Science.gov

Sample records for count making numbers

  1. Making Hawai'i's Kids Count. Issue Paper Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Manoa. Center on the Family.

    This issue paper from Hawai'i Kids Count addresses the issue of teen pregnancy and birth rates. The paper notes that teen pregnancy and birth rates are declining both nationally and in Hawaii and describes key risk factors associated with having a baby before age 20: (1) early school failure; (2) early behavioral problems; (3) family dysfunction;…

  2. Two and Two Make Zero: The Counting Numbers, Their Conceptualization, Symbolization, and Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaseen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    "Two and Two Make Zero" considers children's acquisition of numerical concepts from a wide range of perspectives including topics that are often overlooked, most notably: the principal properties of the counting numbers in and of themselves; the role that numerical symbols play in number acquisition; the underlying conceptual structure of number…

  3. Making stillbirths count, making numbers talk - Issues in data collection for stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Stillbirths need to count. They constitute the majority of the world's perinatal deaths and yet, they are largely invisible. Simply counting stillbirths is only the first step in analysis and prevention. From a public health perspective, there is a need for information on timing and circumstances of death, associated conditions and underlying causes, and availability and quality of care. This information will guide efforts to prevent stillbirths and improve quality of care. Discussion In this report, we assess how different definitions and limits in registration affect data capture, and we discuss the specific challenges of stillbirth registration, with emphasis on implementation. We identify what data need to be captured, we suggest a dataset to cover core needs in registration and analysis of the different categories of stillbirths with causes and quality indicators, and we illustrate the experience in stillbirth registration from different cultural settings. Finally, we point out gaps that need attention in the International Classification of Diseases and review the qualities of alternative systems that have been tested in low- and middle-income settings. Summary Obtaining high-quality data will require consistent definitions for stillbirths, systematic population-based registration, better tools for surveys and verbal autopsies, capacity building and training in procedures to identify causes of death, locally adapted quality indicators, improved classification systems, and effective registration and reporting systems. PMID:20017922

  4. Making Research Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Yvon; Kerwin, Marie; McCulloch, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Making research count in the education sector is often difficult to achieve as people, quite properly, question its relevance, purpose and impact. One of the significant barriers to research supporting practice in the lifelong learning sector is that funded research carried out in higher education institutions is frequently privileged above…

  5. Making environmental DNA count.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?' PMID:26768195

  6. Counting and Number Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefsrud-Anderson, Linda

    This study assessed estimation skills on both static and transformation (conservation) tasks on numerosities ranging from 3 to 16, and included addition and subtraction trials to control for response bias. A total of 148 four- and five-year-old children estimated the number of balls of yarn sewn on elastic straps, and participated in 1 addition, 1…

  7. Making "Cute" Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark, Denise

    2007-01-01

    A holiday quilt project in a kindergarten classroom becomes a focus for exploring patterns, shapes, measurement, spatial relationships, and number sense. Cooperative group work, problem solving, and communication of mathematical ideas enhance the completion of the project. (Contains 5 figures.)

  8. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  9. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  10. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-01

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012316 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number nnumber n in the base-d representation; the inverse transformation is fully quantum at the level of individual qudits, while a simpler semiclassical version can be used on the level of qudit registers. Combining registers of qubits, qutrits, and qudits, where d is a prime number, with a simpler single-shot measurement allows us to find the powers of 2, 3, and other primes d in the number n. We show that the counting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter’s performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  11. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-15

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number nnumber n in the base-d representation; the inverse transformation is fully quantum at the level of individual qudits, while a simpler semiclassical version can be used on the level of qudit registers. Combining registers of qubits, qutrits, and qudits, where d is a prime number, with a simpler single-shot measurement allows us to find the powers of 2, 3, and other primes d in the number n. We show that the counting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  12. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrer, Ruth; Tansella, Vittorio

    2016-07-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  13. Counting copy number and calories.

    PubMed

    White, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) at several genomic loci has been associated with different human traits and diseases, but in many cases the findings could not be replicated. A new study provides insights into the degree of variation present at the amylase locus and calls into question a previous association between amylase copy number and body mass index. PMID:26220133

  14. Numbers, Counting, and Infinity in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meconi, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of middle-school students' natural understanding of large numbers to introduce the concept of infinity. Presents activities that investigate infinite sets by demonstrating a one-to-one correspondence between the counting numbers and the given set. Examples include prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, fractions, even and odd numbers,…

  15. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  16. MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka; Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

    2006-12-01

    We used very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We observed a 4' × 7' field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N), and our data reached J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5σ, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J - K > 2.3 is 2.35 ± 0.31 arcmin-2 at K < 22 and 3.54 ± 0.38 arcmin-2 at K < 23, respectively. These values are consistent with those in the GOODS-South and FIRES. Our deep and wide data suggest that the number counts of DRGs turn over at K ˜ 22, and the surface density of the faint DRGs with K > 22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 2 < z < 4 with the relatively old stellar population and/or heavy dust extinction, the number of faint galaxies with a similar red color is relatively small. Different behavior patterns of the number counts of the DRGs and bluer galaxies with 2 < zphot < 4 at K > 22 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of the low-mass galaxies are blue, while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

  17. Making Academics Count: Action Guide. Successful Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Amanda Sodoma; Meeder, Hans; Rosen, Linda P.; Silver, Steve; Williams, Andra

    This document is intended to help communities plan and implement initiatives modeled after Making Academics Count, a campaign that was launched in 1997 by the Business Coalition for Education Reform (BCER) to encourage employers to ask job applicants for their school records and thereby help motivate students to achieve at higher levels. The guide…

  18. Number counts and dynamical vacuum cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, N. Chandrachani; Borges, H. A.; Carneiro, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2015-03-01

    We study non-linear structure formation in an interacting model of the dark sector of the Universe in which the dark energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, ρΛ ∝ H, leading to a constant-rate creation of cold dark matter. We derive all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density using the Sheth-Torman formalism and show that the effect of the interaction process is to increase the number of bound structures of large masses (M ≳ 1014 M⊙ h-1) when compared to the standard Λ cold dark matter model. Since these models are not reducible to each other, this number counts signature can in principle be tested in future surveys.

  19. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  20. Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    This document describes the contributions of African peoples to the science of mathematics. The development of a number system is seen as related to need. Names of numbers, time reckoning, gesture counting, and counting materials are examined. Mystical beliefs about numbers and special meanings in pattern are presented. Reproductions of patterns,…

  1. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Cathy; Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom--from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards…

  2. History by the Numbers: Why Counting Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coclanis, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the role of numbers and statistical data in history research and history instruction. Contends that many historians and history teachers are unwilling or unable to use numeric data effectively. Argues that statistical analysis is essential for many historical themes and topics. (CFR)

  3. Counting children with tuberculosis: why numbers matter.

    PubMed

    Seddon, J A; Jenkins, H E; Liu, L; Cohen, T; Black, R E; Vos, T; Becerra, M C; Graham, S M; Sismanidis, C; Dodd, P J

    2015-12-01

    In the last 5 years, childhood tuberculosis (TB) has received increasing attention from international organisations, national TB programmes and academics. For the first time, a number of different groups are developing techniques to estimate the burden of childhood TB. We review the challenges in diagnosing TB in children and the reasons why cases in children can go unreported. We discuss the importance of an accurate understanding of burden for identifying problems in programme delivery, targeting interventions, monitoring trends, setting targets, allocating resources appropriately and providing strong advocacy. We briefly review the estimates produced by new analytical methods, and outline the reasons for recent improvements in our understanding and potential future directions. We conclude that while innovation, collaboration and better data have improved our understanding of the childhood TB burden, it remains substantially incomplete. PMID:26564535

  4. Counting Children with Tuberculosis: Why Numbers Matter

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, James A; Jenkins, Helen E; Liu, Li; Cohen, Ted; Black, Robert E; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Graham, Stephen M; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Dodd, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Summary In the last five years, childhood tuberculosis (TB) has received increasing attention from international organisations, national tuberculosis programmes, and academics. For the first time, a number of different groups are developing techniques to estimate the burden of childhood TB. We review the challenges in diagnosing TB in children and the reasons cases in children can go unreported. We discuss the importance of an accurate understanding of burden for identifying problems in programme delivery, targeting interventions, monitoring trends, setting targets, allocating resources appropriately and providing strong advocacy. We briefly review the estimates produced by new analytical methods, outline the reasons for recent improvements in our understanding, and potential future directions. We conclude that while innovation, collaboration and better data have improved our understanding of childhood TB burden, it remains substantially incomplete. PMID:26564535

  5. Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

    2010-01-01

    The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

  6. The Development Director: Making Each Moment Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogus, Joseph F.; Yeager, Robert J.

    This booklet guides the development director of a parochial elementary or secondary school in making effective use of time. The booklet's introduction considers the development director's role as a leader and describes four factors rendering this leadership function complex: (1) the conceptual, technical, and human dimensions of the director's…

  7. Teacher Leadership: Making Your Voice Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Though principals play an important role in setting the vision for a school, and moving their staffs toward that vision, it is increasingly apparent that teachers must take on active decision-making and problem-solving roles. By sharing these responsibilities, schools can tap into the expertise of those most in tune with teaching and learning, and…

  8. Effects of Counting and Matching on Conservation of Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuson, Karen C.; And Others

    Forty-five children aged four-and-a-half to five-and-a-half years old were given number conservation tasks in three conditions: (1) a count condition in which children were helped to count each set after the transformation; (2) a match condition in which children were helped to connect by a string each animal with its peanut; and (3) the standard…

  9. Time to Make the Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surrena, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In order to inspire her students to work in mixed media, the author chose to highlight the art of Jasper Johns and Robert Indiana, both of whom used numbers and letters as a main focus in their art. In this article, the author describes a mixed-media printmaking project. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  10. Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot

    PubMed Central

    De La Cruz, Vivian M.; Di Nuovo, Alessandro; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags) to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting) and linguistic skills (using number words). The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers. PMID:24550795

  11. SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca

    2009-12-20

    We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg{sup 2} map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 mum; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 mum, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 mum, over the range approx0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.

  12. Making It Count (First Offering). Course Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, John D.

    "Making It Count," a multimedia computer course designed to be offered on public television for college credit at the sophomore level, was offered by the State University of Nebraska in 1975. The course was developed by the Boeing Computer Services. The course enrollment was 79, with 64 enrolled for credit. The mean student age was 36.5, and over…

  13. Comparing Digital Sunspot Number Counts to the New International Sunspot Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Henry, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    The International Sunspot Numbers (ISN; Version 2) have been recently (2015) revised at the Sunspot Index and Long Term Solar Observations maintained at Royal Observatory of Belgium (http://www.sidc.be/silso/datafiles). ISN is a reconciled aggregate over several ground-based observatories, mostly using hand-drawn sunspot recordings. We make a detailed 10-year comparisons between the Improved Solar Observing Optical Network’s prototype digital data (2002-2011) and the ISN V1 (Version 1; pre-2015), and ISN V2. Over the ~ 10-year period, ISN V1 underestimates the sunspot number counts by up to 40% while the ISN V2 overestimates by a similar amount. We also compare the hand-drawn data from a single telescope at the National Solar Observatory with the digital data and ISN numbers. These comparisons reveal caveats that need to be taken into account, as sunspot numbers are used to forecast both the solar cycle and the near term climatology of solar cycle impacts on the space environment.

  14. Counting the number of correlated pairs in a nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhalst, Maarten; Cosyn, Wim; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We suggest that the number of correlated nucleon pairs in an arbitrary nucleus can be estimated by counting the number of proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron pairs residing in a relative S state. We present numerical calculations of those amounts for the nuclei {sup 4}He, {sup 9}Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 27}Al, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 108}Ag, and {sup 197}Au. The results are used to predict the values of the ratios of the per-nucleon electron-nucleus inelastic scattering cross section to the deuteron in the kinematic regime where correlations dominate.

  15. Probing the primordial power spectrum with cluster number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Chantavat, Teeraparb; Gordon, Christopher; Silk, Joseph

    2009-04-15

    We investigate how well galaxy cluster number counts can constrain the primordial power spectrum. Measurements of the primary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background may be limited, by the presence of foregrounds from secondary sources, to probing the primordial power spectrum at wave numbers less than about 0.30h Mpc{sup -1}. We break up the primordial power spectrum into a number of nodes and interpolate linearly between each node. This allows us to show that cluster number counts could then extend the constraints on the form of the primordial power spectrum up to wave numbers of about 0.45h Mpc{sup -1}. We estimate combinations of constraints from PLANCK and SPT primary cosmic microwave background and their respective Sunyaev-Zeldovich surveys. We find that their constraining ability is limited by uncertainties in the mass-scaling relations. We also estimate the constraint from clusters detected from a SNAP-like gravitational lensing survey. As there is an unambiguous and simple relationship between the filtered shear of the lensing survey and the cluster mass, it may be possible to obtain much tighter constraints on the primordial power spectrum in this case.

  16. SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY NUMBER COUNTS AND MAGNIFICATION BY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Marcos; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Devlin, Mark; Aguirre, James

    2010-07-01

    We present an analytical model that reproduces measured galaxy number counts from surveys in the wavelength range of 500 {mu}m-2 mm. The model involves a single high-redshift galaxy population with a Schechter luminosity function that has been gravitationally lensed by galaxy clusters in the mass range 10{sup 13}-10{sup 15} M{sub sun}. This simple model reproduces both the low-flux and the high-flux end of the number counts reported by the BLAST, SCUBA, AzTEC, and South Pole Telescope (SPT) surveys. In particular, our model accounts for the most luminous galaxies detected by SPT as the result of high magnifications by galaxy clusters (magnification factors of 10-30). This interpretation implies that submillimeter (submm) and millimeter surveys of this population may prove to be a useful addition to ongoing cluster detection surveys. The model also implies that the bulk of submm galaxies detected at wavelengths larger than 500 {mu}m lie at redshifts greater than 2.

  17. Every nurse has a duty to make every contact count.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sharon

    2014-12-01

    Make Every Contact Count is a public health strategy and not entirely a new idea in nursing, but one that all nurses need to be more conscious of when dealing with patients and the public. The strategy is based on the fact that it is simple and easy to be tactful in delivering correct, brief health advice of any kind, in any setting, whether as nursing students or nurse consultants. Such opportunistic intervention may be opposed or ignored, but could be the trigger that encourages people to change their behaviour positively and take responsibility for their health. A sustained change can reduce the potential negative effect of adverse habits on people's life or on the lives of their children, even in much later years. In this article, the author argues that it is every nurses' duty to make every contact count for the health of the population now and for the future, and thereby reduce the burdens on the NHS and social services. PMID:25487399

  18. Counting Books Are More than Numbers: An Annotated Action Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Patricia L.

    Counting books offer children the time and the tools to develop the understanding needed to solve problems. Stimulated by these books, children may use mathematic language and talk about mathematics as they get involved with materials to move and manipulate, as they use supportive aids found in illustrations, and as they interact with materials to…

  19. By the Numbers. A New System Makes Every Student Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    When Mark Smith was principal of Houston's Anderson Elementary School in the early 1990s, he often ran up against a maddening mathematics problem. At the time, the Houston Independent School District doled out money to schools for nonteaching staff members--like assistant principals, clerks, and librarians--based on a set of enrollment formulas…

  20. Policy as Numbers: Ac/Counting for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an account and a critique of the rise of the contemporary policy as numbers phenomenon and considers its effects on policy and for educational research. Policy as numbers is located within the literatures on numbers in politics and the statistics/state relationship and, while recognising the longevity of the latter…

  1. Make Kids Count: The State of Arizona's Children, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, Elizabeth; Naimark, Dana Wolfe

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends between 1990 and 1998 in the well-being of Arizona's children. The statistical portrait is based on several indicators of well-being, including: (1) children in poverty; (2) babies born at risk; (3) children in families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF); (4) children in…

  2. Make Kids Count in '97: Hawai'i Kids Count 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Marcia; Davidson, Dana; Greenfield, Theresa; Grogan, Beverley

    This Kids Count report is the third to examine statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and…

  3. Make Kids Count in '99: Hawai'i Kids Count 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Marcia

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator findings and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, family formation, births to teens, children in single-parent families, children…

  4. The State of the World's Children 2014 in Numbers: Every Child Counts. Revealing Disparities, Advancing Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Abid; Grojec, Anna; Little, Céline; Maloney, Ticiana; Tamagni, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    "The State of the World's Children 2014 In Numbers: Every Child Counts" highlights the critical role data and monitoring play in realizing children's rights. Credible data, disseminated effectively and used correctly, make it possible to target interventions that help right the wrong of exclusion. Data do not, of themselves, change the…

  5. 34 CFR 222.33 - When must an applicant make its first or only membership count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must an applicant make its first or only... its first or only membership count? (a)(1) An applicant must select a day in the current school year as the survey date for making the first membership count, which must be no earlier than the...

  6. Fitting a distribution to microbial counts: making sense of zeroes.

    PubMed

    Duarte, A S R; Stockmarr, A; Nauta, M J

    2015-03-01

    The accurate estimation of true prevalence and concentration of microorganisms in foods is an important element of quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA). This estimation is often based on microbial detection and enumeration data. Among such data are artificial zero counts, that originated by chance from contaminated food products. When these products are not differentiated from uncontaminated products that originate true zero counts, the estimates of true prevalence and concentration may be inaccurate. This inaccuracy is especially relevant in situations where highly pathogenic bacteria are involved and where growth can occur along the food pathway. Our aim was to develop a method that provides accurate estimates of concentration parameters and differentiates between artificial and true zeroes, thus also accurately estimating true prevalence. We first show the disadvantages of using a limit of quantification (LOQ) threshold for the analysis of microbial enumeration data. We show that, depending on the original distribution of concentrations and the LOQ value, it may be incorrect to treat artificial zeroes as censored below a quantification threshold. Next, a method is developed that estimates the true prevalence of contamination within a food lot and the parameters characterizing the within-lot distribution of concentrations, without assuming a LOQ, and using raw plate count data as an input. Counts resulting both from contaminated and uncontaminated sample units are analysed together. This procedure allows the estimation of the proportion of artificial zeroes among the total of zero counts, and therefore the estimation of true prevalence from enumeration results. We observe that this method yields best estimates of mean, standard deviation and prevalence at low true prevalence levels and low expected standard deviation. Furthermore, we conclude that the estimation of prevalence and the estimation of the distribution of concentrations are interrelated

  7. Extending the Number Line to Make Connections with Number Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graviss, Tom; Greaver, Joanne

    1992-01-01

    Shares a coded version of the number line to provide concrete experiences for learning abstract concepts. Using the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, appropriate coded symbols are determined for the prime factorization of each natural number and used to study the concepts of greatest common divisor, least common multiple, square roots, and…

  8. Constraining thawing and freezing models with cluster number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, N. Chandrachani; Gonzalez, J.E.; Alcaniz, J.S. E-mail: javierernesto@on.br

    2014-06-01

    Measurements of the cluster abundance as a function of mass and redshift provide an important cosmological test that probe not only the expansion rate but also the growth of perturbations. In this paper we adopt a scalar field scenario which admits both thawing and freezing solutions from an appropriate choice of the model parameters and derived all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density. We discuss the ability of cluster observations to distinguish between these scalar field behaviors and the standard ΛCDM scenario by considering the eROSITA and SPT cluster surveys.

  9. Making Research Count at Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool, Armidale NSW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dianne; Power, Kerith

    This interview with Dianne Roberts, director of the Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool in Armidale, New South Wales (Australia), explores research issues, leadership styles, and how decision making and responsibilities are handled at Minimbah. Incoming researchers must show how research will benefit the community under study, how they will work in…

  10. 34 CFR 222.33 - When must an applicant make its first or only membership count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must an applicant make its first or only membership count? 222.33 Section 222.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... its first or only membership count? (a)(1) An applicant must select a day in the current school...

  11. 34 CFR 222.33 - When must an applicant make its first or only membership count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must an applicant make its first or only membership count? 222.33 Section 222.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... its first or only membership count? (a)(1) An applicant must select a day in the current school...

  12. 34 CFR 222.33 - When must an applicant make its first or only membership count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must an applicant make its first or only membership count? 222.33 Section 222.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... its first or only membership count? (a)(1) An applicant must select a day in the current school...

  13. 34 CFR 222.33 - When must an applicant make its first or only membership count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When must an applicant make its first or only membership count? 222.33 Section 222.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... its first or only membership count? (a)(1) An applicant must select a day in the current school...

  14. SXDF-ALMA 2-arcmin2 deep survey: 1.1-mm number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kohno, Kotaro; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Caputi, Karina I.; Dunlop, James S.; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J.; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ich; Tamura, Yoichi; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W.; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S.

    2016-06-01

    We report 1.1-mm number counts revealed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF). The advent of ALMA enables us to reveal millimeter-wavelength number counts down to the faint end without source confusion. However, previous studies are based on the ensemble of serendipitously detected sources in fields originally targeting different sources and could be biased due to the clustering of sources around the targets. We derive number counts in the flux range of 0.2-2 mJy by using 23 (≥4σ) sources detected in a continuous 2.0-arcmin2 area of the SXDF. The number counts are consistent with previous results within errors, suggesting that the counts derived from serendipitously detected sources are not significantly biased, although there could be field-to-field variation due to the small survey area. By using the best-fitting function of the number counts, we find that ˜40% of the extragalactic background light at 1.1 mm is resolved at S1.1mm > 0.2 mJy.

  15. FAINT END OF 1.3 mm NUMBER COUNTS REVEALED BY ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Ohta, Kouji; Seko, Akifumi; Yabe, Kiyoto; Akiyama, Masayuki

    2013-06-01

    We present the faint end of number counts at 1.3 mm (238 GHz) obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Band 6 observations were carried out targeting 20 star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.4 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey field. In the observations, we serendipitously detect 15 sources (≥3.8σ, S{sub 1.3} {sub mm} = 0.15-0.61 mJy) other than the targeted sources. We create number counts by using these ''sub-mJy sources'', which probe the faintest flux range among surveys at millimeter wavelengths. The number counts are consistent with (flux-scaled) number counts at 850 μm and 870 μm obtained with gravitational lensing clusters. The ALMA number counts agree well with model predictions, which suggest that these sub-mJy populations are more like ''normal'' star-forming galaxies than ''classical'' submillimeter galaxies with intense star-forming activity. In this flux range, ∼80% of the extragalactic background light at 1.3 mm is resolved into individual sources.

  16. The Herschel-ATLAS: Extragalatic Number Counts from 250 to 500 Microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, D. L.; Rigby, E.; Maddox, S.; Dunne, L.; Mortier, A.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Bonfield, D.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Leeuw, L.; Sibthorpe, B.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims.The Herschel-ATLAS survey (H-ATLAS) will be the largest area survey to be undertaken by the Herschel Space Observatory. It will cover 550 sq. deg. of extragalactic sky at wavelengths of 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 microns when completed, reaching flux limits (50-) from 32 to 145mJy. We here present galaxy number counts obtained for SPIRE observations of the first -14 sq. deg. observed at 250, 350 and 500 m. Methods. Number counts are a fundamental tool in constraining models of galaxy evolution. We use source catalogs extracted from the H-ATLAS maps as the basis for such an analysis. Correction factors for completeness and flux boosting are derived by applying our extraction method to model catalogs and then applied to the raw observational counts. Results. We find a steep rise in the number counts at flux levels of 100-200mJy in all three SPIRE bands, consistent with results from BLAST. The counts are compared to a range of galaxy evolution models. None of the current models is an ideal fit to the data but all ascribe the steep rise to a population of luminous, rapidly evolving dusty galaxies at moderate to high redshift.

  17. Time-Correlated Photon Counting (TCPC) technique based on a photon-number-resolving photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baicheng; Miao, Quanlong; Wang, Shenyuan; Hui, Debin; Zhao, Tianqi; Liang, Kun; Yang, Ru; Han, Dejun

    2016-05-01

    In this report, we present Time-Correlated Photon Counting (TCPC) technique and its applications in time-correlated Raman spectroscopy. The main difference between TCPC and existing Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is that the TCPC employs a photon-number-resolving photodetector (SiPM, silicon photomultiplier) and measures exact photon number rather than counting single photon by reducing pulse light intensity, thus high measurement speed and efficiency can be expected. A home-made Raman spectrometer has demonstrated an Instrument Response Function (IRF) ~100ps (FWHM) based on TCPC with a strip SiPM (1mm×0.05mm, containing 500 micro cells), fast and weak Raman signals was separated from slow and strong fluorescence background of bulk trinitrotoluene TNT sample. The original Raman spectrum of bulk TNT, measured by TCPC technique, is compared with the result obtained by a commercial Micro-Raman Spectrometer.

  18. Everybody Counts, but Usually Just to 10! A Systematic Analysis of Number Representations in Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Teachers and parents often use trade books to introduce or reinforce mathematics concepts. To date, an analysis of the early numeracy content of trade books has not been conducted. Consequently, this study evaluated the properties of numbers and counting within trade books. We coded 160 trade books targeted at establishing early…

  19. The Problem of Counting the Number of Molecules and Calculating Thermodynamic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Luis Alfonso; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experimental approach to illustrate that the thermodynamic properties of a system can be considered as the average of mechanical variables. Discusses the Knudsen effusion method to count the number of molecules, vapor pressure, the piezoelectric effect, the experimental setup, and sample experimental results. (JRH)

  20. Making Numbers Your Friends: A Set of "Make This Number" Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Fluency with basic number facts is vital for students' progress in mathematics. Not only does it contribute to students' facility with mental computation and algorithms, but an understanding of numbers and their properties builds a foundation for future mathematical work including algebra. There are many activities that can help students "make…

  1. Measurement of the atom number distribution in an optical tweezer using single-photon counting

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrmanek, A.; Sortais, Y. R. P.; Grangier, P.; Browaeys, A.

    2010-08-15

    We demonstrate in this paper a method to reconstruct the atom number distribution of a cloud containing a few tens of cold atoms. The atoms are first loaded from a magneto-optical trap into a microscopic optical dipole trap and then released in a resonant light probe where they undergo a Brownian motion and scatter photons. We count the number of photon events detected on an image intensifier. Using the response of our detection system to a single atom as a calibration, we extract the atom number distribution when the trap is loaded with more than one atom. The atom number distribution is found to be compatible with a Poisson distribution.

  2. Counting Birds at the Grassroots: Making a Census into "Citizen Science," Naturalists Share Their Findings Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, James

    2001-01-01

    The Audubon Society and the Cornell Lab of Ornithology are promoting various "citizen science" projects in which amateur naturalists make local observations of birds, butterflies, or natural phenomena and report their observations to interactive databases on the World Wide Web. Events such as the Great Backyard Bird Count motivate people to get…

  3. Making Every Day Count: Boys & Girls Clubs' Role in Promoting Positive Outcomes for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbreton, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The third in a series of reports from P/PV's three-year study of the role Boys & Girls Clubs play in the lives of the youth they serve, "Making Every Day Count" examines how Club participation is related to youth's positive and healthy development in three outcome areas identified by Boys & Girls Clubs of America as central to its mission: good…

  4. Intracluster Comptonization of the Cosmic Microwave Background: Mean Spectral Distortion and Cluster Number Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colafrancesco, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Rephaeli, Y.; Vittorio, N.

    1997-04-01

    The mean sky-averaged Comptonization parameter, ȳ, describing the scattering of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by hot gas in clusters of galaxies, is calculated in an array of flat and open cosmological and dark matter models. The models are globally normalized to fit cluster X-ray data, and intracluster gas is assumed to have evolved in a manner consistent with current observations. We predict values of ȳ lower than the COBE/FIRAS upper limit. The corresponding values of the overall optical thickness to Compton scattering are <~10-4 for relevant parameter values. Of more practical importance are number counts of clusters across which a net flux (with respect to the CMB) higher than some limiting value can be detected. Such number counts are specifically predicted for the COBRAS/SAMBA and BOOMERANG missions.

  5. The number counts and infrared backgrounds from infrared-bright galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacking, P. B.; Soifer, B. T.

    1991-01-01

    Extragalactic number counts and diffuse backgrounds at 25, 60, and 100 microns are predicted using new luminosity functions and improved spectral-energy distribution density functions derived from IRAS observations of nearby galaxies. Galaxies at redshifts z less than 3 that are like those in the local universe should produce a minimum diffuse background of 0.0085, 0.038, and 0.13 MJy/sr at 25, 60, and 100 microns, respectively. Models with significant luminosity evolution predict backgrounds about a factor of 4 greater than this minimum.

  6. The number counts and infrared backgrounds from infrared-bright galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hacking, P.B.; Soifer, B.T. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena )

    1991-02-01

    Extragalactic number counts and diffuse backgrounds at 25, 60, and 100 microns are predicted using new luminosity functions and improved spectral-energy distribution density functions derived from IRAS observations of nearby galaxies. Galaxies at redshifts z less than 3 that are like those in the local universe should produce a minimum diffuse background of 0.0085, 0.038, and 0.13 MJy/sr at 25, 60, and 100 microns, respectively. Models with significant luminosity evolution predict backgrounds about a factor of 4 greater than this minimum. 22 refs.

  7. The SCUBA 8-mJy survey - I. Submillimetre maps, sources and number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. E.; Fox, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Serjeant, S.; Peacock, J. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Oliver, S.; Mann, R. G.; Lawrence, A.; Efstathiou, A.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Hughes, D. H.; Archibald, E. N.; Blain, A.; Longair, M.

    2002-04-01

    We present maps, source lists and derived number counts from the largest, unbiased, extragalactic submillimetre (submm) survey so far undertaken with the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Our maps are located in two regions of sky (ELAIS N2 and Lockman-Hole E) and cover 260arcmin2 , to a typical rms noise level of σ 850 ~=2.5mJybeam-1 . We have reduced the data using both the standard JCMT surf procedures, and our own IDL -based pipeline which produces zero-footprint maps and noise images. The uncorrelated noise maps produced by the latter approach have enabled us to apply a maximum likelihood method to measure the statistical significance of each peak in our maps, leading to properly quantified errors on the flux density of all potential sources. We detect 19 sources with signal-to-noise ratios (S/N)>4, and 38 with S/N>3.5. To assess both the completeness of this survey and the impact of source confusion as a function of flux density, we have applied our source-extraction algorithm to a series of simulated images. The result is a new estimate of the submm source counts over the flux-density range S 850 ~=5-15mJy, which we compare with estimates derived by other workers, and with the predictions of a number of models. Our best estimate of the cumulative source count at S 850 >8mJy is per square degree. Assuming that the majority of sources lie at z >1.5, this result implies that the comoving number density of high-redshift galaxies forming stars at a rate in excess of 1000Msolar yr-1 is ~=10-5 Mpc-3 , with only a weak dependence on the precise redshift distribution. This number density corresponds to the number density of massive ellipticals with L >3-4L * in the present-day Universe , and is also the same as the comoving number density of comparably massive, passively evolving objects in the redshift band 1

  8. Requirements on the Redshift Accuracy for future Supernova andNumber Count Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Huterer, Dragan; Kim, Alex; Broderick, Tamara

    2004-08-09

    We investigate the required redshift accuracy of type Ia supernova and cluster number-count surveys in order for the redshift uncertainties not to contribute appreciably to the dark energy parameter error budget. For the SNAP supernova experiment, we find that, without the assistance of ground-based measurements, individual supernova redshifts would need to be determined to about 0.002 or better, which is a challenging but feasible requirement for a low-resolution spectrograph. However, we find that accurate redshifts for z < 0.1 supernovae, obtained with ground-based experiments, are sufficient to immunize the results against even relatively large redshift errors at high z. For the future cluster number-count surveys such as the South Pole Telescope, Planck or DUET, we find that the purely statistical error in photometric redshift is less important, and that the irreducible, systematic bias in redshift drives the requirements. The redshift bias will have to be kept below 0.001-0.005 per redshift bin (which is determined by the filter set), depending on the sky coverage and details of the definition of the minimal mass of the survey. Furthermore, we find that X-ray surveys have a more stringent required redshift accuracy than Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect surveys since they use a shorter lever arm in redshift; conversely, SZ surveys benefit from their high redshift reach only so long as some redshift information is available for distant (zgtrsim1) clusters.

  9. A generalized method for measuring weak lensing magnification with weighted number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Bryan R.; Taylor, Andy N.

    2016-03-01

    We present a derivation of a generalized optimally weighted estimator for the weak lensing magnification signal, including a calculation of errors. With this estimator, we present a local method for optimally estimating the local effects of magnification from weak gravitational lensing, using a comparison of number counts in an arbitrary region of space to the expected unmagnified number counts. We show that when equivalent lens and source samples are used, this estimator is simply related to the optimally weighted correlation function estimator used in past work and vice-versa, but this method has the benefits that it can calculate errors with significantly less computational time, that it can handle overlapping lens and source samples, and that it can easily be extended to mass-mapping. We present a proof-of-principle test of this method on data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey, showing that its calculated magnification signals agree with predictions from model fits to shear data. Finally, we investigate how magnification data can be used to supplement shear data in determining the best-fitting model mass profiles for galaxy dark matter haloes. We find that at redshifts greater than z ˜ 0.6, the inclusion of magnification can often significantly improve the constraints on the components of the mass profile which relate to galaxies' local environments relative to shear alone, and in high-redshift low- and medium-mass bins, it can have a higher signal-to-noise than the shear signal.

  10. Analysis Of Sunspot Number Counts, Sunspot Area, And Sunspot Irradiance Deficit: 2002-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Henry, T.

    2011-05-01

    Sunspot numbers have been traditionally associated with strength of solar activity, and feed into a variety of space weather forecast models. We present a detailed analysis of (i) sunspot number counts, (ii) sunspot area, (iii) their component umbral and penumbral intensities, and (iv) sunspot irradiance deficit as measured from 5-minute cadence true continuum images observed with the USAF/AFRL's Improved Solar Observing Optical Network (ISOON) prototype telescope. The data were acquired from December 2002 - present. These measures are obtained, semi-automatically. We relate these observed measures to the daily NOAA/SWPC Sunspot Numbers, and International Sunspot Numbers, and trace the intra-day fluctuations in sunspot numbers to its component constituents. With higher data cadence of modern instruments, we relate the advantages and disadvantages of automating the process. We trace inherent fluctuations in sunspot numbers to the underlying solar activity, and relate them to the solar eruptive process. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)

  11. The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone versus MD with reading difficulty)…

  12. A Z-number-based decision making procedure with ranking fuzzy numbers method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, Daud; Shaharani, Saidatull Akma; Kamis, Nor Hanimah

    2014-12-01

    The theory of fuzzy set has been in the limelight of various applications in decision making problems due to its usefulness in portraying human perception and subjectivity. Generally, the evaluation in the decision making process is represented in the form of linguistic terms and the calculation is performed using fuzzy numbers. In 2011, Zadeh has extended this concept by presenting the idea of Z-number, a 2-tuple fuzzy numbers that describes the restriction and the reliability of the evaluation. The element of reliability in the evaluation is essential as it will affect the final result. Since this concept can still be considered as new, available methods that incorporate reliability for solving decision making problems is still scarce. In this paper, a decision making procedure based on Z-numbers is proposed. Due to the limitation of its basic properties, Z-numbers will be first transformed to fuzzy numbers for simpler calculations. A method of ranking fuzzy number is later used to prioritize the alternatives. A risk analysis problem is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this proposed procedure.

  13. BLAST OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOUTH ECLIPTIC POLE FIELD: NUMBER COUNTS AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Valiante, Elisabetta; Braglia, Filiberto G.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie

    2010-12-15

    We present results from a survey carried out by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) on a 9 deg{sup 2} field near the South Ecliptic Pole at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m. The median 1{sigma} depths of the maps are 36.0, 26.4, and 18.4 mJy, respectively. We apply a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts and find that they are in agreement with other measurements made with the same instrument and with the more recent results from Herschel/SPIRE. Thanks to the large field observed, the new measurements give additional constraints on the bright end of the counts. We identify 132, 89, and 61 sources with S/N {>=}4 at 250, 350, 500 {mu}m, respectively and provide a multi-wavelength combined catalog of 232 sources with a significance {>=}4{sigma} in at least one BLAST band. The new BLAST maps and catalogs are available publicly at http://blastexperiment.info.

  14. 'If you assume, you can make an ass out of u and me': a decade of the disector for stereological counting of particles in 3D space.

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, T M; Gundersen, H J

    1996-01-01

    The year 1984 was a watershed in stereology. It saw the introduction of highly efficient and unbiased design-based methods for counting the number of arbitrary objects in 3-dimensional (3D) space using 2D sectional images. The only requirement is that the objects be unambiguously identifiable on parallel sections or successive focal planes. The move away from the ¿assumption-based' and ¿model-based' methods applied previously has been a major scientific advance. It has led to the resolution of several problems in different biomedical areas. The basic principle which makes possible 3D counting from sections is the disector. Here, we review the disector principle and consider its impact on the counting and sizing of biological particles. From now on, there can be no excuse for applying the biased counting methods of yesteryear. Their continued use, despite the availability of unbiased alternatives, should be seen as paying homage to History rather than advancing Science. PMID:8655396

  15. Finding rare AGN: X-ray number counts of Chandra sources in Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Glikman, Eilat; Cappelluti, Nico; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Treister, Ezequiel; Böhringer, Hans; Cardamone, Carie; Chon, Gayoung; Kephart, Miranda; Murray, Stephen S.; Richards, Gordon; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rozner, Joshua S.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    We present the first results of a wide-area X-ray survey within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, a 300 deg2 region of the sky with a substantial investment in multiwavelength coverage. We analysed archival Chandra observations that cover 6.2 deg2 within Stripe 82 (`Stripe 82 ACX'), reaching 4.5σ flux limits of 1.2 × 10-15, 5.4 × 10-15 and 2.9 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2 in the soft (0.5-2 keV), hard (2-7 keV) and full (0.5-7 keV) bands, to find 480, 137 and 705 X-ray sources, respectively. 214 sources are detected only in the full band and 4 sources are detected solely in the soft band. Utilizing data products from the Chandra Source Catalog, we construct independent log N-log S relationships, detailing the number density of X-ray sources as a function of flux. The soft and full bands show general agreement with previous Chandra surveys; the hard band number counts agree among Stripe 82 ACX, XBoötes and XDEEP2, but all three are somewhat systematically lower than the counts derived from Chandra Multiwavelength Project. We compare the luminosity distribution of Stripe 82 ACX with the smaller, deeper Chandra Deep Field-South, Extended Chandra Deep Field-South and Chandra-COSMOS surveys to illustrate the benefit of wide-area surveys in locating high-luminosity and/or high-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGN). Finally, we compare the identified AGN with predictions from population synthesis models, noting that prior to any spectroscopic follow-up campaign, we have already located roughly half the high-luminosity quasars at high redshift expected to lie within the survey area. However, our data also suggest that refinements to population synthesis models will be required.

  16. Counting numbers of synaptic proteins: absolute quantification and single molecule imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Patrizio, Angela; Specht, Christian G

    2016-10-01

    The ability to count molecules is essential to elucidating cellular mechanisms, as these often depend on the absolute numbers and concentrations of molecules within specific compartments. Such is the case at chemical synapses, where the transmission of information from presynaptic to postsynaptic terminals requires complex interactions between small sets of molecules. Be it the subunit stoichiometry specifying neurotransmitter receptor properties, the copy numbers of scaffold proteins setting the limit of receptor accumulation at synapses, or protein packing densities shaping the molecular organization and plasticity of the postsynaptic density, all of these depend on exact quantities of components. A variety of proteomic, electrophysiological, and quantitative imaging techniques have yielded insights into the molecular composition of synaptic complexes. In this review, we compare the different quantitative approaches and consider the potential of single molecule imaging techniques for the quantification of synaptic components. We also discuss specific neurobiological data to contextualize the obtained numbers and to explain how they aid our understanding of synaptic structure and function. PMID:27335891

  17. The 4 Ms CHANDRA Deep Field-South Number Counts Apportioned by Source Class: Pervasive Active Galactic Nuclei and the Ascent of Normal Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, Bret D.; Xue, Y. Q.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Luo, B.; Paolillo, M.; Ptak, A.; Shemmer, O.; Schneider, D. P.; Tozzi, P.; Vignali, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present 0.5-2 keV, 2-8 keV, 4-8 keV, and 0.5-8 keV (hereafter soft, hard, ultra-hard, and full bands, respectively) cumulative and differential number-count (log N-log S ) measurements for the recently completed approx. equal to 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, the deepest X-ray survey to date. We implement a new Bayesian approach, which allows reliable calculation of number counts down to flux limits that are factors of approx. equal to 1.9-4.3 times fainter than the previously deepest number-count investigations. In the soft band (SB), the most sensitive bandpass in our analysis, the approx. equal to 4 Ms CDF-S reaches a maximum source density of approx. equal to 27,800 deg(sup -2). By virtue of the exquisite X-ray and multiwavelength data available in the CDF-S, we are able to measure the number counts from a variety of source populations (active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies, and Galactic stars) and subpopulations (as a function of redshift, AGN absorption, luminosity, and galaxy morphology) and test models that describe their evolution. We find that AGNs still dominate the X-ray number counts down to the faintest flux levels for all bands and reach a limiting SB source density of approx. equal to 14,900 deg(sup -2), the highest reliable AGN source density measured at any wavelength. We find that the normal-galaxy counts rise rapidly near the flux limits and, at the limiting SB flux, reach source densities of approx. equal to 12,700 deg(sup -2) and make up 46% plus or minus 5% of the total number counts. The rapid rise of the galaxy counts toward faint fluxes, as well as significant normal-galaxy contributions to the overall number counts, indicates that normal galaxies will overtake AGNs just below the approx. equal to 4 Ms SB flux limit and will provide a numerically significant new X-ray source population in future surveys that reach below the approx. equal to 4 Ms sensitivity limit. We show that a future approx. equal to 10 Ms CDF

  18. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XVII. SPIRE point-source catalogs and number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Ciro; Bendo, George J.; Bianchi, Simone; Hunt, Leslie; Zibetti, Stefano; Corbelli, Edvige; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Grossi, Marco; Davies, Jonathan; Baes, Maarten; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Pohlen, Michael; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Verstappen, Joris; Boquien, Médéric; Boselli, Alessandro; Cortese, Luca; Hughes, Thomas; Viaene, Sebastien; Bizzocchi, Luca; Clemens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We present three independent catalogs of point-sources extracted from SPIRE images at 250, 350, and 500 μm, acquired with the Herschel Space Observatory as a part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). The catalogs have been cross-correlated to consistently extract the photometry at SPIRE wavelengths for each object. Methods: Sources have been detected using an iterative loop. The source positions are determined by estimating the likelihood to be a real source for each peak on the maps, according to the criterion defined in the sourceExtractorSussextractor task. The flux densities are estimated using the sourceExtractorTimeline, a timeline-based point source fitter that also determines the fitting procedure with the width of the Gaussian that best reproduces the source considered. Afterwards, each source is subtracted from the maps, removing a Gaussian function in every position with the full width half maximum equal to that estimated in sourceExtractorTimeline. This procedure improves the robustness of our algorithm in terms of source identification. We calculate the completeness and the flux accuracy by injecting artificial sources in the timeline and estimate the reliability of the catalog using a permutation method. Results: The HeViCS catalogs contain about 52 000, 42 200, and 18 700 sources selected at 250, 350, and 500 μm above 3σ and are ~75%, 62%, and 50% complete at flux densities of 20 mJy at 250, 350, 500 μm, respectively. We then measured source number counts at 250, 350, and 500 μm and compare them with previous data and semi-analytical models. We also cross-correlated the catalogs with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the redshift distribution of the nearby sources. From this cross-correlation, we select ~2000 sources with reliable fluxes and a high signal-to-noise ratio, finding an average redshift z ~ 0.3 ± 0.22 and 0.25 (16-84 percentile). Conclusions: The number counts at 250, 350, and 500 μm show an increase in

  19. RED GIANT BRANCH BUMP BRIGHTNESS AND NUMBER COUNTS IN 72 GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OBSERVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Nataf, David M.; Gould, Andrew P.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Udalski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    We present the broadest and most precise empirical investigation of red giant branch bump (RGBB) brightness and number counts ever conducted. We implement a new method and use data from two Hubble Space Telescope globular cluster (GC) surveys to measure the brightness and star counts of the RGBB in 72 GCs. The median measurement precision is 0.018 mag in the brightness and 31% in the number counts, respectively, reaching peak precision values of 0.005 mag and 10%. The position of the main-sequence turnoff and the number of horizontal branch stars are used as comparisons where appropriate. Several independent scientific conclusions are newly possible with our parameterization of the RGBB. Both brightness and number counts are shown to have second parameters in addition to their strong dependence on metallicity. The RGBBs are found to be anomalous in the GCs NGC 2808, 5286, 6388, and 6441, likely due to the presence of multiple populations. Finally, we use our empirical calibration to predict the properties of the Galactic bulge RGBB. The updated RGBB properties for the bulge are shown to differ from the GC-calibrated prediction, with the former having lower number counts, a lower brightness dispersion, and a brighter peak luminosity than would be expected from the latter. This discrepancy is well explained by the Galactic bulge having a higher helium abundance than expected from GCs, {Delta}Y {approx} +0.06 at the median metallicity.

  20. Digitized POSS-II: Galaxy Number Counts in Two Colors Over a Multi-Plate Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, N.; Djorgovski, S.; Fayyad, U.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed a software system for the reduction and analysis of the Palomar-STScI Digital Sky Survey (cf. B.A.A.S. 23, p. 1434, and B.A.A.S. 24, pp. 741, 750, and 1139). This system, named SKICAT, uses a number of image processing and machine-learning based modules, and conducts pipeline processing of the plate scans, from raw pixel measurement, object classification, photometric matching of multiple plate images, to high-level catalog database manipulation using an X-windows based GUI. We are now in the process of implementing a variety of tools for the scientific and multivariate statistical analysis of the object catalogs. We will present our initial results on galaxy and star counts in two colors (photographic J and F, calibrated to Gunn g and r bands), for a multi-plate region near the north Galactic pole, covering up to 5 Survey fields ( ~ 125 square degrees), and up to 11 Survey fields ( ~ 275 square degrees) in a single color. The data have been uniformly calibrated using CCD sequences and plate overlaps over the range 16 < r < 20, within which we are over 90% complete. We also performed extensive tests to assure the accuracy of automatic galaxy classifications over this magnitude range. Previous results from the southern APM Survey implied dramatic evolution of galaxies at low redshift. We will present our new galaxy counts as function of magnitudes colors in the context of these measurements and galaxy evolution models. Acknowledgements: The POSS-II is partially funded by grants to Caltech from the Eastman Kodak Co., the National Geographic Society, the Samuel Oschin Foundation, the NSF grants AST 84-08225 and AST 87-19465, and the NASA grants NGL 05002140 and NAGW 1710. NW was supported in part by a NSF graduate fellowship and by IPAC. SD acknowledges a partial support from the NASA contract NAS5-31348, the NSF PYI award AST-9157412, the Caltech President's fund, and JPL. Work at JPL is performed under a contract with the NASA.

  1. Modeling the Relationship Between Neutron Counting Rates and Sunspot Numbers Using the Hysteresis Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inceoglu, F.; Knudsen, M. F.; Karoff, C.; Olsen, J.

    2014-04-01

    Several studies show that temporal variations in the Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity display a distinct 11-year periodicity due to solar modulation of the galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere. The 11-year periodicity of GCRs is inversely proportional to, but out of phase with, the 11-year solar cycle, implying that there is a time lag between actual solar cycle and the GCR intensity, which is known as the hysteresis effect. In this study, we use the hysteresis effect to model the relationship between neutron counting rates (NCRs), an indicator of the GCR intensity, and sunspot numbers (SSNs) over the period that covers the last four solar cycles (20, 21, 22, and 23). Both linear and ellipse models were applied to SSNs during odd and even cycles in order to calculate temporal variations of NCRs. We find that ellipse modeling provides higher correlation coefficients for odd cycles compared to linear models, e.g. 0.97, 0.97, 0.92, and 0.97 compared to 0.69, 0.72, 0.53, and 0.68 for data from McMurdo, Swarthmore, South Pole, and Thule neutron monitors, respectively, during solar cycle 21 with overall improvement of 31 % for odd cycles. When combined to a continuous model, the better correlation observed for the odd cycles increases the overall correlation between observed and modeled NCRs. The new empirical model therefore provides a better representation of the relationship between NCRs and SSNs. A major goal of the ongoing research is to use the new non-linear empirical model to reconstruct SSNs on annual time scales prior to 1610, where we do not have observational records of SSNs, based on changes in NCRs reconstructed from 10Be in ice cores.

  2. Rhythm in number: exploring the affective, social and mathematical dimensions of using TouchCounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Chorney, Sean; Rodney, Sheree

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the mathematical, social and affective nature of children's engagement with TouchCounts, a multitouch application for counting and doing arithmetic. In order to study these dimensions of engagement in a way that recognizes their fundamental intertwinement, we use rhythm as a primary unit of analysis. Drawing on over 8 hours of research sessions with children aged 6, 7 and 8 years old, we show how various rhythms emerged from their interactions and how these rhythms changed over time—moving from the particular to the more general. We also show how important rhythm is to children's carrying of activity, which relates to aspects of interest and motivation.

  3. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm Deep Surveys: Number Counts and Clustering of Millimeter-bright Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuo, H.; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2010-10-01

    We present number counts and clustering properties of millimeter-bright galaxies uncovered by the AzTEC camera mounted on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We surveyed the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S), the Subaru/XMM Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and the SSA22 fields with an area of ~0.25 deg2 each with an rms noise level of ~0.4-1.0 mJy. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S find that the contribution of 1.1 mm sources with fluxes >=1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1 mm is 12-16%, suggesting that the large fraction of the CIB originates from faint sources of which the number counts are not yet constrained. We estimate the cosmic star-formation rate density contributed by 1.1 mm sources with >=1 mJy using the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S and find that it is lower by about a factor of 5-10 compared to those derived from UV/optically-selected galaxies at z~2-3. The average mass of dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources was calculated to be 1013-1014 Msolar. Comparison of correlation lengths of 1.1 mm sources with other populations and with a bias evolution model suggests that dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources evolve into systems of clusters at present universe and the 1.1 mm sources residing the dark halos evolve into massive elliptical galaxies located in the center of clusters.

  4. Preparing to Launch: Early Childhood's Academic Countdown. Quality Counts, 2015. Education Week. Volume 34, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Virginia B., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This 19th annual edition of "Quality Counts" takes a broad look at the issues and forces shaping the discussion around early-childhood education. It examines how new academic demands and the push for accountability are changing the nature of early-childhood education for school administrators, teachers, and children alike. Reporters…

  5. The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone vs. MD with reading difficulty) and site (proximal vs. distal to the intervention developer) and then randomly assigned to control (no tutoring) or 1 of 2 variants of NC remediation. Both remediations were embedded in the same validated word-problem tutoring protocol (i.e., Pirate Math). In 1 variant, the focus on NCs was limited to a single lesson that taught strategic counting. In the other variant, 4–6 min of practice per session was added to the other variant. Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 20–30 min per session. Strategic counting without deliberate practice produced superior NC fluency compared to control; however, strategic counting with deliberate practice effected superior NC fluency and transfer to procedural calculations compared with both competing conditions. Also, the efficacy of Pirate Math word-problem tutoring was replicated. PMID:20383313

  6. The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Lynn S; Powell, Sarah R; Seethaler, Pamela M; Cirino, Paul T; Fletcher, Jack M; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L

    2010-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone vs. MD with reading difficulty) and site (proximal vs. distal to the intervention developer) and then randomly assigned to control (no tutoring) or 1 of 2 variants of NC remediation. Both remediations were embedded in the same validated word-problem tutoring protocol (i.e., Pirate Math). In 1 variant, the focus on NCs was limited to a single lesson that taught strategic counting. In the other variant, 4-6 min of practice per session was added to the other variant. Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 20-30 min per session. Strategic counting without deliberate practice produced superior NC fluency compared to control; however, strategic counting with deliberate practice effected superior NC fluency and transfer to procedural calculations compared with both competing conditions. Also, the efficacy of Pirate Math word-problem tutoring was replicated. PMID:20383313

  7. The statistical distribution of the number of counted scintillation photons in digital silicon photomultipliers: model and validation.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Herman T; Seifert, Stefan; Schaart, Dennis R

    2012-08-01

    In the design and application of scintillation detectors based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), e.g. in positron emission tomography imaging, it is important to understand and quantify the non-proportionality of the SiPM response due to saturation, crosstalk and dark counts. A new type of SiPM, the so-called digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM), has recently been introduced. Here, we develop a model of the probability distribution of the number of fired microcells, i.e. the number of counted scintillation photons, in response to a given amount of energy deposited in a scintillator optically coupled to a dSiPM. Based on physical and functional principles, the model elucidates the statistical behavior of dSiPMs. The model takes into account the photon detection efficiency of the detector; the light yield, excess variance and time profile of the scintillator; and the crosstalk probability, dark count rate, integration time and the number of microcells of the dSiPM. Furthermore, relations for the expectation value and the variance of the number of fired cells are deduced. These relations are applied in the experimental validation of the model using a dSiPM coupled to a LSO:Ce,Ca scintillator. Finally, we propose an accurate method for the correction of energy spectra measured with dSiPM-based scintillation detectors. PMID:22796633

  8. Deep 1.1mm-wavelength imaging of the GOODS-S field by AzTEC/ASTE - I. Source catalogue and number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, K. S.; Yun, M. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Austermann, J. E.; Aguilar, E.; Aretxaga, I.; Ezawa, H.; Ferrusca, D.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Iono, D.; Giavalisco, M.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T. A.; Rand, J.; Tamura, Y.; Tosaki, T.; Velazquez, M.; Williams, C. C.; Zeballos, M.

    2010-07-01

    We present the first results from a confusion-limited map of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. We imaged a field to a 1σ depth of 0.48-0.73 mJybeam-1, making this one of the deepest blank-field surveys at mm-wavelengths ever achieved. Although by traditional standards our GOODS-S map is extremely confused due to a sea of faint underlying sources, we demonstrate through simulations that our source identification and number counts analyses are robust, and the techniques discussed in this paper are relevant for other deeply confused surveys. We find a total of 41 dusty starburst galaxies with signal-to-noise ratios S/N >= 3. 5 within this uniformly covered region, where only two are expected to be false detections, and an additional seven robust source candidates located in the noisier (1σ ~ 1 mJybeam-1) outer region of the map. We derive the 1.1 mm number counts from this field using two different methods: a fluctuation or ``P(d)'' analysis and a semi-Bayesian technique and find that both methods give consistent results. Our data are well fit by a Schechter function model with . Given the depth of this survey, we put the first tight constraints on the 1.1 mm number counts at S1.1mm = 0.5 mJy, and we find evidence that the faint end of the number counts at from various SCUBA surveys towards lensing clusters are biased high. In contrast to the 870μm survey of this field with the LABOCA camera, we find no apparent underdensity of sources compared to previous surveys at 1.1mm the estimates of the number counts of SMGs at flux densities >1mJy determined here are consistent with those measured from the AzTEC/SHADES survey. Additionally, we find a significant number of SMGs not identified in the LABOCA catalogue. We find that in contrast to observations at λ <= 500μm, MIPS 24μm sources do not resolve the total energy density in the cosmic infrared background at 1

  9. Child Care and Utah's Economy: Making the Connection. A Special Utah KIDS COUNT Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah Children, Salt Lake City.

    Recent growth in high technology and substantial entrepreneurial activity in Utah has resulted in an economic boom in different regions of the state. This boom has led to economic prosperity for many, but also economic decline for others, and subsequent increasing economic inequality throughout the state. This special KIDS COUNT report presents an…

  10. Making Online Instruction Count: Statistical Reporting of Web-Based Library Instruction Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Tim; Todd, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Statistical reporting of library instruction (LI) activities has historically focused on measures relevant to face-to-face (F2F) settings. However, newer forms of LI conducted in the online realm may be difficult to count in traditional ways, leading to inaccurate reporting to both internal and external stakeholders. A thorough literature review…

  11. Too Much to Count On: Impaired Very Small Numbers in Corticobasal Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Casey; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Cross, Katy; Grossman, Murray

    2007-01-01

    Patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) have calculation impairments. This study examined whether impaired number knowledge depends on verbal mediation. We focused particularly on knowledge of very small numbers, where there is a precise relationship between a cardinality and its number concept, but little hypothesized role for verbal…

  12. The Hawk-I UDS and GOODS Survey (HUGS): Survey design and deep K-band number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Paris, D.; Targett, T. A.; Boutsia, K.; Castellano, M.; Galametz, A.; Grazian, A.; McLure, R.; Merlin, E.; Pentericci, L.; Wuyts, S.; Almaini, O.; Caputi, K.; Chary, R.-R.; Cirasuolo, M.; Conselice, C. J.; Cooray, A.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Faber, S. M.; Fazio, G.; Ferguson, H. C.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Grogin, N. A.; Hathi, N.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Koo, D. C.; Lucas, R. A.; Nonino, M.; Rix, H. W.; Renzini, A.; Rosario, D.; Santini, P.; Scarlata, C.; Sommariva, V.; Stark, D. P.; van der Wel, A.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Yan, H.; Zibetti, S.

    2014-10-01

    of even the faintest galaxies detected in the CANDELS H-band images are also detected in HUGS. Finally we present the K-band galaxy number counts produced by combining the HUGS data from the two fields. We show that the slope of the number counts depends sensitively on the assumed distribution of galaxy sizes, with potential impact on the estimated extra-galactic background light. All the HUGS images and catalogues are made publicly available at the ASTRODEEP website (http://www.astrodeep.eu) as well as from the ESO archive.Full Table 3 is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/570/A11

  13. Inter-rater reliability for movement pattern analysis (MPA): measuring patterning of behaviors versus discrete behavior counts as indicators of decision-making style

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Brenda L.; Rende, Richard; Colton, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The unique yield of collecting observational data on human movement has received increasing attention in a number of domains, including the study of decision-making style. As such, interest has grown in the nuances of core methodological issues, including the best ways of assessing inter-rater reliability. In this paper we focus on one key topic – the distinction between establishing reliability for the patterning of behaviors as opposed to the computation of raw counts – and suggest that reliability for each be compared empirically rather than determined a priori. We illustrate by assessing inter-rater reliability for key outcome measures derived from movement pattern analysis (MPA), an observational methodology that records body movements as indicators of decision-making style with demonstrated predictive validity. While reliability ranged from moderate to good for raw counts of behaviors reflecting each of two Overall Factors generated within MPA (Assertion and Perspective), inter-rater reliability for patterning (proportional indicators of each factor) was significantly higher and excellent (ICC = 0.89). Furthermore, patterning, as compared to raw counts, provided better prediction of observable decision-making process assessed in the laboratory. These analyses support the utility of using an empirical approach to inform the consideration of measuring patterning versus discrete behavioral counts of behaviors when determining inter-rater reliability of observable behavior. They also speak to the substantial reliability that may be achieved via application of theoretically grounded observational systems such as MPA that reveal thinking and action motivations via visible movement patterns. PMID:24999336

  14. Some types of parent number talk count more than others: Relations between parents’ input and children’s cardinal-number knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Levine, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Before they enter preschool, children vary greatly in their numerical and mathematical knowledge, and this knowledge predicts their achievement throughout elementary school (e.g., Duncan et al., 2007; Ginsburg & Russell, 1981). Therefore, it is critical that we look to the home environment for parental inputs that may lead to these early variations. Recent work has shown that the amount of number talk that parents engage in with their children is robustly related to a critical aspect of mathematical development - cardinal-number knowledge (e.g., knowing that the word “three” refers to sets of three entities; Levine, Suriyakham, Rowe, Huttenlocher, & Gunderson, 2010). The present study characterizes the different types of number talk that parents produce and investigates which types are most predictive of children’s later cardinal-number knowledge. We find that parents’ number talk involving counting or labeling sets of present, visible objects is related to children’s later cardinal-number knowledge, whereas other types of parent number talk are not. In addition, number talk that refers to large sets of present objects (i.e., sets of size 4 to 10 that fall outside children’s ability to track individual objects) is more robustly predictive of children’s later cardinal-number knowledge than talk about smaller sets. The relation between parents’ number talk about large sets of present objects and children’s cardinal-number knowledge remains significant even when controlling for factors such as parents’ socioeconomic status and other measures of parents’ number and non-number talk. PMID:21884318

  15. ALMA constraints on the faint millimetre source number counts and their contribution to the cosmic infrared background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Maiolino, R.; De Zotti, G.; Negrello, M.; Marconi, A.; Bothwell, M. S.; Capak, P.; Carilli, C.; Castellano, M.; Cristiani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Fontana, A.; Gallerani, S.; Jones, G.; Ohta, K.; Ota, K.; Pentericci, L.; Santini, P.; Sheth, K.; Vallini, L.; Vanzella, E.; Wagg, J.; Williams, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    We have analysed 18 ALMA continuum maps in Bands 6 and 7, with rms down to 7.8 μJy, to derive differential number counts down to 60 μJy and 100 μJy at λ = 1.3 mm and λ = 1.1 mm, respectively. Furthermore, the non-detection of faint sources in the deepest ALMA field enabled us to set tight upper limits on the number counts down to 30 μJy. This is a factor of four deeper than the currently most stringent upper limit. The area covered by the combined fields is 9.5 × 10-4 deg2 at 1.1 mm and 6.6 × 10-4 deg2 at 1.3 mm. With respect to previous works, we improved the source extraction method by requiring that the dimension of the detected sources be consistent with the beam size. This method enabled us to remove spurious detections that have plagued the purity of the catalogues in previous studies. We detected 50 faint sources (at fluxes <1 mJy) with signal-to-noise (S/N) >3.5 down to 60 μJy, hence improving the statistics by a factor of four relative to previous studies. The inferred differential number counts are dN/ d(Log10S) = 1 × 105 deg2 at a 1.1 mm flux Sλ = 1.1 mm = 130 μJy, and dN/ d(Log10S) = 1.1 × 105 deg2 at a 1.3 mm flux Sλ = 1.3 mm = 60 μJy. At the faintest flux limits probed by our data, i.e. 30 μJy and 40 μJy, we obtain upper limits on the differential number counts of dN/ d(Log10S) < 7 × 105 deg2 and dN/ d(Log10S) < 3 × 105 deg2, respectively. Determining the fraction of cosmic infrared background (CIB) resolved by the ALMA observations was hampered by the large uncertainties plaguing the CIB measurements (a factor of four in flux). However, our results provide a new lower limit to CIB intensity of 17.2 Jy deg-2 at 1.1 mm and of 12.9 Jy deg-2 at 1.3 mm. Moreover, the flattening of the integrated number counts at faint fluxes strongly suggests that we are probably close to the CIB intensity. Our data imply that galaxies with star formation rate (SFR) < 40 M⊙/yr certainly contribute less than 50% to the CIB (and probably a much lower

  16. Observed galaxy number counts on the lightcone up to second order: I. Main result

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Maartens, Roy; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    We present the galaxy number overdensity up to second order in redshift space on cosmological scales for a concordance model. The result contains all general relativistic effects up to second order that arise from observing on the past light cone, including all redshift effects, lensing distortions from convergence and shear, and contributions from velocities, Sachs-Wolfe, integrated SW and time-delay terms. This result will be important for accurate calculation of the bias on estimates of non-Gaussianity and on precision parameter estimates, introduced by nonlinear projection effects.

  17. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  18. Observed galaxy number counts on the lightcone up to second order: II. Derivation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Maartens, Roy; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com

    2014-11-01

    We present a detailed derivation of the observed galaxy number over-density on cosmological scales up to second order in perturbation theory. We include all relativistic effects that arise from observing on the past lightcone. The derivation is in a general gauge, and applies to all dark energy models (including interacting dark energy) and to metric theories of modified gravity. The result will be important for accurate cosmological parameter estimation, including non-Gaussianity, since all projection effects need to be taken into account. It also offers the potential for new probes of General Relativity, dark energy and modified gravity. This paper accompanies Paper I which presents the key results for the concordance model in Poisson gauge.

  19. Number-counts slope estimation in the presence of Poisson noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Juergen H. M. M.; Maccacaro, Tommaso

    1986-01-01

    The slope determination of a power-law number flux relationship in the case of photon-limited sampling. This case is important for high-sensitivity X-ray surveys with imaging telescopes, where the error in an individual source measurement depends on integrated flux and is Poisson, rather than Gaussian, distributed. A bias-free method of slope estimation is developed that takes into account the exact error distribution, the influence of background noise, and the effects of varying limiting sensitivities. It is shown that the resulting bias corrections are quite insensitive to the bias correction procedures applied, as long as only sources with signal-to-noise ratio five or greater are considered. However, if sources with signal-to-noise ratio five or less are included, the derived bias corrections depend sensitively on the shape of the error distribution.

  20. Pilot Evaluation of the MEN [Making Employment Needs] Count Intervention: Addressing Behavioral and Structural HIV Risks in Heterosexual Black Men

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Anindita; Goldson, Irvienne; LaFontant, Dumas; Freeman, Elmer; Silverman, Jay G.

    2013-01-01

    Few community-based HIV interventions exist for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. None focus on structural HIV risks such as unemployment and unstable housing. This study involved a pilot evaluation of the MEN [Making Employment Needs] Count HIV intervention, a three session peer counselor-delivered program of HIV risk reduction and gender equity counseling, and employment and housing case management. A single-arm intervention trial of MEN Count was conducted with Black men recruited from a community men’s clinic and social services program. Eligible men were those who reported 2 or more sex partners in the past 6 months and current unemployment and/or recent homelessness. Most participants (68%) had a history of incarceration. Participants (N=50) were surveyed on outcomes at baseline (Time 1), posttest (Time 2; 60–90 days after baseline), and 2 month follow-up (Time 3). The majority of participants were retained in the program (86%) and the final follow-up survey (76%). McNemar tests revealed significant reductions in past 30 day unprotected sex from Time 1 (74%) to Time 2 (47%) and to Time 3 (47%), and in homelessness from Time 1 (58%) to Time 3 (32%). Significant increases in employment from Time 1 (8%) to Time 2 (29%) and Time 3 (32%) were also seen. Participants completed a brief participant satisfaction survey at posttest. Most (n=28, 65%) rated the program as excellent, and an additional 10 (23%) rated it as good. Although there was no significant reduction in multiple sex partners, a trend was observed from Time 1 (56%) to Times 2 (44%) and 3 (42%). Findings suggest that the MEN Count model is a feasible and promising HIV prevention program for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. Larger scale implementation and more rigorous evaluation of MEN Count are needed to confirm study findings. PMID:23767788

  1. Pilot evaluation of the Making Employment Needs [MEN] count intervention: addressing behavioral and structural HIV risks in heterosexual black men.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Dasgupta, Anindita; Goldson, Irvienne; Lafontant, Dumas; Freeman, Elmer; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-02-01

    Few community-based HIV interventions exist for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. None focus on structural HIV risks such as unemployment and unstable housing. This study involved a pilot evaluation of the MEN (Making Employment Needs) Count HIV intervention, a three session peer counselor-delivered program of HIV risk reduction and gender-equity counseling, and employment and housing case management. A single-arm intervention trial of MEN Count was conducted with Black men recruited from a community men's clinic and social services program. Eligible men were those who reported two or more sex partners in the past six months and current unemployment and/or recent homelessness. Most participants (68%) had a history of incarceration. Participants (N = 50) were surveyed on outcomes at baseline (Time 1), posttest (Time 2; 60-90 days after baseline), and two-month follow-up (Time 3). The majority of participants were retained in the program (86%) and the final follow-up survey (76%). McNemar tests revealed significant reductions in the past 30-day unprotected sex from Time 1 (74%) to Time 2 (47%) and to Time 3 (47%), and in homelessness from Time 1 (58%) to Time 3 (32%). Significant increases in employment from Time 1 (8%) to Time 2 (29%) and Time 3 (32%) were also seen. Participants completed a brief participant satisfaction survey at posttest. Most (n=28, 65%) rated the program as excellent, and an additional 10 (23%) rated it as good. Although there was no significant reduction in multiple sex partners, a trend was observed from Time 1 (56%) to Time 2 (44%) and Time 3 (42%). Findings suggest that the MEN Count model is a feasible and promising HIV prevention program for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. Larger scale implementation and more rigorous evaluation of MEN Count are needed to confirm the study findings. PMID:23767788

  2. Conceptual Press Discourse in Reading Comprehension Instruction: Making Every Interaction Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhone, Dot

    2009-01-01

    At its most fundamental level, like all instruction, comprehension instruction is composed of moment-to-moment interactions among students and between students and their teacher. Children's competence at making meaning from texts and their motivation to read are shaped by a variety of classroom influences, one of the most important of which may be…

  3. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This guide is first of a series of curriculum guides dealing with nutrition education in grades K-6. The curriculum guide was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting…

  4. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 4, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  5. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 2, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  6. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 6, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  7. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 1, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  8. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 3, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  9. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 5, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  10. Sublattice counting and orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Abelian orbifolds of mathbb{C}3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L aba theories, and of mathbb{C}4.

  11. Shared Decision-making in the Emergency Department: Respecting Patient Autonomy When Seconds Count.

    PubMed

    Hess, Erik P; Grudzen, Corita R; Thomson, Richard; Raja, Ali S; Carpenter, Christopher R

    2015-07-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM), a collaborative process in which patients and providers make health care decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient's values and preferences, is being increasingly advocated as the optimal approach to decision-making for many health care decisions. The rapidly paced and often chaotic environment of the emergency department (ED), however, is a unique clinical setting that offers many practical and contextual challenges. Despite these challenges, in a recent survey emergency physicians reported there to be more than one reasonable management option for over 50% of their patients and that they take an SDM approach in 58% of such patients. SDM has also been selected as the topic on which to develop a future research agenda at the 2016 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Shared Decision-making in the Emergency Department: Development of a Policy-relevant Patient-centered Research Agenda" (http://www.saem.org/annual-meeting/education/2016-aem-consensus-conference). In this paper the authors describe the conceptual model of SDM as originally conceived by Charles and Gafni and highlight aspects of the model relevant to the practice of emergency medicine. In addition, through the use of vignettes from the authors' clinical practices, the applicability of SDM to contemporary EM practice is illustrated and the ethical and pragmatic implications of taking an SDM approach are explored. It is hoped that this document will be read in advance of the 2016 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, to facilitate group discussions at the conference. PMID:26112797

  12. ALMACAL I: First Dual-band Number Counts from a Deep and Wide ALMA Submillimeter Survey, Free from Cosmic Variance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteo, I.; Zwaan, M. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Biggs, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    We have exploited ALMA calibration observations to carry out a novel, wide, and deep submillimeter (submm) survey, almacal. These calibration data comprise a large number of observations of calibrator fields in a variety of frequency bands and array configurations. By gathering together data acquired during multiple visits to many ALMA calibrators, it is possible to reach noise levels which allow the detection of faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a significant area. In this paper, we outline our survey strategy and report the first results. We have analyzed data for 69 calibrators, reaching depths of ∼25 μJy beam‑1 at sub-arcsec resolution. Adopting a conservative approach based on ≥5σ detections, we have found 8 and 11 DSFGs in ALMA bands 6 and 7, respectively, with flux densities S 1.2 mm ≥ 0.2 mJy. The faintest galaxies would have been missed by even the deepest Herschel surveys. Our cumulative number counts have been determined independently at 870 μm and 1.2 mm from a sparse sampling of the astronomical sky, and are thus relatively free of cosmic variance. The counts are lower than reported previously by a factor of at least 2×. Future analyses will yield large, secure samples of DSFGs with redshifts determined via the detection of submm spectral lines. Uniquely, our strategy then allows for morphological studies of very faint DSFGs—representative of more normal star-forming galaxies than conventional submm galaxies—in fields where self-calibration is feasible, yielding milliarcsecond spatial resolution.

  13. Making It Count: Improving Estimates of the Size of Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Populations.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Madeline B

    2016-06-01

    An accurate estimate of the number of transgender and gender nonconforming people is essential to inform policy and funding priorities and decisions. Historical reports of population sizes of 1 in 4000 to 1 in 50,000 have been based on clinical populations and likely underestimate the size of the transgender population. More recent population-based studies have found a 10- to 100-fold increase in population size. Studies that estimate population size should be population based, employ the two-step method to allow for collection of both gender identity and sex assigned at birth, and include measures to capture the range of transgender people with nonbinary gender identities. PMID:27135657

  14. Methods of legitimation: how ethics committees decide which reasons count in public policy decision-making.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kyle T

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, liberal democratic societies have struggled with the question of how best to balance expertise and democratic participation in the regulation of emerging technologies. This study aims to explain how national deliberative ethics committees handle the practical tension between scientific expertise, ethical expertise, expert patient input, and lay public input by explaining two institutions' processes for determining the legitimacy or illegitimacy of reasons in public policy decision-making: that of the United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) and the United States' American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). The articulation of these 'methods of legitimation' draws on 13 in-depth interviews with HFEA and ASRM members and staff conducted in January and February 2012 in London and over Skype, as well as observation of an HFEA deliberation. This study finds that these two institutions employ different methods in rendering certain arguments legitimate and others illegitimate: while the HFEA attempts to 'balance' competing reasons but ultimately legitimizes arguments based on health and welfare concerns, the ASRM seeks to 'filter' out arguments that challenge reproductive autonomy. The notably different structures and missions of each institution may explain these divergent approaches, as may what Sheila Jasanoff (2005) terms the distinctive 'civic epistemologies' of the US and the UK. Significantly for policy makers designing such deliberative committees, each method differs substantially from that explicitly or implicitly endorsed by the institution. PMID:24833251

  15. What Counts as "Truth" -- Reason Versus Emotion in Vaccine Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnookin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Vaccines are without question one of the most successful public health interventions the world has ever known. Despite this, for the past decade-and-a-half, industrialized countries around the world, from the United States to Germany and from Australia to Israel, have been confronted with specious panics about vaccine safety and efficacy, many of which center around claims that vaccines can cause autism. These fears can be traced to two events: a since-retracted paper published by a disgraced gastroenterologist claiming the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine was linked to a gut disease which, in turn, was linked to autism; and the United States's decision to remove a mercury-based preservative called thimerosal from standard pediatric vaccines in the late 1990s. The effects of these scares are being felt worldwide. Each year for the past several years, the US has had more measles outbreaks than at any time since the mid-1990s, a fact which is especially frightening given that the WHO declared measles eliminated from North America in 2000. In France, a nationwide measles outbreak has caused thousands of hospitalizations and a number of deaths. I will address several issues central to this topic: Given the overwhelming amount of evidence showing vaccines are safe and the total lack of evidence showing they cause autism, why do these fears persist, and what can be done to combat them? Has the public health establishment's response to these fears been sufficient? To what extent do concerns about vaccines function as proxies for more opaque concerns regarding modern-day health care? And finally, what is the effect of a lack of evidence-based research on the best way to combat misinformation?

  16. A novel method for the precise determination of step times and sizes in counting large numbers of photobleaching events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Presse, Steve

    Counting of photobleaching steps is of importance in the investigation of many open problems in biophysics. Current methods of counting photo- bleaching steps cannot directly account for fluorophore photophysical behaviors such as fluorophore self-quenching, blinking and flickering. Our Bayesian approach to the counting problem allows for fluorophore blinking and reactivation as well as for multiple simultaneous photobleaching events and is neither computational resource- nor time- heavy. We detail the method's applicability and limitations and present examples of application in photobleach event counting.

  17. Coming to an Understanding of the Signed Numbers: How Second and Third Grade Students Make Sense of the Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research has been to generate learning environments that surrounded second and third grade students with bi-directional counting experiences, leading them to discover and come to an understanding of opposite numbers. While engaged in games and bi-directional activities, these young students eagerly counted, by jumping frogs…

  18. Making Career Readiness Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreamer, Kate Blosveren; O'Hara, Marie; Curl, Cory

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus in states across the nation that the goal of the K-12 education system is to "prepare all students to graduate from high school ready for college and careers". Yet, in all but a handful of states, the priority goals set to drive student performance toward and beyond college and career readiness sputter out…

  19. Make Your Calories Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... module requires Adobe Flash Player ; PDFs require Adobe Reader . The character displayed above is a trademark of ... Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ...

  20. Making the Middle Count

    PubMed Central

    Esbenshade, Angie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses three ways in which dramatic improvements in middle flow, or examination-to-disposition time, can be driven by emergency department (ED) nursing leadership. By operationalizing a “results pending” area, low-acuity patients who are unlikely to be admitted can await diagnostic results or be actively monitored by a dedicated nurse, ED rooms and beds may be reserved for higher acuity patients. Monthly operational stakeholder meetings can provide a consistent opportunity to track, monitor, and improve flow while also celebrating successes and identifying needed performance improvements based on objective metrics for shared goals. Internal customer rounding is a process that serves as effective follow-up from the stakeholder meeting to ensure aligned behaviors to meet identified goals. Frequency of rounding is identified during the stakeholder meeting. By using these three tools, ED stakeholders can effectively focus on solutions instead of barriers to improving middle flow. PMID:25569321

  1. Making Academics Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, John F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic ideas of reinforcement may be more easily applied in the classroom if three common teacher errors: noncontingent reinforcement, ambiguity of rules, and restriction of earnings, are avoided. (Author/SDH)

  2. Galaxy formation in Lambda greater than 0 Friedmann models: Consequences for the number counts versus redshift test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martel, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    We study the effect of the cosmological constant Lambda on galaxy formation using a simple spherical top-hat overdensity model. We consider models with Omega(sub 0) = 0.2, lambda(sub 0) = 0, and Omega(sub 0) = 0.2, lambda(sub 0) = 0.8 (where Omega(sub 0) is the density parameter, and lambda(sub 0) identically equal Lambda/3 H(sub 0 exp 2) where H(sub 0) is the Hubble constant). We adjust the initial power spectrum amplitude so that both models reproduce the same large-scale structures. The galaxy formation era in the lambda(sub 0) = 0 model occurs early (z approximately 6) and is very short, whereas in the lambda(sub 0) = 0.8 model the galaxy formation era starts later (z approximately 4), and last much longer, possibly all the way to the present. Consequently, galaxies at low redshift (z less than 1) are significantly more evolved in the lambda(sub 0) = 0 model than in the lambda(sub 0) = 0.8 model. This result implies that previous attempts to determine Lambda using the number counts versus redshift test are probably unreliable.

  3. High redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey . I. Selection method and number counts based on redshift PDFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viironen, K.; Marín-Franch, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Varela, J.; Chaves-Montero, J.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Molino, A.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Vilella-Rojo, G.; Ascaso, B.; Cenarro, A. J.; Cerviño, M.; Cepa, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Oteo, I.; Pović, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, J. F.; Del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Most observational results on the high redshift restframe UV-bright galaxies are based on samples pinpointed using the so-called dropout technique or Ly-α selection. However, the availability of multifilter data now allows the dropout selections to be replaced by direct methods based on photometric redshifts. In this paper we present the methodology to select and study the population of high redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey data. Aims: Our aim is to develop a less biased methodology than the traditional dropout technique to study the high redshift galaxies in ALHAMBRA and other multifilter data. Thanks to the wide area ALHAMBRA covers, we especially aim at contributing to the study of the brightest, least frequent, high redshift galaxies. Methods: The methodology is based on redshift probability distribution functions (zPDFs). It is shown how a clean galaxy sample can be obtained by selecting the galaxies with high integrated probability of being within a given redshift interval. However, reaching both a complete and clean sample with this method is challenging. Hence, a method to derive statistical properties by summing the zPDFs of all the galaxies in the redshift bin of interest is introduced. Results: Using this methodology we derive the galaxy rest frame UV number counts in five redshift bins centred at z = 2.5,3.0,3.5,4.0, and 4.5, being complete up to the limiting magnitude at mUV(AB) = 24, where mUV refers to the first ALHAMBRA filter redwards of the Ly-α line. With the wide field ALHAMBRA data we especially contribute to the study of the brightest ends of these counts, accurately sampling the surface densities down to mUV(AB) = 21-22. Conclusions: We show that using the zPDFs it is easy to select a very clean sample of high redshift galaxies. We also show that it is better to do statistical analysis of the properties of galaxies using a probabilistic approach, which takes into account both the incompleteness and contamination issues in a

  4. Dependence of the Number of Counts in Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes on the Source-to-satellite Radial Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestin, S. J.; Xu, W.; Pasko, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    . Specifically, we investigate the expected number of counts in TGFs as a function of the source-to-satellite radial distance and compare our simulation results with satellite observations.

  5. Generalized Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Models for Count Data with Application to Malaria Time Series with Low Case Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Briët, Olivier J. T.; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H.; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    Introduction With the renewed drive towards malaria elimination, there is a need for improved surveillance tools. While time series analysis is an important tool for surveillance, prediction and for measuring interventions’ impact, approximations by commonly used Gaussian methods are prone to inaccuracies when case counts are low. Therefore, statistical methods appropriate for count data are required, especially during “consolidation” and “pre-elimination” phases. Methods Generalized autoregressive moving average (GARMA) models were extended to generalized seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (GSARIMA) models for parsimonious observation-driven modelling of non Gaussian, non stationary and/or seasonal time series of count data. The models were applied to monthly malaria case time series in a district in Sri Lanka, where malaria has decreased dramatically in recent years. Results The malaria series showed long-term changes in the mean, unstable variance and seasonality. After fitting negative-binomial Bayesian models, both a GSARIMA and a GARIMA deterministic seasonality model were selected based on different criteria. Posterior predictive distributions indicated that negative-binomial models provided better predictions than Gaussian models, especially when counts were low. The G(S)ARIMA models were able to capture the autocorrelation in the series. Conclusions G(S)ARIMA models may be particularly useful in the drive towards malaria elimination, since episode count series are often seasonal and non-stationary, especially when control is increased. Although building and fitting GSARIMA models is laborious, they may provide more realistic prediction distributions than do Gaussian methods and may be more suitable when counts are low. PMID:23785448

  6. A Multicriteria Decision Making Approach for Estimating the Number of Clusters in a Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yi; Zhang, Yong; Kou, Gang; Shi, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Determining the number of clusters in a data set is an essential yet difficult step in cluster analysis. Since this task involves more than one criterion, it can be modeled as a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. This paper proposes a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM)-based approach to estimate the number of clusters for a given data set. In this approach, MCDM methods consider different numbers of clusters as alternatives and the outputs of any clustering algorithm on validity measures as criteria. The proposed method is examined by an experimental study using three MCDM methods, the well-known clustering algorithm–k-means, ten relative measures, and fifteen public-domain UCI machine learning data sets. The results show that MCDM methods work fairly well in estimating the number of clusters in the data and outperform the ten relative measures considered in the study. PMID:22870181

  7. Mice can count and optimize count-based decisions.

    PubMed

    Çavdaroğlu, Bilgehan; Balcı, Fuat

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies showed that rats and pigeons can count their responses, and the resultant count-based judgments exhibit the scalar property (also known as Weber's Law), a psychophysical property that also characterizes interval-timing behavior. Animals were found to take a nearly normative account of these well-established endogenous uncertainty characteristics in their time-based decision-making. On the other hand, no study has yet tested the implications of scalar property of numerosity representations for reward-rate maximization in count-based decision-making. The current study tested mice on a task that required them to press one lever for a minimum number of times before pressing the second lever to collect the armed reward (fixed consecutive number schedule, FCN). Fewer than necessary number of responses reset the response count without reinforcement, whereas emitting responses at least for the minimum number of times reset the response counter with reinforcement. Each mouse was tested with three different FCN schedules (FCN10, FCN20, FCN40). The number of responses emitted on the first lever before pressing the second lever constituted the main unit of analysis. Our findings for the first time showed that mice count their responses with scalar property. We then defined the reward-rate maximizing numerical decision strategies in this task based on the subject-based estimates of the endogenous counting uncertainty. Our results showed that mice learn to maximize the reward-rate by incorporating the uncertainty in their numerosity judgments into their count-based decisions. Our findings extend the scope of optimal temporal risk-assessment to the domain of count-based decision-making. PMID:26463617

  8. The cosmological analysis of X-ray cluster surveys - I. A new method for interpreting number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, N.; Pierre, M.; Pacaud, F.; Sadibekova, T.

    2012-07-01

    We present a new method aimed at simplifying the cosmological analysis of X-ray cluster surveys. It is based on purely instrumental observable quantities considered in a two-dimensional X-ray colour-magnitude diagram (hardness ratio versus count rate). The basic principle is that even in rather shallow surveys, substantial information on cluster redshift and temperature is present in the raw X-ray data and can be statistically extracted; in parallel, such diagrams can be readily predicted from an ab initio cosmological modelling. We illustrate the methodology for the case of a 100-deg2XMM survey having a sensitivity of ˜10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 and fit at the same time, the survey selection function, the cluster evolutionary scaling relations and the cosmology; our sole assumption - driven by the limited size of the sample considered in the case study - is that the local cluster scaling relations are known. We devote special attention to the realistic modelling of the count-rate measurement uncertainties and evaluate the potential of the method via a Fisher analysis. In the absence of individual cluster redshifts, the count rate and hardness ratio (CR-HR) method appears to be much more efficient than the traditional approach based on cluster counts (i.e. dn/dz, requiring redshifts). In the case where redshifts are available, our method performs similar to the traditional mass function (dn/dM/dz) for the purely cosmological parameters, but constrains better parameters defining the cluster scaling relations and their evolution. A further practical advantage of the CR-HR method is its simplicity: this fully top-down approach totally bypasses the tedious steps consisting in deriving cluster masses from X-ray temperature measurements.

  9. Find the Picture of Eight Turtles: A Link between Children's Counting and Their Knowledge of Number Word Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusser, Emily B.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2011-01-01

    An essential part of understanding number words (e.g., "eight") is understanding that all number words refer to the dimension of experience we call numerosity. Knowledge of this general principle may be separable from knowledge of individual number word meanings. That is, children may learn the meanings of at least a few individual number words…

  10. RBC count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs that can increase the RBC count include: Gentamicin Methyldopa Lower-than-normal numbers of RBCs may be due to: Anemia Bleeding Bone marrow failure (for example, from radiation, toxins, or tumor) Deficiency of a hormone called erythropoietin (caused by ...

  11. The examination of relationship between socioeconomic factors and number of tuberculosis using quantile regression model for count data in Iran 2010-2011

    PubMed Central

    Sarvi, Fatemeh; Momenian, Somayeh; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Pahlavanzadeh, Bagher; Nasehi, Mahshid; Sekhavati, Eghbal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poverty and low socioeconomic status are the most important reasons of increasing the global burden of tuberculosis, not only in developing countries but also in developed countries for particular groups. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between socioeconomic factors and the number of tuberculosis patients using quantile regression for count data. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 11,320 tuberculosis patients from March 2010 to March 201 in Iran. Data was gathered from the 345 sections of Iran by Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Statistical Center of Iran. The jittering method was applied for smoothing, and then, the quantile regression for count data was fitted. The AIC was used to compare the fitness of quantile regression for count data model and Poisson log-linear model. The R (3.0.1) software and Quantreg and AER packages were used for all analysis and modeling of the data. Results: The results of fitting the quantile regression for count data showed that in all percentiles, the more increase in immigration rate, illiteracy rate, unemployment and urbanization rates, the more tuberculosis morbidity rate was increased. The maximum increase of tuberculosis due to immigration rate, urbanization rate, unemployment rate, and illiteracy rate was in 95th percentile (β^=0.315), 85'Th percentile (β^=0.162), 75'Th percentile (β^=0.114 ), and 95'Th percentile (β^=0.304), respectively. For 50th percentiles and higher percentiles, with increasing the sum of physicians to the number of population, the tuberculosis morbidity rate was decreased, and the maximum decrease was in 95'Th percentile ( β^=-0.1). For all percentiles, the AIC showed that quantile regression for count data had been a better fit to data. Conclusion: With respect to the relationship between socioeconomic factors and TB rate, health care observers should pay close attention to improving these factors in Iran to reduce the TB mortality

  12. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  13. "We All Have Something that Has to Do with Tens": Counting School Days, Decomposing Number, and Determining Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrow, Anne M.; Kidd, Kasia

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at how the activity of decomposing number--having students write numerical expressions equivalent to the number of days in school--can help students develop understanding of place value. (Contains 3 figures.)

  14. Pre-Statistical Process Control: Making Numbers Count! JobLink Winning at Work Instructor's Manual, Module 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coast Community Coll. District, Costa Mesa, CA.

    This instructor's manual for workplace trainers contains the materials required to conduct a course in pre-statistical process control. The course consists of six lessons for workers and two lessons for supervisors that discuss the following: concepts taught in the six lessons; workers' progress in the individual lessons; and strategies for…

  15. The Makah Counting Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, Arlington A., Jr.

    The first edition of the counting workbook centers around the numbers from 1 to 100 and focuses on number and set concepts. The workbook introduces the Makah spelling of each number and reinforces the spelling with exercises such as matching words to numbers, writing the words, counting symbols, and circling the correct number. Spaced throughout…

  16. Native and rearranged ALK copy number and rearranged cell count in NSCLC: Implications for ALK inhibitor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Camidge, D. Ross; Skokan, Margaret; Kiatsimkul, Porntip; Helfrich, Barbara; Lu, Xian; Barón, Anna E.; Schulte, Nathan; Maxson, DeLee; Aisner, Dara L.; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Doebele, Robert C.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) responds to ALK inhibitors. Clinically, ≥ 15% cells showing rearrangements by break-apart FISH classify tumors as positive. Increases in native and rearranged ALK copy number also occur. Methods 1426 NSCLC clinical specimens (174 ALK+ and 1252 ALK negative), and 24 ALK negative NSCLC cell lines were investigated. ALK copy number and genomic status were assessed by FISH. Results Clinical specimens with 0–9%, 10–15%, 16–30%, 31–50% and >50% of ALK+ cells were found in 79.3%, 8.5%, 1.4%, 2.7% and 8.1% of cases, respectively. Increased native ALK copy number (≥3 copies/cell in ≥40% cells) was detected in 19% of ALK+ and 62% of ALK negative tumors. In ALK negative tumors, abundant focal amplification of native ALK was rare (0.8%). Other atypical patterns occurred in ~6% of tumors. Mean native ALK copy number ranged from 2.1–6.9 in cell lines and was not correlated with crizotinib sensitivity (IC50s 0.34–2.8 uM) (r=0.279, p=0.1764). Neither native, nor rearranged ALK copy number, nor percentage cells positive correlated with extra-central nervous system progression free survivalin ALK+ patients on crizotinib. Conclusions 8.5% of cases are below the established positivity threshold by ≤5%. Further investigation of ALK by other diagnostic techniques in such cases may be warranted. Native ALK copy number increases alone are not associated with sensitivity to ALK inhibition in vitro. However, rare complex patterns of increased native ALK in patients should be studied further as atypical rearrangements contained within these may otherwise be missed. PMID:24022839

  17. Extragalactic millimeter-wave point-source catalog, number counts and statistics from 771 deg{sup 2} of the SPT-SZ survey

    SciTech Connect

    Mocanu, L. M.; Crawford, T. M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T.; Vieira, J. D.; Aird, K. A.; Aravena, M.; Austermann, J. E.; Everett, W. B.; Halverson, N. W.; Béthermin, M.; Chapman, S.; Cho, H.-M.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; George, E. M.; and others

    2013-12-10

    We present a point-source catalog from 771 deg{sup 2} of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich survey at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. We detect 1545 sources above 4.5σ significance in at least one band. Based on their relative brightness between survey bands, we classify the sources into two populations, one dominated by synchrotron emission from active galactic nuclei, and one dominated by thermal emission from dust-enshrouded star-forming galaxies. We find 1238 synchrotron and 307 dusty sources. We cross-match all sources against external catalogs and find 189 unidentified synchrotron sources and 189 unidentified dusty sources. The dusty sources without counterparts are good candidates for high-redshift, strongly lensed submillimeter galaxies. We derive number counts for each population from 1 Jy down to roughly 11, 4, and 11 mJy at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. We compare these counts with galaxy population models and find that none of the models we consider for either population provide a good fit to the measured counts in all three bands. The disparities imply that these measurements will be an important input to the next generation of millimeter-wave extragalactic source population models.

  18. Possible Solution of the Long-standing Discrepancy in the Microlensing Optical Depth toward the Galactic Bulge by Correcting the Stellar Number Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, T.; Penny, M. T.

    2016-08-01

    We find that significant incompleteness in stellar number counts results in a significant overestimate of the microlensing optical depth τ and event rate per star per year Γ toward the Galactic bulge from the first two years of the MOA-II survey. We find that the completeness in red clump giant (RCG) counts {f}{{RC}} decreases proportional to the galactic latitude b, as {f}{{RC}}=(0.63+/- 0.11)-(0.052+/- 0.028)× b, ranging between 1 and 0.7 at b=-6^\\circ ˜ -1\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 5. The previous measurements using all sources by difference image analysis (DIA) by MACHO and MOA-I suffer the same bias. On the other hand, the measurements using an RCG sample by OGLE-II, MACHO, and EROS were free from this bias because they selected only the events associated with the resolved stars. Thus, the incompleteness both in the number of events and stellar number count cancel out. We estimate τ and Γ by correcting this incompleteness. In the central fields with | l| \\lt 5^\\circ , we find {{Γ }}=[18.74+/- 0.91]× {10}-6\\exp [(0.53+/- 0.05)(3-| b| )] star‑1 yr‑1 and {τ }200=[1.84+/- 0.14]× {10}-6\\exp [(0.44+/- 0.07)(3-| b| )] for the 427 events with {t}{{E}}≤slant 200 days using all sources brighter than {I}s≤slant 20 mag. Our revised all-source τ measurements are about 2σ smaller than the other all-source measurements and are consistent with the RCG measurements within 1σ. We conclude that the long-standing problem on discrepancy between the high τ with all-source samples by DIA and low τ with RCG samples can probably be explained by the incompleteness of the stellar number count. A model fit to these measurements predicts {{Γ }}=4.60+/- 0.25× {10}-5 star‑1 yr‑1 at | b| ˜ -1\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 4 and -2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 25\\lt l\\lt 3\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 75 for sources with I\\lt 20, where the future space mission, Wide Field Infrared Space Telescope, will observe.

  19. Possible Solution of the Long-standing Discrepancy in the Microlensing Optical Depth toward the Galactic Bulge by Correcting the Stellar Number Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, T.; Penny, M. T.

    2016-08-01

    We find that significant incompleteness in stellar number counts results in a significant overestimate of the microlensing optical depth τ and event rate per star per year Γ toward the Galactic bulge from the first two years of the MOA-II survey. We find that the completeness in red clump giant (RCG) counts {f}{{RC}} decreases proportional to the galactic latitude b, as {f}{{RC}}=(0.63+/- 0.11)-(0.052+/- 0.028)× b, ranging between 1 and 0.7 at b=-6^\\circ ∼ -1\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 5. The previous measurements using all sources by difference image analysis (DIA) by MACHO and MOA-I suffer the same bias. On the other hand, the measurements using an RCG sample by OGLE-II, MACHO, and EROS were free from this bias because they selected only the events associated with the resolved stars. Thus, the incompleteness both in the number of events and stellar number count cancel out. We estimate τ and Γ by correcting this incompleteness. In the central fields with | l| \\lt 5^\\circ , we find {{Γ }}=[18.74+/- 0.91]× {10}-6\\exp [(0.53+/- 0.05)(3-| b| )] star‑1 yr‑1 and {τ }200=[1.84+/- 0.14]× {10}-6\\exp [(0.44+/- 0.07)(3-| b| )] for the 427 events with {t}{{E}}≤slant 200 days using all sources brighter than {I}s≤slant 20 mag. Our revised all-source τ measurements are about 2σ smaller than the other all-source measurements and are consistent with the RCG measurements within 1σ. We conclude that the long-standing problem on discrepancy between the high τ with all-source samples by DIA and low τ with RCG samples can probably be explained by the incompleteness of the stellar number count. A model fit to these measurements predicts {{Γ }}=4.60+/- 0.25× {10}-5 star‑1 yr‑1 at | b| ∼ -1\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 4 and -2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 25\\lt l\\lt 3\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 75 for sources with I\\lt 20, where the future space mission, Wide Field Infrared Space Telescope, will observe.

  20. The 'number needed to treat' and the 'adjusted NNT' in health care decision-making.

    PubMed

    Dowie, J

    1998-01-01

    Within 'evidence-based medicine and health care' the 'number needed to treat' (NNT) has been promoted as the most clinically useful measure of the effectiveness of interventions as established by research. Is the NNT, in either its simple or adjusted form, 'easily understood', 'intuitively meaningful', 'clinically useful' and likely to bring about the substantial improvements in patient care and public health envisaged by those who recommend its use? The key evidence against the NNT is the consistent format effect revealed in studies that present respondents with mathematically-equivalent statements regarding trial results. Problems of understanding aside, trying to overcome the limitations of the simple (major adverse event) NNT by adding an equivalent measure for harm ('number needed to harm' NNH) means the NNT loses its key claim to be a single yardstick. Integration of the NNT and NNH, and attempts to take into account the wider consequences of treatment options, can be attempted by either a 'clinical judgement' or an analytical route. The former means abandoning the explicit and rigorous transparency urged in evidence-based medicine. The attempt to produce an 'adjusted' NNT by an analytical approach has succeeded, but the procedure involves carrying out a prior decision analysis. The calculation of an adjusted NNT from that analysis is a redundant extra step, the only action necessary being comparison of the results for each option and determination of the optimal one. The adjusted NNT has no role in clinical decision-making, defined as requiring patient utilities, because the latter are measurable only on an interval scale and cannot be transformed into a ratio measure (which the adjusted NNT is implied to be). In any case, the NNT always represents the intrusion of population-based reasoning into clinical decision-making. PMID:10180389

  1. Infrared-faint radio sources: a cosmological view. AGN number counts, the cosmic X-ray background and SMBH formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinn, P.-C.; Middelberg, E.; Ibar, E.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are extragalactic emitters clearly detected at radio wavelengths but barely detected or undetected at optical and infrared wavelengths, with 5σ sensitivities as low as 1 μJy. Aims: Spectral energy distribution (hereafter SED) modelling and analyses of their radio properties indicate that IFRS are consistent with a population of (potentially extremely obscured) high-redshift AGN at 3 ≤ z ≤ 6. We demonstrate some astrophysical implications of this population and compare them to predictions from models of galaxy evolution and structure formation. Methods: We compiled a list of IFRS from four deep extragalactic surveys and extrapolated the IFRS number density to a survey-independent value of (30.8 ± 15.0) deg-2. We computed the IFRS contribution to the total number of AGN in the Universe to account for the cosmic X-ray background. By estimating the black hole mass contained in IFRS, we present conclusions for the SMBH mass density in the early universe and compare it to relevant simulations of structure formation after the Big Bang. Results: The number density of AGN derived from the IFRS density was found to be ~310 deg-2, which is equivalent to a SMBH mass density of the order of 103 M⊙ Mpc-3 in the redshift range 3 ≤ z ≤ 6. This produces an X-ray flux of 9 × 10-16 W m-2 deg-2 in the 0.5-2.0 keV band and 3 × 10-15 W m-2 deg-2 in the 2.0-10 keV band, in agreement with the missing unresolved components of the Cosmic X-ray Background. To address SMBH formation after the Big Bang we invoke a scenario involving both halo gas accretion and major mergers.

  2. Making Numbers Come to Life: Two Scoring Methods for Creativity in Aurora's Cartoon Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Mei; Mourgues, Catalina; Bolden, David S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Although creativity has long been recognized as an important aspect of mathematical thinking, both for the advancement of the field and in students' developing expertise in mathematics, assessments of student creativity in that domain have been limited in number and focus. This article presents an assessment developed for creativity that…

  3. The Swift serendipitous survey in deep XRT GRB fields (SwiftFT). I. The X-ray catalog and number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puccetti, S.; Capalbi, M.; Giommi, P.; Perri, M.; Stratta, G.; Angelini, L.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; Cusumano, G.; Gehrels, N.; Moretti, A.; Nousek, J.; Osborne, J. P.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: An accurate census of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a key step in investigating the nature of the correlation between the growth and evolution of super massive black holes and galaxy evolution. X-ray surveys provide one of the most efficient ways of selecting AGN. Methods: We searched for X-ray serendipitous sources in over 370 Swift-XRT fields centered on gamma ray bursts detected between 2004 and 2008 and observed with total exposures ranging from 10 ks to over 1 Ms. This defines the Swift Serendipitous Survey in deep XRT GRB fields, which is quite broad compared to existing surveys (~33 square degrees) and medium depth, with a faintest flux limit of 7.2 × 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5 to 2 keV energy range (4.8 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 at 50% completeness). The survey has a high degree of uniformity thanks to the stable point spread function and small vignetting correction factors of the XRT, moreover is completely random on the sky as GRBs explode in totally unrelated parts of the sky. Results: In this paper we present the sample and the X-ray number counts of the high Galactic-latitude sample, estimated with high statistics over a wide flux range (i.e., 7.2 × 10-16 ÷ ~ 5 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band and 3.4 × 10-15 ÷ ~ 6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-10 keV band). We detect 9387 point-like sources with a detection Poisson probability threshold of ≤ 2 × 10-5, in at least one of the three energy bands considered (i.e. 0.3-3 keV, 2-10 keV, and 0.3-10 keV), for the total sample, while 7071 point-like sources are found at high Galactic-latitudes (i.e. |b| ≥ 20 deg). The large number of detected sources resulting from the combination of large area and deep flux limits make this survey a new important tool for investigating the evolution of AGN. In particular, the large area permits finding rare high-luminosity objects like QSO2, which are poorly sampled by other surveys, adding precious information for the luminosity function

  4. Making HIV Prevention Programming Count: Identifying Predictors of Success in a Parent-Based HIV Prevention Program for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim S.; Forehand, Rex; Wiegand, Ryan; Fasula, Amy M.; Armistead, Lisa; Long, Nicholas; Wyckoff, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of change in the number of sexual topics parents discussed and responsiveness during sex communication with their preadolescent after participating in a five-session sexual risk reduction intervention for parents were examined. Data were from 339 African American parents of preadolescents enrolled in the intervention arm of a…

  5. Heptagonal Numbers: A Neglected Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation of these numbers is shown to give students an opportunity to make use of such mathematical skills as algebraic substitution, modular arithmetic, counting arguments, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  6. How many pixels does it take to make a good 4"×6" print? Pixel count wars revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1980's the future of conventional silver-halide photographic systems was of great concern due to the potential introduction of electronic imaging systems then typified by the Sony Mavica analog electronic camera. The focus was on the quality of film-based systems as expressed in the number of equivalent number pixels and bits-per-pixel, and how many pixels would be required to create an equivalent quality image from a digital camera. It was found that 35-mm frames, for ISO 100 color negative film, contained equivalent pixels of 12 microns for a total of 18 million pixels per frame (6 million pixels per layer) with about 6 bits of information per pixel; the introduction of new emulsion technology, tabular AgX grains, increased the value to 8 bit per pixel. Higher ISO speed films had larger equivalent pixels, fewer pixels per frame, but retained the 8 bits per pixel. Further work found that a high quality 3.5" x 5.25" print could be obtained from a three layer system containing 1300 x 1950 pixels per layer or about 7.6 million pixels in all. In short, it became clear that when a digital camera contained about 6 million pixels (in a single layer using a color filter array and appropriate image processing) that digital systems would challenge and replace conventional film-based system for the consumer market. By 2005 this became the reality. Since 2005 there has been a "pixel war" raging amongst digital camera makers. The question arises about just how many pixels are required and are all pixels equal? This paper will provide a practical look at how many pixels are needed for a good print based on the form factor of the sensor (sensor size) and the effective optical modulation transfer function (optical spread function) of the camera lens. Is it better to have 16 million, 5.7-micron pixels or 6 million 7.8-micron pixels? How does intrinsic (no electronic boost) ISO speed and exposure latitude vary with pixel size? A systematic review of these issues will

  7. Just Five Does It: Using Five Numbers to Make Patterned Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Margaret J.; Bezuszka, Stanley J.

    2007-01-01

    This article offers some ideas about creating mathematical art based on number patterns. It includes a process for students that integrates number and geometry and results in attractive and useful patterned squares. Students may pursue the activity with paper and pencil or they may use computer software like The Geometer's Sketchpad to achieve…

  8. How Many Cases of Spine Surgery Are Performed in Germany? Method of Counting the Number of Cases of Spine Surgery in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Lea-Marie; Sauermann, Sven; Weber, Friedrich

    2016-09-01

    Objective The number of cases of spinal DRGs (German Diagnosis-Related Groups) is calculated on the basis of the data released by the German DRG-Institute. The data thus obtained were subsequently compared with the previously publicly debated data of cases, which were based on the counting of OPS (German Procedure Classification) codes. Methods Specific and Nonspecific Spinal DRGs are identified according to the German Coding Guidelines and the OPS catalogs. Those are verified in a multistage process, including the formation of test cases, to ensure that those DRGs consistently contain spinal cases. The verified DRGs are filtered out of the G-DRG § 21 KHEntgG Browser, including the years from 2005 to 2012 to calculate the respective number of cases. For a better overview, the DRGs are divided into groups according to Specific and Nonspecific Spinal DRGs. Both groups are summarized under the title Surgical Spine DRGs to be able to compare the results with the data already published. Two datasets are used for comparison: one from a publication in the German Ärzteblatt, which is based on the data collected by the German insurance company AOK, and the other from data published by the German Federal Office of Statistics. Results As a result, the number of cases which is presented here shows a significant variance compared with the figures that have been published. The Specific Spinal DRGs show a growth of 75% from 2005 to 2011. The case numbers of the Nonspecific Spinal DRGs show an increased rate of 51% between 2005 and 2006. In addition, the Surgical Spine DRGs rose by 69% between 2005 and 2011. This contrasts with the German government-proposed increase of 125% in the area of spinal surgery over the same period. Conclusion To summarize, the significant gap between the case numbers presented here and the existing ones gives reason to question the benefit of using OPS codes to calculate the actual number of cases in the field of spinal surgery, and it

  9. Greg Tang: Making Math Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Greg Tang has a resume that could get his foot in the door to a lot of places. A graduate of Harvard with both a B.A. and M.A. in economics, Tang has found success as a business executive, a speechwriter, a software designer and owner of a Tae Kwon Do school. After the publication of his first best-selling book for children, "The Grapes of Math"…

  10. Make Each Five Minutes Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Madeline

    1973-01-01

    Every day contains those unavoidable waiting periods, but they need not be unproductive. You can convert waiting time to learning with the help of sponge activities---learning activities which "sop up" those precious droplets of time that would otherwise be lost. (Author)

  11. List-Making and Categorizing: The Neglected Step in Classification. Development Report Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbetts, Charlene

    A necessary but neglected step in teaching classification to inexperienced writers is list making and categorizing. Learning that step gives the untrained writer practical experience in learning that a good writer classifies for a purpose and that a relationship exists between the evidence, the categories, the outline, the paragraph, and the whole…

  12. What Numbers Do Teachers Need to Know to Make Sense of Political Campaigns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelett, George; Schug, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    The rhetoric of political campaigns is loaded with references about the economy. Terms such as unemployment, recession, and GDP are often used carelessly, without regard to definitions or qualifications. That makes economists cringe and is a special problem for social studies teachers who are expected to know about such things. In this article,…

  13. Number of Dependents, Community Support, and Mental Health in Later Life: Does Gender Make a Difference?

    PubMed

    Nwoke, Mary Basil; Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika; Ebere, Magnus Okechukwu

    2016-06-01

    This study examined associations of number of dependents and community support with mental health and whether the nature of these associations differs for males and females. Data were obtained from 209 elderly Nigerians using self-report measures. Hierarchical multiple regression (stepwise method) and Hayes regression-based PROCESS approach for tests of moderation were employed in analyzing the data. Results of a hierarchical multiple regression showed that number of dependents predicted mental health for the total sample and for men, but not for women. For the subgroups of men and women, there were significant predictions of mental health by community integration, community participation, and use of community organization, even after controlling for the roles of sociodemographic variables. The hypothesis on the moderation effect of community support on the associations of number of dependents and mental health was also supported. Findings highlighted the importance of addressing gender differences in the role of social capital in mental health. PMID:27147681

  14. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  15. Making Sense of Double Number Lines in Professional Development: Exploring Teachers' Understandings of Proportional Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrill, Chandra Hawley; Brown, Rachael Eriksen

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative analysis of the knowledge teachers in one professional development course used to reason about proportional relationships with double number lines. We work from the knowledge-in-pieces perspective to consider the existing knowledge the participants did or did not invoke when learning to reason with this…

  16. Making Sense of Number Sense: Implications for Children With Mathematical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berch, Daniel B.

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on various approaches to the study of mathematics learning, Gersten, Jordan, and Flojo (in this issue) explore the implications of this research for identifying children at risk for developing mathematical disabilities. One of the key topics Gersten et al. consider in their review is that of "number sense." I expand on their preliminary…

  17. Numbers + Magic = Answer. Students Explaining: Make the Most of Mental Computation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caney, Annaliese

    2004-01-01

    Facilitating mental computation discussion comes with its own set of challenges for researchers and teachers. It is important to be able to help capture the students' ideas, before they disappear and seem like little more than moments of magic! In enabling children to learn how numbers work, the current emphasis on mental computation is driven by…

  18. Infants Use Different Mechanisms to Make Small and Large Number Ordinal Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vanMarle, Kristy

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown indirectly that infants may use two different mechanisms-an object tracking system and an analog magnitude mechanism--to represent small (less than 4) and large (greater than or equal to 4) numbers of objects, respectively. The current study directly tested this hypothesis in an ordinal choice task by presenting 10- to…

  19. Math in Action. Number-Sense Fun: Solving Riddles, Making Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresser, Rusty; Sheffield, Stephanie; Burns, Marilyn, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Presents two activities for teaching elementary level mathematics by immersing students in worthwhile literature (the Hello Math Reader series) while introducing them to real-life mathematics. The primary level activity teaches students to use number relationships to solve math riddles. The intermediate level activity has students explore…

  20. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral," funded by…

  1. [Participation of women in decision-making in Senegal. The numbers that speak].

    PubMed

    Talla, R

    1999-12-01

    The most recent population survey conducted in Senegal in 1988 found that women comprise 52% of the country¿s total population and that rural women make up 75% of the active female population. The female population is very young overall since 58% of women are under 20 years old. However, women¿s numerical advantage is inversely proportional to their level of representation in decision-making situations. Senegal¿s government in power since 1998 has only 5 women among the 31 ministers, and there were only 3 female ministers in the preceding body of government leaders. This numerical underrepresentation of women is also qualitative in nature, with the female ministers holding relatively less powerful governmental positions compared to the men. Only 19 of the 140 deputies elected to the National Assembly in 1998 were women and no woman is president of a parliamentary body. Women have a greater presence at the magisterial and legislative level, but they are less present in the public sector where they comprise only 4% of the 68,000 state agents. Women overwhelmingly hold teacher and secretarial posts, while men dominate local communities. Among the 470 elected, regional councilors elected in November 1998, only 61 are women. Additional statistics and discussion are presented upon the role of women in Senegalese society, as well as upon their capacity to influence important decisions both in the public sector and at home. PMID:12296191

  2. Number needed to sacrifice: statistical taboo or decision-making tool?

    PubMed Central

    Trewby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The percentage that benefit from medical preventive measures is small but all are exposed to the risk of side effects so most of those harmed would never benefit from their use. There is no expression or acronym to describe the ratio of harm to benefit nor discussion of what level of harm is acceptable for what benefit. Here we describe the harm to benefit ratio (HBR) expressed as number harmed (H) for 100 to benefit (B) and calculated for commonly used medical interventions. For post TIA carotid endarterectomy the HBR is 25 (25 postoperative strokes or deaths are caused for 100 to be stroke free at 5 years); warfarin in atrial fibrillation in patients aged under 65 results in 400 intracerebral haemorrhages for every 100 saved from a thromboembolic event; fibrinolytic treatment for stroke causes 44 symptomatic intracranial haemorrhages for every 100 that have minimal disability at 3 months; aspirin in high risk patients causes 33 major bleeds for every 100 occlusive vascular events prevented; routine inpatient thromboprophylaxis causes 133 additional bleeds for every 100 pulmonary emboli prevented; breast cancer screening causes 1000 unnecessary cancer treatments for 100 cancer deaths to be prevented. Conclusion: The HBR or number needed to sacrifice is larger than most imagine. Its wider use would allow us better to recognise the number harmed, allow better informed consent, compare different preventive strategies and understand the risks as well as benefits of preventive treatments. PMID:23560221

  3. The deepest Herschel-PACS far-infrared survey: number counts and infrared luminosity functions from combined PEP/GOODS-H observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Berta, S.; Pozzi, F.; Elbaz, D.; Lutz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Béthermin, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Charmandaris, V.; Chary, R.-R.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Harwit, M.; Hwang, H. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Magdis, G.; Maiolino, R.; Murphy, E.; Nordon, R.; Pannella, M.; Pérez García, A.; Poglitsch, A.; Rosario, D.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Santini, P.; Scott, D.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Valtchanov, I.

    2013-05-01

    We present results from the deepest Herschel-Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) far-infrared blank field extragalactic survey, obtained by combining observations of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and GOODS-Herschel key programmes. We describe data reduction and theconstruction of images and catalogues. In the deepest parts of the GOODS-S field, the catalogues reach 3σ depths of 0.9, 0.6 and 1.3 mJy at 70, 100 and 160 μm, respectively, and resolve ~75% of the cosmic infrared background at 100 μm and 160 μm into individually detected sources. We use these data to estimate the PACS confusion noise, to derive the PACS number counts down to unprecedented depths, and to determine the infrared luminosity function of galaxies down to LIR = 1011 L⊙ at z ~ 1 and LIR = 1012 L⊙ at z ~ 2, respectively. For the infrared luminosity function of galaxies, our deep Herschel far-infrared observations are fundamental because they provide more accurate infrared luminosity estimates than those previously obtained from mid-infrared observations. Maps and source catalogues (>3σ) are now publicly released. Combined with the large wealth of multi-wavelength data available for the GOODS fields, these data provide a powerful new tool for studying galaxy evolution over a broad range of redshifts. Based on observations carried out by the Herschel Space Observatory. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  5. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  6. Multicriteria group decision-making method using the distances-based similarity measures between intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun

    2012-10-01

    The Hamming and Euclidean distances between intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and the distances-based similarity measures are proposed in this study, then an intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy multicriteria group decision-making method is established using the similarity measures and expected weight values, in which linguistic values of intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers for linguistic terms are used to assess alternatives with respect to qualitative criteria and criteria weights. We establish simple and exact formulae to solve the multicriteria group decision-making problem based on the similarity measures between the ideal alternative and each alternative, the ranking order of all the alternatives and the best one can be determined by the proposed similarity measures. Finally, an illustrative example demonstrates the implementation process of the technique.

  7. A Case Study in Using Explicit Instruction to Teach Young Children Counting Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Stroizer, Shaunita; Flores, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Number sense is one's ability to understand what numbers mean, perform mental mathematics, and look at the world and make comparisons. Researchers show instruction that teaches children how to classify numbers, put numbers in sequence, conserve numbers effectively, and count builds their number sense skills. Targeted instruction that teaches…

  8. A Model Comparison for Count Data with a Positively Skewed Distribution with an Application to the Number of University Mathematics Courses Completed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines three regression models: OLS (ordinary least square) linear regression, Poisson regression, and negative binomial regression for analyzing count data. Simulation results show that the OLS regression model performed better than the others, since it did not produce more false statistically significant relationships than…

  9. The Role of Vision in the Development of Finger-Number Interactions: Finger-Counting and Finger-Montring in Blind Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crollen, Virginie; Mahe, Rachel; Collignon, Olivier; Seron, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the use of the fingers may play a functional role in the development of a mature counting system. However, the role of developmental vision in the elaboration of a finger numeral representation remains unexplored. In the current study, 14 congenitally blind children and 14 matched sighted controls undertook…

  10. Indicator-Assisted Evaluation and Funding of Research: Visualizing the Influence of Grants on the Number and Citation Counts of Research Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Borner, Katy

    2003-01-01

    Reports research on analyzing and visualizing the impact of government funding on the amount and citation counts of research publications. Provides an example using grant and publication data from Behavioral and Social Science Research at the National Institute on Aging (NIA) using the VxInsight[R] visualization tool. (Author/LRW)

  11. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  12. A value and ambiguity-based ranking method of trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers and application to decision making.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang-tian; Li, Deng-feng; Yu, Gao-feng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a method for ranking trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TrIFNs) in the process of decision making in the intuitionistic fuzzy environment. Firstly, the concept of TrIFNs is introduced. Arithmetic operations and cut sets over TrIFNs are investigated. Then, the values and ambiguities of the membership degree and the nonmembership degree for TrIFNs are defined as well as the value-index and ambiguity-index. Finally, a value and ambiguity-based ranking method is developed and applied to solve multiattribute decision making problems in which the ratings of alternatives on attributes are expressed using TrIFNs. A numerical example is examined to demonstrate the implementation process and applicability of the method proposed in this paper. Furthermore, comparison analysis of the proposed method is conducted to show its advantages over other similar methods. PMID:25147854

  13. The XMM-Newton survey of the ELAIS-S1 field. I. Number counts, angular correlation function and X-ray spectral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; D'Elia, V.; Pillitteri, I.; Feruglio, C.; Grazian, A.; Brusa, M.; Ciliegi, P.; Comastri, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Mignoli, M.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; La Franca, F.; Sacchi, N.; Franceschini, A.; Berta, S.; Buttery, H.; Dias, J. E.

    2006-10-01

    Aims.The formation and evolution of cosmic structures can be probed by studying the evolution of the luminosity function of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), galaxies and clusters of galaxies and of the clustering of the X-ray active Universe, compared to the IR-UV active Universe. Methods: .To this purpose, we have surveyed with XMM-Newton the central ~0.6 deg2 region of the ELAIS-S1 field down to flux limits of ~5.5 × 10-16 erg~cm-2~s-1 (0.5-2 keV, soft band, S), ~2 × 10-15 erg~cm-2~s-1 (2-10 keV, hard band, H), and ~4 × 10-15 erg~cm-2~s-1 (5-10 keV, ultra hard band, HH). We present here the analysis of the XMM-Newton observations, the number counts in different energy bands and the clustering properties of the X-ray sources. Results: .We detect a total of 478 sources, 395 and 205 of which detected in the S and H bands respectively. We identified 7 clearly extended sources and estimated their redshift through X-ray spectral fits with thermal models. In four cases the redshift is consistent with z=0.4, so we may have detected a large scale structure formed by groups and clusters of galaxies through their hot intra-cluster gas emission. We have computed the angular correlation function of the sources in the S and H bands finding best fit correlation angles θ_0=5.2 ± 3.8 arcsec and θ_0=12.8 ± 7.8 arcsec in the two bands respectively. The correlation angle of H band sources is therefore formally ~2.5 times that of the S band sources, although the difference is at only ~1σ confidence level. A rough estimate of the present-day correlation length r0 can be obtained inverting the Limber equation and assuming an appropriate redshift distribution dN/dz. The results range between 12.8 and 9.8 h-1 Mpc in the S band and between 17.9 and 13.4 h-1 Mpc in the H band, with 30-40% statistical errors, assuming either smooth redshift distributions or redshift distributions with spikes accounting for the presence of significant structure at z=0.4. The relative density of the

  14. Does Learning to Count Involve a Semantic Induction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Kathryn; Eng, Kortney; Barner, David

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, when children learn to correctly count sets, they make a semantic induction about the meanings of their number words. We tested the logical understanding of number words in 84 children that were classified as "cardinal-principle knowers" by the criteria set forth by Wynn (1992). Results show that these children often…

  15. High background photon counting lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.

  16. Quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: first “count,” then hunt

    PubMed Central

    Panteleeva, Sofia; Reznikova, Zhanna; Vygonyailova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    We simulated the situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants). In the first (preliminary) experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different quantities, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37 ± 003 to 4 ± 0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, likely because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m2 per min) in the vicinity of anthills and ants' routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs. 15, 5 vs. 30, and 10 vs. 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents. PMID:23407476

  17. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  18. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  19. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the…

  20. The Growing Number of Kids in Severely Distressed Neighborhoods: Evidence from the 2000 Census. A Kids Count/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William; Mather, Mark

    Between 1990-2000, there was a decrease in the number of children living in high-poverty neighborhoods, but the picture provided by the decrease in poverty levels alone is incomplete and potentially misleading. Using a more comprehensive measure of neighborhood quality, researchers found that the number of children living in severely distressed…

  1. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  2. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  3. What Makes Grassroots Conservation Organizations Resilient? An Empirical Analysis of Diversity, Organizational Memory, and the Number of Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, Nabin

    2013-03-01

    Conservation Area Management Committees (CAMCs)—the functional decision-making units consisting entirely of local villagers—are grassroots organizations legally established to manage the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. These committees suffered due to the decade-long Maoist insurgency, but they survived. The paper attempts to test what factors contributed to their resiliency. For this, I surveyed 30 CAMCs during the summer of 2007 and conducted semi-structured interviews of 190 executive members of the CAMCs and 13 park officials who closely monitor the CAMCs. Regression results showed that the number of leaders ( b = 0.44, t = 2.38, P = .027) was the most critical variable for building the resilience of CAMCs to the Maoist insurgency, i.e., retaining the same function, structure, and identity of the committees. As there were no reported conflicts among leaders and they were involved in negotiations and devising contingency plans, CAMCs actually benefited from having more leaders. Of the three diversity indices, the quadratic terms of age diversity ( b = -5.42, t = 1.95, P = .064) and ethnic diversity ( b = -4.05, t = 1.78, P = .075) had a negative impact on the CAMCs' resilience. Skill diversity and organizational memory had no significant influence on the CAMCs' resilience ( t < 1.48, P > .10). These results have important implications for building resilience in community-based conservation.

  4. Single particle counting diagnostic system for measuring fine particulates at high number densities in research and industrial applications. Final report summarizing instrument development, validation and operating instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Holve, D.J.

    1983-10-01

    Optical methods for particle size distribution measurements in practical high temperature environments have achieved feasibility and offer significant advantages over conventional sampling methods. The present report describes a mobile electro-optical system which has been designed for general use in a wide range of research and industrial environments. Specific features of this system include a method of providing in situ alignment and incorporation of an extinction measurement for application to optically thick aerosol flows. The instrument has demonstrated capability for measuring individual particles in the size range 0.25 to 100 microns at number densities up to 10/sup 12//m/sup 3/. In addition to demonstration of the system's wide dynamic range, we show the utility of the in situ alignment method in hot (1100 K) turbulent flows where beam steering can be a problem. As an example of the instrument's application, number and mass frequency distribution measurements of flyash and pulverized coal obtained in an atmospheric combustion exhaust simulator show that the raw pulverized coal contains large numbers of submicron particles similar to the flyash formed after combustion.

  5. What makes grassroots conservation organizations resilient? An empirical analysis of diversity, organizational memory, and the number of leaders.

    PubMed

    Baral, Nabin

    2013-03-01

    Conservation Area Management Committees (CAMCs)-the functional decision-making units consisting entirely of local villagers-are grassroots organizations legally established to manage the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. These committees suffered due to the decade-long Maoist insurgency, but they survived. The paper attempts to test what factors contributed to their resiliency. For this, I surveyed 30 CAMCs during the summer of 2007 and conducted semi-structured interviews of 190 executive members of the CAMCs and 13 park officials who closely monitor the CAMCs. Regression results showed that the number of leaders (b = 0.44, t = 2.38, P = .027) was the most critical variable for building the resilience of CAMCs to the Maoist insurgency, i.e., retaining the same function, structure, and identity of the committees. As there were no reported conflicts among leaders and they were involved in negotiations and devising contingency plans, CAMCs actually benefited from having more leaders. Of the three diversity indices, the quadratic terms of age diversity (b = -5.42, t = 1.95, P = .064) and ethnic diversity (b = -4.05, t = 1.78, P = .075) had a negative impact on the CAMCs' resilience. Skill diversity and organizational memory had no significant influence on the CAMCs' resilience (t < 1.48, P > .10). These results have important implications for building resilience in community-based conservation. PMID:23135393

  6. Platelet count

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions Cancer Certain medicines Bone marrow disease called polycythemia vera Bone marrow making too many platelets without a ... leukemia (CML) Hemolytic anemia Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) Polycythemia vera Thrombocytopenia Patient Instructions Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Update ...

  7. Who Calls the Shots? Sports and University Leadership, Culture, and Decision Making. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 30, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estler, Suzanne E., Ed.; Nelson, Laurie J., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This monograph seeks, through a synthesis of existing literature, to understand better how external forces operating through an enterprise on the academic margins can lead institutions and their leaders to make decisions that appear to many observers to make little sense relative to the institution's mission. Through the athletics enterprise, the…

  8. Enumeration of total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli in minced meat and on carcass surface samples with an automated most-probable-number method compared with colony count protocols.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, P; Schopf, E; Smulders, F J M

    2006-10-01

    An automated most-probable-number (MPN) system for the enumeration of total bacterial flora and Escherichia coli was compared with plate count agar and tryptone-bile-glucuronide (TBX) and ColiID (in-house method) agar methodology. The MPN partitioning of sample aliquots was done automatically on a disposable card containing 48 wells of 3 different volumes, i.e., 16 replicates per volume. Bacterial growth was detected by the formation of fluorescent 4-methylumbilliferone. After incubation, the number of fluorescent wells was read with a separate device, and the MPN was calculated automatically. A total of 180 naturally contaminated samples were tested (pig and cattle carcass surfaces, n = 63; frozen minced meat, n = 62; and refrigerated minced meat, n = 55). Plate count agar results and MPN were highly correlated (r = 0.99), with log MPN = -0.25 + 1.05 x log CFU (plate count agar) (n = 163; range, 2.2 to 7.5 log CFU/g or cm2). Only a few discrepancies were recorded. In two samples (1.1%), the differences were > or = 1.0 log; in three samples (1.7%), the differences were > or = 0.5 log. For E. coli, regression analysis was done for all three methods for 80 minced meat samples, which were above the limit of detection (1.0 log CFU/g): log MPN = 0.18 + 0.98 x log CFU (TBX), r = 0.96, and log MPN = -0.02 + 0.99 x log CFU (ColiID), r = 0.99 (range, 1.0 to 4.2 log CFU/g). Four discrepant results were recorded, with differences of > 0.5 but < 1.0 log unit. These results suggest that the automated MPN method described is a suitable and labor-saving alternative to colony count techniques for total bacterial flora and E. coli determination in minced meat or on carcass surfaces. PMID:17066934

  9. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  10. Counting every quantum

    PubMed Central

    Sakitt, B.

    1972-01-01

    1. Human subjects were asked to rate both blanks and very dim flashes of light under conditions of complete dark adaptation at 7° in the periphery. The ratings used were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 2. For one subject (B.S.) the distributions of ratings were approximately Poisson distributions. The data were consistent with each rating being the actual number of effective quantal absorptions plus the number of noise events. This subject was presumably able to count every rod signal (effective absorptions plus noise). 3. For two other subjects, the data were consistent with the ratings being one less (L.F.) and two less (K.D.) than the number of effective absorptions plus noise. They were able to count every rod signal beginning with 2 and 3 respectively. A fourth subject's erratic data could not be fitted. 4. The fraction of quanta incident at the cornea that resulted in a rod signal was estimated to be about 0·03 which is consistent with physical estimates of effective absorption for that retinal region. 5. A simulated forced choice experiment leads to an absolute threshold about 0·40 log units below the normal yes-no absolute threshold. This and other results indicate that subjects can use the sensory information they receive even when only 1, 2 or 3 quanta are effectively absorbed, depending on the individual. Humans may be able to count every action potential or every discrete burst of action potentials in some critical neurone. PMID:5046137

  11. Conversation Counts.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2016-03-01

    Informed consent is a hallmark of good old-fashioned patient care. But some Texas physicians and hospitals are finding ways to use the process as an opportunity to improve patient safety and patient-centered care. The Texas Medical Disclosure Panel - the state regulatory body overseeing informed consent for medical treatments - is taking steps to make state forms even more understandable for patients at a time when health literacy rates are low. PMID:26928817

  12. Revisiting the NVSS number count dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Prabhakar; Nusser, Adi

    2016-03-01

    We present a realistic modeling of the dipole component of the projected sky distribution of NVSS radio galaxies. The modeling relies on mock catalogs generated within the context of ΛCDM cosmology, in the linear regime of structure formation. After removing the contribution from the solar motion, the mocks show that the remaining observed signal is mostly (70%) due to structures within z lesssim 0.1. The amplitude of the model signal depends on the bias factor b of the NVSS mock galaxies. For sources with flux density, S > 15 mJy, the bias recipe inferred from higher order moments is consistent with the observed dipole signal at 2.12σ. Flux thresholds above 20 mJy yield a disagreement close to the 3σ level. A constant high bias, b = 3 is needed to mitigate the tension to the ~ 2.3σ level.

  13. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  14. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  15. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  16. NemaCount: quantification of nematode chemotaxis behavior in a browser.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2016-06-01

    Nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans offer a very effective and tractable system to probe the underlying mechanisms of diverse sensory behaviors. Numerous platforms exist for quantifying nematode behavior and often require separate dependencies or software. Here I describe a novel and simple tool called NemaCount that provides a versatile solution for the quantification of nematode chemotaxis behavior. The ease of installation and user-friendly interface makes NemaCount a practical tool for measuring diverse behaviors and image features of nematodes such as C. elegans. The main advantage of NemaCount is that it operates from within a modern browser such as Google Chrome or Apple Safari. Any features that change in total number, size, shape, or angular distance between control and experimental preparations are suited to NemaCount for image analysis, while commonly used chemotaxis assays can be quantified, and statistically analyzed using a suite of functions from within NemaCount. NemaCount also offers image filtering options that allow the user to improve object detection and measurements. NemaCount was validated by examining nematode chemotaxis behavior; angular distances of locomotory tracks in C. elegans; and body lengths of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes. Apart from a modern browser, no additional software is required to operate NemaCount, making NemaCount a cheap, simple option for the analysis of nematode images and chemotaxis behavior. PMID:27209025

  17. Substitute Teachers: Making Lost Days Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    True, Charlene; Butler, Kyle; Sefton, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    As K-12 teachers and administrators grow increasingly concerned with issues of accountability, research-based methods, and intervention strategies, little discussion exists on the impact of substitute teachers in the classroom. In the rush to analyze test scores, are the days covered by substitute teachers even considered? Though districts are…

  18. Teacher Leadership: Making Your Voice Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Today, more than ever, teachers must work effectively and efficiently to meet seemingly contradictory demands placed on them by society. On the one hand, school personnel are tasked with attaining and publicly reporting high levels of student achievement in response to No Child Left Behind. On the other, school personnel must ensure that students…

  19. Math and Science Programs: Making Them Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lincoln

    A solid background in math, science, and technology is vital to competing in today's workforce, as well as necessary to understanding the world in which we live. Mastery of technology is now necessary even in traditionally vocational careers, as some of today's automobiles have more computing power than a personal computer. New York City private…

  20. Making Faculty Count in Higher Education Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The experience of professors at community colleges in California shows that a well-organized faculty can advocate for meaningful academic principles--by getting involved in local accreditation, serving on visiting teams, and sitting on the accreditation commission itself. California's community colleges are not in harmonious accord with…

  1. Uncertainty in measurements by counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

    2012-02-01

    Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

  2. Numbers and Numerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David Eugene; Ginsburg, Jekuthiel

    Counting, naming numbers, numerals, computation, and fractions are the topics covered in this pamphlet. Number lore and interesting number properties are noted; the derivation of some arithmetic terms is briefly discussed. (DT)

  3. Workjobs II: Number Activities for Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta-Lorton, Mary

    This curriculum guide presents a program of 20 open-ended math activities to be used to supplement the math programs in kindergarten, first, or second grade classrooms. The program consists of child-oriented counters and gameboards used to explore the concept of number from counting to making up and solving addition and subtraction equations. Each…

  4. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  5. What Counts as Knowing? The Development of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Counting from Kindergarten through Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-01-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual…

  6. Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-01-01

    The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

  7. Make your trappings count: The mathematics of pest insect monitoring. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by Petrovskii et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasius, Bernd

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginnings of agriculture the production of crops is characterized by an ongoing battle between farmers and pests [1]. Already during biblical times swarms of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, were known as major pest that can devour a field of corn within an hour. Even today, harmful organisms have the potential to threaten food production worldwide. It is estimated that about 37% of all potential crops are destroyed by pests. Harmful insects alone destroy 13%, causing financial losses in the agricultural industry of millions of dollars each year [2-4]. These numbers emphasize the importance of pest insect monitoring as a crucial step of integrated pest management [1]. The main approach to gain information about infestation levels is based on trapping, which leads to the question of how to extrapolate the sparse population counts at singularly disposed traps to a spatial representation of the pest species distribution. In their review Petrovskii et al. provide a mathematical framework to tackle this problem [5]. Their analysis reveals that this seemingly inconspicuous problem gives rise to surprisingly deep mathematical challenges that touch several modern contemporary concepts of statistical physics and complex systems theory. The review does not aim for a collection of numerical recipes to support crop growers in the analysis of their trapping data. Instead the review identifies the relevant biological and physical processes that are involved in pest insect monitoring and it presents the mathematical techniques that are required to capture these processes.

  8. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Count per pound. 51.1242 Section 51.1242 Agriculture... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single...

  9. Carbon fiber counting. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for characterizing the number and lengths of carbon fibers accidentally released by the burning of composite portions of civil aircraft structure in a jet fuel fire after an accident. Representative samplings of carbon fibers collected on transparent sticky film were counted from photographic enlargements with a computer aided technique which also provided fiber lengths.

  10. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  11. KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2016: State Trends in Child Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Annie E. Casey Foundation's "2016 KIDS COUNT Data Book" finds today's youth--Generation Z--are healthier and completing high school on time despite mounting economic inequality and increasingly unaffordable college tuition. Aided by smart policies and investments in prevention, a record number of teens are making positive choices.…

  12. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  13. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements as to count. 51.564 Section 51.564... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of...-dozens. Variations from the number specified shall be permitted as follows: Provided, That the...

  14. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements as to count. 51.564 Section 51.564... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of...-dozens. Variations from the number specified shall be permitted as follows: Provided, That the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements as to count. 51.564 Section 51.564... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of...-dozens. Variations from the number specified shall be permitted as follows: Provided, That the...

  16. Observer variability in pinniped counts: Ground-based enumeration of walruses at haul-out sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Jay, C.V.; Cody, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Pinnipeds are often monitored by counting individuals at haul-out sites, but the often large numbers of densely packed individuals at these sites are difficult to enumerate accurately. Errors in enumeration can induce bias and reduce precision in estimates of population size and trend. We used data from paired observers monitoring walrus haul-outs in Bristol Bay, Alaska, to quantify observer variability and assess its relative importance. The probability of a pair of observers making identical counts was 50 individuals. Mean count differences ranged up to 25% for the largest counts, depending on beach and observers. In at least some cases, there was a clear tendency for counts of one observer to be consistently greater than counts of the other observer in a pair, indicating that counts of at least one of the observers were biased. These results suggest that efforts to improve accuracy of counts will be worthwhile. However, we also found that variation among observers was relatively small compared to variation among visits to a beach so that efforts to account for other sources of variation will be more important.

  17. Contribution of hand motor circuits to counting.

    PubMed

    Andres, Michael; Seron, Xavier; Olivier, Etienne

    2007-04-01

    The finding that number processing activates a cortical network partly overlapping that recruited for hand movements has renewed interest in the relationship between number and finger representations. Further evidence about a possible link between fingers and numbers comes from developmental studies showing that finger movements play a crucial role in learning counting. However, increased activity in hand motor circuits during counting may unveil unspecific processes, such as shifting attention, reciting number names, or matching items with a number name. To address this issue, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure changes in corticospinal (CS) excitability during a counting task performed silently and using either numbers or letters of the alphabet to enumerate items. We found an increased CS excitability of hand muscles during the counting task, irrespective of the use of numbers or letters, whereas it was unchanged in arm and foot muscles. Control tasks allowed us to rule out a possible influence of attention allocation or covert speech on CS excitability increase of hand muscles during counting. The present results support a specific involvement of hand motor circuits in counting because no CS changes were found in arm and foot muscles during the same task. However, the contribution of hand motor areas is not exclusively related to number processing because an increase in CS excitability was also found when letters were used to enumerate items. This finding suggests that hand motor circuits are involved whenever items have to be put in correspondence with the elements of any ordered series. PMID:17381248

  18. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

  19. Quick Reads: The Unit Makes All the Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollick, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    "What's the unit?" The answer to this question makes all the difference. A young child who is asked to count shoes needs to know if the unit to be counted is "pairs" of shoes or individual shoes. A middle school student who is asked for the length of a table will want to know if the number should be in inches, feet, or…

  20. Giving the Boot to the Bootstrap: How Not to Learn the Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rips, Lance J.; Asmuth, Jennifer; Bloomfield, Amber

    2006-01-01

    According to one theory about how children learn the concept of natural numbers, they first determine that "one", "two", and "three" denote the size of sets containing the relevant number of items. They then make the following inductive inference (the Bootstrap): The next number word in the counting series denotes the size of the sets you get by…

  1. Supporting First Grade Students Learning Number Facts up to 10 Using a Parrot Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putra, Zetra Hainul; Darmawijoyo; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; den Hertog, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Knowing number facts up to 10 become crucial if we want students to solve addition and subtraction problems using more abbreviated strategies. Otherwise, students will keep counting one-by-one until they get an answer. One of important number facts is number pairs that make ten because it is an important "benchmark" that students will…

  2. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  3. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  4. Direction counts: a comparative study of spatially directional counting biases in cultures with different reading directions.

    PubMed

    Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H; Göbel, Silke M

    2012-06-01

    Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear relationship between reading and counting directions. We then recorded directional counting preferences in preschoolers and elementary school children from three of these reading cultures (left to right, right to left, and mixed). Culture-specific counting biases existed before reading acquisition in children as young as 3 years and were subsequently modified by early reading experience. Together, our results suggest that both directional counting and scanning activities contribute to number-space associations. PMID:22341408

  5. Knowledge of Counting Principles: How Relevant Is Order Irrelevance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamawar, Deepthi; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Smith-Chant, Brenda; Penner-Wilger, Marcie

    2010-01-01

    Most children who are older than 6 years of age apply essential counting principles when they enumerate a set of objects. Essential principles include (a) one-to-one correspondence between items and count words, (b) stable order of the count words, and (c) cardinality--that the last number refers to numerosity. We found that the acquisition of a…

  6. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach. PMID:10165241

  7. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... want to watch how much you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you find you are having trouble cutting back on alcohol , talk with your doctor. Here is a list ...

  8. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  9. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  10. Minimal gene regulatory circuits that can count like bacteriophage lambda.

    PubMed

    Avlund, M; Dodd, Ian B; Sneppen, K; Krishna, S

    2009-12-11

    The behavior of living systems is dependent on large dynamical gene regulatory networks (GRNs). However, the functioning of even the smallest GRNs is difficult to predict. The bistable GRN of bacteriophage lambda is able to count to make a decision between lysis and lysogeny on the basis of the number of phages infecting the cell, even though replication of the phage genome eliminates this initial difference. By simulating the behavior of a large number of random transcriptional GRNs, we show that a surprising variety of GRNs can carry out this complex task, including simple CI-Cro-like mutual repression networks. Thus, our study extends the repertoire of simple GRNs. Counterintuitively, the major effect of the addition of CII-like regulation, generally thought to be needed for counting by lambda, was to improve the ability of the networks to complete a simulated prophage induction. Our study suggests that additional regulatory mechanisms to decouple Cro and CII levels may exist in lambda and that infection counting could be widespread among temperate bacteriophages, many of which contain CI-Cro-like circuits. PMID:19796646

  11. Clicks counting system for a riflescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Granciu, Dana

    2015-02-01

    A very useful requirement for a zoom aiming scope with high magnification used for long range rifle shooting is counting and display of knob's clicks number needed for elevation corrections. The paper analyzes one method for clicks counting usable with existing mechanical knobs and describes a microcontroller based system that implements it. Practical aspects like required changes in mechanical construction, influence of perturbations, complexity of electronics or power consumption are also analyzed.

  12. The Remarkable Number "1"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, G. Donald

    2014-01-01

    In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God…

  13. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  14. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  15. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1995 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ. Medical Center, Omaha.

    While a vast majority of children in Nebraska are experiencing a safe, healthy, and nurturing childhood, a significant number are not, and some of these numbers are growing. This Kids Count report is the third annual comprehensive review of available data in nine areas of child health and well-being in the state. Presented with these statistics…

  16. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  17. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  18. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside. PMID:25274878

  19. Photon counting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  20. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H.; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

    2008-01-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

  1. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

    2008-06-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

  2. Estimating mutation rate: how to count mutations?

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yun-Xin; Huai, Haying

    2003-01-01

    Mutation rate is an essential parameter in genetic research. Counting the number of mutant individuals provides information for a direct estimate of mutation rate. However, mutant individuals in the same family can share the same mutations due to premeiotic mutation events, so that the number of mutant individuals can be significantly larger than the number of mutation events observed. Since mutation rate is more closely related to the number of mutation events, whether one should count only independent mutation events or the number of mutants remains controversial. We show in this article that counting mutant individuals is a correct approach for estimating mutation rate, while counting only mutation events will result in underestimation. We also derived the variance of the mutation-rate estimate, which allows us to examine a number of important issues about the design of such experiments. The general strategy of such an experiment should be to sample as many families as possible and not to sample much more offspring per family than the reciprocal of the pairwise correlation coefficient within each family. To obtain a reasonably accurate estimate of mutation rate, the number of sampled families needs to be in the same or higher order of magnitude as the reciprocal of the mutation rate. PMID:12807798

  3. Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pisania, Anna; Papas, Klearchos K; Powers, Daryl E; Rappel, Michael J; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C; Colton, Clark K

    2010-11-01

    Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, and we combined it with morphological analysis by light microscopy (LM) for estimating the volume fraction of islets in impure preparations. Cells and islets were disrupted with lysis solution and shear, and accuracy of counting successively diluted nuclei suspensions was verified with (1) visual counting in a hemocytometer after staining with crystal violet, and automatic counting by (2) aperture electrical resistance measurement and (3) flow cytometer measurement after staining with 7-aminoactinomycin-D. DNA content averaged 6.5 and 6.9 pg of DNA per cell for rat and human islets, respectively, in agreement with literature estimates. With pure rat islet preparations, precision improved with increasing counts, and samples with about ≥160 islets provided a coefficient of variation of about 6%. Aliquots of human islet preparations were processed for LM analysis by stereological point counting. Total nuclei counts and islet volume fraction from LM analysis were combined to obtain the number of islet equivalents (IEs). Total number of IE by the standard method of dithizone staining/manual counting was overestimated by about 90% compared with LM/nuclei counting for 12 freshly isolated human islet research preparations. Nuclei counting combined with islet volume fraction measurements from LM is a novel method for achieving accurate islet enumeration. PMID:20697375

  4. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  5. Counting digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.

  6. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  7. Numeracy and Medicare Part D: the importance of choice and literacy for numbers in optimizing decision making for Medicare's prescription drug program.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stacey; Hanoch, Yaniv; Barnes, Andrew; Liu, Pi-Ju; Cummings, Janet; Bhattacharya, Chandrima; Rice, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Studies on decision making have come to challenge the idea that having more choice is necessarily better. The Medicare prescription drug program (Part D) has been designed to maximize choice for the consumer but has simultaneously created a highly complex decision task with dozens of options. In this study, in a sample of 121 adults, we examined the impact that increasing choice options has on decision-making abilities in older versus younger adults. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that participants performed better with less choice versus more choice, and that older adults performed worse than younger adults across conditions. We further examined the role that numeracy may play in making these decisions and the role of more traditional cognitive variables such as working memory, executive functioning, intelligence, and education. Finally, we examined how personality style may interact with cognitive variables and age in decision making. Regression analysis revealed that numeracy is related to performance across the lifespan. When controlling for additional measures of cognitive ability, we found that although age was no longer associated with performance, numeracy remained significant. In terms of decision style, personality characteristics were not related to performance. Our results add to the mounting evidence for the critical role of numeracy in decision making across decision domains and across the lifespan. PMID:21553984

  8. KidsCount in Colorado! 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1995 KidsCount in Colorado report examines challenges and offers examples of how prevention and early intervention strategies can make a difference in the lives of Colorado children. The report looks at the state of child well-being in Colorado in terms of health, early care and education, and primary education. Statistics and descriptions…

  9. Power counting to better jet observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2014-12-01

    Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia 8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

  10. Family Sociology or Wives' Family Sociology? A Comparison of Husbands' and Wives' Answers about Decision Making in the Greek and American Culture. Report Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina

    This study compared the responses of husbands and wives regarding decision-making in two cultures, Greek and American, as obtained by two different sampling techniques. The American data were obtained from 160 couples who lived in the Detroit area and who had a child under 6 years old. The Greek sample was 133 wives and 117 husbands, none of whom…