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1

Counting!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice matching number objects to numerals To play a game counting fish in the sea, click Fishy Count. Count the fish and click the right number! To play a game counting shapes, click Counting Game. Count the number of shapes and click the right number! Practice numbers 1-10! Click How Many? (0-10). Count the objects and choose the ...

Draper, Ms.

2006-11-07

2

A Method for Counting Phytoheinagglutinin- Stimulated Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

formation and mitosis in vitro when cultured in the presence of plwto- hemagglutinin ( PHA).'4 Little information has been reported on the numl)er of lymphocytes which survive and transform during the culturing interval. It has been very difficult to enumerate lymphocytes in cultures containing PFIA I)ecause the agglutinated erythrocytes become resistant to the lytic agents normally used and the lymphocytes

C. C. STEWART; M. INGRAs

1967-01-01

3

Crazy Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's count shapes and animals! Let's go to the farm to do some Apple Counting. Then let's have some Counting Fun with shapes and animals. Afterward let's grab a fishing pole and do some Fishy Counting! ...

Terch, Ms.

2010-01-27

4

Carbohydrate Counting  

MedlinePLUS

... Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Carb Counting Carbohydrate Counting Listen Carbohydrate counting, or " carb counting ," is ... the portion size to match. What Foods Have Carbohydrate? Foods that contain carbohydrate are: starchy foods like ...

5

No effect of lysis solutions on absolute CD19+ lymphocytes count and CD45 index in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

The absolute CD19+ lymphocytes count is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) management. At the present time, no standardized flow cytometry (FCM) protocol to measure B-lymphocytes counts is established. The aims of the present study were first to evaluate the effect of different lysis solutions and of red blood cell lysis per se on CLL lymphocytes count and B-lymphocytes CD45 expression and second to compare absolute B-lymphocytes counts obtained by single (SP) and dual platforms (DP). Absolute CD19+ B-lymphocytes counts and CD45 expression in 35 whole-blood CLL samples were determined by FCM using either different lysis solutions or using a no wash no lyse (NWNL) protocol. Single platform using microbeads was also evaluated for absolute quantification. The absolute CD19+ B-lymphocytes counts using different red blood cell lysis solutions correlated with NWNL method without any effect on CD45 expression. Bland and Altman plot showed homogenous distribution of bias; mean bias was less than 1% for all lysing solutions. Moreover, no statistically significant difference between SP and DP was observed. The type of lysis solution influences neither the CD19+ B-lymphocytes count nor the CD45 expression. The two systems, SP and DP, yield comparable values with excellent agreement. However, the tendency of slightly lower results with SP showed the requirement of larger studies before standardization of B-lymphocytes count in CLL patients. PMID:21638772

Mekouar, Hassan; Mullier, François; Dinon, Quentin; Bailly, Nicolas; Cornet, Yvan; Chatelain, Bernard

2011-06-02

6

Counting Craze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners practice counting objects found on patterned wrapping paper or fabric. Repeated experiences with counting will help young learners understand that the last number they say when counting objects tells them "how many" objects in all.

Houston, Children'S M.

2011-01-01

7

Effect of 6-day intense Kendo training on lymphocyte counts and its expression of CD95.  

PubMed

This study examines the effects of 6-day intensive training on lymphocyte counts and their expression of CD95. Eight healthy Kendo athletes underwent 6-day Kendo training of about 310 min each day. Blood samples were collected at 2 weeks before (PRE), the first day (Day 1), third day (Day 3), fifth day (Day 5), and 1 week after the training period (POST) to determine lymphocyte counts and CD95 expression on CD95 lymphocytes (CD4(+), CD8(+)) using flow cytometry. The total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower at Day 3 than at PRE. The CD8(+) cell counts were significantly lower at Day 3 than at PRE. The percentage of CD95(+) lymphocytes was significantly higher at Day 1 and Day 3 than at PRE. The percentage of CD8(+)CD95(+) cells did not change significantly. The total lymphocyte counts decreased and a concomitant increase of CD95(+) lymphocyte was observed, whereas the decrease in CD8(+) cell counts was not associated with the increase in CD8(+)CD95(+) cells. Therefore, short-term high-intensity exercise induced a decrease in the T lymphocyte counts without increasing in CD95(+) expression. PMID:19568765

Tanimura, Yuko; Kon, Michihiro; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Fuminori; Kono, Ichiro; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

2009-07-01

8

Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) with highest correlation seen in children with severe immuno-suppression (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and children >59 months of age (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Children were considered to have severe immuno-suppression if they met the following WHO set CD4 count thresholds: age below 12 months (CD4 counts < 1500 cells/mm3), age 12-35 months (CD4 count < 750 cells/mm3), age 36-59 months (CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3). WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories <12, 12-35, 36-59 and >59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.

2011-01-01

9

Counting Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores how counting collections of objects helps elementary-age children develop number sense and number relations. The authors provide evidence that counting collections offers multiple entry points for children at different places on the counting trajectory. It is suggested that the teacher's role is one of noticing, questioning,…

Schwerdtfeger, Julie Kern; Chan, Angela

2007-01-01

10

Count Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can findâand figure out "what counts." Itâs easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.

2010-01-01

11

Absolute lymphocyte count is associated with survival in ovarian cancer independent of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Background The immune system strongly influences outcome in patients with ovarian cancer. In particular, the absolute lymphocyte count in peripheral blood (ALC) and the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) have each been associated with favourable prognosis. However, the mechanistic relationships between ALC, TIL and prognosis are poorly understood. We hypothesized that high ALC values might be associated with stronger tumor immunity as manifested by increased TIL, decreased tumor burden and longer survival. Methods ALC values were collected from patient records ? 2 years before, during or after primary treatment for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). Lymphocyte subsets were assessed in peripheral blood by flow cytometry. CD8+ and CD20+ TIL were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Overall, patients had normal ALC values two or more years prior to diagnosis of HGSC. These values were not predictive of disease severity or survival upon subsequent development of HGSC. Rather, ALC declined upon development of HGSC in proportion to disease burden. This decline involved all lymphocyte subsets. ALC increased following surgery, remained stable during chemotherapy, but rarely recovered to pre-diagnostic levels. ALC values recorded at diagnosis did not correlate with CD8+ or CD20+ TIL but were associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions Patients with high intrinsic ALC values show no clinical or survival advantage upon subsequent development of HGSC. ALC values at diagnosis are prognostic due to an association with disease burden rather than TIL. Therapeutic enhancement of ALC may be necessary but not sufficient to improve survival in HGSC.

2012-01-01

12

Linear relationship between lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood and buffy coat collected during extracorporeal photopheresis.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is commonly used to treat patients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and lung transplant rejection (LTR) in our institution. The quantitative relationship between the number of white blood cells treated during ECP and the cell count in peripheral blood is unclear. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with GVHD and LTR receiving ECP with either UVAR?XTS or CELLEX (Therakos) were prospectively recruited for this study. A complete cell count with differential was performed on preprocedural peripheral blood and samples from the collected buffy coats. Correlation analysis and linear regression were performed between cell counts in peripheral blood and buffy coat. Collection efficiency was compared between UVAR?XTS and CELLEX. RESULTS: In all 52 patients, lymphocyte counts in buffy coat and peripheral blood showed strong correlation (r values were 0.85 and 0.983 for UVAR?XTS and CELLEX, respectively; p?lymphocytes and monocytes than UVAR?XTS per procedure (p?lymphocyte count can predict the number of lymphocytes within the buffy coat collected during ECP, which may justify the use of peripheral lymphocyte count as a surrogate for the cell dose treated per procedure. Peripheral monocyte counts may serve as an alternative. CELLEX is more efficient in collecting lymphocytes and monocytes than UVAR?XTS under conditions tested. PMID:23414109

Liu, Chang; Shah, Kalpna; Dynis, Marian; Eby, Charles S; Grossman, Brenda J

2013-02-17

13

RBC count  

MedlinePLUS

... Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Kidney tumor (renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia) Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Your RBC count will increase for several weeks ...

14

Pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV infection: Radiographic appearance is related to CD4 + T-lymphocyte count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting: An adult HIV outpatient clinic in Cape Town, South Africa.Objective: To investigate the relationship between the radiographic appearance of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in HIV infected patients and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count.Design: Pretreatment radiographs of 150 patients with newly diagnosed PTB were reviewed. CD4+ Tlymphocyte count was used as a marker of HIV disease progression.Results: Upper zone infiltrate typical of PTB

F. A. Post; R. Wood; G. P. Pillay

1995-01-01

15

Correlations among age, cytokines, lymphocyte subtypes, and platelet counts in autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura.  

PubMed

While autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura is mediated by autoantibodies, accumulating evidence suggests that T helper cells and the cytokines they produce also play a key role. We determined correlations among age, serum cytokine concentrations, circulating lymphocyte, and platelet counts in adult (n=19) and children (n=29) with autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. Correlations between age and cytokine levels were also assessed in healthy controls (n=50). Significant positive correlations between age and serum levels of interferon-gamma, age and CD4+ lymphocytes, age and natural killer cell count were observed in these patients. Absolute lymphocyte and CD8+ cell count was significantly inversely correlated with age. In adult patients, a significant inverse correlation between platelet and absolute lymphocyte count was observed. In pediatric patients, an inverse correlation of platelet count with serum concentration of interleukin-3 was recorded. In 50 healthy volunteers there were significant positive correlations between age and interleukin-3, -4, -6, and interferon-gamma, and significantly negative correlations with interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-alpha. Additional evaluations are necessary to identify the impact of age-related changes in immune function on the clinical course of autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. PMID:16933252

Culi?, Srdana; Labar, Boris; Marusi?, Ana; Salamuni?, Ilza

2006-10-15

16

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

Bunn, Ms.

2010-10-30

17

Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)  

SciTech Connect

Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

1980-03-01

18

Counting carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

19

Absolute Lymphocyte Count Predicts the Response to New Influenza Virus H1N1 Vaccination in Pediatric Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

We measured the vaccination response to the new H1N1 virus in relation to the lymphocyte count prior to vaccination in pediatric cancer patients. The absolute lymphocyte count above the lower normal limits (LNL) for age prior to vaccination predicts the response to influenza vaccination in pediatric cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

van der Flier, Michiel; Stelma, Foekje; van Leer-Buter, Coretta; Preijers, Frank W.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.

2013-01-01

20

Lymphocytopenia and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio predict bacteremia better than conventional infection markers in an emergency care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Absolute lymphocytopenia has been reported as a predictor of bacteremia in medical emergencies. Likewise, the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been shown a simple promising method to evaluate systemic inflammation in critically ill patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the ability of conventional infection markers, lymphocyte count and NLCR to predict bacteremia in adult patients admitted to the Emergency Department

Cornelis PC de Jager; Paul TL van Wijk; Rejiv B Mathoera; Jacqueline de Jongh-Leuvenink; Tom van der Poll; Peter C Wever

2010-01-01

21

Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART), but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs) have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb), and body mass index (BMI) to identify patients who

David M Moore; Anna Awor; Robert S Downing; Willy Were; Peter Solberg; David Tu; Keith Chan; Robert S Hogg; Jonathan Mermin

2007-01-01

22

Predictive value of lymphocytopenia and the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio for severe imported malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphocytopenia has frequently been described in patients with malaria, but studies on its association with disease severity have yielded conflicting results. The neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been introduced as a parameter for systemic inflammation in critically ill patients and was found, together with lymphocytopenia, to be a better predictor of bacteraemia than routine parameters like C-reactive protein and total leukocyte count. In the present study, the predictive value of the NLCR and lymphocytopenia for severe disease was evaluated in patients with imported malaria. Methods All patients diagnosed with malaria at the Harbour Hospital between January 1st 1999 and January 1st 2012 with differential white cell counts determined within the first 24 hours after admission were included in this retrospective study. Severe malaria was defined according to the WHO criteria. The performance of the NLCR and lymphocytopenia as a marker of severe malarial disease was compared back-to-back with that of C-reactive protein as a reference biomarker. Results A total of 440 patients (severe falciparum malaria n = 61, non-severe falciparum malaria n = 259, non-falciparum malaria n=120) were included in the study. Lymphocytopenia was present in 52% of all patients and the median NLCR of all patients was 3.2. Total lymphocyte counts and NLCR did not differ significantly between groups. A significant correlation of total leukocyte count and NLCR, but not lymphocyte count, with parasitaemia was found. ROC analysis revealed a good negative predictive value but a poor positive predictive value of both lymphocytopenia and NLCR and performance was inferior to that of C-reactive protein. After complete parasite clearance a significant rise in total leukocyte count and lymphocyte count and a significant decrease in NLCR was observed. Conclusion The NLCR was found to correlate with parasitaemia, but both lymphocytopenia and the NLCR were inferior to C-reactive protein as markers for severe disease in patients with imported malaria. The NLCR and lymphocytopenia are not useful as predictive markers for severe disease in imported malaria in the acute care setting.

2013-01-01

23

Count On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Count On is an educational mathematics Web site based in the United Kingdom. Mainly intended for elementary school students, Count On offers a variety of online multimedia games and modules that serve as a fun way to practice math concepts or learn new ones. The Explorer section is a good place to start when first visiting the site; it has everything from basic numbers to fractions to mathematical art. The Matrix is a virtual museum of mathematics, where users can learn about historical figures and innovations by exploring each room. The games section has many instructive resources, but it is difficult to see the connection to mathematics for a couple of them.

24

Emerging technologies for point-of-care CD4 T-lymphocyte counting.  

PubMed

A CD4 T-lymphocyte count determines eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in patients recently diagnosed with HIV and also monitors the efficacy of ART treatment thereafter. ART slows the progression of HIV to AIDS. In the developing world, CD4 tests are often performed in centralized laboratories, typically in urban areas. The expansion of ART programs into rural areas has created a need for rapid CD4 counting because logistical barriers can delay the timely dissemination of test results and affect patient care through delay in intervention or loss of follow-up care. CD4 measurement at the point-of-care (POC) in rural areas could help the facilitation of ART and monitoring of treatment. This review highlights recent technology developments with applications towards determining CD4 counts at the POC. PMID:21798607

Boyle, David S; Hawkins, Kenneth R; Steele, Matthew S; Singhal, Mitra; Cheng, Xuanhong

2011-07-26

25

Counting Penguins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)|

Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

1998-01-01

26

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.

2011-03-23

27

Counting Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

28

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

29

The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Study Objective The neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been identified as a predictor of bacteremia in medical emergencies. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of the NLCR in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods and Results Consecutive adult patients were prospectively studied. Pneumonia severity (CURB-65 score), clinical characteristics, complications and outcomes were related to the NLCR and compared with C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil count, white blood cell (WBC) count. The study cohort consisted of 395 patients diagnosed with CAP. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±16.0 years. 87.6% (346/395) of the patients required hospital admission, 7.8% (31/395) patients were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and 5.8% (23/395) patients of the study cohort died. The NLCR was increased in all patients, predicted adverse medical outcome and consistently increased as the CURB-65 score advanced. NLCR levels (mean ± SD) were significantly higher in non-survivors (23.3±16.8) than in survivors (13.0±11.4). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve for NLCR predicting mortality showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.701. This was better than the AUC for the neutrophil count, WBC count, lymphocyte count and CRP level (0.681, 0.672, 0.630 and 0.565, respectively). Conclusion Admission NLCR at the emergency department predicts severity and outcome of CAP with a higher prognostic accuracy as compared with traditional infection markers.

de Jager, Cornelis P. C.; Wever, Peter C.; Gemen, Eugenie F. A.; Kusters, Ron; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B.; van der Poll, Tom; Laheij, Robert J. F.

2012-01-01

30

Total leukocyte counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratios among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcers: independent of bacterial CagA status.  

PubMed

Elevated leukocyte counts can be a marker of inflammation and infection. The aim of this study was to determine the total leukocyte count and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease (PU) and among asymptomatic subjects (AS) and to evaluate if there is an association between these lab values and the presence of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Sixty H. pylori-infected PU patients, 63 AS carriers and 32 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (controls) were included in the study. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts and differentials were determined using standard hematological methods. The mean total WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among PU patients than in controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, the mean WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among AS patients than in controls (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.02, respectively). The differences of mean WBC counts mean neutrophil counts and NLCR were also significantly different (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) between the PU and AS patients. There were no differences in the PU and AS patients in regard to anti-CagA positivity. These results show the CagA factor was not associated with the presence or absence of symptoms in H. pylori infected patients. PMID:23682441

Jafarzadeh, A; Akbarpoor, V; Nabizadeh, M; Nemati, M; Rezayati, M T

2013-01-01

31

Immunogenetics of CD4 lymphocyte count recovery during antiretroviral therapy: An AIDS Clinical Trials Group study.  

PubMed

During antiretroviral therapy, CD4 lymphocyte count increases are modest in some patients despite virologic control. We explored whether polymorphisms in genes important for T cell expansion, survival, and apoptosis are associated with the magnitude of CD4 lymphocyte count recovery during antiretroviral therapy. We studied treatment-naive individuals who achieved sustained control of plasma viremia (<400 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) for at least 48 weeks after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and compared genotypes among individuals who had an increase of either <200 or > or =200 CD4 cells/mm3 from baseline. A total of 137 single-nucleotide polymorphisms across 17 genes were characterized in 873 study participants. In multivariate analyses that controlled for clinical variables, polymorphisms in genes encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), TNF- alpha , Bcl-2-interacting molecule (Bim), interleukin (IL)-15, and IL-15 receptor alpha chain (IL-15R alpha ) were associated with the magnitude of the increase in CD4 lymphocyte count, as were haplotypes in genes encoding interferon- alpha , IL-2, and IL-15R alpha (P < .05, for each). Multifactor dimensionality reduction identified a gene-gene interaction between IL-2/IL-15 receptor common beta chain and IL-2/IL-7/IL-15 receptor common gamma chain. Immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy is a complex phenotype that is influenced by multiple genetic variants. Future studies should validate these tentative associations and define underlying mechanisms. PMID:16991084

Haas, David W; Geraghty, Daniel E; Andersen, Janet; Mar, Jessica; Motsinger, Alison A; D'Aquila, Richard T; Unutmaz, Derya; Benson, Constance A; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Landay, Alan

2006-09-06

32

Relationship between Total Lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 count among peoples living with HIV, Southern Ethiopia: a retrospective evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: CD4 count is a standard measure of immunodeficiency in adults infected with HIV to initiate and monitor highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, it may not be feasible in resource poor countries. There is a need to have another marker of immunodeficiency that is less resource demanding. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between total

Deresse Daka; Eskindir Loha

2008-01-01

33

A quartz nanopillar hemocytometer for high-yield separation and counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes.  

PubMed

We report the development of a novel quartz nanopillar (QNP) array cell separation system capable of selectively capturing and isolating a single cell population including primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes from the whole pool of splenocytes. Integrated with a photolithographically patterned hemocytometer structure, the streptavidin (STR)-functionalized-QNP (STR-QNP) arrays allow for direct quantitation of captured cells using high content imaging. This technology exhibits an excellent separation yield (efficiency) of ~95.3 ± 1.1% for the CD4(+) T lymphocytes from the mouse splenocyte suspensions and good linear response for quantitating captured CD4(+) T-lymphoblasts, which is comparable to flow cytometry and outperforms any non-nanostructured surface capture techniques, i.e. cell panning. This nanopillar hemocytometer represents a simple, yet efficient cell capture and counting technology and may find immediate applications for diagnosis and immune monitoring in the point-of-care setting. PMID:22218701

Kim, Dong-Joo; Seol, Jin-Kyeong; Wu, Yu; Ji, Seungmuk; Kim, Gil-Sung; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Yong; Lim, Hyuneui; Fan, Rong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

2012-01-04

34

Preoperative lymphocyte count is a favorable prognostic factor of disease-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Recently, the prognostic value of cancer-related inflammatory response has been revealed. Previous studies showed that peripheral neutrophils and lymphocytes had significant impact on the prognosis of advanced and early-node-negative non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts in patients with NSCLC who underwent lobectomy and lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy. Retrospective analyses were performed to examine the impact of preoperative peripheral lymphocyte and neutrophil counts on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and to analyze the relationships of these factors to clinicopathological factors. A total of 142 patients with NSCLC were evaluated of which 57 (40.1 %) patients had local recurrence or metastasis. Multivariate analyses revealed that peripheral lymphocyte count was an independent favorable prognostic factor of DFS (hazard ratio 0.548; 95 % confidence interval 0.351-0.857; P = 0.008) but not OS (P = 0.164). The maximum logrank statistical value was 9.504 (P = 0.002) when the cutoff value of lymphocyte was 1,800 mm(-3). The median DFS was 318.0 days (95 % confidence interval 226.0-410.0) for lymphocyte ?1,800 mm(-3) group and 669.0 days (95 % confidence interval 0.0-1,431.0) for lymphocyte >1,800 mm(-3) group. Low lymphocyte count was related with lymphatic invasion (P = 0.012) and recurrence of NSCLC (P = 0.022). Peripheral neutrophil count had no impact on DFS or OS when analysis included all the 142 patients. Preoperative peripheral lymphocyte count, which is related with lymphatic invasion, is an independent favorable prognostic factor of DFS in patients with NSCLC who underwent lobectomy and lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23275140

Zhang, Jian; Huang, Shao-Hong; Li, Hui; Li, Yun; Chen, Xiu-Ling; Zhang, Wei-Qing; Chen, Hui-Guo; Gu, Li-Jia

2012-12-30

35

A quartz nanopillar hemocytometer for high-yield separation and counting of CD4+ T lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of a novel quartz nanopillar (QNP) array cell separation system capable of selectively capturing and isolating a single cell population including primary CD4+ T lymphocytes from the whole pool of splenocytes. Integrated with a photolithographically patterned hemocytometer structure, the streptavidin (STR)-functionalized-QNP (STR-QNP) arrays allow for direct quantitation of captured cells using high content imaging. This technology exhibits an excellent separation yield (efficiency) of ~95.3 +/- 1.1% for the CD4+ T lymphocytes from the mouse splenocyte suspensions and good linear response for quantitating captured CD4+ T-lymphoblasts, which is comparable to flow cytometry and outperforms any non-nanostructured surface capture techniques, i.e. cell panning. This nanopillar hemocytometer represents a simple, yet efficient cell capture and counting technology and may find immediate applications for diagnosis and immune monitoring in the point-of-care setting.We report the development of a novel quartz nanopillar (QNP) array cell separation system capable of selectively capturing and isolating a single cell population including primary CD4+ T lymphocytes from the whole pool of splenocytes. Integrated with a photolithographically patterned hemocytometer structure, the streptavidin (STR)-functionalized-QNP (STR-QNP) arrays allow for direct quantitation of captured cells using high content imaging. This technology exhibits an excellent separation yield (efficiency) of ~95.3 +/- 1.1% for the CD4+ T lymphocytes from the mouse splenocyte suspensions and good linear response for quantitating captured CD4+ T-lymphoblasts, which is comparable to flow cytometry and outperforms any non-nanostructured surface capture techniques, i.e. cell panning. This nanopillar hemocytometer represents a simple, yet efficient cell capture and counting technology and may find immediate applications for diagnosis and immune monitoring in the point-of-care setting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11338d

Kim, Dong-Joo; Seol, Jin-Kyeong; Wu, Yu; Ji, Seungmuk; Kim, Gil-Sung; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Yong; Lim, Hyuneui; Fan, Rong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

2012-03-01

36

Progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Is Influenced by CD4 T-Lymphocyte Count and Time Since Seroconversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among persons infected with human immu- nodeficiency virus (HIV) varies considerably and may be influenced by factors such as age, smoking, number of male partners per year, and CD4 T-lymphocyte count. The loss of CD4 lymphocytes is known to be the dominant factor in the progression to AIDS. However, it is unclear whether the

Kamilla Begtrup; Mads Melbye; Robert J. Biggar; James J. Goedert; Kim Knudsen; Per Kragh Andersen

37

Categorical counting.  

PubMed

Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments. PMID:20540994

Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard

2010-06-09

38

The Effect of Low CD4+ Lymphocyte Count on the Radiographic Patterns of HIV Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Nigerians  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the radiographic features in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and the association with CD4 lymphocyte count and sputum smear. Method. A prospective study was carried out on 89 HIV positive patients with PTB. The demographics, smoking history, sputum smear result, chest radiographic findings and CD4 lymphocyte count were documented. Results. Out of the 89 patients recruited in the study, 41 were males and 48 were females. Eighteen (18) patients had typical radiographic features, 60 patients had atypical radiographic features while only 11 of them had normal radiographic films. Sixty eight (68) patients had CD4 count <200?cells/mm3, 19 patients had CD4 count between 200–499?cells/mm3, while only 2 patients had CD4 count from 500?cells/mm3 upwards. The association between low CD4 count and radiographic finding was statistically significant, (P value <0.05). Sixty (60) patients had negative sputum smear for Acid and Alcohol Fast Bacilli (AAFB), while the remaining 29 patients had positive smear. The association between low CD4 count and negative smear was statistically significant (P value <0.05). Conclusion. The radiographic pattern and the result of the sputum smear for AAFB has a significant relationship and association with the immune status of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis.

Affusim, Christopher; Abah, Vivien; Kesieme, Emeka B.; Anyanwu, Kester; Salami, Taofik A. T.; Eifediyi, Reuben

2013-01-01

39

Verifying Reference Counted Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting is a pervasive resource management idiom where each resource contains a count of the number of clients that hold a reference to it, and each client increments (resp., de cre- ments) the count on acquiring (resp., releasing) the resour ce. If the reference count falls to zero, the system can reclaim the res ource. Reference counting is often

Michael Emmi; Ranjit Jhala; Rupak Majumdar

2007-01-01

40

Verifying Reference Counting Implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting is a widely-used resource management idiom which maintains a count of references to each resource by incrementing the count upon an acquisition, and decrementing upon a release; resources whose counts fall to zero may be recycled. We present an algorithm to verify the correctness of reference counting with minimal user interaction. Our algorithm performs com- positional verification through

Michael Emmi; Ranjit Jhala; Eddie Kohler; Rupak Majumdar

2009-01-01

41

Counting is FUN!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s Practice counting! Let\\'s practice are counting by visiting Count the Chickens!. Now we are going to visit Fishy Count! and count fish! So you think you are smart? Why not try this fun game and Help Froggy get across!! ...

Wren, Ms.

2007-10-25

42

Complete blood count and acetylcholinesterase activity of lymphocytes of demyelinated and ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol.  

PubMed

Resveratrol is a phytoestrogen that has many beneficial actions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on the complete blood count (CBC) and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of lymphocytes of ovariectomized rats experimentally demyelinated by ethidium bromide (EB). Forty adult female Wistar rats (60 days, 200-220 g) were divided randomly into five groups (n = 4) to evaluate the demyelination phase and five groups (n = 4) to evaluate the remyelination phase. In each phase, the groups consisted of sham rats-G1; ovariectomized rats, not demyelinated, treated only with vehicle (ethanol 25%)-G2; demyelinated ovariectomized rats treated only with vehicle-G3; ovariectomized rats, not demyelinated, treated with resveratrol-G4; and demyelinated ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol-G5. Only during the remyelination phase, CBC showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the number of monocytes between G2 and G5 groups. In the demyelination phase, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the AChE activity in the G4 group, while the G5 group was statistically similar to the G1, G2 and G4 groups. In the remyelination phase, there were no significant differences in the AChE activity among the groups. The treatment for 7 days with resveratrol with or without the experimental demyelization with EB appears to influence the AChE activity of lymphocytes, without changing the number of these cells in the circulation. However, in the remyelination phase, there seems to be stabilization in its effect on the lymphocyte AChE activity. PMID:22554002

Martins, Danieli B; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Costa, Márcio M; França, Raqueli; Pagnoncelli, Marcielen; Maciel, Roberto M; Schmatz, Roberta; Oliveira, Lizielle; Morsch, Vera; Facco, Grasiela; Visentini, Diandra; Mann, Thais; Mazzanti, Alexandre; Lopes, Sonia T A

2012-05-04

43

Lymphocyte sub-population cell counts are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its components in the Vietnam Experience Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. MetS is also associated with increases in the number of circulating white blood cells. Lymphocyte sub-population counts have also been implicated in cardiovascular disease; this analysis will examine whether or not they are associated with MetS.

Anna C. Phillips; Douglas Carroll; Catharine R. Gale; Mark Drayson; G. Neil Thomas; G. David Batty

2010-01-01

44

Higher prevalence of cytomegalovirus pp65 antigenemia associated with lower CD4+ T lymphocyte count.  

PubMed

Sixty seven immunocompromised patients were studied prospectively to observe the association of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 antigenemia with CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, a marker of cellular immunity. This study was conducted in three different groups of immunocompromised patients including HIV infected patients, patients with haematological malignancy and kidney transplanted patients. Result of the study indicate that proportion of severely immunocompromised patients having lower cellular immunity (< or = 200/microl) in all the three groups were comparable and ranged from 44% to 50%. The study also indicated that high prevalence of CMV pp65 antigenemia was associated with lower level of cell mediated immunity (< or = 200/microl). pp65 antigen was detected in 40% of patients with low immunity in contrast with 20% and 22.72% in the patient with intermediate immunity and in group without gross immune deficiency respectively. Lower level of cellular immunity was also associated with high level of CMV pp65 antigen. This was indicated by 75% patients with low immunity having high level of CMV pp65 antigen. It may perhaps be concluded that CMV infection occurred in a higher rate in immunocompromised patients and this is highly associated with the lower immune status of the immunocompromised patients as well as the level of CMV pp65 is higher in the patients with lower cellular immunity. This perhaps indicate that CMV infection is more severe in patients with low cellular immune response. PMID:21710813

Jahan, M; Islam, A K M Z; Tabassum, S; Islam, M N

2011-04-01

45

Total Lymphocyte Count: not a surrogate marker for risk of death in HIV infected Ugandan children  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the utility of Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) in predicting the 12 month mortality in HIV infected Ugandan children; to correlate TLC and CD4 cell %. Design This is a retrospective data analysis of clinical and laboratory data collected prospectively on 128 HIV infected children in the HIVNET 012 trial. Methods TLC and CD4 cell % measurements were obtained at birth, 14 weeks and 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months of age and assessed with respect to risk of death within 12 months. Results Median TLC/ul (CD4 cell %) were 4150 (41%) at birth, 4900 (24%) at 12 months, 4300 (19%) at 24 months, 4150 (19 %) at 36 months, 4100 (18%) at 48 months and 3800 (20%) at 60 months. The highest risk of mortality within 12 months was 34–37% at birth and declined to 13–15% at 24 months regardless of TLC measurement. The correlation between CD4 cell % and TLC was extremely low overall (r = 0.01). Conclusion The TLC did not predict a risk of progression to death within 12 months and therefore TLC alone may not be a useful surrogate marker for determining those children in greatest need for antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected Ugandan children.

Musoke, Philippa M.; Young, Alicia M.; Owor, Maxensia A.; Lubega, Irene R.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Mmiro, Francis A.; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Jackson, J. Brooks; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Guay, Laura A.

2009-01-01

46

White blood cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has been previously observed. However, the relationship between WBC count and CHD mortality independent of cigarette smoking and the possible interaction between WBC count and smoking remains unclear. We examined the association between WBC count and CHD mortality with Cox regression analyses of data from

David W Brown; Wayne H Giles; Janet B Croft

2001-01-01

47

Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in apparently healthy Japanese.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between leukocyte subtype counts and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Logistic regressions using hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia as a dependent variable and total leukocyte, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts as an independent variable were calculated adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), smoking, drinking, and physical activity in apparently healthy Japanese men (1,803) and women (1,150). The odds ratio (OR) of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, and lymphocyte counts, the OR of hypertriglyceridemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significant in men, and the OR of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, for lymphocyte count, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for eosinophil count were significant in women. Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of hs-CRP in apparently healthy Japanese. PMID:21655904

Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

2011-06-08

48

[Clinical significance of absolute lymphocyte count in de novo patients with multiple myeloma].  

PubMed

This study was purposed to investigate the correlation of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) in peripheral blood of de novo multiple myeloma (MM) patients with clinical characteristics, therapeutic efficacy and prognosis. The clinical data of 34 de novo patients with MM in our hospital from January 2002 to August 2011 were analysed retrospectively. According to ALC, patients were divided into ALC < 1.3×10(9)/L (n = 15) group and ALC ? 1.3×10(9)/L (n = 19) group. The correlation of incipient ALC levels of de novo MM patients with clinical data such as sex, age, type of MM, bone destruction, clinical staging and grouping, levels of LDH, ?(2)-MG, creatinine and albumin, as well as therapeutic efficacy was analysed. The results showed that ALC was (0.4 - 2.9)×10(9)/L (median ALC was 1.3×10(9)/L) in untreated patients. The effective rate of therapy was 20% in ALC < 1.3×10(9)/L group while it was 57.9% in ALC ? 1.3×10(9)/L group. There was statistical difference in effective rate between two groups (?(2) = 4.9696, P < 0.05). Compared with the ALC ? 1.3×10(9)/L group, the percentage of the CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio were reduced and the percentage of the CD8 increased (P < 0.05). But no significant differences were found in sex, age, type of MM, bone destruction, clinical staging and grouping, levels of LDH, ?(2)-MG, creatinine and albumin in those patients (P > 0.05). It is concluded that ALC in de novo patients with MM may be used as the important indication for analysing therapy effect and prognosis. PMID:22739169

Cheng, Xiao-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Ye, Xian; Shi, Xiao-Jing

2012-06-01

49

Effect of caffeine ingestion on lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo following strenuous cycling.  

PubMed

Caffeine ingestion is associated with increases in the concentration of plasma epinephrine and epinephrine is associated with alterations in immune cell trafficking and function following intensive exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of caffeine ingestion on plasma epinephrine concentration, lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo, as measured by the expression the CD69 surface antigen, before and after intensive cycling. On two occasions, following an overnight fast and 60 h abstention from caffeine containing foods and drinks, eight endurance trained males cycled for 90 min at 70% O(2 max) 60 min after ingesting caffeine (6 mg kg(-1 )body mass; CAF) or placebo (PLA). Venous blood samples were collected at pre-treatment, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 1 h post-exercise. Plasma epinephrine concentrations were significantly higher in CAF compared with PLA at pre-exercise [0.28 (0.05) nmol l(-1) versus 0.08 (0.03) nmol l(-1), P<0.01; mean (SE)] and immediately post-exercise [1.02 (0.16) nmol l(-1) versuss 0.60 (0.13) nmol l(-1), P<0.01]. Compared with pre-treatment, numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells decreased by 54% and 55%, respectively, in CAF at 1 h post-exercise (both P<0.01) but did not significantly differ in PLA. Compared with PLA, in CAF the percentage of CD4(+)CD69(+) cells was 5-fold higher at post-exercise (P<0.05) and 5.5-fold higher at 1 h post-exercise (P=0.01). Compared with PLA, in CAF the percentage of CD8(+)CD69(+) cells was 2-fold higher at pre-exercise (P<0.05) and 1.7-fold higher at post-exercise (P<0.05). These findings suggest that caffeine ingestion is associated with alterations in lymphocyte subset trafficking and expression of CD69 in vivo following prolonged, intensive exercise. PMID:15578203

Bishop, Nicolette C; Fitzgerald, Christina; Porter, Penny J; Scanlon, Gabriella A; Smith, Alice C

2004-12-01

50

Immunosenescence and mucosal immunity: significant effects of old age on secretory IgA concentrations and intraepithelial lymphocyte counts.  

PubMed Central

Concentrations of immunoglobulins (Ig) and levels of isotype specific antibodies to three dietary antigens in serum, pure parotid saliva, and in intestinal secretions obtained by whole gut lavage from groups of healthy elderly subjects (aged greater than 70 years) and of younger adult controls (aged 25-50 years) were measured. In addition, counts of lamina propria and intra-epithelial lymphoid cells were performed in histologically normal jejunal biopsy specimens from elderly and younger subjects. Elderly subjects had significantly higher concentrations of serum and salivary IgA and of salivary IgM (both, p less than 0.01), and of salivary IgA antibodies than did the younger subjects, but the amount of immunoglobulin and antibody in whole gut lavage fluid was similar in the two age groups. Jejunal biopsy specimen cell counts showed higher IgA plasma cell counts and lower intraepithelial lymphocyte counts in the elderly group (p less than 0.01), with similar counts of IgM and IgG plasma cells, eosinophils, and mast cells in the two groups. There is evidence of significant effects of old age on the mucosal immune system.

Arranz, E; O'Mahony, S; Barton, J R; Ferguson, A

1992-01-01

51

Predictors of Change in CD4 Lymphocyte Count and Weight among HIV Infected Patients on Anti-Retroviral Treatment in Ethiopia: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been introduced in Ethiopia a decade ago and continues to be scaled up. However, there is dearth of literature on the impact of ART on changes in CD4 lymphocyte count and weight among patients on treatment. Objective To determine the predictors of change in CD4 lymphocyte count and weight among HIV/AIDS infected patients taking antiretroviral treatment in eastern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted among HIV/AIDS patients taking ART from 2005 to 2010. A sample of 1540 HIV infected adult patients who started antiretroviral therapy in hospitals located in eastern Ethiopia were included in the study. The primary outcomes of interest were changes in CD4 count and weight. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine the outcomes among the cohort. Results Both the median CD4 lymphocyte counts and weight showed improvements in the follow up periods. The multivariate analysis shows that the duration of ART was an important predictor of improvements in CD4 lymphocyte count (beta 7.91; 95% CI 7.48–8.34; p 0.000) and weight (beta 0.15; 95% CI 0.13–0.18; p 0.000). Advanced WHO clinical stage, lower baseline CD4 cell count, and baseline hemoglobin levels were factors associated with decline in weight. Actively working patients had higher CD4 lymphocyte count and weight compared to those that were ambulatory (p<0.05). Conclusion We detected a substantial increment in weight and CD4 lymphocyte count among the patients who were taking ART in eastern Ethiopia. Patients who are of older age, with low initial CD4 lymphocyte count, late stage of the WHO clinical stages and lower hemoglobin level may need special attention. The reasons for the improved findings on CD4 count and weight throughout the five years of follow up merit further investigation.

Reda, Ayalu A.; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Deribew, Amare; Gebre, Betemariam; Deribe, Kebede

2013-01-01

52

Count the Cubes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet helps students visualize and count three-dimensional cubes by seeing animated two-dimensional perspective pictures. The cubes drop into an aggregate rectangular arrangement and must be counted accurately.

2011-01-01

53

The Big Pumpkin Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

1981-01-01

54

Effect of an Intramuscular Injection of Human Leukocyte Interferon on Blood Leukocyte Counts and Proportions of Lymphocytes Forming E, EA and EAC Rosettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following an intramuscular injection of human leukocyte interferon blood leukocyte counts decreased in most patients as tested 24 h after the injection. This decrease comprised lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. 24 h after interferon injection, the proportion of lymphocytes forming E rosettes was increased in most patients, whereas the proportion of lymphocytes forming EA and EAC rosettes was not significantly changed.Copyright

Stefan Einhorn; Henric Blomgren; Hans Strander

1980-01-01

55

Long-term methadone treatment: effect on CD4+ lymphocyte counts and HIV1 plasma RNA level in patients with HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to examine the effect of methadone on CD4+ lymphocyte counts and viral load and to expect to document the safety of methadone maintenance in patients with human immune deficiency syndrome. This is a retrospective chart analysis comparing the trends in CD4+ count and viral load in two populations of 21 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, one

Nathalie Do Quang-Cantagrel; Mark S. Wallace; Neil Ashar; Christopher Mathews

2001-01-01

56

Evaluating Total Lymphocyte Count as a Surrogate Marker for CD4 Cell Count in the Management of HIV-Infected Patients in Resource-Limited Settings: A Study from China  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the correlation of total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 cell count and the suitability of TLC as a surrogate marker for CD4 cell count of HIV-infected patients in China. Methods Usefulness of TLC as a surrogate marker for a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm3 for HIV-positive patients in China was evaluated by 977 pairs of TLC and CD4 cell count from 977 outpatients. The result was then validated by a literature review which was conducted on 9 relevant articles. Further investigation using the 977 pairs of TLC and CD4 cell count data was done to determine a TLC threshold for predicting a CD4 cell count <500 cells/mm3. Correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed for both CD4 cell counts, and the sensitivity and specificity were computed. Results Good correlation was noted between TLC and CD4 count (r?=?0.60, 95% CI, 0.56–0.64). TLC obtained a relatively high diagnostic performance (area under ROC curve, 0.80) for predicting a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm3, with a sensitivity of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.61–0.68) and a specificity of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75–0.85) at the TLC threshold of 1570 cells/mm3. The literature review suggested that for a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm3, the optimal TLC threshold was 1500 cells/mm3, which was similar to the figure presented in this observational study. As for predicting a CD4 cell count <500 cells/mm3, TLC obtained a high diagnostic performance (area under ROC curve, 0.82) as well with a sensitivity of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.67–0.73) and a specificity of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73–0.87). Conclusions When considering the antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected Chinese individuals, total lymphocyte count can be considered as an inexpensive and easily available surrogate marker for predicting two clinically important thresholds of CD4 count of 350 cells/mm3 and 500 cells/mm3.

Zou, Ran; Yang, Qiuying; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Hui; Wu, Hao

2013-01-01

57

Estimation of CD4 T-lymphocyte counts from percent CD4 T-lymphocyte determinations in HIV-1-infected subjects in sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

The relationship between CD4 percent and CD4 count has been reported to be different in industrialized countries compared to sub-Saharan Africa, where often only the former is reliable. CD4 determinations from an open cohort of hotel workers in Dar es Salaam followed between 1990 and 1998 were evaluated. T-lymphocyte determinations were offered once a year to 190 HIV-1 seropositive, 80 seroconverters and 495 sex and age matched HIV-seronegative subjects. After log transformation of the CD4 percent and CD4 counts a good fit to a linear regression curve was found, R(2) 0.697. The CD4 percent corresponding to a CD4 count of 200 cells/mm(3) was found to be 9.8%. CD4 percent determination can be useful to estimate CD4 counts, but needs to be locally standardized. The CD4 percent in Africa corresponding to AIDS defining CD4 counts seems to be lower than in the industrialized world. PMID:12935385

Sandström, E; Urassa, W; Bakari, M; Swai, A; Mhalu, F; Biberfeld, G; Pallangyo, K

2003-08-01

58

Clipart ETC: Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains over 630 clipart images that can be used for counting. There are Florida-themed flash cards for numbers 0 - 10 offered in English, Spanish, and bilingual options. Illustrations of hands depicting finger counting in both American style (beginning with the index finger) and European style (beginning with the thumb) are available. There are also images of 3-dimensional designs made of cubes and illustrations of bundles of sticks and dominoes for teaching skip-counting, addition, and place value.

Etc, Florida C.

2010-07-19

59

Oral Manifestations Related To CD4 Lymphocyte Count in HIV-Positive Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The onset of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients is generally associated with a low CD4 count. Oral manifestations can be the first clinical sign of the infection and also determine the progression of disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral soft tissue manifestations and their relationship with the degree of immunosuppression observed in HIV-positive patients. Materials and methods 100 HIV-positive patients were examined. Oral lesions were evaluated according to EEC clearing house criteria. The degree of immunosuppression was based on the CD4 count closest to the oral examination. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test and chi-square test. Results The most common oral lesions were rampant caries (54%), periodontal disease (44%), and hyperpigmentation (42%). Salivary glands enlargements and leukoplakia were associated with more severe immunosuppression. Conclusion According to the results, it seems that occurrence of only some of oral lesions are related to the degree of immunosuppression and such lesions can be considered as indicators of the progression of the HIV infection.

Davoodi, Poorandokht; Hamian, Mina; Nourbaksh, Reza; Ahmadi Motamayel, Fatemeh

2010-01-01

60

Effect of Segmental Epidural Analgesia on Changes in Peripheral Blood Leucocyte Counts, Lymphocyte Subpopulations, and in vitro Transformation in Healthy Parturients and Their Newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the peripheral blood leucocyte count, lymphocyte subpopulations, and in ‘in vitro’ responses of lymphocytes to phytohaemagglutinin and tuberculin after induced labour were investigated in 10 normal parturients and their newborns. Every other parturient was given segmental epidural analgesia at level T10–12 for pain relief during the first stage of labour. The remaining mothers served as controls. The results

Pauli Ryhänen; Riitta Jouppila; Marjatta Lanning; Pentti Jouppila; Arno Hollmén; Kauko Kouvalainen

1984-01-01

61

Scintillation counting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters one ; drawback has been the scarcity of radiation counters which efficiently measure ; both gamma and beta radiation. There has also been the problem of scintillation ; counting in the face of external or background radiation. A scintillation ; counting apparatus is provided herein which measures scintillations arising from

Noakes

1975-01-01

62

Comparison of Two Methodologies for CD4+ T Lymphocytes Relative Counting on Immune Monitoring of Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Considering that counting the percentage of CD4 T lymphocytes can add prognostic information regarding patients infected with HIV, the aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage values of CD4+ T lymphocytes from 81 patients determined by flow cytometry and estimated by flow cytometry in conjunction with a hematology counter. Means were compared through the Student's t-test. Pearson's correlation was determined, and the agreement between results was tested by Bland-Altman. The level of significance was P < 0.05. It was found a significantly higher mean difference between the relative values of CD4+ T lymphocytes to the hematologic counter (P < 0.05), for all strata studied. Positive and significant correlations (P < 0.01) were found between the strata CD4 < 200?cells/mL (r = 0.93), between 200 and 500?cells/mL (r = 0.65), and >500?cells/mL (r = 0.81). The limits of agreement were 1.0 ± 3.8% for the stratum of CD4 < 200?cells/mL, approximately 2.2 ± 13.5% for the stratum of CD4 between 200 and 500?cells/mL, and approximately 6.2 ± 20.4% for the stratum > 500?cells/mL. The differences in the percentages of CD4+ T lymphocytes obtained by different methodologies could lead to conflict when used in clinical decisions related to the treatment and care of people infected with HIV.

Kalva Borato, Danielle Cristyane; Carraro, Emerson; Weber Ribas, Sonia Regina; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Rebuglio Vellosa, Jose Carlos

2012-01-01

63

Is frequent CD4+ T-lymphocyte count monitoring necessary for persons with counts >=300 cells/?L and HIV-1 suppression?  

PubMed

Among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), those with HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/mL and CD4 counts ?300 cells/µL had a 97.1% probability of maintaining durable CD4 ?200 cells/µL for 4 years. When non-HIV causes of CD4 lymphopenia were excluded, the probability rose to 99.2%. Our data support less frequent CD4 monitoring during viral suppression. PMID:23315315

Gale, Howard B; Gitterman, Steven R; Hoffman, Heather J; Gordin, Fred M; Benator, Debra A; Labriola, Ann M; Kan, Virginia L

2013-01-11

64

AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

Howell, W.D.

1957-08-20

65

Count and heterogeneity of human fetal blood lymphocytes in the course of fetal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood specimens from 89 human embryos and fetuses were analyzed by immunological methods during gestation weeks 4–40. All\\u000a formed elements circulate in fetal blood starting from week 13 of gestation. Lymphocytes predominate among blood leukocytes,\\u000a because normally lymphocytosis is an inherent, feature of blood. T cells and their subpopulations: active T lymphocytes, T?\\u000a lymphocytes, and theophylline-sensitive and risistant, cells are

Z. S. Khlystova; R. M. Khairullin; G. T. Sukhikh

1998-01-01

66

Lakota Winter Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Different human societies across the millennia have sought to record their histories in a multitude of ways, and the Lakota people of the Northern Plains elected to record their experiences through what are known as winter counts. These winter counts are essentially histories or calendars in which events are recorded by pictures, with one picture for each year. These rather fascinating documents were used in conjunction with extensive oral histories, and as such, most of these events were widely known and recognized by a majority of the Lakota. This particular website from the National Anthropological Archives at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History allows visitors to view these winter counts, learn more about the Lakota, and view interviews with contemporary Lakota people about the winter counts. The site also contains an audio glossary and a number of helpful resources for educators.

67

HawkCount  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HawkCount is an online database that facilitates the tracking and reporting of raptor migrations. It includes site reports from hawk-watch sites in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Materials include an interactive map that provides links to hawk-watch sites; location maps and general information on watch sites; a summary of recent reports; and day and monthly summaries of counts by site.

68

Blood leucocyte count in the human fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total and differential leucocyte counts were measured in cord blood samples obtained by cordocentesis (n = 316) or at elective caesarean section (n = 11) from normal fetuses of between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation. The total fetal leucocyte count increased exponentially from 2.8 x 10(9)\\/l at 18 weeks to 11.8 x 10(9)\\/l at term. The lymphocyte and monocyte counts

N P Davies; A G Buggins; R J Snijders; E Jenkins; D M Layton; K H Nicolaides

1992-01-01

69

Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting  

DOEpatents

An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

70

The peripheral lymphocyte count predicts graft survival in DA to Lewis heterotopic heart transplantation treated with FTY720 and SDZ RAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The new immunomodulator 2-amino-2-(2-{4-octylphenyl}ethyl)-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride (FTY720) lowers the peripheral lymphocyte count (PLC) by inducing migration of circulating lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs. This effect is dose-dependent at low (up to 0.1 mg\\/kg per day) doses in rats. We investigated the correlation between PLC and the later rejection, when FTY720 was combined with RAD. Methods: Heterotopic cardiac grafting was performed

Zariana Nikolova; Akiko Hof; Yves Baumlin; Robert P. Hof

2000-01-01

71

Fetal leucocyte count in rhesus disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fetal anaemia on the total and differential leucocyte counts was studied by examining blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from 177 previously untransfused rhesus affected fetuses at 17-36 weeks' gestation. The mean fetal total leucocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were significantly lower than the corresponding values in normal controls and there were significant associations between the decrease in

N P Davies; A G Buggins; R J Snijders; P N Noble; D M Layton; K H Nicolaides

1992-01-01

72

Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in apparently healthy Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between leukocyte subtype counts and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia,\\u000a and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Logistic regressions using hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia\\u000a as a dependent variable and total leukocyte, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts as an independent\\u000a variable were calculated adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

Eiji Oda; Ryu Kawai; Yoshifusa Aizawa

73

Great Backyard Bird Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A massive effort co-sponsored by Cornell University's Laboratory of Ornithology and the National Audubon Society, the Great Bird Count's goal is to "provide a detailed picture of how bird populations compare region-by-region, as counted by ordinary citizens at the time of year when most migratory birds are just getting ready to head back north from their wintering grounds." The site contains summary data on the number of observers reporting (by postal code, state, and hour), the total number of birds recorded (by species), and--of greatest value--color maps of species distributions (including all locations surveyed). In addition, 10-year trends from Project Feeder Watch are provided for comparison. Note that "raw data" maps and summaries are currently being added to provide immediate access to data; charts have not yet been checked for accuracy.

1998-01-01

74

Dinosaur Count and Sort  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners sort and count different colored plastic dinosaurs by various attributes including tail length, whether or not the dinosaurs have horns, etc. Learners discuss the basis of their sorting, describe individual dinosaurs as well as groups and count the whole as well as subsets of the whole. This identification, sorting and grouping based on different traits (physical attributes, diet, habitat) provides a strong foundation for the development of the concept of species. The lesson plan also explains that dinosaurs lived a long time ago, but because they are no longer alive today, they are said to be extinct. Reasons for their extinction and the concept of endangered species can be explored.

Omsi

2004-01-01

75

Flow cytometric leucocyte counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow cytometric method was evaluated for performing total leucocyte counts on bovine blood. Fifty blood samples from 19\\u000a healthy Holstein cows were analysed on a flow cytometer. The method involved diluting blood with either hypotonic or isotonic\\u000a saline solution, lysing the red blood cells, and performing a 2-parameter analysis on the basis of cell size and cellular\\u000a granularity. Leucocyte

C. J. Liu; M. J. Paape; R. R. Peters

1993-01-01

76

Let's Count to 5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-lesson unit students make groups of zero through five objects and connect number words to the groups. They develop counting strategies and use numerals to record the size of a group. Lessons include familiar nursery rhymes and songs, links to interactive applets, and visual, auditory, and kinesthetic activities. Also included are student activity sheets, questions for students and teachers, assessment and extension ideas.

Burton, Grace M.

2000-01-01

77

Correlates of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte counts in high-risk immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative women enrolled in the women's interagency HIV study (WIHS).  

PubMed

Studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often compare values from HIV-uninfected controls, including CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts. Nonetheless, little is known regarding factors associated with CD4 and CD8 cell numbers in HIV-uninfected individuals. To ascertain potential factors associated with differences in CD4 and CD8 cells among HIV negative women, we studied these cells in a group of 953 women, enrolled as HIV-negative comparators in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Using standard techniques, we measured CD4 and CD8 cells obtained during study-related visits every six months through visit 20 (maximum of 9.5 years). Results were correlated with demographic and behavioral factors, and data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression approach with generalized estimating equations. At baseline, the median age was 32.4 years, body mass index (BMI) was 26.4 kg/m(2), CD4 cell count was 1010 (range 214-2705)/microL, and CD8 cell count was 542 (range 72-2448)/microL. African-Americans comprised 54%, 24% were Hispanic, and 19% were Caucasian. In multivariate analysis, increasing age (p = 0.0006), increasing BMI (p = 0.001), and current smoking status (p = 0.03) were independent predictors of higher CD4 counts. Multivariate analyses of CD8 cells revealed that lower age (p = 0.001), higher BMI (p = 0.03), Hispanic race/ethnicity (p = 0.01); current smoking (p = 0.006), injection drug use (p = 0.02), and Hepatitis C infection (p = 0.01) were independent predictors of higher CD8 cell counts. Multiple demographic and behavioral factors may influence CD4 and CD8 counts in HIV negative women. These factors must be considered in future analyses comparing lymphocyte subsets in HIV positive and negative women. PMID:17462501

Nowicki, Marek J; Karim, Roksana; Mack, Wendy J; Minkoff, Howard; Anastos, Katherine; Cohen, Mardge; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Young, Mary A; Gange, Stephen J; Levine, Alexandra M

2007-02-15

78

LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING OF TRITIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and drawbacks of liquid scintillation counting of tritium ; are enumerated. It is shown how to determine the counting efficiency by using an ; external gamma source, instead of internal standards. (T.F.H.);

Okano

1961-01-01

79

White Blood Cell Counting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter...

1972-01-01

80

Counting on and back  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet supports the exploration of numbers to 100 by simulating a 100-bead string. A teacher or child can move all or some beads to the left or right to add and subtract. The controls allow users to move beads individually or 10 at a time to model different counting and calculation strategies. Users can hide or show the numbers represented by the beads. This applet lends itself well to use on an interactive white board. A pdf guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.

2006-01-01

81

Response to treatment, mortality, and CD4 lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected persons with tuberculosis in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the severity of immune deficiency in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Côte d'lvoire and assessed its effect on mortality and response to treatment. Consecutive patients attending a tuberculosis treatment centre in Abidjan with smear-positive pulmonary or clinically diagnosed extrapulmonary tuberculosis were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections and had CD4 lymphocyte counts measured. Patients received standard short-course chemotherapy.

A. N Ackah; H Digbeu; K Daillo; A. E Greenberg; D Coulibaly; I-M Coulibaly; K. M Vetter; K. M de Cock

1995-01-01

82

Count the Vowels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to count the vowels in a list of 15 words. They are then asked to write down as many WORDS as they can remember. They can usually remember only 3 - 4. Next students are told to look at the list of words and asked to memorize them. They can usually remember about half of them after trying to memorize the words. Finally, students are told that the words are listed in a certain way, with a guiding concept to the arrangements. They readily understand the words are listed according to number. After spending 30 seconds to memorize the words this time, students generally tend to remember 12 or more. Metacognitive components of the activityStudents learn that considering the organization of informaton is important to remember it. Metacognitive goals for this activity:To show students that they can significantly and immediately improve their learning. Assessing students' metacognitionStudents tell us in verbal or email communication that they have now "stopped counting vowels" and are learning information.

83

Radon Detection and Counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the daughter products of the naturally occuring U 238 decay chain is the colorless, odorless, inert gas radon. The daughter products of the radon, from Po 218 through Po 214, can remain in the lungs after breathing radon that has diffused into the atmosphere. Radon testing of homes before sale or purchase is necessary in many parts of the U.S. Testing can be accomplished by the simple procedure of exposing a canister of activated charcoal to the ambient air. Radon atoms in the air are adsorbed onto the surface of the charcoal, which is then sealed in the canister. Gamma rays of the daughter products of the radon, in particular Pb 214 and Bi 214, can then be detected in low background counting system. Radon remediation procedures are encouraged for radon activities in the air greater than 4 pCi/L.

Peterson, David

2004-11-01

84

K.CC Counting Mat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Counting Mats * Small objects to count, such as bears or tiles. Action The teacher gives students the counting mat and many small objects t...

85

Synthetic gene networks that count.  

PubMed

Synthetic gene networks can be constructed to emulate digital circuits and devices, giving one the ability to program and design cells with some of the principles of modern computing, such as counting. A cellular counter would enable complex synthetic programming and a variety of biotechnology applications. Here, we report two complementary synthetic genetic counters in Escherichia coli that can count up to three induction events: the first, a riboregulated transcriptional cascade, and the second, a recombinase-based cascade of memory units. These modular devices permit counting of varied user-defined inputs over a range of frequencies and can be expanded to count higher numbers. PMID:19478183

Friedland, Ari E; Lu, Timothy K; Wang, Xiao; Shi, David; Church, George; Collins, James J

2009-05-29

86

MIC photon counting detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MIC photon counting detector, a very high resolution, large format system that has been developed for astronomical applications and has been proven on the major UK associated telescopes, is described. Additionally, though, this detector does have a number of applications in other fields such as bio-medical and x-ray imaging. The detector itself consists of a specially designed 40 mm diameter micro-channel plate intensifier fiber optically coupled to a CCD read-out system. Data is then centroided to 1/8th of a CCD pixel in both X and Y to provide high resolution. Accumulated data is stored in a micro-processor system with on-line display and reduction facilities. The maximum format available with the detector is 3072 X 2304 pixels, where each pixel is 10.6 micrometers square. The resolution is 27 micrometers FWHM when averaged over the field. Dependent upon the application, a dynamic range as high as 5 X 106 is achievable with this detector. The time resolution of the detector is in the range 1 ms to 12 ms. A very large format version of this detector is being designed that utilizes a 75 mm intensifier and has a maximum format of 6144 X 4608 pixels. It is expected that this detector will have the same performance figures as the 40 mm system.

Fordham, John L.; Bellis, J. G.; Bone, David A.; Norton, Timothy J.

1991-06-01

87

Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

Millard, Jr. , H. T.

1984-01-01

88

ICF's Annual Midwest Crane Count: Counting Beyond Cranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to develop a Program Plan for the Crane Count. The Program Plan establishes a mission, goals, and objectives for the Crane Count, with specific recommendations for future improvements and direction. This plan was created through a variety of sequential steps including: a) review and content analysis of historic program documents, b) assessment of current

Brian T. Barch

89

VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. RESULTS: We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally

Charles C Kim; Joseph L DeRisi

2010-01-01

90

RCT of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Delivered to HIV+ Patients in Iran: Effects on CD4+ T Lymphocyte Count and Medical and Psychological Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the immediate and longer-term effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) among treatment adherents on CD4+ T Lymphocyte Count (CD4 count) and medical and psychological symptoms among HIV+ patients in Tehran, Iran. Methods Using a randomized controlled trial design, data were analyzed from 173 HIV+ patients (CD4 Count > 250) not yet receiving antiretroviral therapy who participated in either an 8-week MBSR (n=87) or a brief education and support condition (ESC) (n=86) at the Imam Khomeini Hospital. Assessments included CD4 count, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R), and Medical Symptom Checklist (MSCL) at baseline, immediate post-test, and 3, 6, 9 and 12-month follow-up periods. Results The treatment adherent sample had a mean age of 35.1(SD = 6.5) years and 69% were male. Linear mixed model estimates indicated mean CD4 count increased from baseline up to 9 months post-treatment, then returned to baseline level at 12 months. Improvements in mean SCL-90R (up to 6 months) and MSCL (up to 12 months) scores were observed for the MBSR condition while ESC scores remained the same over time; however, only MSCL improvements significantly differed between groups and these changes lasted up to the final assessment. Conclusions Findings suggest that among treatment adherent Iranian HIV+ patients not yet receiving antiretroviral drug treatment, MBSR appears to have the strongest potential to improve self-reported physical symptomatology. Trial Registration Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT201106084076N2.

SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Jam, Sara; Foroughi, Maryam; Imani, AmirHossein; Mohraz, Minoo; Djavid, Gholamreza Esmaeeli; Black, David S.

2012-01-01

91

Platelet counts during normal pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven reports of platelet counts were found in the literature which reported a progressive increase, no change, or a progressive fall during pregnancy. The counts had been made using venous or capillary blood, with either simple dilution or red cell lysis prior to enumeration in a haemocytometer, with or without phase-contrast microscopy. It was therefore decided to examine whole blood

S A Sejeny; R D Eastham; S R Baker

1975-01-01

92

Data Anlaysis: Fundamental Counting Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan presents an activity where students use charts and tree diagrams to show the possible outcomes of probability experiments and the likelihood of each event. In the plan the teacher guides the class to understand and apply the fundamental counting principle. Two independent worksheets provide students with more practice creating sample spaces and applying the fundamental counting principle.

2012-01-01

93

KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By providing policymakers and citizens with benchmarks of child well-being, KIDS COUNT seeks to enrich local, state, and national discussions concerning ways to secure better futures for all children. This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the 2005 "KIDS COUNT Data Book." The following sections are included: (1) Essay; (2) Charts on 10 Key…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2005

2005-01-01

94

Illegal aliens and census counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should illegal aliens be excluded from 1990 census counts? We begin a consideration of this question by examining the demographic, economic, and social contexts within which the question of including or excluding illegal aliens from census counts has arisen, especially in the case of the 1980 census. This is important because arguments for exclusion have often been based in part

Frank D. Bean; Rodolfo O. de la Garza

1988-01-01

95

Hanford whole body counting manual  

SciTech Connect

This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

1987-05-01

96

Uncertainty in measurements by counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

2012-02-01

97

The randomness of accident counts.  

PubMed

Road accident occurrence is generally assumed to be governed by a random process. Experience analysing accident count series indicates a need for testing the randomness of such a series, and a simple statistical test is described. The test is a modified one-sample runs test, which can be used to assist the identification of three distinct patterns constituting non-randomness (namely, a trend, a discontinuity and over-correction). The test is designed for the preliminary analysis of accident count data, and its use is demonstrated, using both artificial and actual accident count series. PMID:3730092

Nicholson, A J

1986-06-01

98

Count the Dots: Binary Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data in computers is stored and transmitted as a series of zeros and ones. Learners explore how to represent numbers using just these two symbols, through a binary system of cards. When the card's dots are showing, its value is 1 and the dots are counted. When the card's dots are not showing, its value is 0 and the dots are not counted. Learners model binary counting to discover patterns and represent numbers. This activity includes three worksheet activities (1 introductory and 2 extensions) for learners to complete and background information for the instructor.

Technology, National C.

2012-12-13

99

Counting Graylings on the Tundra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article profiles Linda Deegan, scientist with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site in the Kuparuk River region of Alaska, as she counts and tags Arctic grayling as they migrate from streams to lakes in the fall.

Landis, Carol

100

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.|

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

101

7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.105 Size count. Size count means the count or number of prunes per pound. [26 FR 8278, Sept. 2, 1961. Redesignated at 35 FR 11380, July...

2010-01-01

102

7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.105 Size count. Size count means the count or number of prunes per pound. [26 FR 8278, Sept. 2, 1961. Redesignated at 35 FR 11380, July...

2013-01-01

103

7 CFR 993.105 - Size count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.105 Size count. Size count means the count or number of prunes per pound. [26 FR 8278, Sept. 2, 1961. Redesignated at 35 FR 11380, July...

2009-01-01

104

Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclide 241Am decays by alpha emission to 237Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of 237Np with energy of 59.54keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241Am by alpha–gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent

C. Balpardo; M. E. Capoulat; D. Rodrigues; P. Arenillas

2010-01-01

105

Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Donald Buckley (Quinnipiac University;Biology)

2006-05-20

106

Sleep deprivation reduces the lymphocyte count in a non-obese mouse model of type 1 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine whether sleep deprivation (SD) would promote changes in lymphocyte numbers in a type 1 diabetes model (non-obese diabetic, NOD, mouse strain) and to determine whether SD would affect female and male NOD compared to Swiss mice. The number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood after 24 and 96 h of SD (by

F. S. Ruiz; M. L. Andersen; A. Zager; R. C. S. Martins; S. Tufik

2007-01-01

107

Counting strings, wound and bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze zero mode counting problems for Dirac operators that find their origin in string theory backgrounds. A first class of quantum mechanical models for which we compute the number of ground states arises from a string winding an isometric direction in a geometry, taking into account its energy due to tension. Alternatively, the models arise from deforming marginal bound states of a string winding a circle, and moving in an orthogonal geometry. After deformation, the number of bound states is again counted by the zero modes of a Dirac operator. We count these bound states in even dimensional asymptotically linear dilaton backgrounds as well as in Euclidean Taub-NUT. We show multiple pole behavior in the fugacities keeping track of a U(1) charge. We also discuss a second class of counting problems that arises when these backgrounds are deformed via the application of a heterotic duality transformation. We discuss applications of our results to Appell-Lerch sums and the counting of domain wall bound states.

Ashok, Sujay K.; Nampuri, Suresh; Troost, Jan

2013-04-01

108

Photon Counting - One More Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

Stanton, Richard H.

2012-05-01

109

Total Lymphocyte Count and World Health Organization Pediatric Clinical Stage as Markers to Assess Need to Initiate Antiretroviral Therapy among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children in Moshi, Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of clinical staging alone and with total lymphocyte count to identify HIV infected children in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, when CD4 cell count is not available. Methods We prospectively enrolled children obtaining care for HIV infection at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinic in Moshi, Tanzania between March 2004 and May 2006 for this cohort study. Results 192 (89.7%) of 214 children met WHO ART initiation criteria based on clinical staging or CD4 cell count. Several low-cost measures identified individuals who met WHO ART initiation criteria to the following degree: WHO stages 3 or 4 had 87.5% (95% CI; 82.8 – 92.1) sensitivity and, by definition, 100% (CI; 100 – 100) specificity; WHO recommended advance disease TLC cutoffs: sensitivity = 23.9% (95% CI; 17.3 – 30.5) specificity = 78.2% (95% CI: 67.3 – 89.1). Low TLC was a common finding, (50/214; 23%); however, it did not improve the sensitivity or specificity of clinical staging in identifying the severely immunosuppressed stage 2 children. Growth failure or use of total lymphocyte counts in isolation were not reliable indicators of severe immunosuppression or need to initiate ART. Conclusion The use of total lymphocyte count does not improve the ability to identify children in need of ART compared to clinical staging alone. Low absolute lymphocyte count did not correlate with severe immunosuppression based on CD4 cell count in this cohort.

Johnson, Opemipo O.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Schimana, Werner; Tillekeratne, L. Gayani; Crump, John A.; Landman, Keren Z.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Mmbaga, Blandina T.; Msuya, Levina J.; Shao, John F.; Swai, Mark E.; Cunningham, Coleen K.

2009-01-01

110

Searchable Database of Amphibian Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (US Geological Servey) provides these companion sites on amphibians in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency, The National Park Service, SUNY Syracuse, and Pennsylvania State University. Building off the parent site, Power Analysis of Monitoring Programs (discussed in the February 4, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering), the Searchable Database of Amphibian Counts "is designed for use by anyone planning a wildlife monitoring program for amphibians." The Searchable database (searchable by Taxon) provides user access to amphibian count references. Though designed for amphibian research, both sites offer a clear, stepwise approach to survey methodology and can be helpful to graduate students and researchers planning wildlife monitoring programs.

111

An alternative method for cell counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell counts and classification of the cells play an important role in the field of microbiology and cell biology. Although there exists many counting processes for cells of interest in suspension, the most basic cell counting process is performed by a person via the microscope. For counting cells the simplest, widely used and the most economic method is the use

Akin Ozkan; S. Belgin Isgor; Hakan Tora; Pembegul Uyar; Mesude Iscan

2011-01-01

112

South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

113

South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

Holmes, A. Baron

114

Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

Boeke, Kaye

115

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

116

Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

117

Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

118

Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

119

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

120

Yupno Number System and Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The starting point of this study is the apparent contradiction between the existence in Yupno (Papua New Guinea) culture of an elaborate number system and the lack of importance attributed to counting in everyday life. The study is designed to answer two questions: To what extent is the model described by the socially most prestigious expert shared by other Yupno

Jürg Wassmann; Pierre R. Dasen

1994-01-01

121

On the Count of Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular tree grammars and regular path expressions constitute core constructs widely used in programming languages and type systems. Nevertheless, there has been little research so far on frameworks for reasoning about path expressions where node cardinality constraints occur along a path in a tree. We present a logic capable of expressing deep counting along paths which may include arbitrary recursive

Everardo Barcenas; Pierre Geneves; Nabil Layaida; Alan Schmitt

2010-01-01

122

Carbohydrate Counting – A Practical Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate counting is a practical meal planning strategy that provides opportunity for variety in meals and snacks for people with diabetes.This method of meal planning allows teenagers to participate in the daily activities that are an important part of life without sacrificing blood glucose control. The teaching tool is designed to be used in follow-up medical nutrition sessions as opposed

C. Middleton; V. Meyers

1998-01-01

123

Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the…

Boeke, Kaye

124

Maryland Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 7th annual Kids Count Factbook provides information on trends in the well-being of children in Maryland and its 24 jurisdictions. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) early prenatal care; (4) binge drinking; (5) child deaths; (6) child injury rate; (7) grade…

Advocates for Children and Youth, Baltimore, MD.

125

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

126

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

127

Counting a Culture of Mealworms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2007-01-01

128

Flap over Census 2000 Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Friday, Commerce Secretary Don Evans announced that he, not the Census Bureau, would make the final call on whether to adjust the 2000 Census results to include the estimated undercount of just above one percent. This set off a storm of criticism from congressional Democrats who claimed the Bush administration was politicizing the Census count. (Most analysts believe that an adjusted count will lead to re-districtings favoring the Democrat's chances in the next congressional election.) The White House countered that such a decision is mandated to the appointed representatives of the elected President, not to bureaucrats. Former President Clinton had given the final say to the Director of the Census Bureau, ostensibly to de-politicize the process. But with re-districting stakes so high, it is unlikely that either Republicans or Democrats are ready to approach this issue as one of mere statistics. Indeed, the controversy of the last few years over sampling (a process whereby the Census Bureau makes statistical estimates of uncounted households using surveys of counted ones) has already made the issue the subject of two Supreme Court rulings. The acting director of the Census must make his recommendations by the first of March. Secretary Evans will issue a decision and final count by March 5th.

Charbonneau, David D.

2001-01-01

129

Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

2010-07-01

130

Changes in differential leucocyte counts in male Beagle dogs during water deprivation tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in differential leucocyte counts were found in blood samples collected from male Beagle dogs during water deprivation tests. Percentage and absolute neutrophil counts increased whilst percentage and absolute lymphocyte counts decreased following the use of metabolism cages for overnight periods. No significant changes in total leucocyte counts were observed.

G. O. Evans; R. M. Flynn; D. E. C. Smith

1991-01-01

131

The Effects of Norepinephrine Infusion on the Circulating Lymphocyte Counts of Post–Open Heart Surgery Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this retrospective study employing chart reviews, 75 open heart surgery patients (OHSPs) were divided into 3 groups of 25 patients. Group 1 received no intravenous (IV) norepinephrine (NE) after surgery. Group 2 and group 3 received a minimum of 0.028 mcg\\/kg\\/min of IV NE for 6-24 h and greater than 24 h, respectively. In the 3 groups, preoperative lymphocyte

Wanda Zziwambazza; Carrie J. Merkle; Ida M. Moore; Jean Davis

2000-01-01

132

Pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic modelling of effects of dexamethasone and prednisolone in combination with endogenous cortisol on lymphocyte counts and systemic markers of bone turn over and inflammation in healthy and asthmatic men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare potency and efficacy of dexamethasone (DEXA) and prednisolone (PRED) in assumed equipotent doses in combination with endogenous cortisol, using lymphocyte counts, plasma osteocalcin (OC), and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) as effect variables and to evaluate potential differences between healthy subjects and asthmatic patients. Methods Eight healthy subjects and six asthmatic patients who had stopped taking their regular

E. F. L. Dubois; M. G. M. Derks; D. H. Schweitzer; A. H. Zwinderman; P. N. R. Dekhuijzen; C. J. van Boxtel

2004-01-01

133

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts  

PubMed Central

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

2011-01-01

134

Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.  

PubMed

Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

2012-01-24

135

Photon-counting: measurement challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low photon flux measurements are widely used in the fields of biology, nuclear physics, medical physics and astrophysics. This paper will highlight the key requirements and considerations needed for accurate, traceable measurement at these low light levels. A new driver for these techniques is the rapidly advancing field of optical quantum information processing1 which requires the development of single photon counting detectors, in addition to the wider use of optical technologies in the photon counting regime. The paper will present the results of the measurement of the quantum efficiency of a channel photomultiplier detector using an absolute radiometric technique based on correlated photons produced in non-linear crystals. Case studies will also be presented to illustrate this work.

Cheung, Jessica Y.; Chunnilall, Christopher J.; Thomas, Peter J.; Mountford, John R.; Fox, Nigel P.

2007-05-01

136

Countdown: Counting with a Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will count down the days to a special event. How much longer? Calendars, dates, and units of time mean much more when youâre anticipating a special event. Locate the date youâre waiting for on the calendar. Younger learners can keep track of how many days. Older learners can count down the hours, minutes, and even seconds as the time draws near. Or, challenge a multi-age group to find as many ways as they can to express the amount of time left (32 days, 4 weeks and 4 days, 1 month and 1 day..). Make this a routine: Each time you gather the group, check the countdown. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

137

On the Count of Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular tree grammars and regular path expressions constitute core constructs\\u000awidely used in programming languages and type systems. Nevertheless, there has\\u000abeen little research so far on frameworks for reasoning about path expressions\\u000awhere node cardinality constraints occur along a path in a tree. We present a\\u000alogic capable of expressing deep counting along paths which may include\\u000aarbitrary recursive

Everardo Barcenas; Pierre Geneves; Nabil Layaida; Alan Schmitt

2010-01-01

138

Association between CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and fecal excretion of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in patients coinfected with S. mansoni and human immunodeficiency virus before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.  

PubMed

Previously, we have shown that persons with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection and reduced CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts excrete significantly fewer Schistosoma mansoni eggs than HIV-1-negative persons with similar intensities of schistosome infections. To determine how antiretroviral therapy (ART) might affect egg excretion, we conducted a study of HIV+ adults living in an area highly endemic for S. mansoni as they began an ART program. Fecal egg excretion and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts were evaluated at enrollment as well as 2 and 4 weeks after initiation of ART. Fourteen individuals who were Kato-Katz-negative at enrollment subsequently started excreting S. mansoni eggs accompanied by a significant increase in CD4(+) T lymphocytes (P = 0.004). Study participants who were S. mansoni egg-positive at enrollment and received both praziquantel and ART also showed significantly increased CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts compared with baseline (P < 0.0001). Our data support a role for CD4(+) T lymphocytes in S. mansoni egg excretion. PMID:23669231

Muok, Erick M O; Simiyu, Elses W; Ochola, Elizabeth A; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah W; Secor, W Evan; Karanja, Diana M S; Mwinzi, Pauline N M

2013-05-13

139

1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1999 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, interactive line graphs allowing users to compare indicators from up to eight areas, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. Users can download all of the raw data files for 1999 in a compressed .zip file or they may download raw data files individually as either a MS Excel spreadsheet file (.xls) or a comma-delimited text file (.csv).

140

KIDS COUNT Data Book 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annie E. Casey Foundation, a private charitable organization, aims to initiate and develop "public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports" to assist disadvantaged children in the US. One of the principal activities of the organization is the publication of the KIDS COUNT Data Book, "which uses the best available data to measure the educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all over the US. This site offers public access to the online database for the 1998 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Included are tables of state and national data profiles based on ten statistical indicators, lists of states ranked by indicator, line graphs comparing indicators from various states, and color-coded US maps representing KIDS COUNT data. The particularly helpful line graph section of the online data book allows users to compare data for a single indicator. Users select a time range and up to eight areas to be included in a customized graph. Overall, this site does an excellent job of synthesizing child-related data from quality data sources.

141

Peripheral CD4+\\/CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts estimated by an immunocapture method in the normal healthy south Indian adults and HIV seropositive individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flow cytometry is the standard method for the estimation of CD4\\/CD8 counts, but the high initial investment for this instrument and costly reagents make it unaffordable to most of the centers in a developing country like India. Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of an alternate system for the estimation of CD4 and CD8 counts in normal south Indian adults

R Kannangai; K. J Prakash; S Ramalingam; O. C Abraham; K. P Mathews; M. V Jesudason; G Sridharan

2000-01-01

142

Neutron Counting Statistics in Nuclear Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The neutron counting statistics of a zero power reactor is treated on the basis of Kolmogorov's theory of branching processes. It is shown that the statistical properties of a sequence of neutron counts, currently used for experimental determination of re...

D. Babala

1966-01-01

143

New Frequency Counting Principle Improves Resolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Frequency counters have gone through several evolutionary stages in their design since their first appearance on the market: Stage 1 until 1970's -- Conventional counting; Stage 2 through 1980's -- Reciprocal counting (period measurement + inversion); Sta...

S. Johansson

2005-01-01

144

Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15

145

Complete Blood Count (CBC) Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn how to interpret a complete blood count. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. QuickTime movies and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).Annotated: false

2010-05-31

146

1.NBT Counting Circles II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Setup Have students stand and form a circle facing in toward each other. Select a counting sequence to be practiced with no more than 6-10 numbers in t...

147

K.CC Counting Circles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Have students stand and form a circle facing in toward each other. Select a counting sequence to be practiced with no more than 8-10 numbers in the seq...

148

Counting the homeless in Los Angeles County  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, a variety of methods have been used to count the homeless in large metropolitan areas. In this paper, we report on an effort to count the homeless in Los Angeles County, one that employed the sampling of census tracts. A number of complications are discussed, including\\\\^{E} the need to impute homeless counts to areas of

Richard Berk; Brian Kriegler; Donald Ylvisaker

2008-01-01

149

DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators…

DC Action for Children, 2012

2012-01-01

150

Liquid scintillation counting in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine can be measured by ; liquid scintillation (LS) counting, and the technique is the only practical ; approach to counting low-energy BETA emissions. The capabilities of LS ; counting and of some precautions that should be observed are reviewed. Because ; most scintillation solvents will tolerate only minimal amounts of aqueous samples

Bransome; E. D. Jr

1973-01-01

151

Intra-Uterine Starvation and Fetal Leucocyte Count  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 104 severely growth-retarded fetuses, the mean white blood cell count (WBC), as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were reduced. Furthermore, the severity of the leucopenia was significantly related to the degree of fetal ‘smallness’ and anaemia. These findings suggest that leucopenia observed in growth-retarded neonates may be a consequence of intra-uterine starvation due to deficiency of haematinics.Copyright

Norman Davies; Rosalinde Snijders; Kypros H. Nicolaides

1991-01-01

152

Affordable pediatric CD4 counting by flow cytometry in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy in Malawi has occurred in the relative absence of suitable pediatric CD4 counting facilities. We have recently validated in adults a simplified affordable flow cytometric CD4 counting method, the Blantyre count. There is a need for this technology to transfer to government laboratories run by local staff, and to be validated in children, where %CD4/lymphocyte values are required. Methods We assessed agreement of %CD4/lymphocyte values determined by the Blantyre count and Panleucogate methods on an EPICS XL-MCL flow cytometer on 113 venous blood samples from HIV-seropositive children in Blantyre, Malawi. All assays were performed by two Malawian laboratory technicians. Results Overall bias between the two methods was ?0.13% (95% CI ?0.37 to 0.11) and limits of agreement were ?2.69 to 2.43% (95% CI ?3.11 to ?2.27 and 2.01 to 2.85). Limits of agreement were within ?3.00 and 3.00 for each laboratory technician. Coefficient of variation for the Blantyre count assay was 2.0% and samples showed good stability over 5 days. Conclusions The Blantyre count method can accurately determine %CD4/lymphocyte values in blood of HIV-seropositive children on an EPIC XL-MCL flow cytometer at a reagent cost of US $0.21 per test or less. The assay can be competently carried out by local laboratory technicians.

MacLennan, Calman A; Dzumani, Felix; Namarika, Alinane; Moons, Peter; Senga, Edward; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Drayson, Mark T; Bunn, James E G

2008-01-01

153

Role of the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio in the Differential Diagnosis between Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Differential diagnosis between pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often challenging. The neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLR), a convenient marker of inflammation, has been demonstrated to be a useful biomarker for predicting bacteremia. We investigated the usefulness of the NLR for discriminating pulmonary TB from bacterial CAP in an intermediate TB-burden country. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of 206 patients suspected of having pulmonary TB or bacterial CAP from January 2009 to February 2011. The diagnostic ability of the NLR for differential diagnosis was evaluated and compared with that of C-reactive protein. Results Serum NLR levels were significantly lower in patients with pulmonary TB than in patients with bacterial CAP (3.67±2.12 vs. 14.64±9.72, P<0.001). A NLR <7 was an optimal cut-off value to discriminate patients with pulmonary TB from patients with bacterial CAP (sensitivity 91.1%, specificity 81.9%, positive predictive value 85.7%, negative predictive value 88.5%). The area under the curve for the NLR (0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-0.98) was significantly greater than that of C-reactive protein (0.83, 95% CI, 0.76-0.88; P=0.0015). Conclusions The NLR obtained at the initial diagnostic stage is a useful laboratory marker to discriminate patients with pulmonary TB from patients with bacterial CAP in an intermediate TB-burden country.

Yoon, Neul-Bom; Son, Choonhee

2013-01-01

154

Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

155

Electronic Properties of Particle-Counting Diamonds. II. Particle-Counting Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the counting characteristics of thirty particle-counting diamonds has been made. It was found that the diamonds can be classified on the basis of their counting behaviour in the dark and during subsequent illumination. The dark characteristics and the counting response to illumination are explained in terms of the trapping and recombination of charge carriers via three levels

L. A. Vermeulen; F. R. N. Nabarro

1967-01-01

156

Estrogens and falling sperm counts.  

PubMed

Extravagant claims have been made repeatedly in recent years that human sperm counts are falling and that global exposure to environmental estrogens are responsible. The basis for these two distinct claims is reviewed. The claims of falling human sperm output, reviving an old debate, are prompted by a paper by Carlsen et al. (1992). This meta-analysis, however, is marred by numerous flaws that invalidate its claims. Major defects include severe heterogeneity of component studies, rendering them unsuitable for aggregation, and defective data analysis based on arithmetic mean rather than median, which showed no significant changes over time. This debate is likely to remain unresolved until valid, representative population-based studies of human sperm output can be achieved. None have been reported, or seem feasible in the near future, and so alternative strategies, based on surrogate variables for human male fertility not requiring sperm counts, need to be developed and validated. The plausible hypothesis that prenatal estrogen exposure might influence development of the human testis through effects on Sertoli cell replication and sperm carrying capacity has, however, been conclusively refuted by studies of boys born to women exposed to high doses of oral diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy. Neither fertility nor sperm output were adversely influenced by massive maternal estrogen exposure during pregnancy, although minor urogenital malformations did occur. The still wider claims of deteriorating male reproductive health, notably changes in prevalence or incidence of hypospadias or cryptorchidism, also lack convincing population-based evidence, although cancer registry data indicate a gradual increase in testis cancer in some countries. In summary, the available evidence does not support claims of falling sperm counts or any general deterioration in male reproductive health. Population-based studies of valid surrogate variables for male fertility not requiring semen analysis are needed. If population-based evidence regarding male fertility or sperm output could be generated, it is highly unlikely that prenatal estrogen exposure could be a valid explanation of any deterioration as massive maternal exposure to oral estrogen has negligible effects on male fertility or sperm output. PMID:11800170

Handelsman, D J

2001-01-01

157

Lowest ever CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4 nadir) as a predictor of current cognitive and neurological status in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection—The Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low CD4 lymphocyte count was a marker for neurological disease in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); but is now\\u000a less common among patients with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy. In this study, the authors determine the reliability\\u000a of self-reported CD4 nadir and its predictive value for neurological status. The authors identify a high degree of reliability\\u000a (r =

Victor Valcour; Priscilla Yee; Andrew E. Williams; Bruce Shiramizu; Michael Watters; Ola Selnes; Robert Paul; Cecilia Shikuma; Ned Sacktor

2006-01-01

158

Everyone Counts! Everyone Should Participate!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

January is a good time to think about what is really important and what can be achieved in the year to come. I have been reflecting on the importance to the Journal and its readers of each and every one of its many constituencies. Your editorial staff aims to provide you and all other readers with useful, interesting, accurate, and timely information every month. Not everything that is published in a given month will meet these criteria for you (or any other individual reader), but we intend that a significant portion of each issue will meet these criteria for every reader. How can we make that happen? As I see it, this must be a cooperative venture involving all of the Journal's readers, its authors and reviewers, and its editorial staff. You count very heavily in our equation for success, and so I ask you to reflect on what you can do for your Journal, and for chemical education, this year.

Moore, John W.

1997-01-01

159

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

160

Photon counting compressive depth mapping.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

2013-10-01

161

2002 Kids Count Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Crafted by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Kids Count Data Book is a yearly publication that illuminates the status of AmericaÂs children by providing data on the "educational, social, economic, and physical well-being of children" all across the U.S. By updating the book annually, viewers can assess the changes that have or have not been made by individual states and the nation at large. The report is divided into sections including graphs and color coded maps; profiles, which provides data on individual states or the nation as a whole; rankings, which contains data on all 50 states ranked according to an indicator; raw data, which allows downloading of the entire data book as "delimited files"; and PDF files, which allows downloading and printing of the data book using Adobe Acrobat. Those wanting a hard copy of the book can order a free copy from the home page.

162

Photon counting compressive depth mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

Howland, Gregory A.; Lum, Daniel J.; Ware, Matthew R.; Howell, John C.

2013-10-01

163

Corticosteroid treatment in pulmonary sarcoidosis: do serial lavage lymphocyte counts, serum angiotensin converting enzyme measurements, and gallium-67 scans help management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty two patients with persisting pulmonary sarcoidosis fulfilling defined criteria for treatment were managed according to a standard clinical protocol. In this an attempt was made to achieve and maintain maximal radiographic and physiological improvement with individually titrated doses of corticosteroids. Lavage cell counts, serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) determinations, and gallium-67 scans were planned at standard intervals but were

M Turner-Warwick; W McAllister; R Lawrence; A Britten; P L Haslam

1986-01-01

164

Pollen counts in the television media.  

PubMed

Allergists routinely supply pollen counts to television stations to assist allergy sufferers and to publicize their medical practices. This investigation examined how widely pollen counts are used in television news programming. The authors telephoned the news director or a meteorologist at 121 broadcast television stations in the nation's 30 largest Designated Market Areas (DMAs). They were asked if pollen counts were included or would be included in news programming during the 1995 pollen season. At least one television station in 28 DMAs included pollen counts in news programming. All five stations in the Washington, DC, DMA aired pollen counts; however, no stations in the Pittsburgh or Milwaukee DMAs carried pollen information. Approximately 49 million television households have access to pollen counts through a broadcast television station. Because these data appear important to television stations and to the public, the authors outline four measures to assure the reliability and meaningfulness of pollen information. PMID:9066832

Giberson, J E; Murray, L W; Frenz, D A

165

Estimating relative abundance from count data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Much of the available information on large-scale patterns of animal abundance is based on count surveys. The data provided by such surveys are often influenced by nuisance factors affecting the numbers of animals counted, but unrelated to population size. Temporal and spatial patterns in nuisance factors may exist, causing simple summaries of counts to give a misleading view of patterns in population size. We develop models for count data that allows the incorporation of such factors, and describe methods for estimating spatial patterns of relative abundance from counts. We carry out spatial analyses of North American Breeding Bird Survey data, in which observer ability is a nuisance parameter nested within sites. In light of evidence that new observers tend to count more birds than the observers they replace, we model observer ability as a random effect with mean depending on observer initiation year.

Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

1998-01-01

166

Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision  

SciTech Connect

Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

Klee, G.G.; Post, G. (Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MD (USA))

1989-07-01

167

Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

1990-07-01

168

Two-photon-counting interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-photon-counting interferometry has been realized by measuring the electrical current due to two-photon absorption in the space-charge layer of a semiconductor detector located at the output port of an interferometer. We apply this technique to study the correlation properties of twin beams issued from parametric fluorescence. We describe in detail how the different second-order correlation functions (interbeam, intrabeam) can be extracted at the femtosecond time scale from raw data. The values of these correlation functions determined by our experiments are in excellent agreement with theory. More precisely, extrabunching in twin beams is unambiguously demonstrated and theoretically described using two models: a comprehensive multimode quantum optics model and a simpler classical stochastic approach. Given the high brightness of our twin-beam source, both theories yield similar results. Finally, convenient analytical expressions of the correlation functions were derived from both theories, expressions in which we have been able to relate specific terms to accidental and exact coincidences between photons. Two-photon interferometry thus determines to which extent twin photons are twin. This technique should become a useful tool for future quantum optics developments.

Boitier, Fabien; Godard, Antoine; Dubreuil, Nicolas; Delaye, Philippe; Fabre, Claude; Rosencher, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

169

Photon counting with an EMCCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make faint flux imaging efficient with an EMCCD, the Clock Induced Charges (CIC) must be reduced to a minimum. Some techniques were proposed to reduce the CIC but until now, neither commercially available CCD controller nor commercial cameras were able to implement them and get satisfying results. CCCP, the CCD Controller for Counting Photons, has been designed with the aim of reducing the CIC generated when an EMCCD is read out. It is optimized for driving EMCCDs at high speed (>= 10MHz), but may be used also for driving conventional CCDs (or the conventional output of an EMCCD) at high, moderate, or low speed. This new controller provides an arbitrary clock generator, yielding a timing resolution of ~20 ps and a voltage resolution of ~2mV of the overlap of the clocks used to drive the EMCCD. The frequency components of the clocks can be precisely controlled, and the inter-clock capacitance effect of the CCD can be nulled to avoid overshoots and undershoots. Using this controller, CIC levels as low as 0.001 - 0.002 ¯e per pixel per frame were measured on a 512×512 CCD97 operating in inverted mode, at an EM gain of ~2000. This is 5 to 10 times less than what is usually seen in commercial EMCCD cameras using the same EMCCD chip.

Daigle, Olivier; Blais-Ouellette, Sébastien

2010-02-01

170

The natural course of disease following HIV-1 infection in dar es salaam, Tanzania: a study among hotel workers relating clinical events to CD4 T-lymphocyte counts.  

PubMed

Current HIV management guidelines are based on natural history studies from the developed world. Data on the similarity of the natural course of HIV-1 infection conflict with studies in the developing world. A cohort of 1887 hotel workers with no access to antiretroviral therapy was followed between 1990 and 1998 in Dar es Salaam through annual clinical evaluations and CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4 cell) count determinations. 196 (10.4%) were HIV-1 sero-prevalents; 133 (7.9%) were HIV-1 sero-incidents; and 1558 (82.6%) remained HIV seronegative. Follow-up duration was 13,719 and 82,742 months for HIV-1 seropositives and HIV seronegatives respectively. Clinical events occurred at median CD4 cell counts similar to those previously reported from the developed world, but death occurred at higher counts. Off-duty last 6 months, chronic diarrhoea and a faster CD4 cell count decline were associated with faster disease progression and death. In Tanzania HIV natural history is similar to that from the developed world and similar management guidelines could be employed. PMID:15307570

Bakari, Muhammad; Urassa, Willy; Pallangyo, Kisali; Swai, Andrew; Mhalu, Fred; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Sandström, Eric

2004-01-01

171

Interpreting the Complete Blood Count in Anorexia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are frequent complications of anorexia nervosa. The complete blood count provides useful information to diagnose and characterize these findings. Anemia tends to be normocytic and normochromic. Leukopenia manifests as a deficiency of lymphocytes or neutrophils. Thrombocytopenia, if severe, may confer a bleeding risk. A careful history and physical examination should be performed to evaluate for other

Barbara S. Cleary; Jennifer L. Gaudiani; Philip S. Mehler

2010-01-01

172

The interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism is associated with elevated leukocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts and reduced physical fitness in young healthy smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking and interleukin-6 are important factors in driving inflammation. This study assessed the relationship between smoking, interleukin-6 genotype, physical fitness, and peripheral blood count in healthy young men. For this interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism -174 genotype-phenotype association study 1,929 healthy German male aviators recruited at the central German Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine were stratified by smoking habits. Cardiovascular fitness

J. R. Ortlepp; J. Metrikat; K. Vesper; V. Mevissen; F. Schmitz; M. Albrecht; P. Maya-Pelzer; P. Hanrath; C. Weber; K. Zerres; R. Hoffmann

2003-01-01

173

NEUTRON COUNTING STATISTICS IN NUCLEAR REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron counting statistics of a zero power reactor is treated on the basis of Kolmogorov's theory of branching processes. It is shown that the statistical properties of a sequence of neutron counts, currently used for experimental determination of reactor kinetic parameters, naturally follow from one basic formula. The Kolmogorov formalism also made it possible to explain the results of

Babala

1966-01-01

174

A High Rate 4??-? Coincidence Counting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high count rate 4??-? coincidence counting system for the determination of absolute disintegration rates of short half-life radionuclides is described. With this system the dead time per pulse is minimized by not stretching any pulses beyond the width necessary to satisfy overlap coincidence requirements. The pulse widths in the beta-ray (?), gamma-ray (?), and coincidence channels are extendable and

L. O. Johnson; R. J. Gehrke

1979-01-01

175

Discover Number Patterns With Skip Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 7-minute video third grade teacher Laretha Todd explains and models the strategy of choral counting with her students. As she records their counting, students are able to see patterns emerge and share and explain their findings. Questions for teacher reflection are included as well as a transcript.

2012-01-01

176

2009 KidsCount in Colorado!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

2009-01-01

177

2008 KidsCount in Colorado!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

2008-01-01

178

Getting Counted: Markets, Media, and Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firms that do not fit into established business categories tend to be overlooked, but new markets often form around these “misfits.” Because being seen as part of a growing population makes new populations seem real, counting them is important to mainstreaming new markets. Yet, if firms outside the mainstream are overlooked, how can they be counted? Extending the embeddedness perspective

Mark Thomas Kennedy

2008-01-01

179

Grain Counting Method Based On Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain counting is very important for breeding and quality inspection. In order to improve the efficiency and precision of grain counting, a novel method based on MATLAB image processing technology and mechanical vibration technology was proposed. It can effectively resolve the overlaps and conglutinations among grains by mechanical vibration and image erosion processing respectively. Experiment results show that this method

Zhao Ping; Li Yongkui

2009-01-01

180

Time to stop counting the tablets?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempted to assess compliance using both a pharmacologic indicator (low-dose phenobarbital) and a return tablet count in 225 patients who were taking part in three separate studies. There were 216 patients (96%) who kept a follow-up appointment after 28 days; 161 patients appeared to have good compliance (90% to 109%) by return tablet count. Of these 161 patients, 51

Thomas Pullar; Shubha Kumar; Hilary Tindall; Morgan Feely

1989-01-01

181

Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the

G. G. Klee; G. Post

1989-01-01

182

An improved technique for mitosis counting.  

PubMed

Mitosis counting remains one of the most valuable prognostic indicators in tumor pathology; however, as currently carried out it is time consuming and not reproducible. In this study, 6 different pathologists, using different microscopes, arrived at widely different mitotic counts on the same slide, ranging from 4 to 16. These differences were mainly due to the different field areas of the various microscopes used and the method used for counting and recording. In evaluating the most active 10 HPF, the count ranged from 10 to 19. Instead, when an average of 40 fields was recorded, the range was 4-11. Using the mitosis/volume index, which expresses the number of mitotic figures per mm2 of viable tumor, the counts ranged from 8 to 10, a marked improvement. However, this method is complicated and not "user-friendly.'' We suggest a variation of the technique by which a 2 mm2 rectangle is drawn on a cover slip and mounted under the microscope, centered on the most mitotically active area of the tumor. The mitoses in that area are counted (=n) and the percent of viable tumor (=x%) is estimated under low magnification. The number of mitoses per mm2 of viable tumor (cs-MAI) is then calculated according to the formula Cs-MAI=100n/2x. Using this modified method, the range of mitoses counted by the different observers was very narrow (9 to 11), and the time required for the counting was only 5-10 minutes. PMID:15864379

Gal, Rivka; Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Rosenblatt, Yevgenia; Halpern, Marisa; Schwartz, Ariel; Koren, Rumelia

2005-04-01

183

Induced Sputum Cell Counts in Healthy Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced sputum cell counts provide a relatively noninvasive method to evaluate the presence, type, and degree of inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Their interpretation requires a knowledge of normal values from a healthy population. The objective was to examine the total and differential cell counts in induced sputum from a sample of healthy adults. A total of 118

JOSE BELDA; RICHARD LEIGH; KRISHNAN PARAMESWARAN; PAUL M. O'BYRNE; MALCOLM R. SEARS; FREDERICK E. HARGREAVE

2000-01-01

184

Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct

Nipon Theera-Umpon; Paul D. Gader

2000-01-01

185

Significance of Platelet Count in Esophageal Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Thrombocytosis is found to be associated with unfavorable prognosis in esophageal carcinoma. Platelets produce thymidine phosphorylase which is a platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor with angiogenic activity. Increased platelet count may be translated into enhanced tumor growth. We examined the relation between platelet count and several prognostic variables in patients with esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and eighty-one cases with esophageal cancer that underwent esophagectomy in a referral cancer institute during a 5-year period were studied retrospectively. The relation between preoperative platelet count and patient age, gender, site of tumor, presence of multiple cancers and clinicopathological characteristics including histological type, tumor size, depth of penetration (T), lymph node involvement (N), distant metastasis (M), degree of differentiation, presence of vascular, lymphatic and perineural invasion was examined. Results: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) constituted 93% and adenocarcinoma 7% of cases. Most of patients were in stage III, followed by stage II. The mean platelet count was 245±76 (× 109 /L). There was no statistically significant correlation between platelet counts with prognostic factors except a weak linear correlation between platelet count and and tumor size (P= 0.03, Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.16). Patients with adenocarcinoma had a higher platelet count than those with SCC (P= 0.003). Conclusion: Platelet count does not correlate with prognostic factors in esophageal cancer. However, it is significantly different between SCC and adenocarcinoma of esophagus.

Aminian, Ali; Karimian, Faramarz; Mirsharifi, Rasoul; Alibakhshi, Abbas; Dashti, Habibollah; Jahangiri, Yosra; Safari, Saeed; Ghaderi, Hamid; Noaparast, Morteza; Hasani, Sharareh M.; Mirsharifi, Alireza

2011-01-01

186

Cluster counting in helium based gas mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical advantages deriving from counting primary ionization, as opposed to the conventional energy loss measurement, are extensively discussed. A primary ionization counting method is proposed for a ``traditional'', cylindrical, single sense wire cell drift chamber, which makes use of a helium based gas mixture. Its conceptual feasibility is proven by means of a simple Monte Carlo simulation. A counting algorithm is developed and tested on the simulation output. A definition of the parameters of the read-out and of the digitizing electronics is given, assuming the described counting algorithm applied to a general detector design, in order to have a complete and realistic planning of a cluster counting measurement. Finally, some interesting results from a beam test, performed according to the described parameters, on primary ionization measurements and on ?/? separation are shown.

Cataldi, G.; Grancagnolo, F.; Spagnolo, S.

1997-02-01

187

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

188

Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

189

Risk factors associated with incorrect surgical counts.  

PubMed

Incorrect surgical counts after surgery are a perplexing problem for nurses working in the perioperative environment. To determine factors associated with an incorrect surgical count, this cross-sectional, correlational study examined explanatory variables (eg, patient and nurse characteristics, intraoperative circumstances, staff involvement) by using data abstracted from perioperative medical records and primary data collected from perioperative nurses. In the final multivariate analysis, six variables were significantly associated with an incorrect surgical count: a higher surgical risk, a lower body mass index, a complicated procedure, an unplanned procedure, an increased number of perioperative personnel involved, and an increased number of specialty teams involved. PMID:22935256

Rowlands, Aletha

2012-09-01

190

B Counting at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

McGregor, Grant Duncan

2008-12-16

191

Carbon-14 dating: a comparison of Beta and ion counting.  

PubMed

Accelerator ion counting compares favorably with conventional beta counting. The major advantage of ion counting is that milligram samples can be analyzed. When sample size is not limiting, ion counting complements beta counting for the more routine carbon-14 determinations. Further development is needed before ion counting can achieve the same high precision as beta counting for large samples (+/- 2 per mil). A solution to the background variability has to be found before ion counting can be used to date samples back to the 75,000-year limit of beta counting. PMID:17752459

Stuiver, M

1978-11-24

192

On Approximate Range Counting and Depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We improve the previous results by Aronov and Har-Peled (SODA’05) and Kaplan and Sharir (SODA’06) and present a randomized\\u000a data structure of O(n) expected size which can answer 3D approximate halfspace range counting queries in \\u000a \\u000a expected time, where k is the actual value of the count. This is the first optimal method for the problem in the standard decision tree

Peyman Afshani; Timothy M. Chan

2009-01-01

193

On approximate range counting and depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We improve the previous results by Aronov and Har-Peled (SODA'05) and Kaplan and Sharir (SODA'06) and present a randomized data structure of O(n) expected sizewhich can answer 3D approximate halfspace range counting queries in O(log n\\/k) expected time, where k is the actual value of the count. This is the first optimal method for the problem in the standard decision

Peyman Afshani; Timothy M. Chan

2007-01-01

194

Differential expression analysis for sequence count data  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: High-throughput sequencing assays such as RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq or barcode counting provide quantitative readouts in the form of count data. To infer differential signal in such data correctly and with good statistical power, estimation of data variability throughout the dynamic range and a suitable error model are required. We propose a method based on the negative binomial distribution, with variance

Simon Anders; Wolfgang Huber

2010-01-01

195

Probability Convergence in a Multithreaded Counting Application  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the PDtree, a data structure for fast counting of any specified combinations of a given set of variables. We describe a static implementation that provides speedup linear in the number of processors on the multithreaded Cray MTA-2 machine. Finally, we prove a general convergence property that bounds the nondeterministic deviation of probability estimates relative to a sequential implementation. This convergence result is relevant for any counting application that takes a multithreaded streaming approach.

Scherrer, Chad; Beagley, Nathaniel; Nieplocha, Jarek; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

2007-03-30

196

Minimum Disclosure Counting for the Alternative Vote  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.

Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard

197

Electronic Counting of Somatic Cells in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several procedures were developed and evaluated to find a satisfactory method for electronic counting of somatic cells in milk. Best results were obtained when milk was prepared for counting by a) diluting 1:50 with 0.85% saline, b) eentrifuging 10 ml of the diluted milk at a relative centrifugal force (RCF) of 1,020 for 15 nlin at 4 C, c) discarding

R. B. Read Jr.; A. L. Reyes; J. G. Bradshaw; J. T. Peeler

1967-01-01

198

20 CFR 418.3310 - Whose income do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...income do we count? 418.3310 Section 418.3310 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Income § 418.3310 Whose income do we count? (a) We count your...

2013-04-01

199

20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...resources do we count? 418.3410 Section 418.3410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count...

2013-04-01

200

7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in...specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens...half-dozens. Variations from the number specified shall be...

2010-01-01

201

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...each fraction is the number of mortgage purchases...single-family properties that count toward achievement of...fraction is the total number of mortgage purchases...measured by counting the number of dwelling units that count toward...

2012-01-01

202

7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in...specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens...half-dozens. Variations from the number specified shall be...

2009-01-01

203

12 CFR 1282.15 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...each fraction is the number of mortgage purchases...single-family properties that count toward achievement of...fraction is the total number of mortgage purchases...measured by counting the number of dwelling units that count toward...

2013-01-01

204

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...

2010-04-01

205

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...

2009-04-01

206

Stability of prepared iodine counting standards  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. (Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (US))

1987-05-01

207

Protecting count queries in study design  

PubMed Central

Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems.

Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

2012-01-01

208

Evaluation of a Method for Counting Absolute Numbers of Cells with a Flow Cytometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated a method for performing absolute cell counts of lymphocyte populations with a flow cytometer. In this method, TruCount, test tubes that contain a known number of brightly fluorescent polystyrene beads are provided by the manufacturer. Whole anticoagulated blood is accurately pipetted into the tubes and mixed with fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies, the erythrocytes are lysed, and this mixture is

JANET K. A. NICHOLSON; DANA STEIN; TAMMY MUI; RICHARD MACK; MARJORIE HUBBARD; THOMAS DENNY

1997-01-01

209

Standardisation of (210)Pb by ?erenkov counting.  

PubMed

A standard of (210)Pb in solution was produced at the National Physical Laboratory by a novel technique combining ?erenkov counting with the established liquid scintillation efficiency tracing technique known as the CIEMAT/NIST method. Coincidence counting was applied in order to validate the measurements and the activity concentrations of the solution determined with each technique are shown to be in agreement. Radiochemical separation of the (210)Pb from its daughters was also necessary and the scheme for the separation is described. After performing this two-stage standardisation, the uncertainty was successfully lowered to 0.66% (k=1). This uncertainty is approximately a factor of four lower than previously achieved at NPL by the classical method of standardisation of radionuclides, i.e. coincidence counting. PMID:21288729

Arinc, Arzu; Johansson, Lena C; Gilligan, Chris R D; Pearce, Andy K

2011-01-11

210

Not everything that counts can be counted: ants use multiple metrics for a single nest trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are claims in the literature that certain insects can count. We question the generality of these claims and suggest that summation rather than counting (sensu stricto) is a more likely explanation. We show that Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies can discriminate between potential nest sites with different numbers of entrances. However, our experiments suggest that the ants use ambient light

Nigel R. Franks; Anna Dornhaus; Bonnie G. Metherell; Toby R. Nelson; Sophie A. J. Lanfear; William S. Symes

2006-01-01

211

Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

Haven, Terry, Ed.

212

Micromachined reference samples for particle counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three micromachined reference sample prototypes for particle counting have been fabricated by using dark ceramic spots in a transparent glass wafer to simulate particles on a surface. The direct write approach permits the spots to be positioned at random locations within an indicated area of the sample with sizes and numbers that are consistent with a distribution of particles. The goal of this work is to provide a path to creating a set of particle counting and sizing samples that can be used to establish the accuracy and precision of different measurements.

Taylor, David P.; Hansen, William W.; Steffeney, Lee; Chu, C.-T.

2012-10-01

213

Optical planar waveguide for cell counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

Leblanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

2012-01-01

214

Photon counting statistics using a digital oscilloscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a photon counting experiment designed for an undergraduate physics laboratory. The statistics of the number of photons of a pseudo-thermal light source is studied in two limiting cases: much longer and much shorter than the coherence time, giving Poisson and Bose-Einstein distributions, respectively. The experiment can be done in a reasonable time using a digital oscilloscope without the need of counting boards. The use of the oscilloscope has the advantage of allowing the storage of the data for further processing. The stochastic nature of the detection phenomena adds additional value because students are forced to do data processing and analysis.

Martínez Ricci, M. L.; Mazzaferri, J.; Bragas, A. V.; Martínez, O. E.

2007-08-01

215

Comparison of Methods for Counting Cells in the Mouse Glomerulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Researchers have long been interested in counting the number of cells within the glomerulus. Investigators using different techniques have yielded conflicting results. The most direct method is to count the cells in serial sections from the entire glomerulus. This Exhaustive Count method is not usually practical. The disector\\/fractionator method counts the number of cells in a fraction of sections.

John M. Basgen; Susanne B. Nicholas; Michael Mauer; Silvia Rozen; Jens R. Nyengaard

2006-01-01

216

7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half...

2013-01-01

217

Estimating Pedestrian Accident Exposure: Automated Pedestrian Counting Devices Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated methods are commonly used to count motorized vehicles, but are not frequently used to count pedestrians. This is because the automated technologies available to count pedestrians are not very developed, and their effectiveness has not been widely researched. Moreover, most automated methods are used primarily for the purpose of detecting, rather than counting, pedestrians (Dharmaraju et al., 2001; Noyce

Fanping Bu; Ryan Greene-Roesel; Mara Chagas Diogenes; David R Ragland

2007-01-01

218

A Unified Multivariate Counting Process: Theoretical Analysis and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The class of counting processes constitutes a significant part of applied probability. The classic counting processes of importance include a Poisson process, a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) and a renewal process. More sophisticated counting processes have been developed in order to accommodate,a wider range of applications. All of these counting processes seem to be quite different on surface, forcing

Jia-Ping HUANG

2008-01-01

219

White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999. At each site and in each year...

A. J. Magill B. Permpanich F. E. McKenzie J. R. Forney W. A. Prudhomme

2005-01-01

220

WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;…

Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark

221

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

222

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

223

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

224

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

Cochran, Carole

225

KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

Boeke, Kaye

226

Contribution of Hand Motor Circuits to Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that number processing activates a cortical network partly overlapping that recruited for hand movements has renewed interest in the relationship between number and finger representations. Further evidence about a possible link between fingers and numbers comes from developmental studies showing that finger movements play a crucial role in learning counting. However, increased activity in hand motor circuits during

Michael Andres; Xavier Seron; Etienne Olivier

2007-01-01

227

Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

2010-01-01

228

South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

229

KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

230

South Carolina Kids Count Report, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This KIDS COUNT report examines trends in the status of South Carolina children on a state-wide and county basis. The statistical portrait is based on 32 indicators of well-being, grouped into 6 categories: (1) family (family characteristics, child neglect/abuse); (2) economic status (poverty, mean family income); (3) health (prenatal care,…

South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

231

Evaluation of PET count rate performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal is made for the test conditions to evaluate PET count rate performance. This performance depends in a complex manner on the spatial distribution of activity and scattering material. Therefore, a combined body phantom is proposed, which is as simple as possible but which adequately simulates the range of clinical application of a whole body tomograph. Taking into account

Bernd O. Knoop; Kurt Jordan; Terry Spinks

1989-01-01

232

A sex difference in the leucocyte count  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of a group of 325 blood donors between the ages of 18 and 65 years, the total leucocyte and polymorph counts of the females aged 50 to 65 years were found to be significantly lower than those of the corresponding group of male donors. In the whole series of female donors, there were significantly lower total leucocyte

R. N. Allan; M. K. Alexander

1968-01-01

233

Youth Count: The Vermont Youth Report, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT report examines trends in the well-being of Vermont's youth. The report balances at-risk youth data with survey results related to "positive youth development," an approach that promotes beneficial attributes of youth and their communities. Following an introduction and discussion of positive youth development and youth well-being…

Farber, Wendy; Burgess, Beth

234

An optimal algorithm for counting network motifs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network motifs are small connected sub-graphs occurring at significantly higher frequencies in a given graph compared with random graphs of similar degree distribution. Recently, network motifs have attracted attention as a tool to study networks microscopic details. The commonly used algorithm for counting small-scale motifs is the one developed by Milo et al. This algorithm is extremely costly in CPU time and actually cannot work on large networks, consisting of more than 100,000 edges on current CPUs. We here present a new optimal algorithm, based on network decomposition for counting K-size network motifs with constant memory costs and a CPU cost linear with the number of counted motifs. Our algorithm performs better than previous full enumeration algorithms in terms of running time. Moreover, it uses a constant amount of memory. It also outperforms sampling algorithms. Our algorithm permits the counting of three and four motif for large networks that consists of more than 500,000 nodes and 5,000,000 links. For large networks, it performs more than a thousand times faster than current algorithms.

Itzhack, Royi; Mogilevski, Yelena; Louzoun, Yoram

2007-07-01

235

Kids Count in Nebraska 1996 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Nebraska's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven general areas of children's well-being: (1) early care and education; (2) physical and behavioral health; (3) child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence; (4) out of home care; (5) education; (6) economic…

Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

236

Illinois Kids Count 2001: Envisioning the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Illinois' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of family, education and child care, arts and recreation, safety, health, and economic security. The indicators are: (1) percent of children living in poverty; (2) number of children enrolled in…

Baker, Brenda; Familia, Yahaira; Gifford, Amy; Knowlton, Gretchen; Matakis, Brian; Olson, Melissa; Owens, Tracy; Zasadny, Julie

237

Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

238

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…

Cassatt, Susan

239

Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies;…

Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

240

KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

Staberg, Christine

241

KidsCount in Colorado! 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…

Vasquez, Jenifer

242

Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

243

Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

244

Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count data book is the first to examine statewide indicators of the well being of Nevada's children. The statistical portrait is based on 15 indicators of child well being: (1) percent low birth-weight babies; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) percent of children in poverty; (4) percent of children in single-parent families; (5) percent of…

We Can, Inc., Las Vegas, NV.

245

KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

Shulman, Shanna

246

KidsCount in Colorado! 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

Staberg, Christine

247

Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Nevada. The report is comprised of eight sections: an overview; Nevada's demographic profile; key facts regarding children in the state; Nevada's comparison to the rest of the United States; trends in the state; indicators of child well-being;…

Ford, Paula R.

248

Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

249

Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…

Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara

250

Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic…

Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

251

Fibonacci numbers when counting chord diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduction. The combinatorics of drawing some chords in some circles arises in a section of knot theory called invariants of finite-type. We will see that the Fibonacci numbers are useful for counting certain forms of these chord diagrams. We also prove that most of the chord diagrams are null. 2. Definitions We begin with a vector space of chord

Jane Kraemer

252

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

253

Success in School: Education Ideas that Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Kids Count project is an effort to track the status of children in the United States by providing policymakers and citizens with national and state benchmarks of well-being. This multi-publication packet describes the project and several factors that increase the likelihood of children's academic success. The first of two pamphlets, the "Kids…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

254

Electron microscopical particle counting in virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the preceding study the degree of adsorption of virus to electron microscope grids has been shown to be an important parameter governing the efficiency of sedimentation techniques used for particle counting. In the present study the application of poly-L-lysine not only improves the binding ability but makes it more reproducible. In addition the distribution of adsorbed particles between

G. Müller; G. Nielsen; C. L. Baigent

1980-01-01

255

Female Fertility: Why Lifestyle Choices Count  

MedlinePLUS

... lifestyle choices count Guidelines for sites linking to MayoClinic.com Advertisement Mayo Clinic Store Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. Try Mayo Clinic Health Letter ... answers to live stronger, longer and healthier at any age ...

256

Approximate Frequency Counts over Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present algorithms for computing frequency counts exceeding a user-specified threshold over data streams. Our algorithms are simple and have provably small memory footprints. Although the output is approximate, the error is guaranteed not to exceed a user-specified parameter. Our algo- rithms can easily be deployed for streams of single- ton items like those found in IP network monitor- ing.

Gurmeet Singh Manku; Rajeev Motwani

2002-01-01

257

Dubious hit counts and cuckoo's eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss dubious hit counts in search results. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Uses not only traditional databases and search engines but also unique citation databases to gain informative hit figures. Findings – Searches are finding materials that are clearly not scholarly materials. Originality\\/value – Shows the importance of a more defined search, thus less

Péter Jacsó

2006-01-01

258

An Automated Bacterial Colony Counting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial colony enumeration is an essential tool for many widely used biomedical assays. However, bacterial colony enumerating is a low throughput, time consuming and labor intensive process since there might exist hundreds or thousands of colonies on a Petri dish, and the counting process is often manually performed by well-trained technicians. In this paper, we introduce a fully automatic yet

Chengcui Zhang; Wei-bang Chen; Wen-lin Liu; Chi-bang Chen

2008-01-01

259

Kids Count Report in Nebraska, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide trend data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 of the report presents U.S. Census data on population trends in Nebraska as well as child poverty rates, and urges Nebraskans to work together to ensure that its youngest citizens have the best start possible. Section 2, the bulk of this…

Johnston, Janet M.

260

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

Bentz, Cara Anderson

261

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…

Johnston, Janet M.

262

Kids Count Report in Nebraska, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trend data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 of the report presents U.S. Census data on population trends in Nebraska as well as child poverty rates, and urges Nebraskans to work together to ensure that its youngest citizens have the best start possible. Section 2, the bulk of this…

Johnston, Janet M.

263

Kids Count Alaska, 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

264

All Our Children: Massachusetts Kids Count 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends from 1990 to 1994 in the well-being of Massachusetts' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being in five areas: (1) economic well-being of children and their families, including child poverty rate, family income, job loss, earnings of male high school dropouts and…

Diamond, Franna, Ed.

265

Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…

Salley, Valerie

266

County Data Book 1995: Kentucky Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book presents findings of the Kids Count project on current conditions faced by Kentucky children age birth through 19. For each county, and for the state, comparisons are provided between the base years of 1980-1982 and the most recent years 1992-1994. Counties are ranked against each other and trend graphs are provided for the studied…

Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

267

Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

268

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

Johnston, Janet M.

269

KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

Staberg, Christine

270

KidsCount in Colorado! 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…

Boeke, Kaye

271

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the fifth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 30 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

272

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

273

KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

Boeke, Kaye

274

Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…

Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara

275

KidsCount in Colorado! 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…

Vasquez, Jenifer

276

Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)…

Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

277

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

Johnston, Janet M.

278

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…

Cassatt, Susan

279

KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

Shulman, Shanna

280

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

281

County Data Book 1997: Kentucky Kids Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children on a statewide and county basis. An introduction summarizes some of the trends for Kentucky's children in the 1990s. The bulk of the report presents statewide and county data grouped into five categories: (1) poverty rates and programs (persons in poverty; median…

Kentucky Kids Count Consortium.

282

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the sixth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 37 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (covering child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (covering median household income, cost of…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

283

Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

284

On probabilistic inference by weighted model counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent and eective approach to probabilistic inference calls for reducing the problem to one of weighted model counting (WMC) on a propositional knowledge base. Specically, the approach calls for encoding the probabilistic model, typically a Bayesian network, as a propositional knowledge base in conjunctive normal form (CNF) with weights associated to each model according to the network parameters. Given

Mark Chavira; Adnan Darwiche

2008-01-01

285

Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)…

Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

286

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

Bentz, Cara Anderson

287

The reliability of counting actinic keratosis.  

PubMed

Many epidemiological studies and clinical trials have been performed concerning actinic keratoses. The most eligible endpoint in the majority of articles is counting of actinic keratoses before and after treatments, nevertheless some authors support that this is not a reliable form of evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actinic keratoses counting by various raters and suggest approaches to increase the reliability. Cross-sectional study: forty-three patients were evaluated by four raters (inter- and intra-rater assessment) on the face and forearms. The mean actinic keratoses counts on the face and forearms were 7.7 and 9.1. The overall agreement among the raters for the facial and forearm actinic keratoses was 0.74 and 0.77. The intra-rater assessment showed high rates of agreement for the face (ICC = 0.93) and forearms (ICC = 0.83). Higher agreement occurred when counting up to five lesions. Four raters led to increased measurement variability and loss of reliability. Higher rates of agreement may be achieved with small number of lesions, limitation and/or segmentation of body areas to reduce their number, in AK prevention designs, are strategies that may lead to a greater reliability of these measurements. PMID:24045957

Ianhez, M; Junior, L F F Fleury; Bagatin, E; Miot, H A

2013-09-18

288

Photon-counting-based dust monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the dust monitors are based on optical principle: the scattered light intensity is registered. The classical approach is using the multiple photon optical signal intensity and processing. Single photon detection -- photon counting is exploited in Satellite Laser Ranging and was implemented in space born application for Mars Surveyor Program 98, as well. The main advantage of single

Karel Hamal; Ivan Prochazka; Josef Blazej; Iva Eslerova; Bruno Sopko; Armin Pasta

1999-01-01

289

Ptime Canonization for Two Variables with Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider infinitary logic with two variable symbolsand counting quantifiers, C2, and its intersectionwith Ptime on finite relational structures. In particularwe exhibit a Ptime canonization procedure forfinite relational structures which provides unique representativesup to equivalence in C2. As a consequencewe obtain a recursive presentation for the class of allthose queries on arbitrary finite relational structureswhich are both Ptime and definable

Martin Otto; RWTH Aachen

1995-01-01

290

A box-counting red herring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Box counting is commonly used as a method to determine the multifractal spectrum of measured time series. Here we show that ?-correlated signals, having an (hyper)exponential amplitude distribution, can generate a spurious detection of multifractality. The situation becomes even worse for nonlinearly-filtered, linear autoregressive processes. Care should thus be exerted when claiming the presence of multifractality in measured data.

J von Hardenberg; R. Thieberger; A. Provenzale

2000-01-01

291

Counting integral ideals in a number field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let K be an algebraic number field. We discuss the problem of counting the number of integral ideals below a given norm and obtain effective error estimates. The approach is elementary and follows a classical line of argument of Dedekind and Weber. The novelty here is that explicit error estimates can be obtained by fine tuning this classical argument without

M. Ram Murty; Jeanine Van Order

2007-01-01

292

Youth Count: The Vermont Youth Report, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This KIDS COUNT report examines trends in the well-being of Vermont's youth. The report balances at-risk youth data with survey results related to "positive youth development," an approach that promotes beneficial attributes of youth and their communities. Following an introduction and discussion of positive youth development and youth well-being…

Farber, Wendy; Burgess, Beth

293

Scintillation Counting in Experiments on Parity Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scintillation counter has played a key role in many of the recent experiments pertaining to the conservation of parity and other symmetry principles in weak interactions. Although in many instances the development of the techniques of scintillation counting, per se, has been limited, the applications to which these techniques have been put are sufficiently novel to warrant a general

R. W. Hayward; D. D. Hoppes

1958-01-01

294

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births;…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

295

Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…

Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

296

KidsCount in Colorado! 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…

Boeke, Kaye

297

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

298

Kids Count Alaska, 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births;…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

299

Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

Leask, Linda, Ed.

300

Alabama Kids Count 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being for Alabama's children. The statistical portrait is based on 17 indicators in the areas of health, education, safety, and security. The indicators are: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade…

Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

301

Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

302

VALIDATION OF A NEW DISPOSABLE COUNTING CHAMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a routine prospective study, 3 different counting chambers were compared for manual and computer- assisted evaluations. Swim-up samples were used so as to remove all debris and other cells that may contaminate the evaluation process when using a semen analyzer. The Makler concentration determina- tions (n = 20) were, on average, approximately 20 ? 10 6 cells\\/mL higher compared

K. Coetzee; R. Menkveld

2001-01-01

303

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

304

Bacteria Counts in Sawdust Bedding1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria counts in untreated sawdust bedding were compared with those in sawdust bedding after the addition of lime and after daily replacement of bed- ding in the back one-third of the stalls. Addition of 1 kg of lime to 10 kg of sawdust reduced Gram-negative bacteria, coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and streptococci prior to use as bedding. Sawdust treated with lime

J. S. Hogan; K. L. Smith

1997-01-01

305

KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

Buck, Beverly R.

306

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examined statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. Five chapters addressed the areas of: family and community; economic well-being; child health; safety; and education. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of well-being: (1) children in single parent families; (2) median household income;…

Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; And Others

307

KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse…

Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

308

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…

Johnston, Janet M.

309

Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

Johnston, Janet M.

310

Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

Johnston, Janet M.

311

Weighted power counting and perturbative unitarity  

SciTech Connect

We consider the relationship between renormalizability and unitarity at a Lifshitz point in d dimensions. We test tree unitarity for theories containing only scalars and fermions, and for pure gauge theory. In both cases, we find the requirement of weighted power-counting renormalizability is equivalent to that of tree unitarity.

Albrecht, Dylan [Particle Theory Group, Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

2011-02-15

312

MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We observed a 4' × 7' field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N), and our data reached J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5?, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J - K > 2.3 is 2.35 ± 0.31 arcmin-2 at K < 22 and 3.54 ± 0.38 arcmin-2 at K < 23, respectively. These values are consistent with those in the GOODS-South and FIRES. Our deep and wide data suggest that the number counts of DRGs turn over at K ˜ 22, and the surface density of the faint DRGs with K > 22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 2 < z < 4 with the relatively old stellar population and/or heavy dust extinction, the number of faint galaxies with a similar red color is relatively small. Different behavior patterns of the number counts of the DRGs and bluer galaxies with 2 < zphot < 4 at K > 22 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of the low-mass galaxies are blue, while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka; Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

2006-12-01

313

Approximate Formulas for Photoelectric Counting Distributions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The validity of a simple approximate formula for the photoelectric counting probability in a thermal optical field, which was proposed by one of us (L.M.) in 1959, is investigated. The formula is based on a generalization of the Bose-Einstein distribution...

G. Bedard J. C. Chang L. Mandel

1967-01-01

314

Photon-counting-based dust monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the dust monitors are based on optical principle: the scattered light intensity is registered. The classical approach is using the multiple photon optical signal intensity and processing. Single photon detection -- photon counting is exploited in Satellite Laser Ranging and was implemented in space born application for Mars Surveyor Program 98, as well. The main advantage of single photon detection is an extreme sensitivity, the entire digital approach, no analog signal is treated. All the light intensity information is acquired on the basis of statistical data treatment. The dust detector consists of the LED diode based transmitter, single photon solid state diode detector and the digital data processing unit. The light beam from the LED diode passing the dust column is detected in a photo detector. The detector employs the avalanche Silicon photodiode 40 micrometers diameter active area and is operated in a passive gating and active quenching mode above its breakdown voltage. The detector provides uniform digital pulses, one for each photon detected. The light intensity measurement is converted into the photon flux counting -- frequency or event counting. The microcomputer controlled data processing electronics counts the detector output pulses, accounts for detector dark count rate, calibration constants, and computes the corresponding dust concentration averaged over desired period. The second LED located close to the detector is used as a reference light source to eliminate the temperature, aging and sensor contamination influence. The laboratory measurements show the long term and temperature stability of the scale within 1%. The setup was tested at the cement plant smoke stack and compared to the commercial optical dust concentration monitor operating on analog multiphoton principle. Due to an extreme optical sensitivity of the photon counting detector, the energy balance is favorable to realize lightweight equipment by a factor of ten in comparison to analogue-based device. The photon counting principle along with the self-calibration setup does not require re-calibration. The optical apertures involved are of the order of millimeters what reduces the problems of contamination of the device by the dust monitored. As no collimating optics is used, the no optical alignment is required.

Hamal, Karel; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Eslerova, Iva; Sopko, Bruno; Pasta, Armin

1999-05-01

315

To count or not to count: the effect of instructions on expecting a break in timing.  

PubMed

When a break is expected during a time interval production, longer intervals are produced as the break occurs later during the interval. This effect of break location was interpreted as a result of distraction related to break expectancy in previous studies. In the present study, the influence of target duration and of instructions about chronometric counting strategies on the break location effect was examined. Using a strategy such as chronometric counting enhances the reliability of temporal processing, typically in terms of reduced variability, and could influence how timing is affected by break expectancy, especially when relatively long target durations are used. In two experiments, results show that time productions lengthened with increasing value of break location at various target durations and that variability was greater in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. More important, the break location effect was stronger in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. We conclude that chronometric counting orients attention toward timing processes, making them less likely to be disrupted by concurrent nontemporal processes. PMID:23269518

Gaudreault, Rémi; Fortin, Claudette

2013-04-01

316

Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers  

SciTech Connect

We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

Suslov, M. V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow District (Russian Federation); R and D Department, NIX Computer Company, Zvezdniy boulevard 19, 129085 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lesovik, G. B. [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117940 Moscow (Russian Federation); Blatter, G. [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-05-15

317

Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012316 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter’s performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

2011-05-01

318

U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected Persons, 2000 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Background The U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy targets for 2015 include increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for persons living with HIV in the United States (PLWH-US). Objective To demonstrate the utility of the NA-ACCORD (North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design) for monitoring trends in the HIV epidemic in the United States and to present trends in HIV treatment and related health outcomes. Design Trends from annual cross-sectional analyses comparing patients from pooled, multicenter, prospective, clinical HIV cohort studies with PLWH-US, as reported to national surveillance systems in 40 states. Setting U.S. HIV outpatient clinics. Patients HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any calendar year from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2008. Measurements Annual rates of antiretroviral therapy use, HIV VL, and CD4 cell count at death. Results 45 529 HIV-infected persons received care in an NA-ACCORD–participating U.S. clinical cohort from 2000 to 2008. In 2008, the 26 030 NA-ACCORD participants in care and the 655 966 PLWH-US had qualitatively similar demographic characteristics. From 2000 to 2008, the proportion of participants prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy increased by 9 percentage points to 83% (P < 0.001), whereas the proportion with suppressed HIV VL (?2.7 log10 copies/mL) increased by 26 percentage points to 72% (P < 0.001). Median CD4 cell count at death more than tripled to 0.209 × 109 cells/L (P < 0.001). Limitation The usual limitations of observational data apply. Conclusion The NA-ACCORD is the largest cohort of HIV-infected adults in clinical care in the United States that is demographically similar to PLWH-US in 2008. From 2000 to 2008, increases were observed in the percentage of prescribed HAART, the percentage who achieved a suppressed HIV VL, and the median CD4 cell count at death. Primary Funding Source National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian HIV Trials Network, and the government of British Columbia, Canada.

Althoff, Keri N.; Buchacz, Kate; Hall, H. Irene; Zhang, Jinbing; Hanna, David B.; Rebeiro, Peter; Gange, Stephen J.; Moore, Richard D.; Kitahata, Mari; Gebo, Kelly A.; Martin, Jeffrey; Justice, Amy C.; Horberg, Michael; Hogg, Robert S.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Cescon, Angela; Klein, Marina B.; Thorne, Jennifer; Crane, Heidi; Mugavero, Michael J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Kirk, Gregory D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Brooks, John T.

2012-01-01

319

Analysis of relationship between bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 alleles, somatic cell count and milk traits in Iranian Holstein population.  

PubMed

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a gene complex closely linked to the vertebrate immune system due to its importance in antigen recognition and immune response to pathogens. To improve our understanding of the MHC and disease resistance in dairy cattle, we gathered 5119 test day records of somatic cell count (SCC) and performance traits of 262 Holstein dairy cows to determine whether the DRB region of the MHC contains alleles that are associated with elevated SCC, milk yield, protein and fat percent of milk. To this purpose, genotyping of animals for DRB3 gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. A two-step PCR was carried out so as to amplify a 284 base-pair fragment of exon 2 of the target gene. Second PCR products were treated with three restriction endonuclease enzymes RsaI, BstYI and HaeIII. Twenty-eight BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified including one novel allele (*40). The results in general are in good accordance with allele frequencies of Holstein cattle populations reported by previous studies. Analyses of associations were modeled based on repeated measurement anova and generalized logistic linear methods for production traits and SCC data, respectively. The results of this study showed a significant relationship between the elevated SCC reflecting an increased probability of occurrence to subclinical mastitis and DRB3.2 allele *8 (p < 0.03). The results also revealed significant positive relationships of alleles*22 (p < 0.01) and allele*11 (p < 0.05) with milk fat percent as well as of alleles*24 (p < 0.03) and *22 (p < 0.05) with protein percent. The present study failed to find any association between milk yield and tested alleles. Because of the lack of consistency among results of similar studies, we suggest further investigations to determine the precise nature of these associations with the high polymorphic bovine MHC region to be performed based on haplotypes. PMID:19630880

Pashmi, M; Qanbari, S; Ghorashi, S A; Sharifi, A R; Simianer, H

2009-08-01

320

The Role of Gesture in Children's Learning to Count  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of spontaneous gesture was examined in children's counting and in their assessment of counting accuracy. Eighty-five 2-, 3-, and 4-year-olds counted 6 sets of 2-, 4-, and 6-object arrays. In addition, children assessed the counting accuracy of a puppet whose gestures varied as he counted (i.e., gesture matched the number words, gesture mismatched the number words, no gesture

Theresa A. Graham

1999-01-01

321

34 CFR 222.34 - If an applicant makes a second membership count, when must that count be made?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...membership count, and make that count in accordance with § 222.33...date for the second membership count for all schools in the LEA...obtained from a second membership count to amend its application for...Management and Budget under control number 1810-0036)...

2013-07-01

322

Modeling zero-inflated count data when exposure varies: With an application to tumor counts.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with the analysis of zero-inflated count data when time of exposure varies. It proposes a modified zero-inflated count data model where the probability of an extra zero is derived from an underlying duration model with Weibull hazard rate. The new model is compared to the standard Poisson model with logit zero inflation in an application to the effect of treatment with thiotepa on the number of new bladder tumors. PMID:24003010

Baetschmann, Gregori; Winkelmann, Rainer

2013-09-01

323

Time to reset the great count  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have come to a similar conclusion as Emiliani [1994] in one main point: that marking time from the event of Christ's birth has no significance for many of the world's cultures; indeed, the ubiquitous spread of the common era count is a common error [Volk, 1995]. Thus perhaps Agnew [1994], who believes that “Emiliani is the only person who has trouble with our calendar,” should talk to some Buddhists or Muslims. Agnew, however, does damage Emiliani's proposed solution (to start a new great count at the beginning of the Holocene by establishing the birth of Christ at the year 10,000), which Agnew points out is too arbitrary. And, I might add, Emiliani's suggestion continues the essential cultural error—Christ's birth is now merely offset by a power of ten. This was also noted by Schaffer [1994].

Volk, Tyler

324

Low level counting from meteorites to neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

The development in low level counting at Heidelberg with NaI(Tl) crystals, proportional counters and Germanium detectors is reviewed throughout the course of almost 40 years of experience. Research subjects changed from cosmogenic radionuclides in meteorites to solar neutrinos and double beta decay. Driven by screening measurements for these rare event experiments, the sensitivity in single gamma counting has gained almost 3 orders of magnitude. With Ge spectrometry the {mu}Bq/kg range is now accessible. It is discussed how further improvements can be realized. There is potential to reach a sensitivity at the level of 10 to 100 nBq/kg for cryogenic liquid type Gespectroscopy, a technique which the next generation 76Ge double beta decay experiment GERDA is based on.

Heusser, Gerd [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

2005-09-08

325

Airborne UV photon-counting radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiometric measurements group at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) has developed new solar-blind radiometers for the SENSOR TALON flight test. These radiometers will be flown in an instrument pod by the 46th Test Wing at Eglin AFB. The radiometers are required to fit into a single quadrant of a 22-in.-diam sphere turret of the instrument pod. Because of minimal space requirements and photon-counting sensitivity needs, the radiometric measurements group used image intensifiers instead of the standard photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The new design concept improved the photon-counting sensitivity, dynamic range, and uniformity of the field of view as compared to standard PMTs. A custom data acquisition system was required to miniaturize the electronics and generate a pulse code-modulated (PCM) data stream to the standard tape recording system.

Bauer, Marc C.; Wilcher, George; Banks, Calvin R.; Wood, Ronald L.

2000-11-01

326

An inherent bottleneck in distributed counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed counter allows each processor in anasynchronous message passing network to accessthe counter value and increment it. We studythe problem of implementing a distributed countersuch that no processor is a communication bottleneck.We prove a lower bound of\\\\Omega\\\\Gamma\\/20 n= log log n)on the number of messages that some processormust exchange in a sequence of n counting operationsspread over n processors.

Rogert Wattenhofer; Peter Widmayer

1997-01-01

327

An Extendable Galaxy Number Count Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review galaxy number count models and present ncmod, an extendable and\\u000ageneral purpose model for comparing and interpreting the results of field\\u000agalaxy survey data. I develop techniques and software for converting the\\u000aresults of a survey done in one filter into another filter, for direct\\u000acomparison with other surveys. Comparison of the data from surveys which differ\\u000agreatly

1998-01-01

328

Inventory verification measurements using neutron multiplicity counting  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a series of neutron multiplicity measurements of large plutonium samples at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The measurements were corrected for bias caused by neutron energy spectrum shifts and nonuniform multiplication, and are compared with calorimetry/isotopics. The results show that multiplicity counting can increase measurement throughput and yield good verification results for some inventory categories. The authors provide recommendations on the future application of the technique to inventory verification.

Ensslin, N.; Foster, L.A.; Harker, W.C.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.

1998-12-31

329

RADIOACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF SODIUM BY COUNTING PHOTONEUTRONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nondestructive radioactivation analysis method for Na in complex ; matrices is described, in which Na²⁴ is assayed by counting photoneutrons ; emitted from deuterium by the 2.75-Mev gamma ray, in an assembly consisting of D\\/; sub 2\\/O and neutron detectors. The principle offers efficient discrimination ; against large amounts of radioactivities with energies below 2.23 Mev. the ; threshold

Saadia Amiel; Max Peisach

1963-01-01

330

International Development Training Design: Does Culture Count?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This capstone, “International Development Training Design: Does Culture Count?” examines how short-term international training programs, structured with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Results Framework, do or do not cooperate within the cultural context of non-U.S. participants. It is argued that the existing framework supports a low context cultural dimension generally attributed to U.S. culture. A content analysis

Joanna Flagler

2003-01-01

331

Mining frequent patterns with counting inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose the algorithm Pascal which introducesa novel optimization of the well-known algorithmApriori. This optimization is based on a new strategy calledpattern counting inference that relies on the concept of keypatterns. We show that the support of frequent non-keypatterns can be inferred from frequent key patterns withoutaccessing the database. Experiments comparing Pascal to the three algorithms Apriori,

Yves Bastide; Rafik Taouil; Nicolas Pasquier; Gerd Stumme; Lotfi Lakhal

2000-01-01

332

Capacity approaching codes for photon counting receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[1] a low-complexity photon-counting receiver has been presented, which may be employed for weak-energy optical communications and which is typically modeled through its equivalent Binary Symmetric Channel (BSC) model. In this paper we consider the scheme described in [1], we model it as a time varying Binary Input-Multiple Output (BIMO) channel and analyze its performance in presence of soft-metric based capacity approaching iteratively decoded error correcting codes, and in particular using soft-metric based Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes. To take full advantage of such detector, soft information is generated in the form of Log-Likelihood Ratios (LLRs), achieving reduction in Bit Error Rate (BER) and Frame Error Rate (FER) with respect to classical BSC and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel models. Furthermore, we explore the limits of the achievable performance gains when using photon counting detectors as compared to the case when such detectors are not available. To this end, we find the classical capacity of the considered BIMO channel, clearly showing the potential gains that photon counting detectors can provide in the context of a realistic cost-effective scheme from an implementation point of view. Furthermore, we show that from a channel modeling point of view, we can observe that the BIMO channel can be approximated with an AWGN channel for high values of mean photon count Nc, while the AWGN model offers an unreliable result with a low mean photon number Nc, (i.e. with low raw BER). This effect is more evident with lower coding rates.

Mondin, Marina; Daneshgaran, Fred; Bari, Inam; Delgado, Maria Teresa

2012-10-01

333

The NIST rapid irradiation and counting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is being developed for short irradiation and rapid counting at the NIST Reactor, optimized for accurate neutron activation analysis via activation products ranging in half-life from about 500 ms to 500 s. This facility is designed to irradiate a sample either in a well-thermalized neutron flux at 3·1013 n·cm–2·s–1, or in a higher flux with a larger fast and

R. M. Lindstrom; D. A. Becker; J. K. Langland; R. R. Greenberg

1997-01-01

334

High-rate counting efficiency of VLPC  

SciTech Connect

A simple model is applied to describe dependencies of Visible Light Photon Counter (VLPC) characteristics on temperature and operating voltage. Observed counting efficiency losses at high illumination, improved by operating at higher temperature, are seen to be a consequence of de-biasing within the VLPC structure. A design improvement to minimize internal de-biasing for future VLPC generations is considered. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Hogue, H.H. [Research and Technology Center, Boeing Electronic Systems and Missile Defense, 3370 Miraloma Ave M/S HB17, Anaheim, California 92803 (United States)

1998-11-01

335

Soudan Low Background Counting Facility (SOLO)  

SciTech Connect

The Soudan Low Background Counting Facility (SOLO) has been in operation at the Soudan Mine, MN since March 2003. In the past two years, we have gamma-screened samples for the Majorana, CDMS and XENON experiments. With individual sample exposure times of up to two weeks we have measured sample contamination down to the 0.1 ppb level for 238U / 232Th, and down to the 0.25 ppm level for 40K.

Attisha, Michael; Viveiros, Luiz de; Gaitksell, Richard; Thompson, John-Paul [Brown University, Providence RI 02912 (United States)

2005-09-08

336

Reduced-parts-count multilevel rectifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilevel power converters have gained much attention in recent years due to their high power quality, low switching losses, and high-voltage capability. These advantages make the multilevel converter a candidate topology for the next generation of naval ship prolusion systems. The primary disadvantage of these systems is the large number of semiconductors involved. This paper presents a reduced-parts-count rectifier which

Keith A. Corzine; James R. Baker

2002-01-01

337

Duplication count distributions in DNA sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantitative features of complex repetitive DNA in several genomes by studying sequences that are sufficiently long that they are unlikely to have repeated by chance. For each genome we study, we determine the number of identical copies, the “duplication count,” of each sequence of length 40, that is of each “40-mer.” We say a 40-mer is “repeated” if its duplication count is at least 2. We focus mainly on “complex” 40-mers, those without short internal repetitions. We find that we can classify most of the complex repeated 40-mers into two categories: one category has its copies clustered closely together on one chromosome, the other has its copies distributed widely across multiple chromosomes. For each genome and each of the categories above, we compute N(c) , the number of 40-mers that have duplication count c , for each integer c . In each case, we observe a power-law-like decay in N(c) as c increases from 3 to 50 or higher. In particular, we find that N(c) decays much more slowly than would be predicted by evolutionary models where each 40-mer is equally likely to be duplicated. We also analyze an evolutionary model that does reflect the slow decay of N(c) .

Sindi, Suzanne S.; Hunt, Brian R.; Yorke, James A.

2008-12-01

338

Magnification effects on source counts and fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the effect of lensing magnification on high-redshift sources in the case that magnification varies on the sky, as expected in wide fields of view or within observed galaxy clusters. We give expressions for number counts, flux and flux variance as integrals over the probability distribution of the magnification. We obtain these through a simple mapping between averages over the observed sky and over the magnification probability distribution in the source plane. Our results clarify conflicting expressions in the literature and can be used to calculate a variety of magnification effects. We highlight two applications: (i) lensing of high-z galaxies by galaxy clusters can provide the dominant source of scatter in Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations at frequencies larger than the SZ null; and (ii) the number counts of high-z galaxies with a Schechter-like luminosity function will be changed at high luminosities to a power law, with significant enhancement of the observed counts at L? 10L*.

Jain, Bhuvnesh; Lima, Marcos

2011-03-01

339

Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by background reduction, high detector efficiency, and long counting times. Backgrounds from cosmic-rays, construction materials, and radon are reduced by counting underground, active and passive shielding, (pre-WWII steel) and situation behind a Class 10,000 clean facility. High-detection efficiency is provided by a well detector for small samples and three large HPGe detectors. Sample concentration methods such as ashing or chemical separation are also used. Count times are measured in days. Recently, two SCUREF programs were completed with the University of South Carolina to further enhance UCF detection sensitivity. The first developed an ultra-low background HPGe detector and the second developed an anti-cosmic shield that further reduces the detector background. In this session, we will provide an overview status of the recent improvements made in the UCF and future directions for increasing sensitivity.

Brown, Tim

2006-10-01

340

Estimation of population trajectories from count data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring of changes in animal population size is rarely possible through complete censuses; frequently, the only feasible means of monitoring changes in population size is to use counts of animals obtained by skilled observers as indices to abundance. Analysis of changes in population size can be severely biased if factors related to the acquisition of data are not adequately controlled for. In particular we identify two types of observer effects: these correspond to baseline differences in observer competence, and to changes through time in the ability of individual observers. We present a family of models for count data in which the first of these observer effects is treated as a nuisance parameter. Conditioning on totals of negative binomial counts yields a Dirichlet compound multinomial vector for each observer. Quasi-likelihood is used to estimate parameters related to population trajectory and other parameters of interest; model selection is carried out on the basis of Akaike's information criterion. An example is presented using data on Wood thrush from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

1997-01-01

341

The Great World Wide Star Count  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This event, one of the cornerstone projects for the upcoming International Year of Astronomy, is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. The 2008 Star Count benefited from the current excitement in citizen science, with 15 nights of observing in October & November. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count is able to engage people around the world. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user- friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results of the 2007 and 2008 campaigns. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions. We will also discuss lessons learned and best practices, as well as our plans for the future, including IYA 2009.

Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R.

2008-12-01

342

Thermal Imaging with Photon-Counting Detectors.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first quantitative evaluation of a photon -counting detector as a thermal imager is described. Photon -counters overcome problems of limited spatial resolution and the need for complex cooling and scanning subsystems, which are typical of conventional thermal imagers. Photon -counting imaging also has proven useful in pattern recognition. Three methods for thermal imaging with photon-counting detectors are investigated. These methods include directly imaging the thermal object with the photon-counter, upconverting the thermal radiation with an infrared phosphor, and upconverting the thermal radiation with a four-wave mixing process. We present, to our knowledge, the first thermal images obtained using a photon-counter. Figures of merit are developed to compare the methods. An extension to the Noise Equivalent Differential Temperature frequently used to evaluate conventional thermal imagers is derived. Image quality is evaluated using the Modulation Transfer Function of the total system, which is derived using a cross-spectral density formalism. The number of detected photons required to distinguish between thermal objects is used as a metric of the pattern recognition capabilities of each imaging system. Images of thermal objects in the 600^ circ-800^circK temperature range are presented. The images were recorded without upconversion, using only a photon-counting detector with a blue-sensitive photocathode. The expected performance using red-sensitive photocathodes is computed numerically; the four orders of magnitude improvement in count rate indicates that thermal imaging without upconversion could be extended to object temperatures in the 400^ circK range. A phosphor upconversion system is analyzed and measured values for the upconversion efficiency and the phosphorescent noise are presented. The analysis shows that the phosphor upconversion system does not perform as well as the direct-imaging method of thermal detection. A sum-frequency upconversion system that uses sodium vapor as the upconversion medium is designed. Analysis shows that the small upconversion efficiency associated with unfocused, continuous-wave pump beams causes the sum -frequency system not to perform as well as direct-imaging of thermal objects. Sum-frequency upconversion may offer advantages in imaging laser-illuminated objects. The first upconverted images of CO_2 laser radiation using unfocused, continuous-wave pump lasers are presented. The measured upconversion efficiency is shown to agree well with theoretical predictions.

Watson, Edward A.

343

Evaluation of an Automatic Electronic Device for Counting Bacterial Colonies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatic colony counter was tested extensively with colonies of two bacterial species, Serratia marcescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger, grown on agar media. A stable relationship was established between machine counts and counts done visually by ...

J. E. Malligo

1965-01-01

344

33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices...Testing § 159.127 Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices...device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters....

2009-07-01

345

33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices...Testing § 159.127 Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices...device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters....

2010-07-01

346

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape concentration, and other...

2010-04-01

347

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape concentration, and other...

2013-04-01

348

21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape concentration, and other...

2009-04-01

349

77 FR 65091 - National Character Counts Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8891--National Character Counts Week, 2012 Proclamation 8892--National Forest Products Week, 2012 Presidential Documents Federal Register...October 19, 2012 National Character Counts Week, 2012 By the President of the United...

2012-10-24

350

The automatic recognition and counting of cough  

PubMed Central

Background Cough recordings have been undertaken for many years but the analysis of cough frequency and the temporal relation to trigger factors have proven problematic. Because cough is episodic, data collection over many hours is required, along with real-time aural analysis which is equally time-consuming. A method has been developed for the automatic recognition and counting of coughs in sound recordings. Methods The Hull Automatic Cough Counter (HACC) is a program developed for the analysis of digital audio recordings. HACC uses digital signal processing (DSP) to calculate characteristic spectral coefficients of sound events, which are then classified into cough and non-cough events by the use of a probabilistic neural network (PNN). Parameters such as the total number of coughs and cough frequency as a function of time can be calculated from the results of the audio processing. Thirty three smoking subjects, 20 male and 13 female aged between 20 and 54 with a chronic troublesome cough were studied in the hour after rising using audio recordings. Results Using the graphical user interface (GUI), counting the number of coughs identified by HACC in an hour long recording, took an average of 1 minute 35 seconds, a 97.5% reduction in counting time. HACC achieved a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 96%. Reproducibility of repeated HACC analysis is 100%. Conclusion An automated system for the analysis of sound files containing coughs and other non-cough events has been developed, with a high robustness and good degree of accuracy towards the number of actual coughs in the audio recording.

Barry, Samantha J; Dane, Adrie D; Morice, Alyn H; Walmsley, Anthony D

2006-01-01

351

Point counts of birds: what are we estimating?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Point counts of birds are made for many reasons, including estimating local densities, determining population trends, assessing habitat preferences, and exploiting the activities of recreational birdwatchers. Problems arise unless there is a clear understanding of what point counts mean in terms of actual populations of birds. Criteria for conducting point counts depend strongly on the purposes to which they will be put. This paper provides a simple mathematical conceptualization of point counts and illustrates graphically some of the influences on them.

Johnson, D. H.

1995-01-01

352

3.MD The Square Counting Shortcut  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Imagine that each square in the picture measures one centimeter on each side. What is the area of each letter? Try to work it out without counting each...

353

Space qualified photon counting detector package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser time transfer link is under construction for the European Space Agency for its application in the experiment Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space. We have developed and tested the photon counting detector optimized for operation in space for this project. In this paper are reported the main characteristics which changed after the irradiation by proton and gamma ionizing radiation. The resulting change of the detection delay with temperature is typically below 500 fs/K. The detector has been approved for application in the European Laser Timing experiment, the flight module is under manufacturing now.

Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan

2013-09-01

354

Buffon needle method of track counting  

SciTech Connect

A new technique of quantitative track counting, the Buffon needle method, is advanced. It is based on random sampling of the solid state track recorder (SSTR) surface. This new method extends quantitative track scanning to track densities well up into the track pile-up regime. It is shown that the Buffon needle method possesses a reduced dependence upon both track density nonuniformity and track size distribution. Sources of experimental error arising in the Buffon needle method are assessed. The validity of the Buffon needle method is demonstrated down to at least the 10% uncertainty level (1sigma) by manual sampling of high fission track density mica SSTR observed with scanning electron microscopy.

Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

1981-09-04

355

Numbers Count Workshop at Agnes Scott College  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These workshop resources were provided for faculty interested in addressing the gap between mathematics and its application in biological problem solving. To support the observation, experimentation and modeling of data, the Numbers Count workshop will provide an introduction to data, tools, and curricular materials for use with undergraduates. We also addressed the lack of context that impedes student learningâÂÂstudents rightfully ask themselves why should they need to integrate arcsin x if they want to become a physician? This event was held at Agnes Scott College in Atlanta in January 2009.

Claudia Neuhauser (University of Minnesota Rochester;Health Sciences)

2009-01-09

356

Resources for the UTK Numbers Count Workshop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These workshop resources were prepared for faculty interested in addressing the gap between mathematics and its application in biological problem solving. To support the observation, experimentation and modeling of data, the Numbers Count workshop provides an introduction to data, tools, and curricular materials for use with undergraduates. We also addressed the lack of context that impedes student learningâÂÂstudents rightfully ask themselves why should they need to integrate arcsin x if they want to become a physician? This event was held at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville in May 2009.

Claudia Neuhauser (University of Minnesota Rochester;Health Sciences)

2009-05-07

357

1.NBT Start/Stop Counting II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Setup Students should be seated on chairs at their tables or desks. The teacher will give a counting sequence (for example, 20-120) to the students. Ac...

358

Not everything that counts can be counted: ants use multiple metrics for a single nest trait  

PubMed Central

There are claims in the literature that certain insects can count. We question the generality of these claims and suggest that summation rather than counting (sensu stricto) is a more likely explanation. We show that Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies can discriminate between potential nest sites with different numbers of entrances. However, our experiments suggest that the ants use ambient light levels within the nest cavity to assess the abundance of nest entrances rather than counting per se. Intriguingly, Weber's Law cannot explain the ants' inaccuracy. The ants also use a second metric, independent of light, to assess and discriminate against wide entrances. Thus, these ants use at least two metrics to evaluate one nest trait: the configuration of the portals to their potential homes.

Franks, Nigel R; Dornhaus, Anna; Metherell, Bonnie G; Nelson, Toby R; Lanfear, Sophie A.J; Symes, William S

2005-01-01

359

Not everything that counts can be counted: ants use multiple metrics for a single nest trait.  

PubMed

There are claims in the literature that certain insects can count. We question the generality of these claims and suggest that summation rather than counting (sensu stricto) is a more likely explanation. We show that Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies can discriminate between potential nest sites with different numbers of entrances. However, our experiments suggest that the ants use ambient light levels within the nest cavity to assess the abundance of nest entrances rather than counting per se. Intriguingly, Weber's Law cannot explain the ants' inaccuracy. The ants also use a second metric, independent of light, to assess and discriminate against wide entrances. Thus, these ants use at least two metrics to evaluate one nest trait: the configuration of the portals to their potential homes. PMID:16555783

Franks, Nigel R; Dornhaus, Anna; Metherell, Bonnie G; Nelson, Toby R; Lanfear, Sophie A J; Symes, William S

2006-01-22

360

Investigation of forward citation count as a patent analysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patent citation counts have been used extensively as a patent valuation technique because the information necessary for conducting analysis can be easily gathered and applied to mathematical models. Dominant theory asserts that patents with higher forward citation counts have greater economic value relative to other patents. We focus on evaluating the validity of the patent citation count theory. Three hypotheses

Michael W. Brinn; Julia M. Fleming; Fernando M. Hannaka; Colin B. Thomas; Peter A. Beling

2003-01-01

361

Accurate automated leucocyte differential counts despite profound leucopenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential white cell counts produced by the Technicon H*1 Autoanalyser in profoundly leucopenic specimens were compared with those carried out by manual differential counting by light microscopy of peripheral blood smears stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain. The correlation achieved allowed the H*1 derived differential count to be reported with confidence.

S E Kinsey; M J Watts

1988-01-01

362

The Role of Gesture in Children's Learning To Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined role of spontaneous gesture in 2- to 4-year-olds' counting and assessment of counting accuracy. Found that correspondence of children's speech and gesture varied systematically across age. Children adhered to one-to-one correspondence principle in gesture prior to speech. Counting accuracy related to correspondence of speech and gesture,…

Graham, Theresa A.

1999-01-01

363

Help! They Still Don't Understand Counting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has revealed new information about how preschoolers develop an understanding of counting, and offers exciting new strategies for teaching. These new strategies encourage children to problem solve and use reasoning to understand quantities and how counting works rather than simply providing them practice with counting procedures.…

Sadler, Faith H.

2009-01-01

364

Cerenkov Counting Technique for Beta Particles: Advantages and Limitations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cerenkov counting is a useful technique for assaying medium/high energy beta emitters in aqueous solutions. Advantages of the technique include: (1) simple sample preparation; (2) being able to handle large volume of aqueous solution for counting; and (3) absence of chemical quenching. Cerenkov counting is also less expensive than other methods.…

Rengan, K.

1983-01-01

365

7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of stalks of celery in...specified by numerical count or in terms of dozens or...half-dozens. Variations from the number specified shall be...

2013-01-01

366

20 CFR 416.1123 - How we count unearned income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...because of a dependent, we do not count as your unearned income the...attributable to you as a dependent, we count the amount attributable to you...service compensation. We count compensation for services performed...Management and Budget under control number 0960-0128) [45 FR...

2013-04-01

367

21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section 1210.16 Food...Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the...

2013-04-01

368

Differential Counting in Mixed Cultures with Coulter Counters  

PubMed Central

A critical comparison of Coulter, viable, and microscope counts for several mixed cultures of microorganisms has been made. This investigation shows that Coulter counting can provide reliable estimates of microbial numbers in mixed cultures. Precautions and limitations of Coulter counting in mixed cultures are discussed.

Drake, J. F.; Tsuchiya, H. M.

1973-01-01

369

Knowledge of Counting Principles: How Relevant Is Order Irrelevance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most children who are older than 6 years of age apply essential counting principles when they enumerate a set of objects. Essential principles include (a) one-to-one correspondence between items and count words, (b) stable order of the count words, and (c) cardinality--that the last number refers to numerosity. We found that the acquisition of a…

Kamawar, Deepthi; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Smith-Chant, Brenda; Penner-Wilger, Marcie

2010-01-01

370

Total Viable Count of Microorganisms in the Infected Dental Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for estimating the total viable count of microorganisms in the infected dental pulp is described. The count obtainable using blood agar, tomato juice agar, or Sabouraud's agar solid media is about 106 per tooth. Anaerobes are more numerous than aerobes counted on the blood agar plates. It may be possible to apply this technique for evaluating the efficacy

E. S. Akpata

1974-01-01

371

Counting Efficiency of the TSI Model 3020 Condensation Nucleus Counter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The counting efficiency of the TSI model 3020 condensation nucleus counter (CNC) was determined as a function of aerosol flow rate and trigger level using aerosols of known size and an aerosol electrometer. When the aerosol flow rate dropped from 300 to 200 mL\\/min, counting efficiencies increased significantly in the single-particle counting mode for particles with diameter < 20 nm

Y. F. Su; Y. S. Cheng; G. J. Newton; H. C. Yeh

1990-01-01

372

The distribution of controlled drugs on banknotes via counting machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bundles of paper, similar to sterling banknotes, were counted in banks in England and Wales. Subsequent analysis showed that the counting process, both by machine and by hand, transferred nanogram amounts of cocaine to the paper. Crystalline material, similar to cocaine hydrochloride, could be observed on the surface of the paper following counting. The geographical distribution of contamination broadly followed

James F Carter; Richard Sleeman; Joanna Parry

2003-01-01

373

75 FR 64615 - National Character Counts Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...October 15, 2010 National Character Counts Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect upon the values of equality...commitment. During National Character Counts Week, let us take this opportunity to...

2010-10-20

374

How Good Are Parents at Assessing Melanocytic Nevi on Their Children? A Study Comparing Parental Counts, Dermatologist Counts, and Counts Obtained from Photographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate agreement among counts of melanocytic nevi made by parents, counts made by a dermatologist, and counts made by assessment of photographs. In 1990, 421 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years from Townsville, Queensland, Australia (latitude 19.16?S), participated in the Eastern Australian Childhood Nevus Study. In an agreement study, parents were asked to mark on

Simone L. Harrison; Petra G. Buettner; Robert MacLennan; John W. Kelly; Jason K. Rivers

375

Balanced detection in single photon counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) operated in both pulse-gated mode and sinusoidal gating mode for data transmission rate up to 20 MHz. The photodiode pair is biased in a balanced configuration with only one of the SPADs illuminated. The common-mode signal cancellation realized with the balanced configuration enables detection of small avalanche pulses. Afterpulsing is significantly suppressed due to the capability of detecting small avalanche pulses at high laser repetition rate. For pulse-gated mode operation and laser repletion rate of 20 MHz at 240 K, the dark count probability for photon detection efficiency of 13% is 1.9×10-5. The afterpulse probability is 0.3% for 2 ns pulse width, hold off time of 20 ns, and 10% PDE, at 240K. For sinusoidal gating a phase shifter has been incorporated to achieve better synchronization between signals. At laser rate of 20 MHz and 240 K, the dark count probability and photon detection efficiency are 2.8×10-5 and 10.8% respectively.

Lu, Zhiwen; Sun, Wenlu; Campbell, Joe; Jiang, Xudong; Itzler, Mark A.

2013-05-01

376

The variance of quasar counts in cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From three quasar samples with a total of 1038 objects in the redshift range 1.0 to 2.2 we measure the variance sigma squared of counts in cells of volume Vu. By a maximum-likelihood analysis applied separately on these samples we obtain estimates of sigma squared (l), with l identically equal to Vu1/3. The analysis from a single catalog for l = 40/h Mpc and from a suitable average over the three catalogs for l = 60, 80, and 100/h Mpc, gives sigma squared (l) = 0.46 + or - 0.27, 0.18 + 0.14 or - 0.15, 0.05 + 0.14 or - 0.05, and 0.12 + 0.13 or - 0.12, respectively, where the 70% confidence ranges account for both sampling errors and statistical fluctuations in the counts. This allows a comparison of Quasar (QSO) clustering on large scales with analogous data recently obtained both for optical and Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) galaxies: QSOs seem to be more clustered than these galaxies by a biasing factor bQSO/bgal approximately 1.4 to 2.3.

Andreani, Paola; Cristiani, Stefano; Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Moscardini, Lauro

1994-08-01

377

Analysis of Parasite and Other Skewed Counts  

PubMed Central

Objective To review methods for the statistical analysis of parasite and other skewed count data. Methods Statistical methods for skewed count data are described and compared, with reference to those used over a ten year period of Tropical Medicine and International Health. Two parasitological datasets are used for illustration. Results Ninety papers were identified, 89 with descriptive and 60 with inferential analysis. A lack of clarity is noted in identifying measures of location, in particular the Williams and geometric mean. The different measures are compared, emphasizing the legitimacy of the arithmetic mean for skewed data. In the published papers, the t test and related methods were often used on untransformed data, which is likely to be invalid. Several approaches to inferential analysis are described, emphasizing 1) non-parametric methods, while noting that they are not simply comparisons of medians, and 2) generalized linear modelling, in particular with the negative binomial distribution. Additional methods, such as the bootstrap, with potential for greater use are described. Conclusions Clarity is recommended when describing transformations and measures of location. It is suggested that non-parametric methods and generalized linear models are likely to be sufficient for most analyses.

Alexander, Neal

2012-01-01

378

Gravitational lensing effects on submillimetre galaxy counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effects on the number counts of submillimetre galaxies due to gravitational lensing. We explore the effects on the magnification cross-section due to halo density profiles, ellipticity and cosmological parameter (the power-spectrum normalization ?8). We show that the ellipticity does not strongly affect the magnification cross-section in gravitational lensing while the halo radial profiles do. Since the baryonic cooling effect is stronger in galaxies than clusters, galactic haloes are more concentrated. In light of this, a new scenario of two-halo-population model is explored where galaxies are modelled as a singular isothermal sphere profile and clusters as a Navarro, Frenk and White profile. We find that the transition mass between the two has modest effects on the lensing probability. The cosmological parameter ?8 alters the abundance of haloes and therefore affects our results. Compared with other methods, our model is simpler and more realistic. The conclusions of previous works confirm that gravitational lensing is a natural explanation for the number count excess at the bright end.

Er, Xinzhong; Li, Guoliang; Mao, Shude; Cao, Liang

2013-04-01

379

Language and counting: Some recent results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been recognised that the language of mathematics is an important variable in the learning of mathematics, and there has been useful work in isolating and describing the linkage. Steffe and his co-workers at Georgia, for example, (Steffe, von Glasersfeld, Richardson and Cobb, 1983) have suggested that young children may construct verbal countable items to count objects which are hidden from their view. Although there has been a surge of research interest in counting and early childhood mathematics, and in cultural differences in mathematics attainment, there has been little work reported on the linkage between culture as exemplified by language, and initial concepts of numeration. This paper reports on some recent clinical research with kindergarten children of European and Asian background in Australia and America. The research examines the influence that number naming grammar appears to have on young children's understandings of two-digit numbers and place value. It appears that Transparent Standard Number Word Sequences such as Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese which follow the numerical representation pattern by naming tens and units in order ("two tens three"), may be associated with distinctive place value concepts which may support sophisticated mental algorithms.

Bell, Garry

1990-02-01

380

B decay charm counting via topological vertexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new and unique measurement of the branching fractions of b hadrons to states with 0, 1, and 2 open charm hadrons, using a sample of 350,000 hadronic Z0 decays collected during the SLD/SLC 97--98 run. The analysis takes advantage of the excellent vertexing resolution of the VXD3, a pixel-based CCD vertex detector, which allows the separation of B and cascade D decay vertices. A fit of the vertex count and the decay length distributions to distribution shapes predicted by Monte Carlo simulation allows the extraction of the inclusive branching fractions. We measure: BRB?0D X=3.7+/-1.1 stat+/-2.1 syst% BRB?2D X=17.9+/-1.4 stat+/-3.3 syst% where B, and D represent mixtures of open b and open c hadrons. The corresponding charm count, Nc = 1.188 +/- 0.010 +/- 0.040 +/- 0.006 is consistent with previous measurement averages but slightly closer to theoretical expectations.

Chou, Aaron Sze-Ting

2002-09-01

381

Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15 to 17 years; (2) births to teens 15 to 19 years; (3) low birth weight babies;…

Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

382

Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis.  

PubMed

Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, and we combined it with morphological analysis by light microscopy (LM) for estimating the volume fraction of islets in impure preparations. Cells and islets were disrupted with lysis solution and shear, and accuracy of counting successively diluted nuclei suspensions was verified with (1) visual counting in a hemocytometer after staining with crystal violet, and automatic counting by (2) aperture electrical resistance measurement and (3) flow cytometer measurement after staining with 7-aminoactinomycin-D. DNA content averaged 6.5 and 6.9 pg of DNA per cell for rat and human islets, respectively, in agreement with literature estimates. With pure rat islet preparations, precision improved with increasing counts, and samples with about ?160 islets provided a coefficient of variation of about 6%. Aliquots of human islet preparations were processed for LM analysis by stereological point counting. Total nuclei counts and islet volume fraction from LM analysis were combined to obtain the number of islet equivalents (IEs). Total number of IE by the standard method of dithizone staining/manual counting was overestimated by about 90% compared with LM/nuclei counting for 12 freshly isolated human islet research preparations. Nuclei counting combined with islet volume fraction measurements from LM is a novel method for achieving accurate islet enumeration. PMID:20697375

Pisania, Anna; Papas, Klearchos K; Powers, Daryl E; Rappel, Michael J; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C; Colton, Clark K

2010-08-09

383

Transition Years Count: An Adolescent Profile. KIDS COUNT County Data Book, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book is the ninth to examine trends in the well-being of Kentucky children, focusing on the transition period of adolescence, based on the view that lessons learned and foundations laid in early adolescence directly impact the transition to adulthood. This statistical portrait is based on trends in indicators of well-being in…

Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

384

Direction Counts: A Comparative Study of Spatially Directional Counting Biases in Cultures with Different Reading Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear…

Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.

2012-01-01

385

Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.

Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

1999-01-01

386

Effect of dilution and correction of the count rate data in gamma scintillation counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious errors could be introduced into experimental results due to the observed non-additive nature of the count rate data\\u000a recorded by gamma scintillation counters, particularly when the samples are subjected to excessive dilution. Simple procedures\\u000a for correcting the experimental results are suggested.

M. F. Barakat

1983-01-01

387

Evaluating the accuracy of different sperm counting chambers by performing strict counts of photographed beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To suggest a method for evaluating the accuracy of different kinds of sperm counting chambers by eliminating errors concerned with human skills or semen properties. In this method, various concentrations were prepared from stocks of commercially available latex beads (Accu-beads, Hamilton-Thorn Research, Beverly, MA). Samples from identical preparations were loaded into different types of chambers, namely, hemocytometer (Neubauer, improved

Eynath Shiran; Judith Stoller; Zeev Blumenfeld; Paul D. Feigin; Amnon Makler

1995-01-01

388

White cell count and platelet count associate with histological alcoholic hepatitis in jaundiced harmful drinkers  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with suspected alcoholic hepatitis and a Discriminant Function ?32 underwent liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Of these (n?=?58), 43 had histological features of alcoholic hepatitis and 15 (25%) did not. We aimed to determine the laboratory features that differentiated those patients with a histological diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis from those without, and assess potential clinical utility. Methods Laboratory investigations at presentation for each of the histologically confirmed cases of alcoholic hepatitis (n?=?43) were compared to those without (n?=?15) to determine whether there were differences between the two groups. Univariate analysis was by Mann Whitney U Test and Multivariate analysis was by a stepwise approach. Results White cell count (16.2?±?10.5 v 6.9?±?3.5 (×?109/L); p?=?0.0001) and platelet count (178?±?81 v 98.4?±?43 (×?109/L); p?=?0.0005) were higher in the patients with histological features of alcoholic hepatitis than in those without. The area under the ROC curve for AH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.83 (0.73, 0.94) and 0.81 (0.69, 0.93) for white cell count and platelet count respectively. Conclusions Clinicians cannot accurately differentiate patients with or without alcoholic hepatitis without liver biopsy. This is critically important when deciding on specific therapies such as corticosteroids or when interpreting data from future trials in which biopsy is not mandated. In situations where liver biopsy is unsuitable or unavailable the white cell and platelet counts can be used to determine the likelihood of histological alcoholic hepatitis and guide treatment.

2013-01-01

389

The discrete Weibull distribution: an alternative for correlated counts with confirmation for microbial counts in water.  

PubMed

Distributions of pathogen counts in treated water over time are highly skewed, power-law-like, and discrete. Over long periods of record, a long tail is observed, which can strongly determine the long-term mean pathogen count and associated health effects. Such distributions have been modeled with the Poisson lognormal (PLN) computed (not closed-form) distribution, and a new?discrete growth distribution?(DGD), also computed, recently proposed and demonstrated for microbial counts in water (Risk Analysis?29, 841-856). In this article, an error in the original theoretical development of the DGD is pointed out, and the approach is shown to support the closed-form discrete Weibull (DW). Furthermore, an information-theoretic derivation of the DGD is presented, explaining the fit shown for it to the original nine empirical and three simulated (n?= 1,000) long-term waterborne microbial count data sets. Both developments result from a theory of multiplicative growth of outcome size from correlated, entropy-forced cause magnitudes. The predicted DW and DGD are first borne out in simulations of continuous and discrete correlated growth processes, respectively. Then the DW and DGD are each demonstrated to fit 10 of the original 12 data sets, passing the chi-square goodness-of-fit test (?= 0.05, overall?p?= 0.1184). The PLN was not demonstrated, fitting only 4 of 12 data sets (p?= 1.6 × 10(-8) ), explained by cause magnitude correlation. Results bear out predictions of monotonically decreasing distributions, and suggest use of the DW for inhomogeneous counts correlated in time or space. A formula for computing the DW mean is presented. PMID:21091749

Englehardt, James D; Li, Ruochen

2010-11-22

390

Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

1998-11-01

391

Radionuclide metrology using liquid scintillation counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) techniques can be used for radionuclide standardization when the calculation of detection efficiency is possible. This is done using a model of the physicochemical processes involved in light emission and also of the statistics of photon emission: the free parameter model. This model can then be applied in two ways: by deducing the free parameter from the measurement of a tracer (the CIEMAT/NIST method) or by calculating this free parameter from coincidence ratio in a specific LS counter (the TDCR method). The purpose of this paper is to describe both these models and some practical issues that need to be addressed if LSC is to be effectively used in radionuclide metrology.

Broda, Ryszard; Cassette, Philippe; Kossert, Karsten

2007-08-01

392

Star Formation Histories From Faint Galaxy Counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral faint galaxy counts, including the deepest Hubble DeepField, are interpreted with the help of our evolution model PEGASE(Fioc and Rocca-Volmerange, 1997). The best fits correspond to galaxyformations at high redshifts, a pure luminosity evolution andclassical luminosity functions. The adopted cosmology is a flatuniverse with the matter density parameter ?M =0.3 and acosmological constant ?? =0.7. A solution with ?M=0.01 (open universe) is also acceptable. But a flat universe with?M =1 is clearly excluded. The star formation histories for galaxytypes are derived from scenarios of evolution. The comparison with resultsalready published in the litterature, arises puzzling problems needinga further analysis of star formation tracers, specifically for bright galaxies.

Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Fioc, M.

1999-07-01

393

Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions  

SciTech Connect

We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of N radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from N to N{sup 2} in the current and to even higher powers of N in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source. - Highlights: > Super-radiance transfers to super-transmittance in steady-state transport. > Higher cumulants are much more sensitive indicators for collective behavior than the first cumulant. > Effects should be measurable by pumped-cavity experiment.

Vogl, M., E-mail: malte.vogl@tu-berlin.de; Schaller, G., E-mail: gernot.schaller@tu-berlin.de; Brandes, T.

2011-10-15

394

On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.

Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Carlsson, Mats; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin

395

Complete blood cell count as a surrogate CD4 cell marker for HIV monitoring in resource-limited settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A total lymphocyte count (TLC) of 1200 cells\\/mL has been used as a surrogate for a CD4 count of 200 cells\\/microL in resource-limited settings with varying results. We developed a more effective method based on a decision tree algorithm to classify subjects.\\u000aMETHODS: A decision tree was used to develop models with the variables TLC, hemoglobin, platelet count, gender,

Ray Y. Chen; Andrew O. Westfall; J. Michael Hardin; Cassandra Miller-Hardwick; Jeffrey S. A. Stringer; James L. Raper; Sten H. Vermund; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Jeroan J. Allison; Michael S. Saag

2007-01-01

396

Reference ranges and sources of variability of CD4 counts in HIV-seronegative women and men  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: CD4 lymphocyte counts are used to monitor immune status in HIV disease. An understanding of the variability of CD4 counts which occurs in the absence of HIV infection is essential to their interpretation. The sources and degree of such variability have not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES: To establish reference ranges for CD4 counts in HIV-seronegative women and heterosexual men

M K Maini; R J Gilson; N Chavda; S Gill; A Fakoya; E J Ross; A N Phillips; I V Weller

1996-01-01

397

Counting OCR errors in typeset text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

Sandberg, Jonathan S.

1995-03-01

398

CD4 Counts in Laboratory Monitoring of HIV Disease : Experience from Western India.  

PubMed

Background: CD4 counts vary in different populations. The present study was conducted to determine CD4 counts in different World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stages in antiretroviral therapy naïve individuals and to find out optimum CD4 cutoffs. Method: Data of adult HIV seropositive patients who underwent CD4 count and total lymphocyte count (TLC) testing were included for analysis. The severity of immunosuppression was graded based on WHO criteria. To establish optimum CD4 cutoff values, receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curves were generated. RESULTS: Of 754 patients, 52.2% had CD4 counts <200 cells/mm(3), but only 2.3% belonged to WHO stage IV. Newer CD4 cutoffs generated were 280, 120-280, <120 cells/mm(3). Spearman rank correlation between CD4 counts and TLC was found to be weak (r = .32). CONCLUSION: The cutoff values of CD4 counts for HIV disease may need to be revised for India. Regular CD4 count estimation is a must for monitoring disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23442562

Ingole, Nayana; Nataraj, Gita; Mehta, Preeti; Paranjpe, Supriya; Sarkate, Purva

2013-02-26

399

Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters  

PubMed Central

The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h.

Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

1993-01-01

400

Peripheral blood counts in workers exposed to synthetic fibres.  

PubMed

Acrylonitrile is an intermediary with possible adverse health effects in the synthesis of organic products, such as acrylic fibres. This investigation was undertaken to determine the possible changes in the peripheral blood counts in workers of a polyacrylic fibres plant. The study involved 218 workers exposed to acrylonitrile at low doses and a control group of 200 unexposed workers. The chosen subjects underwent blood tests in order to check their haematological parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the red blood cells, haemoglobin and total number of leukocytes. An increase in the neutrophils associated with a reduction of lymphocytes, both statistically significant, was observed. The authors hypothesized that the neutrophils are influenced by the exposure to acrylonitrile at low doses. PMID:24171413

Caciari, Tiziana; Casale, Teodorico; Loreti, Beatrice; Schifano, Maria P; Capozzella, Assunta; Scala, Barbara; De Sio, Simone; Tomei, Gianfranco; Rosati, Maria V; Tomei, Francesco

2014-01-01

401

Effects of perceptually rich manipulatives on preschoolers' counting performance: established knowledge counts.  

PubMed

Educators often use concrete objects to help children understand mathematics concepts. However, findings on the effectiveness of concrete objects are mixed. The present study examined how two factors-perceptual richness and established knowledge of the objects-combine to influence children's counting performance. In two experiments, preschoolers (N = 133; Mage = 3;10) were randomly assigned to counting tasks that used one of four types of objects in a 2 (perceptual richness: high or low) × 2 (established knowledge: high or low) factorial design. Findings suggest that perceptually rich objects facilitate children's performance when children have low knowledge of the objects but hinder performance when children have high knowledge of the objects. PMID:23240867

Petersen, Lori A; McNeil, Nicole M

2012-12-13

402

Standardization of Ga-68 by coincidence measurements, liquid scintillation counting and 4?? counting.  

PubMed

The radionuclide (68)Ga is one of the few positron emitters that can be prepared in-house without the use of a cyclotron. It disintegrates to the ground state of (68)Zn partially by positron emission (89.1%) with a maximum energy of 1899.1 keV, and partially by electron capture (10.9%). This nuclide has been standardized in the frame of a cooperation project between the Radionuclide Metrology laboratories from CIEMAT (Spain) and CNEA (Argentina). Measurements involved several techniques: 4??-? coincidences, integral gamma counting and Liquid Scintillation Counting using the triple to double coincidence ratio and the CIEMAT/NIST methods. Given the short half-life of the radionuclide assayed, a direct comparison between results from both laboratories was excluded and a comparison of experimental efficiencies of similar NaI detectors was used instead. PMID:22421395

Roteta, Miguel; Peyres, Virginia; Rodríguez Barquero, Leonor; García-Toraño, Eduardo; Arenillas, Pablo; Balpardo, Christian; Rodrígues, Darío; Llovera, Roberto

2012-02-25

403

Galaxy number counts - V. Ultradeep counts: the Herschel and Hubble Deep Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present u,b,r and i galaxy number counts and colours from both the North and South Hubble Space Telescope Deep Fields and the William Herschel Deep Field. The latter comprises a 7×7arcmin2 area of sky, reaching b~28.5 at its deepest. Following Metcalfe et al., we show that simple Bruzual & Charlot evolutionary models which assume exponentially increasing star formation rates

N. Metcalfe; T. Shanks; A. Campos; H. J. McCracken; R. Fong

2001-01-01

404

Daily physical activity counts vs structured activity counts in lean and overweight Dutch children.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to compare daily physical activities, and activities performed according to a structured protocol, measured with tri-axial accelerometers (Tracmor-4), between lean and overweight children. Fourteen overweight children (59.8+/-9.5 kg) and fifteen lean matched controls (47.2+/-8.7 kg) wore the Tracmor-4 daily, during 12+/-1.3 h, for one week in their home environment. Of these, 24 children participated in a sports afternoon, where they performed activities according to the same structured protocol. In addition, physical activity was estimated using a modified Baecke questionnaire. Body composition was determined. Total mean Tracmor counts/day were significantly lower for the overweight children than for the lean (overweight: 46.1+/-6.9 vs. lean: 54.4+/-11.2 kCounts/day, p=0.02), while reported activities (Baecke score) were similar. When performing activities according to the structured protocol, there was no difference in mean Tracmor counts between the two groups (overweight: 36.3+/-6.9 vs. lean: 34.7+/-6.6 kCounts, p=0.6). Daily physical activities were inversely related to percentage body fat (r(2)=0.29, p<0.01); structured activities were not. As compared to lean children, overweight children moved less without being aware of it; yet exerted the same movements per activity. We conclude that in overweight children daily physical activities were reduced and structured activities performed according to instructions were not. In order to prevent progressive overweight or obesity, overweight children should take part in as many as possible structured and scheduled sports activities throughout the week, and be encouraged to behave physically active in daily life. PMID:17553536

Vogels, N; Westerterp, K R; Posthumus, D L A; Rutters, F; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

2007-05-22

405

VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY COUNTING MEASURES RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN THE BODY. DESIGNED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RADIATION, BODY COUNTING ROOMS ARE CONSTRUCTED OF PRE-WORLD WAR II (WWII) STEEL. PRE-WWII STEEL, WHICH HAS NOT BEEN AFFECTED BY NUCLEAR FALLOUT, IS LOWER IS RADIOACTIVITY THAN STEEL CREATED AFTER WWII. (10/25/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

406

Factors affecting aerobic colony counts for bottled water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Official Method MFO-15 for aerobic colony counts of bottled waters and ice requires pour plating with plate count agar (PCA) tempered to 40–45°C and incubating 48 h at 35°C. The performance of hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMF), counted by computerized counter after 48 h incubation on various media, was compared against MFO-15 for 31 water samples collected across

L. J Parrington; A. N Sharpe

1998-01-01

407

High Counting Efficiency Compton Suppression System for Automatic-INAA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic counting system for high counting efficiency and Compton suppression has been constructed. The system consists of a sample exchanger, a well?type HPGe detector, a high count rate digital spectrometer (Dspec?plus), a Compton suppression system and a software package. The detector for Compton suppression (BGO; Bi(GeO4)3) consists of eight segments, 140 mm in length and 35 mm in depth. The segments

S. S. Ismail

2007-01-01

408

25 CFR 39.217 - How are students counted for the purpose of funding residential services?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Administrative Procedures, Student Counts, and Verifications Residential Programs § 39.217 How are students counted...October; and (d) Present for both the after school count and the midnight count at...

2013-04-01

409

Interactions between heterotrophic plate count bacteria and coliform organisms.  

PubMed Central

Studies were initiated to investigate the interactions between heterotrophic plate count bacteria and coliform organisms. We used spiked samples to show that heterotrophic plate count bacteria could reduce coliform densities by more than 3 logs within 8 days. Some heterotrophic plate count bacteria were able to cause injury to the coliform population. A significant correlation (r = 0.66; P less than 0.05) was observed between the initial level of heterotrophic plate count bacteria and the rate of coliform decline. Competition for limiting organic carbon was hypothesized to be responsible for the observed effects.

LeChevallier, M W; McFeters, G A

1985-01-01

410

First AID (Atom counting for Isotopic Determination).  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established an in vitro bioassay monitoring program in compliance with the requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. One aspect of this program involves monitoring plutonium levels in at-risk workers. High-risk workers are monitored using the ultra-sensitive Therrnal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) technique to ensure compliance with DOE standards. TIMS is used to measure atom ratios of 239Pua nd 240Puw ith respect to a tracer isotope ('Pu). These ratios are then used to calculate the amount of 239Pu and 240Pup resent. This low-level atom counting technique allows the calculation of the concentration levels of 239Pu and 240Pu in urine for at risk workers. From these concentration levels, dose assessments can be made and worker exposure levels can be monitored. Detection limits for TIMS analysis are on the order of millions of atoms, which translates to activity levels of 150 aCi 239Pua nd 500 aCi for 240Pu. pCi for Our poster presentation will discuss the ultra-sensitive, low-level analytical technique used to measure plutonium isotopes and the data verification methods used for validating isotopic measurements.

Roach, J. L. (Jeffrey L.); Israel, K. M. (Kimberly M.); Steiner, R. E. (Robert E.); Duffy, C. J. (Clarence J.); Roench, F. R. (Fred R.)

2002-01-01

411

Estimating resource selection with count data.  

PubMed

Resource selection functions (RSFs) are typically estimated by comparing covariates at a discrete set of "used" locations to those from an "available" set of locations. This RSF approach treats the response as binary and does not account for intensity of use among habitat units where locations were recorded. Advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology allow animal location data to be collected at fine spatiotemporal scales and have increased the size and correlation of data used in RSF analyses. We suggest that a more contemporary approach to analyzing such data is to model intensity of use, which can be estimated for one or more animals by relating the relative frequency of locations in a set of sampling units to the habitat characteristics of those units with count-based regression and, in particular, negative binomial (NB) regression. We demonstrate this NB RSF approach with location data collected from 10 GPS-collared Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range enclosure. We discuss modeling assumptions and show how RSF estimation with NB regression can easily accommodate contemporary research needs, including: analysis of large GPS data sets, computational ease, accounting for among-animal variation, and interpretation of model covariates. We recommend the NB approach because of its conceptual and computational simplicity, and the fact that estimates of intensity of use are unbiased in the face of temporally correlated animal location data. PMID:23919165

Nielson, Ryan M; Sawyer, Hall

2013-06-07

412

Coincident count rates in absorbing dielectric media  

SciTech Connect

A study of the effects of absorption on the nonlinear process of parametric down-conversion is presented. Absorption within the nonlinear medium is accounted for by employing the framework of macroscopic QED and the Green tensor quantization of the electromagnetic field. An effective interaction Hamiltonian, which describes the nonlinear interaction of the electric field and the linear noise polarization field, is used to derive the quantum state of the light leaving a nonlinear crystal. The signal and idler modes of this quantum state are found to be a superposition of the electric and noise polarization fields. Using this state, the expression for the coincident count rates for both type-I and type-II down-conversion are found. The nonlinear interaction with the noise polarization field was shown to cause an increase in the rate on the order of 10{sup -12} for absorption of 10% per centimeter. This astonishingly small effect is found to be negligible compared to the decay caused by linear absorption of the propagating modes. From the expressions for the biphoton amplitude, it can be seen that the maximally entangled states can still be produced even in the presence of strong absorption.

Crosse, J. A.; Scheel, Stefan [Quantum Optics and Laser Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

413

Coincident count rates in absorbing dielectric media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the effects of absorption on the nonlinear process of parametric down-conversion is presented. Absorption within the nonlinear medium is accounted for by employing the framework of macroscopic QED and the Green tensor quantization of the electromagnetic field. An effective interaction Hamiltonian, which describes the nonlinear interaction of the electric field and the linear noise polarization field, is used to derive the quantum state of the light leaving a nonlinear crystal. The signal and idler modes of this quantum state are found to be a superposition of the electric and noise polarization fields. Using this state, the expression for the coincident count rates for both type-I and type-II down-conversion are found. The nonlinear interaction with the noise polarization field was shown to cause an increase in the rate on the order of 10-12 for absorption of 10% per centimeter. This astonishingly small effect is found to be negligible compared to the decay caused by linear absorption of the propagating modes. From the expressions for the biphoton amplitude, it can be seen that the maximally entangled states can still be produced even in the presence of strong absorption.

Crosse, J. A.; Scheel, Stefan

2011-02-01

414

Somatic cell count during and between milkings.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were to determine 1) how sampling time between milkings affects the sensitivity and specificity of somatic cell count (SCC) as an indicator for intramammary infection (IMI) status, and 2) which cells are responsible for the diurnal variation in SCC. Six Prince Edward Island, Canada, dairy herds were selected. Quarter samples for SCC were collected immediately before the a.m. milking (pre-a.m.), halfway through the a.m. milking, immediately after the a.m. milking, every 60 min after detachment of the milking unit, and immediately before the p.m. milking (pre-p.m.). Compared with the geometric mean SCC at the pre-a.m. milking, SCC of quarters with no IMI between milkings was higher up to 7 h after milking. The pre-p.m. SCC was significantly lower than the pre-a.m. SCC in quarters with no IMI. Specificity of SCC at a cutoff of 200,000 or 500,000 cells/mL as an indicator for IMI status declined substantially after the a.m. milking. In quarters with elevated SCC, the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was larger immediately after milking. For accurate interpretations of SCC tests--whether by a laboratory, portable SCC device, or the California Mastitis Test--veterinarians, researchers, and udder health advisors should take milk samples immediately before milking. PMID:17638984

Olde Riekerink, R G M; Barkema, H W; Veenstra, W; Berg, F E; Stryhn, H; Zadoks, R N

2007-08-01

415

Four-part leukocyte differential count based on sheathless microflow cytometer and fluorescent dye assay.  

PubMed

Leukocyte differential count is one of the most frequently ordered clinical tests in hospitals. This paper reports a point-of-care test for the leukocyte count by using a microflow cytometer and a fluorescent dye assay. The dye assay relied on fluorescent detection alone to count leukocytes in blood and to identify leukocyte subtypes. By combining the fluorescent assay with a sheathless microflow design, the proposed method achieved a minimal sample volume by eliminating excessive dilution and sheath flow. In this paper, a four-part leukocyte differential count including lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil was demonstrated, and the whole test consumed only a small amount of blood (5 ?L) and reagents (68 ?L in total). The merits of minimal sample volume, long reagent shelf life and portable instrument made this method optimal for point-of-care applications. PMID:23389050

Shi, Wendian; Guo, Luke; Kasdan, Harvey; Tai, Yu-Chong

2013-04-01

416

Enumeration of CD4+ T-Cells Using a Portable Microchip Count Platform in Tanzanian HIV-Infected Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCD4+ T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count) is a standard method used to monitor HIV-infected patients during anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The World Health Organization (WHO) has pointed out or recommended that a handheld, point-of-care, reliable, and affordable CD4 count platform is urgently needed in resource-scarce settings.MethodsHIV-infected patient blood samples were tested at the point-of-care using a portable and label-free microchip CD4 count

SangJun Moon; Umut Atakan Gurkan; Jeffrey Blander; Wafaie W. Fawzi; Said Aboud; Ferdinand Mugusi; Daniel R. Kuritzkes; Utkan Demirci

2011-01-01

417

Evaluation of a semi-automated platelet-counting system.  

PubMed Central

Coulter Electronics Ltd have produced a semi-automated platelet-counting system. Platelet-rich plasma may be obtained either by tube sedimentation or by means of the Thrombo-fuge, the latter being an instrument designed to produce accelerated sedimentation. The instrument is linear over the entire range of platelet counts, and machine reproducibility is good. Comparison of machine-rated with visual counts satisfied statistical evaluation. The technique can be handled by one operator and platelet counts can be achieved at the rate of 30 per hour by both methods although individual counts on the Thrombo-fuge may be obtained in approximately one-quarter of the time required for tube sedimentation. The throughput using the Thrombo-fuge could certainly be doubled were two sample plates supplied. Few problems were encountered during the evaluation and most could be avoided by meticulous technique. Visual counts must be performed when the sample haematocrit is greater than 50%-Discrepant counts have been obtained in patients with white cell counts exceeding 50 X 10(9)/1 and in patients with giant platelets. ESR elevation for any reason does not lead to serious discrepancy in results. The incidence of platelet clumping due to the presence of platelet agglutinins and of microclot formation due to inadequate mixing is probably much higher than is commonly thought, and certainly peripheral blood film scrutiny should never be omitted in patients with low counts. Careful examination of peripheral blood films must be combined with instrument counting for some time lest further causes of discrepant counting emerge.

Rowan, R M; Fraser, C; Gray, J H; McDonald, G A

1977-01-01

418

Framework on Hierarchical Optimization of Traffic Count Location for City Traffic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a framework about how to solve the traffic count location problem. According to target scope, traffic count location problem can be divided into 3 categories: network count location problem (NCLP), corridor count location problem (CCLP), and link count location problem (LCLP). Programming method and micro-simulation tool are used to solve the related count location problem.

Heng Wang; KePing Li; Jian Sun; Ying Liu

2008-01-01

419

Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation  

SciTech Connect

The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chandrasekaran, V [MIT; Gamarmik, D [MIT; Shah, D [MIT; Sin, J [MIT

2009-01-01

420

Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Blood Cell Counts in Mice  

PubMed Central

A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells.

Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

2012-01-01

421

Peripheral blood leukocyte counts in welcome swallow nestlings.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether developmental trends in total leukocyte (WBC) and differential lymphocyte (PropL) counts in peripheral blood of altricial birds typically mirror the known ontogenetic increase in immunocompetence. We documented the development of leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers in peripheral blood of wild, altricial Welcome Swallow (Hirundo neoxena) nestlings. Nestlings had a mass-overshoot-recession growth profile. Hatchlings' mean WBC (7.94 x 10(9) cells/l) and PropL (0.65) were respectively 4x and approximately 1.7x the mean adult value. Both variables declined at a steady rate throughout nestling development and were 1.3x the mean adult value at fledging. Hatching WBC values that substantially exceeded those of adults could have reflected the parasite- and pathogen-rich nest environment of this species. The developmental declines in peripheral blood WBC and PropL were not inconsistent with an ontogenetic increase in specific immunocompetence; they are likely to have resulted mainly from an increase in the rate of leukocyte trafficking to vulnerable tissues and organs. PMID:19901398

Sindik, Antonette; Lill, Alan

2009-10-01

422

Cell Counts in Cerebral Cortex of an Autistic Patient.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Numbers of neurons and glia were counted in the cerebral cortex of one case of autism and two age- and sex-matched controls. Cell counts were made in primary auditory cortex, Broca's speech area, and auditory association cortex. No consistent differences in cell density were found between brains of autistic and control patients. (Author/CL)|

Coleman, Paul D.; And Others

1985-01-01

423

New Jersey Kids Count 2011: The State of Our Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"New Jersey Kids Count 2011" again documents both advances and setbacks in key areas that affect child well-being--poverty, health, child protection, education, including early learning, and adolescent well-being. To better gauge New Jersey's progress in essential areas, a "New Jersey Kids Count Report Card" that identifies trends in 15 key…

Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2011

2011-01-01

424

Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document describes the contributions of African peoples to the science of mathematics. The development of a number system is seen as related to need. Names of numbers, time reckoning, gesture counting, and counting materials are examined. Mystical beliefs about numbers and special meanings in pattern are presented. Reproductions of patterns,…

Zaslavsky, Claudia

425

Gross alpha\\/beta determination by liquid scintillation counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is used to assay liquid samples for both gross alpha and gross beta (including tritium) activity in order to declare these samples clean.'' This method provides several advantages over traditional gross assay techniques including easy sample preparation, no sample self-absorption, short counting times, acceptable lower limits of detection (LLD's), and convenient sample disposal.

Leyba

1992-01-01

426

Gross alpha\\/beta determination by liquid scintillation counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is used to assay liquid samples for both gross alpha and gross beta (including tritium) activity in order to declare these samples ``clean.`` This method provides several advantages over traditional gross assay techniques including easy sample preparation, no sample self-absorption, short counting times, acceptable lower limits of detection (LLD`s), and convenient sample disposal.

Leyba

1992-01-01

427

Gross alpha/beta determination by liquid scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is used to assay liquid samples for both gross alpha and gross beta (including tritium) activity in order to declare these samples ``clean.`` This method provides several advantages over traditional gross assay techniques including easy sample preparation, no sample self-absorption, short counting times, acceptable lower limits of detection (LLD`s), and convenient sample disposal.

Leyba, J.D.

1992-03-01

428

New Jersey Kids Count 2011: The State of Our Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"New Jersey Kids Count 2011" again documents both advances and setbacks in key areas that affect child well-being--poverty, health, child protection, education, including early learning, and adolescent well-being. To better gauge New Jersey's progress in essential areas, a "New Jersey Kids Count Report Card" that identifies trends in 15 key…

Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2011

2011-01-01

429

Platelet count and function in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired platelet function has been associated with an increased propensity for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The role of platelet count and dysfunction in spontaneous ICH (SICH) is poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that patients with SICH have subtle platelet dysfunction associated with ICH progression and larger ICH size. In a retrospective case series, we compared platelet counts in patients with

Wendy C Ziai; Michel T Torbey; Thomas S Kickler; Sangjin Oh; Anish Bhardwaj; Robert J Wityk

2003-01-01

430

Apparatus characterization as a standard for neutron correlation counting  

SciTech Connect

Neutron correlation counting has the property that the count rate is predictable from first principles. This allows, in certain instances, replacing standards of the conventional types with a careful characterization of the apparatus. Multiplication would have to be small, and the material well characterized. An instance where circumstances forced used of such a procedure, with excellent results, is described.

Zucker, M.S.

1982-01-01

431

A Tape Striation Counting Method for Determining Fundamental Frequency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mean fundamental frequencies of 33 male and female Ss (ages 18 to 42) obtained with FLORIDA I (another method to determine fundamental frequencies) and a tape striation counting procedure were compared. The fundamental frequencies obtained with these two methods were similar and it appears that the tape striation counting procedure is a viable,…

Mueller, Peter B.; And Others

1979-01-01

432

Pedometer step counts in individuals with neurological conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the accuracy of measuring step counts using a pedometer in participants with neurological conditions and healthy volunteers in relation to a manual step count tally.Setting: Oxford Centre for Enablement, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre NHS Trust, Oxford, UK.Subjects: Healthy adults (n = 13, age: mean 29, SD = 12) and adults with neurological conditions (n=20 stroke, n=16 multiple sclerosis,

Charlotte Elsworth; Helen Dawes; Charlotte Winward; Ken Howells; Johnny Collett; Andrea Dennis; Catherine Sackley; Derick Wade

2009-01-01

433

A Variation on Hop-counting for Geographic Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new abstraction for localization — Hop Coordinates — that can improve the accuracy of geographic routing over that possible with a localization algorithm based only on hop counting. As compared with previous proposed localization algorithms, which require additional hardware or special antennas, our technique is similar to hop counting and only requires the connectivity

Yurong Xu; James Ford; Fillia S. Makedon

434

12 CFR 1281.12 - General counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...numerator of each fraction is the number of AMA-approved mortgage...single-family properties that count toward achievement of a particular...of each fraction is the total number of AMA-approved mortgage...mortgage originated after 1992 counts toward achievement of a...

2012-01-01

435

Crowd Counting Using Group Tracking and Local Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In public venues, crowd size is a key indicator of crowd safety and stability. In this paper we propose a crowd counting algorithm that uses tracking and local features to count the number of people in each group as represented by a foreground blob segment, so that the total crowd estimate is the sum of the group sizes. Tracking is

David Ryan; Simon Denman; Clinton Fookes; Sridha Sridharan

2010-01-01

436

Counting single photoactivatable fluorescent molecules by photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM).  

PubMed

We present a single molecule method for counting proteins within a diffraction-limited area when using photoactivated localization microscopy. The intrinsic blinking of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins mEos2 and Dendra2 leads to an overcounting error, which constitutes a major obstacle for their use as molecular counting tags. Here, we introduce a kinetic model to describe blinking and show that Dendra2 photobleaches three times faster and blinks seven times less than mEos2, making Dendra2 a better photoactivated localization microscopy tag than mEos2 for molecular counting. The simultaneous activation of multiple molecules is another source of error, but it leads to molecular undercounting instead. We propose a photoactivation scheme that maximally separates the activation of different molecules, thus helping to overcome undercounting. We also present a method that quantifies the total counting error and minimizes it by balancing over- and undercounting. This unique method establishes that Dendra2 is better for counting purposes than mEos2, allowing us to count in vitro up to 200 molecules in a diffraction-limited spot with a bias smaller than 2% and an uncertainty less than 6% within 10 min. Finally, we demonstrate that this counting method can be applied to protein quantification in vivo by counting the bacterial flagellar motor protein FliM fused to Dendra2. PMID:23045631

Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Shin, Jae Yen; Lee, Antony; Bustamante, Carlos

2012-10-08

437

Counting method of heterotrophic bacteria based on image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterotrophic bacteria is detected and counted by National Standard Method of China at present, i.e. flat dish numberation, which has the disadvantages of subjectivity, big error and low efficiency because of relying on manual counting. A method of rapid determination of heterotrophic bacteria in industrial cooling water is developed. After converting the original image into a greyscale one, we removed

Hong Men; Yujie Wu; Xiaoying Li; Zhen Kou; Shanrang Yang

2008-01-01

438

Cell counts in cerebral cortex of an autistic patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numbers of neurons and glia were counted in the cerebral cortex of one well-documented case of autism and two age and sexmatched controls. Areas in which cell counts were made were primary auditory cortex, Broca's speech area, and auditory association cortex. No consistent differences in cell density were found between the brains of the autistic patient and the control patients.

Paul D. Coleman; John Romano; Lowell Lapham; William Simon

1985-01-01

439

Counting single photoactivatable fluorescent molecules by photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM)  

PubMed Central

We present a single molecule method for counting proteins within a diffraction-limited area when using photoactivated localization microscopy. The intrinsic blinking of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins mEos2 and Dendra2 leads to an overcounting error, which constitutes a major obstacle for their use as molecular counting tags. Here, we introduce a kinetic model to describe blinking and show that Dendra2 photobleaches three times faster and blinks seven times less than mEos2, making Dendra2 a better photoactivated localization microscopy tag than mEos2 for molecular counting. The simultaneous activation of multiple molecules is another source of error, but it leads to molecular undercounting instead. We propose a photoactivation scheme that maximally separates the activation of different molecules, thus helping to overcome undercounting. We also present a method that quantifies the total counting error and minimizes it by balancing over- and undercounting. This unique method establishes that Dendra2 is better for counting purposes than mEos2, allowing us to count in vitro up to 200 molecules in a diffraction-limited spot with a bias smaller than 2% and an uncertainty less than 6% within 10 min. Finally, we demonstrate that this counting method can be applied to protein quantification in vivo by counting the bacterial flagellar motor protein FliM fused to Dendra2.

Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Shin, Jae Yen; Lee, Antony; Bustamante, Carlos

2012-01-01

440

Efficient Parallel Subgraph Counting Using G-Tries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding and counting the occurrences of a collection of subgraphs within another larger network is a computationally hard problem, closely related to graph isomorphism. The subgraph count is by itself a very powerful characterization of a network and it is crucial for other important network measurements. G-tries are a specialized data-structure designed to store and search for subgraphs. By taking

Pedro Ribeiro; Fernando Silva; L. Lopes

2010-01-01

441

Energy harvesting using AC machines with high effective pole count  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, ways to improve the power conversion of rotating generators at low rotor speeds in energy harvesting applications were investigated. One method is to increase the pole count, which increases the generator back-emf without also increasing the I2R losses, thereby increasing both torque density and conversion efficiency. One machine topology that has a high effective pole count is

Richard Theodore Geiger

2010-01-01

442

Pinochle Poker: An Activity for Counting and Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding counting rules is challenging for students; in particular, they struggle with determining when and how to implement combinations, permutations, and the multiplication rule as tools for counting large sets and computing probability. We present an activity--using ideas from the games of poker and pinochle--designed to help students…

Wroughton, Jacqueline; Nolan, Joseph

2012-01-01

443

The Photon Counting Histogram in Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is generally used to obtain information about the number of fluorescent particles in a small volume and the diffusion coefficient from the autocorrelation function of the fluorescence signal. Here we demonstrate that photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis constitutes a novel tool for extracting quantities from fluorescence fluctuation data, i.e., the measured photon counts per molecule and

Yan Chen; Joachim D. Müller; Peter T. C. So; Enrico Gratton

1999-01-01

444

Quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry at elevated counting rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

For quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry the decrease of coincidence efficiency with counting rate should be made negligible to avoid a virtual increase of relative peak areas of coincident isomeric transitions with counting rate. To that aim, a separate amplifier and discriminator has been used for each of the eight segments of the active shield of a new well-type Compton suppression

G. P Westphal; K. Jöstl; P. Schröder; R. Lauster; E. Hausch

1999-01-01

445

Design of Multichannel Counting System for IBM PC and Compatibles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Multichannel Counting System (MCCS), based on IBM-PC and Compatible computer systems have been designed. The MCCS consists of a Multichannel Counting System plug-in interface card (MCCS-PC) for IBM PC and compatibles and a NIMBIN module (MCCS-NB). The M...

A. Osman B. Majeed M. M. Yasin Z. Ahmad

1995-01-01

446

Particle Counting Statistics of Time and Space Dependent Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The counting statistics give insight into the properties of quantum states of light and other quantum states of matter such as ultracold atoms or electrons. The theoretical description of photon counting was derived in the 1960s and was extended to massive particles more recently. Typically, the interaction between each particle and the detector is assumed to be limited to short

Sibylle Braungardt; Mirta Rodríguez; Roy J. Glauber; Maciej Lewenstein

2011-01-01

447

A comparison of patient dosage deviation reports with pill counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report of a comparison between patient verbal reports of dosage deviation during a drug study and pill counts. Pill counts are much more reliable, but verbal reports are of some value, since when there are statements of major deviations they tend to be correct.

Lee C. Park; Ronald S. Lipman

1964-01-01

448

Factors influencing total haemocyte counts in freshwater gastropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total haemocyte counts were made in two freshwater gastropods. Lymnaea acuminata (Lamarck) f. rufescens (Gray), and Indoplanorbis exustus (Deshayes). Influence of age (shell size) was studied in groups of small, intermediate, and large-sized snails; large snails have significantly higher haemocyte counts than intermediate and small snails. Effects of changes in ambient circumstances were studied in medium-sized snails. Decreases in water

P. G. Suresh; M. K. Reju; A. Mohandas

1994-01-01

449

HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

450

A banner ads searching and counting system for sports videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ads exposure frequency in a TV is very important for the pricing of the advertising. If we count this exposure frequency by person, it will be very time consuming and error- prone. In this paper, we propose an approach and design a system for searching and counting the number of banner ads appearing in sports videos. The searching proceeds

Chueh Wei Chang; Yu Hung Chang; Shio Wen Chen

2011-01-01

451

Handoff counting in hierarchical cellular system with overflow scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mobile computing scenario, the number of handoff (called as handoff counting) is very important for the signalling network design and traffic load analysis. In this paper, we study the handoff counting characteristics in terms of probability mass function (pmf) and statistical moments in the hierarchical cellular system applying overflow scheme under the general cell residence time and general call

Zhang Yan; Soong Boon-Hee

452

Distinct counting with a self-learning bitmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counting the number of distinct elements (cardinality) in a dataset is a fundamental problem in database management. In recent years, due to many of its modern applications, there has been significant interest to address the distinct counting problem in a data stream setting, where each incoming data can be seen only once and cannot be stored for long periods of

Aiyou Chen; Jin Cao; Larry Shepp; Tuan Nguyen

2011-01-01

453

76 FR 65095 - National Character Counts Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...October 14, 2011 National Character Counts Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...humanity. During National Character Counts Week, we celebrate our country's core values...country strong, prosperous, and free. This week, we resolve to stay true to the...

2011-10-20

454

An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which originally was developed for use in machine speech-recognition. The strength of the layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to an ice core record from Greenland. The algorithm shows high skill in reproducing the results from manual layer counts.

Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E. J.; Axelrod, A. E.

2012-07-01

455

Reducing shot count through optimization-based fracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing complexity of RET solutions with each new process node has increased the shot count of advanced photomasks. In particular, the introduction of inverse lithography masks represents a significant increase in mask complexity. Although shot count reduction can be achieved through careful management of the upstream OPC strategy and improvement of fracture algorithms, it is also important to consider more dramatic departures from traditional fracture techniques. Optimization based fracture allows for overlapping shots to be placed in a manner that allows the mask intent to be realized while achieving significant savings in shot count relative to traditional fracture based methods. We investigate the application of Optimization based fracture to reduce the shot count of inverse lithography masks, provide an assessment of the potential shot count savings, and assess its impact on lithography process window performance.

Lin, Timothy; Sahouria, Emile; Akkiraju, Nataraj; Schulze, Steffen

2011-10-01

456

Exponential Time Complexity of Weighted Counting of Independent Sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider weighted counting of independent sets using a rational weight x: Given a graph with n vertices, count its independent sets such that each set of size k contributes x k . This is equivalent to computation of the partition function of the lattice gas with hard-core self-repulsion and hard-core pair interaction. We show the following conditional lower bounds: If counting the satisfying assignments of a 3-CNF formula in n variables (#3SAT) needs time 2?(n) (i.e. there is a c > 0 such that no algorithm can solve #3SAT in time 2 cn ), counting the independent sets of size n/3 of an n-vertex graph needs time 2?(n) and weighted counting of independent sets needs time 2^{?(n/log^3 n)} for all rational weights x ? 0.

Hoffmann, Christian

457

Somatic cell counts: associated factors and relationship to production.  

PubMed Central

Factors affecting somatic cell counts and the association between somatic cell counts and milk production were evaluated. Data were collected from 748 Ontario Dairy Herd Improvement Corporation supervised herds that were on production and somatic cell count programs between April 1981 and March 1983. Two data files were created; one, the lactation summary file, contained one record per cow on each of 9406 Holsteins and the other, the test day file, included results of all tests during the complete lactation on each of the above cows. The latter file contained 85,236 records. Multiple curvilinear least squares regression was used to create five separate models. The dependent variables used in the models were natural logarithms (Loge) of the geometric mean of the somatic cell count for the lactation, 305 day milk production and breed class average for milk from the lactation summary file, and loge of the 24 hour somatic cell count and 24 hour milk production from the test day file. The somatic cell count at both the lactation and test day level increased with age up to approximately ten years and thereafter slowly decreased. The variable "days in milk" was not significantly associated with the lactation average somatic cell count. A curvilinear relationship was found between days in lactation at the time of test and the somatic cell count of 24 hour milk production. The somatic cell count increased until approximately 250 days in lactation and thereafter slowly decreased. It was found that the highest cell counts occurred in summer and the lowest in winter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Salsberg, E; Meek, A H; Martin, S W

1984-01-01

458

You can count on the motor cortex: finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers.  

PubMed

The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing. PMID:22133748

Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2011-11-20

459

You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers  

PubMed Central

The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing.

Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H.; Pulvermuller, Friedemann

2012-01-01

460

Simulating the Counting Mechanism of PILATUS2 and PILATUS3 Detectors for Improved Count Rate Corrections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PILATUS systems are well established as X-ray detectors at most synchrotrons. Their single photon counting capability ensures precise measurements, but introduces a short dead time after each hit, which becomes significant for photon rates above a million per second and pixel. The resulting loss in the number of counted photons can be corrected for by applying corresponding rate correction factors. This article presents a Monte-Carlo simulation, which computes the correction factors taking into account the detector settings as well as the time structure of the X-ray beam at the synchrotron. For the PILATUS2 detector series the simulation shows good agreement with experimentally determined correction factors for various detector settings at different synchrotrons. The application of more accurate rate correction factors will improve the X-ray data quality at high photon fluxes. Furthermore we report on the simulation of the rate correction factors for the new PILATUS3 systems. The successor of the PILATUS2 detector avoids the paralysation of the counter, and allows for measurements up to a rate of ten million photons per second and pixel. For fast detector settings the simulation is capable of reproducing the data within one to two percent at an incoming photon rate of one million per second and pixel.

Trueb, P.; Sobott, B. A.; Schnyder, R.; Loeliger, T.; Schneebeli, M.; Kobas, M.; Rassool, R. P.; Peake, D. J.; Broennimann, C.

2013-03-01

461

Single cell analysis reveals oligoclonality among "low count" monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a pre-clinical hematologic syndrome characterized by small accumulations of CD5+ B lymphocytes. Most MBL share phenotypic characteristics with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). While some MBL progress to CLL, most MBL have apparently limited potential for progression to CLL, particularly those MBL with normal absolute B cell counts (“low count” MBL). Most CLL are monoclonal and it is not known whether MBL are monoclonal or oligoclonal; this is important because it is unclear whether MBL represent indolent CLL or represent a distinct pre-malignant precursor prior to the development of CLL. We used flow cytometry analysis and sorting to determine immunophenotypic characteristics, clonality, and molecular features of MBL from familial CLL kindreds. Single cell analysis indicated 4 of 6 low count MBL consisted of two or more unrelated clones; the other 2 MBL were monoclonal. 87% of low count MBL clones had mutated immunoglobulin genes, and no immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangements of VH family 1 were observed. Some MBL were diversified, clonally related populations with evidence of antigen-drive. We conclude that while low count MBL share many phenotypic characteristics with CLL, many MBL are oligoclonal. This supports a model for step-wise development of MBL into CLL.

Lanasa, Mark C.; Allgood, Sallie D.; Volkheimer, Alicia D.; Gockerman, Jon P.; Whitesides, John F.; Goodman, Barbara K.; Moore, Joseph O.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Levesque, Marc C.

2009-01-01

462

Dark-count-less photon-counting x-ray computed tomography system using a YAP-MPPC detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-sensitive X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for decreasing absorbed dose for patients, and a dark-count-less photon-counting CT system was developed. X-ray photons are detected using a YAP(Ce) [cerium-doped yttrium aluminum perovskite] single crystal scintillator and an MPPC (multipixel photon counter). Photocurrents are amplified by a high-speed current-voltage amplifier, and smooth event pulses from an integrator are sent to a high-speed comparator. Then, logical pulses are produced from the comparator and are counted by a counter card. Tomography is accomplished by repeated linear scans and rotations of an object, and projection curves of the object are obtained by the linear scan. The image contrast of gadolinium medium slightly fell with increase in lower-level voltage (Vl) of the comparator. The dark count rate was 0 cps, and the count rate for the CT was approximately 250 kcps.

Sato, Eiichi; Sato, Yuich; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

2012-10-01

463

Point counting on the Macintosh. A semiautomated image analysis technique.  

PubMed

In image analysis, point counting is used to estimate three-dimensional quantitative parameters from sets of measurements made on two-dimensional images. Point counting is normally conducted either by hand only or manually through a planimeter. We developed a semiautomated, Macintosh-based method of point counting. This technique could be useful for any point counting application in which the image can be digitized. We utilized this technique to demonstrate increased vacuolation in white matter tracts of rat brains, but it could be used on many other types of tissue. Volume fractions of vacuoles within the corpus callosum of rat brains were determined by analyzing images of histologic sections. A stereologic grid was constructed using the Claris MacDraw II software. The grid was modified for optimum line density and size in Adobe Photoshop, electronically superimposed onto the images and sampled using version 1.37 of NIH Image public domain software. This technique was further automated by the creation of a macro (small program) to create the grid, overlay the grid on a predetermined image, threshold the objects of interest and count thresholded objects at intersections of the grid lines. This method is expected to significantly reduce the amount of time required to conduct point counting and to improve the consistency of counts. PMID:8259976

Gatlin, C L; Schaberg, E S; Jordan, W H; Kuyatt, B L; Smith, W C

1993-10-01

464

Single photon counting linear mode avalanche photodiode technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The false count rate of a single-photon-sensitive photoreceiver consisting of a high-gain, low-excess-noise linear-mode InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) and a high-bandwidth transimpedance amplifier (TIA) is fit to a statistical model. The peak height distribution of the APD's multiplied dark current is approximated by the weighted sum of McIntyre distributions, each characterizing dark current generated at a different location within the APD's junction. The peak height distribution approximated in this way is convolved with a Gaussian distribution representing the input-referred noise of the TIA to generate the statistical distribution of the uncorrelated sum. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) representing count probability as a function of detection threshold is computed, and the CDF model fit to empirical false count data. It is found that only k=0 McIntyre distributions fit the empirically measured CDF at high detection threshold, and that false count rate drops faster than photon count rate as detection threshold is raised. Once fit to empirical false count data, the model predicts the improvement of the false count rate to be expected from reductions in TIA noise and APD dark current. Improvement by at least three orders of magnitude is thought feasible with further manufacturing development and a capacitive-feedback TIA (CTIA).

Williams, George M.; Huntington, Andrew S.

2011-09-01

465

Leukocyte counts in relation to the method of delivery during the first five days of life.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to evaluate total and differential leukocyte counts during the first 5 days of life in relation to the method of delivery. We included 203 healthy term infants; of these, 114 were born by vaginal delivery, and 89 by elective cesarean section. Total and differential leukocyte counts were evaluated at the following intervals: 0-6, 7-12, 13-24, 25-48, 49-72, 73-96, and 97-120 h after birth. The cord serum cortisol level was measured as an indicator of the degree of delivery-related stress. Mean leukocyte and neutrophil counts were higher in infants born by vaginal delivery in cord blood and up to 12 h of life. No significant differences were observed in the immature: total neutrophil ratios between the two groups of infants. The cord serum cortisol level was higher in vaginally delivered infants. A significant correlation was found between cortisol and leukocyte, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts. The method of delivery produces significantly different total leukocyte and neutrophil counts during the first 12 h after birth; after this time, there appears to be no more variation of leukocyte counts during the first 5 days of life. PMID:10095143

Chirico, G; Gasparoni, A; Ciardelli, L; Martinotti, L; Rondini, G

1999-05-01

466

Bubble Counts for Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Using Image Analysis  

SciTech Connect

We describe the use of image analysis to count bubbles in 3-D, large-scale, LES [1] and DNS [2] of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We analyze these massive datasets by first converting the 3-D data to 2-D, then counting the bubbles in the 2-D data. Our plots for the bubble count indicate there are four distinct regimes in the process of the mixing of the two fluids. We also show that our results are relatively insensitive to the choice of parameters in our analysis algorithms.

Miller, P L; Gezahegne, A G; Cook, A W; Cabot, W H; Kamath, C

2007-01-24

467

Quantification of P-32 removed during leukapheresis by bremsstrahlung counting  

SciTech Connect

The activity of P-32 removed during leukapheresis of a patient previously administered P-32 for therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) was determined. The bremsstrahlung produced by P-32 beta rays in the pheresis bags allowed the quantitation of radioactivity by well counting in a sodium iodide detector and by a gamma camera. Bremsstrahlung counting demonstrated that leukapheresis removes such a small amount of radioactivity that the therapeutic effect of a previously administered P-32 dose was still valid. Bremsstrahlung counting offers advantages to a Nuclear Medicine Department over the conventional use of a liquid scintillation counter to detect P-32 beta rays in that it is simpler and more readily available.

Evdokimoff, V.N.; Weintraub, L.R.

1984-01-01

468

Automatic Pedestrian Detection and Counting Applied to Urban Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical knowledge of human flows in the streets is mandatory for urban planning. Today many cities use the expensive method of manual pedestrian counting, since there is no reliable automatic counting device. This project aims at achieving the first efficient, real-time, embedded and autonomous system that provides high-level data. Our first work focused on the development of a reliable counting method under MatlabTM. On the basis of video sequences recorded in the city of Mulhouse we have validated the robustness of our approach.

Michelat, Thomas; Hueber, Nicolas; Raymond, Pierre; Pichler, Alexander; Schaal, Pascal; Dugaret, Bernard

469

Fullerene isomers of C 60. Kekulé counts versus stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A count of Kekulé structures for all 1812 distinct fullerene isomers of C 60 shows that 20 isomers surpass the count of 12500 for icosahedral C 60, and demonstrates the lack of correlation between molecular-orbital indices of stability and raw Kekulé counts for fullerenes. Analysis of Kekulé structures in terms of benzenoid, cyclopentenoid and cyclopentadienoid rings reveals the source of the stability of icosahedral C 60 in a localised model to be the fact that uniquely amongst the 1812 structural isomers it has a Fries Kekulé structure where all hexagons contain three double bonds and all pentagons none.

Austin, S. J.; Fowler, P. W.; Hansen, P.; Monolopoulos, D. E.; Zheng, M.

1994-10-01

470

The distribution of controlled drugs on banknotes via counting machines.  

PubMed

Bundles of paper, similar to sterling banknotes, were counted in banks in England and Wales. Subsequent analysis showed that the counting process, both by machine and by hand, transferred nanogram amounts of cocaine to the paper. Crystalline material, similar to cocaine hydrochloride, could be observed on the surface of the paper following counting. The geographical distribution of contamination broadly followed Government statistics for cocaine usage within the UK. Diacetylmorphine, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) were not detected during this study. PMID:12711189

Carter, James F; Sleeman, Richard; Parry, Joanna

2003-03-27

471

Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.  

PubMed

In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media, incubation temperatures (20 degrees C, 28 degrees C or 35 degrees C), plating methods (pour plate (PP), spread plate and membrane filter) and range of incubation times (24, 48, 72 h and 5-7 days) provide great flexibility in the application of the HPC analysis to drinking water. PMID:15145589

Reasoner, Donald J

2004-05-01

472

A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

1971-01-01

473

12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals ...Special counting requirements. (a) General...REMICs that meet the requirements in paragraph (c...revenue bond meeting the requirements of paragraph (c...Enterprise may provide FHFA detailed information...

2010-01-01

474

Gross alpha/beta determination by liquid scintillation counting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is used to assay liquid samples for both gross alpha and gross beta (including tritium) activity in order to declare these samples ''clean.'' This method provides several advantages over traditional gross assay techniqu...

J. D. Leyba

1992-01-01

475

High Count Rates with Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We achieved photon count rates per molecule as high as with commonly used confocal fluorescence correlation spectroscopy instruments using a new total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy system based on an epi-illumination configuration.

Kai Hassler; Tiemo Anhut; Rudolf Rigler; Michael Gösch; Theo Lasser

2005-01-01

476

45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When...expenditures count? 263.4 Section 263.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS),...

2011-10-01

477

Differential Blood Cell Counts of Atlantic Herring, 'Clupea harengus harengus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In differential blood counts of 200 herring, Clupea harengus harengus, the percentages of white cell types and immature erythrocytes in the blood were found to be different from those previously reported in the literature. Herring were sampled from Februa...

S. W. Sherburne

1973-01-01

478

Counts of low-Redshift SDSS quasar candidates  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the counts of low-redshift quasar candidates selected using nine-epoch SDSS imaging data. The co-added catalogs are more than 1 mag deeper than single-epoch SDSS data, and allow the selection of low-redshift quasar candidates using UV-excess and also variability techniques. The counts of selected candidates are robustly determined down to g = 21.5. This is about 2 magnitudes deeper than the position of a change in the slope of the counts reported by Boyle et al. (1990, 2000) for a sample selected by UV-excess, and questioned by Hawkins & Veron (1995), who utilized a variability-selected sample. Using SDSS data, we confirm a change in the slope of the counts for both UV-excess and variability selected samples, providing strong support for the Boyle et al. results.

Zeljko Ivezic et al.

2004-03-12

479

Count-Me-In For Women's Economic Independence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Count-Me-In For Women's Economic Independence is a national, nonprofit organization focused on raising money from women to be loaned to other women. Count-Me-In's goal is to collect donations of $5 from women around the country to be added to a national loan fund, which will be awarded to qualifying women for small business loans in amounts ranging between $5,000 and $10,000, as well as for scholarships for business training. Be sure to browse through the "what is count-me-in?" section; "follow your $5" details how these $5 contributions are turned into loans, and "the power of small loans" chronicles the ways in which business women have used their small loans from Count-Me-In.

480

Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates  

DOEpatents

A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

1980-05-23

481

20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...earned income. (c) Payments for services in a sheltered workshop or activities center. We count payments you receive for services performed in a sheltered workshop or work activities center when you receive...

2013-04-01

482

Correlated neutron counting for the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

Correlated neutron counting techniques, such as neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting, are widely employed at nuclear fuel cycle facilities for the accountancy of nuclear material such as plutonium. These techniques need to be improved and enhanced to meet the challenges of complex measurement items and future nuclear safeguards applications, for example; the non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel, high counting rate applications, small sample measurements, and Helium-3 replacement. At the same time simulation tools, used for the design of detection systems based on these techniques, are being developed in anticipation of future needs. This seminar will present the theory and current state of the practice of temporally correlated neutron counting. A range of future safeguards applications will then be presented in the context of research projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-01

483

The Method of Recursive Counting: Can one go further?  

SciTech Connect

After a short review of the Method of Recursive Counting we introduce a general algebraic description of recursive lattice building. This provides a rigorous framework for discussion of method`s limitations.

Creutz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Horvath, I. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mendris, R. [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratslava, (Slovakia)

1993-12-01

484

Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates.  

PubMed

Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.A colony counter hardware was designed and a novel segmentation algorithm was written in MATLAB. In brief, pre-processing with Top-Hat-filtering to obtain a uniform background was followed by the segmentation step, during which the colony images were extracted from the blood agar and individual colonies were separated. A Bayes classifier was then applied to count the final number of bacterial colonies as some of the colonies could still be concatenated to form larger groups. To assess accuracy and performance of the colony counter, we tested automated colony counting of different agar plates with known CFU numbers of S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and M. catarrhalis and showed excellent performance. PMID:22448267

Brugger, Silvio D; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mühlemann, Kathrin

2012-03-20

485

Avalanche Photodiode Photon Counting Receivers for Space-Borne Lidars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters b...

X. Sun F. M. Davidson

1991-01-01

486

Point Counting in Measurement -or- What Is the Unit?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examples from some area tasks indicate that misconceptions about linear measurement can be carried over to area measurement; children will occasionally count points rather than length units or area units. (MP)

Lamb, Charles E.; Hirstein, James J.

1979-01-01

487

Relationship between white blood cell count and incident hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively associated with cardiovascular disease. However, its relationship to hypertension, independent of smoking and other established cardiovascular risk factors, is not clear, especially among women.

Anoop Shankar; Barbara E. K Klein; Ronald Klein

2004-01-01

488

Making Child Care Choices Count for Your Family  

MedlinePLUS

... for Your Family Family Life Listen Making Child Care Choices Count for Your Family Article Body For ... Child? There are three basic types of child care: In-home care: A caregiver comes into your ...

489

An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented and their differences discussed. Within the estimated uncertainties, the two methodologies agree. This shows the potential for a fully automated annual layer counting method to be operational for data sections where the annual layering is unknown.

Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

2012-04-01

490

Gender differentiation by finger ridge count among South Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study is to determine the gender based on finger ridge count within a well-defined area. Rolled fingerprints were taken from 550 subjects (275 men and 275 women) belonging to South Indian population all within the age range of 18–65 years. Results show that women have a significantly higher ridge count than men. Application of Baye’s theorem

M. D. Nithin; B. Manjunatha; D. S. Preethi; B. M. Balaraj

2011-01-01

491

Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.  

PubMed

Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2004-12-24

492

Rapid quantitation of DNA spot hybridization by flatbed scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

The flatbed scintillation counting system (Betaplate) was used for quantitative measurement of the radioactive hybridization signal in detection of adenovirus and papillomavirus DNA in clinical specimens. In this method, 96 samples on a nylon membrane can be handled as a single entity throughout the hybridization and counting procedure. The technique is sensitive, rapid, and convenient in routine use when compared with conventionally applied methods for the numerical analysis of hybridization results. The assay principle allows simultaneous testing of large numbers of specimens.

Hyypiae, T.A.; Auvinen, E.; Kovanen, S.; Stahlberg, T.H. (Univ. of Turku (Finland))

1990-01-01

493

False-positive Ascaris suum egg counts in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

False-positive Ascaris suum egg counts in pig faeces are frequently observed under both experimental and natural conditions. Data from 12 experiments with A. suum infections in pigs were summarized and showed that the percentage of false-positive faecal samples ranged from 4 to 36%. False-positive egg count values varied greatly between pigs and experiments (range 20–1060 eggs per gram faeces). Indoor

Jaap Boes; Peter Nansen; Lani S. Stephenson

1997-01-01

494

Counting models for 2SAT and 3SAT formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We here present algorithms for counting models and max-weightmodels for 2sat and 3sat formulae. They use polynomial space andrun in O(1:2561) time, respectively, where n is thenumber of variables. This is faster than the previously best algorithmsfor counting non-weighted models for 2sat and 3sat, which run inO(1:3247) time, respectively. In order to prove thesetime bounds, we develop new measures

Vilhelm Dahllöf; Peter Jonsson; Magnus Wahlström

2005-01-01

495

The polymorphonuclear leucocyte count in childhood haemolytic uraemic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review of data from 79 children with the haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) showed that the polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) count at presentation in childhood HUS predicts outcome. Logistic regression analysis of several features at presentation identified only the PMN count and the presence of a diarrhoeal prodrome as having a significant effect on the outcome (PPt-test on log-transformed data,PPP<0.001). Multiple regression

Martin D. S. Walters; I. Ute Matthei; Richard Kay; Michael J. Dillon; T. Martin Barratt

1989-01-01

496

The Argonne low level /sup 14/C counting system  

SciTech Connect

A low level /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ counting system is described. This system was used to process several thousand CO/sub 2/ samples derived from atmospheric collections at various altitudes. Special features include counter construction utilizing electrolytic copper and shielding with neutron moderating and absorbing paraffin containing sodium metaborate. The effect of steel shielding thickness is shown, and the anticoincidence counters are described. Purification of the CO/sub 2/ for proportional counting is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Gray, J.; Rymas, S.J.; Studebaker, L.D.; Yule, H.P.

1987-01-01

497

Predicting Energy Expenditure from Accelerometry Counts in Adolescent Girls  

PubMed Central

Purpose Calibration of accelerometer counts against oxygen consumption to predict energy expenditure has not been conducted in middle school girls. We concurrently assessed energy expenditure and accelerometer counts during physical activities on adolescent girls to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure. Methods Seventy-four girls aged 13–14 yr performed 10 activities while wearing an Actigraph accelerometer and a portable metabolic measurement unit (Cosmed K4b2). The activities were resting, watching television, playing a computer game, sweeping, walking 2.5 and 3.5 mph, performing step aerobics, shooting a basketball, climbing stairs, and running 5 mph. Height and weight were also assessed. Mixed-model regression was used to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure (EE) (Kj·min?1) from accelerometer counts. Results Age (mean [SD] = 14 yr [0.34]) and body-weight–adjusted correlations of accelerometer counts with EE (kJ·min?1) for individual activities ranged from ?0.14 to 0.59. Higher intensity activities with vertical motion were best correlated. A regression model that explained 85% of the variance of EE was developed: [EE (kJ·min?1) = 7.6628 + 0.1462 [(Actigraph counts per minute ? 3000)/100] + 0.2371 (body weight in kilograms) ? 0.00216 [(Actigraph counts per minute ? 3000)/100]2 + 0.004077 [((Actigraph counts per minute ? 3000)/100) × (body weight in kilograms)]. The MCCC = 0.85, with a standard error of estimate = 5.61 kJ·min?1. Conclusions We developed a prediction equation for kilojoules per minute of energy expenditure from Actigraph accelerometer counts. This equation may be most useful for predicting energy expenditure in groups of adolescent girls over a period of time that will include activities of broad-ranging intensity, and may be useful to intervention researchers interested in objective measures of physical activity.

SCHMITZ, KATHRYN H.; TREUTH, MARGARITA; HANNAN, PETER; MCMURRAY, ROBERT; RING, KIMBERLY B.; CATELLIER, DIANE; PATE, RUSS

2008-01-01

498

Renormalization and Power Counting of Chiral Nuclear Forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study renormalization of chiral nuclear forces by examining the cutoff dependence of the solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for nucleon-nucleon scattering. In particular, we are interested in the interplay between renormalization and power counting of nucleon-nucleon contact interactions, leading to necessary modifications to Weinberg's original power counting scheme. We also discuss the difference between the conclusions of the previous investigations and ours.

Long, Bingwei; Yang, Chieh-Jen

2011-10-01

499

Bayesian spatial modeling of data from avian point count surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a unified framework for modeling bird survey data collected at spatially replicated survey sites in the form of\\u000a repeated counts or detection history counts, through which we model spatial dependence in bird density and variation in detection\\u000a probabilities due to changes in covariates across the landscape. The models have a complex hierarchical structure that makes\\u000a them suited to

Raymond A. Webster; Kenneth H. Pollock; Theodore R. Simons

2008-01-01

500

DIRECT COUNTING AND SIZING OF MITOCHONDRIA IN SOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistive particle counting has been developed for the accurate sizing and counting of mito- chondria in solution. The normal detection limit with a 30 ~ aperture is 0.48 # diameter, or 0.056 #* particle volume The mean volume of rat liver mitochondria was 0.42\\/~s or 0.93 # in diameter. The average value for numbers of particles per milligram of mitochondrial

ADRIAN R. L. GEAR

1972-01-01