposition using the data acquired with multiple energy windows. For the material decomposition, the principal component analysis, singular value decomposition method, and the application of the artificial neural network are described. The photon counting CT technique has a potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy and introduce new clinical methods, however, much efforts are required to use this technology in the clinical situation. PMID:24893447

Ogawa, Koichi

2013-01-01

68

CORRESPONDENCE Why Vote-Count Reviews Don't Count  

E-print Network

CORRESPONDENCE Why Vote-Count Reviews Don't Count To the Editor: In general, there are two common approaches to a quantitative literature review: some form of meta-analysis or a vote count. The vote-analysis is not appropriate. I do not fault them for this-- reasonable people can differ about the appropriate application

69

Skip Count by 5s  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help the Third Little Pig skip count to 1,000 bricks in groups of 5. (Note students are not expected to count from 0-1,000 by 5s, but this activity allows them to experience counting within a variety of contexts between 0 and 1,000.)

Jayne Hartman

2012-07-23

70

Semi-physiological pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling and simulation of 5-fluorouracil for the whole time course of alterations in leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in rats.  

PubMed

We aimed to develop a simple pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model to predict the onset and degree of severe toxic side effects that severely limit the use of many anticancer agents, such as myelosuppression, in rats. Our PK-PD model consisted of a two-compartment PK model, with one compartment representing proliferative cells and some transit compartments consisting of maturing cells, while the other compartment represented circulating blood cells for the PD model. The semi-physiological PK-PD model effectively captured the features of myelosuppression and the degree of the off-target toxicities observed after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy, and helped simultaneously simulate the whole time course for alterations in leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts after 5-FU treatment in rats. Interestingly, by plotting the nadir period of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts as determined by PK-PD analytical simulation curves against the area under the plasma 5-FU concentration-time curve (AUC0-?) after intravenous administration of 5-FU, a linear relationship was inferred, with r2=0.989, 0.877 and 0.956, respectively. The semi-physiological PK-PD model is a valuable tool for evaluating a variety of novel cancer chemopreventive agents or emerging therapeutic strategies that are difficult to address in humans. PMID:24650147

Kobuchi, Shinji; Ito, Yukako; Hayakawa, Taro; Kuwano, Shota; Baba, Akiko; Shinohara, Kota; Nishimura, Asako; Shibata, Nobuhito; Takada, Kanji

2014-09-01

71

Counting on and back  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet supports the exploration of numbers to 100 by simulating a 100-bead string. A teacher or child can move all or some beads to the left or right to add and subtract. The controls allow users to move beads individually or 10 at a time to model different counting and calculation strategies. Users can hide or show the numbers represented by the beads. This applet lends itself well to use on an interactive white board. A pdf guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.

2006-01-01

72

Count the Vowels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to count the vowels in a list of 15 words. They are then asked to write down as many WORDS as they can remember. They can usually remember only 3 - 4. Next students are told to look at the list of words and asked to memorize them. They can usually remember about half of them after trying to memorize the words. Finally, students are told that the words are listed in a certain way, with a guiding concept to the arrangements. They readily understand the words are listed according to number. After spending 30 seconds to memorize the words this time, students generally tend to remember 12 or more. Metacognitive components of the activityStudents learn that considering the organization of informaton is important to remember it. Metacognitive goals for this activity:To show students that they can significantly and immediately improve their learning. Assessing students' metacognitionStudents tell us in verbal or email communication that they have now "stopped counting vowels" and are learning information.

73

Enhancing the Accuracy of Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio after Adjustment for Large Platelet Count: A Pilot Study in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. The objective of our study is to investigate the potential effect of adjusting preoperative platelet to lymphocyte ratio, an emerging biomarker of survival in cancer patients, for the fraction of large platelets. Methods. A total of 79 patients with breast neoplasias, 44 with fibroadenomas, and 35 with invasive ductal carcinoma were included in the study. Both conventional platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the adjusted marker, large platelet to lymphocyte ratio (LPLR), were correlated with laboratory and histopathological parameters of the study sample. Results. LPLR elevation was significantly correlated with the presence of malignancy, advanced tumor stage, metastatic spread in the axillary nodes and HER2/neu overexpression, while PLR was only correlated with the number of infiltrated lymph nodes. Conclusions. This is the first study evaluating the effect of adjustment for large platelet count on improving PLR accuracy, when correlated with the basic independent markers of survival in a sample of breast cancer patients. Further studies are needed in order to assess the possibility of applying our adjustment as standard in terms of predicting survival rates in cancer. PMID:23304480

Seretis, Charalampos; Seretis, Fotios; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Politou, Marianna; Gemenetzis, George; Salemis, Nikolaos S.

2012-01-01

74

Shape analysis of counts maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach for source detection via structural deviations from the typical features of a random background counts map is presented. Minkowski functionals, powerful tools from integral geometry, quantify the shape of level sets of a counts map. Compared to standard techniques, which use the total number of counts only, additional morphometric information is incorporated without the need for any prior knowledge about the source. Minkowski sky maps quantify local structural deviations; they localize and visualize potential sources.

Klatt, M. A.; Göring, D.; Stegmann, C.; Mecke, K.

2012-12-01

75

Differences in Baseline Lymphocyte Counts and Autoreactivity Are Associated With Differences in Outcome of Islet Cell Transplantation in Type 1 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The metabolic outcome of islet cell transplants in type 1 diabetic patients is variable. This retrospective analysis examines whether differences in recipient characteristics at the time of transplantation are correlated with inadequate graft function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty nonuremic C-peptide–negative type 1 diabetic patients had received an intraportal islet cell graft of comparable size under an ATG-tacrolimus–mycophenolate mofetil regimen. Baseline patient characteristics were compared with outcome parameters during the first 6 posttransplant months (i.e., plasma C-peptide, glycemic variability, and gain of insulin independence). Correlations in univariate analysis were further examined in a multivariate model. RESULTS Patients that did not become insulin independent exhibited significantly higher counts of B-cells as well as a T-cell autoreactivity against insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA2) and/or GAD. In one of them, a liver biopsy during posttransplant year 2 showed B-cell accumulations near insulin-positive ?-cell aggregates. Higher baseline total lymphocytes and T-cell autoreactivity were also correlated with lower plasma C-peptide levels and higher glycemic variability. CONCLUSIONS Higher total and B-cell counts and presence of T-cell autoreactivity at baseline are independently associated with lower graft function in type 1 diabetic patients receiving intraportal islet cells under ATG-tacrolimus–mycophenolate mofetil therapy. Prospective studies are needed to assess whether control of these characteristics can help increase the function of islet cell grafts during the first year posttransplantation. PMID:19602536

Hilbrands, Robert; Huurman, Volkert A.L.; Gillard, Pieter; Velthuis, Jurjen H.L.; De Waele, Marc; Mathieu, Chantal; Kaufman, Leonard; Pipeleers-Marichal, Miriam; Ling, Zhidong; Movahedi, Babak; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Monbaliu, Diethard; Ysebaert, Dirk; Gorus, Frans K.; Roep, Bart O.; Pipeleers, Daniel G.; Keymeulen, Bart

2009-01-01

76

Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

Millard, H.T., Jr.

1984-01-01

77

Kids Count [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is combined with Families Count, and provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The first statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen deaths; (6) juvenile…

Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Wilson, Nancy, Ed.

78

Seroprevalence of helicobacter pylori in human immunodeficiency virus-positive Patients and it's correlation with CD4+ Lymphocyte Count  

PubMed Central

Background: This study assessed the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies among Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It also examines whether anti H. pylori seroprevalence was associated with the severity of the HIV infection or the antiretroviral treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 114 HIV-infected patients and 114 age and sex-matched controls, without symptoms referable to upper gastrointestinal tract were recruited. Blood samples were obtained from all subjects. Serum IgG and IgA against H. pylori measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The rate of anti H. pylori IgG seropositivity was 57.9% in HIV-infected patients and 28.95% in controls (P < 0.001), while the rate of IgA seropositivity was 2.64% in HIV patients and 31.57% in controls (P < 0.001). Although there was an increasing trend of higher IgG and IgA titre by increasing CD4 cell count in HIV-positive patients, it was not reach statistical significance. There was no statistical difference in the serology of anti H. pylori IgG and IgA between patients receiving antiretroviral therapy comparing untreated HIV patients. Conclusions: This study showed higher seroprevalence of H. pylori IgG along with lower seroprevalence of H. pylori IgA in HIV-positive patients compared matched controls. PMID:24970974

Abdollahi, Alireza; Shoar, Saeed; Jafari, Siroos; Emadi-Kochak, Hamid

2014-01-01

79

Field evaluation in Chad of community usage of CD4 T lymphocyte counting by alternative single-platform flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Background Field and community evaluation of the routine usage of CD4 T counting platforms is essential in resource-poor countries for efficient and cost-effective monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children attending health care centers. Methods We herein addressed the principal issues raised by the implementation of the single-platform, volumetric Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) in 8 community HIV monitoring laboratories of different levels throughout Chad. This is a country with particularly difficult conditions, both in terms of climate and vast geographical territory, making the decentralization of the therapeutic management of HIV-infected patients challenging. Results The routine usage of the Auto40 flow cytometers for a period of 5 years (2008–2013) confirms the reliability and robustness of the analyzer for community-based CD4 T cell enumeration in terms of both absolute numbers and percentages to enable accurate monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children. However, our observations suggest that the Auto40 mini flow cytometer is not suitable for all laboratories as it is oversized and ultimately very expensive. Conclusion The Chad experience with the Auto40 flow cytometer suggests that its usage in resource-limited settings should be mainly reserved to reference (level 1) or district (level 2) laboratories, rather than to laboratories of health care centres (level 3). PMID:24083615

2013-01-01

80

Coinductive Counting with Weighted Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general methodology is developed to compute the solution of a wide variety of basic counting problems in a uniform way: (1) the objects to be counted are enumerated by means of an infinite weighted automaton; (2) the automaton is reduced by means of the quantitative notion of stream bisimulation; (3) the reduced automaton is used to compute an expression

Jan J. M. M. Rutten

2003-01-01

81

AN AUTOMATED MOSQUITO COUNTING TRAP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An automated mosquito counting trap has been designed and tested in laboratory cages. It employs a custom designed infrared beam sensor head retrofit into a commercial counter-flow technology trap (MM-X, American Biophysics Corp.). The trap provides time-stamped insect counts that can be downloaded...

82

KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By providing policymakers and citizens with benchmarks of child well-being, KIDS COUNT seeks to enrich local, state, and national discussions concerning ways to secure better futures for all children. This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the 2005 "KIDS COUNT Data Book." The following sections are included: (1) Essay; (2) Charts on 10 Key…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2005

2005-01-01

83

Pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic modelling of effects of dexamethasone and prednisolone in combination with endogenous cortisol on lymphocyte counts and systemic markers of bone turn over and inflammation in healthy and asthmatic men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare potency and efficacy of dexamethasone (DEXA) and prednisolone (PRED) in assumed equipotent doses in combination with endogenous cortisol, using lymphocyte counts, plasma osteocalcin (OC), and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) as effect variables and to evaluate potential differences between healthy subjects and asthmatic patients. Methods Eight healthy subjects and six asthmatic patients who had stopped taking their regular

E. F. L. Dubois; M. G. M. Derks; D. H. Schweitzer; A. H. Zwinderman; P. N. R. Dekhuijzen; C. J. van Boxtel

2004-01-01

84

Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

2006-05-20

85

Count the Dots: Binary Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data in computers is stored and transmitted as a series of zeros and ones. Learners explore how to represent numbers using just these two symbols, through a binary system of cards. When the card's dots are showing, its value is 1 and the dots are counted. When the card's dots are not showing, its value is 0 and the dots are not counted. Learners model binary counting to discover patterns and represent numbers. This activity includes three worksheet activities (1 introductory and 2 extensions) for learners to complete and background information for the instructor.

National Center for Women and Information Technology

2012-12-13

86

White blood cell counting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

1972-01-01

87

Counting Necklaces and Other Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for helping students to find formulas involving symmetry under various conditions is explained. Necklace symmetries, orbit counting, tetrahedra and cubes, relationship patterns, and finding patterns are discussed. (CW)

Houghton, Chris

1990-01-01

88

Counting Graylings on the Tundra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article profiles Linda Deegan, scientist with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site in the Kuparuk River region of Alaska, as she counts and tags Arctic grayling as they migrate from streams to lakes in the fall.

Carol Landis

89

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

90

Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large retrospective cohort.  

PubMed

Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. Lower ALC30 (?400 × 10(6)/L) was associated with lower OS and increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for the whole cohort as well as for recipients of SD and UD grafts separately. Lower ALC30 was associated with more severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; III-IV) for the entire cohort as well as for the SD and UD groups. No association was found between lower ALC30 and relapse. Pretransplant factors associated with lower ALC30 were: unrelated donors; HLA mismatch; older donors; lower recipient age; and lower CD34+ cell dose. In this large retrospective study, ALC30?400 × 10(6)/L was associated with worse OS, increased NRM and severe aGVHD. PMID:25599169

Gul, Z; Van Meter, E; Abidi, M; Ditah, I; Abdul-Hussein, M; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Lum, L G; Waller, E K; Ratanatharathorn, V; Uberti, J; Al-Kadhimi, Z

2015-03-01

91

Counting Strings, Wound and Bound  

E-print Network

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound states.

Sujay K. Ashok; Suresh Nampuri; Jan Troost

2013-02-05

92

Counting Strings, Wound and Bound  

E-print Network

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound state...

Ashok, Sujay K; Troost, Jan

2013-01-01

93

Hanford whole body counting manual  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

1990-06-01

94

Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

2010-07-01

95

Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.  

PubMed

Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. PMID:24862513

Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W

2014-05-26

96

Mathline Activity I -- Borda Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mock-election demonstrating the Borda Electoral Count, a ranking system of elections that is rarely used for governmental elections, but often used to rank in non-governmental settings such as student governments or college sports teams. This activity is especially useful when used in conjunction with other electoral simulations.

2011-05-03

97

Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

98

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

99

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

100

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '98.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school dropouts; and (8)…

Oklahoma Inst. for Child Advocacy, Inc., Oklahoma City. Oklahoma Kids Count.

101

Flap over Census 2000 Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Friday, Commerce Secretary Don Evans announced that he, not the Census Bureau, would make the final call on whether to adjust the 2000 Census results to include the estimated undercount of just above one percent. This set off a storm of criticism from congressional Democrats who claimed the Bush administration was politicizing the Census count. (Most analysts believe that an adjusted count will lead to re-districtings favoring the Democrat's chances in the next congressional election.) The White House countered that such a decision is mandated to the appointed representatives of the elected President, not to bureaucrats. Former President Clinton had given the final say to the Director of the Census Bureau, ostensibly to de-politicize the process. But with re-districting stakes so high, it is unlikely that either Republicans or Democrats are ready to approach this issue as one of mere statistics. Indeed, the controversy of the last few years over sampling (a process whereby the Census Bureau makes statistical estimates of uncounted households using surveys of counted ones) has already made the issue the subject of two Supreme Court rulings. The acting director of the Census must make his recommendations by the first of March. Secretary Evans will issue a decision and final count by March 5th.

Charbonneau, David D.

2001-01-01

102

[Complete blood counts: new parameters].  

PubMed

Performing a complete blood count analysis is a daily routine necessary for a good care of patients. Nowadays, modern blood analyzers provide on top of classical blood values, several additional parameters. In this paper, using short case presentations, we discuss how to interpret these results and integrate them in the clinical context. PMID:24313051

Lambert, J-F; Vollenweider, P

2013-10-30

103

Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

Brookshire, Cathy A.

104

KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

105

Response Count Summer Flextime Survey  

E-print Network

Response Percent Response Count 45.2% 33 54.8% 40 73 1 Summer Flextime Survey skipped question Did often did you use it? 9-11 weeks Only once answered question Summer Flextime Survey 5-8 weeks Answer Survey skipped question Did you have any difficulty working your full schedule in four days? Answer

106

Counting Bitangents with Stable Maps  

E-print Network

This paper is an elementary introduction to the theory of moduli spaces of curves and maps. As an application to enumerative geometry, we show how to count the number of bitangent lines to a projective plane curve of degree $d$ by doing intersection theory on moduli spaces.

David Ayala; Renzo Cavalieri

2005-12-22

107

South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

108

Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

Boeke, Kaye

109

South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

110

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

111

AIDS: An Epidemiologic and Correlation Between HIV- Related Oral Lesions and plasma levels of CD4, CD8 T Lymphocytes Counts and Ratio Among 50 Patients  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS patients and to determine their associations with plasma levels of CD4+, CD8+ count and CD4/CD8 ratio. Study design a descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and duration Unit of Odontology, St-Antoine Hospital, a two year period study. Methodology In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 50 patients with a proven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were evaluated. Based on the clinical findings and CD4+, CD8+ counts, the relationships between oral lesions and CD4+, CD8+ cell count and CD4/CD8 ratio were evaluated. Results The CD4+ count (cells/mm3) was < 200, 200–500, and > 500 in 32 cases (64%), 16 cases (32%) and 2 cases (4%) respectively, and the mean CD4+ count was 167.12 cells/mm3. The mean CD8+ count (cells/mm3) was 979.66 cells/mm3 and the mean CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.25. All patients showed at least one oral manifestation. The most common oral lesion identified was pseudo membranous candidiasis accounting for 76% (38/50) followed by periodontal disease 34% (17/50), herpetic lesions and hairy leukoplakia 10% for each (5/50), gingivitis 8% (4/50), oral ulceration 8% (4/50), Kaposi’s sarcoma 6% (3/50), and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2% (1/50). Conclusion The CD4+ count was decreasing the presence and the severity of oral lesions was increasing in this study. No relation was found between the presence of oral lesion and CD4/CD8 ratio. The presence of oral lesions may lead to a positive diagnostic of HIV. Disease progression is characterized by increased prevalence of some oral lesions as candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia and Kaposi sarcoma. The severity of oral lesions was more pronounced with a CD4+ count <200 cells/mm3. PMID:25750864

Berberi, Antoine; Noujeim, Ziad

2015-01-01

112

Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet supports the exploration of early number. A child or teacher can place a number of objects on the screen and then move the objects to group them, drag them onto a number line or track, into a hoop to create sets of objects, or into a 10 by 10 grid. This applet lends itself well to group work with a projector. Clicking on the info button allows the user to mouse over items to learn how to use them.

2011-01-01

113

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.  

PubMed

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

2011-12-01

114

The Mayan Long Count Calendar  

E-print Network

The Maya had a very elaborate and accurate calendar. First, the Mayan Long Count Calendar (LCC) was used to point historical events from a selected "beginning of time". It is also characterized by the existence of a religious month Tzolk'in of 260 days and a civic year Haab' of 365 days. The LCC is supposed to begin on 11 August -3114 BC known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 corresponding to a period of approximately 5125 years or 13 Baktun. We propose here to explain the origin the 13 Baktun cycle, the Long Count Periods and the religious month Tzolk'in.

Chanier, Thomas

2013-01-01

115

Constraint counting for frictional jamming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the frictionless jamming transition has been intensely studied in recent years, more realistic frictional packings are less well understood. In frictionless sphere packings, the transition is predicted by a simple mean-field constraint counting argument, the isostaticity argument. For frictional packings, a modified constraint counting argument, which includes slipping contacts at the Coulomb threshold, has had limited success in accounting for the transition. We propose that the frictional jamming transition is not mean field and is triggered by the nucleation of unstable regions, which are themselves dynamical objects due to the Coulomb criterion. We create frictional packings using MD simulations and test for the presence and shape of rigid clusters with the pebble game to identify the partition of the packing into stable and unstable regions. To understand the dynamics of these unstable regions we follow perturbations at contacts crucial to the stability of the ``frictional house of cards.''

Quint, D. A.; Henkes, S.; Schwarz, J. M.

2012-02-01

116

Counting Squares in a Square  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet displays one way of counting the smaller grid squares nested inside a larger grid square, such as a checkerboard or chessboard. The applet allows the user to select the size of the smaller grid square and drag it to other positions, tracking the upper left corner of each new square. The explanation reveals the formula for total number of grid squares within a N x N grid square: the sum of the first N squares.

Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny

2011-01-01

117

1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, interactive line graphs allowing users to compare indicators from up to eight areas, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. Users can download all of the raw data files for 1999 in a compressed .zip file or they may download raw data files individually as either a MS Excel spreadsheet file (.xls) or a comma-delimited text file (.csv).

118

Lithium dosage and leukocyte counts in psychiatric patients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in leukocyte counts among patients treated with either lithium alone, antipsychotic medications alone, or a combination of both. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Long-stay psychiatric hospital. PATIENTS: Patients admitted between 1990 and 1993, and treated with lithium for at least 1 week and/or with antipsychotic medication for at least 2 weeks. Excluded from the study were those patients for whom complete blood counts at baseline and during therapy were not available, and those patients whose blood picture could primarily be accounted for by extraneous factors. Included in the study were 38 patients treated with lithium alone, 207 patients receiving antipsychotic medications alone, and 71 patients receiving both. OUTCOME MEASURES: Leukocyte, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts. RESULTS: Patients treated with lithium alone had significantly higher mean leukocyte and granulocyte counts than those treated with antipsychotic medication alone (analysis of variance, p < 0.05). None of the patients receiving lithium alone showed leukopenia. The dosage of lithium was significantly correlated with leukocyte count (r = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.35, p < 0.001,) and granulocyte count (r = 0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.38, p < 0.001), but not with lymphocyte count (r = 0.06, p = 0.286, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Lithium therapy is associated with higher leukocyte and granulocyte levels in psychiatric patients. This leukocytotic effect of lithium may be dose dependent. PMID:10354655

Oyewumi, L K; McKnight, M; Cernovsky, Z Z

1999-01-01

119

Low white blood cell count and cancer  

MedlinePLUS

When your blood is tested, ask for your white blood cell count. When your white blood cell count is low, do what you can to prevent infections. Know the signs of infection and what to do if you see them.

120

Counting by ones, twos, and tens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are 2 connect the dot activities (counting by 2\\'s) and a missing number game. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: #1 Connect the dots. Game #2: #2 Connect the dots. Game #3: Pick the number that is missing. Game #4:Ant Parade--Skip Counting Game #5:The Counting Game--Skip Counting ...

Mrs. Christian

2007-03-21

121

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON  

E-print Network

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION Marine Biological Laboratory AUG 1 1 1958, Commissioner RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern and- Dipt iman 1958 #12;RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern, Diptiman

122

Count-doubling time safety circuit  

DOEpatents

There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01

123

DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

DC Action for Children, 2012

2012-01-01

124

SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

125

New nonparametric tests for panel count data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical analysis of panel count data is an important topic to a number of applied fields including biology, engineering, econometrics, medicine, and public health. Panel count data include observations on subjects over multiple time points where the response variable is a count or recurrent event process when only the numbers of events occurring between observation time points are available. The

Xingqiu Zhao

2008-01-01

126

The interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism is associated with elevated leukocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts and reduced physical fitness in young healthy smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking and interleukin-6 are important factors in driving inflammation. This study assessed the relationship between smoking, interleukin-6 genotype, physical fitness, and peripheral blood count in healthy young men. For this interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism -174 genotype-phenotype association study 1,929 healthy German male aviators recruited at the central German Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine were stratified by smoking habits. Cardiovascular fitness

J. R. Ortlepp; J. Metrikat; K. Vesper; V. Mevissen; F. Schmitz; M. Albrecht; P. Maya-Pelzer; P. Hanrath; C. Weber; K. Zerres; R. Hoffmann

2003-01-01

127

Automatic cell counting with ImageJ.  

PubMed

Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually needs to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is approximately 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared with manual counting. PMID:25542972

Grishagin, Ivan V

2015-03-15

128

Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

129

BLOOD COUNTS IN EXPERIMENTAL POLIOMYELITIS IN THE MONKEY  

PubMed Central

Blood counts were made on six series of monkeys before and at various intervals after the injection of active poliomyelitic virus. From the data thus obtained the variations in the circulating white cells have been followed in the several stages of the disease (a) before injection, (b) during the incubation period, (c) during the acute stage, including the stage of prostration, and (d) during recovery. On account of experimental conditions not all the monkeys were observed during the four periods, so that averages of counts in several monkeys are used for comparison. Averages of 121 counts on 40 normal monkeys are recorded. Immediately following the injection of the virus the relative and actual numbers of lymphocytes are slightly diminished. In many cases the curve continues sharply downward. In others from the 4th to the 6th day there is an actual increase for a brief period to a point somewhat in excess of the original count. With the onset of symptoms a lymphocytic crisis takes place. The curve then continues slightly downward, while the polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocytes are relatively and actually increased at approximately the same time. During the stage of prostration the curve of the polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocytes returns to almost normal, while the lymphocytic curve continues slightly downward. With recovery the lymphocytes slowly return to normal after several weeks. There is no evidence of lymphocytic stimulation after recovery. Eosinophilic, basophilic, large mononuclear, and transitional leucocytes follow the depressions and stimulations exhibited by the neutrophilic cells of the same series. The results here recorded are consistent with the observations of Peabody, Draper, and Dochez on human cases. The increase in the total number of circulating lymphocytes after the lymphocytic crisis is coincident with the passing of the acute stage. Additional evidence is presented to indicate that Smillie produced atypical but definite poliomyelitis in the monkey with cultivated virus. PMID:19868309

Taylor, Herbert D.

1919-01-01

130

Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.  

PubMed

Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 ?m?×?15 ?m measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results. PMID:24898912

Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid

2014-10-01

131

Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

1994-01-01

132

Association between serum mercury concentration and leukocyte differential count in children.  

PubMed

There have been a number of animal studies on the immunological effects of mercury. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the effects of mercury in children. We investigated the association between serum mercury and leukocyte differential count in Korean children. The relationship between mercury and leukocyte differential count (segment, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, and eosinophil counts) was analyzed by multivariate linear analysis adjusted for sex, BMI, parental smoking, lead, cadmium, and allergic sensitization in 311 children. Mercury showed a positive correlation with lymphocyte count (coefficient 113.8, 95% confidence interval 26.7-200.9). However, mercury was not associated with total leukocyte, segment, monocyte, basophil, or eosinophil count. Mercury was associated with the increased of lymphocyte count in Korean children. Further studies will be required to ascertain the clinical significance of this association. PMID:24274666

Kim, Jeong Hong; Lee, Keun-Hwa; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Hye-Sook; Lee, Jaechun; Kang, Ju Wan

2015-03-01

133

2002 Kids Count Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Crafted by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Kids Count Data Book is a yearly publication that illuminates the status of Americaâ??s children by providing data on the "educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all across the U.S. By updating the book annually, viewers can assess the changes that have or have not been made by individual states and the nation at large. The report is divided into sections including graphs and color coded maps; profiles, which provides data on individual states or the nation as a whole; rankings, which contains data on all 50 states ranked according to an indicator; raw data, which allows downloading of the entire data book as "delimited files"; and PDF files, which allows downloading and printing of the data book using Adobe Acrobat. Those wanting a hard copy of the book can order a free copy from the home page.

134

Well coincidence counting and analysis  

SciTech Connect

In several recent papers a physical/mathematical model was developed to describe the nuclear multiplicative processes in samples containing fissile material from a general statistical viewpoint, starting with the basic underlying physical phenomena. The results of this model agreed with the established picture used in ``standard`` HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) measurements, but considerably extended them, and allowed a more detailed interpretation of the underlying physical mechanisms and of the higher moments of the neutron counts. The present paper examines some recent measurements made at Y-12 (Oak Ridge) using the AWCC, in the light of this model. The results show internal consistency under a variety of conditions, and give good agreement between experiment and theory.

Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Ceo, R.N.; Collins, L.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Y-12 Plant] [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Y-12 Plant

1994-03-01

135

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

2011-04-01

136

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

137

Association of Psychological Stress Response of Fatigue with White Blood Cell Count in Male Daytime Workers  

PubMed Central

Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts. PMID:24975105

NISHITANI, Naoko; SAKAKIBARA, Hisataka

2014-01-01

138

White blood cell counts: reference methodology.  

PubMed

Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index. PMID:25676369

Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

2015-03-01

139

Counting Classes: Thresholds, Parity, Mods, and Fewness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counting classes consist of languages defined in terms of the number of acceptingcomputations of nondeterministic polynomial-time Turing machines. Well known examplesof counting classes are NP, co-NP, \\\\PhiP, and PP. Every counting class is a subsetof P#P[1], the class of languages computable in polynomial time using a single call toan oracle capable of determining the number of accepting paths of an

Richard Beigel; John Gill

1992-01-01

140

Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

1990-07-01

141

Counting Wobbling Dual-Giants  

E-print Network

We derive the BPS equations for D3-branes embedded in AdS_5 X S^5 that preserve at least two supercharges. These are given in terms of conditions on the pullbacks of some space-time differential four-forms. Solutions to our equations are shown to describe all the known giant and dual-giant gravitons in AdS_5 X S^5. We then argue that the configuration spaces of dual-giants can be mapped to non-compact hyperbolic versions of complex projective spaces, in contrast with the giants, whose configuration spaces have been mapped to complex projective spaces. We quantize the configuration space of the 1/8-BPS dual-giants with two angular momenta in AdS_5 and one angular momentum in S^5 and find agreement with the partition function in the literature obtained both from counting appropriate 1/8-BPS configurations of giants and the boundary gauge theory considerations.

Sujay K. Ashok; Nemani V. Suryanarayana

2008-08-14

142

Time to stop counting the tablets?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempted to assess compliance using both a pharmacologic indicator (low-dose phenobarbital) and a return tablet count in 225 patients who were taking part in three separate studies. There were 216 patients (96%) who kept a follow-up appointment after 28 days; 161 patients appeared to have good compliance (90% to 109%) by return tablet count. Of these 161 patients, 51

Thomas Pullar; Shubha Kumar; Hilary Tindall; Morgan Feely

1989-01-01

143

Full counting statistics and field theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the relations between the full counting statistics and the field theory of electric circuits. We demonstrate that for large conductances the counting statistics is determined by non-trivial saddle-point of the field. Coulomb effects in this limit are presented as quantum corrections that can stongly renormalize the action at low energies.

Yuli V. Nazarov

2007-01-01

144

NATURAL VARIATION IN SPOTTING, HYOID TEETH COUNTS,  

E-print Network

^i^^- fV/ NATURAL VARIATION IN SPOTTING, HYOID TEETH COUNTS, AND COLORATION OF YELLOWSTONE grazing and forestry programs on federally owned range and commercial forest lands; protects fish and Wildlife, Daniel H. Janzen, Director NATURAL VARIATION IN SPOTTING, HYOID TEETH COUNTS, AND COLORATION

145

Multiaxial cycle counting for critical plane methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical plane method has proven to be a popular analytical tool for estimating multiaxial fatigue. Based on the strain-life approach to fatigue, the method relies on a cycle counting routine to identify cycles and a damage model to assess damage for each cycle. Researchers have traditionally borrowed cycle counting methods from established uniaxial methods. This work will show how

T. E Langlais; J. H Vogel; T. R Chase

2003-01-01

146

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve  

E-print Network

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner COUNTS OF RED TIDE of red tide organisms, Gymnodinium breve, and associated oceanographic data from Florida west coast, 1954

147

On statistical models for fission track counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical basis for the usual analysis of fission track counts obtained by the external detector method is discussed and illustrated with examples. A consequence is that if any observed correlation between counts of spontaneous and induced tracks is due to heterogeneity in the density of uranium, then the model proposed by McGee and Johnson (1979)for assessing the experimental error

R. F. Galbraith

1981-01-01

148

Kids Count in Indiana: 1996 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the third in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. The report combines statistics of special concern in Indiana with 10 national Kids Count well-being indicators: (1) percent low birthweight; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) birth rate to unmarried teens ages 15…

Erickson, Judith B.

149

Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

150

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

151

People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such  

E-print Network

People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such as cranes species are monitored by CAR, of which 14 appear in the South African Red Data Book as Critically Endan gered, Vulnerable or NearThreatened. CAR counts began in 1993 and take place on the last Saturday

de Villiers, Marienne

152

Inaccuracy and imprecision of reticulocyte counting.  

PubMed

Reticulocyte count is an essential clinical test to detect erythropoietic activity. The test has been done manually with the use of one of three dyes: new methylene blue, brilliant cresyl blue, and azure B. When reticulocyte counts with the different dyes were compared, correlation was good. When reticulocyte counts obtained by use of the dyes were compared with the count obtained by an automated counter, correlation was high. In a sampling study, the specimen prepared by a spinner method gave smaller variations than a wedge method. Intertechnologist bias was higher than inter-specimen or intra-specimen bias: The variation of the reticulocyte count was examined with from 200 to 2,000 cells; with 1,000 cells or more, variation was low. From these results, we concluded that more than 1,000 erythrocytes on one slide prepared by the spinner method should be analyzed. Clear standards for cell identification are also needed. PMID:2473434

Tatsumi, N; Tsuda, I; Yokomatsu, Y; Im, T S; Niri, M; Furota, A

1989-06-01

153

Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting  

PubMed Central

Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy. Conclusions Insensitive to the variance of images, the LNS (Leukocyte Nuclei Segmentation) method functioned well to isolate the leukocyte nuclei from a blood smear image with much better UR (Under Segmentation Rate), ER (Overall Error Rate), and RDE (Relative Distance Error). The presented LC (Lobe Counting) method is capable of splitting leukocyte nuclei into lobes. The experimental results illuminated that both methods can give expressive performances. In addition, three advanced image processing techniques were proposed as weighted Sobel operator, GDW (Gradient Direction Weight), and GBPD (Genetic-based Parameter Detector). PMID:21073711

2010-01-01

154

Project Profile MCBP InstantCount visit us at CR 4.431  

E-print Network

results against standard techniques (FACS, hematology analyzer, microscopy). What you could do (example blood tests analyzed in portable instruments designed for the use in rural areas in Africa (examples: CD white blood cell count (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes). White light interferometer

Twente, Universiteit

155

B Counting at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

McGregor, Grant Duncan

2008-12-16

156

U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected Persons, 2000 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Background The U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy targets for 2015 include increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for persons living with HIV in the United States (PLWH-US). Objective To demonstrate the utility of the NA-ACCORD (North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design) for monitoring trends in the HIV epidemic in the United States and to present trends in HIV treatment and related health outcomes. Design Trends from annual cross-sectional analyses comparing patients from pooled, multicenter, prospective, clinical HIV cohort studies with PLWH-US, as reported to national surveillance systems in 40 states. Setting U.S. HIV outpatient clinics. Patients HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any calendar year from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2008. Measurements Annual rates of antiretroviral therapy use, HIV VL, and CD4 cell count at death. Results 45 529 HIV-infected persons received care in an NA-ACCORD–participating U.S. clinical cohort from 2000 to 2008. In 2008, the 26 030 NA-ACCORD participants in care and the 655 966 PLWH-US had qualitatively similar demographic characteristics. From 2000 to 2008, the proportion of participants prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy increased by 9 percentage points to 83% (P < 0.001), whereas the proportion with suppressed HIV VL (?2.7 log10 copies/mL) increased by 26 percentage points to 72% (P < 0.001). Median CD4 cell count at death more than tripled to 0.209 × 109 cells/L (P < 0.001). Limitation The usual limitations of observational data apply. Conclusion The NA-ACCORD is the largest cohort of HIV-infected adults in clinical care in the United States that is demographically similar to PLWH-US in 2008. From 2000 to 2008, increases were observed in the percentage of prescribed HAART, the percentage who achieved a suppressed HIV VL, and the median CD4 cell count at death. Primary Funding Source National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian HIV Trials Network, and the government of British Columbia, Canada. PMID:22944874

Althoff, Keri N.; Buchacz, Kate; Hall, H. Irene; Zhang, Jinbing; Hanna, David B.; Rebeiro, Peter; Gange, Stephen J.; Moore, Richard D.; Kitahata, Mari; Gebo, Kelly A.; Martin, Jeffrey; Justice, Amy C.; Horberg, Michael; Hogg, Robert S.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Cescon, Angela; Klein, Marina B.; Thorne, Jennifer; Crane, Heidi; Mugavero, Michael J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Kirk, Gregory D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Brooks, John T.

2012-01-01

157

Greater Toronto Area 1998 Cordon Count Program  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area 1998 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table --------------------------------------------------------------4 Peel Steeles Avenue Screenline ---------------------------------------------------5 Peel-Toronto

Toronto, University of

158

Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 2004 Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 8 Peel-Toronto Screenline

Toronto, University of

159

Greater Toronto Area 2001 Cordon Count Program  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area 2001 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table ...................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline

Toronto, University of

160

Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 2001 Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table ...................................................................... 8 Peel-Toronto Screenline

Toronto, University of

161

Greater Toronto Area 2006 Cordon Count Program  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area 2006 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-3916 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline

Toronto, University of

162

Greater Toronto Area 2004 Cordon Count Program  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area 2004 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline

Toronto, University of

163

Low cost crowd counting using audio tones  

E-print Network

With mobile devices becoming ubiquitous, collaborative applications have become increasingly pervasive. In these applications, there is a strong need to obtain a count of the number of mobile devices present in an area, ...

Kannan, Pravein Govindan

164

The Mayan Long Count Calendar Thomas Chanier  

E-print Network

-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 of Long Count Unit. 1 hal-00750006,version6-21Jan2014 #12;Period N [day] Prime factorization Mercury

Boyer, Edmond

165

Shadow Count 2013 Decoy Registration Form  

E-print Network

of the DHS annual count of homeless individuals. Placing decoys throughout the 5 boroughs of NYC (including you ever been homeless? Yes No Add additional information if desired: Are you currently homeless? Yes

Qiu, Weigang

166

Counting Fields Carl Pomerance, Dartmouth College  

E-print Network

Counting Fields Carl Pomerance, Dartmouth College joint work with Karim Belabas, Universit´e Bordeaux 1 Manjul Bhargava, Princeton University #12;Thanks to: Roger Baker, Henri Cohen, Michael Jacobson

Pomerance, Carl

167

Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

Graham, O.

1964-01-01

168

34 CFR 222.34 - If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made...34 If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made...required to, make a second count of membership. (2) If the applicant chooses...

2011-07-01

169

34 CFR 222.34 - If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made...34 If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made...required to, make a second count of membership. (2) If the applicant chooses...

2010-07-01

170

Rack Module Enhancements of Counting Invariants  

E-print Network

We introduce a modified rack algebra Z[X] for racks X with finite rack rank N. We use representations of Z[X] into rings, known as rack modules, to define enhancements of the rack counting invariant for classical and virtual knots and links. We provide computations and examples to show that the new invariants are strictly stronger than the unenhanced counting invariant and are not determined by the Jones or Alexander polynomials.

Haas, Aaron; Nelson, Sam; Yuen, Jonah; Zhan, Qingcheng

2010-01-01

171

Statistical modelling for falls count data.  

PubMed

Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle. PMID:20159058

Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

2010-03-01

172

Recursive algorithms for phylogenetic tree counting  

PubMed Central

Background In Bayesian phylogenetic inference we are interested in distributions over a space of trees. The number of trees in a tree space is an important characteristic of the space and is useful for specifying prior distributions. When all samples come from the same time point and no prior information available on divergence times, the tree counting problem is easy. However, when fossil evidence is used in the inference to constrain the tree or data are sampled serially, new tree spaces arise and counting the number of trees is more difficult. Results We describe an algorithm that is polynomial in the number of sampled individuals for counting of resolutions of a constraint tree assuming that the number of constraints is fixed. We generalise this algorithm to counting resolutions of a fully ranked constraint tree. We describe a quadratic algorithm for counting the number of possible fully ranked trees on n sampled individuals. We introduce a new type of tree, called a fully ranked tree with sampled ancestors, and describe a cubic time algorithm for counting the number of such trees on n sampled individuals. Conclusions These algorithms should be employed for Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inference when fossil data are included or data are serially sampled. PMID:24164709

2013-01-01

173

Power Counting to Better Jet Observables  

E-print Network

Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

Andrew J. Larkoski; Ian Moult; Duff Neill

2014-09-22

174

Power counting to better jet observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia 8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

2014-12-01

175

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2012-01-01

176

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2010-01-01

177

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2011-01-01

178

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2013-01-01

179

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51...Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2014-01-01

180

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section 864...Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that...

2014-04-01

181

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section 864...Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that...

2012-04-01

182

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section 864...Reagents § 864.8175 Calibrator for platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that...

2013-04-01

183

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2013-04-01

184

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2014-04-01

185

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2012-04-01

186

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...

2010-04-01

187

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...

2013-04-01

188

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...

2012-04-01

189

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...

2011-04-01

190

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410...MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your...

2014-04-01

191

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2010-04-01

192

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2011-04-01

193

Differential white cell count and incident type 2 diabetes: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis White cell count has been shown to predict incident type 2 diabetes, but differential white cell count has received scant attention. We examined the risk of developing diabetes associated with differential white cell count and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and the effect of insulin sensitivity and subclinical inflammation on white cell associations. Methods Incident diabetes was ascertained in 866 participants aged 40–69 years in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study after a 5 year follow-up period. The insulin sensitivity index (SI) was measured by the frequently sampled IVGTT. Results C-reactive protein was directly and independently associated with neutrophil (p<0.001) and monocyte counts (p<0.01) and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (p<0.001), whereas SI was inversely and independently related to lymphocyte count (p<0.05). There were 138 (15.9%) incident cases of diabetes. Demographically adjusted ORs for incident diabetes, comparing the top and bottom tertiles of white cell (1.80 [95% CI 1.10, 2.92]), neutrophil (1.67 [1.04, 2.71]) and lymphocyte counts (2.30 [1.41, 3.76]), were statistically significant. No association was demonstrated for monocyte count (1.18 [0.73, 1.90]) or neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (0.89 [0.55, 1.45]). White cell and neutrophil associations were no longer significant after further adjusting for family history of diabetes, fasting glucose and smoking, but the OR comparing the top and bottom tertiles of lymphocyte count remained significant (1.92 [1.12, 3.29]). This last relationship was better explained by SI rather than C-reactive protein. Conclusions/interpretation A lymphocyte association with incident diabetes, which was the strongest association among the major white cell types, was partially explained by insulin sensitivity rather than subclinical inflammation. PMID:24141640

Lorenzo, Carlos; Hanley, Anthony J.; Haffner, Steven M.

2014-01-01

194

Counting by 10's with Zero the Hero and Little Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will learn to count to 100 by 10's. The relationship between the numbers 1-10 and 10-100 will be made using the 100's chart followed by a power point story about Little Count the Caterpillar. Students will make their own Little Count the Caterpillar using circle body segments, where each circle represents the numerals 10, 20, 30...

Darbianne Shannon

2012-07-13

195

Protecting count queries in study design  

PubMed Central

Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

2012-01-01

196

Stability of prepared iodine counting standards  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. (Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (US))

1987-05-01

197

Leukocyte count, smoking, and lung function.  

PubMed

The interrelation between leukocyte count, cigarette smoking, and pulmonary function results was examined in two work populations: 1,826 white male workers in a pulp and paper mill and 1,620 white male workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. These workers took part in epidemiologic health studies that consisted of a medical-occupational questionnaire, spirometric measurements, and leukocyte count. Measurements of the air contaminants in the work environment were also carried out simultaneously by personal and area sampling. No significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities was found between the exposed and nonexposed workers in each work population. Similarly, no difference in leukocyte count was found between exposed and nonexposed workers. Leukocyte count was found to be significantly higher among current smokers than nonsmokers and former smokers in each population. In both populations, there was an inverse correlation between leukocyte count and one-second forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity of the workers irrespective of the smoking habit. This finding suggests that the leukocyte response to external stimuli may be another determinant of lung function measurements. PMID:6691359

Yeung, M C; Buncio, A D

1984-01-01

198

Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.  

PubMed

The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

2008-06-01

199

Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity  

SciTech Connect

BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis.

Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.

1986-01-01

200

Dark count rates in the STIS MAMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dark count rates in the STIS MAMA detectors have been monitored. This report covers the period since the Servicing Mission 4 of May 2009. We find both long-term and short-term variations which for the NUV side we express as a function of date and temperature. The NUV dark rate has declined significantly from its surprisingly high initial rate of 0.014 counts/pixel/s that was seen immediately after SM4. By October, 2012 it had dropped to an average value of about 0.002 counts/pixel/sec The behavior and characteristics of the FUV dark rate remain very similar to that seen in 2004, prior to the STIS side-2 failure and subsequent repair.

Cox, Colin

2013-06-01

201

An automated reticulocyte counting method: preliminary observations.  

PubMed

We evaluated the counting of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood with a newly developed flow cytometer type of automated counter that performs a single test within 60 s. The volume of sample needed is 100 microliters and the cells are stained with auramine-O in the counter. The mean within-run reproducibility was 4.66% (CV, n = 50), and dilution of blood gave highly linear results with an r value of 0.996. Correlation was good between manual reticulocyte counts and those performed with the counter (r = 0.893). Samples with large numbers of leucocytes, erythrocytes, or platelets did not interfere with the automated reticulocyte counting, and provided accurate and precise data. PMID:2687609

Tatsumi, N; Tsuda, I; Kojima, K; Niri, M; Setoguchi, K

1989-04-01

202

CERN_DxCTA counting mode chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This ASIC is a counting mode front-end electronic optimized for the readout of CdZnTe/CdTe and silicon sensors, for possible use in applications where the flux of ionizing radiation is high. The chip is implemented in 0.25 ?m CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain shaper stage with 21 ns peaking time, two discriminators and two 18-bit counters. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. The amplifier shows a linear sensitivity of 118 mV/fC and an equivalent noise charge of about 711 e -, for a detector capacitance of 5 pF. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and pixel detectors.

Moraes, D.; Kaplon, J.; Nygard, E.

2008-06-01

203

The platelet count and mean platelet volume.  

PubMed

The Coulter Model S-Plus Counter provides a measure of the platelet count and the mean platelet volume (MPV). An analysis of 5000 unselected blood specimens showed an inverse relationship between the number of circulating platelets and their MPV. In nearly 95% of normal adults the platelet count varied from 150 to 450 X 10(9)/l and the MPV from 7.0 to 10.5 fl. Thrombocytosis was found in iron deficiency anaemia, after trauma and acute blood loss and in rhematoid arthritis. Although there is a normal platelet distribution in pregnancy, patients with pre-eclampsia and uncomplicated hypertension in late pregnancy tended to have lower platelet counts and larger platelets than controls. A variable platelet pattern was found in infection, renal failure and treated malignant disease. PMID:7248189

Giles, C

1981-05-01

204

Nuclear pulse counting apparatus and technique  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear pulse counting experiment, such as typified by the art of x-ray fluorescence employs a multichannel analog to digital converter (adc) which is interfaced with a microprocessor to yield sample/matrix concentration data, as an illustrative example, with a precision which is given by the theoretical nuclear decay statistical limits. In specific regard to x-ray fluorescence analysis, the adc characterizes each pulse or count according to magnitude without conventional backscatter peak gain stabilization. The data is transferred through a buffer to the microprocessor, which scans the higher energy characterizations for maximum count, identifies that characterization as the peak, + or - 1 characterization, and interpolates to develop a refined backscatter peak, stated to at least 1/10 of a characterization, and from which data base all ensuing calculations are predicated.

Kamp, A.J.; Sederlund, E.R.; Thompson, J.W.

1980-10-14

205

Plasma fibrinogen and platelet count in stroke.  

PubMed

Plasma fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated in 30 patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction (CI) three and nine days after the onset of symptoms. Hyperfibrinogenemia (379.4 +/- 80.3 vs 327.3 +/- 48.3 mg/dL of controls, p < 0.005), a reduction of platelet count (207.133 +/- 48.388 vs 288.375 +/- 61.373 x 10(9)/L of controls, p < 0.001), and an inverse correlation (r = -0.41, p < 0.05) between the two parameters were observed on day three. On day nine, platelet counts normalized while plasma fibrinogen levels slightly increased; the inverse correlation no longer occurred. The results suggest that in the earliest phase of stroke plasma fibrinogen levels may condition the extent of platelet accumulation or consumption in the ischemic area. This confirms in vivo that the platelet aggregation process is strictly dependent on fibrinogen concentration. PMID:8409781

D'Erasmo, E; Acca, M; Celi, F S; Medici, F; Palmerini, T; Pisani, D

1993-01-01

206

Self-consistent electron counting statistics.  

PubMed

We develop a self-consistent version of perturbation theory in Liouville space which seeks to combine the advantages of master equation approaches in quantum transport with the nonperturbative features that a self-consistent treatment brings. We describe how counting fields may be included in a self-consistent manner in this formalism such that the full counting statistics can be calculated. Non-Markovian effects are also incorporated. Several different self-consistent approximations are introduced and we discuss their relative strengths with a simple example. PMID:21406841

Emary, Clive

2011-01-19

207

Optical planar waveguide for cell counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

2012-01-01

208

Optical planar waveguide for cell counting.  

PubMed

Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960

Leblanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J

2012-01-23

209

One-count memory circuit prevents machine mode interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One-count memory logic circuit used with electromechanical counter-printer machines operates in either count or print mode. The circuit advances the counter when the machine is in the count mode and provides storage for the count pulse when the machine is in the print mode.

Deforest, B.

1966-01-01

210

Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

Haven, Terry, Ed.

211

WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;…

Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark

212

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book is the fourth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 28 indicators in five areas: (1) family and community; (2) economic well-being, including median household income, poverty rate, and percent of children in families receiving cash…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

213

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examined statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters addressed the areas of: family and community; economic well-being; child health; safety; and education. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income;…

Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; And Others

214

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

215

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic diversity);…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

216

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

217

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

218

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

Johnston, Janet M.

219

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…

Johnston, Janet M.

220

Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Program  

E-print Network

Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Program Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 1998 prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table --------------------------------------------------------------6 Peel Steeles Avenue Screenline ---------------------------------------------------8 Peel-Toronto

Toronto, University of

221

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1995 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While a vast majority of children in Nebraska are experiencing a safe, healthy, and nurturing childhood, a significant number are not, and some of these numbers are growing. This Kids Count report is the third annual comprehensive review of available data in nine areas of child health and well-being in the state. Presented with these statistics…

Nebraska Univ. Medical Center, Omaha.

222

County Data Book 1996: Kentucky Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky children on a state-wide, county, and school district basis. An introductory essay finds a strong link between the percentage of adults completing high school in a given school district and various indicators: As the percentage of adults completing high school increases, the…

Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

223

County Data Book 1995: Kentucky Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book presents findings of the Kids Count project on current conditions faced by Kentucky children age birth through 19. For each county, and for the state, comparisons are provided between the base years of 1980-1982 and the most recent years 1992-1994. Counties are ranked against each other and trend graphs are provided for the studied…

Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

224

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

225

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

2007-01-01

226

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

2009-01-01

227

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

228

Implementing Graduation Counts: State Progress to Date  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information on states' progress in implementing the graduation rate all 50 governors agreed by signing the Graduation Counts Compact in 2005 to adopt. The governors undertook this commitment because they understand the imperative to gather more accurate, comparable data on how many of their students graduate from high school…

National Governors Association, 2006

2006-01-01

229

Weighted power counting and perturbative unitarity  

SciTech Connect

We consider the relationship between renormalizability and unitarity at a Lifshitz point in d dimensions. We test tree unitarity for theories containing only scalars and fermions, and for pure gauge theory. In both cases, we find the requirement of weighted power-counting renormalizability is equivalent to that of tree unitarity.

Albrecht, Dylan [Particle Theory Group, Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

2011-02-15

230

County Data Book 1997: Kentucky Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children on a statewide and county basis. An introduction summarizes some of the trends for Kentucky's children in the 1990s. The bulk of the report presents statewide and county data grouped into five categories: (1) poverty rates and programs (persons in poverty; median…

Kentucky Kids Count Consortium.

231

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

232

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

233

Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…

Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara

234

Kids Count Report in Nebraska, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trend data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 of the report presents U.S. Census data on population trends in Nebraska as well as child poverty rates, and urges Nebraskans to work together to ensure that its youngest citizens have the best start possible. Section 2, the bulk of this…

Johnston, Janet M.

235

Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

236

Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…

Salley, Valerie

237

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

238

Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

239

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

240

Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)…

Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

241

http://tsunami.gov When seconds count...  

E-print Network

http://tsunami.gov When seconds count... TsunamiReady communities are prepared! Schools, playgrounds, hospitals, factories and homes are often built in areas vulnerable to tsunamis. The Tsunami in coastal areas to reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. How can I learn more

242

Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

2010-01-01

243

South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

244

Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

245

KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

Boeke, Kaye

246

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

Cochran, Carole

247

South Dakota KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) low birth…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

248

Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

249

Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

250

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report details statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths, age 1-14 years; (5) teen violent deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (6) juvenile…

Dowshen, Steven, Ed.; Greback, Robert, Ed.; Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Schooley, Teresa L., Ed.; Sturgis, Janice, Ed.

251

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…

Cassatt, Susan

252

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

Bentz, Cara Anderson

253

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

Johnston, Janet M.

254

Modelling bivariate count series with excess zeros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bivariate time series of counts with excess zeros relative to the Poisson process are common in many bioscience applications. Failure to account for the extra zeros in the analysis may result in biased parameter estimates and misleading inferences. A class of bivariate zero-inflated Poisson autoregression models is presented to accommodate the zero-inflation and the inherent serial dependency between successive observations.

Andy H. Lee; Kui Wang; Kelvin K. W. Yau; Philip J. W. Carrivick; Mark R. Stevenson

2005-01-01

255

Numbers, Counting, and Infinity in Middle Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of middle-school students' natural understanding of large numbers to introduce the concept of infinity. Presents activities that investigate infinite sets by demonstrating a one-to-one correspondence between the counting numbers and the given set. Examples include prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, fractions, even and odd numbers,…

Meconi, L. J.

1992-01-01

256

Ptime Canonization for Two Variables with Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider infinitary logic with two variable symbolsand counting quantifiers, C2, and its intersectionwith Ptime on finite relational structures. In particularwe exhibit a Ptime canonization procedure forfinite relational structures which provides unique representativesup to equivalence in C2. As a consequencewe obtain a recursive presentation for the class of allthose queries on arbitrary finite relational structureswhich are both Ptime and definable

Martin Otto; RWTH Aachen

1995-01-01

257

Approximate Frequency Counts over Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present algorithms for computing frequency counts exceeding a user-specified threshold over data streams. Our algorithms are simple and have provably small memory footprints. Although the output is approximate, the error is guaranteed not to exceed a user-specified parameter. Our algo- rithms can easily be deployed for streams of single- ton items like those found in IP network monitor- ing.

Gurmeet Singh Manku; Rajeev Motwani

2002-01-01

258

WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what…

Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan

259

All Our Children: Massachusetts Kids Count 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends from 1990 to 1994 in the well-being of Massachusetts' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being in five areas: (1) economic well-being of children and their families, including child poverty rate, family income, job loss, earnings of male high school dropouts and…

Diamond, Franna, Ed.

260

Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching Assistants (Rhea R.…

Education Week, 2007

2007-01-01

261

Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

1991-01-01

262

Modified rainflow counting keeping the load sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for performing rainflow cycle counting that enables a correct translation of the load sequence into damaging events is presented. By that, fatigue damage accumulation can be carried out more accurately if models are used which consider load sequence effects. A flow chart is presented to enable integration of the algorithm into a fatigue crack growth model.

R. J. Anthes

1997-01-01

263

KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

264

Function point counting: one program's experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent software development program implemented as a series of overlapping increments in a new development environment provided both the need and opportunity to evaluate several estimating methods for use in project planning. Several estimating methods including variants of function point counting were evaluated during this project. The project structure allowed evaluation of these methods in practice. The function point

George Orr; Thomas E. Reeves

2000-01-01

265

Weighted Power Counting and Perturbative Unitarity  

E-print Network

We consider the relationship between renormalizability and unitarity at a Lifshitz point in d dimensions. We test tree unitarity for theories containing only scalars and fermions, and for pure gauge theory. In both cases, we find the requirement of weighted power-counting renormalizability is equivalent to that of tree unitarity.

Dylan Albrecht

2011-02-28

266

Kids Count in Nebraska 1996 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Nebraska's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven general areas of children's well-being: (1) early care and education; (2) physical and behavioral health; (3) child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence; (4) out of home care; (5) education; (6) economic…

Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

267

Full Counting Statistics of Spin Currents  

E-print Network

We discuss how to detect fluctuating spin currents and derive full counting statistics of electron spin transfers. It is interesting to consider several detectors in series that simultaneously monitor different components of the spins transferred. We have found that in general the statistics of the measurement outcomes cannot be explained with the projection postulate and essentially depends on the quantum dynamics of the detectors.

Antonio Di Lorenzo; Yuli V. Nazarov

2003-12-01

268

Make Every Drop Count In Your Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Nebraska - Lincoln Extension, presents this site which outlines the steps to take in order to make "every drop of water count in your home." Focusing on everyday things such as toilets, showers, faucets and washing machines, the site is applicable to a very general audience. Overall, this is introductory material which quickly shows easy ways to conserve water.

269

Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…

Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

270

Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune-  

E-print Network

Chapter 26 Comparing Counts WHO Executives of Fortune- 400 Companies WHAT Zodiac birth sign WH Y Curiosity? 504 - D oes your zodiac sign determine how successful you will be in later life? Fortune magazine collected the zodiac signs of 256 heads of the largest 400 companies. Here are the number of births for each

Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna

271

KidsCount in Colorado! 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…

Vasquez, Jenifer

272

Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…

Davey, Lynn

273

South Carolina Kids Count Report, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines trends in the status of South Carolina children on a state-wide and county basis. The statistical portrait is based on 32 indicators of well-being, grouped into 6 categories: (1) family (family characteristics, child neglect/abuse); (2) economic status (poverty, mean family income); (3) health (prenatal care,…

South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

274

Kids Count in Indiana: 1995 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the second in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. After an introduction and an explanation of the statistics, sections of the statistical report contain data on several indicators of well-being: (1) Indiana's children and their families, including population estimates, ethnicity,…

Erickson, Judith B.

275

[Count rate characteristics and count loss correction of Positologica II: a whole body positron emission tomograph].  

PubMed

This paper describes evaluation and correction of count rate characteristics of POSITOLOGICA II, a multi-slice whole body positron emission tomography system. The present study was performed using three phantoms; a 5 cm inner diameter, water-filled lucite cylinder, a 20 cm inner diameter, water-filled lucite cylinder and a chest phantom. After injection of high activity (about 1.85 GBq (50 mCi] of 13N ammonia into each phantom, rates of true coincidence, random coincidence and single photon detections were measured during decay of the isotope through more than two orders of magnitude of activity. At very high levels of activity, count rate characteristics of the system were saturated and limited to 660 kcps of total coincidence rate, which was the sum of rates in on-time and off-time windows, by the FIFO (first-in first-out) output frequency. Below those levels of activity the relationship between count loss and true coincidence rate was not unique but depended on the phantom configurations, suggesting that count loss correction using the above relationship was inadequate for quantitative study. However, the relationship between count loss and single rate was almost independent of the phantom configurations. Thus in conclusion count loss could be corrected using single rate for POSITOLOGICA II. A practical method of count loss correction was also proposed. PMID:3497411

Endo, M; Nohara, N; Iinuma, T A; Shinoto, H; Tanaka, E; Yoshida, K; Himi, T; Kagaya, A; Ogushi, A; Inoue, S

1987-05-01

276

Photon-counting-based dust monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the dust monitors are based on optical principle: the scattered light intensity is registered. The classical approach is using the multiple photon optical signal intensity and processing. Single photon detection -- photon counting is exploited in Satellite Laser Ranging and was implemented in space born application for Mars Surveyor Program 98, as well. The main advantage of single photon detection is an extreme sensitivity, the entire digital approach, no analog signal is treated. All the light intensity information is acquired on the basis of statistical data treatment. The dust detector consists of the LED diode based transmitter, single photon solid state diode detector and the digital data processing unit. The light beam from the LED diode passing the dust column is detected in a photo detector. The detector employs the avalanche Silicon photodiode 40 micrometers diameter active area and is operated in a passive gating and active quenching mode above its breakdown voltage. The detector provides uniform digital pulses, one for each photon detected. The light intensity measurement is converted into the photon flux counting -- frequency or event counting. The microcomputer controlled data processing electronics counts the detector output pulses, accounts for detector dark count rate, calibration constants, and computes the corresponding dust concentration averaged over desired period. The second LED located close to the detector is used as a reference light source to eliminate the temperature, aging and sensor contamination influence. The laboratory measurements show the long term and temperature stability of the scale within 1%. The setup was tested at the cement plant smoke stack and compared to the commercial optical dust concentration monitor operating on analog multiphoton principle. Due to an extreme optical sensitivity of the photon counting detector, the energy balance is favorable to realize lightweight equipment by a factor of ten in comparison to analogue-based device. The photon counting principle along with the self-calibration setup does not require re-calibration. The optical apertures involved are of the order of millimeters what reduces the problems of contamination of the device by the dust monitored. As no collimating optics is used, the no optical alignment is required.

Hamal, Karel; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Eslerova, Iva; Sopko, Bruno; Pasta, Armin

1999-05-01

277

A New Prognostic Score for Elderly Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP: The Prognostic Role of Blood Monocyte and Lymphocyte Counts Is Absent  

PubMed Central

Background Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) have been documented as independent predictors of survival in patients with newly diagnosed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Analysis of the prognostic impact of ALC and AMC in the context of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and other significant variables in elderly population treated in the R-CHOP regime has not been carried out yet. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective study, a cohort of 443 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients with age ?60 was analyzed. All patients were treated with the R-CHOP therapy. An extensive statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors of 3-year overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, only three predictors proved significant: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG), age and bulky disease presence. These predictors were dichotomized (ECOG ?1, age ?70, bulk ?7.5) to create a novel four-level score. This score predicted 3-year OS of 94.0%, 77.4%, 62.7% and 35.4% in the low-, low-intermediate, high-intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively (P<0.001). Further, a three-level score was tested which stratifies the population better (3-year OS: 91.9%, 67.2%, 36.2% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively) but is more difficult to interpret. Both the 3- and 4-level scores were compared to standard scoring systems and, in our population, were shown to be superior in terms of patients risk stratification with respect to 3-year OS prediction. The results were successfully validated on an independent cohort of 162 patients of similar group characteristics. Conclusions The prognostic role of baseline ALC, AMC or their ratio (LMR) was not confirmed in the multivariate context in elderly population with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. The newly proposed age-specific index stratifies the elderly population into risk groups more precisely than the conventional IPI and its existing variants. PMID:25058337

Procházka, Vít; Pytlík, Robert; Janíková, Andrea; Belada, David; Šálek, David; Papajík, Tomáš; Campr, Vít; Fürst, Tomáš; Furstova, Jana; Trn?ný, Marek

2014-01-01

278

The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model  

PubMed Central

Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of ?-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to ?-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (?-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435

Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, X. Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Kennedy, Ann R.

2014-01-01

279

Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.  

PubMed

A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity. PMID:25627949

Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

2015-03-01

280

Counting the exponents of single transfer matrices  

E-print Network

The eigenvalue equation of a band or a block tridiagonal matrix, the tight binding model for a crystal, a molecule, or a particle in a lattice with random potential or hopping amplitudes: these and other problems lead to three-term recursive relations for (multicomponent) amplitudes. Amplitudes n steps apart are linearly related by a transfer matrix, which is the product of n matrices. Its exponents describe the decay lengths of the amplitudes. A formula is obtained for the counting function of the exponents, based on a duality relation and the Argument Principle for the zeros of analytic functions. It involves the corner blocks of the inverse of the associated Hamiltonian matrix. As an illustration, numerical evaluations of the counting function of quasi 1D Anderson model are shown.

Luca Guido Molinari; Giuseppe Lacagnina

2011-02-08

281

Time to reset the great count  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have come to a similar conclusion as Emiliani [1994] in one main point: that marking time from the event of Christ's birth has no significance for many of the world's cultures; indeed, the ubiquitous spread of the common era count is a common error [Volk, 1995]. Thus perhaps Agnew [1994], who believes that “Emiliani is the only person who has trouble with our calendar,” should talk to some Buddhists or Muslims. Agnew, however, does damage Emiliani's proposed solution (to start a new great count at the beginning of the Holocene by establishing the birth of Christ at the year 10,000), which Agnew points out is too arbitrary. And, I might add, Emiliani's suggestion continues the essential cultural error—Christ's birth is now merely offset by a power of ten. This was also noted by Schaffer [1994].

Volk, Tyler

282

How fast can quantum annealers count?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We outline an algorithm for the quantum counting problem using adiabatic quantum computation (AQC). We show that the mechanism of quantum-adiabatic evolution may be utilized toward estimating the number of solutions to a problem, and not only to find them. Using local adiabatic evolution, a process in which the adiabatic procedure is performed at a variable rate, the problem of counting the number of marked items in an unstructured database is solved quadratically faster than the corresponding classical algorithm. The above algorithm provides further evidence for the potentially powerful capabilities of AQC as a paradigm for more efficient problem solving on a quantum computer, and may be used as the basis for solving more sophisticated problems.

Hen, Itay

2014-06-01

283

Count Your Lucky Stars: Sampling in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about sampling specifically in astronomy. Learners will make a sampling window in order to estimate the number of stars in the sky visible to the unaided eye. After, they will discuss how to estimate the effect of different variables on their counts, such as sky brightness, dark adaptation, cloud cover, etc. Please note use of a clear night sky is optimal for this activity.

284

Count Population Profiles in Engineering Anomalies Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four technically and conceptually distinct experiments—a ran- dom binary generator driven by a microelectronic noise diode; a determin- istic pseudorandom generator; a large-scale random mechanical cascade; and a digitized remote perception protocol—display strikingly similar pat- terns of count deviations from their corresponding chance distributions. Specifically, each conforms to a statistical linear regression of the form dn\\/n = d(x - µ),

ROBERT G. JAHN; YORK H. DOBYNS; BRENDA J. DUNNE

2007-01-01

285

Counting Irreducible Components of Complex Algebraic Varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for counting the irreducible com- ponents of a complex algebraic variety defined by a fixed number of polynomials encoded as straight-line programs (slps). It runs in poly- nomial time in the Blum-Shub-Smale (BSS) model and in randomized parallel polylogarithmic time in the Turing model, both measured in the lengths and degrees of the slps. Our algorithm

Peter Bürgisser; Peter Scheiblechner

2010-01-01

286

LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING OF NICKEL63  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid scintillation systems based on gels, ether, and toluene are ; investigated for counting nickel-63. A nickel complex of n-caproic acid ; dissolved in a solution of toluene containing 1,4-bis(2-(5-phenloxazolyl)-; benzene(POPOP) and 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) is found to be prefterable with ; respect to reproducibility, ease of preparation, and interpretation. The ; addition of a small quantity of ethyl alcohol produces

C. E. Gleit; J. Dumot

1961-01-01

287

Method of detecting and counting bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (inventors)

1976-01-01

288

Surface viable counts with nichrome wire loops.  

PubMed

A surface viable counting method is described making use of a nichrome wire loop having an external diameter 5 mm, which is streaked on an overdried plate. The loop holds 1/35 ml (0.02857 ml) peptone water. When tried in parallel with pipettes that delivered 1/50 ml (0.02 ml) drops, it gave reproducible results not at all inferior to those obtained with 50-dropping pipettes. PMID:4610009

Khairat, O

1974-10-01

289

Properties of quantum trajectories for counting measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a simple derivation of a class of norm-preserving stochastic Schrödinger equations describing continuous counting measurements. The general solution of this class of equations is constructed. Three techniques are developed for estimating the number of trajectories required to recover the density operator and ensemble operator averages. We show that a generalized form of Carmichael's quantum trajectories gives equivalent results under appropriate conditions.

Nielsen, M. A.

1996-02-01

290

Low-background counting systems compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of special low-background germanium counting systems used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory will be presented. These vary from specially modified instruments in the laboratory to low-cosmic-exposure detectors operated deep underground. The underground detectors have copper cryostats completely electroformed from low-background copper. Electroforming is a process analogous to zone refining in its ability to remove chemical impurities. Shielding techniques

H. S. Miley; R. L. Brodzinski; J. H. Reeves

1992-01-01

291

Low-background counting systems compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of special low-background germanium counting systems used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory will be presented. These vary from specially modified instruments in the laboratory to low-cosmic-exposure detectors operated deep underground. The underground detectors have copper cryostats completely electroformed from low-background copper. Electroforming is a process analogous to zone refining in its ability to remove chemical impurities. Shielding techniques

H. S. Miley; R. L. Brodzinski; J. H. Reeves

1991-01-01

292

Relationship between platelet count and hemodialysis membranes  

PubMed Central

Background One factor associated with poor outcomes in hemodialysis patients is exposure to a foreign membrane. Older membranes are very bioincompatible and increase complement activation, cause leukocytosis by activating circulating factors, which sequesters leukocytes in the lungs, and activates platelets. Recently, newer membranes have been developed that were designed to be more biocompatible. We tested if the different “optiflux” hemodialysis membranes had different effects on platelet levels. Methods Ninety-nine maintenance hemodialysis patients with no known systemic or hematologic diseases affecting their platelets had blood drawn immediately prior to, 90 minutes into, and immediately following their first hemodialysis session of the week. All patients were dialyzed using a Fresenius Medical Care Optiflux polysulfone membrane F160, F180, or F200 (polysulfone synthetic dialyzer membranes, 1.6 m2, 1.8 m2, and 2.0 m2 surface area, respectively, electron beam sterilized). Platelet counts were measured from each sample by analysis using a CBC analyzer. Results The average age of the patients was 62.7 years; 36 were female and 63 were male. The mean platelet count pre, mid, and post dialysis was 193 (standard deviation ±74.86), 191 (standard deviation ±74.67), and 197 (standard deviation ±79.34) thousand/mm3, respectively, with no statistical differences. Conclusion Newer membranes have no significant effect on platelet count. This suggests that they are, in fact, more biocompatible than their predecessors and may explain their association with increased survival. PMID:23983482

Nasr, Rabih; Saifan, Chadi; Barakat, Iskandar; Azzi, Yorg Al; Naboush, Ali; Saad, Marc; Sayegh, Suzanne El

2013-01-01

293

Duplication count distributions in DNA sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantitative features of complex repetitive DNA in several genomes by studying sequences that are sufficiently long that they are unlikely to have repeated by chance. For each genome we study, we determine the number of identical copies, the “duplication count,” of each sequence of length 40, that is of each “40-mer.” We say a 40-mer is “repeated” if its duplication count is at least 2. We focus mainly on “complex” 40-mers, those without short internal repetitions. We find that we can classify most of the complex repeated 40-mers into two categories: one category has its copies clustered closely together on one chromosome, the other has its copies distributed widely across multiple chromosomes. For each genome and each of the categories above, we compute N(c) , the number of 40-mers that have duplication count c , for each integer c . In each case, we observe a power-law-like decay in N(c) as c increases from 3 to 50 or higher. In particular, we find that N(c) decays much more slowly than would be predicted by evolutionary models where each 40-mer is equally likely to be duplicated. We also analyze an evolutionary model that does reflect the slow decay of N(c) .

Sindi, Suzanne S.; Hunt, Brian R.; Yorke, James A.

2008-12-01

294

33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. 159...and Testing § 159.127 Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. ...recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters....

2010-07-01

295

77 FR 65091 - National Character Counts Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8891--National Character Counts Week, 2012 Proclamation 8892--National Forest Products Week, 2012 Presidential Documents Federal Register...October 19, 2012 National Character Counts Week, 2012 By the President of the United...

2012-10-24

296

Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis  

E-print Network

Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, ...

Pisania, Anna

297

Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms  

SciTech Connect

New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

1981-06-01

298

A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness  

PubMed Central

Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. PMID:25386148

Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.

2014-01-01

299

Radio Source Counts and Redshifts in Steady State Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE appears to be continuing confusion as to whether or not counts of extragalactic radio sources are compatible with the steady state theory. Ryle and Clarke1 found considerable discrepancies between the observed counts and those predicted on the basis of steady state. Hoyle2 argues that the source counts are in agreement with the steady state theory except for a deficiency

M. Schmidt

1972-01-01

300

Zero-inflated models with application to spatial count data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Count data arises in many contexts. Here our concern is with spatial count data which exhibit an excessive number of zeros. Using the class of zero-inflated count models provides a flexible way to address this problem. Available covariate information suggests formulation of such modeling within a regression framework. We employ zero-inflated Poisson regression models. Spatial association is introduced through suitable

Deepak K. Agarwal; Alan E. Gelfand; Steven Citron-Pousty

2002-01-01

301

On Set Partitions, Words, Approximate Counting and Digital Search Trees  

E-print Network

On Set Partitions, Words, Approximate Counting and Digital Search Trees (joint with Chung-Kuei Lee, Taiwan Changsha, June 28, 2013 Michael Fuchs (NCTU) Words, Approximate Counting, DSTs Changsha, China 1} with three blocks. Michael Fuchs (NCTU) Words, Approximate Counting, DSTs Changsha, China 2 / 32 #12;Set

Fuchs, Michael

302

Rainflow Counting and Energy Dissipation for Hysteresis Models in Elastoplasticity  

E-print Network

Rainflow Counting and Energy Dissipation for Hysteresis Models in Elastoplasticity Martin Brokate Republic Abstract The rainflow counting method is widely used in the context of fatigue analy- sis for some remarks, we exclusively deal with the uniaxial case. Running title. Rainflow Counting and Energy

Krejcí, Pavel

303

75 FR 64615 - National Character Counts Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...October 15, 2010 National Character Counts Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect upon the values of equality...commitment. During National Character Counts Week, let us take this opportunity to...

2010-10-20

304

High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories.  

PubMed

The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-? ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A) Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B) SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV) for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators. PMID:25585297

Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y; Ansari, Tameem; BenHamouda, Nadine; Gottwein, Judith; Laxmanan, Sreenivas; Levine, Steven M; Loffredo, John T; McArdle, Stephanie; Neudoerfl, Christine; Roen, Diana; Silina, Karina; Welch, Mackenzie; Lehmann, Paul V

2015-01-01

305

Help! They Still Don't Understand Counting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has revealed new information about how preschoolers develop an understanding of counting, and offers exciting new strategies for teaching. These new strategies encourage children to problem solve and use reasoning to understand quantities and how counting works rather than simply providing them practice with counting procedures.…

Sadler, Faith H.

2009-01-01

306

COUNTS OF RED-TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED  

E-print Network

455: COUNTS OF RED-TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM F. Pautzke, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director COUNTS OF RED-TIDE Acknowledgment 4 Literature cited 5 Explanation of column headings 7 Station data 7 iii #12;#12;COUNTS OF RED-TIDE

307

Not everything that counts can be counted: ants use multiple metrics for a single nest trait  

PubMed Central

There are claims in the literature that certain insects can count. We question the generality of these claims and suggest that summation rather than counting (sensu stricto) is a more likely explanation. We show that Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies can discriminate between potential nest sites with different numbers of entrances. However, our experiments suggest that the ants use ambient light levels within the nest cavity to assess the abundance of nest entrances rather than counting per se. Intriguingly, Weber's Law cannot explain the ants' inaccuracy. The ants also use a second metric, independent of light, to assess and discriminate against wide entrances. Thus, these ants use at least two metrics to evaluate one nest trait: the configuration of the portals to their potential homes. PMID:16555783

Franks, Nigel R; Dornhaus, Anna; Metherell, Bonnie G; Nelson, Toby R; Lanfear, Sophie A.J; Symes, William S

2005-01-01

308

Robust small area prediction for counts.  

PubMed

A new semiparametric approach to model-based small area prediction for counts is proposed and used for estimating the average number of visits to physicians for Health Districts in Central Italy. The proposed small area predictor can be viewed as an outlier robust alternative to the more commonly used empirical plug-in predictor that is based on a Poisson generalized linear mixed model with Gaussian random effects. Results from the real data application and from a simulation experiment confirm that the proposed small area predictor has good robustness properties and in some cases can be more efficient than alternative small area approaches. PMID:24492792

Tzavidis, Nikos; Ranalli, M Giovanna; Salvati, Nicola; Dreassi, Emanuela; Chambers, Ray

2014-02-01

309

3.MD The Square Counting Shortcut  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Imagine that each square in the picture measures one centimeter on each side. What is the area of each letter? Try to work it out without counting each...

310

Resources for the UTK Numbers Count Workshop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These workshop resources were prepared for faculty interested in addressing the gap between mathematics and its application in biological problem solving. To support the observation, experimentation and modeling of data, the Numbers Count workshop provides an introduction to data, tools, and curricular materials for use with undergraduates. We also addressed the lack of context that impedes student learningâ??students rightfully ask themselves why should they need to integrate arcsin x if they want to become a physician? This event was held at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville in May 2009.

Claudia Neuhauser (University of Minnesota Rochester; Health Sciences)

2009-05-07

311

Counting Trees in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

We study the supersymmetric ground states of the Kronecker model of quiver quantum mechanics. This is the simplest quiver with two gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, and appears universally in four-dimensional N=2 systems. The ground state degeneracy may be written as a multi-dimensional contour integral, and the enumeration of poles can be simply phrased as counting bipartite trees. We solve this combinatorics problem, thereby obtaining exact formulas for the degeneracies of an infinite class of models. We also develop an algorithm to compute the angular momentum of the ground states, and present explicit expressions for the refined indices of theories where one rank is small.

Cordova, Clay

2015-01-01

312

Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of {sup 235}U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. We have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, {sup 235 }U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.

1991-01-01

313

Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of {sup 235}U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. The authors have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, {sup 235}U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling.

Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1991-01-01

314

Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions  

E-print Network

We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of $N$ radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from $N$ to $N^2$ in the current and even higher powers of $N$ in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source.

Malte Vogl; Gernot Schaller; Tobias Brandes

2011-07-28

315

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15 to 17 years; (2) births to teens 15 to 19 years; (3) low birth weight babies;…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

316

Low-Background Counting at Homestake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

Marshall, Iseley

2009-10-01

317

Fixation, counting, and manipulation of heterotrophic nanoflagellates.  

PubMed

Quantitative effects of several fixatives on heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN) and phototrophic nanoflagellates (PNAN) were investigated by hemacytometer and epifluorescence counting techniques. Counts of Monas sp. cultures before and after fixation with unbuffered 0.3% glutaraldehyde and 5% formaldehyde showed no loss of cells during fixation, and cell concentrations remained constant for several weeks after fixation. Buffering of fixatives with borax caused severe losses, up to 100% within 2 h. Field samples from Lake Vechten showed no decline of HNAN and total nanoflagellate concentrations for at least 1 week after fixation with 5% formaldehyde and with 1% glutaraldehyde. With 1% glutaraldehyde, the chlorophyll autofluorescence of PNAN was much brighter than with 5% formaldehyde, although it was lost after a few days and thus limited the storage time of samples. However, when primulin-stained slides were prepared soon after fixation and stored at -30 degrees C, the loss of autofluorescence was prevented and PNAN and HNAN concentrations were stable for at least 16 weeks. Effects of filtration and centrifugation on HNAN were also studied. Filtration vacuum could not exceed 3 kPa since 10 kPa already caused losses of 15 to 20%. Similar losses were caused by centrifugation, even at low speed (500 x g). PMID:16347232

Bloem, J; Bär-Gilissen, M J; Cappenberg, T E

1986-12-01

318

Analysis of Parasite and Other Skewed Counts  

PubMed Central

Objective To review methods for the statistical analysis of parasite and other skewed count data. Methods Statistical methods for skewed count data are described and compared, with reference to those used over a ten year period of Tropical Medicine and International Health. Two parasitological datasets are used for illustration. Results Ninety papers were identified, 89 with descriptive and 60 with inferential analysis. A lack of clarity is noted in identifying measures of location, in particular the Williams and geometric mean. The different measures are compared, emphasizing the legitimacy of the arithmetic mean for skewed data. In the published papers, the t test and related methods were often used on untransformed data, which is likely to be invalid. Several approaches to inferential analysis are described, emphasizing 1) non-parametric methods, while noting that they are not simply comparisons of medians, and 2) generalized linear modelling, in particular with the negative binomial distribution. Additional methods, such as the bootstrap, with potential for greater use are described. Conclusions Clarity is recommended when describing transformations and measures of location. It is suggested that non-parametric methods and generalized linear models are likely to be sufficient for most analyses. PMID:22943299

Alexander, Neal

2012-01-01

319

Absolute counting of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) has provided 188Re radiopharmaceuticals for hospitals in Taiwan. To enhance the accuracy of commercial radionuclide calibrators used by radiopharmacies and hospitals, and to ensure that patients receive proper doses of these radiopharmaceuticals, it is very important to standardize this nuclide. The 4pibeta-gamma coincidence counting method was used to standardize the mass activities of 188Re in this study. At the same time, three well type ionization chambers, Centronic IG11-N20, Centronic IG11-A20, and ISOCAL-IV, were calibrated by the standardized solutions of the nuclide. In this research, the calibration figures of ISOCAL-IV for the nuclide were consistent with the results of National Physical Laboratory (NPL, UK). The outcome implied that the results of coincidence counting did mutually agree. On the other hand, the radionuclide calibrator in the radiopharmacy was producing measurement errors of about 20% when using the manufacturers recommended calibration setting: an accurate correction factor has now been determined in this study. PMID:16556500

Yuan, Ming-Chen; Pang, Hsiao-Fang; Wang, Chu-Fang

2006-01-01

320

Language and counting: Some recent results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been recognised that the language of mathematics is an important variable in the learning of mathematics, and there has been useful work in isolating and describing the linkage. Steffe and his co-workers at Georgia, for example, (Steffe, von Glasersfeld, Richardson and Cobb, 1983) have suggested that young children may construct verbal countable items to count objects which are hidden from their view. Although there has been a surge of research interest in counting and early childhood mathematics, and in cultural differences in mathematics attainment, there has been little work reported on the linkage between culture as exemplified by language, and initial concepts of numeration. This paper reports on some recent clinical research with kindergarten children of European and Asian background in Australia and America. The research examines the influence that number naming grammar appears to have on young children's understandings of two-digit numbers and place value. It appears that Transparent Standard Number Word Sequences such as Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese which follow the numerical representation pattern by naming tens and units in order ("two tens three"), may be associated with distinctive place value concepts which may support sophisticated mental algorithms.

Bell, Garry

1990-02-01

321

High-order counting statistics and interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full counting statistics concerns the stochastic transport of electrons in mesoscopic structures [1]. Recently it has been shown that the charge transport statistics for noninteracting electrons in a two-terminal system is always generalized binomial: it can be decomposed into independent single-particle events, and the zeros of the generating function are real and negative [2]. In this talk I show how the zeros of the generating function move into the complex plane due to interactions and demonstrate how the positions of the zeros can be detected using high-order factorial cumulants [3]. As an illustrative example I discuss electron transport through a Coulomb blockade quantum dot for which the interactions on the quantum dot are clearly visible in the high-order factorial cumulants. These findings are important for understanding the influence of interactions on counting statistics, and the characterization in terms of zeros of the generating function provides a simple interpretation of recent experiments, where high-order statistics have been measured [4]. [4pt] [1] Yu. V. Nazarov, ed., Quantum Noise in Mesoscopic Physics, NATO Science Series, Vol. 97 (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2003) [2] A. G. Abanov and D. A. Ivanov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 086602 (2008), Phys. Rev. B 79, 205315 (2009) [3] D. Kambly, C. Flindt, and M. B"uttiker, Phys. Rev. B 83, 075432 (2011) -- Editors' Suggestion [4] C. Flindt, C. Fricke, F. Hohls, T. Novotn'y, K. Netocn'y, T. Brandes, and R. J. Haug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10116 (2009)

Flindt, Christian

2012-02-01

322

Martian crater counts on Elysium Mons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Without returned samples from the Martian surface, relative age chronologies and stratigraphic relationships provide the best information for determining the ages of geomorphic features and surface regions. Crater-size frequency distributions of six recently mapped geological units of Elysium Mons were measured to establish their relative ages. Most of the craters on Elysium Mons and the adjacent plains units are between 500 and 1000 meters in diameter. However, only craters 1 km in diameter or larger were used because of inadequate spatial resolution of some of the Viking images and to reduce probability of counting secondary craters. The six geologic units include all of the Elysium Mons construct and a portion of the plains units west of the volcano. The surface area of the units studied is approximately 128,000 sq km. Four of the geologic units were used to create crater distribution curves. There are no craters larger than 1 km within the Elysium Mons caldera. Craters that lacked raised rims, were irregularly shaped, or were arranged in a linear pattern were assumed to be endogenic in origin and not counted. A crater frequency distribution analysis is presented.

Mcbride, Kathleen; Barlow, Nadine G.

1990-01-01

323

Quality Counts 2002: Building Blocks for Success  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year's Quality Counts report (last mentioned in the January 12, 2001 Scout Report) focuses on the importance of high quality learning experiences for children prior to their K-12 school years. The benefits of offering quality education at this early point can be substantial; children perform with better cognitive skills during later educational stages. Not simply an endorsement of improved standards and programs, the report outlines the current state of affairs with supporting statistics and documentation for each state and the District of Columbia. The report examines tangible issues such as adequate pay for educators, evaluation criteria and measurement tools, and each state's "commitment to Kindergarten." The format of this report is much enhanced from prior publications. An Interactive data search, Excel and .pdf data tables, Web-only testing data (e.g., the table "Grade-by-Grade Testing Policies" is available online only), and inclusion of "new indicators of several school-quality categories" are all new features with the 2002 report. This report, as are all the Quality Counts Reports from Education Week and the Pew Charitable Trusts, is a thoughtful read for anyone concerned with education.

324

It's not the pixel count, you fool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

Kriss, Michael A.

2012-01-01

325

Automated Counting of Particles To Quantify Cleanliness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A machine vision system, similar to systems used in microbiological laboratories to count cultured microbes, has been proposed for quantifying the cleanliness of nominally precisely cleaned hardware by counting residual contaminant particles. The system would include a microscope equipped with an electronic camera and circuitry to digitize the camera output, a personal computer programmed with machine-vision and interface software, and digital storage media. A filter pad, through which had been aspirated solvent from rinsing the hardware in question, would be placed on the microscope stage. A high-resolution image of the filter pad would be recorded. The computer would analyze the image and present a histogram of sizes of particles on the filter. On the basis of the histogram and a measure of the desired level of cleanliness, the hardware would be accepted or rejected. If the hardware were accepted, the image would be saved, along with other information, as a quality record. If the hardware were rejected, the histogram and ancillary information would be recorded for analysis of trends. The software would perceive particles that are too large or too numerous to meet a specified particle-distribution profile. Anomalous particles or fibrous material would be flagged for inspection.

Rhode, James

2005-01-01

326

Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1-bit comparator, which digitizes the input referenced to an adjustable threshold value. This results in four independent serial sample streams of binary 1s and 0s, which are ORed together at rates up to 10 GHz. This single serial stream is then deserialized by a factor of 16 to create 16 signal lines at a rate of 622.5 MHz or lower for input to a high-speed digital processor assembly. The new design and corresponding hardware can be employed with a quad-photon counting detector capable of handling photon rates on the order of multi-gigaphotons per second, whereas prior art was only capable of handling a single input at 1/4 the flux rate. Additionally, the hardware edge-detection algorithm has provided the ability to process 3-10 higher photon flux rates than previously possible by removing the limitation that photoncounting detector output pulses on multiple channels being ORed not overlap. Now, only the leading edges of the pulses are required to not overlap. This new photon counting digitizer hardware architecture supports a universal front end for an optical communications receiver operating at data rates from kilobits to over one gigabit per second to meet increased mission data volume requirements.

Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

2010-01-01

327

Make Kids Count in '99: Hawai'i Kids Count 1999 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator findings and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, family formation, births to teens, children in single-parent families, children…

Hartsock, Marcia

328

Direction Counts: A Comparative Study of Spatially Directional Counting Biases in Cultures with Different Reading Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear…

Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.

2012-01-01

329

Effects of Perceptually Rich Manipulatives on Preschoolers' Counting Performance: Established Knowledge Counts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators often use concrete objects to help children understand mathematics concepts. However, findings on the effectiveness of concrete objects are mixed. The present study examined how two factors--perceptual richness and established knowledge of the objects--combine to influence children's counting performance. In two experiments, preschoolers…

Petersen, Lori A.; McNeil, Nicole M.

2013-01-01

330

Galaxy number counts - V. Ultra-deep counts: The Herschel and Hubble Deep Fields  

E-print Network

We present u,b,r & i galaxy number counts and colours both from the North and South Hubble Space Telescope Deep Fields and from the William Herschel Deep Field. The latter comprises a 7'x7' area of sky reaching b~28.5 at its deepest. We show that simple Bruzual & Charlot evolutionary models which assume exponentially increasing star-formation rates with look-back time and q_0=0.05 continue to give excellent fits to galaxy counts and colours in the deep imaging data. With q_0=0.5, an extra population of `disappearing dwarf' galaxies is required to fit the optical counts. When we compare the observed and predicted galaxy counts for UV dropouts in the range 2

N. Metcalfe; T. Shanks; A. Campos; H. J. McCracken; R. Fong

2000-10-07

331

Make Kids Count in '96: Hawai'i Kids Count 1996 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT statistical report is the second to examine indicators of children's well-being in Hawaii. The bulk of the report is comprised of the indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and…

Hawaii Kids Count, Honolulu.

332

Make Kids Count in '97: Hawai'i Kids Count 1997 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the third to examine statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and…

Hartsock, Marcia; Davidson, Dana; Greenfield, Theresa; Grogan, Beverley

333

Make Kids Count in '95: Hawai'i Kids Count 1995 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT statistical report is the first to examine indicators of children's well-being in Hawaii. The bulk of the report is comprised of the indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and children…

Hawaii Kids Count, Honolulu.

334

Full counting statistics of crossed Andreev reflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the full transport counting statistics in a three-terminal tunnel device with one superconducting source and two normal-metal or ferromagnet drains. We obtain the transport probability distribution from direct Andreev reflection, crossed Andreev reflection, and electron transfer which reveals how these processes’ statistics are determined by the device conductances. The cross-correlation noise is a result of competing contributions from crossed Andreev reflection and electron transfer, as well as antibunching due to the Pauli exclusion principle. For spin-active tunnel barriers that spin polarize the electron flow, crossed Andreev reflection and electron transfer statistics exhibit different dependencies on the magnetization configuration and can be controlled by relative magnetization directions and voltage bias.

Morten, Jan Petter; Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Belzig, Wolfgang; Brataas, Arne

2008-12-01

335

Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

1998-11-01

336

A particle counting EM calorimeter using MAPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of full size MAPS sensors makes it possible to construct a calorimeter with pixelsize of a few tens of micrometers. This would be small enough to count individual shower particles and would allow a shower shape analysis on an unprecedented, small scale. Interesting features would be tracking capability for particle flow algorithms and a superior discrimination of single photons from neutral and charged pions at high momenta. A small Molière radius together with high transverse resolution would allow to separate close showers, induced by photons from neutral pion decay. A full scale (4 RM, 28 X0) prototype was constructed to demonstrate this. It features 30 micron pixelsize and a longitudinal sampling at 1 radiation length. We will show results from beam tests of this prototype at electron energies of 2 to 200 GeV.

Nooren, G.; Rocco, E.

2015-02-01

337

Number counts and dynamical vacuum cosmologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study non-linear structure formation in an interacting model of the dark sector of the Universe in which the dark energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, ?? ? H, leading to a constant-rate creation of cold dark matter. We derive all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density using the Sheth-Torman formalism and show that the effect of the interaction process is to increase the number of bound structures of large masses (M ? 1014 M? h-1) when compared to the standard ? cold dark matter model. Since these models are not reducible to each other, this number counts signature can in principle be tested in future surveys.

Devi, N. Chandrachani; Borges, H. A.; Carneiro, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

2015-03-01

338

On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.

Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Carlsson, Mats; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin

339

Precision Counting of Small Black Holes  

E-print Network

It has recently been proposed that a class of supersymmetric higher-derivative interactions in N=2 supergravity may encapsulate an infinite number of finite size corrections to the microscopic entropy of certain supersymmetric black holes. If this proposal is correct, it allows one to probe the string theory description of black-hole micro-states to far greater accuracy than has been possible before. We test this proposal for ``small'' black holes whose microscopic degeneracies can be computed exactly by counting the corresponding perturbative BPS states. We also study the ``black hole partition sum'' using general properties of of BPS degeneracies. This complements and extends our earlier work in hep-th/0502157

Atish Dabholkar; Frederik Denef; Gregory W. Moore; Boris Pioline

2005-07-01

340

Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

1992-01-01

341

Radioactive Krypton Background Evaluation Using Atom Counting  

E-print Network

The beta-decay of $\\rm^{85}Kr$ is a significant radioactive background for experiments that use liquified noble gases to search for dark matter and measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux. While there are several proposed methods for reducing Kr levels in these experiments, an independent technique is needed for measuring very low Kr levels. By selectively exciting Kr atoms to a metastable state, capturing them in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and detecting fluorescence from the trapped atoms, individual Kr atoms can be counted with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This approach could be used to ascertain Kr impurity levels in other noble gases, with an estimated sensitivity of $3\\times 10^{-14}$.

D. N. McKinsey; C. Orzel

2004-06-23

342

Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions  

SciTech Connect

We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of N radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from N to N{sup 2} in the current and to even higher powers of N in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source. - Highlights: > Super-radiance transfers to super-transmittance in steady-state transport. > Higher cumulants are much more sensitive indicators for collective behavior than the first cumulant. > Effects should be measurable by pumped-cavity experiment.

Vogl, M., E-mail: malte.vogl@tu-berlin.de; Schaller, G., E-mail: gernot.schaller@tu-berlin.de; Brandes, T.

2011-10-15

343

Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes.  

PubMed

The properties of avalanche photodiodes and associated electronics required for photon counting in the Geiger and the sub-Geiger modes are reviewed. When the Geiger mode is used, there are significant improvements reported in overall photon detection efficiencies (approaching 70% at 633 nm), and a timing jitter (under 200 ps) is achieved with passive quenching at high overvoltages (20-30 V). The results obtained by using an active-mode fast quench circuit capable of switching overvoltages as high as 15 V (giving photon detection efficiencies in the 50% range) with a dead time of less than 50 ns are reported. Larger diodes (up to 1 mm in diameter) that are usable in the Geiger mode and that have quantum efficiencies over 80% in the 500-800-nm range are also reported. PMID:20830022

Dautet, H; Deschamps, P; Dion, B; Macgregor, A D; Macsween, D; McIntyre, R J; Trottier, C; Webb, P P

1993-07-20

344

Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

2013-08-01

345

Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2013-08-08

346

Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation  

E-print Network

To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and m...

Kinase, S

2003-01-01

347

Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space  

DOEpatents

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-06-05

348

Image-domain material decomposition using photon-counting CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel CdTe photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) have been developed for very high count rates [1-4] suitable for x-ray micro computed tomography (muCT) scanners. It counts photons within each of J energy bins. In this study, we investigate use of the data in these energy bins for material decomposition using an image domain approach. In this method, one image is

Katsuyuki Taguchi; Mengxi Zhang; Eric C. Frey; Jingyan Xu; W. Paul Segars; Benjamin M. W. Tsui

2007-01-01

349

VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY COUNTING MEASURES RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN THE BODY. DESIGNED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RADIATION, BODY COUNTING ROOMS ARE CONSTRUCTED OF PRE-WORLD WAR II (WWII) STEEL. PRE-WWII STEEL, WHICH HAS NOT BEEN AFFECTED BY NUCLEAR FALLOUT, IS LOWER IS RADIOACTIVITY THAN STEEL CREATED AFTER WWII. (10/25/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

350

Counting in the dark: Non-intrusive laser scanning for population counting and identifying roosting bats  

PubMed Central

Population surveys and species recognition for roosting bats are either based on capture, sight or optical-mechanical count methods. However, these methods are intrusive, are tedious and, at best, provide only statistical estimations. Here, we demonstrated the successful use of a terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) laser scanner for remotely identifying and determining the exact population of roosting bats in caves. LIDAR accurately captured the 3D features of the roosting bats and their spatial distribution patterns in minimal light. The high-resolution model of the cave enabled an exact count of the visibly differentiated Hipposideros larvatus and their roosting pattern within the 3D topology of the cave. We anticipate that the development of LIDAR will open up new research possibilities by allowing researchers to study roosting behaviour within the topographical context of a cave's internal surface, thus facilitating rigorous quantitative characterisations of cave roosting behaviour. PMID:22826802

Azmy, Suzanna Noor; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Ariffin, Azman; Majid, Zulkepli; Ismail, Muhamad Nor Akmal; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir

2012-01-01

351

Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.

Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.

1989-01-01

352

Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.  

PubMed

Abstract The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r?=?0.9937, p?count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p?counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p?>?0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC. PMID:25275874

Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

2014-10-01

353

Flow Cytometric White Blood Cell Differential Using CytoDiff is Excellent for Counting Blasts  

PubMed Central

Background The usefulness of the CytoDiff flow cytometric system (Beckman Coulter, USA) has been studied in various conditions, but its performance including rapidity in detecting and counting blasts, the most significant abnormal cells in the peripheral blood, has not been well evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the CytoDiff differential counting method in challenging samples with blasts. Methods In total, 815 blood samples were analyzed. Samples flagged as "blasts" or "variant lymphocytes" and showing <10% blasts by manual counts were included. In total, 322 samples showed blasts on manual counts, ranging from 0.5% to 99%. The CytoDiff method was performed by flow cytometry (FC500; Beckman Coulter, USA) with a pre-mixed CytoDiff reagent and analyzing software (CytoDiff CXP 2.0; Beckman Coulter). Results The average time required to analyze 20 samples was approximately 60 min for manual counts, and the hands-on time for the CytoDiff method was 15 min. The correlation between the CytoDiff and manual counts was good (r>0.8) for neutrophils and lymphocytes but poor (r<0.8) for other cells. When the cutoff value of the CytoDiff blast count was set at 1%, the sensitivity was 94.4% (95% CI; 91.2-96.6) and specificity was 91.9% (95% CI; 89.0-94.1). The positive predictive value was 88.4% (95% CI; 84.4-91.5) (304/344 cases) and negative predictive value was 96.2% (95% CI; 93.9-97.7) (453/471 cases). The CytoDiff blast counts correlated well to the manual counts (r=0.9223). Conclusions The CytoDiff method is a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for counting blasts. A cutoff value of 1% of at least 1 type of blast is recommended for positive CytoDiff blast counts. PMID:25553277

Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Myungshin; Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Yeon-Joon

2015-01-01

354

Submillimeter Galaxy Number Counts in a Semi-analytic Model: the ``Count Matching" Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent interferometric observations of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South show that the brightest sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) detected by single-dish telescopes are comprised by emission from multiple fainter sources. With the aim of exploring the properties of SMGs, and in analogy to the now-standard abundance matching approach, we perform a ``Count Matching" approach through light-cones drawn from a semi-analytic model. We choose various physical galaxy properties given by the model as proxies for their sub-millimeter fluxes, assuming a monotonic relationship so that the combined LABOCA plus bright-end ALMA observed number counts are reproduced. After turning the catalogs of galaxy positions and fluxes given by the different proxies into sub-millimeter maps, we perform a source extraction. With this we study the effects of the observational process in the recovered counts, as well as the galaxy properties derived from the detected sources for each proxy. Comparing the recovered redshift, stellar mass and host halo mass distributions with observational data, the best proxy can be found.

Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Navarrete, F. P.; Padilla, N. D.; Cora, S. A.; Gawiser, E.; Kurczynski, P.; Ruiz, A. N.

2014-10-01

355

Use of the harmonic mean: On averaging count-rate data for variable-time, fixed-count intervals  

SciTech Connect

The average of count rates from measurements performed by accumulating a fixed total number of counts over a variable time interval should be obtained with harmonic mean. Use of an arithmetic mean in these cases will give intuitively incorrect results. Uncertainty estimators for this harmonically averaged counting rate, such as the standard deviation, must also be suitably transformed to correspond to that for the harmonic mean.

Colle, R.

1996-09-01

356

Advanced Reference Counting Pointers for Better Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program implements reference counting pointers (RCPs) that are lock-free, thread-safe, async-safe, and operational on a multiprocessor computer. RCPs are powerful and convenient means of managing heap memory in C++ software. Most prior RCP programs use locks to ensure thread safety and manage concurrency. The present program was developed in a continuing effort to explore ways of using the C++ programming language to develop safety-critical and mission- critical software. This effort includes exploration of lock-free algorithms because they offer potential to avoid some costly and difficult verification problems. Unlike previously published RCP software, the present program does not use locks (meaning that no thread can block progress on another thread): Instead, this program implements algorithms that exploit capabilities of central-processing- unit hardware so as to avoid locks. Once locks are eliminated, it becomes possible to realize the other attributes mentioned in the first sentence. In addition to the abovementioned attributes, this program offers several advantages over other RCP programs that use locks: It is smaller (and, hence, is faster and uses less memory), it is immune to priority inversion, and there is no way for it to cause a C++ exception.

Reinholtz, William

2007-01-01

357

Counting test facility for the Borexino experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental breakthrough which opened the way to the realization of the Borexino detector was the demonstration of exceptionally low, unprecedented radioactive contaminations in the liquid scintillator, obtained with its pilot prototype Counting Test Facility. Though of limited dimension, with its 4.8 m3 of active liquid core, CTF has however been a key milestone not only for Borexino, but also for the entire field of the ultra-low background searches. Here, we succinctly remind the motivations, which concurred to lay down the project, as well as the specific radiopurity challenge, which guided the design. After the description of the technical elements of the detector, the main outcomes are summarized, both regarding optical and purity scintillator properties, with special emphasis on the exceptional achievements in term of ultra-low traces of radioactive contaminants. The discussion is completed with the description of how CTF was employed for the pre-qualification of the entire inventory of the Borexino scintillator, confirming also in the final phase of its life its essential role for the success of the overall Borexino solar neutrino program.

Ranucci, G.; Meroni, E.

2014-05-01

358

Weighted power counting and chiral dimensional regularization  

E-print Network

We define a modified dimensional-regularization technique that overcomes several difficulties of the ordinary technique, and is specially designed to work efficiently in chiral and parity violating quantum field theories, in arbitrary dimensions greater than 2. When the dimension of spacetime is continued to complex values, spinors, vectors and tensors keep the components they have in the physical dimension, therefore the $\\gamma $ matrices are the standard ones. Propagators are regularized with the help of evanescent higher-derivative kinetic terms, which are of the Majorana type in the case of chiral fermions. If the new terms are organized in a clever way, weighted power counting provides an efficient control on the renormalization of the theory, and allows us to show that the resulting chiral dimensional regularization is consistent to all orders. The new technique considerably simplifies the proofs of properties that hold to all orders, and makes them suitable to be generalized to wider classes of models. Typical examples are the renormalizability of chiral gauge theories and the Adler-Bardeen theorem. The difficulty of explicit computations, on the other hand, may increase.

Damiano Anselmi

2014-06-27

359

First AID (Atom counting for Isotopic Determination).  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established an in vitro bioassay monitoring program in compliance with the requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. One aspect of this program involves monitoring plutonium levels in at-risk workers. High-risk workers are monitored using the ultra-sensitive Therrnal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) technique to ensure compliance with DOE standards. TIMS is used to measure atom ratios of 239Pua nd 240Puw ith respect to a tracer isotope ('Pu). These ratios are then used to calculate the amount of 239Pu and 240Pup resent. This low-level atom counting technique allows the calculation of the concentration levels of 239Pu and 240Pu in urine for at risk workers. From these concentration levels, dose assessments can be made and worker exposure levels can be monitored. Detection limits for TIMS analysis are on the order of millions of atoms, which translates to activity levels of 150 aCi 239Pua nd 500 aCi for 240Pu. pCi for Our poster presentation will discuss the ultra-sensitive, low-level analytical technique used to measure plutonium isotopes and the data verification methods used for validating isotopic measurements.

Roach, J. L. (Jeffrey L.); Israel, K. M. (Kimberly M.); Steiner, R. E. (Robert E.); Duffy, C. J. (Clarence J.); Roench, F. R. (Fred R.)

2002-01-01

360

Coincident count rates in absorbing dielectric media  

SciTech Connect

A study of the effects of absorption on the nonlinear process of parametric down-conversion is presented. Absorption within the nonlinear medium is accounted for by employing the framework of macroscopic QED and the Green tensor quantization of the electromagnetic field. An effective interaction Hamiltonian, which describes the nonlinear interaction of the electric field and the linear noise polarization field, is used to derive the quantum state of the light leaving a nonlinear crystal. The signal and idler modes of this quantum state are found to be a superposition of the electric and noise polarization fields. Using this state, the expression for the coincident count rates for both type-I and type-II down-conversion are found. The nonlinear interaction with the noise polarization field was shown to cause an increase in the rate on the order of 10{sup -12} for absorption of 10% per centimeter. This astonishingly small effect is found to be negligible compared to the decay caused by linear absorption of the propagating modes. From the expressions for the biphoton amplitude, it can be seen that the maximally entangled states can still be produced even in the presence of strong absorption.

Crosse, J. A.; Scheel, Stefan [Quantum Optics and Laser Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

361

Total microcolony counting on the moving narrow culture band  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcolony count method, by which all the microcolonies in a culture of known sample weight could be counted, is described. Briefly, a flat solid medium layer, having a band ditch of ca 1.7 mm wide, 60 mm long and 0.3 mm deep on its surface, was prepared with an aluminum frame. Then a sample suspension of known weight with

Chenjin Jiang; Peihua Chen; Song Shan

1995-01-01

362

Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)

Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others

1989-01-01

363

ELECTROHYDRODYNAMIC COULTER COUNTING Yuejun Zhao and Chuan-Hua Chen*  

E-print Network

Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, USA ABSTRACT A new paradigm of Coulter counting particles of 3, 5, or 7 m diameter (Thermo Scientific) were washed with DI water by three cycles (Phantom v7.3). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A proof-of-concept for electrohydrodynamic Coulter counting is shown

Chen, Chuan-Hua

364

An electronic pollen detection method using Coulter counting principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for detecting and counting pollen particles based on Coulter counting principle is presented. This approach also provides information on the size and surface charges of the micro particles, allowing for preliminary differentiation of pollens from other micro particles. Three samples are studied: polymethyl methacrylate particles, tree pollens from Juniperus Scopulorum and grass pollens from Secale Cerale. The samples,

Zheng Zhang; Jiang Zhe; Santanu Chandra; Jun Hu

2005-01-01

365

Apparatus characterization as a standard for neutron correlation counting  

SciTech Connect

Neutron correlation counting has the property that the count rate is predictable from first principles. This allows, in certain instances, replacing standards of the conventional types with a careful characterization of the apparatus. Multiplication would have to be small, and the material well characterized. An instance where circumstances forced used of such a procedure, with excellent results, is described.

Zucker, M.S.

1982-01-01

366

Virginia Tech Campaign to Count Gifts Made to Victims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virginia Tech has decided to count gifts to a memorial fund for victims of the April 16 shootings toward its goal of raising $1-billion in a capital campaign. Higher-education fund-raising experts agree that counting the memorial-fund contributions toward the total does not break common donation-reporting guidelines. Many big college fund-raising…

Strout, Erin

2007-01-01

367

Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the contributions of African peoples to the science of mathematics. The development of a number system is seen as related to need. Names of numbers, time reckoning, gesture counting, and counting materials are examined. Mystical beliefs about numbers and special meanings in pattern are presented. Reproductions of patterns,…

Zaslavsky, Claudia

368

A Tape Striation Counting Method for Determining Fundamental Frequency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mean fundamental frequencies of 33 male and female Ss (ages 18 to 42) obtained with FLORIDA I (another method to determine fundamental frequencies) and a tape striation counting procedure were compared. The fundamental frequencies obtained with these two methods were similar and it appears that the tape striation counting procedure is a viable,…

Mueller, Peter B.; And Others

1979-01-01

369

Generalized additive modelling and zero inflated count data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a flexible method for modelling zero inflated count data which are typically found when trying to model and predict species distributions. Zero inflated data are defined as data that has a larger proportion of zeros than expected from pure count (Poisson) data. The standard methodology is to model the data in two steps, first modelling the association

Simon C. Barry; A. H. Welsh

2002-01-01

370

Counting Digraphs with Restrictions on the Strong Components  

E-print Network

Counting Digraphs with Restrictions on the Strong Components Robert W. Robinson \\Lambda Computer.S.A. Abstract The principle of inclusion­exclusion is specialized in order to count la­ beled digraphs digraphs with no in­nodes or out­nodes, digraphs with a source and a sink, and digraphs with a unique

Robinson, Robert W.

371

Cleanroom Design Practices and Their Influence on Particle Counts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will discuss the adverse effects of deficient cleanroom design practices on airborne particle counts and the rather curious correlation of particle count variations with external environmental pressure fluctuations. Data is also presented that demonstrates that APL building 23 cleanrooms ran well below ISO class 7 (FED class 10,000) during New Horizons and STEREO integration.

Hogue, Patrick

2008-01-01

372

Counting single photoactivatable fluorescent molecules by photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM)  

PubMed Central

We present a single molecule method for counting proteins within a diffraction-limited area when using photoactivated localization microscopy. The intrinsic blinking of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins mEos2 and Dendra2 leads to an overcounting error, which constitutes a major obstacle for their use as molecular counting tags. Here, we introduce a kinetic model to describe blinking and show that Dendra2 photobleaches three times faster and blinks seven times less than mEos2, making Dendra2 a better photoactivated localization microscopy tag than mEos2 for molecular counting. The simultaneous activation of multiple molecules is another source of error, but it leads to molecular undercounting instead. We propose a photoactivation scheme that maximally separates the activation of different molecules, thus helping to overcome undercounting. We also present a method that quantifies the total counting error and minimizes it by balancing over- and undercounting. This unique method establishes that Dendra2 is better for counting purposes than mEos2, allowing us to count in vitro up to 200 molecules in a diffraction-limited spot with a bias smaller than 2% and an uncertainty less than 6% within 10 min. Finally, we demonstrate that this counting method can be applied to protein quantification in vivo by counting the bacterial flagellar motor protein FliM fused to Dendra2. PMID:23045631

Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Shin, Jae Yen; Lee, Antony; Bustamante, Carlos

2012-01-01

373

On Optimal Differentially Private Mechanisms for Count-Range Queries.  

PubMed

While there is a large and growing body of literature on differentially private mechanisms for answering various classes of queries, to the best of our knowledge "count-range" queries have not been studied. These are a natural class of queries that ask "is the number of rows in a relation satisfying a given predicate between two integers ?1 and ?2?" Such queries can be viewed as a simple form of SQL "having" queries. We begin by developing a provably optimal differentially private mechansim for count-range queries for a single consumer. For count queries (in contrast to count-range queries), Ghosh et al. [9] have provided a differentially private mechanism that simultaneously maximizes utility for multiple consumers. This raises the question of whether such a mechanism exists for count-range queries. We prove that the answer is no - for count range queries, no such mechanism exists. However, perhaps surprisingly, we prove that such a mechanism does exist for "threshold" queries, which are simply count-range queries for which either ?1 = 0 or ?2 = +?. Furthermore, we prove that this mechanism is a two-approximation for general count-range queries. PMID:25364783

Zeng, Chen; Cai, Jin-Yi; Lu, Pinyan; Naughton, Jeffrey F

2013-01-01

374

Epidemiological assessment of occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression  

SciTech Connect

Occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression is a recently recognized problem, first brought to light in connection with the manufacture and formulation of dibromochloropropane (DBCP). The authors studied sperm count data from four occupational cohorts - two exposed to DBCP and two exposed to epichlorohydrin (ECH). In both DBCP cohorts there was a significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between sperm count distribution functions of the exposed group and of the non-exposed group. A much higher percentage of exposed men was oligospermic and the median sperm count for each exposed group was substantially lower than that for the respective non-exposed group. In the ECH cohorts there was no significant difference between sperm count data for the exposed group and for the non-exposed group. The authors concluded that exposure to DBCP, but not to ECH, was positively associated with detectable sperm count suppression. It is suggested that the key to identifying and assessing occupationally related sperm count suppression lies in the proper classification and interpretation of group sperm count data.

Milby, T.H.; Whorton, D.

1980-02-01

375

Rainflow counting algorithm for the LIFE2 fatigue analysis code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LIFE2 computer code is a fatigue\\/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. The numerical formulation of the code uses a series of cycle count matrices to describe the cyclic stress states imposed upon the turbine. In this formulation, each stress cycle is counted or binsed according to the magnitude of its mean stress

L. L. Schluter; H. J. Sutherland

1989-01-01

376

Programmer's guide for LIFE2's rainflow counting algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LIFE2 computer code is a fatique\\/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. The numerical formulation of the code uses a series of cycle count matrices to describe the cyclic stress states imposed upon the turbine. In this formulation, each stress cycle is counted or binsed'' according to the magnitude of its mean stress

L. L. Schluter

1991-01-01

377

78 FR 62955 - National Character Counts Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...October 18, 2013 National Character Counts Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect on the ways we support one...values that keep our country strong. This week, we reaffirm our commitment to...

2013-10-23

378

76 FR 65095 - National Character Counts Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...October 14, 2011 National Character Counts Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...humanity. During National Character Counts Week, we celebrate our country's core values...country strong, prosperous, and free. This week, we resolve to stay true to the...

2011-10-20

379

Gross alpha/beta determination by liquid scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is used to assay liquid samples for both gross alpha and gross beta (including tritium) activity in order to declare these samples ``clean.`` This method provides several advantages over traditional gross assay techniques including easy sample preparation, no sample self-absorption, short counting times, acceptable lower limits of detection (LLD`s), and convenient sample disposal.

Leyba, J.D.

1992-03-01

380

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were initiated to investigate the interactions between heterotrophic plate count bacteria and coliform organisms. The authors used spiked samples to show that heterotrophic plate count bacteria could reduce coliform densities by more than 3 logs within 8 days. Some hetero...

381

Photon-counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD) have been used for photon counting for a number of years. This paper reviews their properties and the associated electronics required for photon counting in the Geiger mode. Significant improvements are reported in overall photon detection efficiencies (approaching 75% at 633 nm), and timing jitter (under 200 ps) achieved at high over-voltages (20 - 30 V).

Henri Dautet; Pierre Deschamps; Bruno Dion; Andrew D. MacGregor; Darleene MacSween; Robert J. McIntyre; Claude Trottier; Paul P. Webb

1993-01-01

382

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND  

E-print Network

369: COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROMKernan, Director COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS, Gymnodinium breve, AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST COAST, 1957

383

Counting People with Low-Level Features and Bayesian Regression  

E-print Network

is with the Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego. where all-based counts are accurate, regardless of the crowd size, outperforming the count estimates produced by state.g. finding and tracking a person walking in a parking lot, or identifying the interaction between two people

Vasconcelos, Nuno M.

384

Counting People with LowLevel Features and Bayesian Regression  

E-print Network

is with the Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego. where all­based counts are accurate, regardless of the crowd size, outperforming the count estimates produced by state.g. finding and tracking a person walking in a parking lot, or identifying the interaction between two people

Vasconcelos, Nuno M.

385

New FUV Detector Maximum Local Count Rate Specification  

E-print Network

, COS Instrument Scientist, CU/CASA Date Approved By: J. Morse, COS Project Scientist, CU/CASA Date) originally adopted this value. This TER addresses a scientific rationale for the maximum local count rate and presents a meaningful value for the maximum local count rate, which has been adopted in the SoR. 2

Colorado at Boulder, University of

386

Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

387

On Optimal Differentially Private Mechanisms for Count-Range Queries*  

PubMed Central

While there is a large and growing body of literature on differentially private mechanisms for answering various classes of queries, to the best of our knowledge “count-range” queries have not been studied. These are a natural class of queries that ask “is the number of rows in a relation satisfying a given predicate between two integers ?1 and ?2?” Such queries can be viewed as a simple form of SQL “having” queries. We begin by developing a provably optimal differentially private mechansim for count-range queries for a single consumer. For count queries (in contrast to count-range queries), Ghosh et al. [9] have provided a differentially private mechanism that simultaneously maximizes utility for multiple consumers. This raises the question of whether such a mechanism exists for count-range queries. We prove that the answer is no — for count range queries, no such mechanism exists. However, perhaps surprisingly, we prove that such a mechanism does exist for “threshold” queries, which are simply count-range queries for which either ?1 = 0 or ?2 = +?. Furthermore, we prove that this mechanism is a two-approximation for general count-range queries. PMID:25364783

Zeng, Chen; Cai, Jin-Yi; Lu, Pinyan; Naughton, Jeffrey F.

2014-01-01

388

The Borexino Detector and its Counting Test Facility  

E-print Network

Chapter 2 The Borexino Detector and its Counting Test Facility "From an observational point of view event in real time. 26 #12;Chapter 2: The Borexino Detector and its Counting Test Facility 27 neutrino flavours interact via neutral current reaction; electron neutrinos also interact via charged

389

Analysis of Bit Transition Count for EDAC Encoded FSM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is to present a bit transition count analysis for various Error Detection And Correction (EDAC) schemes through a detailed simulation. The simulation also brings out the impact of various EDAC schemes - linear, BCH, m-out-of-n, Berger and SEC-MUED - on bit transition count with respect to number of FSM partitions under different partitioning objective functions

N. Venkateswaran; V. Balaji; Venkataraman Mahalingam; T. L. Rajaprabhu

2003-01-01

390

CAVE CRICKET EXIT COUNTS: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES AND DURATION OF SURVEYS  

E-print Network

CAVE CRICKET EXIT COUNTS: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES AND DURATION OF SURVEYS FLOYD W. WECKERLY1 1.edu Abstract: Cave cricket abundance is used as an indicator of integrity of cave ecosystems. One means of monitoring cave cricket abundance is counting crickets as they emerge from cave entrances for two hours after

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

391

HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

392

21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method of the American Public Health Association in use at the time of the...

2014-04-01

393

On the refined counting of graphs on surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ribbon graphs embedded on a Riemann surface provide a useful way to describe the double-line Feynman diagrams of large N computations and a variety of other QFT correlator and scattering amplitude calculations, e.g. in MHV rules for scattering amplitudes, as well as in ordinary QED. Their counting is a special case of the counting of bi-partite embedded graphs. We review and extend relevant mathematical literature and present results on the counting of some infinite classes of bi-partite graphs. Permutation groups and representations as well as double cosets and quotients of graphs are useful mathematical tools. The counting results are refined according to data of physical relevance, such as the structure of the vertices, faces and genus of the embedded graph. These counting problems can be expressed in terms of observables in three-dimensional topological field theory with Sd gauge group which gives them a topological membrane interpretation.

de Mello Koch, Robert; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Wen, Congkao

2013-05-01

394

Counting 1/8-BPS Dual-Giants  

E-print Network

We count 1/8-BPS states in type IIB string theory on AdS_5 x S^5 background which carry three independent angular momenta on S^5. These states can be counted by considering configurations of multiple dual-giant gravitons up to N in number which share at least four supersymmetries. We map this counting problem to that of counting the energy eigen states of a system of N bosons in a 3-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We also count 1/8-BPS states with two independent non-zero spins in AdS_5 and one non-zero angular momentum on S^5 by considering configurations of arbitrary number of giant gravitons that share at least four supersymmetries.

Gautam Mandal; Nemani V. Suryanarayana

2006-06-09

395

Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation  

SciTech Connect

The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chandrasekaran, V [MIT; Gamarmik, D [MIT; Shah, D [MIT; Sin, J [MIT

2009-01-01

396

You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers  

PubMed Central

The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing. PMID:22133748

Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2012-01-01

397

COUNTING PROBLEMS IN MODULI SPACE In this series of lectures, we describe some counting problems in mod-  

E-print Network

COUNTING PROBLEMS IN MODULI SPACE ALEX ESKIN In this series of lectures, we describe some counting and Jayadev Athreya for taking detailed notes, and to the latter for typing them up. 1 #12;2 ALEX ESKIN . The generalization of this formula to moduli space was developed, so the legend goes, by Veech while he listened

Eskin, Alex

398

Dark-count-less photon-counting x-ray computed tomography system using a YAP-MPPC detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-sensitive X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for decreasing absorbed dose for patients, and a dark-count-less photon-counting CT system was developed. X-ray photons are detected using a YAP(Ce) [cerium-doped yttrium aluminum perovskite] single crystal scintillator and an MPPC (multipixel photon counter). Photocurrents are amplified by a high-speed current-voltage amplifier, and smooth event pulses from an integrator are sent to a high-speed comparator. Then, logical pulses are produced from the comparator and are counted by a counter card. Tomography is accomplished by repeated linear scans and rotations of an object, and projection curves of the object are obtained by the linear scan. The image contrast of gadolinium medium slightly fell with increase in lower-level voltage (Vl) of the comparator. The dark count rate was 0 cps, and the count rate for the CT was approximately 250 kcps.

Sato, Eiichi; Sato, Yuich; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

2012-10-01

399

The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces the impact of count rate loss with photon-counting detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard energy-integrating x-ray detectors, but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a ‘hybrid’ detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al 2011 Med. Phys. 38 1089-102 ). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping (‘bowtie’) filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of 2 to 3. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors.

Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

2014-06-01

400

The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator reduces the impact of count rate loss with photon-counting detectors.  

PubMed

Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) offer several advantages compared to standard energy-integrating x-ray detectors, but also face significant challenges. One key challenge is the high count rates required in CT. At high count rates, PCXDs exhibit count rate loss and show reduced detective quantum efficiency in signal-rich (or high flux) measurements. In order to reduce count rate requirements, a dynamic beam-shaping filter can be used to redistribute flux incident on the patient. We study the piecewise-linear attenuator in conjunction with PCXDs without energy discrimination capabilities. We examined three detector models: the classic nonparalyzable and paralyzable detector models, and a 'hybrid' detector model which is a weighted average of the two which approximates an existing, real detector (Taguchi et al 2011 Med. Phys. 38 1089-102). We derive analytic expressions for the variance of the CT measurements for these detectors. These expressions are used with raw data estimated from DICOM image files of an abdomen and a thorax to estimate variance in reconstructed images for both the dynamic attenuator and a static beam-shaping ('bowtie') filter. By redistributing flux, the dynamic attenuator reduces dose by 40% without increasing peak variance for the ideal detector. For non-ideal PCXDs, the impact of count rate loss is also reduced. The nonparalyzable detector shows little impact from count rate loss, but with the paralyzable model, count rate loss leads to noise streaks that can be controlled with the dynamic attenuator. With the hybrid model, the characteristic count rates required before noise streaks dominate the reconstruction are reduced by a factor of 2 to 3. We conclude that the piecewise-linear attenuator can reduce the count rate requirements of the PCXD in addition to improving dose efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction depends on the detector, with paralyzable detectors showing much greater benefit than nonparalyzable detectors. PMID:24819415

Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

2014-06-01

401

Photon Counting Airborne Laser Swath Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) has brought topographic mapping to the forefront of geodesy. ALSM has made it possible, for the first time, to study natural geo-surficial processes on spatial scales extending from meters to hundreds of kilometers, all in a consistent geodetic frame of reference. The conventional approach to ALSM has been to use lasers with enough energy per pulse, and optics with large enough collecting areas, to obtain returns of thousands of photons per shot. This approach minimizes the impact of spurious range values caused by noise, such as background solar radiation and sensor thermal noise, but also constrains the minimum size, weight and power consumption of the hardware. Current systems typically operate at rates approaching 100,000 pulses per second, and another order of magnitude increase would be needed to provide contiguous coverage with a spatial resolution of 30 cm or better. This high signal-to-noise ratio approach affords little scalability for significantly downsizing the hardware, or reducing the costs. University of Florida (UF) researchers are developing an ALSM unit based on a different paradigm, which we refer to as photon counting ALSM, or simply PC-ALSM. The approach is to transmit relatively low energy laser pulses, and to illuminate a surface `patch' about an order of magnitude larger than the typical footprint of a conventional ALSM system. The returning signal will have far fewer photons per unit area of the receive optics, making it more difficult to discriminate between return signal and noise. If a single channel detector were used, the spatial resolution would also be degraded. However, by using a multi-channel photomultiplier tube to detect the returns, the surface patch can be divided into an array of groundals, and by using a multi-stop timing system false ranges can be filtered out of the data during post flight processing. Researchers at NASA GSFC have already tested a first generation system based on this new paradigm, operated from a high altitude aircraft, to develop a satellite based instrument. Details of the preliminary UF design for a second generation system that will operate from a light aircraft flying less than 1000 meters above local ground level and providing contiguous coverage of the terrain with 30 cm spatial resolution will be presented.

Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, K. C.

2004-05-01

402

Scheme dependence of instanton counting in ALE spaces  

E-print Network

There have been two distinct schemes studied in the literature for instanton counting in A_{p-1} asymptotically locally Euclidean (ALE) spaces. We point out that the two schemes---namely the counting of orbifolded instantons and instanton counting in the resolved space---lead in general to different results for partition functions. We illustrate this observation in the case of N=2 U(N) gauge theory with 2N flavors on the A_{p-1} ALE space. We propose simple relations between the instanton partition functions given by the two schemes and test them by explicit calculations.

Ito, Yuto; Okuda, Takuya

2013-01-01

403

Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps  

SciTech Connect

In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

Pogosyan, Dmitri [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe [Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, 98, bis Boulevard Arago, 75 014, Paris (France)

2011-10-15

404

Activity standardisation of ²²?Ra by 4?? liquid scintillation counting method.  

PubMed

Activity of (226)Ra in radium daughter products free solution was determined by 4?? liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method, where the detection efficiency of radium decay is practically equal to 1. The sources were prepared from solution with known (226)Ra mass concentration, from which, immediately before LS counting, (222)Rn and its daughter nuclides were removed by solvent extraction. LS counting results were corrected practically only for a <0.6% loss of radium from measured sample and for the ingrowth of (222)Rn and (218)Po concentrations in the sample after the separation was completed. The combined relative standard uncertainty was estimated to be lower than 0.34%. PMID:23602705

Havelka, Miroslav; Blu?ovský, Richard

2013-11-01

405

Linearized Group Field Theory and Power Counting Theorems  

E-print Network

We introduce a linearized version of group field theory. It can be viewed either as a group field theory over the additive group of a vector space or as an asymptotic expansion of any group field theory around the unit group element. We prove exact power counting theorems for any graph of such models. For linearized colored models the power counting of any amplitude is further computed in term of the homology of the graph. An exact power counting theorem is also established for a particular class of graphs of the nonlinearized models, which satisfy a planarity condition. Examples and connections with previous results are discussed.

Joseph Ben Geloun; Thomas Krajewski; Jacques Magnen; Vincent Rivasseau

2010-02-18

406

Linearized Group Field Theory and Power Counting Theorems  

E-print Network

We introduce a linearized version of group field theory. It can be viewed either as a group field theory over the additive group of a vector space or as an asymptotic expansion of any group field theory around the unit group element. We prove exact power counting theorems for any graph of such models. For linearized colored models the power counting of any amplitude is further computed in term of the homology of the graph. An exact power counting theorem is also established for a particular class of graphs of the nonlinearized models, which satisfy a planarity condition. Examples and connections with previous results are discussed.

Geloun, Joseph Ben; Magnen, Jacques; Rivasseau, Vincent

2010-01-01

407

Automatic Pedestrian Detection and Counting Applied to Urban Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical knowledge of human flows in the streets is mandatory for urban planning. Today many cities use the expensive method of manual pedestrian counting, since there is no reliable automatic counting device. This project aims at achieving the first efficient, real-time, embedded and autonomous system that provides high-level data. Our first work focused on the development of a reliable counting method under MatlabTM. On the basis of video sequences recorded in the city of Mulhouse we have validated the robustness of our approach.

Michelat, Thomas; Hueber, Nicolas; Raymond, Pierre; Pichler, Alexander; Schaal, Pascal; Dugaret, Bernard

408

Measurement of zero-count probability in photoelectron statistics.  

PubMed

The probability of zero-count P(0)(T) (as a function of the counting interval T) is one of the most interesting functions characterizing a light field. Experimentally, P(0)(T) is usually obtained by measuring successively the zero-count probability for a set of different intervals. This procedure exposes the measurement of P(0)(T) to errors imputable to drift. We present a simple zero-counter which is essentially free from drift effects and displays P(0)(T) directly on the CRT of an oscilloscope for sixteen values of T. Another advantage of the instrument is a conspicuous reduction of the overall measuring time. PMID:20396295

Basano, L; Ottonello, P

1982-10-15

409

Counting in Rats: Its Functional Significance and the Independent Cognitive Processes That Constitute It  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four major conclusions were supported in seven runway experiments: Rats count; rats routinely and perhaps automatically count reinforcing events; counting reinforcing events is of importance for understanding instrumental learning and performance; and counting is the result of several independent coordinated cognitive processes. The results suggested counting rather than some simpler numerical ability because (a) they cannot be ascribed to other

E. J. Capaldi; Daniel J. Miller

1988-01-01

410

Components of the Complete Blood Count as Risk Predictors for Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete blood count, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete blood count with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research. PMID:23467296

Madjid, Mohammad; Fatemi, Omid

2013-01-01

411

Count-Me-In For Women's Economic Independence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Count-Me-In For Women's Economic Independence is a national, nonprofit organization focused on raising money from women to be loaned to other women. Count-Me-In's goal is to collect donations of $5 from women around the country to be added to a national loan fund, which will be awarded to qualifying women for small business loans in amounts ranging between $5,000 and $10,000, as well as for scholarships for business training. Be sure to browse through the "what is count-me-in?" section; "follow your $5" details how these $5 contributions are turned into loans, and "the power of small loans" chronicles the ways in which business women have used their small loans from Count-Me-In.

412

Simple pulse counting circuit computes sum of squares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse counting circuit with an extra chain of flip-flops, delay lines, and gates computes the sum of the squares of the pulse sequences. A pulse train and the sum of the squares of the pulses are simultaneously completed.

Schaefer, D. H.

1965-01-01

413

Correlated neutron counting for the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

Correlated neutron counting techniques, such as neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting, are widely employed at nuclear fuel cycle facilities for the accountancy of nuclear material such as plutonium. These techniques need to be improved and enhanced to meet the challenges of complex measurement items and future nuclear safeguards applications, for example; the non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel, high counting rate applications, small sample measurements, and Helium-3 replacement. At the same time simulation tools, used for the design of detection systems based on these techniques, are being developed in anticipation of future needs. This seminar will present the theory and current state of the practice of temporally correlated neutron counting. A range of future safeguards applications will then be presented in the context of research projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-01

414

Tracking system for photon-counting laser radar  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to build the tracking system for a photon-counting laser radar specifically a laser radar that has the ability to perform direct and coherent detection measurement at low signal levels with ...

Chang, Joshua TsuKang

2007-01-01

415

Making Child Care Choices Count for Your Family  

MedlinePLUS

... for Your Family Family Life Listen Making Child Care Choices Count for Your Family Article Body For ... Child? There are three basic types of child care: In-home care: A caregiver comes into your ...

416

Universal Count Correction for High-Throughput Sequencing  

E-print Network

We show that existing RNA-seq, DNase-seq, and ChIP-seq data exhibit overdispersed per-base read count distributions that are not matched to existing computational method assumptions. To compensate for this overdispersion ...

Hashimoto, Tatsunori Benjamin

417

A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

1971-01-01

418

The Complexity of Weighted Counting for Acyclic Conjunctive Queries  

E-print Network

- Logique Universit´e Paris Diderot F-75205 Paris, France durand@logique.jussieu.fr Stefan Mengel Institute of a latter work by Mengel [Men11] is that on the bounded arity case, weighted counting on bounded treewidth

Bürgisser, Peter

419

76 FR 12694 - The 2010 Census Count Question Resolution Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Count Question Resolution Program AGENCY: Bureau of the Census...Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Program...adults and juveniles, and residential schools for people with disabilities. Non-institutional...

2011-03-08

420

CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF  

E-print Network

count than those repolted for other sharks. 10 Microns I I FIGURE I.-Mitosis-Prophase. Cell Differentials FIGURE 2.-Mitosis-Anaphase. The mean size of the POltuguese shark mature erythrocytes (Figure 3

421

Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates.  

PubMed

Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.A colony counter hardware was designed and a novel segmentation algorithm was written in MATLAB. In brief, pre-processing with Top-Hat-filtering to obtain a uniform background was followed by the segmentation step, during which the colony images were extracted from the blood agar and individual colonies were separated. A Bayes classifier was then applied to count the final number of bacterial colonies as some of the colonies could still be concatenated to form larger groups. To assess accuracy and performance of the colony counter, we tested automated colony counting of different agar plates with known CFU numbers of S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and M. catarrhalis and showed excellent performance. PMID:22448267

Brugger, Silvio D; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mühlemann, Kathrin

2012-01-01

422

Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates  

DOEpatents

A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

1980-05-23

423

Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates  

DOEpatents

A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

Hanson, James A. (Madison, WI); Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01

424

Range Counting over Multidimensional Data Streams # Subhash Suri  

E-print Network

). The sketch, whose size depends on the approximation parameter #, can be used to count the number of points permission and/or a fee. SCG'04, June 8--11, 2004, Brooklyn, New York, USA. Copyright 2004 ACM 1

Suri, Subhash

425

The Effects of Fault Counting Methods on Fault Model Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we describe three other fault-counting techniques and compare the models resulting from the application of two of those methods to the models obtained from the application of our proposed definition.

Nikora, Allen P.; Munson, John C.

2004-01-01

426

75 FR 29508 - The 2010 Census Count Question Resolution Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Relevant 2010 Census Data Releases The Redistricting Data (Pub. L. 94-171) are scheduled...State legislative representatives with redistricting functions within each State and State...2010 Census apportionment counts, redistricting data, or 2010 Census data...

2010-05-26

427

Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts  

MedlinePLUS

... My Membership About the AAAAI Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has ... MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air ...

428

An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented and their differences discussed. Within the estimated uncertainties, the two methodologies agree. This shows the potential for a fully automated annual layer counting method to be operational for data sections where the annual layering is unknown.

Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

2012-04-01

429

Bivariate zero-inflated regression for count data: a Bayesian approach with application to plant counts.  

PubMed

Lately, bivariate zero-inflated (BZI) regression models have been used in many instances in the medical sciences to model excess zeros. Examples include the BZI Poisson (BZIP), BZI negative binomial (BZINB) models, etc. Such formulations vary in the basic modeling aspect and use the EM algorithm (Dempster, Laird and Rubin, 1977) for parameter estimation. A different modeling formulation in the Bayesian context is given by Dagne (2004). We extend the modeling to a more general setting for multivariate ZIP models for count data with excess zeros as proposed by Li, Lu, Park, Kim, Brinkley and Peterson (1999), focusing on a particular bivariate regression formulation. For the basic formulation in the case of bivariate data, we assume that Xi are (latent) independent Poisson random variables with parameters ? i, i = 0, 1, 2. A bi-variate count vector (Y1, Y2) response follows a mixture of four distributions; p0 stands for the mixing probability of a point mass distribution at (0, 0); p1, the mixing probability that Y2 = 0, while Y1 = X0 + X1; p2, the mixing probability that Y1 = 0 while Y2 = X0 + X2; and finally (1 - p0 - p1 - p2), the mixing probability that Yi = Xi + X0, i = 1, 2. The choice of the parameters {pi, ? i, i = 0, 1, 2} ensures that the marginal distributions of Yi are zero inflated Poisson (? 0 + ? i). All the parameters thus introduced are allowed to depend on co-variates through canonical link generalized linear models (McCullagh and Nelder, 1989). This flexibility allows for a range of real-life applications, especially in the medical and biological fields, where the counts are bivariate in nature (with strong association between the processes) and where there are excess of zeros in one or both processes. Our contribution in this paper is to employ a fully Bayesian approach consolidating the work of Dagne (2004) and Li et al. (1999) generalizing the modeling and sampling-based methods described by Ghosh, Mukhopadhyay and Lu (2006) to estimate the parameters and obtain posterior credible intervals both in the case where co-variates are not available as well as in the case where they are. In this context, we provide explicit data augmentation techniques that lend themselves to easier implementation of the Gibbs sampler by giving rise to well-known and closed-form posterior distributions in the bivariate ZIP case. We then use simulations to explore the effectiveness of this estimation using the Bayesian BZIP procedure, comparing the performance to the Bayesian and classical ZIP approaches. Finally, we demonstrate the methodology based on bivariate plant count data with excess zeros that was collected on plots in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compare the results with independent ZIP regression models fitted to both processes. PMID:21969981

Majumdar, Anandamayee; Gries, Corinna

2010-01-01

430

A tutorial on count regression and zero-altered count models for longitudinal substance use data  

PubMed Central

Critical research questions in the study of addictive behaviors concern how these behaviors change over time - either as the result of intervention or in naturalistic settings. The combination of count outcomes that are often strongly skewed with many zeroes (e.g., days using, number of total drinks, number of drinking consequences) with repeated assessments (e.g., longitudinal follow-up after intervention or daily diary data) present challenges for data analyses. The current article provides a tutorial on methods for analyzing longitudinal substance use data, focusing on Poisson, zero-inflated, and hurdle mixed models, which are types of hierarchical or multilevel models. Two example datasets are used throughout, focusing on drinking-related consequences following an intervention and daily drinking over the past 30 days, respectively. Both datasets as well as R, SAS, Mplus, Stata, and SPSS code showing how to fit the models are available on a supplemental website. PMID:22905895

Atkins, David C.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Zheng, Cheng; Gallop, Robert J.; Neighbors, Clayton

2012-01-01

431

Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter

Claudio R. M. Mauricio; Fábio K. Schneider; L. Correia dos Santos

2010-01-01

432

Measuring What Counts: A Conceptual Guide for Mathematics Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To achieve national goals for education, we must measure the things that really count. Measuring What Counts establishes crucial research-based connections between standards and assessment. Arguing for a better balance between educational and measurement concerns in the development and use of mathematics assessment, this book sets forth three principles--related to content, learning, and equity--that can form the basis for new assessments that support emerging national standards in mathematics education.

Mathematical Sciences Education Board, National Research Council

1993-01-01

433

Full-counting statistics of random transition-rate matrices.  

PubMed

We study the full-counting statistics of current of large open systems through the application of random-matrix theory to transition-rate matrices. We develop a method for calculating the ensemble-averaged current-cumulant generating functions based on an expansion in terms of the inverse system size. We investigate how different symmetry properties and different counting schemes affect the results. PMID:24483426

Mordovina, Uliana; Emary, Clive

2013-12-01

434

Photon counting statistics analysis of biophotons from hands.  

PubMed

The photon counting statistics of biophotons emitted from hands is studied with a view to test its agreement with the Poisson distribution. The moments of observed probability up to seventh order have been evaluated. The moments of biophoton emission from hands are in good agreement while those of dark counts of photomultiplier tube show large deviations from the theoretical values of Poisson distribution. The present results are consistent with the conventional delta-value analysis of the second moment of probability. PMID:15244266

Jung, Hyun-Hee; Woo, Won-Myung; Yang, Joon-Mo; Choi, Chunho; Lee, Jonghan; Yoon, Gilwon; Yang, Jong S; Soh, Kwang-Sup

2003-05-01

435

Determining the "doubles" count rate for AmLi sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple calculation model for AmLi neutron sources is considered: the primary neutrons from Li(?,n) reaction are assumed to be randomly emitted from the centre of a spherical source, and to induce the time-correlated secondary neutrons via fission process. The effect of Am241 (n, fission) was calculated and found to be very small. However, it largely contributes to the "doubles" count rate of AmLi determined by neutron counting technique.

Nguyen, Cong Tam

2007-09-01

436

Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.  

PubMed

Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2005-08-01

437

Inference controls for frequency count tables: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synopsis of mathematical problems and results that have been obtained in establishing effective inference controls for frequency-count tables, is presented. This brings up-to-date a related article by L.H. Cox (see CIPHER, p.4-14, 1986). Particular attention is given to inference controls for two-way frequency count tables and generalization for sets of tables and higher dimensions

Lawrence H. Cox

1988-01-01

438

Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

2011-01-01

439

Photon counting for Bragg spectroscopy of quantum gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a photon-counting technique for detecting Bragg excitation of an ultracold gas of atoms. By measuring the response of the light field to the atoms, we derive a signal independent of traditional time-of-flight atom-imaging techniques. With heterodyne detection we achieve photon shot-noise limited detection of the amplification or depletion of one of the Bragg laser beams. Photon counting for

J. M. Pino; R. J. Wild; P. Makotyn; D. S. Jin; E. A. Cornell

2011-01-01

440

Bayesian spatial modeling of data from avian point count surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a unified framework for modeling bird survey data collected at spatially replicated survey sites in the form of\\u000a repeated counts or detection history counts, through which we model spatial dependence in bird density and variation in detection\\u000a probabilities due to changes in covariates across the landscape. The models have a complex hierarchical structure that makes\\u000a them suited to

Raymond A. Webster; Kenneth H. Pollock; Theodore R. Simons

2008-01-01

441

MeanSmoothedCount 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006  

E-print Network

.00.51.01.52.0 Chippewa Superior Pooled NFs American Goldfinch Annual Change = 1.2 % p = 0.79 n = 13 stands Annual Change Pooled NFs American Crow Annual Change = -7.1 % p = 0 n = 5 stands #12;Year MeanSmoothedCount 1990 1994 2006 01234 Superior Year MeanSmoothedCount 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 01234 Pooled NFs American Redstart

Netoff, Theoden

442

ROAD TRANSECT COUNTS FOR RAPTORS: HOW RELIABLE ARE THEY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biases in roadside counts of randomly placed three-dimensional models of perched Red- tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperil), and Sharp-shinned Hawks (A. striatus) were investigated. Counts were performed by seven, two-person survey teams in five vegetation types in September 1983 and March 1984 at Dulles International Airport in Fairfax and Loudoun counties, Virginia. Larger models were consistently seen

BRIAN A. MILLSAP; MAURICE N. LEFRANC

443

Counting models for 2SAT and 3SAT formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We here present algorithms for counting models and max-weightmodels for 2sat and 3sat formulae. They use polynomial space andrun in O(1:2561) time, respectively, where n is thenumber of variables. This is faster than the previously best algorithmsfor counting non-weighted models for 2sat and 3sat, which run inO(1:3247) time, respectively. In order to prove thesetime bounds, we develop new measures

Vilhelm Dahllöf; Peter Jonsson; Magnus Wahlström

2005-01-01

444

Automatic Pedestrian Detection and Counting Applied to Urban Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The statistical knowledge of human flows in the streets is mandatory for urban planning. Today many cities use the expensive\\u000a method of manual pedestrian counting, since there is no reliable automatic counting device. This project aims at achieving\\u000a the first efficient, real-time, embedded and autonomous system that provides high-level data. Our first work focused on the\\u000a development of a reliable

Thomas Michelat; Nicolas Hueber; Pierre Raymond; Alexander Pichler; Pascal Schaal; Bernard Dugaret

2010-01-01

445

Synchronous Symmetry Breaking in Neurons with Different Neurite Counts  

PubMed Central

As neurons develop, several immature processes (i.e., neurites) grow out of the cell body. Over time, each neuron breaks symmetry when only one of its neurites grows much longer than the rest, becoming an axon. This symmetry breaking is an important step in neurodevelopment, and aberrant symmetry breaking is associated with several neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and autism. However, the effects of neurite count in neuronal symmetry breaking have never been studied. Existing models for neuronal polarization disagree: some predict that neurons with more neurites polarize up to several days later than neurons with fewer neurites, while others predict that neurons with different neurite counts polarize synchronously. We experimentally find that neurons with different neurite counts polarize synchronously. We also show that despite the significant differences among the previously proposed models, they all agree with our experimental findings when the expression levels of the proteins responsible for symmetry breaking increase with neurite count. Consistent with these results, we observe that the expression levels of two of these proteins, HRas and shootin1, significantly correlate with neurite count. This coordinated symmetry breaking we observed among neurons with different neurite counts may be important for synchronized polarization of neurons in developing organisms. PMID:23408951

Wissner-Gross, Zachary D.; Scott, Mark A.; Steinmeyer, Joseph D.; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

2013-01-01

446

Avalanche photodiode photon counting receivers for space-borne lidars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; (2) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; and (3) APD's in analog mode when the received optical signal is extremely weak. Non-breakdown APD photon counters were shown experimentally to achieve an effective photon counting quantum efficiency of 5.0 percent at lambda = 820 nm with a dead time of 15 ns and a dark count rate of 7000/s which agreed with the theoretically predicted values. The interarrival times of the counts followed an exponential distribution and the counting statistics appeared to follow a Poisson distribution with no after pulsing. It is predicted that the effective photon counting quantum efficiency can be improved to 18.7 percent at lambda = 820 nm and 1.46 percent at lambda = 1060 nm with a dead time of a few nanoseconds by using more advanced commercially available electronic components.

Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

1991-01-01

447

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864...Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a...

2010-04-01

448

25 CFR 39.209 - When may a school count a student for membership purposes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false When may a school count a student for membership purposes? 39.209...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications § 39.209 When may a school count a student for membership purposes? If...

2013-04-01

449

25 CFR 39.217 - How are students counted for the purpose of funding residential services?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false How are students counted for the purpose of funding...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications Residential Programs § 39.217 How are students counted for the purpose of...

2011-04-01

450

25 CFR 39.209 - When may a school count a student for membership purposes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false When may a school count a student for membership purposes? 39.209...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications § 39.209 When may a school count a student for membership purposes? If...

2014-04-01

451

25 CFR 39.209 - When may a school count a student for membership purposes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-04-01 true When may a school count a student for membership purposes? 39.209...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications § 39.209 When may a school count a student for membership purposes? If...

2012-04-01

452

25 CFR 39.217 - How are students counted for the purpose of funding residential services?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false How are students counted for the purpose of funding...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications Residential Programs § 39.217 How are students counted for the purpose of...

2014-04-01

453

25 CFR 39.209 - When may a school count a student for membership purposes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false When may a school count a student for membership purposes? 39.209...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications § 39.209 When may a school count a student for membership purposes? If...

2010-04-01

454

25 CFR 39.217 - How are students counted for the purpose of funding residential services?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false How are students counted for the purpose of funding...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications Residential Programs § 39.217 How are students counted for the purpose of...

2010-04-01

455

25 CFR 39.209 - When may a school count a student for membership purposes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false When may a school count a student for membership purposes? 39.209...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications § 39.209 When may a school count a student for membership purposes? If...

2011-04-01

456

25 CFR 39.217 - How are students counted for the purpose of funding residential services?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2011-04-01 true How are students counted for the purpose of funding...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications Residential Programs § 39.217 How are students counted for the purpose of...

2012-04-01

457

25 CFR 39.217 - How are students counted for the purpose of funding residential services?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false How are students counted for the purpose of funding...PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications Residential Programs § 39.217 How are students counted for the purpose of...

2013-04-01

458

Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle Basics of Probability  

E-print Network

Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle Topic 5 Combinations Pascal's Triangle Outline Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle 2 / 14 #12;Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal

Watkins, Joseph C.

459

Measuring PET scanner sensitivity; Relating count rates to image signal-to-noise ratios using noise equivalent counts  

SciTech Connect

Sensitivity parameters derived from a plot of a scanner's true coincidence count (TCC) rates as a function of activity in a 20 cm cylindrical phantom have no direct link to image quality. Noise equivalent count (NEC) rate curves, which incorporate the noise effects of subtracting the randoms and scatter count components provide a direct link between image signal-to-noise ratios and the scatter, randoms and trues coincidence count rates. The authors have measured TCC and NEC curves with a standardized 20 cm diameter nylon cylinder for five different PET scanners with several scanner-collimator combinations. In addition, the authors have compared TCC and NEC curves on one scanner with those from an Alderson brain phantom.

Strother, S.C. (Neurology Dept., Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (US)); Casey, M.E. (CTI PET Systems Inc., Knoxville, TN (US)); Hoffman, E.J. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Nuclear Medicine Lab.)

1990-04-01

460

Determination of confidence limits for experiments with low numbers of counts. [Poisson-distributed photon counts from astrophysical sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different methods, classical and Bayesian, for determining confidence intervals involving Poisson-distributed data are compared. Particular consideration is given to cases where the number of counts observed is small and is comparable to the mean number of background counts. Reasons for preferring the Bayesian over the classical method are given. Tables of confidence limits calculated by the Bayesian method are provided for quick reference.

Kraft, Ralph P.; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.

1991-01-01

461

SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS  

SciTech Connect

We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg{sup 2} map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 mum; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 mum, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 mum, over the range approx0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.

Patanchon, Guillaume [Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet 75205 Paris (France); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Bock, James J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de AstrofIsica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Olmi, Luca, E-mail: patanchon@apc.univ-paris-diderot.f [Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, P.O. Box 23343, UPR Station, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

2009-12-20

462

DAILY STEP COUNTS IN A US COHORT WITH COPD  

PubMed Central

Background Baseline values for daily step counts in US adults with COPD and knowledge of its accurate measurement, natural change over time, and independent relationships with measures of COPD severity are limited. Methods 127 persons with stable COPD wore the StepWatch Activity Monitor (SAM) for 14 days, and 102 of them wore it a median 3.9 months later. SAM counts were compared to manual counts in the clinic. We assessed change over time, the effect of season, and relationships with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted, 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, the modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea score, and the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Total Score (SGRQ-TS). Results 98% of subjects were males, with mean age 71 ± 8 years and FEV1 1.48 ± 0.54 L (52 ± 19 % predicted). All 4 GOLD stages were represented, with the most subjects in GOLD II (44%) and GOLD III (37%). The SAM had > 90% accuracy in 99% of subjects. Average step count was 5,680 steps/day, which decreased with increasing GOLD stage (p=0.0046). Subjects walked 645 fewer steps/day at follow-up, which was partly explained by season of monitoring (p=0.013). In a multivariate model, FEV1 % predicted, 6MWT distance and MMRC score were weakly associated with daily step counts, while SGRQ-TS was not. Conclusions These findings will aid the design of future studies using daily step counts in COPD. Accurately measured, daily step counts decline over time partly due to season and capture unique information about COPD status. PMID:22521225

MOY, MARILYN L.; DANILACK, VALERY A.; WESTON, NICOLE A.; GARSHICK, ERIC

2013-01-01

463

Biomolecular network motif counting and discovery by color coding.  

PubMed

Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of many organisms share global topological features such as degree distribution, k-hop reachability, betweenness and closeness. Yet, some of these networks can differ significantly from the others in terms of local structures: e.g. the number of specific network motifs can vary significantly among PPI networks. Counting the number of network motifs provides a major challenge to compare biomolecular networks. Recently developed algorithms have been able to count the number of induced occurrences of subgraphs with k < or = 7 vertices. Yet no practical algorithm exists for counting non-induced occurrences, or counting subgraphs with k > or = 8 vertices. Counting non-induced occurrences of network motifs is not only challenging but also quite desirable as available PPI networks include several false interactions and miss many others. In this article, we show how to apply the 'color coding' technique for counting non-induced occurrences of subgraph topologies in the form of trees and bounded treewidth subgraphs. Our algorithm can count all occurrences of motif G' with k vertices in a network G with n vertices in time polynomial with n, provided k = O(log n). We use our algorithm to obtain 'treelet' distributions for k < or = 10 of available PPI networks of unicellular organisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Escherichia coli and Helicobacter Pyloris), which are all quite similar, and a multicellular organism (Caenorhabditis elegans) which is significantly different. Furthermore, the treelet distribution of the unicellular organisms are similar to that obtained by the 'duplication model' but are quite different from that of the 'preferential attachment model'. The treelet distribution is robust w.r.t. sparsification with bait/edge coverage of 70% but differences can be observed when bait/edge coverage drops to 50%. PMID:18586721

Alon, Noga; Dao, Phuong; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Sahinalp, S Cenk

2008-07-01

464

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center study examines predicting ovarian cancer by counting tumor-attacking immune cells  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have developed a new method for counting a special class of cancer-fighting cells – called tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes, or TILs – reliably, quickly and cheaply in patients with early stage and advanced ovarian cancer.

465

Safety and Immunogenicity of H1/IC31®, an Adjuvanted TB Subunit Vaccine, in HIV-Infected Adults with CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts Greater than 350 cells/mm3: A Phase II, Multi-Centre, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults. Methods HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or placebo was randomly allocated in a 5?1 ratio. The vaccine was administered intramuscularly at day 0 and 56. Safety assessment was based on medical history, clinical examinations, and blood and urine testing. Immunogenicity was determined by a short-term whole blood intracellular cytokine staining assay. Results 47 of the 48 randomised participants completed both vaccinations. In total, 459 mild or moderate and 2 severe adverse events were reported. There were three serious adverse events in two vaccinees classified as not related to the investigational product. Local injection site reactions were more common in H1/IC31 versus placebo recipients (65.0% vs. 12.5%, p?=?0.015). Solicited systemic and unsolicited adverse events were similar by study arm. The baseline CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load were similar by study arm and remained constant over time. The H1/IC31 vaccine induced a persistent Th1-immune response with predominately TNF-? and IL-2 co-expressing CD4+ T cells, as well as polyfunctional IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2 expressing CD4+ T cells. Conclusion H1/IC31 was well tolerated and safe in HIV-infected adults with a CD4+ Lymphocyte count greater than 350 cells/mm3. The vaccine did not have an effect on CD4+ T cell count or HIV-1 viral load. H1/IC31 induced a specific and durable Th1 immune response. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR) PACTR201105000289276 PMID:25490675

Reither, Klaus; Katsoulis, Lynn; Beattie, Trevor; Gardiner, Nicolene; Lenz, Nicole; Said, Khadija; Mfinanga, Elirehema; Pohl, Christian; Fielding, Katherine L.; Jeffery, Hannah; Kagina, Benjamin M.; Hughes, Elisabeth J.; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hanekom, Willem A.; Hoff, Søren T.; Bang, Peter; Kromann, Ingrid; Daubenberger, Claudia; Andersen, Peter; Churchyard, Gavin J.

2014-01-01

466

Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

467

Upper Limits from Counting Experiments with Multiple Pipelines  

E-print Network

In counting experiments, one can set an upper limit on the rate of a Poisson process based on a count of the number of events observed due to the process. In some experiments, one makes several counts of the number of events, using different instruments, different event detection algorithms, or observations over multiple time intervals. We demonstrate how to generalize the classical frequentist upper limit calculation to the case where multiple counts of events are made over one or more time intervals using several (not necessarily independent) procedures. We show how different choices of the rank ordering of possible outcomes in the space of counts correspond to applying different levels of significance to the various measurements. We propose an ordering that is matched to the sensitivity of the different measurement procedures and show that in typical cases it gives stronger upper limits than other choices. As an example, we show how this method can be applied to searches for gravitational-wave bursts, where multiple burst-detection algorithms analyse the same data set, and demonstrate how a single combined upper limit can be set on the gravitational-wave burst rate.

Patrick J. Sutton

2010-04-07

468

Upper limits from counting experiments with multiple pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In counting experiments, one can set an upper limit on the rate of a Poisson process based on a count of the number of events observed due to the process. In some experiments, one makes several counts of the number of events, using different instruments, different event detection algorithms or observations over multiple time intervals. We demonstrate how to generalize the classical frequentist upper limit calculation to the case where multiple counts of events are made over one or more time intervals using several (not necessarily independent) procedures. We show how different choices of the rank ordering of possible outcomes in the space of counts correspond to applying different levels of significance to the various measurements. We propose an ordering that is matched to the sensitivity of the different measurement procedures and show that in typical cases it gives stronger upper limits than other choices. As an example, we show how this method can be applied to searches for gravitational-wave bursts, where multiple burst-detection algorithms analyse the same data set, and demonstrate how a single combined upper limit can be set on the gravitational-wave burst rate.

Sutton, Patrick J.

2009-12-01

469

Development of a stained cell nuclei counting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel cell counting system which exploits the Fast Radial Symmetry Transformation (FRST) algorithm [1]. The driving force behind our system is a research on neurogenesis in the intact nervous system of Manduca Sexta or the Tobacco Hornworm, which was being studied to assess the impact of age, food and environment on neurogenesis. The varying thickness of the intact nervous system in this species often yields images with inhomogeneous background and inconsistencies such as varying illumination, variable contrast, and irregular cell size. For automated counting, such inhomogeneity and inconsistencies must be addressed, which no existing work has done successfully. Thus, our goal is to devise a new cell counting algorithm for the images with non-uniform background. Our solution adapts FRST: a computer vision algorithm which is designed to detect points of interest on circular regions such as human eyes. This algorithm enhances the occurrences of the stained-cell nuclei in 2D digital images and negates the problems caused by their inhomogeneity. Besides FRST, our algorithm employs standard image processing methods, such as mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. We have evaluated the developed cell counting system with fourteen digital images of Tobacco Hornworm's nervous system collected for this study with ground-truth cell counts by biology experts. Experimental results show that our system has a minimum error of 1.41% and mean error of 16.68% which is at least forty-four percent better than the algorithm without FRST.

Timilsina, Niranjan; Moffatt, Christopher; Okada, Kazunori

2011-03-01

470

Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules.

Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

2015-03-01

471

Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules  

PubMed Central

Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

2015-01-01

472

Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules.  

PubMed

Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

2015-01-01

473

Counting radioactive noble gas atoms: Lasers, accelerators or decay counters?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon-220 and Radon-222 in environmental air samples can be measured on-line with high temporal resolution by state-of-the-art alpha counting. Argon-37, Krypton-85 and Argon-39 are measured routinely by low level decay counting using high-pressure gas proportional counters in an underground laboratory. For Krypton-81 decay counting is not possible in environmental samples. Therefore, various attempts have been made to use atom counting techniques for this isotope. Laser Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy was used to count Kr-81 atoms from old groundwater samples. In a more recent study groundwater dating in the Great Artesian Basin in Australia was accomplished using Cyclotron Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy. Collinear Beam Spectroscopy using Photon Burst Detection and Atom Trap Trace Analysis were successfully used to detect both Kr-81 and Kr-85 in natural Kr samples. Most of these new techniques, however, need to be further improved to become routine tools in environmental studies. 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Lehmann, Bernhard E.

2001-08-01

474

Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter  

DOEpatents

A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for counting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensated circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

Todd, Richard A. (Powell, TN)

1981-01-01

475

Counting cells with a low-cost integrated microfluidics-waveguide sensor.  

PubMed

The capability to count cells from biofluids at low cost has important diagnostic implications in resource-poor settings. Many approaches have been developed to address this important need, and while most envision a low per-test cost, the detector instrument can be quite expensive. In this report, we present a novel device that enables low-cost and rapid counting of cells from a drop of blood. We demonstrate a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by ion exchange in glass that underlies a microfluidic structure for capturing cells. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated by the number of metal nanoparticles tagged to the cells because of the interaction of the metal particles with the evanescent field of the waveguide. Calibration of the sensor using bead-tagged lymphocytes captured from human blood showed that the sensor could semi-quantitatively count as few as 100 cells/µL of blood. This technology enables the enumeration of specifically captured cells, allowing for a point-of-care, hand-held device for fast and affordable cell counting in screening, remote, or resource-poor settings. PMID:22454696

Garcia, Daniel; Ghansah, Isaac; Leblanc, John; Butte, Manish J

2012-03-01

476

Lymphoblast morphology in predicting leukemic meningeal relapse with low chamber count and lymphoblasts.  

PubMed

The diagnostic criteria for meningeal relapse (MR) of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chamber count of more than five leukocytes per microliter and a cytomorphological evaluation revealing lymphoblasts. A dilemma arises when confronted with a patient with a low CSF white blood cell (WBC) chamber count and lymphoblasts. We utilized a scoring system to review lymphoblast morphology in 12 such patients. A cell was defined as a lymphoblast if it could not be easily categorized as a lymphocyte, monocyte. histiocyte, or granulocyte. Each lymphoblast was scored on four parameters: presence of nucleoli, homogeneous distribution of chromatin, nucleocytoplasmic ratio greater than 75%, and nuclear irregularity. Cells were scored without knowledge of the patients' out come. Seven patients eventually developed MR by current criteria and five patients never relapsed. The mean lymphoblast scores for patients that did and did not relapse were 2.35 and 1.53, respectively (P < .001). The percent of cells scored as lymphoblasts was also significantly higher in patients that relapsed, 36.9% vs. 19.4% (P = .01). Our study shows that careful cytomorphologic analysis can predict which patients with low chamber counts and "blasts" on cytocentrifuge examination will progress to meningeal relapse. We recommend reviewing the definition of MR and using a scoring system when confronted with blasts in a low chamber count cerebrospinal fluid specimen. PMID:9180910

Goldsby, R E; Morgan, J G; Egger, M J; Feusner, J

1997-08-01

477

Prognostic significance of peripheral monocyte count in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Methods Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. Results The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. Conclusion The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL. PMID:23638998

2013-01-01

478

Gasolines as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

Gasolines from several commercial sources have been used as primary solvents in liquid scintillation counting of dry and aqueous samples of either /sup 3/H- or /sup 14/C-labeled compounds. Dry samples can be counted only by the addition of fluors to the gasolines, and compared to a standard liquid scintillator, efficiencies of around 75% were attained. For the counting of aqueous samples, gasolines must also be supplemented with secondary solvents (i.e., 10% naphthalene, 5% Triton X-100, or 10% methanol). Simply with Triton X-100, efficiencies similar to those obtained with a dioxane-based liquid scintillator were observed in the case of some gasolines. Drawbacks to gasoline are the higher toxicity and the variation of efficiency, probably depending on the presence of color markers. On the positive side is the low price of the gasolines, compared with either toluene or dioxane, and the facility of purchasing.

Fernandez, A.; Ma Pinto, R.; Sillero, A.

1986-11-01

479

An electronic pollen detection method using Coulter counting principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for detecting and counting pollen particles based on Coulter counting principle is presented. This approach also provides information on the size and surface charges of the micro particles, allowing for preliminary differentiation of pollens from other micro particles. Three samples are studied: polymethyl methacrylate particles, tree pollens from Juniperus Scopulorum and grass pollens from Secale Cerale. The samples, suspended in diluted KCl aqueous solutions in an electrochemical cell, were allowed to pass through a microchannel and the conductance of the microchannel was sampled with a Gamry ® Potentiostat. The changes in the conductance due to the passing of the micro particles was thus recorded and analyzed. The experimental results showed that tree pollens and grass pollens display distinctive behaviors. The phenomena may be attributed to the differences in the surface characteristics of the pollens and is potentially useful for counting and differentiating different micro particles.

Zhang, Zheng; Zhe, Jiang; Chandra, Santanu; Hu, Jun

480

Programmer's guide for LIFE2's rainflow counting algorithm  

SciTech Connect

The LIFE2 computer code is a fatique/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. The numerical formulation of the code uses a series of cycle count matrices to describe the cyclic stress states imposed upon the turbine. In this formulation, each stress cycle is counted or binsed'' according to the magnitude of its mean stress and alternating stress components and by the operating condition of the turbine. A set of numerical algorithms has been incorporated into the LIFE2 code. These algorithms determine the cycle count matrices for a turbine component using stress-time histories of the imposed stress states. This paper describes the design decisions that were made and explains the implementation of these algorithms using Fortran 77. 7 refs., 7 figs.

Schluter, L.L.

1991-01-01

481

Rainflow counting algorithm for the LIFE2 fatigue analysis code  

SciTech Connect

The LIFE2 computer code is a fatigue/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. The numerical formulation of the code uses a series of cycle count matrices to describe the cyclic stress states imposed upon the turbine. In this formulation, each stress cycle is counted or binsed'' according to the magnitude of its mean stress and alternating stress components and by the operating condition of the turbine. This paper describes a set of numerical algorithms that have been incorporated into the LIFE2 code. These algorithms determine the cycle count matrices for a turbine component using stress-time histories of the imposed stress states. Example problems are used to illustrate the use of these algorithms. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Schluter, L.L.; Sutherland, H.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1989-01-01

482

Semiparametric analysis of zero-inflated count data.  

PubMed

Medical and public health research often involve the analysis of count data that exhibit a substantially large proportion of zeros, such as the number of heart attacks and the number of days of missed primary activities in a given period. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model, which hypothesizes a two-point heterogeneity in the population characterized by a binary random effect, is generally used to model such data. Subjects are broadly categorized into the low-risk group leading to structural zero counts and high-risk (or normal) group so that the counts can be modeled by a Poisson regression model. The main aim is to identify the explanatory variables that have significant effects on (i) the probability that the subject is from the low-risk group by means of a logistic regression formulation; and (ii) the magnitude of the counts, given that the subject is from the high-risk group by means of a Poisson regression where the effects of the covariates are assumed to be linearly related to the natural logarithm of the mean of the counts. In this article we consider a semiparametric zero-inflated Poisson regression model that postulates a possibly nonlinear relationship between the natural logarithm of the mean of the counts and a particular covariate. A sieve maximum likelihood estimation method is proposed. Asymptotic properties of the proposed sieve maximum likelihood estimators are discussed. Under some mild conditions, the estimators are shown to be asymptotically efficient and normally distributed. Simulation studies were carried out to investigate the performance of the proposed method. For illustration purpose, the method is applied to a data set from a public health survey conducted in Indonesia where the variable of interest is the number of days of missed primary activities due to illness in a 4-week period. PMID:17156273

Lam, K F; Xue, Hongqi; Cheung, Yin Bun

2006-12-01

483

The 24 Micron Source Counts in Deep Spitzer Surveys  

E-print Network

Galaxy source counts in the infrared provide strong constraints on the evolution of the bolometric energy output from distant galaxy populations. We present the results from deep 24 micron imaging from Spitzer surveys, which include approximately 50,000 sources to an 80% completeness of 60 uJy. The 24 micron counts rapidly rise at near-Euclidean rates down to 5 mJy, increase with a super-Euclidean rate between 0.4 - 4 mJy, and converge below 0.3 mJy. The 24 micron counts exceed expectations from non-evolving models by a factor >10 at 0.1 mJy. The peak in the differential number counts corresponds to a population of faint sources that is not expected from predictions based on 15 micron counts from ISO. We argue that this implies the existence of a previously undetected population of infrared-luminous galaxies at z ~ 1-3. Integrating the counts to 60 uJy, we derive a lower limit on the 24 micron background intensity of 1.9 +/- 0.6 nW m-2 sr-1 of which the majority (~ 60%) stems from sources fainter than 0.4 mJy. Extrapolating to fainter flux densities, sources below 60 uJy contribute 0.8 {+0.9/-0.4} nW m-2 sr-1 to the background, which provides an estimate of the total 24 micron background of 2.7 {+1.1/-0.7} nW m-2 sr-1.

Casey Papovich; H. Dole; E. Egami; E. Le Floc'h; P. G. Perez-Gonzalez; A. Alonso-Herrero; L. Bai; C. A. Beichman; M. Blaylock; C. W. Engelbracht; K. D. Gordon; D. C. Hines; K. A. Misselt; J. E. Morrison; J. Mould; J. Muzerolle; G. Neugebauer; P. L. Richards; G. H. Rieke; M. J. Rieke; J. R. Rigby; K. Y. L. Su; E. T. Young

2004-06-01

484

FAR-ULTRAVIOLET NUMBER COUNTS OF FIELD GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

The far-ultraviolet (FUV) number counts of galaxies constrain the evolution of the star formation rate density of the universe. We report the FUV number counts computed from FUV imaging of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and small areas within the GOODS-North and South fields. These data were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts sample an FUV AB magnitude range from 21 to 29 and cover a total area of 15.9 arcmin{sup 2}, {approx}4 times larger than the most recent HST FUV study. Our FUV counts intersect bright FUV Galaxy Evolution Explorer counts at 22.5 mag and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytic models based on dark matter 'merger trees' by R. S. Somerville et al. We show that the number counts are {approx}35% lower than in previous HST studies that use smaller areas. The differences between these studies are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more lines of sight and more area than previous HST FUV studies. The integrated light from field galaxies is found to contribute between 65.9{sup +8}{sub -8} and 82.6{sup +12}{sub -12} photons s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1} to the FUV extragalactic background. These measurements set a lower limit for the total FUV background light.

Voyer, Elysse N.; De Mello, Duilia F. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Gardner, Jonathan P. [Astrophysics Science Division, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Siana, Brian D., E-mail: 48voyer@cardinalmail.cua.edu [California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2011-08-01

485

Phase transitions in full counting statistics for periodic pumping  

E-print Network

We discuss the problem of full counting statistics for periodic pumping. The probability generating function is usually defined on a circle of the "physical" values of the counting parameter, with its periodicity corresponding to charge quantization. The extensive part of the generating function can either be an analytic function on this circle or have singularities. These two cases may be interpreted as different thermodynamic phases in time domain. We discuss several examples of phase transitions between these phases for classical and quantum systems. Finally, we prove a criterion for the "analytic" phase in the problem of a quantum pump for noninteracting fermions.

Dmitri A. Ivanov; Alexander G. Abanov

2010-07-16

486

Spermatid count as a predictor of response to FSH therapy.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the predictive power of spermatid count and cytology for assisted reproduction outcome after FSH therapy. A total of 174 men with severe oligozoospermia and normal plasma FSH concentration underwent semen analysis including spermatid count, TUNEL test, FISH analysis for sperm aneuploidies and testicular fine-needle aspiration cytology. Ninety-two men with hypospermatogenesis received FSH therapy for 3 months and 82 patients with maturative disturbance or partial obstruction served as controls. Semen was analysed at baseline, after FSH therapy and after 3- and 9-month follow up, and pregnancies were recorded. Subjects not reaching pregnancy at 3-month follow up were recommended assisted reproduction treatment. Spermatid count was related to testicular cytology: spermatid concentrations <0.01, 0.01-0.3 and >0.3 × 10(6)/ml were predictive of partial obstruction, hypospermatogenesis and maturative disturbance. FSH therapy patients showed increases in sperm number and motility (both P < 0.001), allowing some couples to undergo intrauterine insemination instead of IVF. Cumulative pregnancy rate after 12 months was higher with FSH therapy (44.6%) than without (22.0%; P = 0.002). FSH therapy improved pregnancy rate and sometimes allowed less invasive assisted reproduction treatment in well-selected patients. Spermatid count could represent a new parameter to predict response to FSH therapy. One-hundred seventy-four patients with severe reduction of sperm count and normal sex hormones plasma levels underwent semen analysis with spermatid count, and testicular fine needle aspiration cytologiy (FNAC). Ninety-two men infertile men with reduced sperm production (hypospermatogenesis) were treated with highly purified urofollitropin and 82 patients with sperm maturative defects or partial obstruction of the seminal tract served as controls. After treatment and after the following 3 and 9 months all subjects performed a new semen analysis and pregnancies were recorded. Subjects who had not reached spontaneous pregnancy were suggested to undergo assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). Spermatid count was strongly related to testicular cytology: spermatid concentrations were predictive of partial obstruction, hypospermatogenesis and maturative disturbance respectively. Treated patients showed significant increase in sperm number and motility allowing some couples to undergo easier and less invasive assisted reproductive techniques. The number of pregnancies was significantly higher among treated (44.6%) than untreated couples (22.0%). Our data confirmed that FSH treatment can induce a significant improvemet of pergnancy rate and sometimes allows less invasive ARTs use in well selected severe oligozoospermic patients. Moreover, we suggest that spermatid count can be useful to define tubular status and could represent a new parameter to predict response to FSH therapy. PMID:24816256

Garolla, Andrea; Selice, Riccardo; Engl, Bruno; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Menegazzo, Massimo; Finos, Livio; Lenzi, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo

2014-07-01

487

Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator  

E-print Network

Using an optical probe along with single photon detection we have performed effective phonon counting measurements of the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a nanomechanical resonator. Applying these measurements in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss set-up, phonon correlations of the nanomechanical resonator are explored from below to above threshold of a parametric instability leading to self-oscillation of the resonator. Discussion of the results in terms of a "phonon laser", and analysis of the sensitivity of the phonon counting technique are presented.

Justin D. Cohen; Sean M. Meenehan; Gregory S. MacCabe; Simon Groblacher; Amir H. Safavi-Naeini; Francesco Marsili; Matthew D. Shaw; Oskar Painter

2014-10-04

488

A note on the Full Counting Statistics of paired fermions  

E-print Network

We study the trace of the exponentials of general fermion bi-linears, including pairing terms, and including non Hermitian forms. In particular, we give elementary derivations for determinant and pfaffian formulae for such traces, and use these to obtain general expressions for the full counting statistics in states associated with quadratic Hamiltonians including BCS-like pairing terms and fermion parity in a prescribed region or set of modes. We also derive pfaffian expressions for state overlaps and counting statistics in states built out of the vacuum by creation of pairs of particles.

Israel Klich

2014-09-14

489

Power-counting renormalizability of generalized Horava gravity  

E-print Network

In an earlier article [arXiv:0902.0590 [hep-th], Phys. Rev D80 (2009) 025011], I discussed the potential benefits of allowing Lorentz symmetry breaking in quantum field theories. In particular I discussed the perturbative power-counting finiteness of the normal-ordered :P(phi)^{z>=d}_{d+1}: scalar quantum field theories, and sketched the implications for Horava's model of quantum gravity. In the current rather brief addendum, I will tidy up some dangling issues and fill out some of the technical details of the argument indicating the power-counting renormalizability of a z>=d variant of Horava gravity in (d+1) dimensions.

Matt Visser

2009-12-24

490

A latent process regression model for spatially correlated count data.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a regression model for spatially correlated count data that generalizes the work of Zeger (1988, Biometrika 75, 621-629) developed in a time-series setting. In this approach, spatial correlation is introduced through a latent process, and the marginal mean function may contain spatial trends and covariates. Generalized estimating equations are used to estimate and perform marginal inference on the spatial trend and covariate effects. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated using an example of the distribution of neuronal cell counts in a laboratory culture dish. PMID:9192458

McShane, L M; Albert, P S; Palmatier, M A

1997-06-01

491

Mystery Jars: Make Your Own: Estimating and Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners make a counting/estimating jar to exchange with friends or bring home. Each learner fills a clear plastic cup with small objects such as beads or pennies and keeps count of exactly how many are in the cup. Others have to estimate how many are in the cup. Younger learners use larger objects, so only up to about 15 fill the cup; older ones can use smaller objects, so 50 or more fill the cup. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

TERC

2010-01-01

492

Correlation between Peripheral White Blood Cell Counts and Hyperglycemic Emergencies  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the correlation between differential leukocyte counts and hyperglycemic emergencies. Methods: Fifty patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), 50 patients with diabetic ketosis (DK), 50 non-DK diabetic patients with stable glycemic control, and 50 normal controls were enrolled. Their total and differential leukocyte counts were measured and evaluated at admission and after treatment. Results: The patients with DKA and DK had higher plasma glucose levels (20.84±6.73 mmol/L, 15.55±2.6 mmol/L, respectively) and more median leukocytes (13325/mm3 and 6595/mm3, respectively) and median neutrophils (11124 /mm3 and 4125/mm3, respectively) but fewer median eosinophils (28/mm3 and 72/mm3, respectively) compared to non-DK and control groups (all p < 0.05). Acute infection increased the elevating extent. The median leukocyte counts in DK and non-DK patients (6595/mm3 and 6008/mm3, respectively) were within the normal range. The counts of total leukocytes and neutrophils were significantly higher but eosinophils lower in severe DKA cases than in mild/moderate cases (p < 0.05). When the DKA and DK and infection resolved, total leukocytes and neutrophils fell, but eosinophils increased. The counts of total leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes were negatively correlated with arterial pH levels (r = -0.515, r = -0.510, r = -0.517, all p < 0.001, respectively) and positively correlated with plasma glucose levels (r = 0.722, r = 0.733, r = 0.632, all p < 0.05, respectively) in DKA patients. The arterial pH level was the most significant factor affecting total leukocytes in DKA (? = 0.467, p = 0.003). The diagnosis analysis showed that higher total leukocyte and neutrophil counts and lower eosinophil counts had a significant ability to reflect the presence of hyperglycemic emergencies. Conclusion: More total leukocytes and neutrophils but fewer eosinophils was significantly correlated with DKA and DK. Leukocyte counts can add valuable information to reflect the presence of hyperglycemic crisis and acute infection. PMID:23630441

Xu, Wei; Wu, Hai-feng; Ma, Shao-gang; Bai, Feng; Hu, Wen; Jin, Yue; Liu, Hong

2013-01-01

493

Fluctuations of differential number counts of radio continuum sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the differential number counts of sources in radio continuum surveys, including all terms at linear order in cosmological perturbations. Our framework does not assume a specific gauge condition. This general approach allows us to recover gauge invariance explicitly. With the complete derivations of the covariant volume integral on the past light cone, we have identified several contributions in the number counts. To clarify their underlying physics, we present each contribution in terms of scalar, vector and tensor modes. This theoretical framework promises to be widely applicable to continuum radio galaxy surveys to model the expected angular power spectrum and two-point correlation.

Chen, Song; Schwarz, Dominik J.

2015-02-01

494

Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by photon counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of radiation signals is at the heart of precision metrology and sensing. In this article we show how the fluctuations in photon-counting signals can be exploited to optimally extract information about the physical parameters that govern the dynamics of the emitter. For a simple two-level emitter subject to photon counting, we show that the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound based on the full detection record can be evaluated from the waiting-time distribution in the fluorescence signal which can, in turn, be calculated for both perfect and imperfect detectors by a quantum trajectory analysis. We provide an optimal estimator achieving that bound.

Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

2014-05-01

495

Generational Reference Counting: A Reduced-Communication Distributed Storage Reclamation Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes generational reference counting, a new distributed storage reclamation scheme for loosely-coupled multiprocessors. It has a significantly lower communication overhead than dis- tributed versions of conventional reference counting. Although generational reference counting has greater computational and space requirements than ordinary reference counting, it may provide a significant sav- ing in overall execution time on machines in which message

Benjamin Goldberg

1989-01-01

496

Counting Tetrahedra with Integer Sides Phil Benjamin & Kristen Lew May 4, 2012  

E-print Network

Counting Tetrahedra with Integer Sides Phil Benjamin & Kristen Lew May 4, 2012 Introduction The original problem was to count the number of non-degenerate non-isomorphic tetrahedra with integer edges to account for duplicate counting This approach is implemented in the program CountAllTetrahedra

Zeilberger, Doron

497

Growth Curve Models for Zero-Inflated Count Data: An Application to Smoking Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article applies growth curve models to longitudinal count data characterized by an excess of zero counts. We discuss a zero-inflated Poisson regression model for longitudinal data in which the impact of covariates on the initial counts and the rate of change in counts over time is the focus of inference. Basic growth curve models using a…

Liu, Hui; Powers, Daniel A.

2007-01-01

498

A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...

499

Notes On U(1) Instanton Counting On $A_{l-1}$ ALE Spaces  

E-print Network

In this note, we investigate the detailed relationship between the orbifold partition counting and the (l-quotient, l-core) pair counting. We show that the orbifold partition counting is exactly the same as the (l-quotient, l-core) pair counting.

Liu, Haitao

2010-01-01

500

Modelling habitat associations with fingernail clam (Family: Sphaeriidae) counts at multiple spatial scales using hierarchical count models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Macroinvertebrate count data often exhibit nested or hierarchical structure. Examples include multiple measurements along each of a set of streams, and multiple synoptic measurements from each of a set of ponds. With data exhibiting hierarchical structure, outcomes at both sampling (e.g. Within stream) and aggregated (e.g. Stream) scales are often of interest. Unfortunately, methods for modelling hierarchical count data have received little attention in the ecological literature. 2. We demonstrate the use of hierarchical count models using fingernail clam (Family: Sphaeriidae) count data and habitat predictors derived from sampling and aggregated spatial scales. The sampling scale corresponded to that of a standard Ponar grab (0.052 m(2)) and the aggregated scale to impounded and backwater regions within 38-197 km reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Impounded and backwater regions were resampled annually for 10 years. Consequently, measurements on clams were nested within years. Counts were treated as negative binomial random variates, and means from each resampling event as random departures from the impounded and backwater region grand means. 3. Clam models were improved by the addition of covariates that varied at both the sampling and regional scales. Substrate composition varied at the sampling scale and was associated with model improvements, and reductions (for a given mean) in variance at the sampling scale. Inorganic suspended solids (ISS) levels, measured in the summer preceding sampling, also yielded model improvements and were associated with reductions in variances at the regional rather than sampling scales. ISS levels were negatively associated with mean clam counts. 4. Hierarchical models allow hierarchically structured data to be modelled without ignoring information specific to levels of the hierarchy. In addition, information at each hierarchical level may be modelled as functions of covariates that themselves vary by and within levels. As a result, hierarchical models provide researchers and resource managers with a method for modelling hierarchical data that explicitly recognises both the sampling design and the information contained in the corresponding data.

Gray, B.R.; Haro, R.J.; Rogala, J.T.; Sauer, J.S.

2005-01-01