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Sample records for countercurrent extraction test

  1. Counter-current carbon dioxide extraction of soy skim

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of carbon dioxide in a counter-current fractionation column was investigated as a means to remove residual fat from soy skim after enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans. The stainless steel column was 1.2 meters long with an internal diameter of 1.75 cm and filled protruded stainles...

  2. Effect of various phenomena in the organic phase on metal extraction with chelating reagents in countercurrent and crosscurrent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacki, M.B.

    1999-04-01

    The effect of the association phenomena (extractant association, modifier association, and extractant-modifier co-association) on the recovery of metal species in extraction-stripping multistage countercurrent and cross current processes is discussed. The association phenomena change the optimum strength of extractant extraction ability needed to obtain the maximal metal transfer. The extraction-stripping isotherms depend mainly on the extraction constant, the extractant association constant, the ratio of extractant to modifier, and the acidity of the aqueous phase. The effect of modifier extractant co-association on extraction-stripping isotherms is observed for modifier/extractant mole ratios above 1.5. The countercurrent extraction-stripping process depends mainly on the extraction constant and the extractant association constant. Extractant association decreases the extraction ability and facilitates the stripping. Co-association of extractant with a modifier may play the same role as the extractant association. As a result, a maximum transfer of metal from the feed to the loaded electrolyte is observed for appropriate combinations of the equilibrium constants of extraction, association, and co-association. Extraction association and co-association have a negative effect for weak extractants and a positive one for strong extractants. Similar effects are observed for crosscurrent reagent flows. The association of a modifier and especially its co-association with extractant change the optimum strength of extractant (extraction equilibrium constant) for both the multistage countercurrent and crosscurrent processes.

  3. The Countercurrent Extraction of Ink: A Demonstration of the Chromatographic Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment (carried out in less than two hours) in which the merits of countercurrent extraction are immediately evident by visible colors. The experiment requires eight 125-ml separatory funnels, 250ml of 1-butanol, 250ml of 0.1-0.5 molar hydrochloric acid, and a small amount of Sheaffer's Skrip blue-black soluble ink. (JN)

  4. Counter-current carbon dioxide extraction of fat from soy skim

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research aims to investigate the use of counter-current carbon dioxide extraction method as a means to reduce residual fat in soy skim after the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans. Extractions with liquid CO2 at 25°C and 10.34 MPa and supercritical CO2 at 50°C and 25.16 MPa are comp...

  5. Hydrodynamics of a packed countercurrent column for the gas extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Stockfleth, R.; Brunner, G.

    1999-10-01

    The hydraulic capacity of a countercurrent column with gauze packing was examined at pressures between 8 and 30 MPa and temperatures between 313 and 373 K. The systems used were water + carbon dioxide, aqueous surfactant solution + carbon dioxide, and Toco, a substance whose physical properties are roughly similar to those of {alpha}-Tocopherol + carbon dioxide. A distinctive change in the flooding mechanisms from liquid layer flooding to bubble column flooding was observed. The different liquids, water and Toco, showed the same flooding behavior, indicating that the influence of the density on the flooding behavior prevails over the influence of any other physical property of the liquid. The foamability of the surfactant solution decreased significantly with increasing pressure--its influence on the flooding behavior could not be proved. The liquid holdup ranged between 2% and 6%. The dry pressure drop adhered to the Ergun equation.

  6. Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns: Application to supercritical CO[sub 2] extraction of terpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes, P.C.; Matos, H.A.; Carmelo, P.J.; Gomes de Azevedo, E.; Nunes da Ponte, M. . Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia)

    1995-02-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an alternative separation method to more conventional processes such as liquid extraction and distillation. However, up to now, few works have been devoted to the investigation of the efficiency of countercurrent packed columns under supercritical conditions from a mass transfer point of view. Mass transfer in a countercurrent column, filled with structured gauze packing, was measured for the separation of a mixture of terpenes (d-limonene/1,8-cineole) by supercritical carbon dioxide, at 313 and 318 K and pressures up to 9 MPa. The extraction efficiency was determined in terms of the overall mass transfer coefficient. Operating lines for this process had an appreciable curvature due to a high miscibility of the two contacting phases. The real slope of these lines had to be estimated. Available mass transfer models for packed columns predicted efficiencies diverging to a great extent from the experimental results.

  7. Pulsed counter-current ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from Boletus edulis.

    PubMed

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Ji, Chaowen

    2014-01-30

    Four methods for extracting polysaccharides from Boletus edulis, namely, hot-water extraction, ultrasonic clearer extraction, static probe ultrasonic extraction, and pulsed counter-current probe ultrasonic extraction (CCPUE), were studied. Results showed that CCPUE has the highest extraction efficiency among the methods studied. Under optimal CCPUE conditions, a B. edulis polysaccharide (BEP) yield of 8.21% was obtained. Three purified fractions, BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III, were obtained through sequential purification by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The average molecular weights of BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III were 10,278, 23,761, and 42,736 Da, respectively. The polysaccharides were mainly composed of xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose; of these, mannose contents were the highest. The antioxidant activities of the BEPs were further investigated by measurement of their ability to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as their reducing power. The results indicated that the BEPs have good antioxidant activity. PMID:24299786

  8. An assessment of TRAC-PD2 refill calculations based on Creare countercurrent flow tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.

    1982-04-01

    An important step in computer code development is the assessment of code capabilities through comparison of calculated results with experimental data A number of Creare countercurrent flow tests were simulated with the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC)-PD2 code to assess the emergency core coolant (ECC) lower plenum penetration and refill predictive capabilities. The tests examined in this study indicate a prediction of complete bypass and delivery at countercurrent steam flows where these phenomena occurred experimentally. Steam flows leading to partial delivery experimentally did not always lead to partial delivery in the calculations, however. A number of parameters can potentially effect TRAC refill calculations. Sensitivity studies indicate the TRAC results are most sensitive to droplet Weber number variations that affect interfacial shear and heat transfer rates. The condensation model also affects calculations with subcooled ECC liquid.

  9. Countercurrent extraction of soluble sugars from almond hulls and assessment of the bioenergy potential.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Kevin M; Offeman, Richard D; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Bayati, Andre K; Orts, William J

    2015-03-11

    Almond hulls contain considerable proportions (37% by dry weight) of water-soluble, fermentable sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), which can be extracted for industrial purposes. The maximum optimal solids loading was determined to be 20% for sugar extraction, and the addition of 0.5% (w/v) pectinase aided in maintaining a sufficient free water volume for sugar recovery. A laboratory countercurrent extraction experiment utilizing a 1 h steep followed by three extraction (wash) stages produced a high-concentration (131 g/L fermentable sugar) syrup. Overall, sugar recovery efficiency was 88%. The inner stage washing efficiencies were compatible with solution equilibrium calculations, indicating that efficiency was high. The concentrated sugar syrup was fermented to ethanol at high efficiency (86% conversion), and ethanol concentrations in the broth were 7.4% (v/v). Thin stillage contained 233 g SCOD/L, which was converted to biomethane at an efficiency of 90% with a biomethane potential of 297 mL/g SCODdestroyed. Overall, results suggested that a minima of 49 gal (185 L) ethanol and 75 m(3) methane/t hulls (dry whole hull basis) are achievable. PMID:25693995

  10. Accelerated solvent extraction and pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatographic purification of yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xi-Kai; Li, Jia; Liu, Feng; Lin, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Xiao; Song, Chun-Xia

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to seek an efficient method to extract and purify yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom. by accelerated solvent extraction combined with pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The major extraction parameters for accelerated solvent extraction were optimized by an orthogonal test design L9 (3)(4). Then a separation and purification method was established using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:5:2:8, v/v) with 10 mM triethylamine in the upper phase and 10 mM HCl in the lower phase. From 2 g crude extract, 224 mg of 8-deacetylyunaconitine (I) and 841 mg of yunaconitine (II) were obtained with a purity of over 98.0%. The chemical structures were identified by ESI-MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:23784883

  11. Measurement of countercurrent phase separation and distribution in a two-dimensional test section

    SciTech Connect

    Bukhari, K M; Lahey, Jr, R T

    1984-01-01

    The degree of phase separation that occurs in the core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during various postulated accidents is an important consideration for studying the course of events during such accidents. The dependence of countercurrent phase separation and distribution phenomena on flow quality, mass flux and system geometry was studied experimentally in a two-dimensional (2-D) test section. A two-phase (air/water) mixture flowed upwards and single-phase water flowed downward along one side of the test section. This countercurrent flow configuration was intended to simulate the so-called chimney effect in the diabatic JAERI 2-D experiments in Japan. A large air/water loop used with a 91.44 cm x 91.44 cm x 1.27 cm test section to study phase separation and distribution effects. A traversing single beam gamma-densitometer was used to measure the chordal average void fractions at several elevations along the test section. Cross-plots between various flow conditions and geometries were made. An error analysis giving the total error in the void fraction measurements was also performed. High speed photographs were also made of the flow structure, to provide information on flow regimes. The photographic records and the void fraction and hydraulic inflow/outflow data are presented in a form suitable for the assessment of advanced generation computer codes (e.g., TRAC).

  12. An automatic countercurrent liquid-liquid micro-extraction system coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry for metal determination.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Constantina; Anthemidis, Aristidis N

    2015-02-01

    A novel and versatile automatic sequential injection countercurrent liquid-liquid microextraction (SI-CC-LLME) system coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is presented for metal determination. The extraction procedure was based on the countercurrent flow of aqueous and organic phases which takes place into a newly designed lab made microextraction chamber. A noteworthy feature of the extraction chamber is that it can be utilized for organic solvents heavier or lighter than water. The proposed method was successfully demonstrated for on-line lead determination and applied in environmental water samples using an amount of 120 μL of chloroform as extractant and ammonium diethyldithiophosphate as chelating reagent. The effect of the major experimental parameters including the volume of extractant, as well as the flow rate of aqueous and organic phases were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions for 6 mL sample consumption an enhancement factor of 130 was obtained. The detection limit was 1.5 μg L(-1) and the precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.7% at 40.0 μg L(-1) Pb(II) concentration level. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and spiked environmental water samples. PMID:25435230

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of catechins from Cratoxylum prunifolium dyer and subsequent purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Tian, Y; Zhang, T Y; Ito, Y

    2000-11-10

    Supercritical fluid extraction of tea catechins including epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) from Cratoxylum prunifolium Dyer was performed. The optimization of parameters was carried out using an analytical-scale supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system designed in our laboratory. Then the extraction was scaled up by 100 times using a preparative SFE system under a set of optimized conditions of 40 degrees C, 25 MPa and modified CO2 with 80% ethanol aqueous solution. The combined yield of EGCG and ECG reached about 1 mg per 1 g of tea leaves where the solubility was near 1.4 x 10(-4) mass fraction of CO2 fluid. EGCG and ECG of high purity (>98%) were obtained from the crude preparative extract by high-speed counter-current chromatography. PMID:11185625

  14. Extraction of uranium(VI) by N,N-di-(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (DEHIBA): from the batch experimental data to the countercurrent process

    SciTech Connect

    Miguirditchian, M.; Sorel, C.; Cames, B.; Bisel, I.; Baron, P.

    2008-07-01

    The selective separation of uranium(VI) in the first cycle of the GANEX process is operated by a hydrometallurgical process using a monoamide extractant DEHiBA (N,N-di-(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide). Distribution ratios of uranium(VI) and nitric acid in 1 M DEHiBA/HTP were determined with macro-concentrations of uranium, and the experimental data were modelled by taking into account the activity coefficients of the constituents in aqueous phases. A flowsheet was designed and tested in a countercurrent process in laboratory-scale mixer-settlers on a surrogate U(VI)/HNO 3 feed. More than 99.999% of the uranium was recovered. (authors)

  15. Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Purification of Arctiin and Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lü, Haitao; Sun, Zhaoyun; Shan, Hu; Song, Jiying

    2016-03-01

    An efficient method for the rapid extraction, separation and purification of bioactive lignans, arctiin and arctigenin, from Fructus arctii by microwave-assisted extraction coupled with high-speed countercurrent chromatography was developed. The optimal extraction conditions of arctiin and arctigenin were evaluated by orthogonal array. Arctigenin could be converted from arctiin by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis. The separations were performed at a preparative scale with two-phase solvents composed of ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (5 : 1 : 5, v/v/v) for arctiin, and n-hexane-ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (4 : 4 : 3 : 4, v/v/v/v) for arctigenin. From 500 mg of crude extract sample, 122.3 mg of arctiin and 45.7 mg of arctigenin were obtained with the purity of 98.46 and 96.57%, and the recovery of 94.3 and 81.6%, respectively. Their structures were determined by comparison with the high-performance liquid chromatography retention time of standard substance as well as UV, FT-IR, electrospray ion source (ESI)-MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectrum. According to the antioxidant activity assay, arctigenin had stronger 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals scavenging activity. PMID:26590235

  16. Separation of three phenolic high-molecular-weight compounds from the crude extract of Terminalia Chebula Retz. by ultrasound-assisted extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zou, Deng-lang; Chen, Tao; Li, Hong-mei; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Jing-yang; Li, Yu-lin

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an efficient strategy for separation of three phenolic compounds with high molecular weight from the crude extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. by ultrasound-assisted extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography. The ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology and the results showed the target compounds could be well enriched under the optimized extraction conditions. Then the crude extract was directly separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography without any pretreatment using n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:7:0.5:3, v/v/v/v) as the solvent system. In 180 min, 13 mg of A, 18 mg of B, and 9 mg of C were obtained from 200 mg of crude sample. Their structures were identified as Chebulagic acid (A, 954 Da), Chebulinic acid (B, 956 Da), and Ellagic acid (C) by (1) H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26864462

  17. Application of supercritical fluid extraction coupled with counter-current chromatography for extraction and online isolation of unstable chemical components from Rosa damascena.

    PubMed

    Li, Sainan; Guo, Liping; Liu, Chunming; Zhang, Yuchi

    2013-07-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for the extraction and online isolation of the unstable compounds from Rosa damascene in a single extraction and separation operation in two stages. The solvent systems of SFE/HSCCC were optimized with the help of multiexponential function model. At the first stage, the upper phase of the solvent system of n-butanol-tert-butyl methyl ether-acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous TFA (1.7:1.0:0.8:4.0, v/v/v/v) was used as both the SFE entrainer and the HSCCC stationary phase, and the target compounds were eluted with the corresponding lower phase to separate the hydrophobic compounds. At the second stage, the upper phase of the solvent system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3.2:1.0:2.8:2.6, v/v/v/v) was used as both the SFE entrainer and the HSCCC stationary phase, followed by elution with the corresponding lower phase to separate the moderate hydrophobic compounds. Six compounds including formononetin, delphinidin, cyaniding, 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy flavone, 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy flavone, and 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxy flavone were successfully separated in one extraction-separation operation within 300 min. The targeted compounds were identified by MS and NMR spectroscopy. This research has opened up great prospects for industrial application of SFE/HSCCC to the extraction and separation of unstable compounds. PMID:23596155

  18. Circulating ultrasound-assisted extraction, countercurrent chromatography, and liquid chromatography for the simultaneous extraction, isolation, and analysis of the constituents of Uncaria tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchi; Liu, Chunming; Qi, Yanjuan; Li, Sainan; Pan, Yan; Li, Yuchun

    2015-04-01

    A hyphenated automated technique for the online extraction, isolation, analysis, and identification of natural organic compounds was established. Circulating ultrasound-assisted extraction (CUAE) was coupled with countercurrent chromatography (CCC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and a diode array detector (DAD). This approach was applied to the fractionation and purification of alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa. A biphasic solvent system of chloroform-methanol-water (6:4:5, v:v:v) was used for the CUAE and CCC separation of compounds from 500 g of U. tomentosa. Two CUAE/CCC/HPLC/DAD modes were established. Either the upper aqueous phase or the lower organic phase of the solvent system could be used as the extraction solvent. The target compounds were extracted by CUAE, and the extract was pumped into a sample loop before being directly injected into the CCC column, or pre-purified using a flash chromatography column before injection. The target compounds were eluted using either the organic or aqueous phase of the solvent system and the fractions were monitored using a UV detector. The target fractions were collected by a sample loop via a six-port valve, and analyzed by HPLC/DAD for purity and structural identification. This system isolated of 8.2mg, 7.4 mg, and 12.9 mg of rhynchophylline, corynoxine, and corynoxine B with HPLC purities of 96.15%, 95.34%, and 95.49%, respectively via the first mode; and isolated 26.6 mg, 24.6 mg, and 45.3mg of rhynchophylline, corynoxine, and corynoxine B with a HPLC purities of 98.22%, 97.18%, and 97.93% via the second mode. PMID:25725954

  19. Simple, quantitative method for low molecular weight dissolved organic matter extracted from natural waters based upon high performance counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alfonso; Sandron, Sara; Wilson, Richard; Davies, Noel W; Haddad, Paul R; Shellie, Robert A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2016-02-25

    A simple, high-performance counter-current chromatography method with sequential UV absorbance (254 nm) and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was developed for the quantification of pre-extracted low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from natural waters. The method requires solid-phase extraction (SPE) extraction of only small volumes of water samples, here using poly(styrenedivinylbenzene)-based extraction cartridges (Varian PPL). The extracted and concentrated DOM was quantified using reversed-phase high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC), with a water/methanol (5:5) mobile phase and hexane/ethyl acetate (3:7) stationary phase. The critical chromatographic parameters were optimised, applying a revolution speed of 1900 rpm and a flow-rate of 1 mL min(-1). Under these conditions, 50 μL of extracted DOM solution could be injected and quantified using calibration against a reference natural dissolved material (Suwannee River), based upon UV absorbance at 254 nm and ELSD detection. Both detection methods provided excellent linearity (R(2) > 0.995) for DOM across the concentration ranges of interest, with limits of detection of 4 μg ml(-1) and 7 μg ml(-1) for ELSD and UV absorbance, respectively. The method was validated for peak area precision (<5%), and accuracy and recovery based upon spiking seawater samples prior to extraction, together with DOM solutions post-extraction (>95% recovery). The developed method was applied to the determination of the concentration of DOM in seawater, based upon initial sample volumes as small as 20 mL. PMID:26851093

  20. Preparative separation of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yun; Du, Jilin; Lu, Yuanyuan

    2012-10-01

    In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze were studied. Steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to separate and purify the caryophyllene oxide, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene, and caryophyllene from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The two-phase solvent system containing n-hexane/acetonitrile/ethanol (5:4:3, v/v/v) was selected for the one step separation mode according to the partition coefficient values (K) of the target compounds and the separation factor (α). The purity of each isolated fraction after a single high-speed counter-current chromatography run was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. A 3.2 mg of caryophyllene oxide at a purity of 92.6%, 10.4 mg of 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene at a purity of 99.1% and 5.7 mg of caryophyllene at a purity of 98.8% were obtained from 200 mg essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The chemical structures of these components were identified by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR, and (13) C-NMR. PMID:22907873

  1. Countercurrent Process for Lignin Separation from Biomass Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran Kadam; Ed Lehrburger

    2006-03-31

    The overall goal of the project was to test the concept of using a twin-screw extruder to conduct autohydrolysis pretreatment of wheat straw in countercurrent fashion, demonstrate in situ solid/liquid separation, and produce a low-lignin cellulose product using ethanol as an extractant. The resultant solid product is suitable for sugar production through enzymatic hydrolysis and for pulp applications. Pilot-scale equipment was used to successfully demonstrate the process both for sugar and pulp applications.

  2. A consecutive preparation method based upon accelerated solvent extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography for isolation of aesculin from Cortex fraxinus.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xing; Zhou, Ting; Xiao, Xiaohua; Li, Gongke

    2012-12-01

    A consecutive preparation method based upon accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was presented and aesculin was obtained from Cortex fraxinus. The extraction condition of ASE was optimized with response surface methodology; some significant parameters such as the solvent system and its stability, the amount of loading sample in HSCCC were also investigated. The original sample was first extracted with methanol at 105°C and 104 bar for 7 min using ASE, then the extracts were consecutively introduced into the HSCCC system and separated and purified with the same ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (7:3:10, v/v/v) solvent system for five times without further exchange and equilibrium. About 3.1 ± 0.2 mg/g in each time and total of 15.4 mg/g aesculin with purity over 95% was isolated from Cortex fraxinus. The results demonstrated that the consecutive preparation method was time and solvent saving and high throughput, it was suitable for isolation of aesculin from Cortex fraxinus, and also has good potential on the separation and purification of effective compounds from natural product. PMID:23225725

  3. A rapid and convenient method for preparative separation of three indissolvable polyphenols from Euphorbia pekinensis by the flexible application of solvent extraction combined with counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiamin; Feng, Reihong; Wu, Zhiyuan; Guan, Shuguang; Guo, Jiling; Cheng, Chunru; Xu, Pingping; Zhang, Jingxian; Wang, Yang; Qu, Hua; Man, Wei; Yu, Wenbo; Cui, Yajun; Guan, Shuhong; Guo, Dean

    2013-07-01

    A rapid and convenient method was established to preparatively isolate the three ellagic acid types of compounds, which were the main polyphenols in Euphorbia pekinensis, by flexibly applying solvent extraction combined with counter-current chromatography (CCC). The total extract (extracted using 95% ethanol) of E. pekinensis was pretreated by two simple steps before CCC isolation, following the procedure: the total extract was extracted by classical solvent extraction using petroleum ether and ethyl acetate, respectively, and then the ethyl acetate extract was suspended using 95% ethanol, after being allowed to stand overnight, the sediment was obtained. Partial sediment (100 mg) was then directly separated by CCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-95% ethanol-water-85% formic acid (50:50:50:5, v/v/v/v). About 22 mg of 3,3'-dimethoxy ellagic acid (1), 12 mg of 3,3'-di-O-methyl-4-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)ellagic acid (2), and 35 mg of ellagic acid (3) with purities of 96.0, 95.2, and 95.4% were obtained respectively in one step within 4 h. After being purified by washing with methanol, the purities of the three compounds obtained were all above 98%. The purities were determined by HPLC and their chemical structures were further identified by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The recoveries were calculated as 84.6, 85.7, and 89.5%, respectively. The result demonstrated that the present isolation method was rapid, economical and efficient for the preparative separation of polyphenols from E. pekinensis. PMID:23629875

  4. Systematic and efficient separation of 11 compounds from Rhizoma Chuanxiong via counter-current chromatography-solid phase extraction-counter-current chromatography hyphenation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Zhou, Jianda; Yu, Jingang; Xie, Yixi; Jiang, Xinyu; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-10-17

    A counter-current chromatography (CCC)-solid phase extraction (SPE)-CCC system with high preparative capacity was used to realize rapid one-run systematic separation of natural products, in which two six-port valves and the SPE cartridge served as the interface. In the orthogonal separation system, equal column volumes of TEB-300A and TEB-300B were employed for the first dimension (1st-D) and second dimension (2nd-D), respectively. An optimized solid-phase column (25 mm × 10 mm i.d.) packed with Oasis HLB materials acted as the trapping SPE column. The analyte-focusing effect of the trapping column associated with the considerable preparative capacities of 1st-D and 2nd-D using totally different solvent systems significantly facilitated this one-run systematic separation of natural product. Therefore, this proposed approach was successfully applied to isolate chemical compounds from the crude extract of Rhizoma Chuanxiong. As a result, 11 compounds with widely different polarities were separated by running CCC for only one time. More importantly, this hyphenated strategy could serve as a rapid and efficient systematic pathway for the separation of natural products. PMID:25204267

  5. Extraction and Separation of Vitisin D, Ampelopsin B and cis-Vitisin A from Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz by Alkaline Extraction-Acid Precipitation and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lv, Huanhuan; Zhou, Wenna; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhenhua; Suo, Yourui; Wang, Honglun

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring oligostilbenes are receiving more attention because they exhibit several beneficial effects for health, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-adipogenic, antioxidant, antiaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiviral, immunosuppressive and neuroprotective activities. Thus, they could be of some potentially therapeutic values for several diseases. In this study, we adopted the alkaline extraction-acid precipitation (AEAP) method for extraction of oligostilbenes from the seed kernel of Iris lactea Then, the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for preparative isolation and purification of oligostilbenes from the AEAP extracts. Finally, three oligostilbenes, namely vitisin D (73 mg), ampelopsin B (25 mg) and cis-vitisin A (16 mg), were successfully fractionated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:5:3:6, v/v/v/v) from 300 mg of the AEAP extracts in ∼ 190 min. The purities of the three isolated oligostilbenes were all over 95.0% as analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. They all were isolated from I. lacteal for the first time.The method of AEAP for the preparation of the oligostilbene-enriched crude sample was simple, and the HSCCC technique for the isolation and purification of oligostilbenes was efficient. PMID:26847919

  6. Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Forsythosides from the Leaf of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl and Subsequent Separation and Purification by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinshi; Hou, Zhiguang; Liu, Zhengbo; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    An ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE) method was developed for the extraction of the two forsythosides, namely forsythosides I and A from the leaf of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl. Three kinds of l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different alkyl chain and anion were investigated. The results indicated that ionic liquids showed remarkable effects on the extraction yields of forsythosides. In addition, several ILUAE ultrasonic parameters, such as the solvent concentration, solvent to solid ratio and extraction time have been optimized. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 0.6 M [C6MIM]Br, solvent to solid ratio of 15 mL/g and extraction time of 10 min), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of forsythoside I (0.89%) and forsythoside A (10.74%). Meanwhile, forsythosides in the ILUAE extract were separated and purified successfully through the high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate-ethanol-acetic acid-water (4 : 1 : 0.25 : 6, v/v). 5.4 mg of forsythoside I and 59.7 mg of forsythoside A were obtained from 120 mg of the prepurified sample in one-step separation, with the purity of 96.1 and 97.9%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C NMR. PMID:27165571

  7. Optimization of the Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Flavonoids from Ampelopsis grossedentata and Subsequent Separation and Purification of Two Flavonoid Aglycones by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbing; Xie, Guoyong; Tian, Mei; Pu, Qian; Qin, Minjian

    2016-01-01

    The fermented leaf of Ampelopsis grossedentata has been used as a beverage and folk medicine called "vine tea" in the southern region of China. In this paper, the optimum extraction conditions for the maximum recovery amounts of total flavonoids (TF), dihydromyricetin (DMY), myricitrin (MYG) and myricetin (MY) from natural Ampelopsis grossedentata leaves subjected to ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were determined and optimized by using response surface methodology. The method was employed by the Box-Behnken design (BBD) and Derringer's desirability function using methanol concentration, extraction time, liquid/solid ratio as factors and the contents of TF, DMY, MYG and MY as responses. The obtained optimum UAE conditions were as follows: a solvent of 80.87% methanol, an extraction time of 31.98 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 41.64:1 mL/g. Through analysis of the response surface, it implied that methanol concentration and the liquid/solid ratio had significant effects on TF, DMY, MYG and MY yields, whereas extraction time had relatively little effects. The established extraction and analytical methods were successfully applied to determine the contents of the total flavonoids and three individual flavonoids in 10 batches of the leaf samples of A. grossedentata from three counties in Fujian Province, China. The results suggested the variability in the quality of A. grossedentata leaves from different origins. In addition, high purities of dihydromyricetin and myricetin were simultaneously separated and purified from the extract subjected to optimized UAE, by high-speed counter-current chromatography using a solvent system of N-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:3:2:4; v/v/v/v). In a single operation, 200 mg of the extract were separated to yield 86.46 mg of dihydromyricetin and 3.61 mg of myricetin with the purity of 95.03% and 99.21%, respectively. The results would be beneficial for further exploiting the herbal products and controlling the quality of

  8. A combination strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products by systematic two-phase solvent extraction-(13)C nuclear magnetic resonance pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation: Podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) as examples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Youqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-01-29

    Despite of substantial developments of extraction and separation techniques, isolation of natural products from natural resources is still a challenging task. In this work, an efficient strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products has been successfully developed by combination of systematic two-phase liquid-liquid extraction-(13)C NMR pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation. A small-scale crude sample was first distributed into 9 systematic hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) two-phase solvent systems for determination of the optimum extraction solvents and partition coefficients of the prominent components. Then, the optimized solvent systems were used in succession to enrich the hydrophilic and lipophilic components from the large-scale crude sample. At last, the enriched components samples were further purified by a new conical counter-current chromatography (CCC). Due to the use of (13)C NMR pattern recognition, the kinds and structures of major components in the solvent extracts could be predicted. Therefore, the method could collect simultaneously the partition coefficients and the structural information of components in the selected two-phase solvents. As an example, a cytotoxic extract of podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) was selected. After the systematic HEMWat system solvent extraction and (13)C NMR pattern recognition analyses, the crude extract of D. versipellis was first degreased by the upper phase of HEMWat system (9:1:9:1, v/v), and then distributed in the two phases of the system of HEMWat (2:8:2:8, v/v) to obtain the hydrophilic lower phase extract and lipophilic upper phase extract, respectively. These extracts were further separated by conical CCC with the HEMWat systems (1:9:1:9 and 4:6:4:6, v/v). As results, total 17 cytotoxic compounds were isolated and identified. In general, whole results suggested that the strategy was very

  9. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  10. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  11. Apparatus for California Waste Extraction Test

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.

    1991-06-10

    An apparatus has been designed that is suitable for performing the extraction test mandated by the state of California for the characterization of solid and semisolid hazardous waste. The apparatus enables mixing of the waste with the extraction fluid in the absence of air, and all parts contacting the waste mixture are either fluoropolymer or glass.

  12. Recent progress on countercurrent chromatography modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengkang; Ito, Yoichiro; Wei, Yun

    2014-01-01

    As countercurrent chromatography is becoming an established method in chromatography for many kinds of products, it is becoming increasingly important to model the process and to be able to predict the peaks for a given process. The CCC industries are looking for rapid methods to analyze the processes of countercurrent chromatography and select suitable solvent system. In this paper, recent progress is reviewed in the development and demonstration of several types of models of countercurrent chromatography. Literature lists a number of countercurrent chromatography (CCC) models that can predict the retention time and to a certain extent the peak width of a solute eluting from a CCC column, such as cell model, CCD model, CSTRs model, probabilistic model, temperature dependence plate model, physical models, etc. PMID:25580072

  13. Wave-driven Countercurrent Plasma Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2009-03-20

    A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the α channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided.

  14. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2008-10-10

    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  15. Isolation of chlorophylls a and b from spinach by counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jubert, Carole; Bailey, George

    2007-01-26

    A method for the isolation of chlorophylls from spinach by counter-current chromatography was developed. An initial extraction protocol was devised to avoid the notorious sensitivity of chlorophylls to degradation by light, heat, oxygen, acids and bases. Further purification and separation of chlorophylls a and b were achieved using counter-current chromatography. Chlorophyll structures and purities were established by HPLC, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Purity was estimated to be >95% (100% by HPLC). Typical yields from 30g of freeze-dried spinach were 300mg of chlorophyll a and 100mg of chlorophyll b. PMID:17164074

  16. Counter-current acid leaching process for copper azole treated wood waste.

    PubMed

    Janin, Amélie; Riche, Pauline; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Cooper, Paul; Morris, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for copper extraction from copper azole treated wood waste for recycling of wood and copper. The leaching process uses three acid leaching steps with 0.1 M H2SO4 at 75degrees C and 15% slurry density followed by three rinses with water. Copper is recovered from the leachate using electrodeposition at 5 amperes (A) for 75 min. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed achieving > or = 94% copper extraction from the wood during the 10 cycles; 80-90% of the copper was recovered from the extract solution by electrodeposition. The counter-current leaching process reduced acid consumption by 86% and effluent discharge volume was 12 times lower compared with the same process without use of counter-current leaching. However, the reuse of leachates from one leaching step to another released dissolved organic carbon and caused its build-up in the early cycles. PMID:23240206

  17. Purification of SoyScreen using critical carbon dioxide in a counter-current fractionation column

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research evaluated the use of critical carbon dioxide (CO2) in a counter-current fractionation column for purifying SoyScreen, a mixture of feruloylated glycerides. The process concept was tested using a mixture consisting of triacylglycerides (TAGs), ethyl ferulate and fatty acid ethyl esters...

  18. Countercurrent Separation of Natural Products: An Update

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This work assesses the current instrumentation, method development, and applications in countercurrent chromatography (CCC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), collectively referred to as countercurrent separation (CCS). The article provides a critical review of the CCS literature from 2007 since our last review (J. Nat. Prod.2008, 71, 1489–1508), with a special emphasis on the applications of CCS in natural products research. The current state of CCS is reviewed in regard to three continuing topics (instrumentation, solvent system development, theory) and three new topics (optimization of parameters, workflow, bioactivity applications). The goals of this review are to deliver the necessary background with references for an up-to-date perspective of CCS, to point out its potential for the natural product scientist, and thereby to induce new applications in natural product chemistry, metabolome, and drug discovery research involving organisms from terrestrial and marine sources. PMID:26177360

  19. Enrichment and separation of antitumor triterpene acids from the epidermis of Poria cocos by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongjing; Wu, Panpan; Yan, Renyi; Xu, Qihua; Li, Hua; Zhang, Fangbo; Li, Jianrong; Yang, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Triterpene acids were extracted from the epidermis of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. These acids were found to inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. An efficient method for the preparative separation of antitumor triterpene acids was established that involves the combination of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography. We used pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography to concentrate the triterpene acids using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (3:7:5:5, v/v/v/v), trifluoroacetic acid (10 mM) was added to the upper phase as a retainer, and ammonia (10 mM) was added to the lower phase as an eluter. As a result, 200 mg concentrate of triterpene acids was obtained from 1.0 g of crude extract. The concentrate was further separated by conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography using a solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (0.8:1.2:1.2:0.9, v/v), yielding 50 mg of poricoic acid A and 5 mg of poricoic acid B from 120 mg concentrate, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the major compound on lung A549 cells was examined and poricoic acid A was found to significantly inhibit the growth of A 549 cells. PMID:25821060

  20. Triangular Helical Column for Centrifugal Countercurrent Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoichiro; Yu, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Effective column space and stationary phase retention have been improved by changing the configuration of the helical column originally used for toroidal coil countercurrent chromatography. The use of an equilateral triangular core for the helix column doubles effective column space and retains the stationary phase over 40% of the total column capacity without increasing the column pressure. The present results suggest that the stationary phase retention and the peak resolution will be further improved using new column designs fabricated by a new technology called "laser sintering for rapid prototyping." PMID:20046940

  1. Use of countercurrent chromatography during isolation of 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, a major antioxidant of Athrixia phylicoides.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Jacobus Brand, D

    2011-09-01

    Athrixia phylicoides, an indigenous South African herbal tea, has potential as a source of nutraceutical antioxidant extracts. Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) was employed as part of a multi-step process to isolate one of the major antioxidant compounds in A. phylicoides extracts. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was comparable to commercial nutraceutical extracts from Aspalathus linearis and Cyclopia spp. in a range of assays. The extracts were tested for radical scavenging (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) di-ammonium radical cation (ABTS·⁺) scavenging, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and iron chelating activity, as well as inhibition of microsomal lipid and linoleic acid emulsion oxidation. After extraction optimisation, the antioxidant activity of the major phenolic compounds in an A. phylicoides extract was determined using the on-line HPLC-diode-array-DPPH and -ABTS·⁺ radical scavenging assays. Major compounds reported for the first time included chlorogenic acid, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, including dicaffeoyl quinic acids, and an unidentified flavone-hexose. Finally, CCC was used in conjunction with liquid-liquid partitioning and semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC to isolate 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside (a major antioxidant) and quercetagetin-7-O-β-glucoside (a minor compound present in CCC fraction containing 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside) from an A. phylicoides extract. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by LC high-resolution electrospray ionisation MS, as well as ¹H, ¹³C and 2D NMR spectroscopy. This is the first report of the isolation of these compounds from A. phylicoides. PMID:21236437

  2. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed physiochemical studies of dextran/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) two phase systems were carried out to characterize and provide understanding of the properties of the systems which determine cell partition and the electrophoretic behavior of phase drops responsible for electric field driven phase separation. A detailed study of the electrostatic and electrokinetic potentials developed in these systems was carried out. The salt partition was examined both in phase systems and with pure polymer solutions via equilibrium dialysis and mechanism of sulfate, chloride and phosphate partition shown to be exclusion by PEG rather than binding by dextran. Salt partition was shown to have a strong effect on the polymer compositions of the phases as well, an effect which produces large changes in the interfacial tension between them. These effects were characterized and the interfacial tension shown to obey a power law with respect to its dependence on the length of the tie line describing the system composition on a phase diagram. The electrostatic potential differences measured via salt bridges were shown to obey thermodynamic predictions. The electrophoretic mobilities measured were utilized to provide a partial test of Levine's incomplete theory of phase drop electrophoresis. The data were consistent with Levine's expression over a limited range of the variables tested.

  3. Countercurrent-distribution studies on histones

    PubMed Central

    Butler, J. A. V.; Power, D. F.; Palau, J.

    1967-01-01

    1. The possibilities of fractionating histones and histone fractions by means of countercurrent distribution between two phases formed by water and butan-2-ol, in the presence of various concentrations of trichloroacetic acid, have been examined. 2. Although the principal histone fractions differ considerably in their partition ratios, a satisfactory resolution of the principal histone fractions from the whole histone has not been achieved. 3. The histone fractions obtained by other methods can be resolved with suitable concentrations of trichloroacetic acid. Besides the main peak several subsidiary peaks are obtained in most cases, the composition of which corresponds with others of the main fractions. 4. The method is therefore capable of removing from the principal fractions as previously prepared contamination by other fractions. 5. Except in one case, no fraction with composition unlike other fractions has been obtained. In several cases the material isolated from the principal peak behaves as a single component on running again. In two cases fractions with similar compositions were distinguished by countercurrent distribution. PMID:6029613

  4. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions for Solvent Extraction Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    2000-06-27

    Personnel will need to routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste for solvent extraction testing. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

  5. Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of latex from plant fiber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  6. Isolation of achyrobichalcone from Achyrocline satureioides by high- speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carini, Juliana P; Leitão, Gilda G; Schneider, Paulo H; Santos, Cristiane C; Costa, Fernanda N; Holzschuh, Maribete H; Klamt, Fábio; Bassani, Valquiria L

    2015-01-01

    Achyrobichalcone is a biflavonoid recently found in Achyrocline satureioides. This substance has unprecedented chemical structure and occurrence, but resembles other bioactive bichalcones, which have important pharmacological properties, such as anticancer activity. The major challenge for evaluation of the physicochemical and biological properties of this new molecule is the isolation step, which affects the purity and yield of the isolated product. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a semi-preparative method for achyrobichalcone isolation from Achyrocline satureioides by high-speed countercurrent chromatography. The high-speed countercurrent chromatography separation was achieved in two steps. In the first step, an enriched fraction of achyrobichalcone from the freeze-dried extract was obtained, using the solvent system hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 0.8:1:0.8:1, v/v. The purification of achyrobichalcone from the enriched fractions was achieved by further high-speed countercurrent chromatography fractionation with hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 0.9:0.9:0.8:1, v/v. The final isolated product was obtained using preparative thin layer chromatography and crystallization procedure. A yellow semi-crystalline solid with purity close to 90% was obtained as the final product. The mass recovery of achyrobichalcone isolation was near 67%. The structural identification from spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques confirmed the achyrobichalcone structure. This is the first report of achyrobichalcone isolation on a semi-preparative scale by high-speed countercurrent chromatography. This method afforded achyrobichalcone in good yield and purity for further biopharmaceutical studies. PMID:25382302

  7. PNEUMATIC PUMPING TEST FOR SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ pneumatic pumping tests were performed to estimate the pneumatic permeability at a site containing soils contaminated with aviation gasoline. etermination of pneumatic permeability was necessary to evaluate soil-air discharge or pore volume exchange rates. ressure propaga...

  8. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography for the separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chu; Zhang, Shidi; Tong, Shengqiang; Li, Xingnuo; Li, Qingyong; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient protocol for the rapid separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix was developed by combining macroporous resin and elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography. The crude extract was firstly subjected to a D101 macroporous resin column eluted with water and a series of different concentrations of ethanol. Then, effluents of 30 and 95% ethanol were collected as sample 1 and sample 2 for further counter-current chromatography purification. Finally, a pair of isomers, 96 mg of compound 1 and 48 mg of compound 2 with purities of 91.1 and 96.2%, respectively, was isolated from 200 mg of sample 1. The other pair of isomers, 14 mg of compound 3 and 8 mg of compound 4 with purities of 93.6 and 88.9%, respectively, was isolated from 48 mg of sample 2. Their purities were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Compared to a normal counter-current chromatography separation, the separation time and solvent consumption of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography were reduced while the resolutions were still good. The established protocol is promising for the separation of natural products with great disparity of content in herbal medicines. PMID:26114881

  9. Solvent Extraction External Radiation Stability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    2001-01-05

    Personnel irradiated a number of samples of calixarene-based solvent. Analysis of these samples indicated that measurable loss of the calixarene occurred at very high doses (-16 Mrad). No measurable loss of the Cs-7SB modifier occurred at equivalent doses. The primary degradation product, 4-sec-butylphenol, observed during analysis of the samples came from degradation of the modifier. Also, TOA proved more susceptible to damage than the other components of the solvent. The total degradation of the solvent proved relatively minor. The consistent solvent performance, as indicated by the measured D Cs values, after exposure at high total doses serves as evidence of the relatively low degree of degradation of the solvent components. Additional tests employing internal irradiation of solvents with both simulants and SRS tank waste will be completed by the end of March 2001 to provide confirmation of the results presented herein.

  10. WASTEWATER DEMINERALIZATION BY CONTINUOUS COUNTER-CURRENT ION EXCHANGE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wastewater demineralization study employing a 38 lpm (10 gpm) continuous counter-current ion exchange pilot plant, manufactured by the Chemical Separations Corporation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been conducted at the County Sanitation Districts, Pomona Research Facility, Pomona...

  11. Rapid detection of enteric fever by coagglutination and countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M; Thakar, Y S; Chande, C; Tankhiwale, N S; Saoji, A M

    1998-10-01

    A total of 463 patients clinically suspected of enteric fever and 100 healthy individuals were investigated by coagglutination (COAG) and countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) for rapid diagnosis of enteric fever. The S. typhi was grown in blood culture in 32 (6.91%) and Widal test was positive in 126 (27.21%) cases. The serum COAG with local antiserum was positive in 165 (35.64%), serum COAG with standard antiserum in 163 (35.21%), Blood culture supernatant (BCS) COAG in 153 (33.05%), serum CIEP for antigen (Ag) in 118 (25.09%), BCS CIEP in 99 (21.39%) while serum CIEP for antibody (Ab) was positive in 34 (7.34%) cases. Only two healthy controls revealed positive COAG result with local antiserum. The sensitivity of all antigen detection tests was 100% except BCS CIEP (98.25%) in the first week of fever and declined rapidly to 75.79% for serum COAG tests, 69.47% for BCS COAG and dramatically to 37.89% for serum CIEP for Ag and 22.11% for BCS CIEP tests during the second week whereas the sensitivity of serum CIEP for Ab detection rose from 17.54% to 23.16% from first to second week of illness. In view of the resulting data, it is suggested that both COAG and CIEP may be employed for the rapid diagnosis of enteric fever in the routine clinical setup. PMID:9866897

  12. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  13. COUNTERCURRENT FLOW LIMITATION EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING FOR IMPROVED REACTOR SAFETY

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen

    2008-09-26

    This project is investigating countercurrent flow and “flooding” phenomena in light water reactor systems to improve reactor safety of current and future reactors. To better understand the occurrence of flooding in the surge line geometry of a PWR, two experimental programs were performed. In the first, a test facility with an acrylic test section provided visual data on flooding for air-water systems in large diameter tubes. This test section also allowed for development of techniques to form an annular liquid film along the inner surface of the “surge line” and other techniques which would be difficult to verify in an opaque test section. Based on experiences in the air-water testing and the improved understanding of flooding phenomena, two series of tests were conducted in a large-diameter, stainless steel test section. Air-water test results and steam-water test results were directly compared to note the effect of condensation. Results indicate that, as for smaller diameter tubes, the flooding phenomena is predominantly driven by the hydrodynamics. Tests with the test sections inclined were attempted but the annular film was easily disrupted. A theoretical model for steam venting from inclined tubes is proposed herein and validated against air-water data. Empirical correlations were proposed for air-water and steam-water data. Methods for developing analytical models of the air-water and steam-water systems are discussed, as is the applicability of the current data to the surge line conditions. This report documents the project results from July 1, 2005 through June 30, 2008.

  14. Counter-current chromatography for oil analysis: retention features and kinetic effects.

    PubMed

    Maryutina, Tatyana A; Soin, Alexander V; Katasonova, Olesya N

    2009-05-01

    Application of counter-current chromatography (CCC) for oil analysis has been suggested for the first time. CCC looks very promising as a tool for pre-concentration and isolation of trace elements from oil. Features of stationary phase retention of two-phase liquid systems (oil or oil products-aqueous nitric acid solutions) in CCC have been investigated. The influence of physicochemical properties of crude oil and oil products used as a mobile phase on the volume of stationary phase (acidic aqueous solutions) retained in CCC was studied. Chromatographic behavior of several oil samples was studied. It has been shown that physicochemical properties of test oil influence its chromatographic behavior. Optimal values of density and viscosity (rho<0.85g/cm(3), n<7cSt) of crude oil and oil products that could be analyzed using CCC were estimated. The influence of the column rotational speed and flow rate of mobile phase on the stationary phase retention was also investigated. It is known that kinetic aspects (mass transfer of elements between phases) can play a very important role in selecting an optimal composition of stationary phase for the pre-concentration of elements from oil. The influence of nitric acid concentration in the stationary phase on mass transfer was studied. Kinetic characteristic for trace element recovery has been investigated for the optimization of pre-concentration conditions of trace elements from crude oil and oil products. The extraction recoveries of Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Pb and Ba by CCC in dynamic mode are in the range of 75-95% while they are lower than 35% under batch conditions. PMID:19232415

  15. First extraction tests of the NSCL gas cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissman, L.; Lofy, P. A.; Davies, D. A.; Morrissey, D. J.; Schury, P.; Schwarz, S.; Sun, T.; Bollen, G.

    2004-12-01

    The first tests for stopping and extraction of energetic (92 MeV/u), short-lived 38Ca and 37K fragments are reported. The fragments were stopped and thermalized in 50 cm of helium at 1 bar. The ions were transported by electric fields and gas flow and jetted into an expansion chamber through a supersonic nozzle and collected on a metallic foil. The extraction efficiency was measured for different implantation rates and beam degrader thicknesses and compared with the experimental stopping efficiency in the gas cell.

  16. Extraction of manganese by alkyl monocarboxylic acid in a mixed extractant from a leaching solution of spent lithium-ion battery ternary cathodic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dongju; Oh, ChangHyun; Wang, Jei-Pil; Shin, Shun Myung

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the separation of manganese by an antagonistic effect from a leaching solution of ternary cathodic material of spent lithium-ion batteries that contain 11,400 mg L-1 Co, 11,700 mg L-1 Mn, 12,200 mg L-1 Ni, and 5300 mg L-1 Li using a mixture of alkyl monocarboxylic acid and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants. pH isotherm, distribution coefficient, separation factor, McCabe-Thiele diagram, selective scrubbing, and countercurrent extraction tests are carried out to prove an antagonistic effect and to recover manganese using alkyl monocarboxylic in the mixed extractant. Slope analysis is used to determine the extraction mechanism between a mixture of extractants and valuable metals. An increasing concentration of alkyl monocarboxylic acid in the mixture of extractants results in a decrease in distribution coefficient of cobalt and manganese, however, the separation factor value (β(Mn/Co)) increases at pH 4.5. This is caused by slope analysis where alkyl monocarboxylic acid disrupts the extraction mechanism between di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and cobalt. Finally, continuous countercurrent extraction in a mini-plant test demonstrate the feasibility of manganese recovery from cobalt, nickel, and lithium.

  17. Developments in high-speed countercurrent chromatography and its applications in the separation of terpenoids and saponins.

    PubMed

    Song, Hua; Lin, Jianhong; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Qing

    2016-04-01

    High-speed countercurrent chromatography is a liquid-liquid separation chromatographic technique, which has the unique feature of eliminating irreversible adsorption using liquid support medium, and is widely used in research and development of traditional Chinese medicine, biochemistry, food, environment analysis, and so on. In this review, some new developments of countercurrent chromatography, for instance cross-axis countercurrent chromatography, dual countercurrent chromatography, foam countercurrent chromatography, and pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography are presented. Furthermore, the research and progress in high-speed countercurrent chromatography techniques and its application in the separation and purification of terpenoids and saponins are reviewed. PMID:26914595

  18. Planetary Airplane Extraction System Development and Subscale Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) project employs an airplane as the science platform from which to collect science data in the previously inaccessible, thin atmosphere of Mars. In order for the airplane to arrive safely in the Martian atmosphere a number of sequences must occur. A critical element in the entry sequence at Mars is an extraction maneuver to separate the airplane quickly (in less than a second) from its protective backshell to reduce the possibility of re-contact, potentially leading to mission failure. This paper describes the development, testing, and lessons learned from building a 1/3 scale model of this airplane extraction system. This design, based on the successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extraction mechanism, employs a series of trucks rolling along tracks located on the surface of the central parachute can. Numerous tests using high speed video were conducted at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) to validate this concept. One area of concern was that that although the airplane released cleanly, a pitching moment could be introduced. While targeted for a Mars mission, this concept will enable environmental surveys by aircraft in other planetary bodies with a sensible atmosphere such as Venus or Saturn s moon, Titan.

  19. Planetary Airplane Extraction System Development and Subscale Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) project will employ an airplane as the science platform from which to collect science data in the previously inaccessible, thin atmosphere of Mars. In order for the airplane to arrive safely in the Martian atmosphere, a number of sequences must occur. A critical element in the entry sequence at Mars is an extraction maneuver to separate the airplane quickly (in less than a second) from its protective backshell to reduce the possibility of re-contact, potentially leading to mission failure. This paper describes the development, testing, and lessons learned from building a 1/3 scale model of this airplane extraction system. This design, based on the successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extraction mechanism, employs a series of trucks rolling along tracks located on the surface of the central parachute can. Numerous tests using high speed video were conducted at the Langley Research Center to validate this concept. One area of concern was that that although the airplane released cleanly, a pitching moment could be introduced. While targeted for a Mars mission, this concept will enable environmental surveys by aircraft in other planetary bodies with a sensible atmosphere such as Venus or Saturn's moon, Titan.

  20. Preparative separation of punicalagin from pomegranate husk by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingjing; Wei, Yun; Yuan, Qipeng

    2007-09-15

    Punicalagin, the main ingredient of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) husk, is a high molecular weight polyphenolic compound. It has shown remarkable pharmacological activities attributed in the presence of dissociable OH groups. To isolate punicalagin, previous methods included labor intensive and expensive solid phase extractions by column chromatography (C-18, polyamides, dellulose, Sephadex Lipophilic LH-20, Diaion HP20). High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was used for isolation and purification of punicalagin from pomegranate husk. Using preparative HSCCC about a 350 mg amount of the crude extract was separated, yielding 105 mg of punicalagin at a high-purity of over 92%. Eighty milligrams of gallic acid was simultaneously separated as another product, at a purity of 75%. PMID:17689301

  1. Preparative separation of six rhynchophylla alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla wall by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghai; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Aiqin

    2013-01-01

    pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w) in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-isopropanol-water (2:6:3:9, v/v), adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-acetonitrile-water (4:0.5:5, v/v), adding triethylamine (TEA) (10 mM) to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM) to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24352009

  2. Countercurrent soil washing system for remediation of viscous hydrocarbons, heavy metals, radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, M.I.; Karlsson, M.K.; Downie, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Drying augers and multicell DAF tanks are excellent machines in which to countercurrently wash soil and remove hazardous hydrocarbons, metals or radionuclides. An auger works well because it preferentially moves soil along one side of its trough. Thus, when enough high pressure and temperature water jets are placed along that path, contaminants can be melted, or dissolved and scoured from the soil. Contaminants and fines flow down the opposite side of the auger and out for extraction in a series of flotation tanks. Countercurrent washing of the silt results when soil settles in tanks through rising water and air bubbles then is pumped through cyclones placed above the next DAF tank of the series. LNAPLs, DNAPLs, or metallic contaminants made hydrophobic by chemicals in the system are removed at the overflow of the cyclones or by flotation in the tanks. The overflow from the cyclones and DAF tanks flows into the previous tank of the series. Examples of contaminants remediated include; arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), uranium, solid oils, polyaromatic hydrocarbons in creosote and coal tars, and polychlorinated hydrocarbons.

  3. Isolation of α-Amylase Inhibitors from Kadsura longipedunculata Using a High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Target Guided by Centrifugal Ultrafiltration with LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Cen, Yin; Xiao, Aiping; Chen, Xiaoqing; Liu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) separation method target guided by centrifugal ultrafiltration with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CU-LC-MS) was proposed. This method was used to analyze α-amylase inhibitors from Kadsura longipedunculata extract. According to previous screening with CU-LC-MS, two screened potential α-amylase inhibitors was successfully isolated from Kadsura longipedunculata extract using HSCCC under the optimized experimental conditions. The isolated two target compounds (with purities of 92.3% and 94.6%) were, respectively, identified as quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) based on the MS, UV, and ¹H-NMR spectrometry data. To verify the inhibition of screened compounds, the inhibitory activities of quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) on α-amylase were tested, and it demonstrated that the experimental IC50 values of quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) were 28.8 and 12.5 μmol/L. These results proved that the hyphenated technique using CU-LC-MS and HSCCC was a rapid, competent, and reproductive method to screen and separate potential active compounds, like enzyme inhibitors from the extract of herbal medicines. PMID:27617987

  4. Separation and purification of four compounds from Desmodium styracifolium using off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Qing; Yu, Jingang; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2013-10-01

    An off-line 2D high-speed counter-current chromatography technique in preparative scale has been successfully applied to separate and purify the main compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium styracifolium. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water at an optimized volume ratio of 1:2:1:2 v/v/v/v was used. Conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography was used as the first dimension, and the upper phase of the solvent system was used as the stationary phase in the head-to-tail elution mode at a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min and a rotation speed of 900 rpm. Recycling high-speed counter-current chromatography served as the second dimension to separate an impure fraction of the first dimension. A total of four well-separated substances including vanillic acid (1), β-sitosterol (2), formononetin (3), and aromadendrin (4) were obtained, and their purities and structures were identified by HPLC-MS and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. The results illustrated that off-line 2D high-speed counter-current chromatography is an effective way to isolate compounds in complex samples. PMID:23939907

  5. Low sensitivity of counter-current immuno-electrophoresis for serodiagnosis of typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Datta, U; Roy, P; Verma, S; Sehgal, S

    1997-12-01

    Counter-current immuno-electrophoresis was evaluated as a diagnostic test for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever with somatic (O), flagellar (H) and capsular polysaccharide (Vi) antigens of Salmonella typhi on the sera of patients who were blood culture positive (confirmed typhoid cases) or had high Widal agglutination titres, > or = 320, (presumptive typhoid cases). Of the 37 sera from confirmed cases, 30% showed positivity with O antigen, 24% with H antigens and 51% with Vi antigen. In patients with a presumptive diagnosis, 45% were positive for O antibody, 27% for flagellar antibody and 52% for Vi antibody. When all three antigens were combined the reactivity to any of the antigens was found to be 59% in confirmed typhoid cases, 79% in presumptive typhoid cases and 93% in patients who were simultaneously positive by blood culture and Widal agglutination. However, none of the sera from 45 controls gave a positive precipitation reaction with any of the antigens. It is concluded that counter-current immuno-electrophoresis is a rapid test with low sensitivity and high specificity with Vi antigen, a panel of antigens being most effective, and is, therefore, recommended for rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever. PMID:9402926

  6. Separation of two major chalcones from Angelica keiskei by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kil, Yun-Seo; Nam, Joo-Won; Lee, Jun; Seo, Eun Kyoung

    2015-08-01

    Angelica keiskei (Shin-sun cho) is an edible higher plant with the beneficial preventive effects on cancer, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Two bioactive chalcones of Shin-sun cho, xanthoangelol (1) and 4-hydroxyderricin (2), were separated simultaneously by using high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-EtOAc-MeOH-H2O (9:5:9:4). Only nonconsuming processes, solvent fractionations and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, were conducted as presteps. Xanthoangelol (1, 35.9 mg, 99.9 % purity at 254 and 365 nm) and 4-hydroxyderricin (2, 4.4 mg, 98.7 % purity at 254 nm and 98.8 % purity at 365 nm) were successfully purified from 70 mg of the processed extract from A. keiskei. The structures of two compounds were confirmed by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analysis. PMID:25502980

  7. The effect of surfactant on counter-current gas-liquid flows in vertical tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadrazil, Ivan; Matar, Omar; Markides, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Counter-current gas-liquid flows in vertical tubes are often accompanied by flow reversal. This so-called ``flooding'' phenomenon could occur for at least a part of the liquid phase from a counter-current to a co-current state, against the action of gravity. This phenomenon is of central importance to the oil-and-gas and nuclear industries, and has received considerable attention experimentally. The large majority of the previous work in this area, however, has considered the case of pure fluids, in the absence of additives; the latter are used frequently in industry in an attempt to control the onset of various flow regimes with little understanding of the mechanisms underlying their influence on the interfacial dynamics. In this study, we address this issue by investigating the dynamics of flooding in the presence of surfactants in a 4 m long, 32.4 mm nominal bore polymethyl methacrylate test section using high-speed shadowgraphy, and axial-view imaging. The system parameters include the superficial gas and liquid velocities, and surfactant concentration. We show that the presence of surfactant can have a dramatic effect on the flow structures and the onset of flooding. The mechanisms responsible for these phenomena are analysed. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  8. Sequential determination system for anionic detergents by complexation with methylene blue by dual high-speed counter-current chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kitazume, Eiich; Koikawa, Saki; Hui, Lu; Sannohe, Syou; Yang, Yanjun; Yonosuke, Maki; Ito, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    A new dual high-speed counter-current chromatographic system using organic extraction phase and aqueous mobile phase containing methylene blue was applied to the analysis of anionic-type detergents. After selecting appropriate conditions such as flow rate of each mobile phase, sample volume, etc., the new system was successfully applied to the analysis of anionic detergent in river water. As all the analytical procedure can be made in a closed system, the method has no health hazard. The present method is simple, safe, and highly sensitive, and can be applied for sequential determination of multiple samples in a short analysis time. PMID:22443889

  9. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding.

  10. On the subsurface countercurrents in the Philippine Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fan; Zang, Nan; Li, Yuanlong; Hu, Dunxin

    2015-01-01

    subsurface countercurrents in the Philippine Sea and their roles in water mass transportation have been reported in previous studies. Their existence is still controversial, and the underlying dynamics remains unclear. This study investigates the climatological structures and relationships of three subsurface countercurrents, namely the Mindanao Undercurrent (MUC), the Luzon Undercurrent (LUC), and the North Equatorial Undercurrent (NEUC), using recently available hydrographic and satellite altimeter data. The three subsurface currents below and opposite to the surface currents are confirmed by multisections analysis. The MUC, as traced at zonal sections between 6.5°N and 10.5°N, shows two northward velocity cores, both with maximum speed larger than 10 cm s-1. The LUC exhibits an obscure core with southward velocity larger than 2 cm s-1 under the Kuroshio at 18°N and 16.25°N sections. The eastward flowing NEUC also has two separated cores at 128.2°E and 130°E sections with velocity larger than 1 cm s-1. Analyses of θ-S relationship suggest that the southern part of NEUC is fed by the MUC with the South Pacific water and South/North Pacific water mixture, while the northern NEUC is likely a destiny of the North Pacific water carried by the LUC. Tightly associated with the opposite horizontal gradients between sea surface height (SSH) and the depth of thermocline (DTC), the subsurface countercurrents exist in connected zones where the baroclinic adjustment below the thermocline overcomes the barotropic forcing at the sea surface, which indicates the dynamical linkages among the three subsurface countercurrents.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  13. Schinus terebinthifolius scale-up countercurrent chromatography (Part I): High performance countercurrent chromatography fractionation of triterpene acids with off-line detection using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mariana Neves; Costa, Fernanda das Neves; Leitão, Gilda Guimarães; Garrard, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Winterhalter, Peter; Jerz, Gerold

    2015-04-10

    'Countercurrent chromatography' (CCC) is an ideal technique for the recovery, purification and isolation of bioactive natural products, due to the liquid nature of the stationary phase, process predictability and the possibility of scale-up from analytical to preparative scale. In this work, a method developed for the fractionation of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi berries dichloromethane extract was thoroughly optimized to achieve maximal throughput with minimal solvent and time consumption per gram of processed crude extract, using analytical, semi-preparative and preparative 'high performance countercurrent chromatography' (HPCCC) instruments. The method using the biphasic solvent system composed of n-heptane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (6:1:6:1, v/v/v/v) was volumetrically scaled up to increase sample throughput up to 120 times, while maintaining separation efficiency and time. As a fast and specific detection alternative, the fractions collected from the CCC-separations were injected to an 'atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass-spectrometer' (APCI-MS/MS) and reconstituted molecular weight MS-chromatograms of the APCI-ionizable compounds from S. terebinthifolius were obtained. This procedure led to the direct isolation of tirucallane type triterpenes such as masticadienonic and 3β-masticadienolic acids. Also oleanonic and moronic acids have been identified for the first time in the species. In summary, this approach can be used for other CCC scale-up processes, enabling MS-target-guided isolation procedures. PMID:25757818

  14. Testing the reliability of information extracted from ancient zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielman, Ross; Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Studies combining zircon U-Pb chronology, trace element distribution as well as O and Hf isotope systematics are a powerful way to gain understanding of the processes shaping Earth's evolution, especially in detrital populations where constraints from the original host are missing. Such studies of the Hadean detrital zircon population abundant in sedimentary rocks in Western Australia have involved analysis of an unusually large number of individual grains, but also highlighted potential problems with the approach, only apparent when multiple analyses are obtained from individual grains. A common feature of the Hadean as well as many early Archaean zircon populations is their apparent inhomogeneity, which reduces confidence in conclusions based on studies combining chemistry and isotopic characteristics of zircon. In order to test the reliability of information extracted from early Earth zircon, we report results from one of the first in-depth multi-method study of zircon from a relatively simple early Archean magmatic rock, used as an analogue to ancient detrital zircon. The approach involves making multiple SIMS analyses in individual grains in order to be comparable to the most advanced studies of detrital zircon populations. The investigated sample is a relatively undeformed, non-migmatitic ca. 3.8 Ga tonalite collected a few kms south of the Isua Greenstone Belt, southwest Greenland. Extracted zircon grains can be combined into three different groups based on the behavior of their U-Pb systems: (i) grains that show internally consistent and concordant ages and define an average age of 3805±15 Ma, taken to be the age of the rock, (ii) grains that are distributed close to the concordia line, but with significant variability between multiple analyses, suggesting an ancient Pb loss and (iii) grains that have multiple analyses distributed along a discordia pointing towards a zero intercept, indicating geologically recent Pb-loss. This overall behavior has

  15. Scaling up of high-speed countercurrent chromatographic apparatus with three columns connected in series for rapid preparation of (-)-epicatechin.

    PubMed

    Du, Qingbao; Jiang, Heyuan; Yin, Junfeng; Xu, Yongquan; Du, Wenkai; Li, Bo; Du, Qizhen

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, compact high-speed countercurrent chromatographic apparatus was constructed with three columns connected in series. Two sets of columns were prepared from 10 mm and 12 mm I.D. tubing to form 12 L and 15 L capacities, respectively. Performance of these columns was compared for the separation of (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) from a tea extract by flash countercurrent chromatography (FCCC). In each separation, 200 g of the tea extract in 1600 mL of mobile phase was loaded onto the column. The 12 L column gave 7.5 L (35 g of ECG) and the 15 L column gave 9 L (40 g of ECG) of ECG solution without impurities. The ECG solution was directly hydrolyzed by tannase into (-)-epicatechin. The hydrolysate was purified by flash chromatography on AB-8 macroporous resin to give 52 g of EC (purity 99.1%). This scaled up apparatus could be used for the industrial separation of natural products. PMID:23219478

  16. A Laboratory Exercise Using a Physical Model for Demonstrating Countercurrent Heat Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, Catherine; Davis-Berg, Elizabeth C.; Botz, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    A physical model was used in a laboratory exercise to teach students about countercurrent exchange mechanisms. Countercurrent exchange is the transport of heat or chemicals between fluids moving in opposite directions separated by a permeable barrier (such as blood within adjacent blood vessels flowing in opposite directions). Greater exchange of…

  17. Evaluation of the performance of protein separation in figure-8 centrifugal counter-current chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Gu, Dongyu; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    The performance of protein separation using the figure-8 column configuration in centrifugal counter-current chromatography was investigated under various flow rates and revolution speeds. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of polyethylene glycol 1000/potassium phosphate each at 12.5% (w/w) in water and with lysozyme and myoglobin as test samples. In order to improve tracing of the elution curve, a hollow fiber membrane dialyzer was inserted at the inlet of the UV detector. The results showed that the retention of stationary phase (Sf) and resolution (Rs) increased with decreased flow rate and increased revolution speed. The highest Rs of approximately 1 was obtained at a flow rate of 0.01 mL/min under a revolution speed of 1200 rpm with a 3.4 ml capacity column. PMID:22100551

  18. Countercurrent assisted quantitative recovery of metabolites from plant-associated natural deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Garzon, Jahir; Friesen, J Brent; Zhang, Yu; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-07-01

    NAtural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) are chemically simple but physiologically important plant constituents that exhibit unique solubilizing properties of other metabolites, including bioactive constituents. The high polarity of NADES introduces a challenge in the ability of conventional solid-support based chromatography to recover potential bioactive metabolites. This complicates the systematic explanation of the NADES' functions in botanical extracts. The present study utilizes countercurrent separation (CCS) methodology to overcome the recovery challenge. To demonstrate its feasibility, Glucose-Choline chloride-Water (GCWat, 2:5:5, mole/mole) served as a model NADES, and four widely used marker flavonoids with different polarities (rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and daidzein) were chosen as model target analytes. In order to prepare GCWat with high consistency, a water drying study was performed. The unique capabilities of the recently introduced CherryOne system, offering volumetric phase metering, were used to monitor the CCS operations. The collected fractions were analyzed using UHPLC and NMR/quantitative NMR. CCS was able to recover the analytes from the NADES matrix with quantitative recoveries of 95.7%, 94.6%, 97.0%, and 96.7% for rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and daidzein respectively. The CCS strategy enables recovery of target metabolites from NADES-containing crude extracts as well as from other chemical mixtures, and moreover offers a means of using NADES as environmentally friendly extraction solvents. PMID:27118320

  19. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of solvent systems for countercurrent separation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, J Brent; Ahmed, Sana; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-01-16

    Rational solvent system selection for countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography technology (collectively known as countercurrent separation) studies continues to be a scientific challenge as the fundamental questions of comparing polarity range and selectivity within a solvent system family and between putative orthogonal solvent systems remain unanswered. The current emphasis on metabolomic investigations and analysis of complex mixtures necessitates the use of successive orthogonal countercurrent separation (CS) steps as part of complex fractionation protocols. Addressing the broad range of metabolite polarities demands development of new CS solvent systems with appropriate composition, polarity (π), selectivity (σ), and suitability. In this study, a mixture of twenty commercially available natural products, called the GUESSmix, was utilized to evaluate both solvent system polarity and selectively characteristics. Comparisons of GUESSmix analyte partition coefficient (K) values give rise to a measure of solvent system polarity range called the GUESSmix polarity index (GUPI). Solvatochromic dye and electrical permittivity measurements were also evaluated in quantitatively assessing solvent system polarity. The relative selectivity of solvent systems were evaluated with the GUESSmix by calculating the pairwise resolution (αip), the number of analytes found in the sweet spot (Nsw), and the pairwise resolution of those sweet spot analytes (αsw). The combination of these parameters allowed for both intra- and inter-family comparison of solvent system selectivity. Finally, 2-dimensional reciprocal shifted symmetry plots (ReSS(2)) were created to visually compare both the polarities and selectivities of solvent system pairs. This study helps to pave the way to the development of new solvent systems that are amenable to successive orthogonal CS protocols employed in metabolomic studies. PMID:25542704

  20. Alkaline-side extraction of technetium from tank waste using crown ethers and other extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.; Presley, D.J.; Armstrong, V.S.; Haverlock, T.J.; Counce, R.M.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    The chemical development of a new crown-ether-based solvent-extraction process for the separation of (Tc) from alkaline tank-waste supernate is ready for counter-current testing. The process addresses a priority need in the proposed cleanup of Hanford and other tank wastes. This need has arisen from concerns due to the volatility of Tc during vitrification, as well as {sup 99}Tc`s long half-life and environmental mobility. The new process offers several key advantages that direct treatability--no adjustment of the waste composition is needed; economical stripping with water; high efficiency--few stages needed; non-RCRA chemicals--no generation of hazardous or mixed wastes; co-extraction of {sup 90}Sr; and optional concentration on a resin. A key concept advanced in this work entails the use of tandem techniques: solvent extraction offers high selectivity, while a subsequent column sorption process on the aqueous stripping solution serves to greatly concentrate the Tc. Optionally, the stripping solution can be evaporated to a small volume. Batch tests of the solvent-extraction and stripping components of the process have been conducted on actual melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste as well as simulants of MVST and Hanford waste. The tandem process was demonstrated on MVST waste simulants using the three solvents that were selected the final candidates for the process. The solvents are 0.04 M bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (abbreviated di-t-BuCH18C6) in a 1:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M (an isoparaffinic kerosene); 0.02 M di-t-BuCH18C6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar M and pure TBP. The process is now ready for counter-current testing on actual Hanford tank supernates.

  1. An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method for preparative separation of minor alkaloids by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui-Hong; Hou, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Pan, Hui-Qin; Yang, Wenzhi; Qi, Peng; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yang, Min; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2015-08-28

    An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method was established to increase the content of the minor alkaloids in crude extract by using the corresponding two-phase solvent system applied in pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The enrichment and separation of seven minor indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil(UR) were selected as an example to show the advantage of this method. An optimized two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v) was used in this study, where triethylamine (TEA) as the retainer and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the eluter were added at the equimolar of 10mM. Crude alkaloids of UR dissolved in the corresponding upper phase (containing 10mM TEA) were extracted twice with lower phase (containing 10mM TEA) and lower phase (containing 10mM HCl), respectively, the second lower phase extract was subjected to pH-zone-refining CCC separation after alkalization and desalination. Finally, from 10g of crude alkaloids, 4g of refined alkaloids was obtained and the total content of seven target indole alkaloids was increased from 4.64% to 15.78%. Seven indole alkaloids, including 54mg isocorynoxeine, 21mg corynoxeine, 46mg isorhynchophylline, 35mg rhynchophylline, 65mg hirsutine, 51mg hirsuteine and 27mg geissoschizine methylether were all simultaneously separated from 2.5g of refined alkaloids, with the purity of 86.4%, 97.5%, 90.3%, 92.1%, 98.5%, 92.3%, and 92.8%, respectively. The total content and purities of the seven minor indole alkaloids were tested by HPLC and their chemical structures were elucidated by ESI-HRMS and (1)H NMR. PMID:26209189

  2. Rigging Test Bed Development for Validation of Multi-Stage Decelerator Extractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenig, Sivan J.; Gallon, John C.; Adams, Douglas S.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator project is developing new decelerator systems for Mars entry which would include testing with a Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test Vehicle. One of the decelerator systems being developed is a large supersonic ringsail parachute. Due to the configuration of the vehicle it is not possible to deploy the parachute with a mortar which would be the preferred method for a spacecraft in a supersonic flow. Alternatively, a multi-stage extraction process using a ballute as a pilot is being developed for the test vehicle. The Rigging Test Bed is a test venue being constructed to perform verification and validation of this extraction process. The test bed consists of a long pneumatic piston device capable of providing a constant force simulating the ballute drag force during the extraction events. The extraction tests will take place both inside a high-bay for frequent tests of individual extraction stages and outdoors using a mobile hydraulic crane for complete deployment tests from initial pack pull out to canopy extraction. These tests will measure line tensions and use photogrammetry to track motion of the elements involved. The resulting data will be used to verify packing and rigging as well, as validate models and identify potential failure modes in order to finalize the design of the extraction system.

  3. ISOLATION OF GLYCOSIDES FROM THE BARKS OF ILEX ROTUNDA BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun; Chao, Zhimao; Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaoyi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Semi-preparative and preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) were successfully used for isolation of glycosides from 50% ethanol extract of the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae) by using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:6:7, v/v/v). From 1.0 g of the extract, syringaresinol 4',4"-di-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (I, 20.2 mg),, syringin (II, 56.8 mg), sinapaldehyde glucoside (III, 26.2 mg),, syringaresinol 4'-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (IV, 20.4 mg), and pedunculoside (V, 45.1 mg) were obtained by one run of TBE-1000A HSCCC instrument with 1000 mL of column volume. Their structures were identified by IR, MS, and 1H and 13C NMR studies. Glycoside I was isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:25132792

  4. Isolation of cyanidin 3-glucoside from blue honeysuckle fruits by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Xin, Xiulan; Lan, Rong; Yuan, Qipeng; Wang, Xiaojie; Li, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Blue honeysuckle fruits are rich in anthocyanins with many beneficial effects such as reduction of the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancers. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for the separation of anthocyanin on a preparative scale from blue honeysuckle fruit crude extract with a biphasic solvent system composed of tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water/trifluoroacetic acid (2:2:1:5:0.01, v/v) for the first time in this paper. Each injection of 100 mg crude extract yielded 22.8 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) at 98.1% purity. The compound was identified by means of electro-spray ionisation mass (ESI/MS) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. PMID:24444952

  5. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural... Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural... Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11...

  7. Isolation of a furan fatty acid from Hevea brasiliensis latex employing the combined use of pH-zone-refining and conventional countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Englert, Michael; Ulms, Kerstin; Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Furan fatty acids are valuable and bioactive minor fatty acids that usually contribute <0.1% to the fatty acid content of food samples. Their biological role still remains unclear as authentic furan fatty acid standards are not readily available and thorough experimental studies verifying the relevance of furan fatty acids are thus virtually impossible. An efficient protocol for the isolation of the furan fatty acid 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from hydrolyzed and centrifuged latex of Hevea brasiliensis was developed using countercurrent chromatography. A first run using pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography provided 48.4 mg of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from 210 mg latex extract in a purity of 95%. The purity was increased to 99% by means of one second run in conventional countercurrent chromatography mode. The Structure and purity of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26611161

  8. Isolation and purification of arctigenin from Fructus Arctii by enzymatic hydrolysis combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Xi, Xingjun; Wang, Mei; Fan, Li; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography for the transformation and isolation of arctigenin from Fructus Arctii was successfully developed. In the first step, the extract solution of Fructus Arctii was enzymatic hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were 40°C, pH 5.0, 24 h of hydrolysis time, and 1.25 mg/mL β-glucosidase concentration. Under these conditions, the content of arctigenin was transformed from 2.60 to 12.59 mg/g. In the second step, arctigenin in the hydrolysis products was separated and purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (10:25:15:20, v/v), and the fraction was analyzed by HPLC, ESI-MS, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Finally, 102 mg of arctigenin with a purity of 98.9% was obtained in a one-step separation from 200 mg of hydrolyzed sample. PMID:24311558

  9. Effects of seasonal and well construction variables on soil vapor extraction pilot tests

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.; Hudon, N.; Bass, D.

    1995-12-31

    The selection and design of an effective soil vapor extraction system is dependent upon data generated from pilot testing. Therefore, it is critical to understand factors that may affect the testing prior to selecting or designing a system. In Sebago Lake Village, Maine, two adjacent gasoline stations experienced a release. Gasoline migrated through fine sand into the groundwater and discharged to a small stream. Soil vapor extraction was investigated as a remedial alternative to reduce volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated soil. Three soil vapor extraction pilot tests were performed at one of the sites and one test at the other site. The results of the testing varied. Data collected during a summer test indicated soil vapor extraction was less likely to work. The wells tested were installed using an excavator. An adequate surface seal was not present in any of the tested wells. An additional test was performed in the winter using wells installed by a drill rig. Winter test results indicated that soil vapor extraction could be effective. Another test was performed after a horizontal soil vapor extraction system with a surface seal was installed. The results of this testing indicated that soil vapor extraction was more effective than predicted by the earlier tests. Tests performed on the other property indicated that the horizontal wells were more effective than the vertical wells. Testing results were affected by the well installation method, well construction, proximity to manmade structures, and the season in which testing was performed. Understanding factors that affect the testing is critical in selecting and designing the system.

  10. Rapid isolation and purification of phorbol esters from Jatropha curcas by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hua, Wan; Hu, Huiling; Chen, Fang; Tang, Lin; Peng, Tong; Wang, Zhanguo

    2015-03-18

    In this work, a high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for the preparation of phorbol esters (PEs) from Jatropha curcas. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:1.5:1.2:0.5, v/v) was selected as the optimum two-phase solvent system to separate and purify jatropha factor C1 (JC1) with a purity of 85.2%, as determined by HPLC, and to obtain a mixture containing four or five PEs. Subsequently, continuous semipreparative HPLC was applied to further purify JC1 (99.8% as determined by HPLC). In addition, UPLC-PDA and UPLC-MS were established and successfully used to evaluate the isolated JC1 and PE-rich crude extract. The purity of JC1 was only 87.8% by UPLC-UV. A peak (a compound highly similar to JC1) was indentified as the isomer of JC1 by comparing the characteristic UV absorption and MS spectra. Meanwhile, this strategy was also applied to analyze the PE-rich crude extract from J. curcas. It is interesting that there may be more than 15 PEs according to the same quasi-molecular ion peaks, highly similar sequence-specific fragment ions, and similar UV absorption spectrum. PMID:25686848

  11. Syringe test (modified larval immersion test): a new bioassay for testing acaricidal activity of plant extracts against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Zia-ud-Din; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Iqbal, Zafar

    2012-09-10

    We report a new bioassay "syringe test" (modified larval immersion test) for in vitro evaluation of acaricidal activity of crude plant extracts. Prepared syringes, containing eggs of tick, were incubated until 14 d after hatching of eggs, when the bioassay was performed on the larvae. Lethal concentrations for 50% of larvae (LC(50)), LC(90) and LC(99) values were calculated for each tested product. 95% confidence intervals for LC(50) were very narrow, indicating a high degree of repeatability for the new bioassay on larvae of R. microplus. Bioassays were applied to six crude aqueous-methanol extracts from five plants (Acacia nilotica, Buxus papillosa, Fumaria parviflora, Juniperus excelsa, and Operculina turpethum), of which three showed discernible effects. Twenty-four hours post exposure, LC(99) values were 11.9% (w/v) for F. parviflora, 20.8% (w/v) and 29.2% (w/v) for B. papillosa and A. nilotica, respectively. After six days of exposure these values were; 9.1% (w/v), 9.2% (w/v) and 15.5 (w/v) for F. parviflora, A. nilotica and B. papillosa, respectively. PMID:22516644

  12. A micro hot test of the Chalmers-GANEX extraction system on used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bauhn, L.; Hedberg, M.; Aneheim, E.; Ekberg, C.; Loefstroem-Engdahl, E.; Skarnemark, G.

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, a 'micro hot test' has been performed using the Chalmers-GANEX (Group Actinide Extraction) system for partitioning of used nuclear fuel. The test included a pre-extraction step using N,N-di-2- ethylhexyl-butyramide (DEHBA) in n-octanol to remove the bulk part of the uranium. This pre-extraction was followed by a group extraction of actinides using the mixture of TBP and CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP in cyclohexanone as suggested in the Chalmers-GANEX process, and a three stage stripping of the extracted actinides. Distribution ratios for the extractions and stripping were determined based on a combination of γ- and α-spectrometry, as well as ICP-MS measurements. Successful extraction of uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides neptunium, americium and curium was achieved. However, measurements also indicated that co-extraction of europium occurs to some extent during the separation. These results were expected based on previous experiments using trace concentrations of actinides and lanthanides. Since this test was only performed in one stage with respect to the group actinide extraction, it is expected that multi stage tests will give even better results. (authors)

  13. A mutagenicity and cytotoxicity study of limonium effusum aqueous extracts by Allium, Ames and MTT tests.

    PubMed

    Eren, Y; Ozata, A; Konuk, M; Akyil, D; Liman, R

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays plants or plant extracts have become very important for alternative medicine. Plants and their extracts have many therapeutical advantages but some of them are potentially toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic. Root, stem and leafparts of Limonium effusum were used in this study and this species is an endemic species for Turkey. Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of root, stem and leaf aqueous extracts were observed with Allium, Ames and MTT tests. Allium root growth inhibition test and mitotic index studies showed that aqueous extracts have dose-dependent toxic effects. Chromosome aberration studies indicated that especially sticky chromosome, anaphase-telophase disorder and laggard chromosome anomalies were highly observed. Ames test performed with Limonium effusum root aqueous extracts, showed weak mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain with S9. MTT test based on mitochondrial activity indicated that most of the aqueous extracts have cytotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine the possible mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of L. effusum aqueous extracts by using bacterial, plant and mammalian cells. This research showed that some low concentrations of the L. effusum extracts have inhibited cytotoxic effects but high concentrations have induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand only a weak mutagenic activity was identified by Ames test with TA98 S9(+). PMID:26030975

  14. Novel Design for Centrifugal Countercurrent Chromatography: I. Zigzag Toroidal Column.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    The toroidal coil using an equilateral triangular core has improved both retention of the stationary phase and peak resolution of the conventional toroidal coil in centrifugal countercurrent chromatography. To further improve the retention of stationary phase and peak resolution, a novel zigzag toroidal coil was designed and the performance of the system was evaluated at various flow rates. The results indicated that both retention of stationary phase and peak resolution were improved as the flow rate was decreased. Modification of the tubing by pressing at given intervals with a pair of pliers improved the peak resolution without increasing the column pressure. All these separations were performed under low column pressure indicating the separation can be further improved by increasing the column length and/or revolution speed without damaging the separation column. PMID:20046954

  15. Countercurrent direct contact heat exchange process and system

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1979-01-01

    Recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources by direct contact heat exchange with a working fluid, such as a hydrocarbon working fluid, e.g. isobutane. The process and system consists of a plurality of stages, each stage including mixing and settling units. In the first stage, hot brine and arm working fluid are intimately mixed and passed into a settler wherein the brine settles to the bottom of the settler and the hot working fluid rises to the top. The hot working fluid is passed to a heat engine or turbine to produce work and the working fluid is then recycled back into the system. The system is comprised of a series of stages each containing a settler and mixer, and wherein the working fluid and the brine flow in a countercurrent manner through the stages to recover the heat from the brine in increments and raise the temperature of the working fluid in increments.

  16. Automated solvent system screening for the preparative countercurrent chromatography of pharmaceutical discovery compounds.

    PubMed

    Bradow, James; Riley, Frank; Philippe, Laurence; Yan, Qi; Schuff, Brandon; Harris, Guy H

    2015-12-01

    A fully automated countercurrent chromatography system has been constructed to rapidly screen the commonly used heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system series and translate the results to preparative scale separations. The system utilizes "on-demand" preparation of the heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system upper and lower phases. Elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography was combined with non-dynamic equilibrium injection reducing the screening time for each heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water system to 17 min. The result enabled solvent system development to be reduced to under 2 h. The countercurrent chromatography system was interfaced with a mass spectrometer to allow selective detection of target components in crude medicinal chemistry reaction mixtures. Mass-directed preparative countercurrent chromatography purification was demonstrated for the first time using a synthetic tetrazole epoxide derived from a routine medicinal chemistry support workflow. PMID:26428946

  17. Scaling of Counter-Current Imbibition Process in Low-Permeability Porous Media, TR-121

    SciTech Connect

    Kvoscek, A.R.; Zhou, D.; Jia, L.; Kamath, J.

    2001-01-17

    This project presents the recent work on imaging imbibition in low permeability porous media (diatomite) with X-ray completed tomography. The viscosity ratio between nonwetting and wetting fluids is varied over several orders of magnitude yielding different levels of imbibition performance. Also performed is mathematical analysis of counter-current imbibition processes and development of a modified scaling group incorporating the mobility ratio. This modified group is physically based and appears to improve scaling accuracy of countercurrent imbibition significantly.

  18. Prototype of a test bench for applied research on Extracted beams of the nuclotron accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Bradnova, V.; Butenko, A. V.; Fedorov, A. N.; Kudashkin, I. V.

    2016-05-01

    The results of the development and testing of elements of a test bench for investigating the impact of accelerated particle beams on biological objects, electronics, and other targets are presented. The systems for beam monitoring and target positioning were tested on extracted argon beams in the framework of experiments on studying the radiation hardness of electronic components.

  19. Separation of amaranthine-type betacyanins by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Gerold; Gebers, Nadine; Szot, Dominika; Szaleniec, Maciej; Winterhalter, Peter; Wybraniec, Slawomir

    2014-05-30

    Betacyanins, red-violet plant pigments, were fractionated by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography (IP-HSCCC) from leaves extract of Iresine lindenii Van Houtte, an ornamental plant of the family Amaranthaceae. An HSCCC solvent system consisting of TBME-1-BuOH-ACN-H2O (1:3:1:5, v/v/v/v) was applied using ion-pair forming heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA). Significantly different elution profiles of betacyanin diastereomeric pairs (derivatives based on betanidin and isobetanidin) observed in the HSCCC in comparison to HPLC systems indicate a complementarity of both techniques' fractionation capabilities. The numerous diastereomeric pairs can be selectively separated from each other using the HSCCC system simplifying the pigment purification process. Apart from the three well known highly abundant pigments (amaranthine, betanin and iresinin I) together with their isoforms, three new acylated (feruloylated and sinapoylated) betacyanins as well as known pigment hylocerenin (previously isolated from cacti fruits) were characterized in the plant for the first time and they are new for the whole Amaranthaceae family. PMID:24767836

  20. Rapid separation of polysaccharides using a novel spiral coil column by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Weili; Wu, Tao

    2016-04-01

    The separation of polysaccharides is time consuming. We developed and optimized a type-J counter-current chromatography system with a novel tri-rotor spiral coil column for the rapid separation of polysaccharides. The optimal composition of an aqueous PEG1000/K2 HPO4 /KH2 PO4 system was found to be 14:16:14 w/w/w where the lower phase was the mobile phase. Optimal performance was achieved at a column rotational speed, temperature, and flow rate of 1200 rpm, 45°C, and 3.0 mL/min, respectively. The mobile phase was pumped from the inner terminal in a ''head-to-tail'' elution mode. Polysaccharide LCP-1 (10.7 mg) was successfully obtained in high purity in one step from 50.0 mg of a crude polysaccharide extracted from the lychee fruit (Litchi chinensis) within 100 min. LCP-1 possess a number-average molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight of 1.05 × 10(5) and 1.59 × 10(5) kDa, respectively. The monosaccharide composition consists of the molar ratio of glucose, galactose, and arabinose of 1.3:3.5:1. PMID:26857207

  1. Purification of Active Myrosinase from Plants by Aqueous Two-Phase Counter-Current Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Kristina L.; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W. David; Fahey, Jed W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (frombroccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. Objective To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. Methods A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Results Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Conclusion Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. PMID:25130502

  2. Preparative separation of grape skin polyphenols by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lanxin; Cui, Yan; Zhang, Shuting; Li, Lingxi; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Peiyu; Sun, Baoshan

    2016-12-01

    To develop an efficient method for large preparation of various individual polyphenols from white grape skins (Fernão Pires; Vitis vinifera) by preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative-HPLC, an optimized preparative HSCCC condition with two-phase solvent system composed of Hex-EtOAc-H2O (1:50:50, v/v) was used to separate grape skin polyphenols into various fractions. Both the tail-head and head-tail elution modes were used with a flow rate of 3.0ml/min and a rotary speed of 950rpm. Afterwards, a preparative-HPLC separation was applied to isolate individual polyphenols in each of the fractions from HSCCC. Total of 7 fractions (Fraction A to G) were obtained from grape skin extract by HSCCC. After preparative-HPLC isolation, fifteen individual compounds were obtained, most of which presented high yields and purity (all over 90%). The HSCCC method followed with preparative-HPLC appeared to be convenient and economical, constituting an efficient strategy for the isolation of grape skin polyphenols. PMID:27374588

  3. Preparative separation of minor saponins from Platycodi Radix by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ha, In J; Kang, Minseok; Na, Yun C; Park, Youmie; Kim, Yeong S

    2011-10-01

    Platycosides (PSs), the saponins found in the root of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. (Platycodi Radix), are typically composed of oleanene backbones with two side chains; one is a 3-O-glucose linked by a glycosidic bond, and the other is a 28-O-arabinose-rhamnose-xylose-apiose linked by an ester bond. Minor saponins, acetylated isomers of the major saponin on either the 2'' or 3'' position of rhamnose, were isolated from Platycodi Radix using a multi-step process including high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). After the separation of the major components, the enriched minor saponin fraction was used for this study. A two-phase solvent system consisting of chloroform-methanol-isopropanol-water (3:2:2:3, v/v) was used for HSCCC. HSCCC separation of the enriched minor saponin fraction yielded 2''-O-acetylplatycodin D, 3''-O-acetylpolygalacin D, 2''-O-acetylpolygalacin and a mixture of 3''-O-acetylplatycodin D and polygalacin D. The mixture fraction from HSCCC separation was further purified by preparative RP-HPLC, giving 3''-O-acetylplatycodin D and polygalacin D at a purity of over 98.9%. The developed method provides the preparative and rapid separation of minor saponins in the crude extract of Platycodi Radix. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first on the separation of acetylated PSs by HSCCC. PMID:21812112

  4. SEPARATION OF THE MINOR FLAVONOLS FROM FLOS GOSSYPII BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Zhao, Yongxin; Gu, Dongyu; Ayupbek, Amatjan; Huang, Yun; Dou, Jun; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Tianyou; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2010-01-01

    An effective high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for further separation and purification of four minor flavonols in addition to five major flavonols which were reported by our previous study from extracts of Flos Gossypii. HSCCC was performed with three two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (7.5:15:6:7, v/v), (2.5:15:2:7, v/v) and (0:1:0:1, v/v). The separation was repeated 3 times, and 3.8 mg of 8-methoxyl-kaempferol-7-O-β-D-rhamnoside (HPLC purity 98.27%), 6.7 mg of astragalin (HPLC purity 94.18%), 3.3 mg of 4′-methoxyl-quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (HPLC purity 94.30%) and 8.2 mg of hyperoside (HPLC purity 93.48%) were separated from 150 mg of the crude sample. The chemical structures of the flavonols were confirmed by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Meanwhile, the results indicated that the target compound with smaller K value (<0.5) can be separated by increasing column length of HSCCC. And four separation rules of flavonols according to the present study and references were summarized, which can be used as a useful guide for separation of flavonols by HSCCC. PMID:21494318

  5. Organic-solvent extraction of model biomaterials for use in the in vitro chromosome aberration test.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Atsuko; Haishima, Yuji; Hasegawa, Chie; Matsuda, Yoshie; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2008-07-01

    We prepared polyurethane (PU) containing 0.4% or 4% 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) as model materials to investigate the effectiveness of sample preparation by organic-solvent extraction for the in vitro chromosome aberration (CA) test. MDA itself (0.4 mg/mL) was positive only in the presence of an exogenous metabolizing system (S9 mix). The culture medium extract of PU containing 4% MDA (PU/4% MDA) was negative with and without S9 mix. Methanol and acetone extracts, on the other hand, induced structural CAs without S9 mix, which we did not expect because MDA requires S9 mix for activity. On chemical analysis, however, we found that the ratio of MDA extracted by the organic solvents to that extracted by the culture medium of PU/4% MDA was about 15:1. Interestingly, oligomers consisting of poly(tetramethyleneglycol) derivatives (OTMG) were also extracted by the organic solvents. The data suggest that the induction of structural CAs in the absence of S9 mix may have been partly due to synergism of MDA and OTMG. CA tests of MDA and PTMG-1000 in combination confirmed that to be the case. Thus, organic-solvent extraction may be more effective than medium extraction in evaluating the biological safety of biomaterials. Detailed chemical analysis of extracts was performed. PMID:17941025

  6. PNEUMATIC PUMP TEST FOR DESIGN OF SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ pneumatic pumping tests were performed to estimate the pneumatic permeability at a site containing soils contaminated with aviation gasoline. Determination of pneumatic permeability was necessary to evaluate soil-air discharge or pore volume exchange rates. Pressure propa...

  7. FIELD TEST OF AIR SPARGING COUPLED WITH SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A controlled field study was designed and conducted to assess the performance of air sparging for remediation of petroleum fuel and solvent contamination in a shallow (3-m deep) groundwater aquifer. Sparging was performed in an insolation test cell (5 m by 3 m by 8-m deep). A soi...

  8. Separation and purification of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiping; Dong, Congcong; Wang, Kai; Jiang, Zedong; Chen, Yanhong; Yang, Yuanfan; Chen, Feng; Ni, Hui

    2016-09-01

    An effective high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for the preparative isolation and purification of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma. With a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-acetone-ethanol-water (1:1:1:1, v/v/v/v), 100mg crude extract of P. rhodozyma was separated to yield 20.6mg of astaxanthin at 92.0% purity. By further one step silica gel column chromatography, the purity reached 99.0%. The chemical structure of astaxanthin was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), UV spectroscopy scanning, high performance liquid chromatography with a ZORBAX SB-C18 column and a Waters Nova-pak C18 column, and ESI/MS/MS. PMID:27433984

  9. Studies on the Performance of Different Coiled Column Configurations for Compact Type-I Counter-current Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Gu, Dongyu; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Three types of novel coiled column configurations, i.e., a triangular coiled column and elliptical coiled columns I and II, were designed for type-I countercurrent chromatography and their performances were evaluated with two solvent systems each with suitable test samples. Three DNP-amino acids (DNP-DL-glu, DNP-β-ala and DNP-L-ala) were separated with a moderately hydrophobic two-phase solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-metanol-0.1M hydrochloric acid (1:1:1:1, v/v), while two dipeptides (tryptophyl tyrosine and valyl-tyrosine) were separated with a polar solvent system composed of 1-butanol-acetic acid-water (4.75:0.25:5, v/v). The overall results indicated that the performance of compact type-I counter-current chromatography was improved by elliptical coiled column II which was mounted with its maximum coil diameter perpendicular to the surface of the column holder. Hydrodynamic effects involved in these separations were discussed. PMID:21491597

  10. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-09-01

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  11. Papaver Rhoeas L. Hydroalcoholic Extract Exacerbates Forced Swimming Test-Induced Depression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Osanloo, Naser; Najafi-Abedi, Akram; Jafari, Fatemeh; Javid, Farshid; Pirpiran, Mohsen; Memar Jafari, Mohammad-Reza; Mousavi Khosravi, Seyed Ali; Rahimzadeh Behzadi, Mohammad; Ranjbaran, Mina; Sahraei, Hedayat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the world with occurs with higher incidence in women. In the present study, the effect of water-alcoholic extract of Papaver rhoeas L. on forced swimming test (FST) in Swiss-Webster mice were examined. Methods: We used Swiss-Webster mice (20–25 g) to execute FST on them. The plant extract (1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was injected to the animals 30 minutes before each session. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) was used as standard antidepressant drug. In another group of animals, 30 minutes after extract administration, blood samples were taken from retro-orbital sinus for corticosterone assay. Yet in third group, the drugs were injected to the animals and 30 minutes later, their activities were tested in an open field apparatus. Results: Our experiments showed that the extract efficiently reduced FST time both in male and female mice dose-dependently. This effect was comparable with fluoxetine. In addition, corticosterone assay indicated that plasma corticosterone in animals which received extract was higher than those amounts in fluoxetine and saline controls. Moreover, the animals did not show any motor activity deficit in all doses of the extract and fluoxetine compared to saline control. Conclusion: The extract of Papaver rhoeas can reduce immobility time which is comparable to the effect of fluoxetine. Also the effect of the extract is contrary to its effects on plasma corticosterone level and or animals’ activity. PMID:27563412

  12. CMOS-MEMS Test-Key for Extracting Wafer-Level Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Wan-Chun; Hu, Yuh-Chung; Chang, Pei-Zen

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the technologies of mechanical characterization of CMOS-MEMS devices, and presents a robust algorithm for extracting mechanical properties, such as Young’s modulus, and mean stress, through the external electrical circuit behavior of the micro test-key. An approximate analytical solution for the pull-in voltage of bridge-type test-key subjected to electrostatic load and initial stress is derived based on Euler’s beam model and the minimum energy method. Then one can use the aforesaid closed form solution of the pull-in voltage to extract the Young’s modulus and mean stress of the test structures. The test cases include the test-key fabricated by a TSMC 0.18 μm standard CMOS process, and the experimental results refer to Osterberg’s work on the pull-in voltage of single crystal silicone microbridges. The extracted material properties calculated by the present algorithm are valid. Besides, this paper also analyzes the robustness of this algorithm regarding the dimension effects of test-keys. This mechanical properties extracting method is expected to be applicable to the wafer-level testing in micro-device manufacture and compatible with the wafer-level testing in IC industry since the test process is non-destructive. PMID:23235449

  13. EFFECTS OF TREATMENTS ON SOIL-LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY: IMPLICATIONS OF IN-VITRO EXTRACTION TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field-scale study on the use of phosphate amendments to reduce lead bioavailabity from soil is being conducted at the Joplin site. One of the tools used to evaluate whether lead bioavailability is being reduced is an in vitro extraction test. The in vitro test simulates the gas...

  14. Cerebral sodium extraction in the dog: a test for extracerebral contamintion

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alecy, L.G.; Rose, C.J.; Sellers, S.A.; Manfredi, J.P.

    1980-06-01

    The single-pass extraction of sodium was measured with and without sympathetic stimulation in dogs anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. A mixture of the test (/sup 24/Na) and reference ((/sup 125/I) RISA) substances was injected as a bolus into the common carotid artery. Single-drop samples were taken at approximately 1-s intervals from the sagittal sinus and the temporal sinus while cerebral blood flow was continuously measured at the temporal sinus by the venous outflow technique. The extraction measurements were used to test for extracerebral contamination of venous outflow. If true cerebral sodium extraction is assumed to be 1.4% and extracerebral sodium extraction is 60%, then these data indicate that extracerebral contamination is less than 10%.

  15. An evaluation of acetone extracts from six plants in the Ames mutagenicity test.

    PubMed

    White, R D; Krumperman, P H; Cheeke, P R; Buhler, D R

    1983-01-01

    Acetone extracts from six plants were evaluated for mutagenic activity with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test (Ames) utilizing tester strains TA98 and TA100 and in the presence and absence of induced rat liver microsomes. Extracts from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and thread-leaf groundsel (Senecio longilobus) produced only negative responses. Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) and tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) extracts produced toxic responses that were abolished in the presence of the microsomal bioactivation system. Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and tansy ragwort extracts produced positive responses following bioactivation with the liver microsomal system. The results suggest that the Ames mutagenicity test may be of some value in initial evaluations for potential toxic effects of plants consumed by animals and man. PMID:6836587

  16. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

    PubMed Central

    Aşkin Çelik, Tülay; Aslantürk, Özlem Sultan

    2010-01-01

    I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) (2 · 10−2 M) has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P < .05) inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the control groups. All the tested extracts have been observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. I. viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC) formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa. PMID:20617136

  17. Production, Extraction, and Qualitative Testing of Penicillin: A Biochemistry Experiment for Health Science Chemistry Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Richard E.; Billingsley, Kara C.

    1998-10-01

    This laboratory procedure guides students through the growth of a submerged Penicillium chrysogenum culture. Subsequent steps include extraction of the penicillin by adsorption onto activated charcoal, extraction with acetone, and qualitative testing of the drug on a bacterial culture. The laboratory procedure is designed for freshman-level health science chemistry courses. This procedure produces minimal waste, which can be disposed of by the appropriate use of an autoclave.

  18. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  19. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Methods: Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: The results revealed that the acute and chronic pain behavior score in test groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. Discussion: The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats. PMID:26649166

  20. Genotoxicity testing of Persicariae Rhizoma (Persicaria tinctoria H. Gross) aqueous extracts

    PubMed Central

    LEE, WON HO; CHOI, SEONG HUN; KANG, SU JIN; SONG, CHANG HYUN; PARK, SOO JIN; LEE, YOUNG JOON; KU, SAE KWANG

    2016-01-01

    Persicariae Rhizoma (PR) has been used as an anti-inflammatory and detoxification agent in Korea, and contains the biologically active dyes purple indirubin and blue indigo. Despite synthetic indigo showing genotoxic potential, thorough studies have not been carried out on the genotoxicity of PR. The potential genotoxicity of an aqueous extract of PR containing indigo (0.043%) and indirubin (0.009%) was evaluated using a standard battery of tests for safety assessment. The PR extract did not induce any genotoxic effects under the conditions of this study. The results of a reverse mutation assay in four Salmonella typhimurium strains and one Escherichia coli strain indicated that PR extract did not increase the frequency of revertant colonies in any strain, regardless of whether S9 mix was present or not. The PR extract also did not increase chromosomal aberrations in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Although slight signs of diarrhea were restrictedly detected in the mice treated with 2,000 mg/kg PR extract, no noteworthy changes in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were observed at doses ≤2,000 mg/kg in a bone marrow micronucleus test. These results indicate the potential safety of the PR extract, particularly if it is consumed in small amounts compared with the quantities used in the genotoxicity tests. PMID:27347027

  1. Enantioselective Recognition in Solution: The Case of Countercurrent Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Núria; Minguillón, Cristina

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a preparative separation technique that works with a liquid stationary phase. Biphasic liquid systems are needed to perform a separation. Since a chiral selector is required to perform enantiomer separations, special requirements are imposed in CCC. The chiral selector (CS) must be located in the stationary phase since partitioning with the mobile phase would cause losses of the valuable chiral selector in the mobile phase. Sulfated cyclodextrins and proteins were used as polar CS located in the polar stationary phase (reversed phase mode). Apolar CSs such as N-dodecyl-L-proline 3,5-dimethylanilide or Whelk-O selectors, quinine and quinidine derivatives, cellulose or amylose apolar derivatives were used located in the apolar stationary phase (normal phase mode). The special CCC displacement method called pH-zone refining was found useful in the increase of the loading capacity for cellulose, quinine, quinidine, and proline-derived selectors. Dual and multidual mode uses of CCC could produce an increase in peak separation thereby broadening the applicability of moderately enantioselective CSs.

  2. Annual and longitudinal variations of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lolk, Nina K.

    1992-01-01

    The climatological annual cycle of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) simulated by an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) was studied. The longitudinal variation of transports, degree of geostrophy, and the relationship between Ekman pumping and vertical displacement of the thermocline were emphasized. The longitudinal variation was explored using six sections along 150 deg E, 180 deg, 160 deg W, 140 deg W, 125 deg W, and 110 deg W. A primitive equation OGCM of the Pacific Ocean was run for three years and the fields used were from the third year. The fields consisted of zonal, meridional, and vertical current components and temperature and salinity averaged every three days. The model was forced with the Hellerman and Rosenstein climatological wind stress. The mean annual eastward transport (19.9 Sv) was largest at 160 deg W. The maximum-current boundaries along 160 deg W were 9.2 deg N (1.0 deg), 5.1 deg N (1.1 deg), and 187 m (90.6 m). The annual-cycle amplitude of the NECC was greatest between 160 deg W and 140 deg W. Although the NECC is geostrophic to the first order, deviations from geostrophy were found in the boreal spring and summer near the southern boundary and near the surface. Meridional local acceleration played a role between 3 deg N-5 deg N.

  3. Countercurrent fixed-bed gasification of biomass at laboratory scale

    SciTech Connect

    Di Blasi, C.; Signorelli, G.; Portoricco, G.

    1999-07-01

    A laboratory-scale countercurrent fixed-bed gasification plant has been designed and constructed to produce data for process modeling and to compare the gasification characteristics of several biomasses (beechwood, nutshells, olive husks, and grape residues). The composition of producer gas and spatial temperature profiles have been measured for biomass gasification at different air flow rates. The gas-heating value always attains a maximum as a function of this operating variable, associated with a decrease of the air-to-fuel ratio. Optical gasification conditions of wood and agricultural residues give rise to comparable gas-heating values, comprised in the range 5--5.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3} with 28--30% CO, 5--7% CO{sub 2}, 6--8% H{sub 2}, 1--2% CH{sub 4}, and small amounts of C{sub 2}- hydrocarbons (apart from nitrogen). However, gasification of agricultural residues is more difficult because of bed transport, partial ash sintering, nonuniform flow distribution, and the presence of a muddy phase in the effluents, so that proper pretreatments are needed for largescale applications.

  4. Revisiting resolution in hydrodynamic countercurrent chromatography: tubing bore effect.

    PubMed

    Berthod, A; Faure, K

    2015-04-17

    A major challenge in countercurrent chromatography (CCC), the technique that works with a support-free biphasic liquid system, is to retain the liquid stationary phase inside the CCC column (Sf parameter). Two solutions are commercially available: the hydrostatic CCC columns, also called centrifugal partition chromatographs (CPC), with disks of interconnected channels and rotary seals, and the hydrodynamic CCC columns with bobbins of coiled open tube and no rotary seals. It was demonstrated that the amount of liquid stationary phase retained by a coiled tube was higher with larger bore tubing than with small bore tubes. At constant column volume, small bore tubing will be longer producing more efficiency than larger bore tube that will better retain the liquid stationary phase. Since the resolution equation in CCC is depending on both column efficiency and stationary phase retention ratio, the influence of the tubing bore should be studied. This theoretical work showed that there is an optimum tubing bore size depending on solute partition coefficient and mobile phase flow rate. The interesting result of the theoretical study is that larger tubing bores allow for dramatically reduced experiment durations for all solutes: in reversed phase CCC (polar mobile phase), hydrophobic solutes are usually highly retained. These apolar solutes can be separated by the same coil at high flow rates and reduced Sf with similar retention times as polar solutes separated at smaller flow rates and much higher Sf. PMID:25747666

  5. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOEpatents

    Cox, J.H.; Fruehan, R.J.; Elliott, J.F.

    1995-01-03

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal. 8 figures.

  6. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOEpatents

    Cox, James H.; Fruehan, Richard J.; Elliott, deceased, John F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal.

  7. Extraction of model performance from wall data in a 2-dimensional transonic flexible walled test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Data obtained from the boundary of a test section provides information on the model contained within it. A method for extracting some of this data in two dimensional testing is described. Examples of model data are included on lift, pitching moment and wake displacement thickness. A FORTRAN listing is also described, having a form suitable for incorporation into the software package used in the running of such a test section.

  8. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

  9. Genoprotective and neuroprotective effects of Daphne gnidium leaf methanol extract, tested on male mice.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Fadwa; Mokdad-Bzeouich, Imen; Sassi, Aicha; Mustapha, Nadia; Majouli, Raja; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-07-01

    Methanol extract of Daphne gnidium leaves was assessed for its antigenotoxic and neuroprotective effects through antioxidant and antibutyrylcholinesterase activities. Antigenotoxic activity was evaluated against methyl methanesulfonate injected intraperitoneally to mice, using the comet assay. The protective effect of D. gnidium reached 99.12%, at the lowest tested dose (44 mg/kg b.w.) in kidney cells, and 92.16% at the dose of 88 mg/kg b.w. in blood cells. The extract was dissolved in water and administrated to mice by intraperitoneal injection. Antioxidant activity was tested against DPPH radicals. It reached a maximum of 74.52% with an IC50 value of 45 µg/ml. Anticholinesterase activity was determined against butyrylcholinesterase, an enzyme linked to Alzheimer disease. The extract exhibited antibutyrylcholinestrase effect with an inhibition percentage of 35.82% at the lowest tested dose (44 mg/kg b.w.). PMID:26582193

  10. Reduced order modelling of counter-current two-layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavalle, Gianluca; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of two-layer flows has a great impact on absorption units of carbon-capture retrofits, since the wavy interface plays a crucial role on the transfer between the two fluids. Studying those flows by a direct numerical simulation (DNS) strategy results in a high computational cost requiring parallel computation. As an alternative approach, we present a reduced order model: the liquid film is computed with depth-integrated equations, and the coupling with the top phase is obtained by means of the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique, according to which the grid follows the interface position. We study counter-current two-layer channel flows with a moderate density ratio, focusing on loading and flooding regimes, whose complete description is a central issue for many chemical applications. Also, we investigate the influence of flow rate and pressure gradient on the interface dynamics. Speed and growth rate of linear waves match with the Orr-Sommerfeld theory and our Level-Set DNS, and non-linear wave profiles agree with DNS. Finally, our model is tested with complex gas velocity profiles of cross-flow absorbers. EPSRC grant No. EP/M001482/1.

  11. Wall pressure measurements of flooding in vertical countercurrent annular air–water flow

    SciTech Connect

    Choutapalli, I., Vierow, K.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study of flooding in countercurrent air-water annular flow in a large diameter vertical tube using wall pressure measurements is described in this paper. Axial pressure profiles along the length of the test section were measured up to and after flooding using fast response pressure transducers for three representative liquid flow rates representing a wide range of liquid Reynolds numbers (ReL = 4Γ/μ; Γ is the liquid mass flow rate per unit perimeter; μ is the dynamic viscosity) from 3341 to 19,048. The results show that flooding in large diameter tubes cannot be initiated near the air outlet and is only initiated near the air inlet. Fourier analysis of the wall pressure measurements shows that up to the point of flooding, there is no dominant wave frequency but rather a band of frequencies encompassing both the low frequency and the broad band that are responsible for flooding. The data indicates that flooding in large diameter vertical tubes may be caused by the constructive superposition of a plurality of waves rather than the action of a single large-amplitude wave.

  12. Sample Results From The Next Generation Solvent Program Real Waste Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  13. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT PROGRAM REAL WASTE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  14. Separation of five compounds from leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees by off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with gradient and recycling elution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Zeng, Hualiang; Jiang, Shujing; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-05-01

    An off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography method combined with gradient and recycling elution mode was established to isolate terpenoids and flavones from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. By using the solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water with different volume ratios, five compounds including roseooside, 5,4'-dihydroxyflavonoid-7-O-β-d-pyranglucuronatebutylester, 7,8-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxyflavon, 14-deoxyandrographiside, and andrographolide were successfully isolated. Purities of these isolated compounds were all over 95% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified by UV, mass spectrometry, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography with different elution modes is an efficient technique to isolate compounds from complex natural product extracts. PMID:25675944

  15. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  16. Performance optimization of continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography for antibody capture.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Amit K; Tan, Jasmine; Napadensky, Boris; Zydney, Andrew L; Shinkazh, Oleg

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography (CCTC) can effectively purify monoclonal antibodies from clarified cell culture fluid. CCTC has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of conventional packed bed protein A chromatography. This paper explores the optimization of CCTC in terms of product yield, impurity removal, overall productivity, and buffer usage. Modeling was based on data from bench-scale process development and CCTC experiments for protein A capture of two clarified Chinese Hamster Ovary cell culture feedstocks containing monoclonal antibodies provided by industrial partners. The impact of resin binding capacity and kinetics, as well as staging strategy and buffer recycling, was assessed. It was found that optimal staging in the binding step provides better yield and increases overall system productivity by 8-16%. Utilization of higher number of stages in the wash and elution steps can lead to significant decreases in buffer usage (∼40% reduction) as well as increased removal of impurities (∼2 log greater removal). Further reductions in buffer usage can be obtained by recycling of buffer in the wash and regeneration steps (∼35%). Preliminary results with smaller particle size resins show that the productivity of the CCTC system can be increased by 2.5-fold up to 190 g of mAb/L of resin/hr due to the reduction in mass transfer limitations in the binding step. These results provide a solid framework for designing and optimizing CCTC technology for capture applications. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:430-439, 2016. PMID:26914276

  17. A new apparatus for continuous countercurrent flow of solids and liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, P. A.

    A contactor was developed to provide true countercurrent, continuous flow of gel spheres and liquid in a moving bed. To provide smooth and controlled movement of solids, the key features consisted of a common cross section for the moving bed and a small fluidized bed, a jet to give a slurry at the bottom of the moving bed, and a controlled flow of part of this slurry to the fluidized bed. A completely continuous pilot plant for preparation of nuclear fuel by a gel-sphere process was operated with three of these moving-bed fluidized-bed contactors. Different control procedures and good countercurrent washing results were demonstrated.

  18. Extraction and Separation Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with ADAMS Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Anderson, Keith; Cuthbert, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project has increased efforts to demonstrate the performance of fully integrated parachute systems at both higher dynamic pressures and in the presence of wake fields using a Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and a Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), respectively. Modeling the extraction and separation events has proven challenging and an understanding of the physics is required to reduce the risk of separation malfunctions. The need for extraction and separation modeling is critical to a successful CPAS test campaign. Current PTV-alone simulations, such as Decelerator System Simulation (DSS), require accurate initial conditions (ICs) drawn from a separation model. Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS), a Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) tool, was employed to provide insight into the multi-body six degree of freedom (DOF) interaction between parachute test hardware and external and internal forces. Components of the model include a composite extraction parachute, primary vehicle (PTV or PCDTV), platform cradle, a release mechanism, aircraft ramp, and a programmer parachute with attach points. Independent aerodynamic forces were applied to the mated test vehicle/platform cradle and the separated test vehicle and platform cradle. The aero coefficients were determined from real time lookup tables which were functions of both angle of attack ( ) and sideslip ( ). The atmospheric properties were also determined from a real time lookup table characteristic of the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) atmosphere relative to the planned test month. Representative geometries were constructed in ADAMS with measured mass properties generated for each independent vehicle. Derived smart separation parameters were included in ADAMS as sensors with defined pitch and pitch rate criteria used to refine inputs to analogous avionics systems for optimal separation conditions. Key design variables were dispersed in a Monte

  19. Pore Water Extraction Test Near 241-SX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Parker, Danny L.; Tabor, Cynthia L.; Holm, Melissa J.

    2013-11-11

    A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology that will use tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. The test system was designed and built to address the constraints of working within a tank farm. Due to radioactive soil contamination and limitations in drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the above ground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump,and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump.If pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, it may be possible to target local contamination in the vadose zone around underground storage tanks. It is anticipated that the results of this proof-of-principle test will support future decision making regarding interim and final actions for soil contamination within the tank farms.

  20. Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica Rutledge; Kristi Christensen; Troy Garn; Jack Law

    2010-12-01

    This testing will support NEAMS SafeSep Modeling efforts related to droplet simulation in liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Physical characteristic determinations will be completed for the fluids being used in the experiment including viscosity, density, surface tension, distribution coefficients, and diffusion coefficients. Then, experiments will be carried out to provide data for comparison to the simulation’s calculation of mass transfer coefficients. Experiments will be conducted with solutions used in the TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process extraction section. The TRUEX process was chosen since it is one solvent extraction system currently proposed for the separation of actinides and lanthanides from used nuclear fuel, it is diffusion limited, testing can be performed using non radioactive lanthanides to evaluate mass transfer. The extraction section involves transfer of one or more lanthanide species from an aqueous solution to an organic solvent. Single droplets rising by buoyancy will be studied first. Droplet size and number of species transferred will be varied independently to provide mass transfer coefficients as a function of each variable. An apparatus has been designed specifically for these experiments. In order to get more accurate measurements of droplet size, contact time, time of droplet formation, and possibly droplet breakup and coalescence, a high speed camera will be utilized for these experiments. Other potential experiments include examining the effects of jetted droplets and shear flow on the mass transfer coefficients.

  1. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base. PMID:26306271

  2. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base. PMID:26306271

  3. An open-source framework for stress-testing non-invasive foetal ECG extraction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Fernando; Behar, Joachim; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Oster, Julien; Clifford, Gari D

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decades, many studies have been published on the extraction of non-invasive foetal electrocardiogram (NI-FECG) from abdominal recordings. Most of these contributions claim to obtain excellent results in detecting foetal QRS (FQRS) complexes in terms of location. A small subset of authors have investigated the extraction of morphological features from the NI-FECG. However, due to the shortage of available public databases, the large variety of performance measures employed and the lack of open-source reference algorithms, most contributions cannot be meaningfully assessed. This article attempts to address these issues by presenting a standardised methodology for stress testing NI-FECG algorithms, including absolute data, as well as extraction and evaluation routines. To that end, a large database of realistic artificial signals was created, totaling 145.8 h of multichannel data and over one million FQRS complexes. An important characteristic of this dataset is the inclusion of several non-stationary events (e.g. foetal movements, uterine contractions and heart rate fluctuations) that are critical for evaluating extraction routines. To demonstrate our testing methodology, three classes of NI-FECG extraction algorithms were evaluated: blind source separation (BSS), template subtraction (TS) and adaptive methods (AM). Experiments were conducted to benchmark the performance of eight NI-FECG extraction algorithms on the artificial database focusing on: FQRS detection and morphological analysis (foetal QT and T/QRS ratio). The overall median FQRS detection accuracies (i.e. considering all non-stationary events) for the best performing methods in each group were 99.9% for BSS, 97.9% for AM and 96.0% for TS. Both FQRS detections and morphological parameters were shown to heavily depend on the extraction techniques and signal-to-noise ratio. Particularly, it is shown that their evaluation in the source domain, obtained after using a BSS technique, should be

  4. Radial period extraction method employing frequency measurement for quantitative collimation testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sikun; Wang, Xiangzhao

    2016-01-01

    A radial period extraction method employing frequency measurement is proposed for quantitative collimation testing using spiral gratings. The radial period of the difference-frequency fringe is treated as a measure of the collimation condition. A frequency measurement technique based on wavelet transform and a statistical approach is presented to extract the radial period directly from the amplitude-transmittance spiral fringe. A basic constraint to set the parameters of the wavelet is introduced. Strict mathematical demonstration is given. The method outperforms methods employing phase measurement in terms of precision, stability and noise immune ability.

  5. CONSTRUCTION AND POWER TEST OF THE EXTRACTION KICKER MAGNET FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    PAI, C.; HAHN, H.; HSEUH, H.; LEE, Y.; MENG, W.; MI,J.; SANDBERG, J.; TODD, R.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Two extraction kicker magnet assemblies that contain seven individual pulsed magnet modules each will kick the proton beam vertically out of the SNS accumulator ring into the aperture of the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. The proton beam then travels to the 1.4 MW SNS target assembly. The 14 kicker magnets and major components of the kicker assembly have been fabricated in BNL. The inner surfaces of the kicker magnets were coated with TiN to reduce the secondary electron yield. All 14 PFN power supplies have been built, tested and delivered to OWL. Before final installation, a partial assembly of the kicker system with three kicker magnets was assembled to test the functions of each critical component in the system. In this paper we report the progress of the construction of the kicker components, the TIN coating of the magnets, the installation procedure of the magnets and the full power test of the kicker with the PFN power supply.

  6. Application of preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography for separation and purification of arctiin from Fructus Arctii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Fuwei; Sun, Qinglei; Yuan, Jingpeng; Jiang, Ting; Zheng, Chengchao

    2005-01-21

    Following an initial clean-up step on the AB-8 resin (polystyrene resin, 0.3-1.25 mm: NanKai Chemical Factory, Tianjin, China), high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used to purify an arctiin from an extract of the fruits of the Arctium lappa L. Arctiin is a major lignan compound in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb A. lappa L. The two-phase solvent system used was composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-ethanol-water at an optimized volume ratio of 5:0.5:1:5 (v/v/v/v). The upper phase was used as the mobile phase in the head to tail elution mode. A total amount of 159 mg of arctiin at 98% purity was obtained from 350 mg of the crude extract (containing 49% arctiin) with 91% recovery. The preparative isolation and purification of arctiin by HSCCC was completed in 5 h in a separation. Identification of the target compound was performed by LC-electrospray ionization MS and 13C-NMR. The structure of the product was further confirmed by comparison with authentic sample (National Institute of the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing, China). PMID:15700478

  7. Application of pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography for the separation of indole alkaloids from Aspidosperma rigidum Rusby.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mariana N; Leitão, Suzana G; Porto, Paula C C; Oliveira, Danilo R; Pinto, Shaft Corrêa; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Leitão, Gilda G

    2013-12-01

    Species of Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) are characterized by the occurrence of indole alkaloids, but few recent reports on Aspidosperma rigidum Rusby chemical constituents were found. The present work shows the application of pH-zone refining countercurrent chromatography on the separation of alkaloids from the barks of A. rigidum. In this study, the dichloromethane extract was fractionated with the solvent system composed of methyl-tert-butyl ether and water with different concentrations of the retainer triethylamine in the organic stationary phase and formic or hydrochloric acids as eluters in the aqueous mobile phase, in order to evaluate the most suitable condition. In each experiment, from circa 200mg of the dichloromethane extract of A. rigidum, three major alkaloids were isolated and identified as 3α-aricine (circa 17mg), isoreserpiline (ca. 22mg) and 3β-reserpiline (ca. 40mg), with relative purity of 79%, 89% and 82% respectively, in a one-step separation of 2h. Two of them - 3α-aricine and isoreserpiline - were isolated and identified for the first time in this species. PMID:24192149

  8. Preparative separation of alkaloids from Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. by conventional and pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghai; Shu, Xikai; Jing, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Lin, Changhu; Luo, Aiqin

    2014-01-01

    Two high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) modes were compared by separation of major alkaloids from crude extract of Picrasma quassioides. The conventional HSCCC separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:4.5:5.5, v/v/v/v) with 200 mg loading. pH-Zone-refining CCC was performed with two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (3:2:7:9, v/v/v/v) where triethylamine (10 mM) was added to the upper organic stationary phase and hydrochloric acid (5 mM) was added to the lower aqueous phase with 2 g loading. From 2 g of crude extract, 87 mg of 5-methoxycanthin-6-one (a), 38 mg of 1-methoxy-β-carboline (b), 134 mg of 1-ethyl-4,8-dimethoxy-β-carboline (c), 74 mg of 1-ethoxycarbonyl-β-carboline (d), 56 mg of 1-vinyl-4,8-dimethoxy-β-carboline (e) and 26 mg of 1-vinyl-4-dimethoxy-β-carboline (f) were obtained with purities of over 97.0%. The results indicated that pH-zone-refining CCC is an excellent separations tool at the multigram level. PMID:24968331

  9. Antinociceptive Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Iranian Green tea in the Formalin Test in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arzi, Ardeshir; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam; Nazari Khorasgani, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background Tea (Camellia sinensis) has been utilised, since time immemorial, as a beverage possessing encouraging health benefits. Little scientific evidence exists in literature on the effect of this plant on pain. Objectives To investigate the antinociceptive activity of Iranian green tea extract. Materials and Methods The hydroalcoholic extract was administered to male Wistar rats. Formalin paw test was used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity. Plant extract (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) (n = 6 for each group) or vehicle (n = 6) was administered 30 min before the subplantar formalin injection. Results The extract caused a significant dose-related (50, 100, 200 mg /kg, i.p.) inhibition of the first phase and onset of chronic phase (200 mg /kg, i.p.) of formalin induced nociception. The results showed that the pre-treatment of rats with naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (P < 0.001) reversed antinociception by Green tea extract (GTE) (200 mg/kg, i.p.) in the inflammatory phase and had no effect on phase 1. Conclusions These results indicate that GTE produces dose-related antinociception in chemical pain model and one of its possible mechanisms involves opioid pathways. PMID:24624180

  10. Counter-current CO2 purification of partially deacylated sunflower oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic sunflower oil was partially deacylated by propanolysis to produce a mixture of diglycerides and triglycerides. To remove by-product fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) from this reaction mixture, a liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) counter-current fractionation method was developed. The fracti...

  11. How-to-Do-It: Countercurrent Heat Exchange in Vertebrate Limbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, George B.; Plakke, Ronald K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes principals of physics that are manifested in simple biological systems of heat conservation structures. Outlines materials needed, data collection, analysis, and discussion questions for construction and operation of two models, one that is a countercurrent heat exchange model and one that is not. (RT)

  12. Intra-Die Spatial Correlation Extraction with Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method for Multiple Test Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Luk, Wai-Shing; Tao, Jun; Zeng, Xuan; Cai, Wei

    In this paper, a novel intra-die spatial correlation extraction method referred to as MLEMTC (Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Multiple Test Chips) is presented. In the MLEMTC method, a joint likelihood function is formulated by multiplying the set of individual likelihood functions for all test chips. This joint likelihood function is then maximized to extract a unique group of parameter values of a single spatial correlation function, which can be used for statistical circuit analysis and design. Moreover, to deal with the purely random component and measurement error contained in measurement data, the spatial correlation function combined with the correlation of white noise is used in the extraction, which significantly improves the accuracy of the extraction results. Furthermore, an LU decomposition based technique is developed to calculate the log-determinant of the positive definite matrix within the likelihood function, which solves the numerical stability problem encountered in the direct calculation. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method is efficient and practical.

  13. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  14. Model for analysis of counter-current gas transfer in fish gills.

    PubMed

    Scheid, P; Hook, C; Piiper, J

    1986-06-01

    The validity of previously used simplified models for the analysis of gas transfer in fish gills was tested using an integrated model which includes water flow and blood flow in counter-current arrangement. The model accounts for the resistance to diffusion of O2 both in the water-blood barrier and in the interlamellar water, which is assumed to flow with a parabolic velocity profile between the secondary lamellae. The O2 diffusing capacity (transfer factor) for this model (Dint) was compared to that (Dm + w) calculated from the diffusing capacity of the water-blood barrier (Dm), and from the effective diffusive conductance of the parabolically streaming interlamellar water (Dw) as 1/Dm + w = 1/Dm + 1/Dw. These diffusing capacities were compared with that (Dadd) calculated from Dm and diffusing capacity of a water layer of 1/4 thickness of the interlamellar space (Dw) as 1/Dadd = 1/Dm + 1/Dw. Calculations with morphometric and gas exchange parameters in the elasmobranch Scyliorhinus stellaris reveal the following features: (1) In physiological conditions, Dm + w and Dint are similar to within 10%, but Dint is always higher. (2) Dint and Dm + w increase with increasing ventilation; Dint increases with decreasing perfusion, while Dm + w remains constant. (3) Both Dint and Dm + w agree reasonably well with Dadd. In other anatomical and physiological conditions, particularly for relatively high Dm, Dw, and Dw and high ventilation, greater discrepancies between Dint and Dm + w may occur but Dm + w appears to represent a reasonable approximation of the effective O2 diffusing capacity, which is best modelled as Dint. PMID:3738259

  15. Novel design for centrifugal counter-current chromatography: VI. Ellipsoid column.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dongyu; Yang, Yi; Xin, Xuelei; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    A novel ellipsoid column was designed for centrifugal counter-current chromatography. Performance of the ellipsoid column with a capacity of 3.4 mL was examined with three different solvent systems composed of 1-butanol-acetic acid-water (4:1:5, v/v) (BAW), hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-0.1 M HCl (1:1:1:1, v/v) (HEMH), and 12.5% (w/w) PEG1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate in water (PEG-DPP) each with suitable test samples. In dipeptide separation with BAW system, both stationary phase retention (Sf) and peak resolution (Rs) of the ellipsoid column were much higher at 0° column angle (column axis parallel to the centrifugal force) than at 90° column angle (column axis perpendicular to the centrifugal force), where elution with the lower phase at a low flow rate produced the best separation yielding Rs at 2.02 with 27.8% Sf at a flow rate of 0.07 ml/min. In the DNP-amino acid separation with HEMW system, the best results were obtained at a flow rate of 0.05 ml/min with 31.6% Sf yielding high Rs values at 2.16 between DNP-DL-glu and DNP-β-ala peaks and 1.81 between DNP-β-ala and DNP-L-ala peaks. In protein separation with PEG-DPP system, lysozyme and myolobin were resolved at Rs of 1.08 at a flow rate of 0.03 ml/min with 38.9% Sf. Most of those Rs values exceed those obtained from the figure-8 column under similar experimental conditions previously reported. PMID:25309116

  16. Separation of betalains from berries of Phytolacca americana by ion-pair high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Gerold; Skotzki, Tanja; Fiege, Kathrin; Winterhalter, Peter; Wybraniec, Sławomir

    2008-05-01

    The first preparative fractionation of betalain pigments by means of ion-pair high-speed counter-current chromatography (IP-HSCCC) from berry extracts of Phytolacca americana (Phytolaccaceae) is presented. A novel HSCCC solvent system consisting of 1-butanol-acetonitrile-water (5:1:6, v/v/v) was applied using ion-pair forming trifluoroacetic acid at low concentration (0.7%, v/v). Affinity of polar betacyanins and betaxanthins to the organic stationary phase of the biphasic HSCCC solvent mixture was considerably improved. Partitioning coefficient values and influence of increasing trifluoroacetic acid additions to the biphasic solvent mixture were measured for all identified betacyanins and betaxanthins. Gentle separation by IP-HSCCC of the injected pigment extract (900 mg) yielded sufficient amounts of the principal pigments 15S-betanin/15R-isobetanin. The pure epimers separated by C18-HPLC were immediately studied by one- and two-dimensional NMR. In the recovered fractions, minor concentrated betacyanins and betaxanthins were significantly enriched by IP-HSCCC and were detected for the first time in the extracts of P. americana. IP-HSCCC and C18-HPLC were shown to be complementary techniques in the isolation procedure of recovering minor concentrated, highly polar and chemically instable betacyanins and betaxanthin from complex plant matrices. Altogether, identification of 17 betalains was achieved by HPLC-diode array detection-electrospray ionization MS/MS in the HSCCC fractions with their respective isomers, also resulting in the tentative elucidation of betacyanins with novel salicylic acid substitution pattern in the berry extracts of P. americana. PMID:18374932

  17. The Dependability of General-Factor Loadings: The Effects of Factor-Extraction Methods, Test Battery Composition, Test Battery Size, and Their Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Rafael, Fawziya A.; Bergeron, Renee; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    To understand the extent to which the general-factor loadings of tests are inherent in their characteristics or due to the sampling of tests, the number of tests in the correlation matrix, and the factor-extraction methods used to obtain them, test scores from a large sample of young adults were inserted into independent and overlapping batteries…

  18. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Linssen, Jozef P H; de Groot, Aede; Evstatieva, Lyuba N

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and beta-carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of plant extracts. The strengths and limitations of each method have been illustrated by testing a number of extracts, of differing polarity, from plants of the genus Sideritis, and two known antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and rosmarinic acid). The sample polarity was important for the exhibited activity in the BCBT and HS-GC methods but not for the DPPH method. The complex composition of the extracts and partition phenomena affected their activity in each assay. The value of the BCBT method appears to be limited to less polar samples. Although slow, the HS-GC method is preferable for assessing the antioxidant inhibitory properties on the formation of unwanted secondary volatile products. Being rapid, simple and independent of sample polarity, the DPPH method is very convenient for the quick screening of many samples for radical scavenging activity. PMID:11899609

  19. Ultrasound-assisted single extraction tests for rapid assessment of metal extractability from soils by total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    De La Calle, I; Cabaleiro, N; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2013-09-15

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was employed for acceleration of metal extraction from soil samples. After extraction, multielemental analysis (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) of EDTA and acetic acid extracts was performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). High-intensity ultrasonic processors, i.e. the ultrasonic probe (50W) and the cup-horn sonoreactor (200W) were applied. Both ultrasonic procedures were compared with a miniaturized version of the single extraction scheme proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing program (SM&T). The extraction time with EDTA was reduced from 1h (conventional procedure) to 2 min (ultrasonic probe) or to 10 min (cup-horn sonoreactor). The time required for acetic acid extraction was also reduced from 16 h (conventional procedure) to 6 min (ultrasonic probe) or to 30 min (cup-horn sonoreactor). In addition, the amount of sample and extractants was drastically reduced as a result of the miniaturization implemented in the developed approaches. The combination of UAE and TXRF allows assessing the potential metal mobility and bioavailability in a simple way. PMID:23770487

  20. The Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method enables the rapid purification of methylpyridoxine regioisomers by countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Friesen, J Brent; Klein, Larry L; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2015-12-24

    The TLC-based Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method was employed for countercurrent chromatography solvent system selection, in order to separate the three synthetic isomers: 3-O-methylpyridoxine, 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (ginkgotoxin), and 5'-O-methylpyridoxine. The Rf values of the three isomers indicated that ChMWat+2 (chloroform-methanol-water 10:5:5, v/v/v) was appropriate for the countercurrent separation. The isomer separation was highly selective and demonstrated that the TLC-based GUESS method can accelerate solvent system selection for countercurrent separation. Accordingly, the study re-emphasizes the practicality of TLC as a tool to facilitate the rapid development of new countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography methods for this solvent system. Purity and structure characterization of all samples was performed by quantitative (1)H NMR. PMID:26680272

  1. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  2. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, T.; Cee, R.; Haberer, T.; Naas, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-02-15

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed.

  3. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, T; Cee, R; Haberer, T; Naas, B; Peters, A

    2012-02-01

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed. PMID:22380336

  4. Improvement on the extraction method of RNA in mites and its quality test.

    PubMed

    Zhao, YaE; Hu, Li; Yang, Yuan Jun; Niu, Dong Ling; Wang, Rui Ling; Li, Wen Hao; Ma, Si Jia; Cheng, Juan

    2016-02-01

    To solve the long-existing difficult problems in extracting RNA and constructing a complementary DNA (cDNA) library for trace mites, we conducted a further comparative experiment among three RNA extraction methods (TRIzol method, Omega method, and Azanno method) based on our previous attempts at the construction of cDNA library of mites, with Psoroptes cuniculi still used as the experimental subject. By subsequently decreasing the number of mites, the least number of mites needed for RNA extraction of each method were found by criteria of completeness, concentration, and purity of the extracted RNA. Specific primers were designed according to the allergen Pso c1, Pso c2, and Actin gene sequences of Psoroptes to test the reliability of cDNA library. The results showed that Azanno method needed only 10 mites with sensitivity 204 times higher than previously used TRIzol method and 20 times higher than Omega method; clear RNA band was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis; and ultraviolet spectrophotometer determination showed that RNA concentration, 260/280, and 260/230 were in the range of 102 to 166 ng/μl, 1.83 to 1.99, and 1.49 to 1.72, respectively. Finally, specific primers detection showed that the amplified sequences had 98.33, 98.19, and 99.52% identities with those of P. cuniculi or Psoroptes ovis in GenBank, respectively, indicating that the cDNA library constructed using 10 mites was successful and it could meet the requirements for molecular biology research. Therefore, we concluded that Azanno method was more effective than TRIzol method and Omega method in RNA extraction and cDNA library construction of trace mites. PMID:26545909

  5. Development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction of waste with acidic extraction fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.S.

    1993-08-01

    Subject is characterization of waste materials. Since acid rain is increasingly prevalent throughout the world, a sequential batch extraction method was developed which uses a dilute acid solution as the extraction fluid. A collaborative study was conducted in which the draft method was used to treat a spray dryer waste from a clean coal technology process and a composite mining waste. Effects of filter pore size and digestion vs nondigestion on analytical concentrations in extracts were also studied. Elements determined included Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Si, Na, Sr, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Zn. The draft method will be published as ASTM Method D5284-92.

  6. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

    2014-09-12

    High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products. PMID:25069743

  7. Target-guided separation of Bougainvillea glabra betacyanins by direct coupling of preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography and electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Gerold; Wybraniec, Sławomir; Gebers, Nadine; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-07-01

    In this study, preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography was directly coupled to an electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry device (IP-HSCCC/ESI-MS-MS) for target-guided fractionation of high molecular weight acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins from purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae). The direct identification of six principal acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins in the mass range between m/z 859 and m/z 1359 was achieved by positive ESI-MS ionization and gave access to the genuine pigment profile already during the proceeding of the preparative separation. Inclusively, all MS/MS-fragmentation data were provided during the chromatographic run for a complete analysis of substitution pattern. On-line purity evaluation of the recovered fractions is of high value in target-guided screening procedures and for immediate decisions about suitable fractions used for further structural analysis. The applied preparative hyphenation was shown to be a versatile screening method for on-line monitoring of countercurrent chromatographic separations of polar crude pigment extracts and also traced some minor concentrated compounds. For the separation of 760mg crude pigment extract the biphasic solvent system tert.-butylmethylether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water 2:2:1:5 (v/v/v/v) was used with addition of ion-pair forming reagent trifluoroacetic acid. The preparative HSCCC-eluate had to be modified by post-column addition of a make-up solvent stream containing formic acid to reduce ion-suppression caused by trifluoroacetic acid and later significantly maximized response of ESI-MS/MS detection of target substances. A variable low-pressure split-unit guided a micro-eluate to the ESI-MS-interface for sensitive and direct on-line detection, and the major volume of the effluent stream was directed to the fraction collector for preparative sample recovery. The applied make-up solvent mixture significantly improved smoothness of the continuously

  8. Separation of four flavonoids from Rhodiola rosea by on-line combination of sample preparation and counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chaoyang; Hu, Liming; Fu, Qianyun; Gu, Xiaohong; Tao, Guanjun; Wang, Hongxin

    2013-09-01

    Purification of four flavonoids from Rhodiola rosea was developed by on-line combination of sample preparation and counter-current chromatography (CCC). Flavonoid sample was prepared by dynamic ultrasonic-assisted and solid-phase extraction using ion liquids as extractant. The preparation conditions were optimized by D-optimal design as follows: 2mol/L of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide concentration, 360W of ultrasonic power, 1.5mL/min of flow rate, 35min of extraction time and 0.5mL (absorbent) per g (material) of absorbent amount. The prepared sample solution (20mL) was loaded and injected directly into CCC column for final separation. As a result, four flavonoids, herbacetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside 1 (40.1mg), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamn-opyranoside 2 (4.6mg), kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-(2→1)-β-d-xylopyranoside 3 (20.2mg) and herbacetin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 4 (22.5mg), were obtained from 20g of R. rosea material using ethyl acetate-n-butanol-H2O as solvent system at a ratio of 4:1:5 by CCC. Their structures were identified by ESI-MS/MS, NMR methods. Their purities determined by UPLC were 98.5%, 95.4%, 98.1% and 97.5%, respectively. Kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside 2 and herbacetin-8-O-β-d-glucopyrano-side 4 were isolated for first time from R. rosea. The purification method was simple, efficient and evaded tedious sample preparation process. PMID:23890556

  9. Separation of two constituents from purple sweet potato by combination of silica gel column and high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Ye, Xiaoli; Li, Xuegang; Chen, Hongying; Yuan, Lujiang; Deng, Yafei; Chen, Xin; Li, Xiaoduo

    2012-01-15

    It is known that the choice of solvent system for high speed counter-current chromatography separation is of utmost importance. In this study, a simple and rapid thin layer chromatograph coupling with fluorometric (TLC-F) method has been used to determine the partition coefficient of target compounds in HSCCC solvent system. Two components, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural were successfully separated from purple sweet potato extracts by successive sample injection for the first time, using n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:2:1:1, v/v/v/v) as the solvent system. Additionally, statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in partition coefficient obtained by the TLC-F method and by HPLC, which demonstrated the usefulness of TLC-F method. PMID:22197606

  10. Tests of the extraction of the Sivers, Boer-Mulders, and transversity distributions in SIDIS reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christova, Ekaterina; Leader, Elliot

    2015-12-01

    A major experimental program is presently underway worldwide to determine the fundamental nonperturbative functions, the Sivers, Boer-Mulders and transversity distributions, which are vital for an understanding of the internal structure of the nucleon. However, at present, many simplifying assumptions are used in extracting these functions from the data. We demonstrate that if the binning of the data in Q2 is small enough so that Q2 evolution can be neglected inside a bin, then one can obtain stringent tests of these assumptions. Failure to satisfy these tests implies that the presently extracted nonperturbative functions are unreliable. To this end, we consider the measurement of the Sivers, Boer-Mulders and transversity difference asymmetries for hadrons with opposite charges in SIDIS reactions with unpolarized and transversely polarized deuteron and proton targets: l +N →l'+h +X , h =π± , K± , h± . Utilizing only charge and isospin invariance, and applying the above mentioned simplifying assumptions, we obtain several testable relations amongst the measured asymmetries. If these tests are satisfied, then the measured asymmetries determine two different combinations of the valence-quark transverse-momentum-dependent distributions, which can be determined separately without any contributions from the strange and other sea quarks.

  11. Assessment of Eyebright (Euphrasia Officinalis L.) Extract Activity in Relation to Human Corneal Cells Using In Vitro Tests

    PubMed Central

    Paduch, Roman; Woźniak, Anna; Niedziela, Piotr; Rejdak, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Euphrasia officinalis L. is an herb traditionally used in folk medicine, mainly in the treatment of eye disorders. Aims: The present study analyzed the activity of three extracts of E. officinalis L. (ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane) on cultured human corneal epithelial cells (10.014 pRSV-T). Study Design: In vitro study. Methods: Toxicity, free radical scavenging activity and the immunomodulatory effects of the extracts were tested using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) or Neutral Red, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ELISA tests, respectively. Moreover, nitric oxide levels and cytoskeleton architecture were analyzed after corneal cell incubation with the plant extracts. Results: We show that the biological effect depended on both the concentration and the extraction solvent used. Heptane extracts, distinct from those in ethanol and ethyl acetate, were toxic to 10.014 pRSV-T cells at low concentrations (25 μg/mL) and did not demonstrate free radical scavenging effects. All tested extracts decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and also anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression by human corneal cells when the extracts were added to the cell culture medium for 24 h. Conclusion: In conclusion, we show that the promising effects of the application of E. officinalis L. preparations as a supplementary therapy for eye disorders are associated with the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, not the heptane extract. PMID:25207164

  12. Straw man 900-1000 GeV crystal extraction test beam for Fermilab collider operation

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    A design for a 900-1000 GeV, 100 khz parasitic test beam for use during collider operations has been developed. The beam makes use of two bent crystals, one for extraction and the other one for redirecting the beam in to the present Switchyard beam system. The beam requires only a few modifications in the A0 area and largely uses existing devices. It should be straight-forward to modify one or two beam lines in the fixed target experimental areas to work above 800 GeV. Possibilities for improvements to the design,to operate at higher fluxes are discussed.

  13. Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Ma, Haile; Dai, Chunhua; Zhang, Henan; Li, Kexin; Li, Yunliang

    2015-03-01

    Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound was studied. Effect of static probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (SPUE) and counter-current probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (CCPUE) on the biodiesel conversion were compared. The results indicated that CCPUE was a better method for enhancing transesterification. The working conditions of CCPUE were studied by single-factor experiment design and the results showed that the optimal conditions were: initial temperature 25 °C, methanol to triglyceride molar ratio 10:1, flow rate 200 mL/min, catalyst content 1.8%, ultrasound working on-time 4 s, off-time 2 s, total working time 50 min. Under these conditions, the average biodiesel conversion of three experiments was 96.1%. PMID:25199445

  14. Chiral ligand exchange countercurrent chromatography: Equilibrium model study on enantioseparation of mandelic acid.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Shen, Mangmang; Xiong, Qing; Wang, Xiaoping; Lu, Mengxia; Yan, Jizhong

    2016-05-20

    The equilibrium model in enantioseparation of mandelic acid by chiral ligand exchange countercurrent chromatography was investigated using N-n-dodecyl-l-proline as chiral ligand and cupric ion as central metal. Important parameters, including physical partition coefficient and formation constants of binary and ternary coordination complexes in the two-phase solvent system, were determined. This equilibrium model could give an excellent prediction of distribution ratio and enantioseparation factor of the analyte in the biphasic solvent system, which was further verified by experiments. All the average relative deviations were less than 12%, indicating that the established model could provide a simple computational approach for optimization of enantioseparation conditions in chiral ligand exchange countercurrent chromatography. PMID:27102304

  15. Selective isolation of components from natural volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with cyclodextrins as selective reagent.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Lu, Mengxia; Chu, Chu; Yan, Jizhong; Huang, Juan; Ying, Yongfei

    2016-04-29

    Selective separation of chemical components from seven kinds of volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with three types of cyclodextrins as selective reagent was investigated in this work. Preparative separation of chemical components from volatile oil is generally quite challenging due to their extremely complexity of the composition. A biphasic solvent system n-hexane-0.10molL(-1) cyclodextrin (1:1, v/v) was selected for separation of components from volatile oil and three types of cyclodextrins were investigated, including β-cyclodexrin, methyl-β-cyclodexrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodexrin. All kinds of volatile oils are from seven kinds of traditional Chinese herb. Results showed that some chemical components could be well separated with high purity from each kind of volatile oil using different type of cyclodextrin as selective reagent. For example, germacrone and curcumenone could be selectively separated from volatile oil of Curcumae Rhizoma with methyl-β-cyclodexrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodexrin as selector respectively, and other five components were selectively separated from volatile oil of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Myristicae Semen, Aucklandiae Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix by countercurrent chromatography with different cyclodexrin as selective reagent. Separation mechanism for separation of components from volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with cyclodextrin as selective reagent was proposed. Peak resolution of the present separation method could be greatly influenced by the chemical compositions of volatile oil. PMID:27036211

  16. Extraction procedure testing of solid wastes generated at selected metal ore mines and mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, David M.; Terlecky, P. Michael

    1986-09-01

    Solid waste samples from a reconnaissance study conducted at ore mining and milling sites were subjected to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency extraction procedure (EP) leaching test Sites visited included mines and mills extracting ores of antimony (Sb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), tungsten (W), and nickel (Ni). Samples analyzed included mine wastes, treatment pond solids, tailings, low grade ore, and other solid wastes generated at these facilities Analysis of the leachate from these tests indicates that none of the samples generated leachate in which the concentration of any toxic metal parameter exceeded EPA criteria levels for those metals. By volume, tailings generally constitute the largest amount of solid wastes generated, but these data indicate that with proper management and monitoring, current EPA criteria can be met for tailings and for most solid wastes associated with mining and milling of these metal ores. Long-term studies are needed to determine if leachate characteristics change with time and to assist in development of closure plans and post closure monitoring programs.

  17. HJWFTAC: software for Hantush Jacob analysis of variable-rate, multiple-extraction well pumping tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Sean W.; Ruskauff, Gregory J.; Adams, Alison

    2002-06-01

    Analytical well test solutions are a powerful approach to aquifer characterization and the parameterization of comprehensive numerical models. In addition, wellfield drawdown tests, which consist of coordinated pumping and data collection at a suite of monitoring and operating production wells, are of growing significance due to increasing pressures upon groundwater resources and the consequent management and planning requirement for superior hydrogeologic characterization of existing production wellfields. However, few pumping test analysis codes accommodate the multiple extraction wells involved, particularly for more sophisticated analytic aquifer test solutions. We present and demonstrate here a FORTRAN code for analysis of drawdown at a monitor well due to simultaneous variable-rate pumping at multiple independent production wells, which we developed in response to a need to refine an existing numerical, coupled groundwater/surface water resource management model. Spatial and temporal superposition are used to accommodate the typical operational properties of wellfield pumping tests. The software invokes the well-accepted Hantush-Jacob method for semiconfined or 'leaky' aquifers in a forward simulation procedure and effectively assumes homogeneity in applicable aquifer parameters (transmissivity, coefficient of storage, and leakance). Intended for both professionals and students, the code is widely applicable and straightforward to use as written. However, it can be modified with relative ease to use alternative well test solutions and/or formal inverse modeling techniques, or to accommodate spatial hydrogeologic variability. An application to a pumping test conducted in a karst limestone aquifer at the Cross Bar Ranch wellfield in Tampa Bay, Florida, demonstrates the utility of the software.

  18. Preparative Separation of Main Ustilaginoidins from Rice False Smut Balls by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weibo; Dong, Xuejiao; Xu, Dan; Meng, Jiajia; Fu, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaohan; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. In order to obtain large amounts of pure ustilaginoidins to further evaluate their biological activities and functions, phytotoxicity on rice, security to human and animals as well as to accelerate their applications as pharmaceuticals, preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of seven bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins, namely ustilaginoidins A (1), G (2), B (3), H (4), I (5), C (6), and J (7) from the ethyl acetate crude extract of rice FSBs. Both 1 and 2 were prepared by HSCCC from the low-polarity fraction of the crude extract using the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at the volume ratio of 6.5:3.5:5.0:5.0. Similarly, 3, 4 and 5 were prepared from the medium-polarity fraction using the system at the volume ratio of 4.0:5.0:5.0:6.0, and 6 and 7 were prepared from the higher-polarity fraction using the system at volume ratio of 3.0:5.0:4.0:6.7. A total of 6.2 mg of 1, 5.1 mg of 2, 3.9 mg of 3, 1.2 mg of 4, 5.7 mg of 5, 3.5 mg of 6, and 6.1 mg of 7 with purities of 88%, 82%, 91%, 80%, 92%, 81% and 83%, respectively, were yielded from total 62 mg fraction samples in three independent HSCCC runs. The structures of the purified ustilaginoidins were characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. PMID:26771638

  19. Counter-current chromatography for the separation of terpenoids: a comprehensive review with respect to the solvent systems employed.

    PubMed

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Garrard, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Natural products extracts are commonly highly complex mixtures of active compounds and consequently their purification becomes a particularly challenging task. The development of a purification protocol to extract a single active component from the many hundreds that are often present in the mixture is something that can take months or even years to achieve, thus it is important for the natural product chemist to have, at their disposal, a broad range of diverse purification techniques. Counter-current chromatography (CCC) is one such separation technique utilising two immiscible phases, one as the stationary phase (retained in a spinning coil by centrifugal forces) and the second as the mobile phase. The method benefits from a number of advantages when compared with the more traditional liquid-solid separation methods, such as no irreversible adsorption, total recovery of the injected sample, minimal tailing of peaks, low risk of sample denaturation, the ability to accept particulates, and a low solvent consumption. The selection of an appropriate two-phase solvent system is critical to the running of CCC since this is both the mobile and the stationary phase of the system. However, this is also by far the most time consuming aspect of the technique and the one that most inhibits its general take-up. In recent years, numerous natural product purifications have been published using CCC from almost every country across the globe. Many of these papers are devoted to terpenoids-one of the most diverse groups. Naturally occurring terpenoids provide opportunities to discover new drugs but many of them are available at very low levels in nature and a huge number of them still remain unexplored. The collective knowledge on performing successful CCC separations of terpenoids has been gathered and reviewed by the authors, in order to create a comprehensive document that will be of great assistance in performing future purifications. PMID:24899873

  20. Preparative Separation of Main Ustilaginoidins from Rice False Smut Balls by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weibo; Dong, Xuejiao; Xu, Dan; Meng, Jiajia; Fu, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaohan; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. In order to obtain large amounts of pure ustilaginoidins to further evaluate their biological activities and functions, phytotoxicity on rice, security to human and animals as well as to accelerate their applications as pharmaceuticals, preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of seven bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins, namely ustilaginoidins A (1), G (2), B (3), H (4), I (5), C (6), and J (7) from the ethyl acetate crude extract of rice FSBs. Both 1 and 2 were prepared by HSCCC from the low-polarity fraction of the crude extract using the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at the volume ratio of 6.5:3.5:5.0:5.0. Similarly, 3, 4 and 5 were prepared from the medium-polarity fraction using the system at the volume ratio of 4.0:5.0:5.0:6.0, and 6 and 7 were prepared from the higher-polarity fraction using the system at volume ratio of 3.0:5.0:4.0:6.7. A total of 6.2 mg of 1, 5.1 mg of 2, 3.9 mg of 3, 1.2 mg of 4, 5.7 mg of 5, 3.5 mg of 6, and 6.1 mg of 7 with purities of 88%, 82%, 91%, 80%, 92%, 81% and 83%, respectively, were yielded from total 62 mg fraction samples in three independent HSCCC runs. The structures of the purified ustilaginoidins were characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. PMID:26771638

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM AND THORIUM FROM PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Rainey, R.H.; Moore, J.G.

    1962-08-14

    A liquid-liquid extraction process was developed for recovering thorium and uranium values from a neutron irradiated thorium composition. They are separated from a solvent extraction system comprising a first end extraction stage for introducing an aqueous feed containing thorium and uranium into the system consisting of a plurality of intermediate extractiorr stages and a second end extractron stage for introducing an aqueous immiscible selective organic solvent for thorium and uranium in countercurrent contact therein with the aqueous feed. A nitrate iondeficient aqueous feed solution containing thorium and uranium was introduced into the first end extraction stage in countercurrent contact with the organic solvent entering the system from the second end extraction stage while intro ducing an aqueous solution of salting nitric acid into any one of the intermediate extraction stages of the system. The resultant thorium and uranium-laden organic solvent was removed at a point preceding the first end extraction stage of the system. (AEC)

  2. Characterization and testing of amidoxime-based adsorbent materials to extract uranium from natural seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Janke, Christopher James; Wood, Jordana; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Gill, Gary

    2015-11-19

    Extraction of uranium (U) from seawater for use as a nuclear fuel is a significant challenge due to the low concentration of U in seawater (~3.3 ppb) and difficulties to selectively extract U from the background of major and trace elements in seawater. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) s Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) has been serving as a marine test site for determining performance characteristics (adsorption capacity, adsorption kinetics, and selectivity) of novel amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under natural seawater exposure conditions. This report describes the performance of three formulations (38H, AF1, AI8) of amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbent produced at ORNL in MSL s ambient seawater testing facility. The adsorbents were produced in two forms, fibrous material (40-100 mg samples) and braided material (5-10 g samples), exposed to natural seawater using flow-through columns and recirculating flumes. All three formulations demonstrated high 56 day uranium adsorption capacity (>3 gU/kg adsorbent). The AF1 formulation had the best uranium adsorption performance, with 56-day capacity of 3.9 g U/kg adsorbent, saturation capacity of 5.4 g U/kg adsorbent, and ~25 days half-saturation time. The two exposure methods, flow-through columns and flumes were demonstrated to produce similar performance results, providing confidence that the test methods were reliable, that scaling up from 10 s of mg quantities of exposure in flow-through columns to gram quantities in flumes produced similar results, and that the manufacturing process produces a homogenous adsorbent. Adsorption kinetics appear to be element specific, with half-saturation times ranging from minutes for the major cations in seawater to 8-10weeks for V and Fe. Reducing the exposure time provides a potential pathway to improve the adsorption capacity of U by reducing the V/U ratio on the adsorbent.

  3. Extraction-Separation Performance and Dynamic Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with Adams Simulation: 2nd Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Anderson, Keith; Varela, Jose G.; Bernatovich, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project has advanced into the third generation of its parachute test campaign and requires technically comprehensive modeling capabilities to simulate multi-body dynamics (MBD) of test articles released from a C-17. Safely extracting a 30,000 lbm mated test article from a C-17 and performing stable mid-air separation maneuvers requires an understanding of the interaction between elements in the test configuration and how they are influenced by extraction parachute performance, aircraft dynamics, aerodynamics, separation dynamics, and kinetic energy experienced by the system. During the real-time extraction and deployment sequences, these influences can be highly unsteady and difficult to bound. An avionics logic window based on time, pitch, and pitch rate is used to account for these effects and target a favorable separation state in real time. The Adams simulation has been employed to fine-tune this window, as well as predict and reconstruct the coupled dynamics of the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV) and Cradle Platform Separation System (CPSS) from aircraft extraction through the mid-air separation event. The test-technique for the extraction of CPAS test articles has evolved with increased complexity and requires new modeling concepts to ensure the test article is delivered to a stable test condition for the programmer phase. Prompted by unexpected dynamics and hardware malfunctions in drop tests, these modeling improvements provide a more accurate loads prediction by incorporating a spring-damper line-model derived from the material properties. The qualification phase of CPAS testing is on the horizon and modeling increasingly complex test-techniques with Adams is vital to successfully qualify the Orion parachute system for human spaceflight.

  4. Genotoxic effect of Lythrum salicaria extract determined by the mussel micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Eck-Varanka, Bettina; Kováts, Nóra; Hubai, Katalin; Paulovits, Gábor; Ferincz, Árpád; Horváth, Eszter

    2015-12-01

    A wide range of aquatic plants have been proven to release allelochemicals, of them phenolics and tannin are considered rather widely distributed. Tannins, however, have been demonstrated to have genotoxic capacity. In our study genotoxic potential of Lythrum salicaria L. (Purple Loosestrife, family Lythraceae) was assessed by the mussel micronucleus test, using Unio pictorum. In parallel, total and hydrolysable tannin contents were determined. Results clearly show that the extract had a high hydrolysable tannin content and significant mutagenic effect. As L. salicaria has been long used in traditional medicine for chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, leucorrhoea and blood-spitting, genotoxic potential of the plant should be evaluated not only with regard to potential effects in the aquatic ecosystem, but also assessing its safe use as a medicinal herb. PMID:26616377

  5. Comparison of two extractable nuclear antigen testing algorithms: ALBIA versus ELISA/line immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Chandratilleke, Dinusha; Silvestrini, Roger; Culican, Sue; Campbell, David; Byth-Wilson, Karen; Swaminathan, Sanjay; Lin, Ming-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibody testing is often requested in patients with suspected connective tissue diseases. Most laboratories in Australia use a two step process involving a high sensitivity screening assay followed by a high specificity confirmation test. Multiplexing technology with Addressable Laser Bead Immunoassay (e.g., FIDIS) offers simultaneous detection of multiple antibody specificities, allowing a single step screening and confirmation. We compared our current diagnostic laboratory testing algorithm [Organtec ELISA screen / Euroimmun line immunoassay (LIA) confirmation] and the FIDIS Connective Profile. A total of 529 samples (443 consecutive+86 known autoantibody positivity) were run through both algorithms, and 479 samples (90.5%) were concordant. The same autoantibody profile was detected in 100 samples (18.9%) and 379 were concordant negative samples (71.6%). The 50 discordant samples (9.5%) were subdivided into 'likely FIDIS or current method correct' or 'unresolved' based on ancillary data. 'Unresolved' samples (n = 25) were subclassified into 'potentially' versus 'potentially not' clinically significant based on the change to clinical interpretation. Only nine samples (1.7%) were deemed to be 'potentially clinically significant'. Overall, we found that the FIDIS Connective Profile ENA kit is non-inferior to the current ELISA screen/LIA characterisation. Reagent and capital costs may be limiting factors in using the FIDIS, but potential benefits include a single step analysis and simultaneous detection of dsDNA antibodies. PMID:27316331

  6. Decreased oxygen extraction during cardiopulmonary exercise test in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The insufficient metabolic adaptation to exercise in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is still being debated and poorly understood. Methods We analysed the cardiopulmonary exercise tests of CFS patients, idiopathic chronic fatigue (CFI) patients and healthy visitors. Continuous non-invasive measurement of the cardiac output by Nexfin® (BMEYE B.V. Amsterdam, the Netherlands) was added to the cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The peak oxygen extraction by muscle cells and the increase of cardiac output relative to the increase of oxygen uptake (ΔQ’/ΔV’O2) were measured, calculated from the cardiac output and the oxygen uptake during incremental exercise. Results The peak oxygen extraction by muscle cells was 10.83 ± 2.80 ml/100ml in 178 CFS women, 11.62 ± 2.90 ml/100 ml in 172 CFI, and 13.45 ± 2.72 ml/100 ml in 11 healthy women (ANOVA: P=0.001), 13.66 ± 3.31 ml/100 ml in 25 CFS men, 14.63 ± 4.38 ml/100 ml in 51 CFI, and 19.52 ± 6.53 ml/100 ml in 7 healthy men (ANOVA: P=0.008). The ΔQ’/ΔV’O2 was > 6 L/L (normal ΔQ’/ΔV’O2 ≈ 5 L/L) in 70% of the patients and in 22% of the healthy group. Conclusion Low oxygen uptake by muscle cells causes exercise intolerance in a majority of CFS patients, indicating insufficient metabolic adaptation to incremental exercise. The high increase of the cardiac output relative to the increase of oxygen uptake argues against deconditioning as a cause for physical impairment in these patients. PMID:24456560

  7. Solvent systems for countercurrent chromatography: an aqueous two phase liquid system based on a room temperature ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Angel, Maria Jose; Pino, Veronica; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Berthod, Alain

    2007-06-01

    A new aqueous two phase liquid system (ATPS) based on the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl), potassium dibasic phosphate (K(2)HPO(4)) and water was recently proposed in the literature. The full phase diagram of this ATPS was prepared and some tie lines were fully determined. It was compared to classical ATPSs based on polyethylene glycol with an average molecular mass of 1000 (PEG 1000) and 10,000 (PEG 10000) and K(2)HPO(4). Two countercurrent chromatography (CCC) columns, a hydrostatic Sanki and a J type hydrodynamic CCC columns were used to test the liquid phase retention of these ATPSs in all possible configurations. It was found that the BMIM Cl ATPS liquid phases were much easier to retain in the two CCC columns than the PEG 1000 ATPS phases. Using protein and alcohol solutes, it was established that the BMIM Cl ATPS has a polarity completely different from that of the PEG 1000 ATPS. For example, ovalbumin partitions equally between the two phases of the PEG 1000 ATPS (K(D)=1.4) when it is completely located in the BMIM Cl upper phase of the ionic liquid ATPS (K(D)=180). The discrimination factor of the ionic liquid system and its intrinsic hydrophobicity were respectively found three times higher and ten times lower than the respective values of the PEG 1000 ATPS. PMID:17166506

  8. The effects of surface tension on flooding in counter-current two-phase flow in an inclined tube

    SciTech Connect

    Deendarlianto; Ousaka, Akiharu; Indarto; Kariyasaki, Akira; Lucas, Dirk; Vallee, Christophe; Vierow, Karen; Hogan, Kevin

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of surface tension on flooding phenomena in counter-current two-phase flow in an inclined tube. Previous studies by other researchers have shown that surface tension has a stabilizing effect on the falling liquid film under certain conditions and a destabilizing or unclear trend under other conditions. Experimental results are reported herein for air-water systems in which a surfactant has been added to vary the liquid surface tension without altering other liquid properties. The flooding section is a tube of 16 mm in inner diameter and 1.1 m length, inclined at 30-60 from horizontal. The flooding mechanisms were observed by using two high-speed video cameras and by measuring the time variation of liquid hold-up along the test tube. The results show that effects of surface tension are significant. The gas velocity needed to induce flooding is lower for a lower surface tension. There was no upward motion of the air-water interfacial waves upon flooding occurrence, even for lower a surface tension. Observations on the liquid film behavior after flooding occurred suggest that the entrainment of liquid droplets plays an important role in the upward transport of liquid. Finally, an empirical correlation for flooding velocities is proposed that includes functional dependencies on surface tension and tube inclination. (author)

  9. Continuing assessment of the 5 day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay as an indicator test for silicon fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The five day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay has been proposed by the AAFPCO as a standard test to identify fertilizers that provide plant-available Si. A single-lab validation test was previously performed; however, the analysis lacked any correlation to a grow-out study. To do...

  10. Allium cepa chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests applied to study genotoxicity of extracts from pesticide-treated vegetables and grapes.

    PubMed

    Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Zani, C; Ceretti, E; Moretti, M; Monarca, S

    2007-06-01

    The Allium cepa assay is an efficient test for chemical screening and in situ monitoring for genotoxicity of environmental contaminants. The test has been used widely to study genotoxicity of many pesticides revealing that these compounds can induce chromosomal aberrations in root meristems of A. cepa. Pesticide residues can be present in fruit and vegetables and represent a risk for human health. The mutagenic and carcinogenic action of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on experimental animals is well known. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides can cause birth defects and that prenatal exposure is associated with carcinogenicity. This study evaluated the potential application of plant genotoxicity tests for monitoring mutagens in edible vegetables. The presence of pesticides and genotoxic compounds extracted from 21 treated vegetables and eight types of grapes sampled from several markets in Campania, a region in Southern Italy, was monitored concurrently. The extracts were analysed for pesticides by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and for genotoxicity using two plant tests: the micronucleus test and the chromosomal aberration test in A. cepa roots. Thirty-three pesticides were detected, some of which are not approved. Genotoxicity was found in some of the vegetables and grapes tested. Allium cepa tests proved to be sensitive in monitoring genotoxicity in food extracts. The micronucleus test in interphase cells gave a much higher mutagenicity than the chromosomal aberration test in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:17487597

  11. Characterization and testing of amidoxime-based adsorbent materials to extract uranium from natural seawater

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Janke, Christopher James; Wood, Jordana; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Gill, Gary

    2015-11-19

    Extraction of uranium (U) from seawater for use as a nuclear fuel is a significant challenge due to the low concentration of U in seawater (~3.3 ppb) and difficulties to selectively extract U from the background of major and trace elements in seawater. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) s Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) has been serving as a marine test site for determining performance characteristics (adsorption capacity, adsorption kinetics, and selectivity) of novel amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under natural seawater exposure conditions. This report describes the performance of three formulations (38H, AF1, AI8)more » of amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbent produced at ORNL in MSL s ambient seawater testing facility. The adsorbents were produced in two forms, fibrous material (40-100 mg samples) and braided material (5-10 g samples), exposed to natural seawater using flow-through columns and recirculating flumes. All three formulations demonstrated high 56 day uranium adsorption capacity (>3 gU/kg adsorbent). The AF1 formulation had the best uranium adsorption performance, with 56-day capacity of 3.9 g U/kg adsorbent, saturation capacity of 5.4 g U/kg adsorbent, and ~25 days half-saturation time. The two exposure methods, flow-through columns and flumes were demonstrated to produce similar performance results, providing confidence that the test methods were reliable, that scaling up from 10 s of mg quantities of exposure in flow-through columns to gram quantities in flumes produced similar results, and that the manufacturing process produces a homogenous adsorbent. Adsorption kinetics appear to be element specific, with half-saturation times ranging from minutes for the major cations in seawater to 8-10weeks for V and Fe. Reducing the exposure time provides a potential pathway to improve the adsorption capacity of U by reducing the V/U ratio on the adsorbent.« less

  12. Field test of single well DNAPL characterization using alcohol injection/extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome, K.M.; Looney, B.B.; Rhoden, M.L.; Riha, B.; Burdick, S.

    1996-10-29

    Soils and groundwater beneath an abandoned process sewer line in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) contain elevated levels of volatile organic compounds, specifically trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), two common chlorinated solvents. These compounds have low aqueous solubilities, thus when released to the subsurface in sufficient quantity, tend to exist as immiscible fluids or nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Because chlorinated solvents are also denser than water, they are referred to by the acronym DNAPLs, or dense non-aqueous phase liquids. Technologies targeted at efficient characterization or removal of DNAPL are not currently proven. The authors performed injection/extraction characterization tests in six existing wells in A/M Area. Water concentrations for TCE and/or PCE in these wells ranged from 0% to 100% of solubility. For each test, small amounts of solubilizing solution were used to try to confirm or deny the presence or absence of DNAPL in the immediate vicinity of the well screen.

  13. Testing the 'microbubble effect' using the Cavitron technique to measure xylem water extraction curves.

    PubMed

    Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Burlett, Régis; Lavigne, Bruno; Cochard, Hervé; Santiago, Louis S; Delzon, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Plant resistance to xylem cavitation is a major drought adaptation trait and is essential to characterizing vulnerability to climate change. Cavitation resistance can be determined with vulnerability curves. In the past decade, new techniques have increased the ease and speed at which vulnerability curves are produced. However, these new techniques are also subject to new artefacts, especially as related to long-vesselled species. We tested the reliability of the 'flow rotor' centrifuge technique, the so-called Cavitron, and investigated one potential mechanism behind the open vessel artefact in centrifuge-based vulnerability curves: the microbubble effect. The microbubble effect hypothesizes that microbubbles introduced to open vessels, either through sample flushing or injection of solution, travel by buoyancy or mass flow towards the axis of rotation where they artefactually nucleate cavitation. To test the microbubble effect, we constructed vulnerability curves using three different rotor sizes for five species with varying maximum vessel length, as well as water extraction curves that are constructed without injection of solution into the rotor. We found that the Cavitron technique is robust to measure resistance to cavitation in tracheid-bearing and short-vesselled species, but not for long-vesselled ones. Moreover, our results support the microbubble effect hypothesis as the major cause for the open vessel artefact in long-vesselled species. PMID:26903487

  14. Testing the ‘microbubble effect’ using the Cavitron technique to measure xylem water extraction curves

    PubMed Central

    Pivovaroff, Alexandria L.; Burlett, Régis; Lavigne, Bruno; Cochard, Hervé; Santiago, Louis S.; Delzon, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Plant resistance to xylem cavitation is a major drought adaptation trait and is essential to characterizing vulnerability to climate change. Cavitation resistance can be determined with vulnerability curves. In the past decade, new techniques have increased the ease and speed at which vulnerability curves are produced. However, these new techniques are also subject to new artefacts, especially as related to long-vesselled species. We tested the reliability of the ‘flow rotor’ centrifuge technique, the so-called Cavitron, and investigated one potential mechanism behind the open vessel artefact in centrifuge-based vulnerability curves: the microbubble effect. The microbubble effect hypothesizes that microbubbles introduced to open vessels, either through sample flushing or injection of solution, travel by buoyancy or mass flow towards the axis of rotation where they artefactually nucleate cavitation. To test the microbubble effect, we constructed vulnerability curves using three different rotor sizes for five species with varying maximum vessel length, as well as water extraction curves that are constructed without injection of solution into the rotor. We found that the Cavitron technique is robust to measure resistance to cavitation in tracheid-bearing and short-vesselled species, but not for long-vesselled ones. Moreover, our results support the microbubble effect hypothesis as the major cause for the open vessel artefact in long-vesselled species. PMID:26903487

  15. Development of a fast and convenient method for the isolation of triterpene saponins from Actaea racemosa by high-speed countercurrent chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Serhat Sezai; Schwaiger, Stefan; Ellmerer, Ernst Peter; Stuppner, Hermann

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, a fast and simple method for the separation and purification of triterpene saponins from Actaea racemosa was successfully established. Accelerated solvent extraction was used for defatting and extracting of the subaerial parts, giving a triterpene enriched crude extract. Size exclusion chromatography was used to separate actein and 23-epi-26-deoxyactein from other triterpenoids, which were collected in a third fraction. This most complex third fraction was applied to high-speed countercurrent chromatography, a well-established technique for the separation of saponins. Separation parameters were first optimized on an analytical level, using a hyphenated HSCCC-ELSD setup, before the system was scaled up to preparative size. The resulting two-phase solvent system, consisting of N-hexane-acetone-ethyl acetate-2-propanol-ethanol-water (3.5 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 0.5 : 2, v/v/v/v/v/v), enabled the isolation of 23-O-acetylshengmanol-3-O- beta-D-xylopyranoside (17.4 mg), cimiracemoside D (19.5 mg), 25-O-acetylcimigenol-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (7.1 mg) and the aglycone cimigenol (5.9 mg). Purity of the isolated substances was 96.8 %, 96.2 %, 97.9 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. The same method was suitable for the purification of actein and 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, with purities of 97.0 % and 98.3 %. PMID:19847744

  16. Isolation of β-carotene, α-carotene and lutein from carrots by countercurrent chromatography with the solvent system modifier benzotrifluoride.

    PubMed

    Englert, Michael; Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2015-04-01

    A carotenoid purification method with dual-mode countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for β-carotene, α-carotene and lutein from a fresh carrot extract was developed. The fluorinated liquid benzotrifluoride (IUPAC name: (trifluoromethyl)benzene) was used as a novel modifier in the non-aqueous ternary solvent system n-hexane/benzotrifluoride/acetonitrile. The ternary phase diagram of the type I solvent system was used to select two-phase solvent mixtures which enabled an efficient preparative separation of α-carotene, β-carotene and lutein from concomitant pigments in crude carrot extract. By means of the modifier, high separation factors (α ≥ 1.2) were obtained, allowing baseline resolution between α-carotene and β-carotene due to specific chemical interactions such as π-π molecular interactions. After optimizing the injection step with a pseudo-ternary phase diagram, 51 mg of β-carotene, 32 mg of α-carotene and 4 mg of lutein could be isolated from 100.2mg crude carrot extract in a short time and with high purities of 95% and 99% by using dual-mode CCC, respectively. Temperatures > 22°C had a negative impact on the separation of α-carotene and β-carotene. PMID:25728658

  17. Online-storage recycling counter-current chromatography for preparative isolation of naphthaquinones from Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Yue; Mu, Qing

    2016-09-16

    Counter-current Chromatography (CCC) has gradually become a popular method for preparative separation, especially in natural product isolation. As an effective separation method, one-dimensional (1D) CCC often results in insufficiently resolved peaks, due to limitations in the separation efficiency and peak capacity in an equipment. Therefore, two dimensional (2D)/multi-dimensional (multi-D) CCC strategies with recycling elution mode were developed to achieve successful separation of target compounds. However, the reported 2D or multi-D CCC approaches lead to experimental costs, complicated procedures, higher requirements for equipment, and increased time consumption. In this study, an online-storage recycling (OSR) CCC strategy was designed to achieve sequential recycling elution for multi-fractions of effluent in non-stop separation with single instrument using three 6-port valves and two storage loops, which would be realized by introducing 2D or multi-D CCC method before. In this non-stop separation system, the fraction C of effluent was subjected to recycling separation while the other fractions (A and B) were storing online, following which these two fractions were subjected to subsequent recycling separations in order, after the completion of the previous recycling elution. Then, six natural occurring naphthaquinone analogues, namely, shikonin (1), propionylshikonin (2), deoxyshikonin (3), isobutyrylshikonin (4), β, β-dimethylacrylshikonin (5) and isovalerylshikonin (6), were isolated from the crude extract of Arnebia euchroma in single run. The purities of all compounds were > 95.0% as determined by HPLC, and their structures were determined by means of UV, MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and optical rotatory dispersion (ORD). PMID:27554028

  18. State-of-the-art separation of ginsenosides from Korean white and red ginseng by countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Omer; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-05-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) has been one of the most popular herbs used for nutritional and medicinal purposes by the people of eastern Asia for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, the mostly widely studied chemical components of ginseng, are quite different depending on the processing method used. A number of studies demonstrate the countercurrent chromatography (CCC) separation of ginsenosides from several sources; however, there is no single report demonstrating a one-step separation of all of these ginsenosides from different sources. In the present study, we have successfully developed an efficient CCC separation methodology in which the flow-rate gradient technique was coupled with a new solvent gradient dilution strategy for the isolation of ginsenosides from Korean white (peeled off dried P. ginseng) and red ginseng (steam-treated P. ginseng). The crude samples were initially prepared by extraction with butanol and were further purified with CCC using solvent gradients composed of methylene chloride-methanol-isopropanol-water (different ratios, v/v). Gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector was used to analyze the components of the two-phase solvent mixture. Each phase solvent mixture was prepared without presaturation, which saves time and reduces the solvent consumption. Finally, 13 ginsenosides have been purified from red ginseng with the new technique, including Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, Rg6, and F4. Meanwhile, eight ginsenosides have been purified from white ginseng, including Rg1, Re, Rf, Rh1, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd by using a single-solvent system. Thus, the present technique could be used for the purification of ginsenosides from all types' ginseng sources. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving the separation of ginsenoside Rg2 and Rg6 and the one-step separation of thirteen ginsenosides from red ginseng by CCC. PMID:23263512

  19. Process and apparatus for solvent extraction of oil from oil-containing diatomite ore

    SciTech Connect

    Karnofsky, G. B.

    1980-12-16

    A process for solvent extraction of oil from oil bearing diatomite ore and an apparatus for use therewith, wherein the ore is extracted by countercurrent decantation with a hydrocarbon solvent, solvent is recovered from the extract by multiple effect evaporation followed by stripping, and the spent diatomite is contacted with water to displace a major portion of the solvent therefrom, and solvent is recovered from the aqueous slurry of the spent diatomite by stripping with steam at superatmospheric pressure.

  20. PLGA microdevices for retinoids sustained release produced by supercritical emulsion extraction: continuous versus batch operation layouts.

    PubMed

    Porta, Giovanna Della; Campardelli, Roberta; Falco, Nunzia; Reverchon, Ernesto

    2011-10-01

    Retinyl acetate (RA) was selected as a model compound to be entrapped in poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) microspheres using supercritical emulsion extraction (SEE). Several oil-in-water emulsions prepared using acetone and aqueous glycerol (80% glycerol, 20% water) were processed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) to extract the oily phase and to induce microspheres formation. The characteristics of the microspheres obtained by conventional liquid emulsion extraction and SEE were also compared: SEE produced spherical and free flowing microspheres, whereas the conventional liquid-liquid extraction showed large intraparticles aggregation. Emulsion extraction by SC-CO2 technology was tested using two different operation layouts: batch (SEE-B) and continuous (SEE-C). SEE-C was performed using a packed tower to produce emulsion/SC-CO2 contact in countercurrent mode, allowing higher microsphere recovery and process efficiencies. Operating at 80 bar and 36°C, SEE-C produced PLGA/RA microspheres with mean sizes between 3.3 and 4.5 μm with an excellent encapsulation efficiency of 80%-90%. Almost all the drug was released in about 6 days when charged at 2.7% (w/w), whereas only 40% and 10% of RA were released in the same period of time when the charge was 5.2% and 8.8% (w/w), respectively. Release kinetics constants calculated from the experimental data, using a mathematical model, were also proposed and discussed. PMID:21638283

  1. Modeling and separation of rare earth elements by countercurrent electromigration: A new separation column

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, S.M. |; Arbilla, G.; Carvalho, M.S.

    1998-07-01

    The separation of a samarium (90%) and europium (10%) mixture in {alpha}-hydroxy isobutyric acid was performed in a new countercurrent electromigration system. The mobilities of these elements were estimated, and samarium of better than 99.9% purity was obtained. The equilibrium of multicoordinate complexes of these elements with {alpha}-hydroxy isobutyric acid ({alpha}-HIBA) plays an important role in the separation process. The equilibrium concentrations of the involved species were calculated by a computational procedure, and a kinetic study of the complexation reaction was also performed.

  2. Countercurrent flow-limiting characteristics of a Savannah River Plant control rod septifoil

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1992-07-01

    Experiments were performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to investigate the counter-current flow limiting characteristics of a Savannah River Plant control rod septifoil assembly. These experiments were unheated, using air and water as the working fluids. Results are presented in terms of the Wallis flooding correlation for several different control rod configurations. Flooding was observed to occur in the vicinity of the inlet slots/holes of the septifoil, rather than within the rod bundle at the location of the minimum flow area. Nearly identical flooding characteristics of the septifoil were observed for configurations with zero, three, and four rods inserted, but significantly different results occurred with 5 rods inserted.

  3. Neptunium - Uranium - Plutonium Co-Extraction in TBP-based Solvent Extraction Processes for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, S.T.; Abrefah, J.; Lumetta, G.J.; Sinkov, S.I.

    2007-07-01

    The US, through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, is currently engaged in efforts aimed at closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neptunium behavior is important to understand for transuranic recycling because of its complex oxidation chemistry. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is investigating neptunium oxidation chemistry in the context of the PUREX process. Neptunium extraction in the PUREX process relies on maintaining either IV or V oxidation states. Qualitative conversion of neptunium(V) to neptunium(VI) was achieved within 5 hours in 6 M nitric acid at 95 deg. C. However, the VI state was not maintained during a batch contact test simulating the PUREX process and neptunium reduced to the V state, rendering it inextractable. Vanadium(V) was found to be effective in maintaining neptunium(VI) by adding it to a simulated irradiated nuclear fuel feed in 6 M nitric acid and to the scrub acid in the batch contact simulation of the PUREX process. Computer simulations of the PUREX process with a typical irradiated nuclear fuel in 6 M nitric acid as feed indicated little impact of the higher acid concentration on the behavior of fission products of moderate extractability. We plan to perform countercurrent tests of this modified PUREX process in the near future. (authors)

  4. Testing single extraction methods and in vitro tests to assess the geochemical reactivity and human bioaccessibility of silver in urban soils amended with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cruz, N; Rodrigues, S M; Tavares, D; Monteiro, R J R; Carvalho, L; Trindade, T; Duarte, A C; Pereira, E; Römkens, Paul F A M

    2015-09-01

    To assess if the geochemical reactivity and human bioaccessibility of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in soils can be determined by routine soil tests commonly applied to other metals in soil, colloidal Ag was introduced to five pots containing urban soils (equivalent to 6.8 mg Ag kg(-1) soil). Following a 45 days stabilization period, the geochemical reactivity was determined by extraction using 0.43 M and 2 M HNO3. The bioaccessibility of AgNPs was evaluated using the Simplified Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET) the "Unified BARGE Method" (UBM), and two simulated lung fluids (modified Gamble's solution (MGS) and artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF)). The amount of Ag extracted by 0.43 M and 2 M HNO3 soil tests was <8% and <50%, respectively of the total amount of Ag added to soils suggesting that the reactivity of Ag present in the soil can be relatively low. The bioaccessibility of Ag as determined by the four in vitro tests ranged from 17% (ALF extraction) to 99% (SBET) indicating that almost all Ag can be released from soil due to specific interactions with the organic ligands present in the simulated body fluids. This study shows that to develop sound soil risk evaluations regarding soil contamination with AgNPs, aspects of Ag biochemistry need to be considered, particularly when linking commonly applied soil tests to human risk assessment. PMID:25966049

  5. Sister chromatid exchange test in river buffalo lymphocytes treated in vitro with furocoumarin extracts.

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Perucatti, Angela; Genualdo, Viviana; Pauciullo, Alfredo; Melis, Rita; Porqueddu, Claudio; Marchetti, Mauro; Usai, Marianna; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2016-09-01

    Furocoumarin extracts from Psoralea morisiana, the endemic Sardinian legume species, were tested for their mutagenic potential on river buffalo blood cells. The results obtained performing the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test in blood cultures of five river buffalo calves (exposure to furocoumarins for 72h) and five cows (exposure to furocoumarins for 3h, in the absence and presence of S9 metabolic activator) are reported. Significant differences in mean values of SCEs were observed in cells of calves compared to control cells (unexposed), but no differences in SCE mean values were found between treated and untreated cells of cows in the presence or absence of S9. SCE mean values were much higher in cells of cows (exposed and control) than in cells of calves. Indeed, in calf cells, SCE mean values/cell (±SD) were 6.66±2.45 in the control and 7.63±3.01, 9.03±3.90, 9.53±3.60 and 9.99±3.41 in treated cells at 50, 100, 200 and 400 µg/ml of furocoumarin extracts, respectively. In cow cells, grown in presence of S9, SCE mean values/cell were 11.49±4.78 and 11.65±5.19 in treated cells at 100 and 200 µg/ml of furocoumarins and 11.66±5.45 in the control. In cow cells grown in absence of S9, SCE mean values were 11.81±6.14 in the control and 12.35±7.09 and 12.01±5.43, respectively, in the presence of 100 and 200 µg/ml of furocoumarins. Despite their higher SCE values in the absence of S9, no statistically significant differences were found when these values were compared with those shown in presence of S9, suggesting no mutagenic action of furocoumarins in cows, at the doses used in this study. PMID:27180332

  6. New lab-made coagulant based on Schinopsis balansae tannin extract: synthesis optimization and preliminary tests on refractory water pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martín, J.; Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Coco-Rivero, B.

    2014-09-01

    Quebracho colorado tannin extract was used as a coagulant raw material for water and wastewater treatment. The chemical synthesis follows a Mannich reaction mechanism and provides a fully working coagulant that can remove several pollutants from water. This paper addresses the optimization of such synthesis and confirms the feasibility of the coagulant by testing it in a preliminary screening for the elimination of dyes and detergents. The optimum combination of reagents was 6.81 g of diethanolamine (DEA) and 2.78 g of formaldehyde (F) per g of tannin extract. So obtained coagulant was succesfully tested on the removal of 9 dyes and 8 detergents.

  7. LiDAR DTMs and anthropogenic feature extraction: testing the feasibility of geomorphometric parameters in floodplains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, G.; Tarolli, P.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2012-04-01

    resolution topography have been proven to be reliable for feasible applications. The use of statistical operators as thresholds for these geomorphic parameters, furthermore, showed a high reliability for feature extraction in mountainous environments. The goal of this research is to test if these morphological indicators and objective thresholds can be feasible also in floodplains, where features assume different characteristics and other artificial disturbances might be present. In the work, three different geomorphic parameters are tested and applied at different scales on a LiDAR DTM of typical alluvial plain's area in the North East of Italy. The box-plot is applied to identify the threshold for feature extraction, and a filtering procedure is proposed, to improve the quality of the final results. The effectiveness of the different geomorphic parameters is analyzed, comparing automatically derived features with the surveyed ones. The results highlight the capability of high resolution topography, geomorphic indicators and statistical thresholds for anthropogenic features extraction and characterization in a floodplains context.

  8. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Becerril-García, Miguel Angel; Limón-Flores, Alberto Yairh; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pavón, Lenin; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-γ and reduced IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i) this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii) the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii) Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv) Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v) the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines. PMID:25984538

  9. Post-extraction stabilization of HIV viral RNA for quantitative molecular tests.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Daniel S; Crudder, Christopher H; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2012-06-01

    Two approaches to stabilize viral nucleic acid in processed clinical specimens were evaluated. HIV-1 RNA extracted from clinical specimens was stabilized in a dry matrix in a commercial product (RNAstable, Biomatrica, San Diego, CA, USA) and in a reverse-transcription reaction mixture in liquid form as cDNA. As few as 145 HIV-1 genome copies of viral RNA are reliably stabilized by RNAstable at 45°C for 92 days and in the cDNA format at 45°C for 7 days as determined by real-time PCR. With RNAstable the R(2) at days 1, 7, and 92 were 0.888, 0.871, and 0.943 when compared to baseline viral load values. The cDNA generated from the same clinical specimens was highly stable with an R(2) value of 0.762 when comparing viral load determinations at day 7 to baseline values. In conclusion viral RNA stabilized in a dry RNAstable matrix is highly stable for long periods of time at high temperatures across a substantial dynamic range. Viral RNA signal can also be stabilized in liquid in the form of cDNA for limited periods of time. Methods that reduce reliance on the cold chain and preserve specimen integrity are critical for extending the reach of molecular testing to low-resource settings. Products based on anhydrobiosis, such as the RNAstable should be evaluated further to support viral pathogen diagnosis. PMID:22433512

  10. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    PubMed Central

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  11. [Genotoxic effects of pesticide-treated vegetable extracts using the Allium cepa chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests].

    PubMed

    Biscardi, D; De Fusco, R; Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Izzo, C; Esposito, V; Nardi, G; Monarca, S

    2003-01-01

    The presence of chemical residues in vegetables and fruit is a source of human exposure to toxic and genotoxic chemicals. The mutagenic and carcinogenic action of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on experimental animals is already known. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides can cause adverse health effects and that many pesticides are mutagenic/carcinogenic. In the present research we monitored concurrently the presence of pesticides and genotoxic compounds extracted from 21 treated vegetables and 8 types of grapes sampled from the markets of a region in Southern Italy. The extracts were analysed for pesticides by gas-chromatography and HPLC, and for genotoxicity with two plant tests in Allium cepa roots: the micronucleus test and the chromosomal aberration test. We found 33 pesticides, some of which are outlawed. Genotoxicity was found in some of the vegetables and grapes tested. Allium cepa tests were sensitive for monitoring genotoxicity in food extracts. The micronucleus test in interphase cells gave much higher mutagenicity than the chromosomal aberration test in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:15049565

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  13. Simultaneous separation of three isomeric sennosides from senna leaf (Cassia acutifolia) using counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Park, Sait Byul; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-10-01

    Senna leaf is widely consumed as tea to treat constipation or to aid in weight loss. Sennoside A, A1 , and B are dirheinanthrone glucosides that are abundant and the bioactive constituents in the plant. They are isomers that refer to the (R*R*), (S*S*), and (R*S*) forms of protons on C-10 and C-10' centers and it is difficult to refine them individually due to their structural similarities. The new separation method using counter-current chromatography successfully purified sennoside A, A1 , and B from senna leaf (Cassia acutifolia) while reversed-phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography yielded sennoside A only. n-Butanol/isopropanol/water (5:1:6, v/v/v) was selected as the solvent system for counter-current chromatography operation, and the partition coefficients were carefully determined by adding different concentrations of formic acid. High-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy were performed to verify the chemical properties of the compounds. PMID:26255810

  14. Estimation of shear stress in counter-current gas-liquid annular two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Akimoto, Hajime; Murao, Yoshio

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of the correlations of the friction factor is important for the counter-current flow (CCF) analysis with two-fluid model. However, existing two fluid model codes use the correlations of friction factors for co-current flow or correlation developed based on the assumption of no wall shear stress. The assessment calculation for two fluid model code with those existing correlations of friction factors shows the falling water flow rate is overestimated. Analytical model is developed to calculate the shear stress distribution in water film at CCF in order to get the information on the shear stress at the interface and the wall. The analytical results with the analysis model and Bharathan's CCF data shows that the wall shear stress acting on the falling water film is almost the same order as the interfacial shear stress and the correlations for co-current flow cannot be applied to the counter-current flow. Tentative correlations of the interfacial and the wall friction factors are developed based on the results of the present study.

  15. Counter-current thermocapilllary migration of bubbles in microchannels using self-rewetting liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazareth, Robson; Saenz, Pedro; Valluri, Prashant; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-11-01

    The study of bubble transport in microchannels is of great interest in evaporative cooling of microdevices technologies. This is because bubble transport under heat-transfer or phase-change causes several flow instabilities that are less understood and hinder informed design of microcooling devices. Bubble motion in microchannels under temperature gradients is highly influenced by thermocapillary forces due surface tension gradients. Most studies until now so far are mainly based on pure liquids which present a linear temperature (inverse) dependence of surface tension. In this work, we consider motion of a bubble (formed of inert gas) in the so-called self-rewetting fluid that presents a parabolic (quadratic) dependence of surface tension on temperature, in a temperature range that includes a surface tension minimum. We particularly investigate the counter-current thermocapillary migration of bubbles in these liquids, as experimentally depicted by Shanahan and Sefiane (2014), by means of direct numerical simulations. We present a model that solves the 3D governing equations of mass, momentum, interface and energy for the two-phase system composed by incompressible, Newtonian and immiscible fluids. We resolve the deformable interface by means of a Volume-of-Fluid method. Our results indicate that there exists a pressure drop limit beyond which there would be no counter-current migration of bubbles.

  16. Single-step total fractionation of single-wall carbon nanotubes by countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Khripin, Constantine Y; Fagan, Jeffrey A; McPhie, Peter; Ito, Yoichiro; Zheng, Ming

    2014-04-15

    Development of simple processes to fractionate synthetic mixtures of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into individual species is crucial to many applications. Existing methods for single-chirality SWCNT purification are cumbersome, often requiring multiple steps and different conditions for different species. Here, we report a method to achieve total fractionation of a synthetic SWCNT mixture by countercurrent chromatography, resulting in purification of many single-chirality SWCNT species in a single run. This method is based on a tunable partition of sodium deoxycholate dispersed SWCNTs in a polyethylene glycol/dextran aqueous two-phase system. By running the mobile phase with 0.02% of sodium deoxycholate and a gradient of sodium dodecyl sulfate from 0.1% to 0.7% (w/w), we observe clear diameter-dependent elution, with ∼ 90% total recovery. Among all the fractions collected, a number of them are enriched in single-chirality (9,4), (7,5), (7,6), (8,3), (6,5) species, while most of the remaining ones contain no more than 2-3 major species. We also observe strong (n,m)-dependent elution peak width due to the enantiomer-resolved partition. These results demonstrate countercurrent chromatography (CCC) as an effective way to obtain high purity (n, m) species, and suggest the potential of CCC as an analytical tool for chirality distribution mapping of synthetic SWCNT mixtures. PMID:24673411

  17. Reverse osmosis concentrate treatment via a PAC-MF accumulative countercurrent adsorption process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunxia; Gu, Ping; Cui, Hangyu; Zhang, Guanghui

    2012-01-01

    Organic pollutants in reverse osmosis (RO) concentrates from wastewater reclamation are mainly comprised of low molecular weight biorefractory compounds. Generally, advanced oxidation methods for oxidizing these organics require a relatively high level of energy consumption. In addition, conventional adsorption removal methods require a large dose of activated carbon. However, the dose can be reduced if its full adsorption capacity can be used. Therefore, the combined technology of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and microfiltration (MF) membrane filtration was studied to develop a countercurrent two-stage adsorption process. A PAC accumulative adsorption prediction method was proposed based on the verification of a PAC multi-stage adsorption capacity equation. Moreover, the prediction method was amended for a more accurate prediction of the effluent quality because adsorption isotherm constants were affected by the initial adsorbate concentration. The required PAC dose for the accumulative countercurrent two-stage adsorption system was 0.6 g/L, whereas that of the conventional adsorption process was 1.05 g/L when the dilution factor(F) was 0.1 and the COD and DOC removal rates were set to 70% and 68.1%, respectively. Organic pollutants were satisfactorily removed with less consumption of PAC. Effluent from this combined technology can be further reclaimed by an RO process to improve the overall recovery rate to between 91.0% and 93.8% with both economic and environmental benefits. PMID:22082527

  18. Extracting material response from simple mechanical tests on hardening-softening-hardening viscoplastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Nisha

    Compliant foams are usually characterized by a wide range of desirable mechanical properties. These properties include viscoelasticity at different temperatures, energy absorption, recoverability under cyclic loading, impact resistance, and thermal, electrical, acoustic and radiation-resistance. Some foams contain nano-sized features and are used in small-scale devices. This implies that the characteristic dimensions of foams span multiple length scales, rendering modeling their mechanical properties difficult. Continuum mechanics-based models capture some salient experimental features like the linear elastic regime, followed by non-linear plateau stress regime. However, they lack mesostructural physical details. This makes them incapable of accurately predicting local peaks in stress and strain distributions, which significantly affect the deformation paths. Atomistic methods are capable of capturing the physical origins of deformation at smaller scales, but suffer from impractical computational intensity. Capturing deformation at the so-called meso-scale, which is capable of describing the phenomenon at a continuum level, but with some physical insights, requires developing new theoretical approaches. A fundamental question that motivates the modeling of foams is `how to extract the intrinsic material response from simple mechanical test data, such as stress vs. strain response?' A 3D model was developed to simulate the mechanical response of foam-type materials. The novelty of this model includes unique features such as the hardening-softening-hardening material response, strain rate-dependence, and plastically compressible solids with plastic non-normality. Suggestive links from atomistic simulations of foams were borrowed to formulate a physically informed hardening material input function. Motivated by a model that qualitatively captured the response of foam-type vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) pillars under uniaxial compression [2011,"Analysis of

  19. Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of swietenia macrophylla king (meliaceae) seed extracts in normoglycaemic rats undergoing glucose tolerance tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) is used to treat diabetes mellitus in Malaysia. This study aims to evaluate the anti-hyperglycaemic potential of petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE) and methanol (ME) extracts of S. macrophylla seeds, in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Following treatment of normoglycaemic rats with S. macrophylla seed extracts, hypoglycaemic and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured. Similarly, glucose concentrations were measured after 1 and 14 days of extract treatment of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Glucose absorption by isolated everted intestine and glucose uptake by isolated abdominal muscle were tested after treatment with seed extracts. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed on PE of S. macrophylla seeds to identify the compounds responsible for its activity. Results None of the extracts had a significant effect on the blood glucose levels of 60 randomly selected normoglycaemic (normal) and diabetic rats undergoing hypoglycaemic tests. PE, however, significantly reduced blood glucose levels in 30 randomly selected normoglycaemic rats undergoing IPGTT tests 30–120 minutes after glucose administration. Repeated doses of 1000 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg PE to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 14 days did not reduce blood glucose levels significantly. PE did not significantly reduced the intestinal absorption of glucose, but significantly increased glucose uptake by abdominal muscle in the absence or presence of insulin. GC-MS analysis indicated that diterpenes, triterpenoids, fatty acid methyl esters, aldehydes and phytosterols may be responsible for the glucose lowering effects of PE. Conclusion PE extracts of S. macrophylla seeds showed anti-hyperglycaemic activity on IPGTTs . GC-MS analysis on the PE revealed that several compounds, including fucosterol and β-sitosterol, may be responsible for

  20. Differences between heat-treated raw and commercial peanut extracts by skin testing and immunoblotting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is generally consumed in a heat-treated form, yet the commonly available extracts for diagnostic purposes are derived from raw peanuts. Raw and heat-treated samples were prepared and compared with commercially available peanut extracts regarding SPT reactivity and serum IgE reactivity. Protei...

  1. Development of a method to screen and isolate potential α-glucosidase inhibitors from Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer by ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography, and counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Sainan; Tang, Ying; Liu, Chunming; Zhang, Yuchi

    2015-06-01

    A new assay based on ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed for the rapid screening and identification of the ligands for α-glucosidase from the extract of Panax japonicus. Six saponins were identified as α-glucosidase inhibitors. Subsequently, the specific binding ligands, namely, notoginsenoside R1 , ginsenoside Rb1 , chikusetsusaponin V, chikusetsusaponin IV, chikusetsusaponin IVa, and ginsenoside Rd (the purities were 94.18, 95.43, 96.09, 93.26, 94.50, 93.86%, respectively) were separated by counter-current chromatography using two-phase solvent systems composed of tert-butyl methyl ether, acetonitrile, 0.1% aqueous formic acid (3.8:1.0:4.4, v/v/v) and the solvent system composed of methylene chloride, isopropanol, methanol, 0.1% aqueous formic acid (5.8:1.0:6.0:2.2, v/v/v). The results demonstrate that ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography might provide not only a powerful tool for screening and isolating α-glucosidase inhibitors in complex samples but also a useful platform for discovering bioactive compounds for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25847676

  2. Preparative isolation of pseudolaric acids A and B, and their glucosides from the root bark of Pseudolarix kaempferi using high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Han, Quan-Bin; Wong, Lina; Lai, Fanny; Yang, Nian-Yun; Song, Jing-Zheng; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide the chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines, four diterpenoids, pseudolaric acids A and B (PAA and PAB), and their glucosides were isolated from the methanol extract of the Chinese herb Pseudolarix kaempferi using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The diphase solvent system was n-hexane/EtOAc/MeOH/H(2)O which was used at two ratios (5:5:5:5 and 1:9:4:6 by volume) in the separation of pseudolaric acids and their glycosides, respectively. As a result, PAA (14 mg), PAB (129 mg), PAA-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8 mg, PAAG), and PAB-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (42 mg, PABG) were obtained from 0.5 g of the crude extract. Their purities were determined to be above 97% by HPLC analysis. Their chemical structures were confirmed by( 1)H and( 13)C NMR analysis or HPLC comparison with the reference compounds. PMID:19072902

  3. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antimicrobial coumarins from Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier (Apiaceae) fruits by high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Walasek, Magdalena; Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Malm, Anna; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna

    2015-11-01

    An efficient strategy, based on bioassay-guided fractionation, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC), was established to purify and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the dichloromethane extract of the fruits of Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier (Apiaceae). The quaternary solvent system n-heptane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (6:5:6:5 v/v) was used in the reversed phase mode. Using this method, in a single run, seven fractions were isolated, among them three were the pure furanocoumarins: pimpinellin, imperatorin, and phellopterin. In order to purify xanthotoxin a more polar system (1:1:1:1 v/v) was further applied. The antimicrobial activity of extract, chromatographic fractions, and single compounds were in the range of MIC = 0.03-1 mg mL(-1). Xanthotoxin may have priority as a compound of further interest based on its antimicrobial activity. For the first time, an extensive antimicrobial study was performed for pimpinellin and phellopterin. PMID:25976802

  4. Efficient Preparation of Streptochlorin from Marine Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4 by Combination of Response Surface Methodology and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; He, Shan; Ding, Lijian; Yuan, Ye; Zhu, Peng; Epstein, Slava; Fan, Jianzhong; Wu, Xiaokai; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Since first isolated from the lipophilic extract of Streptomyces sp. SF2583, streptochlorin, has attracted a lot of attention because of its various pharmacological properties, such as antibiotic, antiallergic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. For the efficient preparation of streptochlorin from a producing strain Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4, we developed a combinative method by using response surface methodology (RSM) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). In the fermentation process, we used RSM to optimize the condition for the efficient accumulation of streptochlorin, and the optimal parameters were: yeast extract 1.889 g/L, soluble starch 8.636 g/L, K₂HPO₄ 0.359 g/L, CaCl₂ 2.5 g/L, MgSO₄ 0.625 g/L, marine salt 25 g/L, medium volume 50%, initial pH value 7.0, temperature 27.5 °C, which enhanced streptochlorin yield by 17.7-fold. During the purification process, the preparative HSCCC separation was performed using a petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (9:0.8:5:5, v/v/v/v) biphasic solvent system, where 300 mg of crude sample yielded 16.5 mg streptochlorin with over 95% purity as determined by UPLC. Consequently, the combination method provided a feasible strategy for highly effective preparation of streptochlorin, which ensured the supply of large amounts of streptochlorin for in vivo pharmacological assessments or other requirements. PMID:27240330

  5. Comparison of six methods of extracting Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from processed sputum for testing by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Aldous, Wade K; Pounder, June I; Cloud, Joann L; Woods, Gail L

    2005-05-01

    Six methods of extracting Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from sputum for testing by quantitative PCR were compared: Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer, PrepMan Ultra, 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-10% Triton X with and without sonication, Infectio Diagnostics, Inc. (IDI) lysing tubes, and QIAGEN QIAamp DNA mini kit; all included a 15-min boiling step. Pooled digested and decontaminated sputum was spiked with M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294. Each extraction method was repeated eight times. Quantitative PCR was performed on the Smart Cycler and Rotor-Gene 3000 using primers targeting an 83-bp fragment of IS6110. An minor grove binding Eclipse probe with a fluorescent label was used for detection. An internal control was included to detect amplification inhibition. The limit of detection of M. tuberculosis DNA was 0.5 fg with both instruments. Calculated DNA concentrations (picograms) extracted using IDI, PrepMan, QIAGEN, and TE were 42.8, 30.4, 28.2, and 7.4, respectively, when run on the Smart Cycler, and 51.7, 20.1, 14.9, and 8.6, respectively, when run on Rotor-Gene. All extractions using SDS/Triton X with or without sonication were inhibited. Of the extraction methods evaluated, IDI lysis tubes provided the greatest yield of mycobacterial DNA, and the procedure can be completed in less than 1 h versus 2.5-3 h for the QIAGEN extraction. PMID:15872286

  6. Mutagenicity and clastogenicity of extracts of Helicobacter pylori detected by the Ames test and in the micronucleus test using human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Ohta, Kaori; Yuhara, Yuta; Ayabe, Yuka; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Oguma, Keiji; Otsuka, Takanao

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a close association between infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) and the development of gastric carcinoma. Chronic H.pylori infection increases the frequency of mutation in gastric epithelial cells. However, the mechanism by which infection of H.pylori leads to mutation in gastric epithelial cells is unclear. We suspected that components in H.pylori may be related to the mutagenic response associated with DNA alkylation, and could be detected with the Ames test using a more sensitive strain for alkylating agents. Our investigation revealed that an extract of H.pylori was mutagenic in the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium YG7108, which is deficient in the DNA repair of O(6)-methylguanine. The extract of H.pylori may contain methylating or alkylating agents, which might induce O (6)-alkylguanine in DNA. Mutagenicity of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in the Ames test with S.typhimurium TA1535 was enhanced significantly in the presence of the extract of H.pylori. The tested extracts of H.pylori resulted in a significant induction of micronuclei in human-derived lymphoblastoid cells. Heat instability and dialysis resistance of the extracts of H.pylori suggest that the mutagenic component in the extracts of H.pylori is a heat-unstable large molecule or a heat-labile small molecule strongly attached or adsorbed to a large molecule. Proteins in the extracts of H.pylori were subsequently fractionated using ammonium sulphate precipitation. However, all fractions expressed enhancing effects toward MNU mutagenicity. These results suggest the mutagenic component is a small molecule that is absorbed into proteins in the extract of H.pylori, which resist dialysis. Continuous and chronic exposure of gastric epithelial cells to the alkylative mutagenic component from H.pylori chronically infected in the stomach might be a causal factor in the gastric carcinogenesis

  7. Countercurrent washing of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal after leaching with molten mixtures of sodium and potassium hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Chriswell, C.D.; Shah, N.D.; Markuszewski, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Molten caustic leaching is an advanced chemical coal-cleaning process which results in the removal of over 90% of the sulfur and ash from coal. One of the steps in this process is the water washing of caustic-leached coals to remove unreacted caustic and impurities released by reactions with the molten caustic. A countercurrent procedure, designed for efficient washing with minimal water consumption, has been evaluated in the present work. A Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was leached with a one-to-one mixture of molten sodium and potassium hydroxides, and the resulting coal-caustic cake was washed using this countercurrent procedure. The countercurrent washing did result in recovery of caustic at predicted concentrations, and a relatively ash-free and sulfur-free coal was the final product. However, significant problems occurred during the countercurrent washing, all of which could be linked with the formation of a massive precipitate of carbonates from the alkaline process streams. The mass of the precipitate retained fluids and thus led to far lower than predicted recoveries of caustic solutions. the precipitate also caused a significant decrease in filtration rates.

  8. Use of hairy roots extracts for 2,4-DCP removal and toxicity evaluation by Lactuca sativa test.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Vanina A; Agostini, Elizabeth; Medina, María I; González, Paola S

    2014-02-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is widely distributed in wastewaters discharged from several industries, and it is considered as a priority pollutant due to its high toxicity. In this study, the use of different peroxidase extracts for 2,4-DCP removal from aqueous solutions was investigated. Tobacco hairy roots (HRs), wild-type (WT), and double-transgenic (DT) for tomato basic peroxidases (TPX1 and TPX2) were used to obtain different peroxidase extracts: total peroxidases (TPx), soluble peroxidases (SPx), and peroxidases ionically bound to the cell wall (IBPx). All extracts derived from DT HRs exhibited higher peroxidase activity than those obtained from WT HRs. TPx and IBPx DT extracts showed the highest catalytic efficiency values. The optimal conditions for 2,4-DCP oxidation were pH 6.5, H2O2 0.5 mM, and 200 U mL(-1) of enzyme, for all extracts analyzed. Although both TPx extracts were able to oxidize different 2,4-DCP concentrations, the removal efficiency was higher for TPx DT. Polyethylene glycol addition slightly improved 2,4-DCP removal efficiency, and it showed some protective effect on TPx WT after 2,4-DCP oxidation. In addition, using Lactuca sativa test, a reduction of the toxicity of post removal solutions was observed, for both TPx extracts. The results demonstrate that TPx extracts from both tobacco HRs appear to be promising candidate for future applications in removing 2,4-DCP from wastewaters. This is particularly true considering that these peroxidase sources are associated with low costs and are readily available. However, TPx DT has increased peroxidase activity, catalytic efficiency, and higher removal efficiency than TPx WT, probably due to the expression of TPX1 and TPX2 isoenzymes. PMID:24085515

  9. [Study of DNA extraction methods for testing for genetically modified organisms in soyproducts].

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, Rie; Monma, Kimio; Kamata, Kunihiro; Ibe, Akihiro

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate three different methods for DNA extraction (CTAB, DNeasy Plant Mini Kit and Wizard DNA Clean-up Resin system), the yields of DNA extracted from soyproducts and the copy numbers of lectin genes amplified by quantitative PCR were compared. Fermented foods, such as miso and nattou, gave poor yields of DNA and low copy numbers with any method. However atsu-age and kinugoshi-tofu gave high-quality results with all methods. Kinako gave a high yield of DNA, but poor amplification. Boiled soybeans and soymilk showed in poor amplification. It is important to choose the appropriate DNA extraction method for each product. PMID:19029786

  10. Summary report of results of the vapor vacuum extraction test at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex)

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.B.; Ellis, G.C.

    1990-11-01

    A test scale vapor vacuum extraction system was operated for four months at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The extraction system removed more than 65 million ft{sup 3} of soil gas containing 429 Kg of Carbon Tetrachloride and 164 Kg of TCE. Hydraulic properties of the basalts were estimated and input into a numerical transport model. The model simulations indicated that a rubble zone at 190 ft dominated the soil gas flow pattern. Refined calibration of transport models will allow enhancement of the production system design to increase operational efficiency and effectiveness. 7 refs., 18 figs.

  11. K-targeted metabolomic analysis extends chemical subtraction to DESIGNER extracts: selective depletion of extracts of hops (Humulus lupulus).

    PubMed

    Ramos Alvarenga, René F; Friesen, J Brent; Nikolić, Dejan; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G; van Breemen, Richard; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2014-12-26

    This study introduces a flexible and compound targeted approach to Deplete and Enrich Select Ingredients to Generate Normalized Extract Resources, generating DESIGNER extracts, by means of chemical subtraction or augmentation of metabolites. Targeting metabolites based on their liquid-liquid partition coefficients (K values), K targeting uses countercurrent separation methodology to remove single or multiple compounds from a chemically complex mixture, according to the following equation: DESIGNER extract = total extract ± target compound(s). Expanding the scope of the recently reported depletion of extracts by immunoaffinity or solid phase liquid chromatography, the present approach allows a more flexible, single- or multi-targeted removal of constituents from complex extracts such as botanicals. Chemical subtraction enables both chemical and biological characterization, including detection of synergism/antagonism by both the subtracted targets and the remaining metabolite mixture, as well as definition of the residual complexity of all fractions. The feasibility of the DESIGNER concept is shown by K-targeted subtraction of four bioactive prenylated phenols, isoxanthohumol (1), 8-prenylnaringenin (2), 6-prenylnaringenin (3), and xanthohumol (4), from a standardized hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract using specific solvent systems. Conversely, adding K-targeted isolates allows enrichment of the original extract and hence provides an augmented DESIGNER material. Multiple countercurrent separation steps were used to purify each of the four compounds, and four DESIGNER extracts with varying depletions were prepared. The DESIGNER approach innovates the characterization of chemically complex extracts through integration of enabling technologies such as countercurrent separation, K-by-bioactivity, the residual complexity concepts, as well as quantitative analysis by (1)H NMR, LC-MS, and HiFSA-based NMR fingerprinting. PMID:25437744

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Pt... Integrity Test (Method 1310B) Note: The EP (Method 1310B) is published in “Test Methods for Evaluating...

  13. In-house validation of PremiTest, a microbiological screening test with solvent extraction, for the detection of antimicrobial residues in poultry muscles.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, C G; De Paiva, C R; Botelho, B G; De Oliveira, A M G; De Souza, L F; Nonaka, C V; Santos, K V; Farias, L M; Carvalho, M A R

    2012-01-01

    PremiTest, a microbial inhibition test for the screening of antimicrobial residues, was validated according to the criteria established by Decision 2002/657/EC. Sensitivity, detection capability (CCβ), specificity, selectivity, robustness and applicability were evaluated. The methodology involves the technique of solvent extraction, which increases the detection capability of the test for a wider range of antibiotics. The following CCβ values in poultry muscle were found: penicillin G ≤ 12.5 µg kg(-1), total sulfonamides ≤ 75 µg kg(-1), erythromycin 75 µg kg(-1) and lincomycin 50 µg kg(-1). The detection capability of chlortetracycline was equal to its maximum residue limit (100 µg kg(-1)) and the method did not detect gentamicin (1000 µg kg(-1)), for which no MRL is established in poultry muscle. Specificity evaluated in relation to different analytes and matrices did not detect any interferences in the tests results; whilst the robustness showed that the pH neutralisation point of the extract affects the analytical results and the kits' performance. Only the screening of tetracyclines requires the analysis of extracts without pH neutralisation. The results of the validation process showed that this method is acceptable for screening β-lactam, sulfonamide and macrolide antimicrobial groups in the National Residues and Contaminants Control Programme (PNCRC), and that for this it is fit for purpose. PMID:22059477

  14. Testing and enhancing the in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with a high level of antioxidant abietanes.

    PubMed

    Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Marín, Francisco R; Santoyo, Susana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Señoráns, F Javier; Reglero, Guillermo

    2010-01-27

    An antioxidant-enriched extract (RE) was obtained from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) by supercritical fluid extraction to be used as an ingredient to design functional foods. The optimized mixture (42 mg RE g(-1) sunflower oil) was submitted to in vitro digestion and absorption tests (using Caco2 cells) to investigate the effect of these processes on its DPPH scavenging activity and also whether its major abietanes (tricyclic diterpenes) might be bioaccessible and bioavailable. Results indicated that supplementation of the rosemary extract with sunflower oil and lecithin (37 mg g(-1)) enhanced abietanes micellation (almost 2-fold). In vitro digestion of the mixture including RE, sunflower oil, and lecithin reduced 50% the bioaccesibility in terms of antioxidant activity. Bioavailability was 31%. It was evidenced that this activity was not due to the original levels of carnosol, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate (which only 47% remained after digestion) but due to their derivatives and digestion products. PMID:20038145

  15. Radiolytic degradation of a new diglycol-diamide ligand for actinide and lanthanide co-extraction from spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossola, Annalisa; Macerata, Elena; Tinonin, Dario A.; Faroldi, Federica; Giola, Marco; Mariani, Mario; Casnati, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Within the Partitioning and Transmutation strategies, great efforts have been devoted in the last decades to the development of lipophilic ligands able to co-extract trivalent Lanthanides (Ln) and Actinides (An) from spent nuclear fuel. Because of the harsh working conditions these ligands undergo, it is important to prove their chemical and radiolytic stability during the counter-current multi-stage extraction process. In the present work the hydrolytic and radiolytic resistance of the freshly prepared and aged organic solutions containing the new ligand (2,6-bis[(N-methyl-N-dodecyl)carboxamide]-4-methoxy-tetrahydro-pyran) were investigated in order to evaluate the impact on the safety and efficiency of the process. Liquid-liquid extraction tests with spiked solutions showed that the ligand extracting performances are strongly impaired by storing the samples at room temperature and in the light. Moreover, the extracting efficiency of the irradiated samples resulted to be influenced by gamma irradiation, while selectivity remains unchanged. Preliminary mass spectrometric data showed that degradation is mainly due to the acid-catalysed reaction of the ligand carboxamide and ether groups with the 1-octanol present in the diluent.

  16. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test

    PubMed Central

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130–132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  17. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test.

    PubMed

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130-132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  18. Simulating ion beam extraction from a single aperture triode acceleration column: A comparison of the beam transport codes IGUN and PBGUNS with test stand data

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.; Wills, J. S. C.; Diamond, W. T.

    2008-04-15

    Ion beam extraction from two different ion sources with single aperture triode extraction columns was simulated with the particle beam transport codes PBGUNS and IGUN. For each ion source, the simulation results are compared to experimental data generated on well-equipped test stands. Both codes reproduced the qualitative behavior of the extracted ion beams to incremental and scaled changes to the extraction electrode geometry observed on the test stands. Numerical values of optimum beam currents and beam emittance generated by the simulations also agree well with test stand data.

  19. ``New`` countercurrent demineralization techniques are carving a place in water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.

    1996-09-01

    This article describes how supplementing older treatment methods with modern advancements creates water treatment technology greater than the sum of its parts. Water treatment technology has rapidly advanced in recent years to where a myriad of options are now available for producing makeup water for utility boilers. Some of the newer methods include two-pass reverse osmosis (RO), RO followed by mixed-bed demineralization and triple-membrane treatment consisting of ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and RO. All of these techniques have performed well in various applications. A technique that is gaining attention is packed-bed, counter-currently regenerated demineralization. This process combines ion exchange with advanced regeneration methods in a system that produces water of significantly better quality than that of conventional cation/anion units.

  20. Counter-current flow in a vertical to horizontal tube with obstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Tye, P.; Matuszkiewicz, A.; Teyssedou, A.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents experimental results on counter-current flow and flooding in an elbow between a vertical and a horizontal run. The experimental technique used allowed not only the flooding limit to be determined, but also the entire partial delivery region to be studied as well. The influence that various size orifices placed in the horizontal run have on both the delivered liquid flow rates and on the flooding limits is also examined. It is observed that both the flooding limits and the delivered liquid flow rates decrease with decreasing orifice size. Further, it is also observed that the mechanisms that govern the partial delivery of the liquid are significantly different when an orifice is present in the horizontal leg as compared to the case when no orifice is present.

  1. Novel Design for Centrifugal Counter-Current Chromatography: III. Saw Tooth Column.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2010-01-01

    The toroidal coil using an equilateral triangular core and zigzag pattern column have improved both retention of the stationary phase and peak resolution of the conventional toroidal coil in centrifugal counter-current chromatography. To further improve the retention of stationary phase and peak resolution, a novel saw tooth column was designed and the performance of the system was evaluated at various flow rates. The results indicated that both retention of the stationary phase and peak resolution were improved as the flow rate was decreased and at a flow rate of 0.005 ml/min the resolution is remarkably increased. Modification of the tubing called flat-twisted tubing further improved the peak resolution without increasing the column pressure. With a decreased column length at a capacity of about 0.2 ml, resolution of the saw tooth column was 1.02. PMID:20543965

  2. Novel Designs for Centrifugal Countercurrent chromatography: V. Comparative Studies on Performance of Various Column Configurations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Gu, Dongyu; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2010-01-01

    The conventional toroidal coil in centrifugal countercurrent chromatography has a low level of stationary phase retention, since a half of each helical turn is entirely occupied by the mobile phase. In order to cope with this problem, several new column designs including zigzag, saw-tooth and figure-8 patterns have been introduced and their performance was compared in terms of retention of the stationary phase (Sf), peak resolution (Rs), theoretical plate number (N) and column pressures. Overall results of experiments indicate that the figure-8 column yields the highest Rs when the lower phase is used as the mobile phase. Since the column pressure of all these new columns are much lower than that in the traditional toroidal coil column, the separation efficiency can be improved using a long separation column without a risk of column damage by high back pressure. PMID:21057664

  3. Protein separation and enrichment by counter-current chromatography using reverse micelle solvent systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ching-Wei; Yu, Tiing

    2007-06-01

    A protein mixture consisting of myoglobin, cytochrome c, and lysozyme was separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography using a two-phase aqueous/reverse micelle-containing organic solvent system. About 50% stationary phase retention ratio was obtained in most chromatographic experiments. Separations were manipulated mainly by pH gradients that controlled the electrostatic interactions between the protein molecules and reverse micelles. Separations were further improved by incorporating an ionic strength gradient along with the pH gradient. Control of ionic strength in the aqueous solution helped fine-tune protein partitioning between the stationary and mobile phases. Although non-specific protein interactions affected baseline resolution, recovery of cytochrome c and lysozyme reached 90% and 82%. Furthermore, concentration or enrichment of these two proteins was achieved from a large-volume sample load. This technique can potentially be employed in the recovery and enrichment of proteins from large-volume aqueous solutions. PMID:17289061

  4. Real-Time Volumetric Phase Monitoring: Advancing Chemical Analysis by Countercurrent Separation.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Guido F; Pro, Samuel M; Chadwick, Lucas R; Burdick, Thomas; Pro, Luke; Friedl, Warren; Novak, Nick; Maltby, John; Qiu, Feng; Friesen, J Brent

    2015-07-21

    Countercurrent separation (CCS) utilizes the differential partitioning behavior of analytes between two immiscible liquid phases. We introduce the first platform ("CherryOne") capable of real-time monitoring, metering, and control of the dynamic liquid-liquid CCS process. Automated phase monitoring and volumetrics are made possible with an array of sensors, including the new permittivity-based phase metering apparatus (PMA). Volumetric data for each liquid phase are converted into a dynamic real-time display of stationary phase retention (Sf) and eluent partition coefficients (K), which represent critical parameters of CCS reproducibility. When coupled with the elution-extrusion operational mode (EECCC), automated Sf and K determination empowers untargeted and targeted applications ranging from metabolomic analysis to preparative purifications. PMID:26152934

  5. A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within {plus_minus}8%.

  6. A macroscopic model for countercurrent gas-liquid flow in packed columns

    SciTech Connect

    Dankworth, D.C.; Sundaresan, S. )

    1989-08-01

    A macroscopic model based on the volume-averaged equations of motion is presented for countercurrent gas-liquid flow in a packed bed. The model yields a column-limited flooding point as the loss of existence of uniform states. It correctly predicts the existence of two uniform states below the flooding point. The lower branch corresponds to the trends commonly observed experimentally. It is shown that the upper branch is made unattainable by the gas distributor/support plate at the bottom of the column. The occurrence of premature flooding induced by the support plate is also explained. It is suggested that the occurrence of spontaneous liquid segregation, necessitating frequent liquid redistribution in columns with large dumped packings and porosities, is a consequence of the loss of stability of the uniform state in the lower branch.

  7. TRU decontamination of high-level Purex waste by solvent extraction using a mixed octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide/TBP/NPH (TRUEX) solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Diamond, H.; Kaplan, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process was tested on a simulated high-level dissolved sludge waste (DSW). A batch counter-current extraction mode was used for seven extraction and three scrub stages. One additional extraction stage and two scrub stages and all strip stages were performed by batch extraction. The TRUEX solvent consisted of 0.20 M octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide-1.4 M TBP in Conoco (C/sub 12/-C/sub 14/). The feed solution was 1.0 M in HNO/sub 3/, 0.3 M in H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and contained mixed (stable) fission products, U, Np, Pu, and Am, and a number of inert constituents, e.g., Fe and Al. The test showed that the process is capable of reducing the TRU concentration in the DSW by a factor of 4 x 10/sup 4/ (to <100 nCi/g of disposed form) and reducing the quantity of TRU waste by two orders of magnitude.

  8. 40 CFR 1065.1109 - Post-test sampler disassembly and sample extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by toluene (or a comparable solvent system), ensuring that all the solvent remaining in liquid phase... analysis is necessary, use toluene to perform a liquid-liquid extraction of the SVOCs from the collected.../min. You may increase the elution rate by using dry air or nitrogen to maintain the headspace...

  9. Test in canine extraction site preservations by using mineralized collagen plug with or without membrane.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wang, Cheng-Yue; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Cui, Yun; Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Song, Tian-Xi; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the feasibility of porous mineralized collagen plug and bilayer mineralized collagen-guided bone regeneration membrane in site preservation in extraction sockets. The third mandibular premolars on both sides were extracted from four dogs, thus there were 16 alveolar sockets in all dogs and were randomly assigned into three groups. Group A had six alveolar sockets, and groups B and C had five alveolar sockets, respectively. Each alveolar socket of group A was immediately implanted with a porous mineralized collagen plug and covered with a bilayer mineralized collagen-guided bone regeneration membrane after tooth extraction. Alveolar sockets of group B were implanted with porous mineralized collagen plug only, and group C was set as blank control without any implantation. The healing effects of the extraction sockets were evaluated by gross observation, morphological measurements, and X-ray micro-computed tomography after twelve weeks. Twelve weeks after operation, both groups A and B had more amount of new bone formation compared with group C; in terms of the degree of alveolar bone height, group A was lower than groups B and C with significant differences; the bone mineral density in the region of interest and bone remodeling degree in group A were higher than those of groups B and C. As a result, porous mineralized collagen plug could induce the regeneration of new bone in extraction socket, and combined use of porous mineralized collagen plug and bilayer mineralized collagen guided bone regeneration membrane could further reduce the absorption of alveolar ridge and preserve the socket site. PMID:26721867

  10. Test-methods on the test-bench: a comparison of complete exhaust and exhaust particle extracts for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Sandro; Heeb, Norbert V; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    With the growing number of new exhaust after-treatment systems, fuels and fuel additives for internal combustion engines, efficient and reliable methods for detecting exhaust genotoxicity and mutagenicity are needed to avoid the widespread application of technologies with undesirable effects toward public health. In a commonly used approach, organic extracts of particulates rather than complete exhaust is used for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment, which may reduce the reliability of the results. In the present study, we assessed the mutagenicity and the genotoxicity of complete diesel exhaust compared to an organic exhaust particle extract from the same diesel exhaust in a bacterial and a eukaryotic system, that is, a complex human lung cell model. Both, complete exhaust and organic extract were found to act mutagenic/genotoxic, but the amplitudes of the effects differed considerably. Furthermore, our data indicate that the nature of the mutagenicity may not be identical for complete exhaust and particle extracts. Because in addition, differences between the responses of the different biological systems were found, we suggest that a comprehensive assessment of exhaust toxicity is preferably performed with complete exhaust and with biological systems representative for the organisms and organs of interest (i.e., human lungs) and not only with the Ames test. PMID:24697289

  11. Preparative Isolation of Two Prenylated Biflavonoids from the Roots and Rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi by Sephadex LH-20 Column and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Jun; Pei, Li-Xin; Wang, Kai-Bo; Sun, Yin-Shi; Wang, Jun-Min; Zhang, Yan-Li; Gao, Mei-Ling; Ji, Bao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two prenylated biflavonoids, podoverines B-C, were isolated from the dried roots and rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi using a Sephadex LH-20 column (SLHC) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The 95% ethanol extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate in water. Target compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction were further enriched and purified by the combined application of SLHC and HSCCC. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3.5:5:3.5:5, v/v) was chosen as the two phase solvent system. The flow rate of mobile phase was optimized at 2.0 mL·min(-1). Finally, under optimized conditions, 13.8 mg of podoverine B and 16.2 mg of podoverine C were obtained from 200 mg of the enriched sample. The purities of podoverines B and C were 98.62% and 99.05%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. For the first time, podoverins B and C were found in the genus Sinopodophyllum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (HR-ESI-MS, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC). Their absolute configurations were elucidated by comparison of their experimental and calculated ECD spectra. The cytotoxic activities were evaluated against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines. The separation procedures proved to be practical and economical, especially for trace prenylated biflavonoids from traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26703555

  12. Bioassay-guided preparative separation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory C-flavone glycosides from Desmodium styracifolium by recycling complexation high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Qi; Luo, Jian-Guang; Han, Chao; Xu, Jin-Fang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-01-01

    A new strategy of the convergence of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and bioactive assay technique was developed for rapidly screening and separating the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from the aerial parts of Desmodium styracifolium. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the crude extract was first established to target the bioactive fractions based on HSCCC coupled with in vitro ACE inhibitory assay. Subsequently, the bioactive fractions were further separated by the recycling complexation HSCCC respectively, using 0.10 mol/L copper sulfate in the lower phase of two-phase solvent system composed of n-butanol/water (1:1, v/v). Five C-glycosylflavones, vicenin 2 (1), carlinoside (2), vicenin 1 (3), schaftoside (4) and vicenin 3 (5), were successfully obtained. Their chemical structures were identified using ESI-MS and NMR. All the isolates showed in vitro ACE inhibitory activity with the IC50 values between 33.62 and 58.37 μM. The results demonstrated that the established method was proposed as an excellent strategy to systematically screen and purify active compounds from traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:25459924

  13. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF THREE GLYCINE-CONJUGATED CHOLIC ACIDS FROM PULVIS FELLIS SUIS BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH ELSD DETECTION

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiao; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was developed for preparative isolation and purification of three glycine-conjugated cholic acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), glycohyodeoxycholic acid (GHDCA) and glycohyocholic acid (GHCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system consisted of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (65:30:10:1.5, v/v/v/v) by eluting the lower phase in the head-to-tail elution mode. The revolution speed of the separation column, flow rate of the mobile phase and separation temperature were 800 rpm, 2 ml/min and 25 °C, respectively. In a single operation, 33 mg of GCDCA, 38 mg of GHDCA and 23 mg of GHCA were obtained from 200 mg of crude extract with the purity of 95.65%, 96.72% and 96.63%, respectively, in one step separation. The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the structures of the three glycine-conjugated cholic acids were identified by ESI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. PMID:23008527

  14. Preparative isolation of alkaloids from Dactylicapnos scandens using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography by changing the length of the separation column.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Dong, Hongjing; Yang, Bin; Liu, Dahui; Duan, Wenjuan; Huang, Luqi

    2011-12-01

    pH-Zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied for the preparative separation of alkaloids from Dactylicapnos scandens. The two-phase solvent system was composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v), where 20 mM of triethylamine (TEA) was added to the upper phase as a retainer and 5 mM of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the aqueous phase as an eluter. In this experiment, the apparatus with an adjustable length of the separation column was used for the separation of alkaloids from D. scandens and the resolution of the compounds can be remarkably improved by increasing the length of the separation column. As a result, 70 mg protopin, 30 mg (+) corydine, 120 mg (+) isocorydine and 40 mg (+) glaucine were obtained from 1.0 g of the crude extracts and each with 99.2%, 96.5%, 99.3%, 99.5% purity as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by positive ESI-MS and (1)H NMR. PMID:22056347

  15. Determination of chlorophenols in red wine using ionic liquid countercurrent chromatography as a new pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen; Li, Nai; Cao, Xueli

    2015-06-01

    A countercurrent chromatography method for the enrichment and cleanup of chlorophenols from food samples was successfully established by using an ionic-liquid-modified two-phase solvent system composed of dichloromethane containing 2% 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and water. The column was firstly filled with the organic stationary phase, and then a large volume of sample was pumped into the column after it was equilibrated with pure water at the rotation speed. Finally, the trace amounts of chlorophenols extracted and enriched in the stationary phase were eluted out by an alkaline mobile phase and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under optimized conditions, the enrichment and cleanup of the chlorophenols can be fulfilled online with enrichment factors (34-65) and high recoveries (84.69-95.23%). The method has been applied to the determination of chlorophenols in real red wine samples with the limits of detection in the range of 1.89-4.21 μg/L. The present method is highly suitable for the pretreatment of large volume of aqueous sample for the determination of trace amounts of contaminants in food and environmental samples. PMID:25826668

  16. Separation of polyphenols from leaves of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder by off-line two-dimensional High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography combined with recycling elution mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Zeng, Hualiang; Jiang, Shujing; Zhang, Li; Yang, Fuzhu; Chen, Xiaoqing; Yang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    In this study, off-line two-dimensional High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (2D HSCCC) strategy combined with recycling elution mode was developed to isolate compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of a common green tea--leaves of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder. In the orthogonal separation system, a conventional HSCCC was employed for the first dimension and two recycling HSCCCs were used for the second in parallel. Using a solvent system consisting of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:0.6:4.4, v/v) in the first and second dimension, four compounds including 3-hydroxy-phlorizin (1), phloretin (2), avicularin (3) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucoside (4) were obtained. The purities of these four compounds were all over 95.0% as determined by HPLC. And their structures were all identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line 2D HSCCC with recycling elution mode is an efficient technique to isolate compounds with similar polarities in natural products. PMID:25976803

  17. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  18. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.

  19. Heat production in depth up to 2500m via in situ combustion of methane using a counter-current heat-exchange reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicks, Judith Maria; Spangenberg, Erik; Giese, Ronny; Heeschen, Katja; Priegnitz, Mike; Luzi-Helbing, Manja; Thaler, Jan; Abendroth, Sven; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In situ combustion is a well-known method used for exploitation of unconventional oil deposits such as heavy oil/bitumen reservoirs where the required heat is produced directly within the oil reservoir by combustion of a small percentage of the oil. A new application of in situ combustion for the production of methane from hydrate-bearing sediments was tested at pilot plant scale within the first phase of the German national gas hydrate project SUGAR. The applied method of in situ combustion was a flameless, catalytic oxidation of CH4 in a counter-current heat-exchange reactor with no direct contact between the catalytic reaction zone and the reservoir. The catalyst permitted a flameless combustion of CH4 with air to CO2 and H2O below the auto-ignition temperature of CH4 in air (868 K) and outside the flammability limits. This led to a double secured application of the reactor. The relatively low reaction temperature allowed the use of cost-effective standard materials for the reactor and prevented NOx formation. Preliminary results were promising and showed that only 15% of the produced CH4 was needed to be catalytically burned to provide enough heat to dissociate the hydrates in the environment and release CH4. The location of the heat source right within the hydrate-bearing sediment is a major advantage for the gas production from natural gas hydrates as the heat is generated where it is needed without loss of energy due to transportation. As part of the second period of the SUGAR project the reactor prototype of the first project phase was developed further to a borehole tool. The dimensions of this counter-current heat-exchange reactor are about 540 cm in length and 9 cm in diameter. It is designed for applications up to depths of 2500 m. A functionality test and a pressure test of the reactor were successfully carried out in October 2013 at the continental deep drilling site (KTB) in Windischeschenbach, Germany, in 600 m depth and 2000 m depth, respectively

  20. Creating a flipbook as a medium of instruction based on the research on activity test of kencur extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monika, Icha; Yeni, Laili Fitri; Ariyati, Eka

    2016-02-01

    This research aimed to reveal the validity of the flipbook as a medium of learning for the sub-material of environmental pollution in the tenth grade based on the results of the activity test of kencur (Kaempferia galanga) extract to control the growth of the Fusarium oxysporum fungus. The research consisted of two stages. First, testing the validity of the medium of flipbook through validation by seven assessors and analyzed based on the total average score of all aspects. Second, testing the activity of the kencur extract against the growth of Fusarium oxysporum by using the experimental method with 10 treatments and 3 repetitions which were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The making of the flipbook medium was done through the stages of analysis for the potential and problems, data collection, design, validation, and revision. The validation analysis on the flipbook received an average score of 3.7 and was valid to a certain extent, so it could be used in the teaching and learning process especially in the sub-material of environmental pollution in the tenth grade of the senior high school.

  1. Liquid-liquid extraction based on a new flow pattern: Two-fluid Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, Gretchen

    The exploitation of flow instabilities that can occur in rotating flows is investigated as a new approach to liquid extraction. Two immiscible liquids are radially stratified by centrifugal force in the annulus between corotating coaxial cylinders. The inner cylinder is rotated above a critical speed to form Taylor vortices in one or both of the fluids. This flow pattern produces a relatively small amount interfacial surface area that is of highly active for interphase mass transfer. Continuous processing is also possible with the addition of countercurrent axial flow. The present study includes: (1)A review of aqueous- aqueous and reversed micelle extraction techniques, the commercially available centrifugal extractors, and one fluid Taylor-Couette flow and its variations. (2)A theoretical analysis to predict the onset of the two- fluid Taylor-Couette instability in the presence of countercurrent axial flow. (3)Theoretical predictions for interphase mass transfer using penetration theory and computational fluid dynamics. (4)The demonstration of two-fluid Taylor-Couette flow with countercurrent axial flow in the laboratory, including: (1) fluid mechanics studies to determine the onset of vortices, and (2) mass transfer studies to characterize intraphase and interphase mass transfer. The agreement between the experiments and theory is good for both the fluid mechanics and the mass transfer. Furthermore, the extraction performance is quite promising with the mass transfer coefficient approximately proportional to the vortex strength. Even higher extraction efficiencies should be obtainable with even larger relative rotation rates or cylinder modification to promote vortex formation. Besides two-fluid Taylor-Couette flow, other instabilities can also occur. With low viscosity fluids at low rotation rates, the ``barber pole'' pattern is observed experimentally and is believed to be a lingering gravitational effect. At high countercurrent axial flowrates, the linear

  2. Correlation between skin prick test using commercial extract of cow's milk protein and fresh milk and food challenges.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Mauro; Mauro, Calvani; Alessandri, Claudia; Claudia, Alessandri; Frediani, Tullio; Tullio, Frediani; Lucarelli, Sandra; Sandra, Lucarelli; Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Stefano, Miceli Sopo; Panetta, Valentina; Valentina, Panetta; Zappalã, Daniela; Daniela, Zappala'; Zicari, Anna Maria; Maria, Zicari Anna

    2007-11-01

    The skin prick test (SPT) is regarded as an important diagnostic measure in the diagnostic work-up of cow's milk protein allergy. It is not known whether commercial extracts have any advantage over fresh milk. The aims of the study were to (i) compare the diagnostic capacity of SPTs for the three main cow's milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, casein and beta-lactoglobulin) with fresh milk and (ii) determine a cut-off that discriminates between allergic and tolerant children in a controlled food challenge. A study was carried out on 104 children consecutively attending two paediatric allergy clinics for suspected cow's milk allergy. A clinical history, SPTs with fresh cow's milk and commercial extracts of its three main proteins and a challenge test were performed on all the children. A study of the validity of the prick test was also performed by taking different cut-off points for fresh milk and its proteins. Twenty-eight of 104 challenge tests (26.9%) were positive. At a cut-off point of 3 mm, fresh milk showed the greatest negative predictive value (98%), whereas casein showed the greatest positive predictive value (PPV, 85%). Calculation of 95% predicted probabilities using logistic regression revealed predictive decision points of 12 mm for lactalbumin, 9 mm for casein, 10 mm for beta-lactoglobulin and 15 mm for fresh cow's milk. We found that the greater the number of positive SPTs for milk proteins, the more likely the positive response to challenge. Having a positive SPT for all three milk proteins had PPV of 92.3% and would seem more clinically useful than any cut-off. Both fresh milk and cow's milk extract of the three main proteins could be useful in the diagnostic work-up of cow's milk allergy. Finding positivity to all three cow's milk proteins seems to be a simpler and more useful way of avoiding oral food challenges. PMID:18001429

  3. EVALUATION OF THE EXTRACT-RELEASE VOLUME PHENOMENON AS A RAPID TEST FOR DETECTING SPOILAGE IN BEEF.

    PubMed

    JAY, J M; KONTOU, K S

    1964-07-01

    Ground beef of several grades, obtained fresh and held refrigerated until spoiled, was presented to a test panel for scoring on color, odor, and tactile response (tackiness) as to degree of acceptance. Panel scores were correlated with total bacterial counts, ninhydrin-reactive substances, and ERV (extract-release volume) on the same meat. ERV correlated highest with bacterial counts the largest number of times; tackiness, odor, ninhydrin, and color followed in that order. Correlation between bacterial numbers and organoleptic qualities was best, with tackiness followed closely by odor, and then by color. Correlation between tackiness and odor was high. The degree of correlation between bacterial numbers, tackiness, and ERV was high enough to warrant the use of the ERV phenomenon as a rapid test of microbial quality of beef. An ERV value of 25 under the conditions of the test was supported as a divider between acceptable and unacceptable ground beef. PMID:14201094

  4. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF A CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM TO REMOVE CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Earl Brass, E; Stanley Brown, S; Mark Geeting, M; Lcurtis Johnson, L; Charles02 Coleman, C; S Crump, S; Mark Barnes, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-10-15

    Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel have completed construction and assembly of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility. Following assembly, they conducted testing to evaluate the ability of the process to remove non-radioactive cesium and to separate the aqueous and organic phases. They conducted tests at salt solution flow rates of 3.5, 6.0, and 8.5 gpm. During testing, the MCU Facility collected samples and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel for analysis of cesium, Isopar{reg_sign} L, and Modifier [1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol]. SRNL personnel analyzed the aqueous samples for cesium by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and the solvent samples for cesium using a Parr Bomb Digestion followed by ICP-MS. They analyzed aqueous samples for Isopar{reg_sign} L and Modifier by gas chromatography (GC).

  5. Development and testing of a SREX flowsheet for the partitioning of strontium and lead from simulated ICPP sodium-bearing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Wood, D.J.

    1996-11-01

    Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning {sup 90}Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Previous countercurrent flowsheet testing of the SREX process with simulated waste resulted in 99.98% removal of Sr. With this previous test, however, Pb was extracted by the SREX solvent and was not back-extracted in the dilute nitric acid strip section. The Pb concentration increased in the recycled solvent and in the aqueous phase of the strip section, resulting in the formation of a Pb precipitate. Subsequently, studies were initiated to identify alternative stripping agents which will selectively strip Sr and Pb from the SREX solvent. Based on the results of these studies, a countercurrent flow sheet was developed and tested in the 5.5-cm Centrifugal Contactor Mockup using simulated waste. The flowsheet tested consisted of an extraction section (0.15 M 4{prime},4{prime}(5)-di-(tert-butyldicyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.2 M TBP in Isopar-L{reg_sign}), a 0.05 M nitric acid strip section for the removal of Sr from the SREX solvent, a 0.1 M ammonium citrate strip section for the removal of Pb from the SREX solvent, and a 2.0 M nitric acid equilibration section. The behavior of Sr, Pb, Al, Ca, Hg, Na, Zr, and H{sup +} was evaluated. The described flowsheet successfully extracted and selectively stripped Sr and Pb from the SBW simulant. Removal efficiencies of 97.9% and 99.91% were obtained for Sr and Pb, respectively. Essentially all of the extracted Sr (99.998%) and 1.9% of extracted Pb exited with the 0.05 M nitric acid strip product; whereas, 0.002% of the extracted Sr and 97.9% of the extracted Pb existed with the 0.1 M ammonium citrate strip product. Also, 95% of the Hg and 63% of the Zr were extracted by the SREX solvent.

  6. Clinical Efficacy Test of Polyester Containing Herbal Extract Dressings in Burn Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Muangman, Pornprom; Praditsuktavorn, Banjerd; Chinaroonchai, Kusuma; Chuntrasakul, Chomchark

    2016-09-01

    Technological advancement has assisted in developing various availabilities of wound products that help in not only in healing and preventing infection but also in providing patients' comfort and pain reduction during application. However, most of advanced wound healing products in Thailand were imported at high costs to patients. Nowadays, there are increased numbers of local researches of herbs that could provide healing environment for successful wound care. Herbal wound products are currently being introduced as alternatives to those imported dressings. The aim of this study was to report the clinical efficacy of using polyester containing herbal extract dressings in healing of second-degree burns. The volunteers were divided by simply randomized method into the study group of patient using polyester containing herbal extract dressing and the control group of patients treating with dressings that are commercially available and common use. The standard treatment protocols were performed at every 3 days of dressing change. Comparative evaluation consisted of time of healing, length of hospital stays, pain analog score assessment, percentage of infection, and descriptive notification of unfavorable clinical symptoms or signs or side effects. PMID:27440796

  7. Scale-up protein separation on stainless steel wide bore toroidal columns in the type-J counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yue Hugh; Hewitson, Peter; van den Heuvel, Remco N A M; Zhao, Yan; Siebers, Rick P G; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Sutherland, Ian

    2015-12-11

    Manufacturing high-value added biotech biopharmaceutical products (e.g. therapeutic proteins) requires quick-to-develop, GMP-compliant, easy-to-scale and cost effective preparatory chromatography technologies. In this work, we describe the construction and testing of a set of 5-mm inner diameter stainless steel toroidal columns for use on commercially available preparatory scale synchronous J-type counter-current chromatography (CCC) machinery. We used a 20.2m long column with an aqueous two-phase system containing 14% (w/w) PEG1000 and 14% (w/w) potassium phosphate at pH 7, and tested a sample loading of 5% column volume and a mobile phase flow rate of 20ml/min. We then satisfactorily demonstrated the potential for a weekly protein separation and preparation throughput of ca. 11g based on a normal weekly routine for separating a pair of model proteins by making five stacked injections on a single portion of stationary phase with no stripping. Compared to our previous 1.6mm bore PTFE toroidal column, the present columns enlarged the nominal column processing throughput by nearly 10. For an ideal model protein injection modality, we observed a scaling up factor of at least 21. The 2 scales of protein separation and purification steps were realized on the same commercial CCC device. PMID:25818556

  8. Mechanical properties of Bi2223 filaments extracted from multifilamentary tape evaluated by the single-fibre tensile test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugano, Michinaka; Osamura, Kozo; Hojo, Masaki

    2003-05-01

    The Young's modulus and the tensile fracture strength of Bi2223 filaments extracted from multifilamentary tape have been evaluated using the single-fibre tensile test; they are estimated to be 106 GPa and 45 MPa, respectively. The distribution of the fracture strength can be analysed using the Weibull distribution function. It was found that the observed scatter of strength is very large compared with other superconducting filaments such as NbTi and Nb3Al. The Young's modulus was nearly identical with the estimated values based on the rule of mixture from the unload/reload modulus.

  9. Technology of nondestructive light gas extraction from ice tested on samples from a bore hole above Vostok Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetverikov, Yu. O.; Aruev, N. N.; Bulat, S. A.; Ezhov, V. F.; Lipenkov, V. Ya.; Solovei, V. A.; Tyukal'tsev, R. V.; Fedichkin, I. L.

    2016-07-01

    Nondestructive technology has been developed for the extraction of light gases dissolved in ice. The technology has been tested on samples of atmospheric and congealed ice of the 5-G3 bore hole of the Vostok station (East Antarctica) extracted from depths of 3457-3698 m. Down to 3539 m, ice is of an atmospheric origin, while ice deposited deeper is formed by natural water of Vostok Lake frozen on the glacier. Light gases were extracted into samplers (glass flasks) in the course of the 3-day degassing of samples freshly elevated from a bore hole. The samples were analyzed on the FT-1 time-of-flight mass spectrometer 6 months after sampling. Measurements reveal the presence of amounts of helium as well as molecular hydrogen considerably exceeding the atmospheric values. Measured values of gas ratio H2/4He = 5.4 ± 1.9 in the samples from depths of 3596-3698 m exceed the atmospheric values by more than an order of magnitude.

  10. [Preparative isolation and purification of five non-volatile compounds from Fructus caryophylli and Flos caryophylli by high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong

    2011-11-01

    A high-speed counter-current chromatographic (HSCCC) method was successfully developed for the isolation of three non-volatile compounds from Fructus Caryophylli and two chromone compounds from Flos Caryophylli. The optimum separation solution systems included system A (n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:8:6: 13, v/v/v/v) and system B (n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5: 8: 9: 10, v/v/v/v). The upper phase of the system A was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phases of the systems A and B as the mobile phases were operated at a flow of 1.2 mL/min, while the apparatus rotated at 880 r/min. The 12.3 mg of ellagic acid, 9.6 mg of rhamnetin, 17.2 mg of quercetin were successfully purified from 70 mg of the crude extract of Fructus Caryophylli by a two-step separation. In the same way, 10.2 mg of 5,7-dimethoxy-2-methylchromone, 8.6 mg of 5,7-dimethoxy-2,6-dimethyl-chromone were purified from 50 mg of the crude extract of Flos Caryophylli. The purities of the compounds were all over 96% as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The five compounds were indentified by mass spectrometry (MS), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C-NMR. The results indicate that HSCCC is a powerful technique for the purification of non-volatile compounds from different parts of Eugenia caryophylla Thunb. PMID:22393701

  11. Folding fan mode counter-current chromatography offers fast blind screening for drug discovery. Case study: finding anti-enterovirus 71 agents from Anemarrhena asphodeloides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengshun; Tao, Ling; Chau, Siu Leung; Wu, Rong; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yifu; Yang, Dajian; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Aiping; Han, Quanbin; Xu, Hongxi

    2014-11-14

    A new application of counter-current chromatography (CCC) in drug discovery, called folding fan mode (FFM), is designed to eliminate the extensive and time-consuming calculation of the partition coefficients of some preset compounds in conventional CCC separation. Careful reading of reports in the literature reveals that, when two-phase solvent systems are listed in a polarity-increasing sequence, the isolates also show a similar trend in polarity. The relationship between the two-phase solvent system and the isolates is like that between the folds and the picture of a folding fan. We can directly select a two-phase solvent system to separate fractions having similar polarity, just as opening a fan reveals a picture. The solvent ratio of two-phase solvent systems can be adjusted according to the polarity and weight ratio of active fractions rather than the partition coefficients. Without preset compounds, FFM-CCC not only requires no measurement of partition coefficients, but also achieves true blind screening. This paper reports the method's first success in drug discovery: six anti-EV71 saponins were found from the mixture (9.13 g) of ethanol extract and water extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloides after a total of four CCC separations, using hexan/ethyl acetate/methanol/butanol/water as the model solvent system. Among these saponins, timosaponin B-II displayed a comparable IC50 (4.3 ± 2.1 μM) and a 40-fold higher selective index (SI=92.9) than the positive control (IC50=361.7 ± 104.6 μM, SI=2.4), ribavirin. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these compounds was also studied. PMID:25441347

  12. Lutein in selected Canadian crops and agri-food processing by-products and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond

    2006-04-21

    This study mainly focused on lutein content in several selected crops grown in southern Ontario, Canada. Marigold flower, a good rotation crop for the control of nematodes in tobacco fields was found to contain 0.77% lutein (after saponification, on dry basis). A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method using a two-phase solvent system consisting of hexane-ethanol-water (6:4.5:1.5, v/v/v) was developed for the purification of lutein from the saponification mixture of marigold flower extract. The purity of lutein prepared using this HSCCC method was 97%. Free lutein was found to be the predominant form in three squash varieties, and it was mostly found in the peel rather than the commonly consumed flesh. Sweet Mamma, Buttercup and Pepper squash varieties contained 25.4, 18.4 and 30.1mg/100g fresh weigh (FW) of lutein in the peels, respectively. These concentrations were significantly higher than that in spinach and kale (3.7 and 12.3 mg/100 g FW). beta-Carotene was found most in the peel of Sweet Mamma squash at 13.6 mg/100g FW, whereas it was below 2mg/100g FW in all other samples. Cooking increased extractable free lutein by 22-65% in squash peels. Lutein in Yukon Gold potato was at ca. 0.4 mg/100 g FW. Certain Yukon Gold was also found to contain violaxanthin (0.35 mg/100 g FW). Structures of lutein, beta-carotene and violaxanthin were identified by LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS in positive ion mode, and by comparing the retention time and UV-vis spectral data with standards. Results from this study suggest the selected crops and agri-food industrial processing by-products of these can be a good source of free lutein. PMID:16242702

  13. On-line coupling of counter-current chromatography and macroporous resin chromatography for continuous isolation of arctiin from the fruit of Arctium lappa L.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengzhe; Liang, Junling; Wu, Shihua

    2010-08-13

    In this work, we have developed a novel hybrid two-dimensional counter-current chromatography and liquid chromatography (2D CCC x LC) system for the continuous purification of arctiin from crude extract of Arctium lappa. The first dimensional CCC column has been designed to fractionalize crude complex extract into pure arctiin effluent using a one-component organic/salt-containing system, and the second dimensional LC column has been packed with macroporous resin for on-line adsorption, desalination and desorption of arctiin which was effluent purified from the first CCC dimension. Thus, the crude arctiin mixture has been purified efficiently and conveniently by on-line CCC x LC in spite of the use of a salt-containing solvent system in CCC separation. As a result, high purity (more than 97%) of arctiin has been isolated by repeated injections both using the ethyl acetate-8% sodium chloride aqueous solution and butanol-1% sodium chloride aqueous solution. By contrast with the traditional CCC processes using multi-component organic/aqueous solvent systems, the present on-line CCC x LC process only used a one-component organic solvent and thus the solvent is easier to recover and regenerate. All of used solvents such as ethyl acetate, n-butanol and NaCl aqueous solution are low toxicity and environment-friendly. Moreover, the lower phase of salt-containing aqueous solution used as mobile phase, only contained minor organic solvent, which will save much organic solvent in continuous separation. In summary, our results indicated that the on-line hybrid 2D CCC x LC system using one-component organic/salt-containing aqueous solution is very promising and powerful tool for high-throughput purification of arctiin from fruits of A. lappa. PMID:20619844

  14. Application of high-speed counter-current chromatography coupled with a reverse micelle solvent system to separate three proteins from Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingnan; Yin, Lianhong; Zheng, Lingli; Xu, Lina; Xu, Youwei; Zhao, Yanyan; Qi, Yan; Yao, Jihong; Han, Xu; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2012-05-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) coupled with a reverse micelle solvent system was successfully developed to separate three proteins from Momordica charantia. Suitable HSCCC conditions were carefully optimized as follows: the stationary phase was a reverse micellar phase composed of isooctane and 50mM bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-1-sulfosuccinate sodium (AOT). The mobile phase contained mobile phase A (50mM Tris-HCl buffer containing 50mM KCl at pH 7.0) for forward-extraction and mobile phase B (50mM Tris-HCl buffer containing 0.5M KCl at pH 10.0) for back-extraction. The flow rate, detection wavelength and column temperature were set at 1.5 ml/min, 280 nm and 4 °C, respectively. Under these conditions, three fractions (I, II and III) were separated, which showed high purity when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The structures of these proteins were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS and compared with the NCBInr database. Fractions I and III were identified as resistance-like protein P-B and pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein, respectively, which were found in M. charantia for the first time. However, fraction II, which is thought to be a new protein, was not identified, and further investigations on this fraction are required. The anticancer activities of these three proteins on the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 were evaluated in vitro. The results indicated that fraction II has excellent anticancer activity (IC(50)=0.116 mg/ml for 48 h treatment). This is the first report on the use of HSCCC to isolate proteins from M. charantia. PMID:22465200

  15. Experiences in extraction of contact parameters from process-evaluation test-structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo

    1988-01-01

    Six-terminal-contact test structures are introduced for characterizing ohmic contacts between a metal and a heavily doped semiconductor layer. Specifically, the six-terminal test structure supplies the additional information needed in order to calculate the transmission length and eventual corrections to the characteristic resistance per unit width due to finite contact length. The essential feature of this test structure is a square contact with four taps in the lower (semiconductor) layer. Every other one of these taps is used for current injection ('front'). From the voltage drop at the opposite tap and the side taps, the 'end' resistance and the 'side' resistances are calculated. The test structures are shown to give valuable information complementary to the common front resistance measurements. The interfacial resistivity is obtained directly after proper correction for flange effects.

  16. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    SciTech Connect

    Brombin, M. Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-11-15

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors’ holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  17. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, M.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-11-01

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors' holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  18. K-Targeted Metabolomic Analysis Extends Chemical Subtraction to DESIGNER Extracts: Selective Depletion of Extracts of Hops (Humulus lupulus)⊥

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a flexible and compound targeted approach to Deplete and Enrich Select Ingredients to Generate Normalized Extract Resources, generating DESIGNER extracts, by means of chemical subtraction or augmentation of metabolites. Targeting metabolites based on their liquid–liquid partition coefficients (K values), K targeting uses countercurrent separation methodology to remove single or multiple compounds from a chemically complex mixture, according to the following equation: DESIGNER extract = total extract ± target compound(s). Expanding the scope of the recently reported depletion of extracts by immunoaffinity or solid phase liquid chromatography, the present approach allows a more flexible, single- or multi-targeted removal of constituents from complex extracts such as botanicals. Chemical subtraction enables both chemical and biological characterization, including detection of synergism/antagonism by both the subtracted targets and the remaining metabolite mixture, as well as definition of the residual complexity of all fractions. The feasibility of the DESIGNER concept is shown by K-targeted subtraction of four bioactive prenylated phenols, isoxanthohumol (1), 8-prenylnaringenin (2), 6-prenylnaringenin (3), and xanthohumol (4), from a standardized hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract using specific solvent systems. Conversely, adding K-targeted isolates allows enrichment of the original extract and hence provides an augmented DESIGNER material. Multiple countercurrent separation steps were used to purify each of the four compounds, and four DESIGNER extracts with varying depletions were prepared. The DESIGNER approach innovates the characterization of chemically complex extracts through integration of enabling technologies such as countercurrent separation, K-by-bioactivity, the residual complexity concepts, as well as quantitative analysis by 1H NMR, LC-MS, and HiFSA-based NMR fingerprinting. PMID:25437744

  19. Formal analysis, hardness, and algorithms for extracting internal structure of test-based problems.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Problems in which some elementary entities interact with each other are common in computational intelligence. This scenario, typical for coevolving artificial life agents, learning strategies for games, and machine learning from examples, can be formalized as a test-based problem and conveniently embedded in the common conceptual framework of coevolution. In test-based problems, candidate solutions are evaluated on a number of test cases (agents, opponents, examples). It has been recently shown that every test of such problem can be regarded as a separate objective, and the whole problem as multi-objective optimization. Research on reducing the number of such objectives while preserving the relations between candidate solutions and tests led to the notions of underlying objectives and internal problem structure, which can be formalized as a coordinate system that spatially arranges candidate solutions and tests. The coordinate system that spans the minimal number of axes determines the so-called dimension of a problem and, being an inherent property of every problem, is of particular interest. In this study, we investigate in-depth the formalism of a coordinate system and its properties, relate them to properties of partially ordered sets, and design an exact algorithm for finding a minimal coordinate system. We also prove that this problem is NP-hard and come up with a heuristic which is superior to the best algorithm proposed so far. Finally, we apply the algorithms to three abstract problems and demonstrate that the dimension of the problem is typically much lower than the number of tests, and for some problems converges to the intrinsic parameter of the problem--its a priori dimension. PMID:21815770

  20. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Leukocytes and Hematological Tests in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Kooti, Wesam; Bazvand, Maryam; Ghasemi Boroon, Maryam; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Afrisham, Reza; Afzalzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Jalali, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants have a long history in treating blood disorders, which is one of the most common problems in today's advanced world. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a medicinal plant with a high content of polyphenols and has antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel on some hematological indices in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (five rats in each group). The first group (control) did not receive any dose; the second group (sham) received 1 mL normal saline (extraction solvent); and the experimental groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively received 1 mL hydro alcoholic extract of fennel in four doses of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight every 48 hours for 30 days by gavage. One day after the last gavage following induction of anesthesia and taking blood from the heart of rats, measurement of red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and tests of bleeding and coagulation time (CT) were performed. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS15 software. Results: Fennel increased mean RBC (7.54 ± 0.53 × 106) and WBC (5.89 ± 0.78 × 103) values, especially at a dose of 250 mg/mL and CT (2.45 ± 0.20) at a dose of 500mg/mL compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Fennel increased red and white blood cells probably due to the presence of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fennel and reduced negative effects of free radicals on blood cells. PMID:25866717

  1. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ), respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days). Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), nitric oxide (NO), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days. Results During 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p < 0.05). Unlike late-stage diabetes, fasting serum insulin concentrations were higher and GTT pattern approximated to normal in chicory-treated early-stage diabetic rats. Conclusions Chicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned) and long-term (28 days, in this study) effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications. PMID:23352214

  2. Test of a new method for seismic indices and granulation parameters extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, R. A.; Samadi, R.; Michel, E.

    2015-09-01

    In the framework of the data base project SSI (Stellar Seismic Indices, we have developed and tested a new method aiming at optimizing the simultaneous measurement of both the seismic indices characterizing the oscillations (Δν, νmax) and the indices characterizing the granulation signature. Here, we describe this method which is intended to take advantage of the MLE (maximum likelihood estimate) algorithm combined with the parametrized representation of the red giants pulsation spectrum following the Universal Pattern [6]. We report its performances tested on Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Oxygen extraction from lunar materials - An experimental test of an ilmenite reduction process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen to produce water has been studied experimentally in order to evaluate the effectiveness of using a cold trap to improve yields in a continuous flow process. Yields were enhanced, but not to the degree observed in batch processing systems. The terrestrial simulant used in these studies contained traces of iron sulfide, which released H2S during processing with a deleterious effect on several components of the test system. More sophisticated testing should be undertaken to obtain kinetic data and attention given to the removal of sulfides in the pre-process beneficiation.

  4. Toxicological assessment of enzyme-treated asparagus extract in rat acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Ono, Tomoko; Sato, Atsuya; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    The safety of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) developed as a novel anti-stress functional material was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In the acute oral dose toxicity study, all rats survived during the test period and ETAS did not influence clinical appearance, body weight gain and necropsy findings at a dosage of 2000mg/kg body weight. Thus, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ETAS was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. The 90-day subchronic study (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight, delivered by gavage) in rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. In the micronucleus test of mice, the incidence of micronuclei in ETAS-administered groups (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day, injected twice) was equivalent to that of the negative control group, while the positive control group receiving mitomycin C showed a high incidence. The potential of ETAS to induce gene mutation was tested using four Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The test sample was not mutagenic to the test strains. These results support the safety of ETAS as food and dietary supplement. PMID:24389363

  5. In vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and bioaccessibility of arsenic and lead from various mine waste materials.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Scott; Noller, Barry; Matanitobua, Vitukawalu; Ng, Jack

    2007-10-01

    In vivo models show that the bioavailability of soil contaminants varies between site and type of matrix. Studies demonstrated that assuming 100% bioavailability of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) from soils and mine waste materials overestimates the risk associated with human exposure. In in vitro systems, the simulated bioavailability of a contaminant is referred to as the "bioaccessibility" and is used as an alternative quantitative indicator for in vivo derived bioavailability estimates. The general concept of the in vitro extraction test is to predict the bioavailability of inorganic substances from solid matrices by simulating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environment. The aims of this study were to: (1) investigate the bioaccessibility of As and Pb from various mine wastes, including tailings, heap leach, and waste rock, using a physiologically based extraction test (PBET); (2) validate the bioaccessibility values from PBET with in vivo bioavailability values measured using animal models; and (3) correlate PBET results with the bioavailability values measured from alternative in vivo models (rats and cattle, from Bruce, 2004). Significant correlation was observed between bioaccessibility values from PBET, and bioavailability values generated for both rats and cattle, demonstrating the potential to utilize PBET as a relatively inexpensive alternative to in vivo models for bioavailability assessment. PMID:17763089

  6. Growth of gravity-capillary waves in countercurrent air/water turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, Alfredo; Zonta, Francesco; Onorato, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    We use Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the Navier Stokes equations to analyze the dynamics of the interface between air and water when both phases are driven by opposite pressure gradients (countercurrent configuration). The Reynolds number (Reτ), the Weber number (We) and the Froude number (Fr) fully describe the physical problem. We examine the problem of the transient growth of interface waves for different combinations of physical parameters. Keeping Reτ constant and varying We and Fr , we show that, in the initial stages of the wave generation process, the amplitude of the interface elevation η grows in time as η ~t 2 / 5 . Wavenumber spectra, E (kx) , of the surface elevation in the capillary range are in good agreement with the prediction of the Wave Turbulence Theory. Finally, the wave-induced modification of the average wind and current velocity profiles will be addressed. Support from Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia under grant PAR FSC 2007/2013 is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Isolation of terpenoids from Pimpinella anisum essential oil by high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Walasek, Magdalena; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2013-08-01

    High-performance counter-current chromatography was successfully used for the isolation and purification of terpenoid compounds from the essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane/methanol/ethyl acetate/water (5:2:5:2, v/v/v/v) was suitable for the purification of linalool, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, p-anisaldehyde, while n-heptane/methanol (1:1, v/v) was used for the isolation of anethole and foeniculin. A scale-up process from analytical to preparative was developed. Additionally, a stepwise gradient elution was applied and instead of two different runs, 40 min each, one 80 min separation was performed; although the time of separation remains the same, it was possible to repeat the efficiency even if the water-containing mobile phase was changed to a nonaqueous system. The obtained essential oil, as well as purified compounds, was analyzed by GC. A total of 0.64 mg of linalool, 0.52 mg of terpinen-4-ol, 0.10 mg of α-terpineol, 0.62 mg of p-anisaldehyde, 15 mg of anethole, and 2.12 mg of foeniculin were obtained from 210 mg of the essential oil of P. anisum L. in a short time with purities of 99, 98, 94, 93.54, 93, and 93.6%, respectively. PMID:23749680

  8. Powerful leverages and counter-currents in the unborn child spiritual care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Tooba; Ziaei, Saeideh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    In different cultures, pregnancy, birth and motherhood are perceived as spiritual events through their miraculous processes and create an ideal context for spiritual enrichment. However, studies on spirituality and birth are at very early stages. The purpose of this study was to understand the facilitators and barriers of the unborn child spiritual care in Iranian women. Twenty-two mothers with live pregnancy experience who were willing and able to share their life stories were selected purposefully in Tehran (Iran) from May 2012 to April 2013. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze 27 interviews. Active and passive acquisition of information, inner inspirational messages, receiving effective support from the people around as well as modeling of self and significant others created "powerful leverages" to accelerate mother for caring her unborn child. "Counter-currents" in the form of unsuitable physical conditions during pregnancy, poor economic and social conditions, unsuitable psychological and cognitive conditions and finally understanding unsuitable ideological conditions of the self and care giver were identified as barriers. Iranian cultural and religious perspective on the unborn child physical and mental influence from mother has an important role in mother's self-care behaviors during pregnancy. It seems that using interdisciplinary professionals' skills based on understanding facilitators and barriers of mother care of the unborn child can lead to providing comprehensive prenatal care according to mothers' cultural, religious and social context. PMID:25560343

  9. Preparative separation of five flavones from flowers of Polygonum cuspidatum by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinshi; Gu, Shubo; Guo, Linlin; Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-07-01

    A preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography method was successfully used for the isolation of five minor flavones from Polygonum cuspidatum flowers. Among them, three compounds were obtained from P. cuspidatum for the first time. A twin two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (1:6:3:6, v/v/v/v) and petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (2:4:3:3, v/v/v/v) was developed. Compounds were obtained from the fraction B and fraction C prepurified by silica gel column chromatography. Five minor compositions, 6.8 mg of hesperidin, 11.2 mg of phloridzin, 4.9 mg of luteolin, 5.3 mg of hyperin, and 3.7 mg of luteoloside were obtained from 140 mg of the fraction B and 110 mg of fraction C with a purity of 95.3, 96.4, 98.0, 96.8, and 95.3%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of these compounds were identified by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24753452

  10. Compact type-I coil planet centrifuge for counter-current chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Gu, Dongyu; Liu, Yongqiang; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    A compact type-I coil planet centrifuge has been developed for performing counter-current chromatography. It has a revolution radius of 10 cm and a column holder height of 5 cm compared with 37 cm and 50 cm in the original prototype, respectively. The reduction in the revolution radius and column length permits application of higher revolution speed and more stable balancing of the rotor which leads us to learn more about its performance and the future potential of type-I coil planet centrifuge. The chromatographic performance of this apparatus was evaluated in terms of retention of the stationary phase (Sf), peak resolution (Rs), theoretical plate (N) and peak retention time (tR). The results of the experiment indicated that increasing the revolution speed slightly improved both the retention of the stationary phase and the peak resolution while the separation time is remarkably shortened to yield an excellent peak resolution at a revolution speed of 800 rpm. With a 12 ml capacity coiled column, DNP-glu, DNP-β-ala and DNP-ala were resolved at Rs of 2.75 and 2.16 within 90 min at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. We believe that the compact type-I coil planet centrifuge has a high analytical potential. PMID:20060979

  11. Estimates of the zonal slope and seasonal transport of the Atlantic North Equatorial Countercurrent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carton, James A.; Katz, Eli J.

    1990-01-01

    Data from six inverted echo sounder moorings and the Geosat satellite altimeter are used to examine the seasonal variability of sea surface elevation. Monthly sea level maps are constructed using a contemporaneous subsurface temperature survey to provide a reference sea level field. The maps are then used to describe the origin and structure of the western tropical Atlantic North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) during a two-year period beginning in November 1987. The data reveal a zonal current which is confined between 3 deg N and 9 deg N with a typical width of 300 km. The NECC flows strongly eastward during November and December 1986 and May 1987 through January 1988. The reappearance of the current is then delayed until August, but the current flows strongly from August until the end of the record in October 1988. Volume transport is estimated for the two-year period from surface elevation by approximating the vertical structure of the ocean as a two-layer fluid. It is found that the NECC has a maximum transport of 40 x 10 to the 6th cu m/s at 38 deg W.

  12. Elution-Extrusion Countercurrent Chromatography: Theory and Concepts in Metabolic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berthod, Alain; Friesen, J. Brent; Inui, Taichi; Pauli, Guido F.

    2008-01-01

    Elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography (EECCC) takes full advantage of the liquid nature of the stationary phase in CCC by combining regular chromatographic elution with stationary phase extrusion. EECCC is shown to be a three-stage process consisting of classical elution (I), sweeping elution (II), and extrusion (III). After only two column volumes of solvent, it rapidly yields a high-resolution chromatogram that covers an extended polarity range of solutes. As hydrophilicity/lipophilicity balance is a crucial discriminatory property of analytes in highly complex mixtures such as metabolomic samples, the precise determination of CCC distribution constants (KD) is vital to the analysis of metabolomes and other complex biological matrices. This work builds the EECCC concept by performing a full theoretical treatment and providing equations for retention volumes, peak widths, resolution factors, and distribution constants. Experimental validation utilizes natural products standards that resemble the zero to infinity range of the polarity continuum. EECCC extends the “sweet spot” of high-resolution in CCC, and provides access to the otherwise practically unapproachable high-KD portion of the high-resolution chromatograms in CCC. Its improved capabilities of KD-targeting make EECCC a promising tool for the specific analysis of “small” molecules in complex samples such as in metabolomic fingerprinting and footprinting. PMID:17408244

  13. The South Indian Ocean Countercurrent: a return pathway of the Indonesian Throughflow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Erwin; leBars, Dewi; de Ruijter, Will

    2014-05-01

    The South Indian Ocean Counter Current (SICC) is associated with a thermal front embedded in a broad eastward flow across the subtropical Indian Ocean and feeds into the poleward Leeuwin Current (LC). Previous studies have shown that the LC and SICC are sensitive to variations of the inflow of Pacific water through the Indonesian Passages (ITF). These subtropical countercurrents, of which the SICC is an example, are characterized by high eddy activity and theoretical work has shown the non-linear nature of their dynamics. That has motivated us to investigate the inertial response to the ITF of the IO circulaion. Analysis of two global eddy resolving model runs with the Indonesian Passages open and closed showed that the full 15 Sv of the ITF flows through the Mozambique Channel but only 10 Sv ends up in the Agulhas Current. This suggests that the SICC-LC system forms part of the return pathway of the ITF to the Pacific. Using the Hallberg Isopycnal Model we have investigated the combined effect of ITF, wind- and buoyancy forcing on the Indian Ocean circulation in the inertial boundary layer regime.

  14. Continuous counter-current chromatography for capture and polishing steps in biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Steinebach, Fabian; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    The economic advantages of continuous processing of biopharmaceuticals, which include smaller equipment and faster, efficient processes, have increased interest in this technology over the past decade. Continuous processes can also improve quality assurance and enable greater controllability, consistent with the quality initiatives of the FDA. Here, we discuss different continuous multi-column chromatography processes. Differences in the capture and polishing steps result in two different types of continuous processes that employ counter-current column movement. Continuous-capture processes are associated with increased productivity per cycle and decreased buffer consumption, whereas the typical purity-yield trade-off of classical batch chromatography can be surmounted by continuous processes for polishing applications. In the context of continuous manufacturing, different but complementary chromatographic columns or devices are typically combined to improve overall process performance and avoid unnecessary product storage. In the following, these various processes, their performances compared with batch processing and resulting product quality are discussed based on a review of the literature. Based on various examples of applications, primarily monoclonal antibody production processes, conclusions are drawn about the future of these continuous-manufacturing technologies. PMID:27376629

  15. Topsy-turvy: turning the counter-current heat exchange of leatherback turtles upside down.

    PubMed

    Davenport, John; Jones, T Todd; Work, Thierry M; Balazs, George H

    2015-10-01

    Counter-current heat exchangers associated with appendages of endotherms feature bundles of closely applied arteriovenous vessels. The accepted paradigm is that heat from warm arterial blood travelling into the appendage crosses into cool venous blood returning to the body. High core temperature is maintained, but the appendage functions at low temperature. Leatherback turtles have elevated core temperatures in cold seawater and arteriovenous plexuses at the roots of all four limbs. We demonstrate that plexuses of the hindlimbs are situated wholly within the hip musculature, and that, at the distal ends of the plexuses, most blood vessels supply or drain the hip muscles, with little distal vascular supply to, or drainage from the limb blades. Venous blood entering a plexus will therefore be drained from active locomotory muscles that are overlaid by thick blubber when the adults are foraging in cold temperate waters. Plexuses maintain high limb muscle temperature and avoid excessive loss of heat to the core, the reverse of the accepted paradigm. Plexuses protect the core from overheating generated by muscular thermogenesis during nesting. PMID:26445982

  16. Topsy-turvy: Turning the counter-current heat exchange of leatherback turtles upside down

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, John; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.

    2015-01-01

    Counter-current heat exchangers associated with appendages of endotherms feature bundles of closely applied arteriovenous vessels. The accepted paradigm is that heat from warm arterial blood travelling into the appendage crosses into cool venous blood returning to the body. High core temperature is maintained, but the appendage functions at low temperature. Leatherback turtles have elevated core temperatures in cold seawater and arteriovenous plexuses at the roots of all four limbs. We demonstrate that plexuses of the hindlimbs are situated wholly within the hip musculature, and that, at the distal ends of the plexuses, most blood vessels supply or drain the hip muscles, with little distal vascular supply to, or drainage from the limb blades. Venous blood entering a plexus will therefore be drained from active locomotory muscles that are overlaid by thick blubber when the adults are foraging in cold temperate waters. Plexuses maintain high limb muscle temperature and avoid excessive loss of heat to the core, the reverse of the accepted paradigm. Plexuses protect the core from overheating generated by muscular thermogenesis during nesting.

  17. Application of extraction disks in dissolution tests of clenbuterol and levothyroxine tablets by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Carducci, C N; Lucangioli, S E; Rodríguez, V G; Fernández Otero, G C

    1996-04-12

    Sample preparation procedures using octadecyl (C18) extraction disks were developed to obtain accurate and reproducible results for determinations of clenbuterol(20 micrograms per dose) and levothyroxine (100 micrograms per dose) in dissolution media of solid oral dosage forms. Preconcentration of samples allowed final concentrations of 1.1 micrograms/ml of clenbuterol and 4.0 micrograms/ml of levothyroxine to be reached prior to CE analysis. The results obtained by CE were in good agreement with those of HPLC. The precision of the migration time, peak area, peak height and accuracy were determined in both intra-day (n = 6) and inter-day (n = 18) assays. Linearity was demonstrated over the ranges 0.5-80.0 micrograms/ml of clenbuterol and 1.0-30.0 micrograms/ml of levothyroxine. The mean recoveries were higher than 94.0%, ranging from 50 to 125% levels with respect to dose potencies. The proposed methodology may be generally applied to determine drugs at ng/ml concentrations. PMID:8680592

  18. Fractionation of an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract and in vitro antioxidative activity testing.

    PubMed

    Juadjur, A; Mohn, C; Schantz, M; Baum, M; Winterhalter, P; Richling, E

    2015-01-15

    The incidence of chronic diseases increases with advancing age of the population. A commonly discussed cause of chronic diseases is oxidative stress, which occurs in the body when there is an imbalance between the formation and inactivation of so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS). Epidemiological data suggest that a 'healthy diet', with a high content of flavonoids indicates preventive properties and correlates with an inverse effect with respect to the risk of chronic diseases. Berries (especially bilberries, Vaccinium myrtillus L.) are an important source of these flavonoids. In this study, we investigated, in vitro, the antioxidative properties of fractions obtained from a commercially available anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (BE). As markers for antioxidative activity, the intracellularly generated ROS levels, oxidative DNA damage, and total glutathione (tGSH) levels were determined in the human colon cell lines Caco-2 and HT-29. In Caco-2 cells, the ROS levels and, in both cell lines, the oxidative DNA damage, were significantly reduced in the presence of the original BE and phenolcarbonic acid-rich fraction. Total GSH levels were slightly increased after pretreatment with BE, phenolcarbonic acid and the polymeric fractions, but not with the anthocyanin fraction. In summary, the BE and the therefrom-isolated phenolcarbonic acid-rich fraction, showed the most potent antioxidative activity whereas the polymeric and anthocyanin-rich fraction, in total, were less active. PMID:25149006

  19. Extracting Cloud Size from Single-Point Statistics: Rationale, Testing, and Implications for Convective Parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, M.; Kassianov, E.; Rasch, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Convective clouds come in a variety of different sizes, most of which cannot be resolved in modern-era coarse-grid GCMs. Although these models typically predict the subgrid cloud fraction, most of them do not account for a distribution of clouds of different sizes. Doing so would be beneficial because cloud size affects a number of processes controlling energy and moisture budgets in the atmosphere. For example, due to their larger surface area to volume ratio, smaller clouds are subjected to a more efficient entrainment and detrainment than larger clouds. Precipitation development also depends on cloud size. In this presentation, we will show that the cloud size information can be extracted from parameters of probability density function (PDF) of prognostic model variables, such as total water content and vertical velocity. While there is no mathematical formalism to link spatial correlation patterns (clouds) to single-point statistics (PDF), the two are related when driven by the same physical process, such as cloudy updrafts. The presented concept is illustrated by a quantitative analysis of large-eddy simulations (LES) of tropical convection on a large domain, the so-called Giga-LES, which are shown to reproduce the observed cloud size distribution. The implications of explicit accounting for cloud size in convective parameterizations will be discussed, including a potential reconciliation of PDF and plume-based approaches for representing unresolved convection.

  20. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Jensen, M.P.

    1996-03-01

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100{prime} (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually.

  1. An evaluation of the solidification/stabilization of industrial arsenic containing waste using extraction and semi-dynamic leach tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dutre, V.; Vandecasteele, C.

    1996-12-31

    Solidification/stabilization of an industrial waste material containing large amounts of arsenic, as As{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was studied. The waste was treated using solidification/stabilization (S/S) with cement, lime and blast-furnace slags in order to reduce the leachability of arsenic. In order to optimize the procedure for S/S, 10 different S/S samples, differing in amount and combination of the binder materials were prepared. On these samples, extraction tests were performed, showing that the arsenic concentration in the leachate is correlated with the pH and the calcium concentration due to the formation of slightly soluble CaHAsO{sub 3}. A semi-dynamic leach test was performed in order to obtain quantitative information on the long term leachability of the contaminants (As, Sb, Pb) from monolithic S/S samples. A linear relationship between the cumulative fractions released and the square root of the leach time was observed, indicating that diffusion is the release mechanism. From the diffusion coefficient, the influence of the binder materials on the leachability of the contaminants could be deduced. All the elements considered have a low mobility in all samples. Ca has the highest mobility followed by As and Sb, whereas Pb has the lowest mobility. It appeared that increasing the amount of calcium in the S/S samples lowers the leachability of arsenic, addition of lime being more effective than addition of cement. This conclusion is in good qualitative agreement with the extraction tests.

  2. A simple and cost-effective method of DNA extraction from small formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue for molecular oncologic testing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a critical step in molecular oncologic testing. As molecular oncology testing becomes more important for prognostic and therapeutic decision making and tissue specimens become smaller due to earlier detection of suspicious lesions and the use of fine needle aspiration methods for tissue collection, it becomes more challenging for the typical molecular pathology laboratory to obtain reliable test results. We developed a DNA extraction method to obtain sufficient quantity and high quality genomic DNA from limited FFPE tissue for molecular oncology testing using a combination of H&E stained slides, a matrix capture method and the Qiagen DNA column. Methods Three DNA extraction methods were compared: our standard procedure of manually scraping tissue from unstained slides followed by DNA extraction using the QIAamp FFPE column (Qiagen, Valencia, CA), a glue capture method (Pinpoint Solution, Zymo Research Corp, Inc) on H&E stained slides followed by DNA extraction using either the QIAamp column or the column included with the Pinpoint kit (Zymo Research). The DNA extraction protocol was optimized. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired two-sample student’s t-test. Results The combination of the matrix capture method with the QIAamp column gave an equivalent amount of DNA as our standard extraction method using the unstained slides and a 4.6-fold higher DNA yield than using the Zymo column included in the Pinpoint Slide Solution kit. Several molecular tests were performed and DNA purified using the new method gave the same results as for the previous methods. Conclusions Using H&E stained slides allows visual confirmation of tumor cells during microdissection. The Pinpoint solution made removal of specific tissue from the slides easier and reduced the risk of contamination and tissue loss. This DNA extraction method is simple, cost-effective, and blends with our current

  3. A new rapid method for Clostridium difficile DNA extraction and detection in stool: toward point-of-care diagnostic testing.

    PubMed

    Freifeld, Alison G; Simonsen, Kari A; Booth, Christine S; Zhao, Xing; Whitney, Scott E; Karre, Teresa; Iwen, Peter C; Viljoen, Hendrik J

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new method for the rapid diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection, with stool sample preparation and DNA extraction by heat and physical disruption in a single-use lysis microreactor (LMR), followed by a rapid PCR amplification step. All steps can be accomplished in <20 minutes overall. Gel electrophoresis is currently used to detect the amplification product, pending real-time availability with an ultra-rapid thermocycler. Compared with the dual enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening test (C. diff Quik Chek Complete; Techlab, Blacksburg, VA), the novel LMR/PCR assay showed complete concordance with all glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) results (GDH(+)/toxin(+), n = 48; GDH(-)/toxin(-), n = 81). All 69 stool samples with discordant EIA results (GDH(+)/toxin(-)) were tested by both the LMR/PCR assay and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification test (LAMP) (Illumigene C. difficile; Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH). In 64/69 EIA-discordant samples, LAMP and LMR/PCR results matched (both positive in 29 sample and both negative in 35 samples); in the remaining 5 samples, results were discrepant between the LAMP assay (all five negative) and the LMR/PCR assay (all 5 positive). Overall, LMR/PCR testing matched the current algorithm of EIA and/or LAMP reflex testing in 193/198 (97.5%) samples. The present proof-of-concept study suggests that the novel LMR/PCR technique described here may be developed as an inexpensive, rapid, and reliable point-of-care diagnostic test for C. difficile infection and other infectious diseases. PMID:22402170

  4. Pore-water extraction from unsaturated tuff by triaxial and one-dimensional compression methods, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mower, T.E.; Higgins, J.D.; Yang, In C.; Peters, C.A.

    1994-07-01

    The hydrologic system in the unsaturated tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated for the US Department of Energy by the Yucca Mountain Project Branch of the US Geological Survey as a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository. Part of this investigation includes a hydrochemical study that is being made to assess characteristics of the hydrologic system such as: traveltime, direction of flow, recharge and source relations, and types and magnitudes of chemical reactions in the unsaturated tuff. In addition, this hydrochemical information will be used in the study of the dispersive and corrosive effects of unsaturated-zone water on the radioactive-waste storage canisters. This report describes the design and validation of laboratory experimental procedures for extracting representative samples of uncontaminated pore water from welded and nonwelded, unsaturated tuffs from the Nevada Test Site.

  5. Quick identification of kuraridin, a noncytotoxic anti-MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) agent from Sophora flavescens using high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ben Chung-Lap; Yu, Hua; Wong, Chun-Wai; Lui, Sau-Lai; Jolivalt, Claude; Ganem-Elbaz, Carine; Paris, Jean-Marc; Morleo, Barbara; Litaudon, Marc; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Ip, Margaret; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Han, Quan-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become a serious problem of public health that concerns almost all currently used antibacterial agents and that manifests in all fields of their application. To find more antibacterial agents from natural resources is all the time considered as an important strategy. Sophora flavescens is a popularly used antibacterial herb in Chinese Medicine, from which prenylated flavones were reported as the antibacterial ingredients but with a major concern of toxicity. In our screening on the antibacterial activities of various chemicals of this herb, 18 fractions were obtained from 8 g of 50% ethanol extract on a preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, 1000 ml). The system of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:1:1:1) was used as the two-phase separation solvent. A chalcone named kuraridin was isolated from the best anti-MRSA fraction, together with sophoraflavanone G, a known active ingredient of S. flavescens. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the NMR spectra. Both compounds exhibited significant anti-MRSA effects, compared to baicalein that is a well known anti-MRSA natural product. More important, kuraridin showed no toxicity on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at the concentration up to 64 μg/ml while sophoraflavanone G inhibited over 50% of cellular activity at 4 μg/ml or higher concentration. These data suggested that opening of ring A of the prenylated flavones might decrease the toxicity and remain the anti-MRSA effect, from a viewpoint of structure-activity relationship. PMID:22177235

  6. Determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in wine and juice using ionic liquid modified countercurrent chromatography as a pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen; Cao, Xueli; Liu, Man; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants in food materials. The objective of this study was to develop a pretreatment method with countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for enrichment and cleanup of trace Alternaria mycotoxins in food samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. An Analytical CCC instrument with a column volume 22.5mL was used, and a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate and water modified with 6% [HOOMIM][Cl] in mass to volume ratio was selected. Under the optimized CCC operation conditions, trace amounts of AOH, AME, and TeA in large volume of liquid sample were efficiently extracted and enriched in the stationary phase, and then eluted out just by reversing the stationary phase as mobile phase in the opposite flowing direction tail-to-head. The enrichment and elution strategies are unique and can be fulfilled online with high enrichment factors (87-114) and high recoveries (81.14-110.94%). The method has been successively applied to the determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in real apple juice and wine samples with the limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.03-0.14μgL(-1). Totally 12 wine samples and 15 apple juice samples from the local market were analyzed. The detection rate of AOH and AME in both kinds of the samples were more than 50%, while TeA was found in relatively high level of 1.75-49.61μgL(-1) in some of the apple juice samples. The proposed method is simple, rapid, and sensitive and could also be used for the analysis and monitoring of Alternaria mycotoxin in other food samples. PMID:26858114

  7. Mathematical model of computer-programmed intermittent dual countercurrent chromatography applied to hydrostatic and hydrodynamic equilibrium systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-08-28

    Dual high-speed countercurrent chromatography (dual CCC) literally permits countercurrent flow of two immiscible solvent phases continuously through the coiled column for separation of solutes according to their partition coefficients. Application of this technique has been successfully demonstrated by separation of analytes by gas-liquid and liquid-liquid two-phase systems. However, the method cannot be directly applied to the system with a set of coiled columns connected in series, since the countercurrent process is interrupted at the junction between the columns. However, this problem can be solved by intermittent dual CCC by eluting each phase alternately through the opposite ends of the separation column. This mode of application has an advantage over the conventional dual CCC in that the method can be applied to all types of CCC systems including hydrostatic equilibrium systems such as toroidal coil CCC and centrifugal partition chromatography. Recently, the application of this method to high-speed CCC (hydrodynamic system) has been demonstrated for separation of natural products by Hewitson et al. using a set of conventional multilayer coil separation columns connected in series. Here, we have developed a mathematical model for this intermittent dual CCC system to predict retention time of the analytes, and using a simplified model system the validity of the model is justified by a series of basic studies on both hydrodynamic and hydrostatic CCC systems with a computer-programmed single sliding valve. The present method has been successfully applied to spiral tube assembly high-speed CCC (hydrodynamic system) and toroidal coil CCC (hydrostatic system) for separation of DNP-amino acid samples with two biphasic solvent systems composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-0.1M hydrochloric acid (1:1:1:1 and 4:5:4:5, v/v). PMID:19640542

  8. Test plan for single well injection/extraction characterization of DNAPL

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Jerome, K.M.; Burdick, S.; Rossabi, J.; Jarosch, T.R.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1995-12-01

    Soils and groundwater beneath an abandoned Process sewer line in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) contain elevated levels of volatile organic compounds, specifically trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), two common chlorinated solvents. These compounds have low aqueous solubilities, thus when released to the subsurface in sufficient quantity, tend to exist as immiscible fluids or nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Because chlorinated solvents are also denser than water, they are referred to by the acronym DNAPLS, or dense non aqueous Phase liquids. Technologies targeted at the efficient characterization or removal of DNAPL are not currently proven. For example, most DNAPL studies rely on traditional soil and water sampling and the fortuitous observation of immiscible solvent. Once DNAPL is identified, soil excavation (which is only applicable to small contained spill sites) is the only ``proven`` cleanup method. New cleanup approaches based on enhanced removal by surfactants and/or alcohols have been proposed and tested at the pilot scale. As described below, carefully designed experiments similar to the enhanced removal methods may provide important characterization information on DNAPLs.

  9. Seasonal variation of the surface North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) in the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Fan

    2016-03-01

    The North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) is an important zonal flow in the upper circulation of the tropical Pacific Ocean, which plays a vital role in the heat budget of the western Pacific warm pool. Using satellite-derived data of ocean surface currents and sea surface heights (SSHs) from 1992 to 2011, the seasonal variation of the surface NECC in the western tropical Pacific Ocean was investigated. It was found that the intensity (INT) and axis position (Y CM) of the surface NECC exhibit strikingly different seasonal fluctuations in the upstream (128°-136°E) and downstream (145°-160°E) regions. Of the two regions, the seasonal cycle of the upstream NECC shows the greater interannual variability. Its INT and YCM are greatly influenced by variations of the Mindanao Eddy, Mindanao Dome (MD), and equatorial Rossby waves to its south. Both INT and Y CM also show semiannual signals induced by the combined effects of equatorial Rossby waves from the Central Pacific and local wind forcing in the western Pacific Ocean. In the downstream region, the variability of the NECC is affected by SSH anomalies in the MD and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Those in the MD region are especially important in modulating the YCM of the downstream NECC. In addition to the SSH-related geostrophic flow, zonal Ekman flow driven by meridional wind stress also plays a role, having considerable impact on INT variability of the surface NECC. The contrasting features of the variability of the NECC in the upstream and downstream regions reflect the high complexity of regional ocean dynamics.

  10. Modeling pH-zone refining countercurrent chromatography: a dynamic approach.

    PubMed

    Kotland, Alexis; Chollet, Sébastien; Autret, Jean-Marie; Diard, Catherine; Marchal, Luc; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2015-04-24

    A model based on mass transfer resistances and acid-base equilibriums at the liquid-liquid interface was developed for the pH-zone refining mode when it is used in countercurrent chromatography (CCC). The binary separation of catharanthine and vindoline, two alkaloids used as starting material for the semi-synthesis of chemotherapy drugs, was chosen for the model validation. Toluene/CH3CN/water (4/1/5, v/v/v) was selected as biphasic solvent system. First, hydrodynamics and mass transfer were studied by using chemical tracers. Trypan blue only present in the aqueous phase allowed the determination of the parameters τextra and Pe for hydrodynamic characterization whereas acetone, which partitioned between the two phases, allowed the determination of the transfer parameter k0a. It was shown that mass transfer was improved by increasing both flow rate and rotational speed, which is consistent with the observed mobile phase dispersion. Then, the different transfer parameters of the model (i.e. the local transfer coefficient for the different species involved in the process) were determined by fitting experimental concentration profiles. The model accurately predicted both equilibrium and dynamics factors (i.e. local mass transfer coefficients and acid-base equilibrium constant) variation with the CCC operating conditions (cell number, flow rate, rotational speed and thus stationary phase retention). The initial hypotheses (the acid-base reactions occurs instantaneously at the interface and the process is mainly governed by mass transfer) are thus validated. Finally, the model was used as a tool for catharanthine and vindoline separation prediction in the whole experimental domain that corresponded to a flow rate between 20 and 60 mL/min and rotational speeds from 900 and 2100 rotation per minutes. PMID:25795399

  11. Seasonal eddy kinetic energy modulations along the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Qiu, Bo; Chen, Shuiming; Qi, Yiquan; Du, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal eddy kinetic energy (EKE) variability and its associated eddy energy conversion processes in the western tropical Pacific are investigated using satellite altimeter observations and a global, eddy-resolving, ocean general circulation model (OGCM). Both the altimeter-observed sea surface height anomalies and the OGCM simulation show an area with enhanced EKE east of the Mindanao Island centered around 133°E and 5°N. This enhanced EKE area corresponds to the location of the quasi-stationary meander of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) and is bordered to the south by the Halmahera Eddy. The mesoscale EKE in this area exhibits a clear seasonality, strong in summer (July-August) and weak in winter (November-January), and much of this seasonality is confined to the upper 200 m layer. An investigation into the upper ocean eddy energetics based on the OGCM simulation reveals that the areal barotropic eddy energy conversion rate has an annual cycle similar to the EKE variations, while the areal baroclinic eddy energy conversion is found to be much smaller that the barotropic conversion rate and exhibits no clear seasonal changes. This indicates that the EKE variations are largely controlled by barotropic conversion of the seasonally varying regional circulation. By examining the seasonal background circulation changes, we find that the amplification of the barotropic eddy energy conversion rate in July-August is related to the seasonal evolution of the Mindanao Current and the New Guinea Coastal Current that amplifies the curvature and amplitude of the quasi-stationary meander of the NECC and results in an elevated EKE level through increased regional barotropic conversion.

  12. Development and Validation of Extract the Base: An English Derivational Morphology Test for Third through Fifth Grade Monolingual Students and Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria; Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry; Louguit, Mohammed; August, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Extract the Base test (ETB), which assesses derivational morphological awareness. Scores on this test were validated for 580 monolingual students and 373 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in third through fifth grade. As part of the validation of the internal structure,…

  13. Distribution of Plasmodium species on the island of Grande Comore on the basis of DNA extracted from rapid diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Papa Mze, Nasserdine; Ahouidi, Ambroise D; Diedhiou, Cyrille K; Silai, Rahamatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sembene, Mbacké; Mboup, Souleymane

    2016-01-01

    In the Union of Comoros, interventions for combating malaria have contributed to a spectacular decrease in the prevalence of the disease. We studied the current distribution of Plasmodium species on the island of Grande Comore using nested PCR. The rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) currently used in the Comoros are able to identify Plasmodium falciparum but no other Plasmodium species. In this study, we tested 211 RDTs (158 positive and 53 negative). Among the 158 positive RDTs, 22 were positive for HRP2, 3 were positive only for pLDH, and 133 were positive for HRP2 and pLDH. DNA was extracted from a proximal part of the nitrocellulose membrane of RDTs. A total of 159 samples were positive by nested PCR. Of those, 156 (98.11%) were positive for P. falciparum, 2 (1.25%) were positive for P. vivaxI, and 1 (0.62%) was positive for P. malariae. None of the samples were positive for P. ovale. Our results show that P. falciparum is still the most dominant species on the island of Grande Comore, but P. vivax and P. malariae are present at a low prevalence. PMID:27561250

  14. Distribution of Plasmodium species on the island of Grande Comore on the basis of DNA extracted from rapid diagnostic tests

    PubMed Central

    Papa Mze, Nasserdine; Ahouidi, Ambroise D.; Diedhiou, Cyrille K.; Silai, Rahamatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sembene, Mbacké; Mboup, Souleymane

    2016-01-01

    In the Union of Comoros, interventions for combating malaria have contributed to a spectacular decrease in the prevalence of the disease. We studied the current distribution of Plasmodium species on the island of Grande Comore using nested PCR. The rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) currently used in the Comoros are able to identify Plasmodium falciparum but no other Plasmodium species. In this study, we tested 211 RDTs (158 positive and 53 negative). Among the 158 positive RDTs, 22 were positive for HRP2, 3 were positive only for pLDH, and 133 were positive for HRP2 and pLDH. DNA was extracted from a proximal part of the nitrocellulose membrane of RDTs. A total of 159 samples were positive by nested PCR. Of those, 156 (98.11%) were positive for P. falciparum, 2 (1.25%) were positive for P. vivaxI, and 1 (0.62%) was positive for P. malariae. None of the samples were positive for P. ovale. Our results show that P. falciparum is still the most dominant species on the island of Grande Comore, but P. vivax and P. malariae are present at a low prevalence. PMID:27561250

  15. Injectable PLGA/hydrocortisone formulation produced by continuous supercritical emulsion extraction.

    PubMed

    Falco, Nunzia; Reverchon, Ernesto; Della Porta, Giovanna

    2013-01-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop an anti-inflammatory prolonged action formulation for local injection in prefilled syringes. Hydrocortisone acetate (HA) was selected as a model corticosteroid drug to be incorporated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) microspheres. The formulation was obtained by supercritical emulsion extraction in continuous operation layout (SEE-C) to test the process robustness for a continuous industrial production. PLGA/HA microspheres with mean sizes between 1 μm (SD±0.20) and 5 μm (SD±1.45) were obtained when operating at 80 bar and 38 °C with a L/G ratio of 0.1 in the counter-current tower. The produced microdevices showed excellent encapsulation efficiencies between 75% and 80%, depending on the emulsion formulations tested, and different sustained release in the range of 6-15 days. In dependence of the different emulsion (single or double) processed by SEE-C, different products can be obtained according to the therapeutic requests. SEE-C confirms to be an innovative and flexible technology for biopolymer microdevices production, coupling the efficiency of continuous operation to the easy process scalability. PMID:23124104

  16. Tests on the extracted current density of negative hydrogen ions from a single element of the matrix source

    SciTech Connect

    Lishev, St.; Yordanov, D. Shivarova, A.

    2015-04-08

    Concepts for the extraction of volume-produced negative hydrogen ions from a rf matrix source (a matrix of small-radius discharges with a planar-coil inductive driving) are presented and discussed based on experimental results for the current densities of the extracted ions and the co-extracted electrons. The experiment has been carried out in a single discharge of the source: a rf discharge with a radius of 2.25 cm inductively driven by a 3.5-turn planar coil. The length of the discharge tube, the area of the reference electrode inserted in the discharge volume, the discharge modes, the magnetic filter and its position along the discharge length, the position of the permanent magnets for the separation of the co-extracted electrons from the extracted ions in the extraction device and the bias applied to its first electrode are considered as factors influencing the extracted currents of negative ions.

  17. Purification of monoclonal antibodies from clarified cell culture fluid using Protein A capture continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Amit K; Tran, Travis; Napadensky, Boris; Teella, Achyuta; Brookhart, Gary; Ropp, Philip A; Zhang, Ada W; Tustian, Andrew D; Zydney, Andrew L; Shinkazh, Oleg

    2015-11-10

    Recent studies using simple model systems have demonstrated that continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography (CCTC) has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of conventional Protein A chromatography using packed columns. The objective of this work was to optimize and implement a CCTC system for monoclonal antibody purification from clarified Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture fluid using a commercial Protein A resin. Several improvements were introduced to the previous CCTC system including the use of retentate pumps to maintain stable resin concentrations in the flowing slurry, the elimination of a slurry holding tank to improve productivity, and the introduction of an "after binder" to the binding step to increase antibody recovery. A kinetic binding model was developed to estimate the required residence times in the multi-stage binding step to optimize yield and productivity. Data were obtained by purifying two commercial antibodies from two different manufactures, one with low titer (∼ 0.67 g/L) and one with high titer (∼ 6.9 g/L), demonstrating the versatility of the CCTC system. Host cell protein removal, antibody yields and purities were similar to those obtained with conventional column chromatography; however, the CCTC system showed much higher productivity. These results clearly demonstrate the capabilities of continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography for the commercial purification of monoclonal antibody products. PMID:25747172

  18. Enzymolysis kinetics, thermodynamics and model of porcine cerebral protein with single-frequency countercurrent and pulsed ultrasound-assisted processing.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ye; Ding, Yangyang; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Yao; Wu, Huiyu; Wang, Xintong; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigated the enzymolysis kinetics, thermodynamics and model of porcine cerebral protein (PCP) which was pretreated by single-frequency countercurrent and pulsed ultrasound. The kinetic constants for ultrasonic pretreated and traditional enzymolysis have been determined. Results showed that the value of KM in ultrasonic PCP (UPCP) enzymolysis decreased by 9% over that in the traditional enzymolysis. The values of reaction rate constant (k) for UPCP enzymolysis increased by 207%, 121%, 62%, and 45% at 293, 303, 313 and 323 K, respectively. For the thermodynamic parameters, ultrasound decreased activation energy (Ea), change in enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) by 76%, 82% and 31% in PCP, respectively. However, ultrasound had little change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG) value in the temperature range of 293-323 K. Therefore, a general kinetic equation for the enzymolysis model of UPCP by a simple empirical equation was suggested. The experimental values fits with the enzymolysis kinetic model with a low average relative error (4%) confirmed that the kinetic model was accurate to reflect the enzymolysis process. The positive effect of single-frequency countercurrent and pulsed ultrasound in this study and application of the kinetic model may be useful for the release of bioactive peptides from meat processing by-products. PMID:26384911

  19. Isolation and purification of two antioxidant isomers of resveratrol dimer from the wine grape by counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingjun; Ren, Xueyan; Hu, Ruilin; Yin, Xuefeng; Jiang, Guoshan; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Resveratrol dimers belong to a group of compounds called stilbenes, which along with proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, catechins, and flavonols are natural phenolic compounds found in grapes and red wine. Stilbenes have a variety of structural isomers, all of which exhibit various biological properties. Counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (2:5:4:5, v/v/v/v) was applied to isolate and purify stilbene from the stems of wine grape. Two isomers of resveratrol dimers trans-ε-viniferin and trans-δ-viniferin were obtained from the crude sample in a one-step separation, with purities of 93.2 and 97.5%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of these two compounds were identified by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. In addition, their antioxidant activities were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antioxidant activities of trans-δ-viniferin were higher than that of trans-ε-viniferin in this model. This work demonstrated that counter-current chromatography is a powerful and effective method for the isolation and purification of polyphenols from wine grape. Additionally, the DPPH radical assay showed that the isolated component trans-δ-viniferin exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than trans-ε-viniferin and a little bit weaker than vitamin E at the same concentration. PMID:27130423

  20. Separation and purification of ergosterol and stigmasterol in Anoectochilus roxburghii (wall) Lindl by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liying; Cao, Yangyuan; Xu, Hui; Chen, Guonan

    2011-02-01

    Ergosterol and stigmasterol are the most common phytosterols in the traditional Chinese medicine. They are two major sterol compounds in Anoectochilus roxburghii (wall) Lindl (A. roxburghii) and have been proved to have many important biological activities. A method by using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) has been successfully developed for separation and purification of ergosterol and stigmasterol in A. roxburghii simultaneously in this paper. The optimum conditions used in this method were as follows: The two-phase solvent system consisted of n-hexane-ethylacetate-butanol-methanol-water (3.5:0.3:0.5:2.5:0.3, v/v); the rotation speed was 900 rpm; the flow rate of the lower phase was 1.5 mL/min. About 36.5 mg of ergosterol and 43.6 mg of stigmasterol were obtained from 100 g of A. roxburghii. The purity of ergosterol and stigmasterol was examined to be 92.0 and 95.5%, respectively, by using HPLC. The chemical structures of these components were identified by UV spectra, FT-IR, MS, (1) H-NMR and (13) C-NMR. The results demonstrated that high-speed counter-current chromatography was a feasible method to separate and purify ergosterol and stigmasterol from the herb. This separation and purification method was more effective than many other conventional techniques. PMID:21259433

  1. Purification of α-glucosidase from mouse intestine by countercurrent chromatography coupled with a reverse micelle solvent system.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Zou, Zongyao; Hu, Yinran; Yang, Yong; Xiao, Yubo; Gao, Pincao; Li, Xuegang; Ye, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    Countercurrent chromatography coupled with a reverse micelle solvent was applied to separate α-glucosidase, which is stable at pH 6.0-8.8, 15-50°C. The separation conditions are as follows: stationary phase: pH 4.0 Tris-HCl buffer phase containing 50 mM Tris-HCl and 50 mM KCl; mobile phase A: isooctane containing 50 mM anionic surfactant sodium di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate; mobile phase B: 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer containing 500 mM KCl (pH 8.0); In total, 25 mL (23.9 mg) crude enzyme was injected through the injection valve, the enzymatic reaction and sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results imply that the activity of purified α-glucosidase is 6.63-fold higher than that of the crude enzyme. Therefore, countercurrent chromatography coupled with a reverse micelle solvent is capable for protein separation and enrichment. PMID:26663433

  2. Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Extract of Stem Bark of Cissus populnea on Ferrous Sulphate- and Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat's Testes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Akomolafe, Seun F; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Tade, Oluwatosin G

    2013-01-01

    Cissus populnea are plants associated with a myriad of medicinal uses in different parts of the world and are good sources of carotenoids, triterpenoids, and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of water extractible phytochemicals from stem bark of C. populnea on FeSO(4) and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) induced lipid peroxidation in rat testes were investigated in vitro. The results revealed that the extract was able to scavenge DPPH radical, chelate Fe(2+) and also had a high reducing power. Furthermore, the incubation of the testes tissue homogenate in the presence of FeSO(4) and SNP, respectively, caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the testes. However, the aqueous extract of the stem bark of C. populnea caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of both Fe(2+) (EC(50) = 0.027 mg/mL) and SNP- (EC(50) = 0.22 mg/mL) induced lipid peroxidation in the rat testes homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. The water extractible phytochemicals from C. populnea protect the testes from oxidative stress and this could be attributed to their high antioxidant activity: DPPH-scavenging ability, Fe(2+)-chelating and -reducing power. Therefore, oxidatively stress in testes could be potentially managed/prevented by this plant. PMID:23401792

  3. In vitro induction of polyploidy and chromatid exchanges by culture medium extracts of natural rubbers compounded with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole as a positive control candidate for genotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Atsuko; Isama, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2005-11-01

    We tested extracts of custom-made natural rubber samples for cytotoxicity using V79 cells and for chromosome aberration (CA) induction using CHL cells in compliance with the Japanese guidelines for basic biological tests of medical materials and devices. The samples were formulated with a high level of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) (A); a low level of MBT (B); or zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC) (C). In the CA test, MBT induced mainly polyploidy, including endoreduplication, and ZDBC induced structural CAs. In the cytotoxicity test, culture medium extracts of A, B, and C suppressed colony formation to 50% of the control value at 53.1%, 94.3%, and >100%, respectively. Culture medium extracts of sample A induced polyploidy and structural CAs in the absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9 mix), but at lower concentrations in its presence, indicating the existence of other leachable promutagens. The extracts of sample B induced structural CAs at the highest concentration and only with S9 mix. Sample C was negative. The facts suggest that sample A may be a candidate for a positive control for genotoxicity tests. The high frequency of polyploidy induced by sample A was not predicted by MBT, suggesting the usefulness of the test for safety evaluation of medical devices. Numerical CAs induced by MBT and sample A are discussed. PMID:16088893

  4. Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Extract of Stem Bark of Cissus populnea on Ferrous Sulphate- and Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat's Testes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Akomolafe, Seun F.; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A.; Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Tade, Oluwatosin G.

    2013-01-01

    Cissus populnea are plants associated with a myriad of medicinal uses in different parts of the world and are good sources of carotenoids, triterpenoids, and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of water extractible phytochemicals from stem bark of C. populnea on FeSO4 and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) induced lipid peroxidation in rat testes were investigated in vitro. The results revealed that the extract was able to scavenge DPPH radical, chelate Fe2+ and also had a high reducing power. Furthermore, the incubation of the testes tissue homogenate in the presence of FeSO4 and SNP, respectively, caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the testes. However, the aqueous extract of the stem bark of C. populnea caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of both Fe2+ (EC50 = 0.027 mg/mL) and SNP- (EC50 = 0.22 mg/mL) induced lipid peroxidation in the rat testes homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. The water extractible phytochemicals from C. populnea protect the testes from oxidative stress and this could be attributed to their high antioxidant activity: DPPH-scavenging ability, Fe2+-chelating and -reducing power. Therefore, oxidatively stress in testes could be potentially managed/prevented by this plant. PMID:23401792

  5. Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Kuhn, Andrielle Wouters; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2013-08-01

    Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up. PMID:24392578

  6. Characterisation of coastal counter-currents on the inner shelf of the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, E.; Laiz, I.; Drago, T.; Relvas, P.

    2016-03-01

    At the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC), poleward currents leaning along the coast alternate with coastal upwelling jets of opposite direction. Here the patterns of these coastal countercurrents (CCCs) are derived from ADCP data collected during 7 deployments at a single location on the inner shelf. The multiyear (2008-2014) time-series, constituting ~ 18 months of hourly records, are further analysed together with wind data from several sources representing local and basin-scale conditions. During one deployment, temperature sensors were also installed near the mooring site to examine the vertical thermal stratification associated with periods of poleward flow. These observations indicate that the coastal circulation is mainly alongshore and barotropic. However, a baroclinic flow is often observed shortly at the time of flow inversion to poleward. CCCs develop all year-round and exclusively control the occurrence of warm coastal water during the upwelling season. On average, one poleward flow lasting 3 days was observed every week, corresponding to CCCs during ~ 40% of the time without seasonal variability. Thus, the studied region is distinct from typical upwelling systems where equatorward coastal upwelling jets largely predominate. CCCs often start to develop near the bed and are frequently associated with 2-layer cross-shore flows characteristic of downwelling conditions (offshore near the bed). In general, the action of alongshore wind stress alone does not justify the development of CCCs. The coastal circulation is best correlated and shows the highest coherence with south-eastward wind in the basin that proceeds from the rotation of southward wind at the West coast of Portugal, hence suggesting a dominant control of large-scale wind conditions. In agreement, wavelet analyses indicate that CCCs are best correlated with alongshore wind occurring in a band period characteristic of the upwelling system (8-32 days). Furthermore, in the absence of wind coastal currents tend

  7. pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography: Origin, mechanism, procedure and applications✩

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Since 1980, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) has been used for separation and purification of natural and synthetic products in a standard elution mode. In 1991, a novel elution mode called pH-zone refining CCC was introduced from an incidental discovery that an organic acid in the sample solution formed the sharp peak of an acid analyte. The cause of this sharp peak formation was found to be bromoacetic acid present in the sample solution which formed a sharp trailing border to trap the acidic analyte. Further studies on the separation of DNP-amino acids with three spacer acids in the stationary phase revealed that increased sample size resulted in the formation of fused rectangular peaks, each preserving high purity and zone pH with sharp boundaries. The mechanism of this phenomenon was found to be the formation of a sharp trailing border of an acid (retainer) in the column which moves at a lower rate than that of the mobile phase. In order to facilitate the application of the method, a new method was devised using a set of retainer and eluter to form a sharp retainer rear border which moves through the column at a desired rate regardless of the composition of the two-phase solvent system. This was achieved by adding the retainer in the stationary phase and the eluter in the mobile phase at a given molar ratio. Using this new method the hydrodynamics of pH-zone-refining CCC was diagrammatically illustrated by three acidic samples. In this review paper, typical pH-zone-refining CCC separations were presented, including affinity separations with a ligand and a separation of a racemic mixture using a chiral selector in the stationary phase. Major characteristics of pH-zone-refining CCC over conventional HSCCC are as follows: the sample loading capacity is increased over 10 times; fractions are highly concentrated near saturation level; yield is improved by increasing the sample size; minute charged compounds are concentrated and detected at the peak

  8. Observations of the southern East Madagascar Current and undercurrent and countercurrent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauw, J. J.; van Aken, H. M.; Webb, A.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.

    2008-08-01

    In April 2001 four hydrographic sections perpendicular to the southern East Madagascar Current were surveyed as part of the Agulhas Current Sources Experiment. Observations with a vessel mounted and a lowered ADCP produced information on the current field while temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrient data obtained with a CTD-Rosette system, gave information on the water mass structure of the currents southeast of Madagascar. The peak velocity in the pole-ward East Madagascar Current through these four sections had a typical magnitude of ˜110 cm/s, while the width of this current was of the order of 120 km. The mean pole-ward volume transport rate of this current during the survey above the 5°C isotherm was estimated to be 37 ± 10 Sv. On all four sections an undercurrent was observed at intermediate depths below the East Madagascar Current. Its equator-ward transport rate amounted to 2.8 ± 1.4 Sv. Offshore of the East Madagascar Current the shallow South Indian Ocean Countercurrent was observed. This eastward frontal jet coincided with the barotropic and thermohaline front that separates the saline Subtropical Surface Water from the fresher Tropical Surface Water in the East Madagascar Current. The near-surface geostrophic flow of the East Madagascar Current, derived from satellite altimetry data from 1992 to 2005, suggests a strong variability of this transport due to eddy variability and interannual changes. The long-term pole-ward mean transport of the East Madagascar Current, roughly estimated from those altimetry data amounts to 32 Sv. The upper-ocean water mass of the East Madagascar Current was very saline in 2001, compared to WOCE surveys from 1995. Comparison of our undercurrent data with those of the WOCE surveys in 1995 confirms that the undercurrent is a recurrent feature. Its water mass properties are relatively saline, due to the presence of water originating from the Red Sea outflow at intermediate levels. The saline water was advected from the

  9. Linear and nonlinear instability in vertical counter-current laminar gas-liquid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-04-01

    We consider the genesis and dynamics of interfacial instability in vertical gas-liquid flows, using as a model the two-dimensional channel flow of a thin falling film sheared by counter-current gas. The methodology is linear stability theory (Orr-Sommerfeld analysis) together with direct numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in the case of nonlinear disturbances. We investigate the influence of two main flow parameters on the interfacial dynamics, namely the film thickness and pressure drop applied to drive the gas stream. To make contact with existing studies in the literature, the effect of various density contrasts is also examined. Energy budget analyses based on the Orr-Sommerfeld theory reveal various coexisting unstable modes (interfacial, shear, internal) in the case of high density contrasts, which results in mode coalescence and mode competition, but only one dynamically relevant unstable interfacial mode for low density contrast. A study of absolute and convective instability for low density contrast shows that the system is absolutely unstable for all but two narrow regions of the investigated parameter space. Direct numerical simulations of the same system (low density contrast) show that linear theory holds up remarkably well upon the onset of large-amplitude waves as well as the existence of weakly nonlinear waves. For high density contrasts, corresponding more closely to an air-water-type system, linear stability theory is also successful at determining the most-dominant features in the interfacial wave dynamics at early-to-intermediate times. Nevertheless, the short waves selected by the linear theory undergo secondary instability and the wave train is no longer regular but rather exhibits chaotic motion. The same linear stability theory predicts when the direction of travel of the waves changes — from downwards to upwards. We outline the practical implications of this change in terms of loading and flooding. The change in direction of the

  10. Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies. [Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Horwitz, E.P.; Basile, L.J.; Diamond, H.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO/sub 3/ acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables.

  11. SIMULATION OF NON-AZEOTROPIC REFRIGERANT MIXTURES FOR USE IN A DUAL-CIRCUIT REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER WITH COUNTERCURRENT HEAT EXCHANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a refrigerator/freezer (RF) system that has two complete and independent refrigeration cycles for the two compartments. It uses a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture (NARM) in each cycle and countercurrent heat exchangers throughout. This RF is housed in a stan...

  12. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP) and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD), by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS. PMID:27223486

  13. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-05-24

    Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP) and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD), by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS. PMID:27223486

  14. Determination of the antimutagenicity of an aqueous extract of Rhizophora mangle L. (Rhizophoraceae), using in vivo and in vitro test systems.

    PubMed

    Malini, Maressa; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Jamal, Claudia Masrouah; Nati, Natália; da Silva Passos, Tatiane; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie

    2010-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Rhizophora mangle L. bark is used as raw material in pottery making in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. This extract presents large quantities of tannins, compounds possessing antioxidant properties. Tannin antioxidant activity, as a plant chemical defense mechanism in the process of stabilizing free radicals, has been an incentive to studies on anti-mutagenicity. The present work aimed to evaluate possible antimutagenic activity of a R. mangle aqueous extract, using the Allium cepa test-system and micronuclear (MN) assay with blockage of cytokinesis in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). The Allium cepa test-system indicated antimutagenic activity against the damage induced by the mutagenic agent methyl methanesulfonate. A reduction in both MN cell frequency and chromosome breaks occurred in both the pre and post-treatment protocols. The MN testing of CHO-K1 cells revealed anti-mutagenic activity of the R. mangle extract against methyl methanesulfonate and doxorubicin in pre, simultaneous and post-treatment protocols. These results suggest the presence of phyto-constituents in the extract presenting demutagenic and bio-antimutagenic activities. Since the chemical constitution of Rhizophora mangle species presents elevated tannin content, it is highly probable that these compounds are the antimutagenic promoters themselves. PMID:21637623

  15. Preparative Separation of Phenolic Compounds from Chimonanthus praecox Flowers by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Using a Stepwise Elution Mode.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaizhi; Zhang, Yongqing; Liu, Qian; Sun, Changlei; Li, Jia; Yang, Peng; Wang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) has been successfully used for the separation of eight compounds from Chimonanthus praecox flowers. Firstly, the crude extract of Chimonanthus praecox flowers was dissolved in a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-H₂O (5:5:3:7, v/v) and divided into two parts: the upper phase (part I) and the lower phase (part II). Then, HSCCC was applied to separate the phenolic acids from part I and part II, respectively. Considering the broad polarity range of target compounds in part I, a stepwise elution mode was established. Two optimal solvent systems of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-H₂O-formic acid (FA) (5:5:3:7:0.02, 5:5:4.3:5.7:0.02, v/v) were employed in this separation. Five phenylpropanoids and two flavonoids were successfully separated from 280 mg of part I, including 8.7 mg of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (a, 95.3% purity), 10.9 mg of protocatechualdehyde (b, 96.8% purity), 11.3 mg of p-coumaric acid (c, 98.9% purity), 12.2 mg of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (d, 95.9% purity), 24.7 mg of quercetin (e, 97.3% purity), 33.8 mg of kaempferol (f, 96.8% purity), and 24.6 mg of 4-hydroxylcinnamic aldehyde (g, 98.0% purity). From 300 mg of part II, 65.7 mg of rutin (h, 98.2% purity), 7.5 mg of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (a, 77.4% purity), and 4.7 mg of protocatechualdehyde (b, 81.6% purity) were obtained using the solvent system EtOAc-n-butanol (n-BuOH)-FA-H₂O (4:1:0.5:5, v/v). The structures of the eight pure compounds were confirmed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), ¹H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. To the best of our knowledge, compounds a-d and f were the first separated and reported from the Chimonanthus praecox flower extract. PMID:27527132

  16. Effect of organic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) extract on the genotoxicity of doxorubicin in the Drosophila wing spot test

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of organic tomatoes (ORTs) reduces the risk of harmful effects to humans and the environment caused by exposure to toxic agrochemicals. In this study, we used the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) of wing spots in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate the genotoxicity of ORT and the effect of cotreatment with ORT on the genotoxicity of Doxorubicin® (DXR, a cancer chemotherapeutic agent) that is mediated by free radical formation. Standard (ST) cross larvae were treated chronically with solutions containing 25%, 50% or 100% of an aqueous extract of ORT, in the absence and presence of DXR (0.125 mg/mL), and the number of mutant spots on the wings of emergent flies was counted. ORT alone was not genotoxic but enhanced the toxicity of DXR when administered concomitantly with DXR. The ORT-enhanced frequency of spots induced by DXR may have resulted from the interaction of ORT with the enzymatic systems that catalyze the metabolic detoxification of this drug. PMID:21637658

  17. Design Implementation and Testing of a VLSI High Performance ASIC for Extracting the Phase of a Complex Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Ronald C.

    2002-09-01

    This thesis documents the research, circuit design, and simulation testing of a VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) ASIC which extracts phase angle information from a complex sampled signal using the arctangent relationship: (phi=tan/-1 (Q/1). Specifically, the circuit will convert the In-Phase and Quadrature terms into their corresponding phase angle. The design specifications were to implement the design in CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors) technology with a minimum transistor count and ability to operate at a clock frequency of 700 MHz. Research on the arctangent function was performed to determine mathematical calculation methods and the CORDIC method was chosen to achieve the stated design specifications. MATLAB simulations were used to calculate and verify accuracy and to implement Quine-McClusky logic minimization. T-SPICE netlists were generated and simulations were run to determine transistor and circuit electrical operation and timing. Finally, overall circuit logic functionality of all possible input combinations was completed using a VHDL (VHSIC(Very High Speed Integrated Circuit) Hardware Description Language) simulation program.

  18. The bioaccessibility of soil-based mercury as determined by physiological based extraction tests and human biomonitoring in children.

    PubMed

    Safruk, Adam M; Berger, Robert G; Jackson, Blair J; Pinsent, Celine; Hair, Alan T; Sigal, Elliot A

    2015-06-15

    Environmental contaminants associated with soil particles are generally less bioavailable than contaminants associated with other exposure media where chemicals are often found in more soluble forms. In vitro methods, such as Physiological Based Extraction Tests (PBET), can provide estimates of bioaccessibility for soil-based contaminants. The results of these tests can be used to predict exposure to contaminants from soil ingestion pathways within human health risk assessment (HHRA). In the current investigation, an HHRA was conducted to examine the risks associated with elevated concentrations of mercury in soils in the northern Canadian smelter community of Flin Flon, Manitoba. A PBET was completed for residential soils and indicated mean bioaccessibilities of 1.2% and 3.0% for total mercury using gastric phase and gastric+intestinal phase methodologies, respectively. However, as many regulators only allow for the consideration of in vitro results for lead and arsenic in the HHRA process, in vitro bioaccessibility results for mercury were not utilized in the current HHRA. Based on the need to assume 100% bioaccessibility for inorganic mercury in soil, results from the HHRA indicated the need for further assessment of exposure and risk. A biomonitoring study was undertaken for children between 2 and 15 years of age in the community to examine urinary inorganic mercury concentrations. Overall, 375 children provided valid urine samples for analysis. Approximately 50% of urine samples had concentrations of urinary inorganic mercury below the limit of detection (0.1 μg/L), with an average creatinine adjusted concentration of 0.11 μg/g. Despite high variability in mercury soil concentrations within sub-communities, soil concentrations did not appear to influence urinary mercury concentrations. The results of the current investigation indicate that mercury bioaccessibility in residential soils in the Flin Flon area was likely limited and that HHRA estimates would

  19. Study of Co-Current and Counter-Current Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Through Packed Bed in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revankar, Shripad T.

    2002-11-01

    The main goal of the project is to obtain new experimental data and development of models on the co-current and counter-current gas-liquid two-phase flow through a packed bed in microgravity and characterize the flow regime transition, pressure drop, void and interfacial area distribution, and liquid hold up. Experimental data will be obtained for earth gravity and microgravity conditions. Models will be developed for the prediction of flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration, which are key parameters to characterize the packed bed performance. Thus the specific objectives of the proposed research are to: (1) Develop experiments for the study of the gas liquid two-phase flow through the packed bed with three different flow combinations: co-current down flow, co-current upflow and counter current flow. (2) Develop pore scale and bed scale two-phase instrumentation for measurement of flow regime transition, void distribution and gas-liquid interfacial area concentration in the packed bed. (3) Obtain database on flow regime transition, pressure drop, void distribution, interfacial area concentration and liquid hold up as a function of bed characteristics such as bed particle size, porosity, and liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension. (4) Develop mathematical model for flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration for co-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions.(4) Develop mathematical model for the flooding phenomena in counter-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions. The present proposal addresses the most important topic of HEDS-specific microgravity fluid physics research identified by NASA 's one of the strategic enterprises, OBPR Enterprise. The proposed project is well defined and makes efficient use of the ground-based parabolic flight research aircraft facility. The

  20. Separation of nine compounds from Salvia plebeia R.Br. using two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography with different elution modes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Da-Bing; Qin, Yan-Hua; Yun, Yong-Huan; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2014-08-01

    Nine compounds were successfully separated from Salvia plebeia R.Br. using two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography with three elution modes. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography was applied in the first step, while classical counter-current chromatography and recycling counter-current chromatography were used in the second step. Three solvent systems, n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (4:6.5:3:7, v/v), methyl tert-butyl ether/ethyl acetate/n-butanol/methanol/water (6:4:1:2:8, v/v) and n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:5.5:5:5, v/v) were screened and optimized for the two-step separation. The separation yielded nine compounds, including caffeic acid (1), 6-hydroxyluteuolin-7-glucoside (2), 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxyflavanone-7-glucoside (3), nepitrin (4), rosmarinic acid (5), homoplantaginin (6), nepetin (7), hispidulin (8), and 5,6,7,4'-tertrahydroxyflavone (9). To the best of our knowledge, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxyflavanone-7-glucoside and 5,6,7,4'-tertrahydroxyflavone have been separated from Salvia plebeia R.Br. for the first time. The purities and structures of these compounds were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. This study demonstrates that high-speed counter-current chromatography is a useful and flexible tool for the separation of components from a complex sample. PMID:24854200

  1. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST - ACCUTECH PNEUMATIC FRACTURING EXTRACTION AND HOT GAS INJECTION, PHASE 1 - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pneumatic Fracturing Extraction (PFE) process developed by Accutech Remedial Systems, Inc. makes it possible to use vapor extraction to remove volatile organics at increased rates from a broader range of vadose zones. The low permeability of silts, clays, shales, etc. would o...

  2. What Makes a Matrix so Effective? An Empirical Test of the Relative Benefits of Signaling, Extraction, and Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Douglas F.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    What type of display helps students learn the most and why? This study investigated how displays differing in terms of signaling, extraction, and localization impact learning. In Experiment 1, 72 students were assigned randomly to one cell of a 4 x 2 design. Students studied a standard text, a text with key ideas extracted, an outline that…

  3. Combustion of pulverized coal in counter-current flow. [Final report], December 7, 1988--April 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Timnat, Y.M.; Goldman, Y.

    1991-12-31

    In this report we describe the results obtained with two prototypes of pulverized coal combustors operating in counter-current flow, one at atmospheric pressure, the other at higher pressure and compare them to the predictions of a theoretical-numerical model, we have developed. The first prototype treats a vertical configuration, eight times larger than the one treated before (Hazanov et al. 1985), while in the second a horizontal arrangement with a smaller volume is studied. Attention was focused on particle trajectories, burnout, angle of injection, ash separation by rotational motion, effects of initial particle size and temperature, impingement velocity and the effect of gravity. Main development activity was directed to achieving stable and reliable coal burning in the combustors.

  4. A comprehensive classification of solvent systems used for natural product purifications in countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Garrard, Ian

    2015-11-01

    Using both library paper copies and modern electronic copies, every known, published, English-language journal paper that employs either countercurrent or centrifugal partition chromatography solvent systems for natural product purifications has been studied and the solvent systems classified in a comprehensive database. Papers were studied from the earliest found examples containing natural product separations in 1984 until the end of 2014. In total, 2594 solvent systems have been classified, of which 272 are gradient systems. To observe any trends or patterns in the data, the natural product solutes were divided into 21 classes and the solvent systems into 7 different types. The complete database, sorted according to natural product class, is available for download to assist separation scientists in future liquid-liquid chromatography purifications. PMID:26219437

  5. Water injection in fractured/layered porous media. Co-current and counter-current imbibition in a water-wet matrix block. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Firoozabadi, A.

    1996-05-01

    Review of the literature indicates that imbibition in water-wet matrix blocks is commonly considered to be counter-current. Despite this general belief, our experimental and theoretical studies indicate that co-current imbibition may be the dominant mechanism. Using numerical simulation of the imbibition process it is found that oil is predominantly recovered by co-current imbibition, and the time for this recovery is only a fraction of that required for counter-current imbibition. This is because in counter-current imbibition, oil is forced to flow in the two-phase region. In co-current imbibition, however, oil is free to flow in the single phase region. This study reveals that co-current imbibition is much more efficient than counter-current imbibition.

  6. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

  7. METHOD FOR TESTING THE AQUATIC TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT EXTRACTS FOR USE IN IDENTIFYING ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biologically-directed fractionation techniques are a fundamental tool for identifying the cause of toxicity in environmental samples, but few are available for studying mixtures of organic chemicals in aquatic sediments. This paper describes a method for extracting organic chemic...

  8. An inkjet-printed microfluidic device for liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masashi

    2011-04-01

    A microfluidic device for liquid-liquid extraction was quickly produced using an office inkjet printer. An advantage of this method is that normal end users, who are not familiar with microfabrication, can produce their original microfluidic devices by themselves. In this method, the printer draws a line on a hydrophobic and oil repellent surface using hydrophilic ink. This line directs a fluid, such as water or xylene, to form a microchannel along the printed line. Using such channels, liquid-liquid extraction was successfully performed under concurrent and countercurrent flow conditions. PMID:21290076

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Mecistocirrus digitatus and Haemonchus contortus Intestinal Protein Extracts and Subsequent Efficacy Testing in a Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dicker, Alison J.; Inglis, Neil F.; Manson, Erin D. T.; Subhadra, Subhra; Illangopathy, Manikkavasagan; Muthusamy, Raman; Knox, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal nematode infections, such as Haemonchus contortus and Mecistocirrus digitatus, are ranked in the top twenty diseases affecting small-holder farmers' livestock, yet research into M. digitatus, which infects cattle and buffalo in Asia is limited. Intestine-derived native protein vaccines are effective against Haemonchus, yet the protective efficacy of intestine-derived M. digitatus proteins has yet to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings A simplified protein extraction protocol (A) is described and compared to an established method (B) for protein extraction from H. contortus. Proteomic analysis of the H. contortus and M. digitatus protein extracts identified putative vaccine antigens including aminopeptidases (H11), zinc metallopeptidases, glutamate dehydrogenase, and apical gut membrane polyproteins. A vaccine trial compared the ability of the M. digitatus extract and two different H. contortus extracts to protect sheep against H. contortus challenge. Both Haemonchus fractions (A and B) were highly effective, reducing cumulative Faecal Egg Counts (FEC) by 99.19% and 99.89% and total worm burdens by 87.28% and 93.64% respectively, compared to the unvaccinated controls. There was no effect on H. contortus worm burdens following vaccination with the M. digitatus extract and the 28.2% reduction in cumulative FEC was not statistically significant. However, FEC were consistently lower in the M. digitatus extract vaccinates compared to the un-vaccinated controls from 25 days post-infection. Conclusions/Significance Similar, antigenically cross-reactive proteins are found in H. contortus and M. digitatus; this is the first step towards developing a multivalent native vaccine against Haemonchus species and M. digitatus. The simplified protein extraction method could form the basis for a locally produced vaccine against H. contortus and, possibly M. digitatus, in regions where effective cold chains for vaccine distribution are limited

  10. Development of the front end test stand and vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses negative hydrogen ion sources at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Perkins, M.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.; Gabor, C.; Back, J.

    2014-02-15

    The ISIS pulsed spallation neutron and muon facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK uses a Penning surface plasma negative hydrogen ion source. Upgrade options for the ISIS accelerator system demand a higher current, lower emittance beam with longer pulse lengths from the injector. The Front End Test Stand is being constructed at RAL to meet the upgrade requirements using a modified ISIS ion source. A new 10% duty cycle 25 kV pulsed extraction power supply has been commissioned and the first meter of 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole has been delivered. Simultaneously, a Vessel for Extraction and Source Plasma Analyses is under construction in a new laboratory at RAL. The detailed measurements of the plasma and extracted beam characteristics will allow a radical overhaul of the transport optics, potentially yielding a simpler source configuration with greater output and lifetime.

  11. Isolation of cytotoxic glucoerebrosides and long-chain bases from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa using high speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Guo, Shuang; Du, Lei; Wang, Yu-Ming; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi; Xue, Chang-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Total glucocerebrosides of the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (CFC) have been isolated from the less polar lipid fraction of the chloroform-methanol extract using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-methanol-water (5:4:1, v/v). Three glucocerebroside molecular species (CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3) were isolated from crude total cerebrosides with repeated column chromatography. The structures of these three glucocerebroside molecular species were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence: fatty acids were mainly saturated (C22:0 and C18:0), monounsaturated (C24:1 and C20:1) and α-hydroxyl fatty acids (C24:1h, C23:0h, C23:1h and C22:0h), the structures of long-chain bases were dihydroxy (d17:1, d18:2 and d18:1) and trihydroxy (t17:0 and t16:0), and the glycosylation was glucose. High purity long-chain bases of sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (CF-LCB) were prepared from total lipids by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert butyl ether-methanol-water (1:1:2:1, v/v). Compare with traditional preparative methods, the method of HSCCC is short cycle, high yield and less solvent consumption. The composition analysis of CF-LCB showed that the ratio of d18:2 and d17:1 was approximately 2:1. The four glucocerebrosides and long-chain bases from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa were evaluated for activity in vitro assays for the cytotoxic activities against Caco-2 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that both glucocerebrosides and long-chain bases exhibited an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Moreover, CFC-3 was most effective in four glucocerebrosides to Caco-2 cell viability. The inhibition effect of CF-LCB was much stronger than glucocerebrosides. PMID:23470440

  12. Separation and preparation of 6-gingerol from molecular distillation residue of Yunnan ginger rhizomes by high-speed counter-current chromatography and the antioxidant activity of ginger oils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhilin; Liang, Zheng; Chen, Xiaosong; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yuxiao; Li, Mo; Ni, Yuanying

    2016-02-01

    Molecular distillation residue (MD-R) from ginger had the most total phenol content of 247.6mg gallic acid equivalents per gram (GAE/g) among the ginger oils. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) technique in semi-preparative scale was successfully performed in separation and purification of 6-gingerol from MD-R by using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:2:5:7, v/v/v/v). The target compound was isolated, collected, purified by HSCCC in the head-tail mode, and then analyzed by HPLC. A total of 90.38±0.53mg 6-gingerol was obtained from 600mg MD-R, with purity of 99.6%. In addition, the structural identification of 6-gingerol was performed by EI/MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Moreover, the orders of antioxidant activity were vitamin E (VE)>supercritical fluid extraction oleoresin (SFE-O)=MD-R=6-gingerol>molecular distillation essential oil (MD-EO) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)=VE>6-gingerol>MD-R=SFE-O>MD-EO, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and β-Carotene bleaching. PMID:26773887

  13. Assessment of the influence of traffic-related particles in urban dust using sequential selective extraction and oral bioaccessibility tests.

    PubMed

    Patinha, C; Durães, N; Sousa, P; Dias, A C; Reis, A P; Noack, Y; Ferreira da Silva, E

    2015-08-01

    Urban dust is a heterogeneous mix, where traffic-related particles can combine with soil mineral compounds, forming a unique and site-specific material. These traffic-related particles are usually enriched in potentially harmful elements, enhancing the health risk for population by inhalation or ingestion. Urban dust samples from Estarreja city and traffic-related particles (brake dust and white traffic paint) were studied to understand the relative contribution of the traffic particles in the geochemical behaviour of urban dust and to evaluate the long-term impacts of the metals on an urban environment, as well as the risk to the populations. It was possible to distinguish two groups of urban dust samples according to Cu behaviour: (1) one group with low amounts of fine particles (<38 µm), low contents of organic material, high percentage of Cu in soluble phases, and low Cu bioaccessible fraction (Bf) values. This group showed similar chemical behaviour with the brake dust samples of low- to mid-range car brands (with more than 10 years old), composed by coarser wear particles; and (2) another group with greater amounts of fine particles (<38 µm), with low percentage of Cu associated with soluble phases, and with greater Cu Bf values. This group behaved similar to those found for brake dust of mid- to high-range car brands (with less than 10 years old). The results obtained showed that there is no direct correlation between the geoavailability of metals estimated by sequential selective chemical extraction (SSCE) and the in vitro oral bioaccessibility (UBM) test. Thus, oral bioaccessibility of urban dust is site specific. Geoavailability was greatly dependent on particle size, where the bioaccessibility tended to increase with a reduction in particle diameter. As anthropogenic particles showed high metal concentration and a smaller size than mineral particles, urban dusts are of major concern to the populations' health, since fine particles are easily re

  14. Extraction and recovery of plutonium and americium from nitric acid waste solutions by the TRUEX process - continuing development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Kalina, D.G.; Fischer, D.F.; Bane, R.W.; Burris, L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarisia, R.; Diamond, H.

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes the work done to date on the application of the TRUEX solvent extraction process for removing and separately recovering plutonium and americium from a nitric acid waste solution containing these elements, uranium, and a complement of inert metal ions. This simulated waste stream is typical of a raffinate from a tributyl phosphate (TBP)-based solvent extraction process for removing uranium and plutonium from dissolved plutonium-containing metallurgical scrap. The TRUEX process solvent in these experiments was a solution of TBP and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. A flowsheet was designed on the basis of measured batch distribution ratios to reduce the TRU content of the solidified raffinate to less than or equal to 10 nCi/g and was tested in a countercurrent experiment performed in a 14-stage Argonne-model centrifugal contractor. The process solvent was recycled without cleanup. An unexpectedly high evaporative loss of CCl/sub 4/ resulted in concentration of the active extractant, CMPO, to nearly 0.30M in the solvent. Results are consistent with this higher CMPO concentration. The raffinate contained only 2 nCi/g of TRU, but the higher CMPO concentration resulted in reduced effectiveness in the stripping of americium from the solvent. Conditions can be easily adjusted to give high yields and good separation of americium and plutonium. Experimental studies of the hydrolytic and gamma-radiolytic degradation of the TRUEX-CCl/sub 4/ showed that solvent degradation would be (1) minimal for a year of processing this typical feed, which contained no fission products, and (2) could be explained almost entirely by hydrolytic and radiolytic damage to TBP. Even for gross amounts of solvent damage, scrubbing with aqueous sodium carbonate solution restored the original americium extraction and stripping capability of the solvent. 43 refs., 5 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. Acute toxicity test of a natural iron chelator and an antioxidant, extracted from Triticum aestivum Linn. (wheat grass).

    PubMed

    Das, Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Mandal, Suvra; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Pal, Amartya; Sarkar, Nirmal Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2014-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Previously the purified compounds and crude extract of T. aestivum were established to have iron chelation potency and antioxidant activity. So it is necessary to evaluate the toxic properties of any compound isolated from plant extract to prevent any untoward side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the acute oral toxicity level of our purified compounds, i.e. mugineic acids and methylpheophorbide a., and crude extract of T. aestivum, on Swiss albino mice at dosage of 2000 mg/kg for a period of 14 days using the organisation for economic co-operation and development guidelines 423. There was no mortality. No change in behavioural pattern, clinical signs, body weight and blood biochemistry profile were observed. Kidney and liver showed normal histo-pathological architecture. Hence, the oral administration of compounds and extract of T. aestivum did not produce any significant toxic effect on mice. Thus we may conclude that the extract can be utilised for pharmaceutical formulations as iron chelator and antioxidant agent for various diseases. PMID:24697628

  16. Impact of plant extracts tested in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment on cell survival and energy metabolism in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andreas Johannes; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Hemmeter, Ulrich Michael; Kircher, Tilo; Schulz, Eberhard; Clement, Hans-Willi; Heiser, Philip

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts such as Hypericum perforatum and Pycnogenol have been tested as alternatives to the classical ADHD drugs. It has been possible to describe neuroprotective effects of such plant extracts. A reduction of ADHD symptoms could be shown in clinical studies after the application of Pycnogenol, which is a pine bark extract. The impacts of the standardized herbal extracts Hypericum perforatum, Pycnogenol and Enzogenol up to a concentration of 5000 ng/mL on cell survival and energy metabolism in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells has been investigated in the present examination. Hypericum perforatum significantly decreased the survival of cells after treatment with a concentration of 5000 ng/mL, whereas lower concentrations exerted no significant effects. Pycnogenol( induced a significant increase of cell survival after incubation with a concentration of 32.25 ng/mL and a concentration of 250 ng/mL. Other applied concentrations of Pycnogenol failed to exert significant effects. Treatment with Enzogenol did not lead to significant changes in cell survival.Concerning energy metabolism, the treatment of cells with a concentration of 5000 ng/mL Hypericum perforatum led to a significant increase of ATP levels, whereas treatment with a concentration of 500 ng/mL had no significant effect. Incubation of cells with Pycnogenol and Enzogenol exerted no significant effects.None of the tested substances caused any cytotoxic effect when used in therapeutically relevant concentrations. PMID:20878709

  17. Triaxial- and uniaxial-compression testing methods developed for extraction of pore water from unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mower, T.E.; Higgins, J.D.; Yang, I.C.

    1989-12-31

    To support the study of hydrologic system in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, two extraction methods were examined to obtain representative, uncontaminated pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff. Results indicate that triaxial compression, which uses a standard cell, can remove pore water from nonwelded tuff that has an initial moisture content greater than 11% by weight; uniaxial compression, which uses a specifically fabricated cell, can extract pore water from nonwelded tuff that has an initial moisture content greater than 8% and from welded tuff that has an initial moisture content greater than 6.5%. For the ambient moisture conditions of Yucca Mountain tuffs, uniaxial compression is the most efficient method of pore-water extraction. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Green tea extract decreases starch digestion and absorption from a test meal in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Lochocka, Klaudia; Bajerska, Joanna; Glapa, Aleksandra; Fidler-Witon, Ewa; Nowak, Jan K.; Szczapa, Tomasz; Grebowiec, Philip; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is known worldwide for its beneficial effects on human health. However, objective data evaluating this influence in humans is scarce. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of green tea extract (GTE) on starch digestion and absorption. The study comprised of 28 healthy volunteers, aged 19 to 28 years. In all subjects, a starch 13C breath test was performed twice. Subjects randomly ingested naturally 13C-abundant cornflakes during the GTE test (GTE 4 g) or placebo test. The cumulative percentage dose recovery (CPDR) was significantly lower for the GTE test than for the placebo test (median [interquartile range]: 11.4% [5.5–15.5] vs. 16.1% [12.7–19.5]; p = 0.003). Likewise, CPDR expressed per hour was considerably lower in each point of the measurement. In conclusion, a single dose of green tea extract taken with a test meal decreases starch digestion and absorption. PMID:26226166

  19. Acid gas extraction of pyridine from water

    SciTech Connect

    Laitinen, A.; Kaunisto, J.

    2000-01-01

    Pyridine was extracted from aqueous solutions initially containing 5 or 15 wt % pyridine by using liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide at 10 MPa as a solvent in a mechanically agitated countercurrent extraction column. The lowest pyridine concentration in the raffinate was 0.06 wt %, whereas the pyridine concentration in the extract was 86--94 wt %. From the initial amount of pyridine, 96--99% was transferred from the feed stream to the extract by using relatively small solvent-to-feed ratios of 2.8--4.6 (kg of solvent/kg of feed). The measured distribution coefficients for the water/pyridine/carbon dioxide system ranged from 0.3 to 1 (weight units), depending on the initial pyridine concentration in water. Carbon dioxide is a particularly suitable solvent for the extraction of pyridine from concentrated aqueous solutions. The efficiency may be the result of an acid-base interaction between weakly basic pyridine solute and weakly acidic carbon dioxide solvent in an aqueous environment.

  20. Effects of Concept Map Extraction and a Test-Based Diagnostic Environment on Learning Achievement and Learners' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Liew, Keng-Hou; Chu, Chih-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Computerised testing and diagnostics are critical challenges within an e-learning environment, where the learners can assess their learning performance through tests. However, a test result based on only a single score is insufficient information to provide a full picture of learning performance. In addition, because test results implicitly…

  1. Changes in chromosome structure, mitotic activity and nuclear DNA content from cells of Allium Test induced by bark water extract of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    PubMed

    Kuraś, Mieczysław; Nowakowska, Julita; Sliwińska, Elwira; Pilarski, Radosław; Ilasz, Renata; Tykarska, Teresa; Zobel, Alicja; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-09-19

    The influence of water extract of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC bark on the meristematic cells of the root tips of Allium cepa L., e.g. cells of Allium Test, was investigated. The experiment was carried out in two variants: (1) continuous incubation at different concentrations (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/ml) of the extract for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h; and (2) 24-h incubation in three concentrations of the extract (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), followed by post-incubation in distilled water for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48h. During the continuous incubation, the mitotic activity was reduced (2 and 4 mg/ml) or totally inhibited (8 and 16 mg/ml), depending on the concentration of the extract. All the concentrations resulted in gradual reduction of the mitotic activity. In the concentration of 2 mg/ml, the mitotic activity reached its lowest value after 12h (2 mg/ml) and after 24h in 4 mg/ml, followed by spontaneous intensification of divisions during further incubation. Instead, in higher concentrations of the extracts (8 and 16 mg/ml), the mitotic activity was totally inhibited within 24h and did not resume even after 72h. Incubation caused changes in the phase index, mainly as an increase in the number of prophases. After 24h of incubation, in all phases, condensation and contraction of chromosomes were observed. During post-incubation, divisions resumed in all concentrations, reaching even higher values than the control. Cytometric analysis showed that the extract caused inhibition of the cell cycle at the border between gap(2) and beginning of mitosis (G(2)/M). PMID:16793229

  2. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    DOEpatents

    Mysels, Karol J.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  3. Enantioseparation of (DL)-tryptophan by spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography and evaluation of mass transfer rate for enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Ito, Yoichiro; Ma, Ying

    2014-12-29

    Spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography was successfully applied in enantioseparation of dl-tryptophan using bovine serum albumin as chiral selector. An improved biphasic aqueous-aqueous solvent system 12.0% (w/w) polyethyleneglycol 8000-9.0% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate-0.1% ammonia-78.9% water was used as the solvent system for counter-current chromatography, in which bovine serum albumin was predominantly distributed in the lower phase of the two-phase aqueous system. The aqueous-aqueous solvent system gave a very high enantioselectivity for d- and l-tryptophan at α=2.605 along with distribution ratio DD=1.200 and DL=0.461. High peak resolution was obtained for enantioseparation of 2.0mg of dl-tryptophan by spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography under room temperature. It was found that 0.1% ammonia added in the aqueous-aqueous solvent system greatly improved the enantioseparations. An unusual extremely broad peak for l-tryptophan was observed during enantioseparations. In order to give an explanation, mass transfer rates of d- and l-enantiomers through the interface between the two phases were measured. It was found that l-tryptophan showed lower mass transfer rate than d-tryptophan. Further discussions were proposed for possible reasons for mass transfer rate difference between the enantiomers. PMID:25476690

  4. Enantioseparation of DL-tryptophan by spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography and evaluation of mass transfer rate for enantiomers

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shengqiang; Ito, Yoichiro; Ma, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography was successfully applied in enantioseparation of DL-tryptophan using bovine serum albumin as chiral selector. An improved biphasic aqueous-aqueous solvent system 12.0% (w/w) polyethyleneglycol 8000–9.0% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate-0.1% ammonia-78.9% water was used as the solvent system for counter-current chromatography, in which bovine serum albumin was predominantly distributed in the lower phase of the two-phase aqueous system. The aqueous-aqueous solvent system gave a very high enantioselectivity for D- and L-tryptophan at α=2.605 along with distribution ratio DD=1.200 and DL=0.461. High peak resolution was obtained for enantioseparation of 2.0 mg of DL-tryptophan by spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography under room temperature. It was found that 0.1% ammonia added in the aqueous-aqueous solvent system greatly improved the enantioseparations. An unusual extremely broad peak for L-tryptophan was observed during enantioseparations. In order to give an explanation, mass transfer rates of D- and L-enantiomers through the interface between the two phases were measured. It was found that L-tryptophan showed lower mass transfer rate than D-tryptophan. Further discussions were proposed for possible reasons for mass transfer rate difference between the enantiomers. PMID:25476690

  5. Validation of a Mechanistic Model for Non-Invasive Study of Ecological Energetics in an Endangered Wading Bird with Counter-Current Heat Exchange in its Legs

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Megan J.; Mathewson, Paul D.; Porter, Warren P.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic models provide a powerful, minimally invasive tool for gaining a deeper understanding of the ecology of animals across geographic space and time. In this paper, we modified and validated the accuracy of the mechanistic model Niche Mapper for simulating heat exchanges of animals with counter-current heat exchange mechanisms in their legs and animals that wade in water. We then used Niche Mapper to explore the effects of wading and counter-current heat exchange on the energy expenditures of Whooping Cranes, a long-legged wading bird. We validated model accuracy against the energy expenditure of two captive Whooping Cranes measured using the doubly-labeled water method and time energy budgets. Energy expenditure values modeled by Niche Mapper were similar to values measured by the doubly-labeled water method and values estimated from time-energy budgets. Future studies will be able to use Niche Mapper as a non-invasive tool to explore energy-based limits to the fundamental niche of Whooping Cranes and apply this knowledge to management decisions. Basic questions about the importance of counter-current exchange and wading to animal physiological tolerances can also now be explored with the model. PMID:26308207

  6. Validation of a Mechanistic Model for Non-Invasive Study of Ecological Energetics in an Endangered Wading Bird with Counter-Current Heat Exchange in its Legs.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Megan J; Mathewson, Paul D; Porter, Warren P

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic models provide a powerful, minimally invasive tool for gaining a deeper understanding of the ecology of animals across geographic space and time. In this paper, we modified and validated the accuracy of the mechanistic model Niche Mapper for simulating heat exchanges of animals with counter-current heat exchange mechanisms in their legs and animals that wade in water. We then used Niche Mapper to explore the effects of wading and counter-current heat exchange on the energy expenditures of Whooping Cranes, a long-legged wading bird. We validated model accuracy against the energy expenditure of two captive Whooping Cranes measured using the doubly-labeled water method and time energy budgets. Energy expenditure values modeled by Niche Mapper were similar to values measured by the doubly-labeled water method and values estimated from time-energy budgets. Future studies will be able to use Niche Mapper as a non-invasive tool to explore energy-based limits to the fundamental niche of Whooping Cranes and apply this knowledge to management decisions. Basic questions about the importance of counter-current exchange and wading to animal physiological tolerances can also now be explored with the model. PMID:26308207

  7. Quantification of α-methylene-λ-butyrolactone extracted from different parts ofAlstroemeria wilhelmina and evaluation of it's antigenicity using the guinea-pig maximization test.

    PubMed

    Harada, Koichi; Ohmori, Shoko; Wei, Chang-Nian; Arimatsu, Yoshiki; Ueda, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    To detect the type of contact dermatitis caused due to the handling ofAlstroemeria wilhelmina, 1% α-methylene-λ-butyrolactone (α-MBL) dissolved in physiological alien and a five-fold diluted saline solution of original extracts of flowers, leaves and stems of the flower were applied to guinea-pigs for extracts were applied to the animals as the challenge treatment in compliance with the guinea-pig maximization test (GMT). As a consequence, not only primary irritant dermatitis was observed, but also delayed type allergic contact dermatitis due toAlstroemeria wilhelmina was observed. α-MBL determined in the extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was found to be the biochemical material cause of the contact dermatitis. the flower region contained α-MBL in the highest concentrations compared with those of the leaves and stems. Therefore, the quantification of α-MBL in the extracts was concluded as being a useful evaluating method for contact dermatitis due to the handling ofAlstroemeria. PMID:21432339

  8. Testing the Self-Similarity Exponent to Feature Extraction in Motor Imagery Based Brain Computer Interface Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Germán; Sánchez-Granero, Miguel Ángel; García-Laencina, Pedro J.; Fernández-Martínez, Manuel; Serna, José; Roca-Dorda, Joaquín

    2015-12-01

    A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system is a tool not requiring any muscle action to transmit information. Acquisition, preprocessing, feature extraction (FE), and classification of electroencephalograph (EEG) signals constitute the main steps of a motor imagery BCI. Among them, FE becomes crucial for BCI, since the underlying EEG knowledge must be properly extracted into a feature vector. Linear approaches have been widely applied to FE in BCI, whereas nonlinear tools are not so common in literature. Thus, the main goal of this paper is to check whether some Hurst exponent and fractal dimension based estimators become valid indicators to FE in motor imagery BCI. The final results obtained were not optimal as expected, which may be due to the fact that the nature of the analyzed EEG signals in these motor imagery tasks were not self-similar enough.

  9. Time-dependent changes of phytoavailability of Cs added to allophanic Andosols in laboratory cultivations and extraction tests.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akira; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Nakao, Atsushi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2013-08-01

    Although it is well known that phytoavailability of radiocaesium is gradually lost after its deposition on the ground by fixation to soil minerals, the decreasing rates during early period after the deposition is not yet quantitatively evaluated. In this study, stable Cs was added to 5 types of soil, including Andosols, a sand-dune regosol and a smectic lowland soil, in a laboratory soil incubation experiment to assess the aging effect of radiocaesium. Aliquots of a soil sample were put into pots and incubated in an artificial climate chamber. Orchardgrass or red clover was cultivated for 28 d in soil pots containing one of the allophanic Andosol samples seven times during about 1200 d using new pots for each cultivation. The soil-to-plant transfer factors of Cs declined exponentially until about 100 d and were almost constant thereafter. The extractabilities of Cs by water and 1 M NH4OAc solution from this allophanic Andosol soil sample also decreased with time and their decreasing patterns were similar to that of the transfer factor. The temporal changes of extractabilities of Cs in other soil samples were also examined 6 times during about 600 d. Rate of decline for the extracted yield of the added Cs by 1 M NH4OAc varied widely among all the soil types. Two allophanic Andosol samples showed relatively higher extractabilities in comparison with the other soils throughout the incubation experiment, which may be attributable to the lower contribution of Cs specific sorption sites to total cation exchange capacity of the allophonic Andosol soil samples. PMID:23528867

  10. Influence of Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei extracts on the prevention of oxidation and retention of tocopherols in soybean oil in an accelerated storage test.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Carolina; Jorge, Neuza

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the methanol extracts of mushrooms Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei on the retention of tocopherols in soybean oil, when subjected to an accelerated storage test. The following treatments were subjected to an accelerated storage test in an oven at 60 °C for 15 days: Control (soybean oil without antioxidants), TBHQ (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of TBHQ), BHT (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of BHT), L. edodes (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of L. edodes extract) and A. blazei (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of A. blazei extract). The samples were analyzed for tocopherols naturally present in soybean oil and mass gain. The results showed, the time required to reach a 0.5% increase in mass was 13 days for TBHQ and 15 days for A. blazei. The content of tocopherols for TBHQ was 457.50 mg/kg and the A. blazei, 477.20 mg/kg. PMID:24876658

  11. Use of the physiologically-based extraction test to assess the oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Intawongse, Marisa; Dean, John R

    2008-03-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil was assessed. This was done using the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) to simulate the human digestion of plant material. A range of vegetable plants, i.e. carrot, lettuce, radish and spinach, were grown on metal contaminated soil. After reaching maturity the plants were harvested and analysed for their total metal content (i.e. Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The plant samples were then subsequently extracted using an in vitro gastrointestinal approach or PBET to assess the likelihood of oral bioaccessibility if the material was consumed by humans. PMID:17601641

  12. Towards a wave-extraction method for numerical relativity. IV. Testing the quasi-Kinnersley method in the Bondi-Sachs framework

    SciTech Connect

    Nerozzi, Andrea; Bruni, Marco; Re, Virginia; Burko, Lior M.

    2006-02-15

    We present a numerical study of the evolution of a nonlinearly disturbed black hole described by the Bondi-Sachs metric, for which the outgoing gravitational waves can readily be found using the news function. We compare the gravitational-wave output obtained with the use of the news function in the Bondi-Sachs framework, with that obtained from the Weyl scalars, where the latter are evaluated in a quasi-Kinnersley tetrad. The latter method has the advantage of being applicable to any formulation of Einstein's equations--including the ADM formulation and its various descendants--in addition to being robust. Using the nonlinearly disturbed Bondi-Sachs black hole as a test bed, we show that the two approaches give wave-extraction results which are in very good agreement. When wave extraction through the Weyl scalars is done in a non-quasi-Kinnersley tetrad, the results are markedly different from those obtained using the news function.

  13. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  14. Food allergen analysis for processed food using a novel extraction method to eliminate harmful reagents for both ELISA and lateral-flow tests.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kaori; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Oyama, Yuriko; Tsuruma, Rieko; Saito, Eriko; Saito, Yoshikazu; Ozu, Takeshi; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakai, Shinobu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Shoji, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is commonly used to determine food allergens in food products. However, a significant number of ELISAs give an erroneous result, especially when applied to highly processed food. Accordingly, an improved ELISA, which utilizes an extraction solution comprising the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) and reductant 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), has been specially developed to analyze food allergens in highly processed food by enhancing analyte protein extraction. Recently, however, the use of 2-ME has become undesirable. In the present study, a new extraction solution containing a human- and eco-friendly reductant, which is convenient to use at the food manufacturing site, has been established. Among three chemicals with different reducing properties, sodium sulfite, tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine, and mercaptoethylamine sodium sulfite was selected as a 2-ME substitute. The protein extraction ability of SDS/0.1 M sodium sulfite solution was comparable to that of SDS/2-ME solution. Next, the ELISA performance for egg, milk, wheat, peanut, and buckwheat was evaluated by using model-processed foods and commercially available food products. The data showed that the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA significantly correlated with the SDS/2-ME ELISA for all food allergens examined (p < 0.01), thereby establishing the validity of the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA performance. Furthermore, the new SDS/0.1 M sulfite solution was investigated for its applicability to the lateral-flow (LF) test. The result demonstrated the successful analysis of food allergens in processed food, showing consistency with the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA results. Accordingly, a harmonized analysis system for processed food comprising a screening LF test and a quantitative ELISA with identical extraction solution has been established. The ELISA based on the SDS/0.1 M sulfite extraction solution has now been authorized as the revised official method for food allergen

  15. Separation of phenolic acids and flavonoids from Trollius chinensis Bunge by high speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanhua; Liang, Yizeng; Ren, Dabing; Qiu, Ximin; Li, Xi

    2015-09-15

    In this work, eleven compounds were successfully separated from Trollius chinensis Bunge by using a two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method. NRTL-SAC (nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient) method, a newly developed solvent system selection strategy, was applied to screening the suitable biphasic liquid systems. Hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (3:7:3:7, v/v) solvent system was used in the first step, while the hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:2:1:2, 1:4:1:4, 1:9:1:9, v/v) systems were employed in the second step. The chemical structures of the separated compounds were identified by UV, high resolution ESI-MS and MS/MS data. The separated compounds are 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (1), vanillic acid (2), orientin (3), vitexin (4), veratric acid (5), 2″-O-(3‴, 4‴-dimethoxybenzoyl) orientin (6), 2″-O-feruloylorientin (7), 2″-O-feruloylvitexin (8), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) vitexin (9), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) isoswertiajaponin (10), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) isoswertisin (11). The results demonstrate that HSCCC is a powerful tool for the separation of compounds from extremely complex samples. PMID:26262599

  16. Production of carbonaceous adsorbents from agricultural by-products and novolac resin under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-02-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents based on novolac resin (N) and olive stone biomass (B) in a proportion of 20/80 and 40/60 w./w. N/O were produced. The specimens were cured (c) and pyrolyzed/carbonized (C) up to 1000 °C under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation (N20B-cC, N40B-cC). Commercial activated carbon (AC) was used for comparison reasons. Methylene blue adsorption from its aqueous solutions onto the adsorbents and kinetic analysis were investigated. The specific surface area of adsorbents and the gross calorific values (GCV) of cured materials were determined. The results show that N40B-cC presents lower weight loss and shrinkage but higher methylene blue adsorption than N20B-cC. Pseudo-second order mechanism describes better methylene blue adsorption onto all adsorbents. The specific surface area of carbonaceous and the gross calorific values of cured materials follow the order: AC>N20B-cC>N40B-cC and N100-c>N40B-c>N20B-c>B respectively. Olive stone biomass may constitute a suitable precursor for the production of carbonaceous materials. PMID:23246760

  17. Modeling of the simulated countercurrent moving-bed chromatographic reactor used for the oxidative coupling of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkovich, A.L.Y.; Carr, R.W.

    1994-09-01

    The oxidative coupling reaction of methane (OCM) is a potential industrial reaction for the efficient production of ethylene. Replacement of current technologies requires significant product yield improvements. An experimental novel reactor design, the modified simulated countercurrent moving-bed chromatographic reactor (SCMCR), has reported improved ethane and ethylene product yields over other reported values. An understanding of the reactor operation is aided by concurrent mathematical modeling. The model mimics the exact experimental reactor configuration. Four sections are used; each section contains a reaction column and two separation columns connected in series. The feed is switched from section to section at discrete intervals. Reaction occurs in the first column and is followed by product and reactant separation in the ensuing section columns. Langmuir adsorption isotherms are used. The model does not incorporate the realistic and complex kinetics rising, from the OCM, rather a simplified reaction term is used to qualitatively gain insight into the operation of the modified SCMCR. A unimolecular reaction network is used in the model. The rate constants are set to permit a small fractional conversion, 5% per pass, at the concentrations during the first cycle. Similarly to the experimental reactor, the model adds a make-up feed (defined as percentage of the original feed, where excess methane is fed during the first cycle of the experimental reactor) to augment lost reactants.

  18. One-step separation of antioxidant compounds from Erythrina variegata by high speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Liao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Peisen; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for separation and purification of antioxidant compounds from ethyl acetate fraction of the stem bark of Erythrina variegata. The optimal two-phase solvent system was composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:1:4, v/v/v/v). After one-step HSCCC separation, 75 mg of protocatechuic acid ( 1: ), 32 mg of chlorogenic acid ( 2: ) and 44 mg of caffeic acid ( 3: ) were purified from 420 mg of the ethyl acetate fraction. The purity of isolated compounds was determined up to 99.7% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chemical structures of the three compounds were confirmed by UV, HPLC-MS/MS and (1)H NMR. The IC50 values of scavenging DPPH free radical for the three compounds were 22.5, 41.9 and 20.9 μg/mL, respectively. Protocatechuic acid and chlorogenic acid were obtained from the stem bark of E. variegata for the first time. PMID:25209680

  19. Steady state preparative multiple dual mode counter-current chromatography: Productivity and selectivity. Theory and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A

    2015-08-01

    In the steady state (SS) multiple dual mode (MDM) counter-current chromatography (CCC), at the beginning of the first step of every cycle the sample dissolved in one of the phases is continuously fed into a CCC device over a constant time, not exceeding the run time of the first step. After a certain number of cycles, the steady state regime is achieved, where concentrations vary over time during each cycle, however, the concentration profiles of solutes eluted with both phases remain constant in all subsequent cycles. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the SS MDM CCC separation processes, which can be helpful to simulate and design these processes and select a suitable compromise between the productivity and the selectivity in the preparative and production CCC separations. Experiments carried out using model mixtures of compounds from the GUESSmix with solvent system hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water demonstrated a reasonable agreement between the predictions of the theory and the experimental results. PMID:26087966

  20. Preparative isolation of anthocyanins from Japanese purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Montilla, Elyana Cuevas; Hillebrand, Silke; Butschbach, Daniela; Baldermann, Susanne; Watanabe, Naoharu; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-09-22

    Purple-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) contain a very complex anthocyanin profile due to the presence of several non-, mono-, and diacylated glucosides of cyanidin and peonidin. In this study, the anthocyanin composition of four Japanese purple sweet potato cultivars (Chiran Murasaki, Tanegashima Murasaki, Naka Murasaki, and Purple Sweet) were investigated by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MSn analyses. The HPLC chromatograms of the different cultivars show a remarkable variation of the two major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, respectively. According to this, they can be categorized into two groups on the basis of the peonidin/cyanidin ratio: the cultivars Chiran Murasaki and Purple Sweet showed a high content of peonidin derivatives (peonidin type), whereas the varieties Tanegashima Murasaki and Naka Murasaki were classified as cyanidin types. By means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) the nonacylated 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside of cyanidin was isolated on a preparative scale. Furthermore, it was possible to isolate the monoacylated cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside as well as three diacylated major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6'',6'''-dicaffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxy-benzoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxybenzoyl-sophoroside)-5-glucoside. The purity and identity of the so-obtained pigments were confirmed by NMR measurements. PMID:20731350

  1. Extraction process and apparatus for hydrocarbon containing ores

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R. H.; Eakin, B. E.

    1985-09-03

    There is provided a hydrocarbon extraction process and apparatus for removing hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon containing ore such as a diatomite ore. The ore is preprocessed to the extent required to produce an extractable ore and subsequently mixed with a carrier to form an ore stream. The carrier may be a nonaqueous solvent and may further comprise a non-porous granular material such as sand. The ore stream is passed in substantially vertical countercurrent flow through a nonaqueous solvent to produce a product-solvent stream and a spent ore stream. The solvent is subsequently separated from the hydrocarbon stream, which may be further upgraded by removal of a heavy portion. This may be accomplished in the presence of a substantial amount of fines.

  2. 242-A Evaporator/plutonium uranium extraction (PUREX) effluent treatment facility (ETF) nonradioactive air emission test report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This report shows the methods used to test the stack gas outlet concentration and emission rate of Volatile Organic Compounds as Total Non-Methane Hydrocarbons in parts per million by volume,grams per dry standard cubic meter, and grams per minute from the PUREX ETF stream number G6 on the Hanford Site. Test results are shown in Appendix B.1.

  3. Precolumn for extract concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.; Bloom, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    AUDRI requires test sample separation into organic compound families for subsequent insertion into several parallel chromatographs. Sample is first extracted by selective organic solvents. Solvent is then removed from extract to increase extract-to-solvent ratio, increasing system sensitivity. Backflushing of precolumn serves as cleanser.

  4. Evaluation of lemon fruit extract as an antioxidant agent against histopathological changes induced by cyclophosphamide in the testes of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Quita, Salwa Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of lemon fruit extracts (LFE) against histopathological changes induced in the testes of male mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Methods Thirty male mice were divided evenly into six groups: 1) group 1: the controls, 2) group 2: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg b wt.), 3) group 3: treated with CP (10 mg/kg b wt.), 4) group 4: treated with CP (20 mg/kg b wt.), 5) group 5: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (10 mg/kg), 6) group 6: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (20 mg/kg). Results Histological examination of the testes of mice treated with CP revealed histopathological changes, such as atrophy, degeneration, incomplete spermatogenic series in most seminiferous tubules, and spermatogenic necrosis with pyknotic nuclei. Advanced degree of improvement was seen in testes of mice treated with LFE co-administered with CP. Most of the seminiferous tubules restored their normal structure and spermatogenic layers appeared semi-normal with complete spermatogenic series. Conclusion Lemon fruit extract in conjunction with drug treatment protects the testicular tissue against CP-induced testicular injury in mice. PMID:26955455

  5. Aqueous ethanol extraction of dietary soy protein isolate improves sup 59 Fe absorption by the rat from a casein-based test meal

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B. )

    1989-11-01

    A commercial soy protein isolate (SPI) was further processed in an attempt to understand how a diet based on SPI can cause decreased iron retention by the rat from a separately administered casein-based test meal. Groups of eight rats were fed either a casein-based diet or a diet based on SPI. The acid-precipitated SPI was incorporated into diets as such, after neutralization, after 60% (v/v) ethanol extraction and neutralization, or after 60% ethanol exposure and neutralization. All dietary SPI was heat-treated by exposure to steam at 108 degrees C for 30 min. Rats were fed their respective diets, each containing 25 mg Fe/kg, for 13 d, and then all rats were fed a {sup 59}Fe-radiolabeled 2.5-g casein test meal containing 64 micrograms of iron. Ingested radioactivity was determined following the meal, and retained radioactivity over the subsequent 10-d period. Absorption was not distinguishable for groups fed the casein-based (78.3 {plus minus} 3.6%) and the ethanol-extracted, SPI-based diet (80.2 {plus minus} 5.4%). Absorption was lower (P less than 0.01) for groups fed each of the other SPI-based diets: SPI as such (68.3 {plus minus} 8.9%), neutralized SPI (69.8 {plus minus} 5.0%) and ethanol-exposed SPI (67.6 {plus minus} 4.8%). An ethanol-extractable component of SPI may be responsible for decreased iron absorption by animals fed SPI prior to a radiolabeled test meal.

  6. [Research status and translational application of new extraction techniques of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ya-Qi; Wang, Fang; Ke, Gang; Huang, Ju-Min

    2014-04-01

    Extraction is the critical link during pharmaceutical process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is directly related to the quality of drugs. So the key to technology upgrading of pharmaceutical equipment in Chinese materia medica enterprise is the development of new extraction techniques, which concerns the modernization of TCM. In this paper, fundamentals, traits, and development status of new extraction technologies were firstly introduced, including ultrasound extraction, microwave extraction, super fluid extraction, semi-bionic extraction method, enzymatic treatment extraction, continuous countercurrent extraction, vacuum extraction. Then information of projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China was analyzed in order to recognize the assistance and research results of new extraction techniques. The patents authorized by the State Intellectual Property Office were also summarized for the purpose of understanding the achievement transformation. The information about extraction equipments was collected and screened to acquire the characteristics and market situation. The results showed that there are still problems about new extraction technologies, such as weak basic study, hard transformation of achievements, and the disconnection between research study and practical application. It is necessary to discuss the approaches and methods for accelerating the transformation of fundamental research, which will provide references for the long-term development of new extraction techniques of TCM. PMID:25039165

  7. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 ± 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 ± 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (−12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as “tired eyes,” “blurry eyes,” “muscle pain/stiffness,” “early satiety,” “epigastralgia,” “dizziness,” “arthralgia” and “easily breaking into a sweat.” The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for “dizziness.” On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy. PMID:18385825

  8. Laboratory and field tests of the effectiveness of the lemon-eucalyptus extract, Citridiol, as a repellent against land leeches of the genus Haemadipsa (Haemadipsidae).

    PubMed

    Kirton, L G

    2005-10-01

    Citridiol is an extract of the leaves of Corymbia citriodora (Myrtaceae), the lemon eucalyptus, and mostly consists of p-menthane-3,8-diol isomers. The effectiveness of this extract as a repellent against land leeches of the genus Haemadipsa (Haemadipsidae), primarily H. sylvestris, was tested in the laboratory and field, in Peninsular Malaysia. The formulation tested, Mosi-guard Natural spray, contained 40% (w/w) Citridiol in a base of ethanol, water and isopropanol. In the laboratory test, specimens of H. sylvestris that were placed within moist, untreated arenas enclosed by treated paper rings made numerous attempts to cross the rings but were prevented or delayed from crossing over, in a dose-dependent manner. Mortality was high among the leeches that attempted to cross over the paper rings that had been sprayed to saturation point but low among the leeches that attempted to cross over paper rings that had only been partially treated, with a droplet-spray. The field study was carried out using indices that were formulated to reflect the severity of leech attack and the degree of repellency. Heavy or moderate spraying of footwear and trouser legs (tucked into socks) not only gave complete protection against bites by H. sylvestris and H. picta but also provided high enough repellency to keep the treated footwear virtually free of leeches. Even a light spray greatly reduced the numbers of leeches on footwear and delayed their progression toward biting the test subjects, although it failed to prevent bites completely. There was no decline in the repellency of the Citridiol when hourly assessments were made over a 6-h test period in the field. The results of the study show that Citridiol is highly repellent as well as toxic to leeches, and can be effectively used to prevent leech bites in the field. PMID:16212803

  9. Biomonitoring of the genotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of soils and bottom ash resulting from municipal solid waste incineration, using the comet and micronucleus tests on amphibian (Xenopus laevis) larvae and bacterial assays (Mutatox and Ames tests).

    PubMed

    Mouchet, F; Gauthier, L; Mailhes, C; Jourdain, M J; Ferrier, V; Triffault, G; Devaux, A

    2006-02-15

    The management of contaminated soils and wastes is a matter of considerable human concern. The present study evaluates the genotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of two soils (leachates) and of bottom ash resulting from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWIBA percolate), using amphibian larvae (Xenopus laevis). Soil A was contaminated by residues of solvents and metals and Soil B by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals. MSWIBA was predominantly contaminated by metals. Two genotoxic endpoints were analysed in circulating erythrocytes taken from larvae: clastogenic and/or aneugenic effects (micronucleus induction) after 12 days of exposure and DNA-strand-breaking potency (comet assay) after 1 and 12 days of exposure. In addition, in vitro bacterial assays (Mutatox and Ames tests) were carried out and the results were compared with those of the amphibian test. Physicochemical analyses were also taken into account. Results obtained with the amphibians established the genotoxicity of the aqueous extracts and the comet assay revealed that they were genotoxic from the first day of exposure. The latter test could thus be considered as a genotoxicity-screening tool. Although genotoxicity persisted after 12 days' exposure, DNA damage decreased overall between days 1 and 12 in the MSWIBA percolate, in contrast to the soil leachates. Bacterial tests detected genotoxicity only for the leachate of soil A (Mutatox). The results confirm the ecotoxicological relevance of the amphibian model and underscore the importance of bioassays, as a complement to physico-chemical data, for risk evaluation. PMID:16442436

  10. Foreign matter contaminating ethanolic extract of propolis: a filth-test survey comparing products from small beekeeping farms and industrial producers.

    PubMed

    Canale, Angelo; Cosci, Francesca; Canovai, Roberto; Giannotti, Paolo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous material collected by honeybees from the exudates and buds of plants. It has been widely used as a remedy by humans since ancient times, as well as for dietary supplements and cosmetics. European legislation recently focused on the quality and hygiene standards of foods, including beehive products, and extensive efforts have been made to avoid the presence of chemical contaminants, whilst in contrast few studies have investigated the magnitude of contamination by physical ones. We conducted a filth-test survey to evaluate the contamination of ethanolic extract of propolis by foreign materials. We also compared the abundance of contaminants in propolis extracts currently marketed by small beekeepers and industrial producers. We found different foreign materials in the ethanol extract of propolis. Contaminants differed in abundance, with a higher number of carbon particles (small beekeepers: 2.70 ± 0.63; industrial producers: 1.25 ± 0.49; mean (n/30 ml) ± SE) and other inorganic fragments (small beekeepers: 3.50 ± 0.31; industrial producers: 3.88 ± 1.11) than arthropod fragments (small beekeepers: 0.30 ± 0.21; industrial producers: 0.38 ± 0.26) and mammal hairs (small beekeepers: 0.10 ± 0.10; industrial producers: 0.38 ± 0.26). No differences in the abundance of foreign matter between propolis from small beekeepers and industrial producers were found, allowing us to point out an increased awareness by small producers of issues inherent in hygiene management. Contamination of propolis extracts by animal body parts, such as insect fragments, mites and rodent hairs, indicates poor management of hygiene in the production process and low effectiveness of the filtration phase. Animal-borne contaminants can act as pathogen vectors as well as introducing dangerous allergens when ingested or applied to human skin. The filth-test applied to ethanolic propolis extract quality control can be considered a promising tool, also for small beekeeper

  11. Experimental study of steam condensation on water in countercurrent flow in presence of inert gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, D.; Althof, J.

    1984-08-01

    Experimental results of investigating steam condensation on water in the presence of (noncondensable) inert gases at low temperatures and pressures relevant to open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems are reported. Seven different condenser configurations were tested. The experimental data are correlated using a liquid flow fraction and a vent fraction to yield simple relationships of condenser performance over a wide range of test conditions. Performance maps and envelopes are provided for evaluating the relative merits of tested configurations. The height of transfer unit (HTU) for condensation ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m among the various condenser geometries. Also reported are the pressure-loss coefficients for all the tested geometries.

  12. Improved tests for global warming trend extraction in ocean acoustic travel-time data. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bottone, S.; Gray, H.L.; Woodward, W.A.

    1996-04-01

    A possible indication of the existence of global climate warming is the presence of a trend in the travel time of an acoustic signal along several ocean paths over a period of many years. This report describes new, improved tests for testing for linear trend in time series data with correlated residuals. We introduce a bootstrap based procedure to test for trend in this setting which is better adapted to controlling the significance levels. The procedure is applied to acoustic travel time data generated by the MASIG ocean model. It is shown how to generalize the improved method to multivariate, or vector, time series, which, in the ocean acoustics setting, corresponds to travel time data on many ocean paths. An appendix describes the TRENDS software, which enables the user to perform these calculations using a graphical user interface (GUI).

  13. [Evaluation of an intracutaneous test using a Sarcoptes mite extract solution (Acari: Sarcoptidae) as a method for detection of Sarcoptes mite-infested dogs].

    PubMed

    Beck, W; Hiepe, T

    1998-05-01

    Sarcoptes infestation in dogs, caused by Sarcoptes canis, is a relatively common disease in small animal practice. The parasites may induce severe allergic skin reactions. By means of clinical symptoms a presumptive diagnosis should be made. For ensurement detection of mites in skin scrapings is necessary, but it is not easy to find the parasites. Serodiagnostic methods are helpful to confirm the diagnosis. They indicate specific antibody (circulating IgE) titer. Intracutaneous test by using allergen extracts as possible third way of diagnostic methods was tested comparatively with the existing causaldiagnostic procedures in 45 dogs with suspected scabies. Preconditions of own examinations was mite antigen preparation. A mite extract solution of Sarcoptes suis was prepared and 0.1 ml were applicated intracutaneously. In 14 dogs (31.11%) allergic skin changes (Immediate reaction type 1) became apparent. The results were opposed to both other detection methods--skin scraping (4 positive findings/8.89%) and serodiagnosis (13 positive findings/30.77%). PMID:9639954

  14. Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

    2013-10-03

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with

  15. Do periodic consolidations of Pacific countercurrents trigger global cooling by equatorially symmetric La Niña?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, J. H.

    2010-05-01

    A sporadic phenomenon of internal tide resonance (ITR) in the western equatorial Pacific thermocline is shown to precede 11 of 12 major upturns in the Niño 3.4 index between 1992 and 2008. Observed ITR has up to 9 °C semidiurnal temperature excursions indicating thermocline heave, but is invisible in time resolution longer than one day. It is independent of westerly wind bursts (WWB). A hypothesis is advanced that (1) ITR dissipates vorticity, leading to Pacific countercurrent consolidation (PCC) by reducing the vortex stretching term in Sverdrup balance. The consequence of lost vorticity survives ephemeral ITR events; (2) The specific surface area of countercurrents is reduced by PCC, which reduces frictional opposition to zonal gradient pressure, which triggers eastward advection at El Niño onset; (3) PCC also accelerates transfer of potential energy to the "pycnostad" below the Equatorial Undercurrent. This shoals the equatorial thermocline, leading to a distinct mode of equatorially symmetric La Niña (ESLN) characterized by a winter monsoon cell above a "cold eye" that is separated from the South American continent, as in 1998; (4) Precessional southward intertropical convergence zone migration (ITCZ) is an alternate PCC trigger, but its effect is modulated by obliquity; and (5) ESLN causes global cooling in all timescales by (a) reduced Hadley cell water vapor production when its rising branch is above the cold eye, (b) equatorward shift in southern circumpolar westerlies due to Hadley cell constriction, (c) possible CO2 sequestration by increased EUC iron fertilized export production on the equator, and (d) possible adjacent cloud seeding by biogenic dimethyl sulphide. Surprising coincidences of WWB with perigean eclipses suggest a parallel atmospheric tide influence. Proposed PCC-ESLN forcing operates in multiple timescales, beginning where the annual cycle of strong equinoctial tides coincides with the minimum perigee cycle. This forcing corresponds

  16. Visualisation of J-type counter-current chromatography: A route to understand hydrodynamic phase distribution and retention

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yue Hugh; van den Heuvel, Remco N.A.M.; Zhuang, Ying-Ping

    2012-01-01

    This paper has addressed decade sought-after questions on phase bilateral distribution and stationary phase retention in any J-type high-speed counter-current chromatographic (CCC) centrifuge. Using a 2-D spiral column operated on such a CCC device and an aqueous two-phase system, this work systematically observed the phase interaction during transitional period and at dynamic equilibration under stroboscopic illumination. The experimental results thus obtained were used to examine the effects of the liquid–solid friction force, tangential centrifugal force, and physical properties of the two-phase system on hydrodynamic phase behaviour. We identified that (a) density difference between lower and upper phases is the critical factor to cause unusual phase bilateral distribution in the 2-D spiral column and (b) interfacial tension (manifested primarily as phase settling time) of any two-phase system is the critical factor in explaining inability to retain stationary phase in 3-D helical column and, for certain flow modes, in the 2-D spiral column. This work thus has extended or modified the well-established rule-of-thumb for operating J-type CCC devices and our conclusions can accommodate virtually all the anomalies concerning both hydrophobic and hydrophilic phase systems. To this end, this work has not only documented valuable experimental evidences for directly observing phase behaviour in a CCC column, but also finally resolved fundamentally vital issues on bilateral phase distribution orientation and stationary phase retention in 2-D spiral and 3-D helical CCC columns. Revised recommendations to end users of this technology could thus be derived out of the essence of the present work presumably following further experimental validation and a consensus in the CCC R&D and manufacturing circle. PMID:22513130

  17. Conical coils counter-current chromatography for preparative isolation and purification of tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junling; Meng, Jie; Guo, Mengzhe; Yang, Zhi; Wu, Shihua

    2013-05-01

    Modern counter-current chromatography (CCC) originated from the helical coil planet centrifuge. Recently, spiral coils were found to possess higher separation efficiency in both the retention of stationary phase and solutes resolution than other CCC coils like the helical and toroidal coils used on type-J CCC and cross-axis CCC. In this work, we built a novel conical coil CCC for the preparative isolation and purification of tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The conical coils were wound on three identical upright tapered holders in head-to-tail and left-handed direction and connected in series. Compared with helical and spiral coil CCC, conical coil CCC not only placed CCC column in a two-dimensional centrifugal field, but also provided a potential centrifugal force gradient both in axial and radial directions. The extra centrifugal gradient made mobile phase move faster and enabled CCC much higher retention of stationary phase and better resolution. As a result, higher efficiency has been obtained with the solvent system of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) with the volume ratio of 5:5:7:3 by using conical coil CCC apparatus. Four tanshinones, including cryptotanshinone (1), tanshinone I (2), 1,2-dihydrotanshinquinone (3) and tanshinone IIA (4), were well resolved from 500mg to 1g crude samples with high purity. Furthermore, the conical coil CCC can make a much higher solid phase retention, which makes it to be a powerful separation tool with high throughput. This is the first report about conical coil CCC for separation of tanshinones and it may also be an important advancement for natural products isolation. PMID:23541654

  18. A three-fluid model for the simulation of counter-current stratified flows in the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Hadj Ali, A.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    A three-fluid model of counter-current air-water flow is suggested. The accurate prediction of droplet entrainment in two-phase flows is relevant to calculate interfacial exchange between the fluids. The present study delivers a model based on the constitutive physics for droplet separation considering re-entrainment of the dispersed water droplets into the continuous water film. A monodisperse distribution of the droplets is taken into account by means of a transport equation for the droplet number density in order to determine the droplet size. (authors)

  19. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  20. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

  1. Performance of a Natural Language Processing (NLP) Tool to Extract Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) Reports from Structured and Semistructured Veteran Affairs (VA) Data

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Brian C.; Jones, Barbara E.; Globe, Gary; Leng, Jianwei; Lu, Chao-Chin; He, Tao; Teng, Chia-Chen; Sullivan, Patrick; Zeng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction/Objective: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are objective estimates of lung function, but are not reliably stored within the Veteran Health Affairs data systems as structured data. The aim of this study was to validate the natural language processing (NLP) tool we developed—which extracts spirometric values and responses to bronchodilator administration—against expert review, and to estimate the number of additional spirometric tests identified beyond the structured data. Methods: All patients at seven Veteran Affairs Medical Centers with a diagnostic code for asthma Jan 1, 2006–Dec 31, 2012 were included. Evidence of spirometry with a bronchodilator challenge (BDC) was extracted from structured data as well as clinical documents. NLP’s performance was compared against a human reference standard using a random sample of 1,001 documents. Results: In the validation set NLP demonstrated a precision of 98.9 percent (95 percent confidence intervals (CI): 93.9 percent, 99.7 percent), recall of 97.8 percent (95 percent CI: 92.2 percent, 99.7 percent), and an F-measure of 98.3 percent for the forced vital capacity pre- and post pairs and precision of 100 percent (95 percent CI: 96.6 percent, 100 percent), recall of 100 percent (95 percent CI: 96.6 percent, 100 percent), and an F-measure of 100 percent for the forced expiratory volume in one second pre- and post pairs for bronchodilator administration. Application of the NLP increased the proportion identified with complete bronchodilator challenge by 25 percent. Discussion/Conclusion: This technology can improve identification of PFTs for epidemiologic research. Caution must be taken in assuming that a single domain of clinical data can completely capture the scope of a disease, treatment, or clinical test. PMID:27376095

  2. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping; Qi, Tao; Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Weijing

    2015-08-30

    An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30-40°C for 10min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0-0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H2SO4 as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H2SO4 concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20min stripping time, and 40°C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16g/LV2O5,0.691g/L Fe, 0.007g/L TiO2, 0.006g/L SiO2 and 0.247g/L CaO. A V2O5 product with a purity of 99.12% V2O5 and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation, and calcination processes. The total vanadium recovered from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution was 85.5%. PMID:25840036

  3. Stability of a Lipase Extracted from Seeds of Pachira aquatica in Commercial Detergents and Application Tests in Poultry Wastewater Pretreatment and Fat Particle Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Polizelli, Patrícia Peres; Facchini, Fernanda Dell Antonio; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo Orlando

    2013-01-01

    A protein extract containing a plant lipase from oleaginous seeds of Pachira aquatica was tested using soybean oil, wastewater from a poultry processing plant, and beef fat particles as substrate. The hydrolysis experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40°C, an incubation time of 90 minutes, and pH 8.0-9.0. The enzyme had the best stability at pH 9.0 and showed good stability in the alkaline range. It was found that P. aquatica lipase was stable in the presence of some commercial laundry detergent formulations, and it retained full activity up to 0.35% in hydrogen peroxide, despite losing activity at higher concentrations. Concerning wastewater, the lipase increased free fatty acids release by 7.4 times and promoted the hydrolysis of approximately 10% of the fats, suggesting that it could be included in a pretreatment stage, especially for vegetable oil degradation. PMID:24455209

  4. Optimum conditions for extracting collagen from the tunica albuginea of immunologically castrated pig testes and the functional properties of the isolated collagen.

    PubMed

    Simões, Gislaine Silveira; Silveira, Expedito Tadeu Facco; de Oliveira, Simone Raymundo; Poleze, Evandro; Allison, Jim R D; Ida, Elza Iouko; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated alternative methods for extracting collagen from the tunica albuginea of pig testes and characterized the functional properties of the isolated collagen. Using the statistical tools of factorial design (2⁴⁻¹) and a central composite rotatable design (2³), it was concluded that the best conditions were 0.83 mol L⁻¹ acetic acid, 0.24% pepsin and 28 h of hydrolysis to isolate 82.54 g of collagen per 100g of sample. This purified collagen had improved functional properties in relation to bovine skin collagen, including water solubility, water-holding capacity, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability. These results suggest that isolated collagen from the tunica albuginea can be used in pharmaceutical and food products. PMID:24412738

  5. Stability of a Lipase Extracted from Seeds of Pachira aquatica in Commercial Detergents and Application Tests in Poultry Wastewater Pretreatment and Fat Particle Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Polizelli, Patrícia Peres; Facchini, Fernanda Dell Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A protein extract containing a plant lipase from oleaginous seeds of Pachira aquatica was tested using soybean oil, wastewater from a poultry processing plant, and beef fat particles as substrate. The hydrolysis experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40°C, an incubation time of 90 minutes, and pH 8.0-9.0. The enzyme had the best stability at pH 9.0 and showed good stability in the alkaline range. It was found that P. aquatica lipase was stable in the presence of some commercial laundry detergent formulations, and it retained full activity up to 0.35% in hydrogen peroxide, despite losing activity at higher concentrations. Concerning wastewater, the lipase increased free fatty acids release by 7.4 times and promoted the hydrolysis of approximately 10% of the fats, suggesting that it could be included in a pretreatment stage, especially for vegetable oil degradation. PMID:24455209

  6. Anxiogenic-like effects of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. aqueous extract in an elevated plus maze test in mice: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bigliani, María Celeste; Rosso, María Celeste; Zunino, Paula M; Baiardi, Gustavo; Ponce, Andrés Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of orally administered Uncaria tomentosa aqueous extracts (UTE) (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) DC. (Rubiaceae) during 7, 15, 30 and 90 days of treatment on the expression of anxiety, as expressed in the elevated plus maze test in male Albino Swiss mice. UTE revealed an anxiogenic effect in relation to the control group at 15 and 30 days, but it was reversed after 90 days of administration, without affecting the locomotor activity or any deleterious effects on the overall performance of the animal, either for its ambulation, or clinical status, and body weight and organ weight/body weight from liver, lung and kidney were unaffected. These biphasic effects are usually indicative of heterogeneity in sites of action due to the presence of many alkaloids (speciophylline, uncarine F and uncarine E) and flavanols (catechin and epigallocatechin) identified and isolated from UTE. PMID:23327494

  7. Velocity and void distribution in a counter-current two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.; Schulenberg, T.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    Different flow regimes were investigated in a horizontal channel. Simulating a hot leg injection in case of a loss of coolant accident or flow conditions in reflux condenser mode, the hydraulic jump and partially reversed flow were identified as major constraints for a high amount of entrained water. Trying to simulate the reflux condenser mode, the test section now includes an inclined section connected to a horizontal channel. The channel is 90 mm high and 110 mm wide. Tests were carried out for water and air at ambient pressure and temperature. High speed video-metry was applied to obtain velocities from flow pattern maps of the rising and falling fluid. In the horizontal part of the channel with partially reversed flow the fluid velocities were measured by planar particle image velocimetry. To obtain reliable results for the gaseous phase, this analysis was extended by endoscope measurements. Additionally, a new method based on the optical refraction at the interface between air and water in a back-light was used to obtain time-averaged void fraction. (authors)

  8. No Evidence for Interference of Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) Staining in DNA Testing: Utility of DNA Extraction from HE-Stained Archival Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Teppei; Shima, Kaori; Kuchiba, Aya; Yamauchi, Mai; Tanaka, Noriko; Imamura, Yu; Liao, Xiaoyun; Qian, Zhi Rong; Brahmandam, Mohan; Longtine, Janina A.; Lindeman, Neal I.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Although histochemical staining has been believed to inhibit DNA amplification reaction, no previous study has systematically evaluated the influence of histochemical staining on downstream molecular assays. To evaluate an influence of hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining on DNA testing, we isolated DNA from 10 unstained, 10 hematoxylin-stained, 10 eosin-stained or 10 HE-stained tissue sections (ie, 4 groups), from each of 5 colon cancers. Among those 4 groups, we did not observe any significant or appreciable difference in DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis; in DNA amplification by real-time PCR; in microsatellite PCR fragment analyses; or in PCR-Pyrosequencing. As a proof-of-principle study, we successfully performed microsatellite instability analysis and sequencing of KRAS and BRAF on over 1300 colorectal cancers using DNA extracted from HE stained tissue sections. Our data provide no evidence for interfering effect of HE staining on DNA testing, suggesting that DNA from HE-stained sections can be effectively used for routine DNA testing. PMID:22706867

  9. Genotoxicity evaluation of Guibi-Tang extract using an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosome aberration assay, and in vivo micronucleus test

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Guibi-Tang is a traditional herbal prescription made from 12 different herbs that is used in the treatment of amnesia and poor memory. Methods In the present study, we evaluated the acute oral toxicity and genotoxic potential of Guibi-Tang water extract (GBT) at doses up to 2000 μg/plate an using a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli strain WP2uvrA. Acute toxicity and genotoxic potential were measured in the presence and absence of an exogenous source of metabolic activation, in an in vitro chromosome aberration assay with Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and in an in vivo micronucleus test using ICR mice bone marrow as recommended by the Korean Food and Drug Administration. An acute oral toxicity test of GBT was performed in Sprague Dawley rats. The Ames test showed that GBT did not induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium or in E. coli in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Results GBT did not significantly increase the number of structural aberrations in CHL cells with or without S9 activation. The oral administration of GBT at a dose of up to 2000 mg/kg caused no significant increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes or in the mean ratio of polychromatic to total erythrocytes. Conclusions However, as we did not identify the components of GBT responsible for these effects, other assays are needed to confirm its genotoxicity. PMID:24985139

  10. Three-phase solvent systems for the comprehensive separation of a wide variety of compounds from Dicranostigma leptopodum by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjuan; Chen, Xiaofen; Liu, JunXi; Di, Duolong

    2015-06-01

    A three-phase solvent system was efficiently applied for high-speed counter-current chromatography to separate secondary metabolites with a wide range of hydrophobicity in Dicranostigma leptopodum. The three-phase solvent system of n-hexane/methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/0.5% triethylamine (2:2:3:2, v/v/v/v) was selected for high-speed counter-current chromatography separation. The separation was initiated by filling the column with a mixture of intermediate phase and lower phase as a stationary phase followed by elution with upper phase to separate the hydrophobic compounds. Then the mobile phase was switched to the intermediate phase to elute the moderately hydrophobic compounds, and finally the polar compounds still retained in the column were fractionated by eluting the column with the lower phase. In this research, 12 peaks were eluted out in one-step operation within 110 min, among them, eight compounds with acceptable purity were obtained and identified. The purities of β-sitosterol, protopine, allocryptopine, isocorydione, isocorydine, coptisine, berberrubine, and berberine were 94.7, 96.5, 97.9, 86.6, 98.9, 97.6, 95.7, and 92.8%, respectively. PMID:25864484

  11. Metabolite profiling of polyphenols in peels of Citrus limetta Risso by combination of preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography and LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rivera, M Paulina; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia; Winterhalter, Peter; Jerz, Gerold

    2014-09-01

    The polar constituents of peels from Citrus limetta variety Risso (Rutaceae) were investigated by a combination of two complementary chromatographic techniques consisting of preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and off-line LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis to design a two-dimensional metabolite profile. Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) using solely immiscible solvent systems allowed the fractionation of principal components and an enrichment of minor concentrated metabolites from a crude polar solvent partition of C. limetta peels for subsequent structural identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The combination of two very different chromatographic techniques resulted in lower detection limits for electrospray mass-spectrometry and revealed eighty-five compounds, including three abscisic acid derivatives, five limonoid glycosides, twenty-six dihydro-cinnamic and cinnamic acid glycosides, eleven flavanone glycosides, seven flavone glycosides, seventeen flavonol glycosides, including limocitrol and limocitrin derivatives. As a chemocharacteristic for C. limetta metabolites, many of the detected structures were linked to single and multiple 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG) substitutions. C. limetta peels are a by-product of juice production, and not only the antioxidant fractions but also some of the fortified compounds could be used for food and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:24731325

  12. Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Grutter, M.; Jazcilevich, A.; González-Oropeza, R.

    2006-07-01

    A methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. The analysis of the gases is performed by passing a constant flow of a sample gas from the tail-pipe into a 10 L multi-pass cell. The absorption spectra within the cell are obtained using an FTIR spectrometer at 0.5 cm-1 resolution along a 13.1 m optical path. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a Pitot tube installed at the exit of the exhaust. This configuration aims to obtain a good speciation capability by coadding spectra during 30 s and reporting the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, during predetermined driving routines. The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the acquisition frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. With the aim of testing and evaluating the proposed technique, experiments were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and typical driving cycles of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle. This car is an example of recent automotive technology to reach the market dedicated to reduce emissions and therefore pressing the need of low detection techniques. This study shows the potential of the proposed technique to measure and report in real time the emissions of a large variety of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO and CO2 obtained here are similar to experiments performed in other locations with the same vehicle model. Some differences suggest that an inefficient combustion process and type of gasoline used in the MCMA may be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction of NO emission to very low values is observed after cold ignition, giving rise to

  13. Bubble snap-off and capillary-back pressure during counter-current spontaneous imbibition into model pores.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Evren; Mason, Geoffrey; Morrow, Norman R; Ruth, Douglas W

    2009-04-01

    A previous paper (Unsal, E.; Mason, G.; Ruth, D. W.; Morrow, N. R. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2007, 315, 200-209) reported experiments involving counter-current spontaneous imbibition into a model pore system consisting of a rod in an angled slot covered by a glass plate. Such an arrangement gives two tubes with different cross-sections (both size and shape) with an interconnection through the gap between the rod and the plate. In the previous experiments, the wetting phase advanced in the small tube and nonwetting phase retreated in the large tube. No bubbles were formed. In this paper, we study experimentally and theoretically the formation of bubbles at the open end of the large tube and their subsequent snap-off. Such bubbles reduce the capillary back pressure produced by the larger tube and can thus have an effect on the local rate of imbibition. In the model pore system, the rod was either in contact with the glass, forming two independent tubes, or the rod was spaced from the glass to allow cross-flow between the tubes. For small gaps, there were three distinct menisci. The one with the highest curvature was between the rod and the plate. The next most highly curved was in the smaller tube, and the least highly curved meniscus was in the large tube and this was the tube from which the bubbles developed. The pressure in the dead end of the system was recorded during imbibition. Once the bubble starts to form outside of the tube, the pressure drops rapidly and then steadies. After the bubble snaps off, the pressure rises to almost the initial value and stays essentially constant until the next bubble starts to form. After snap-off, the meniscus in the large tube appears to invade the large tube for some distance. The snap-off is the result of capillary instability; it takes place significantly inside the large tube with flow of wetting phase moving in the angular corners. As imbibition into the small tube progresses, the rate of imbibition decreases and the

  14. Limonene in Arizona liquid systems used in countercurrent chromatography. II Polarity and stationary-phase retention.

    PubMed

    Faure, K; Bouju, E; Doby, J; Berthod, A

    2014-09-01

    The previous article in this series described the physico-chemical properties and chemical compositions of the two phases of the limonene-ethyl acetate-ethanol-water biphasic liquid system. This system was designed to be a "green" version of the so-called Arizona (AZ) scale of heptane-ethyl acetate-methanol compositions in which the heptane-ethyl acetate volume ratio is exactly the same as the methanol-water ratio. The first major difference between the standard and "green" AZ systems is the difference in upper and lower phase densities. The higher density of limonene compared with heptane greatly reduces the density difference of the "green" system: half the compositions have a density difference lower than 0.06 g mL(-1), precluding their use in hydrodynamic CCC columns. The other major difference is the phase polarity. The better distribution of ethanol between the upper organic and lower aqueous phases of the "green" AZ scale renders them more polar than their counterparts in standard heptane-based compositions. The test solutes aspirin and coumarin have higher distribution constants in the "green" AZ compositions. It is revealed that a hydrostatic column is suitable for use with all "green" compositions, with very good phase retention and limited driving pressure at high flow rates. A hydrodynamic column only functioned at limited flow rates with polar compositions of sufficient phase-density difference. The CCC chromatograms obtained with different compositions and columns are shown, and their peak position and sharpness discussed. PMID:25084735

  15. Antigenotoxic, anti-photogenotoxic and antioxidant activities of natural naphthoquinone shikonin and acetylshikonin and Arnebia euchroma callus extracts evaluated by the umu-test and EPR method.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, Agata; Przystupa, Natalia; Zgadzaj, Anna; Parzonko, Andrzej; Sykłowska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2015-12-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential of shikonin (SH), acetylshikonin (ACS) and Arnebia euchroma callus extract (EXT). The antigenotoxic activity was investigated by the umu-test as the inhibition of the SOS system induction caused by genotoxic chemical agents - 4-nitroquinoline oxide and 2-aminoanthracene. Moreover the ability of SH, ACS and EXT to prevent photogenotoxicity triggered by chlorpromazine under UVA irradiation was measured. The cytotoxicity of EXT toward V79 Chinese hamster cell line was additionally assessed. Shikonin and acetylshikonin had no effect on 4-NQO induced genotoxicity whereas EXT demonstrated an unclear effect. The protection against 2AA induced genotoxicity was observed for all tested substances. The highest protection was demonstrated for EXT with inhibition of 66%. SH and ACS reduced 2AA genotoxicity with inhibition of about 60%. Under UVA the strongest and dose-dependent activity was observed for EXT. Acetylshikonin was a weak anti-photogenotoxin whereas shikonin had no clear effect. EXT was highly cytotoxic toward the V79 cell line - the cells' morphology was affected seriously and apoptosis was impacted. The antioxidant activity of SH, ACS and EXT was studied by means of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. All three samples exhibited radical scavenging properties. PMID:26434532

  16. Design and Performance Testing of a DNA Extraction Assay for Sensitive and Reliable Quantification of Acetic Acid Bacteria Directly in Red Wine Using Real Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Longin, Cédric; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Alexandre, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Although strategies exist to prevent AAB contamination, the increased interest for wines with low sulfite addition leads to greater AAB spoilage. Hence, there is a real need for a rapid, specific, sensitive, and reliable method for detecting these spoilage bacteria. All these requirements are met by real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (or quantitative PCR; qPCR). Here, we compare existing methods of isolating DNA and their adaptation to a red wine matrix. Two different protocols for isolating DNA and three PCR mix compositions were tested to select the best method. The addition of insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) at 1% (v/v) during DNA extraction using a protocol succeeded in eliminating PCR inhibitors from red wine. We developed a bacterial internal control which was efficient in avoiding false negative results due to decreases in the efficiency of DNA isolation and/or amplification. The specificity, linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method were evaluated. A standard curve was established for the enumeration of AAB inoculated into red wines. The limit of quantification in red wine was 3.7 log AAB/mL and about 2.8 log AAB/mL when the volume of the samples was increased from 1 to 10 mL. Thus, the DNA extraction method developed in this paper allows sensitive and reliable AAB quantification without underestimation thanks to the presence of an internal control. Moreover, monitoring of both the AAB population and the amount of acetic acid in ethanol medium and red wine highlighted that a minimum about 6.0 log cells/mL of AAB is needed to significantly increase the production of acetic acid leading to spoilage. PMID:27313572

  17. Design and Performance Testing of a DNA Extraction Assay for Sensitive and Reliable Quantification of Acetic Acid Bacteria Directly in Red Wine Using Real Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Longin, Cédric; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Alexandre, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Although strategies exist to prevent AAB contamination, the increased interest for wines with low sulfite addition leads to greater AAB spoilage. Hence, there is a real need for a rapid, specific, sensitive, and reliable method for detecting these spoilage bacteria. All these requirements are met by real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (or quantitative PCR; qPCR). Here, we compare existing methods of isolating DNA and their adaptation to a red wine matrix. Two different protocols for isolating DNA and three PCR mix compositions were tested to select the best method. The addition of insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) at 1% (v/v) during DNA extraction using a protocol succeeded in eliminating PCR inhibitors from red wine. We developed a bacterial internal control which was efficient in avoiding false negative results due to decreases in the efficiency of DNA isolation and/or amplification. The specificity, linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method were evaluated. A standard curve was established for the enumeration of AAB inoculated into red wines. The limit of quantification in red wine was 3.7 log AAB/mL and about 2.8 log AAB/mL when the volume of the samples was increased from 1 to 10 mL. Thus, the DNA extraction method developed in this paper allows sensitive and reliable AAB quantification without underestimation thanks to the presence of an internal control. Moreover, monitoring of both the AAB population and the amount of acetic acid in ethanol medium and red wine highlighted that a minimum about 6.0 log cells/mL of AAB is needed to significantly increase the production of acetic acid leading to spoilage. PMID:27313572

  18. Use of sorption and extraction tests to predict the dynamics of the interaction of trace elements in agricultural soils contaminated by a mine tailing accident.

    PubMed

    Sastre, J; Hernández, E; Rodríguez, R; Alcobé, X; Vidal, M; Rauret, G

    2004-08-15

    Over 2000 ha of agricultural soils were contaminated by a pyritic sludge and acidic waste waters coming from a spill from a mining exploitation. The affected soils were acidic with sandy-loam texture (SL), loamy with neutral pH (L), and calcareous, saline, with clay texture (Cs). The Cs soils were contaminated only with acidic waste waters. Sorption and extraction tests were applied to examine the medium-term dynamics of the interaction of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the soils. The solid-soil solution distribution coefficient (KD) was determined in soil samples taken 3 months (initial stage, 3M samples) and then nearly 2 years (final stage, 21M samples) after the accident. Distribution coefficient values ranged from the lowest values in the SL samples (from 0.2 l kg(-1) for Cd and Zn to 25 l kg(-1) for As) to higher values in the L and Cs soils. Lead and As had the highest KD in all soils (over 10(5) l kg(-1) in the L soils). No clear dynamics pattern could be derived from these data because of the low heavy metal concentrations in the soil solution. As a complementary approach, four single extractions (0.01 and 1 mol l(-1) CaCl2; 0.05 mol l(-1) EDTA; 0.43 mol l(-1) CH3COOH) were applied to soil and sludge samples. Samples derived from submitting field 3M samples to drying-wetting (DW) cycles were included to define a complete laboratory approach to predict field dynamics. Results from extraction tests indicated that changes of the trace element interaction over time depended on the soil pH and on the source of contamination. For those soils affected only by the acidic waste waters, where an increase in fixation occurred, natural processes such as diffusion controlled dynamics. For those soils contaminated by a mixed source, the dynamics of the interaction was the resultant process of the combination of the natural attenuation and the oxidation of the pyritic sludge. This latter process led to an increase in the remobilization for those elements

  19. Countercurrent flow afterburner

    DOEpatents

    Leggett, Ronald L.; Presse, Donald E.; Smith, Carl J.; Teter, Alton R.

    1976-01-01

    Afterburner apparatus for receiving from an incinerator products of combustion and distributing them through a domed distributor in counterflow manner throughout a housing, in opposition to a stream of combustible gas.

  20. The estimation of the bioavailabilities of platinum, palladium and rhodium in vehicle exhaust catalysts and road dusts using a physiologically based extraction test.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Claudia; Monhemius, A John; Plant, Jane A

    2008-01-15

    Platinum group element (PGE) levels in the environment have increased following the introduction of vehicle exhaust catalysts (VECs). In order to evaluate the potential pathways of PGEs from VECs into humans, a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was used to study the uptake of PGEs by the human digestive tract. The PBET assay was implemented in two phases, to first simulate the passage of ingested soil through the acid conditions of the stomach before it enters the near neutral conditions of the small intestine. The results showed that Pt, Pd and Rh did not undergo precipitation reaction when passing from the acid environment of the stomach to the neutral environment of the small intestine. The greatest fractions of bioavailable PGEs (up to 68%) were observed in road dust samples, possibly due to the presence of mobile PGE species formed in the roadside environment. Higher percentages of Pd and Rh were bioavailable than Pt, probably due to the differences in their mobilities and tendencies to form soluble complexes. Pt showed the highest absolute bioavailability however, due to its greater concentration in environmental samples. The solubilization of PGEs in the human digestive tract could involve the formation of PGE-chloride complexes, with perhaps increased health-hazard issues because of the known toxic and allergenic effects of these species. PMID:17884144

  1. The use of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess relationships between bioaccessible metals in urban soil and neurodevelopmental conditions in children.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jie; Wang, Yinding; McDermott, Suzanne; Cai, Bo; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lead, Jamie

    2016-05-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) and cerebral palsy (CP) are serious neurodevelopment conditions and low birth weight (LBW) is correlated with both ID and CP. The actual causes and mechanisms for each of these child outcomes are not well understood. In this study, the relationship between bioaccessible metal concentrations in urban soil and these child conditions were investigated. A physiologically based extraction test (PBET) mimicking gastric and intestinal processes was applied to measure the bio-accessibility of four metals (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb)) in urban soil, and a Bayesian Kriging method was used to estimate metal concentrations in geocoded maternal residential sites. The results showed that bioaccessible metal concentrations of Cd, Ni, and Pb in the intestinal phase were statistically significantly associated with the child outcomes. Lead and nickel were associated with ID, lead and cadmium was associated with LBW, and cadmium was associated with CP. The total concentrations and stomach concentrations were not correlated to significant effects in any of the analyses. For lead, an estimated threshold value was found that was statistically significant in predicting low birth weight. The change point test was statistically significant (p value = 0.045) at an intestine threshold level of 9.2 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 8.9-9.4, p value = 0.0016), which corresponds to 130.6 mg/kg of total Pb concentration in the soil. This is a narrow confidence interval for an important relationship. PMID:26840511

  2. Application of preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography/preparative high-performance liquid chromatography mode in rapid separation of saponins.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shun; Luo, Jianguang; Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2008-03-15

    Combined with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, high-speed counter-current chromatography was employed for isolation and purification of saponins from Gypsophila paniculata L. n-Hexane-n-butanol-methanol-0.02% TFA (1:9:1:9, v/v) was employed as solvent system and 210 nm was chosen as the wavelength of ultraviolet detection for the first time. The research tried to compare HSCCC with prep-HPLC, and further integrated their advantages to improve separation efficiency. Five known triterpene saponins were identified by 13C NMR and ESI-MS and their purities were all above 96%. The results demonstrated that adopted method was a feasible, economical and efficient technique for rapid preparative isolation of saponins. PMID:18308647

  3. Preparative Separation of N-Feruloyl Serotonin and N-(p-Coumaroyl) Serotonin from Safflower Seed Meal Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiulong; Hu, Na; Li, Wencong; Ding, Chenxi; Ma, Tao; Bai, Bo; Wang, Honglun; Suo, Yourui; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Chenxu

    2015-09-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for the preparative separation and purification of N-feruloyl serotonin (NF) and N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin (NP) from safflower seed meal. After the measurement of partition coefficient of the two target compounds in the two-phase solvent systems, the HSCCC was performed well with a two-phase solvent system composed of CHCl3-methanol-0.1 M HCl at a volume ratio of 1 : 1 : 1, v/v. The upper phase was used as stationary phase and the lower phase was used as mobile phase. Under the optimized condition, 7.5 mg NF and 6.9 mg NP were separated from 40 mg crude sample with the purity of 98.8 and 97.3%, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. PMID:25744248

  4. Changes in glycolytic enzyme activities in aging erythrocytes fractionated by counter-current distribution in aqueous polymer two-phase systems.

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno, P; Garcia-Perez, A I; Luque, J; Pinilla, M

    1991-01-01

    Human and rat erythrocytes were fractionated by counter-current distribution in charge-sensitive dextran/poly(ethylene glycol) two-phase systems. The specific activities of the key glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) declined along the distribution profiles, although the relative positions of the activity profiles were reversed in the two species. These enzymes maintained their normal response to specific regulatory effectors in all cell fractions. No variations were observed for phosphoglycerate kinase and bisphosphoglycerate mutase activities. Some correlations between enzyme activities (pyruvate kinase/hexokinase, pyruvate kinase/phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase/pyruvate kinase plus phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase/bisphosphoglycerate mutase and phosphoglycerate kinase/bisphosphoglycerate mutase ratios) were studied in whole erythrocyte populations as well as in cell fractions. These results strongly support the fractionation of human erythrocytes according to cell age, as occurs with rat erythrocytes. PMID:1656939

  5. Hydrostatic countercurrent chromatography and ultra high pressure LC: Two fast complementary separation methods for the preparative isolation and the analysis of the fragrant massoia lactones.

    PubMed

    Urbain, Aurélie; Corbeiller, Pierre; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2010-05-01

    Using a one-step preparative hydrostatic countercurrent chromatography method, the fragrant massoia lactones were purified from the crude massoia bark oil, in less than 3 h. The fractionation was performed with the biphasic solvent system c-hexane-methanol-water (10:9:1, v/v/v), leading to target compounds with purity over 96%, as determined by GC-MS and ultra high pressure LC-MS analyses. Together with C-10, C-12 and C-14 massoia lactones, two other aromatic compounds used in perfumes, benzyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate, were also obtained as pure compounds. In parallel, an easy and efficient ultra high pressure LC method was developed for the ultra-fast analysis of massoia lactones, as an alternative to long GC-MS methods. PMID:20235136

  6. Purification of the seven tetranortriterpenoids in neem (Azadirachta indica) seed by counter-current chromatography sequentially followed by isocratic preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Silva, Júlio César T; Jham, Gulab N; Oliveira, Rosângela D'arc L; Brown, Leslie

    2007-06-01

    Counter-current chromatography (CCC) sequentially followed by isocratic preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to isolate the seven bio-actives (azadirachtin A, azadirachtin B, azadirachtin H, desacetylnimbin, desacetylsalannin, nimbin and salannin) from the seed concentrate (NSC) of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Reproducible, narrow polarity range, high purity fractions were obtained from repeated injections of the NSC (700 mg loadings/injection), on to a relatively small volume CCC coil (116 mL). The CCC biphasic solvent system chosen was hexane:butanol:methanol:water (1:0.9:1:0.9, v/v). A mass balance of injected material showed that 95+% were recovered. PMID:17428489

  7. Gas-liquid countercurrent integration process for continuous biodiesel production using a microporous solid base KF/CaO as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengyang; Wen, Libai; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Xinsheng; Han, Heyou

    2012-11-01

    A continuous-flow integration process was developed for biodiesel production using rapeseed oil as feedstock, based on the countercurrent contact reaction between gas and liquid, separation of glycerol on-line and cyclic utilization of methanol. Orthogonal experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to optimize technological parameters. A second-order polynomial model for the biodiesel yield was established and validated experimentally. The high determination coefficient (R(2)=98.98%) and the low probability value (Pr<0.0001) proved that the model matched the experimental data, and had a high predictive ability. The optimal technological parameters were: 81.5°C reaction temperature, 51.7cm fill height of catalyst KF/CaO and 105.98kPa system pressure. Under these conditions, the average yield of triplicate experiments was 93.7%, indicating the continuous-flow process has good potential in the manufacture of biodiesel. PMID:22940350

  8. Separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains via off-line two dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shujing; Liu, Qi; Xie, Yixi; Zeng, Hualiang; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    An off-line two dimensional (2D) high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) strategy was successfully used for preparative separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains with different solvent systems for the first time in this paper. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 3:5:3:5 (v/v) was selected as the first dimension solvent system to purify quercetin (4) and kaempferol (5). The second dimension solvent system, ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water 7:3:10 (v/v), was used to isolate quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), rutin (2) and kaempferol 3-rutinoside (3). The purities of these compounds were all above 96.0% and their structures were identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the off-line 2D HSCCC is an efficient technique to isolate flavonoids compounds from grains. PMID:25976805

  9. Preparative isolation and purification of ginsenosides Rf, Re, Rd and Rb1 from the roots of Panax ginseng with a salt/containing solvent system and flow step-gradient by high performance counter-current chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaocheng; Ignatova, Svetlana; Luo, Guoan; Liang, Qionglin; Jun, Frank Wu; Wang, Yiming; Sutherland, Ian

    2010-03-26

    Ginseng is a popular herb worldwide and has had varied uses in traditional Asian medicine for thousands of years. There are several different species of the herb, but all share the same constituents. Ginsenosides, the most extensively studied chemical components of ginseng, are generally considered to be one of the most important active ingredients of the plant. In this study, we have developed fast and efficient methodology for isolation of four known ginsenosides Rf, Rd, Re and Rb1 from Ginseng by high performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). The crude sample for HPCCC was purified firstly from a ginseng extraction using macroporous resin. The enriched saponin fraction (480 mg) was separated by using methylene chloride-methanol-5 mM aqueous ammonium acetate-isopropanol (6:2:4:3, v/v,) as the two-phase solvent system and yielded 10.7 mg of Rf, 11.0 mg of Rd, 13.4 mg of Re and 13.9 mg of Rb1. The purity of these ginsenosides was 99.2%, 88.3%, 93.7% and 91.8%, respectively assessed by HPLC-DAD-ELSD, and their structures were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and compared with standards. Ammonium acetate was used to shorten the separation time and eliminate emulsification together with a flow step-gradient. The salt can be removed by re-dissolving the sample using acetone. PMID:20171644

  10. Fractional reactive extraction for symmetrical separation of 4-nitro-D,L-phenylalanine in centrifugal contactor separators: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kewen; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Panliang; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of 4-nitro-D,L-phenylalanine (D,L-Nphy) using PdCl2 {(s)-BINAP} as extractant in dichloroethane was studied experimentally in a countercurrent cascade of 10 centrifugal contactor separators (CCSs) at 5°C, involving flow ratio, extractant concentration, and Cl(-) concentration. The steady-state enantiomeric excess (ee) in both stream exits was 90.86% at a 93.29% yield. The predicted value was modeled using an equilibrium stage approach. The correlation between model and experiment was satisfactory. The model was applied to optimize the production of both enantiomers in >97% ee and >99% ee. 14 stages and 16 stages are required for 97% ee and 99% ee for both enantiomers, respectively. PMID:25311896

  11. The effect of Schisandra chinensis extracts on depression by noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wu, Bo; Liao, Zhengzheng; Liu, Zhi; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-15

    Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., as a Chinese functional food, has been widely used in neurological disorders including insomnia and Alzheimer's disease. The treatment of classical neuropsychiatric disorder depression is to be developed from Schisandra chinensis. The antidepressant-like effects of the Schisandra chinensis extracts (SCE), and their probable involvement in the serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems were investigated by the forced swim test (FST). Acute administration of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.), a combination of SCE (300 mg kg(-1), i.g.) and reboxetine (a noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, 2.5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or imipramine (a TCA, 2 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced the immobility time in the FST. Pretreatment with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4, a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin, 50 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days), haloperidol (a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist, 0.2 mg kg(-1), i.p.), SCH 23390 (a selective D1 receptor antagonist, 0.03 mg kg(-1), i.p.), bicuculline (a competitive GABA antagonist, 4 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA, an agonist at the glutamate site, 75 mg kg(-1), i.p.) effectively reversed the antidepressant-like effect of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). However, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, 100 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days,) did not eliminate the reduced immobility time induced by SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). Moreover, the treatments did not change the locomotor activity. Altogether, these results indicated that SCE produced antidepressant-like activity, which might be mediated by the modification of noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. PMID:27225351

  12. Analysis of plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) medical devices for infusion and artificial nutrition: comparison and optimization of the extraction procedures, a pre-migration test step.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Lise; Cueff, Régis; Bourdeaux, Daniel; Breysse, Colette; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-02-01

    Medical devices (MDs) for infusion and enteral and parenteral nutrition are essentially made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The first step in assessing patient exposure to these plasticizers, as well as ensuring that the MDs are free from di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), consists of identifying and quantifying the plasticizers present and, consequently, determining which ones are likely to migrate into the patient's body. We compared three different extraction methods using 0.1 g of plasticized PVC: Soxhlet extraction in diethyl ether and ethyl acetate, polymer dissolution, and room temperature extraction in different solvents. It was found that simple room temperature chloroform extraction under optimized conditions (30 min, 50 mL) gave the best separation of plasticizers from the PVC matrix, with extraction yields ranging from 92 to 100% for all plasticizers. This result was confirmed by supplemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and gravimetric analyses. The technique was used on eight marketed medical devices and showed that they contained different amounts of plasticizers, ranging from 25 to 36% of the PVC weight. These yields, associated with the individual physicochemical properties of each plasticizer, highlight the need for further migration studies. PMID:25577357

  13. Profiling the fatty acids from a strain of the microalgae Alexandrium tamarense by means of high-speed counter-current chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Simon; Tillmann, Urban; Schröder, Markus; Vetter, Walter

    2013-10-18

    Fatty acids of microalgae have been studied as potential chemotaxonomic markers, to reveal plausible lipid phycotoxins or in the context of mass production of algal biofuels. The planctonic microalgae Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) is a common harmful algal bloom species that often proliferates in eutrophic costal waters. Alexandrium blooms are the proximal source of toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a neurological affliction that has caused human illness for centuries via consumption of contaminated shellfish. However, data on the fatty acid composition of A. tamarense is currently limited. For this reason, we cultivated a well-defined strain of A. tamarense (Alex2, group I, North American clade) in order to study both its major and minor fatty acids. The harvested microalgae were transesterified and the fatty acid methyl esters were fractionated by means of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The resulting 31 HSCCC fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Unknown substances were identified by transferring assorted HSCCC fractions into picolinyl or pyrrolidide derivatives. Twenty fatty acids (range 0.2-22.9% contribution to total fatty acids) were identified in the unfractionated sample with 14:0, 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:4n-3, 18:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 representing>80% of the total fatty acids. HSCCC fractionation enabled the identification of further 22 trace fatty acids contributing between ∼0.01 and 0.2% to total fatty acids. The fatty acids included several branched-chain fatty acids as well as scarcely reported fatty acids like 11-methyl-18:1n-6tr or 18:2Δ4,9. In order to enable a better comparability and repeatability of HSCCC fractionations, we calculated for each HSCCC fraction the total volume of mobile phase, which had passed the HSCCC. From this volume we subtracted the volume of extruded stationary phase and divided the corrected volume by the total coil volume. These elution

  14. Continuous back extraction operation by a single liquid-liquid centrifugal extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Nakase, M.; Takeshita, K.

    2013-07-01

    We have developed a small, high-performance liquid-liquid countercurrent centrifugal extractor for the nuclear fuel cycle. The single extractor allows extraction with many multiple theoretical stages due to the formation of Taylor vortices. We have previously demonstrated multistage extraction for a forward extraction system. In this study, we have applied the centrifugal extractor to a continuous back extraction system with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid. We examined the performance of our concept of the centrifugal extractor by varying the rotational speeds of the inner rotor and the nitric acid concentration in the stripping solution. The dispersion behavior, flow characteristics were determined and the back extraction performance was examined for a single chemical species and for multiple species. Complete back extraction by continuous process was achieved and it showed the possibility to minimize the volume and nitric acid concentration of the stripping solution. Our centrifugal extractors may provide a more effective separation system than the conventional separation process that uses many continuously connected extractors. (authors)

  15. A new tropane alkaloid from the leaves of Erythroxylum subsessile isolated by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rodrigo Alves Soares; Almeida, Henrique; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Rocha, Leandro; Leitão, Gilda Guimarães

    2016-04-01

    Tropane alkaloids are bioactive metabolites with great importance in the pharmaceutical industry and the most important class of natural products found in the Erythroxylum genus. However, these compounds are usually separated by traditional chromatographic techniques, in which the sample is progressively purified in multiple chromatographic steps, resulting in a time- and solvent-consuming procedure. In this work we present the isolation of a novel alkaloid, 6β,7β-dibenzoyloxytropan-3α-ol, together with the two known 3α-benzoyloxynortropan-6β-ol and 3α,6β-dibenzoyloxytropane alkaloids, directly from the crude alkaloid fraction from the leaves of Erythroxylum subsessile, by using a single run pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography method. The ethyl acetate/water (1:1, v/v) biphasic solvent system with triethylamine and HCl as retention and eluter agents, respectively, was used to isolate tropane alkaloids for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:26888377

  16. One-step purification of histone deacetylase from Escherichia coli cell-lysate by counter-current chromatography using aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Shibusawa, Yoichi; Takeuchi, Naoko; Tsutsumi, Kanako; Nakano, Shigeru; Yanagida, Akio; Shindo, Heisaburo; Ito, Yoichiro

    2007-06-01

    Aqueous-aqueous two-phase (AATP) systems composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (molecular mass, M(r):1000-8000) and dextran (M(r):40,000) were evaluated for purification of maltose binding protein tagged-histone deacetylase (MBP-HDAC) by counter-current chromatography (CCC). CCC purification of an MBP-HDAC from Escherichia coli cell-lysate was successfully demonstrated with a 7.0% PEG 3350-10% dextran T40 system containing 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 9.0. After CCC purification, both polymers in the CCC fractions were easily removed by ultrafiltration in a short period of time. The collected fractions containing target protein were analyzed by an HPLC-based in vitro assay as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. MBP tag was digested from fusion HDAC during the CCC separation and native HDAC was purified by one-step operation with well preserved deacetyl enzyme activity. PMID:17306809

  17. Preparative separation and purification of four cis-trans isomers of coumaroylspermidine analogs from safflower by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Cong; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Hu, Na; Zhang, Qiu-Long; Suo, You-Rui; Ding, Chen-Xu

    2013-11-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for the first time to isolate and purify four cis-trans isomers of coumaroylspermidine analogs from Safflower. HSCCC separation was achieved with a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-methanol-water (1:1:1, v/v/v) with the upper phase as the mobile phase. In a single run, a total of 1.3mg of N(1), N(5), N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (EEE), 4.4mg of N(1)(E)-N(5)-(Z)-N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (EZE), 7.2mg of N(1)(Z)-N(5)-(Z)-N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (ZZE), and 11.5mg of N(1),N(5),N(10)-(Z)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (ZZZ) were obtained from 100mg of crude sample. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the purities of these four components are 95.5%, 98.1%, 97.5% and 96.2%, respectively. The chemical structures were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. PMID:24055753

  18. Continuous countercurrent chromatographic separator for the purification of sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Final project report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Wooley, R J

    1997-12-01

    Production of pure sugars is required to enable production of fuels and chemicals from biomass feedstocks. Hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose (principal constituents of biomass) produces sugars that can be utilized in various fermentation process to produce valuable chemicals. Unfortunately, the hydrolysis process also liberates chemicals from the biomass that can be toxic to the fermenting organisms. The two primary toxic components of biomass hydrolyzate are sulfuric acid (catalyst used in the hydrolysis) and acetic acid (a component of the feed biomass). In the standard batch chromatographic separation of these three components, sugar elutes in the middle. Batch chromatographic separations are not practical on a commercial scale, because of excess dilution and high capital costs. Because sugar is the {open_quotes}center product,{close_quotes} a continuous separation would require two costly binary separators. However, a single, slightly larger separator, configured to produce three products, would be more economical. This FIRST project develops a cost-effective method for purifying biomass hydrolyzate into fermentable sugars using a single continuous countercurrent separator to separate this ternary mixture.

  19. Systematic and practical solvent system selection strategy based on the nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient model for real-life counter-current chromatography separation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Da-Bing; Yi, Lun-Zhao; Qin, Yan-Hua; Yun, Yong-Huan; Deng, Bai-Chuan; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-05-01

    Solvent system selection is the first step toward a successful counter-current chromatography (CCC) separation. This paper introduces a systematic and practical solvent system selection strategy based on the nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient (NRTL-SAC) model, which is efficient in predicting the solute partition coefficient. Firstly, the application of the NRTL-SAC method was extended to the ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water and chloroform/methanol/water solvent system families. Moreover, the versatility and predictive capability of the NRTL-SAC method were investigated. The results indicate that the solute molecular parameters identified from hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system family are capable of predicting a large number of partition coefficients in several other different solvent system families. The NRTL-SAC strategy was further validated by successfully separating five components from Salvia plebeian R.Br. We therefore propose that NRTL-SAC is a promising high throughput method for rapid solvent system selection and highly adaptable to screen suitable solvent system for real-life CCC separation. PMID:25818557

  20. Overcoming the equivalent-chain-length rule with pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography for the preparative separation of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Englert, Michael; Vetter, Walter

    2015-07-01

    Purification of individual fatty acids from vegetable oils by preparative liquid chromatography techniques such as countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a challenging task due to the equivalent-chain-length (ECL) rule. It implies that one double bond equals two carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of a fatty acid and therefore causes co-elutions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Accordingly, existing methods for the purification of individual fatty acids are cumbersome and time-consuming as two or more steps with different conditions are required. To avoid additional purification steps, we report a method utilizing pH-zone-refining CCC which enabled the purification of all major fatty acids from sunflower oil (purities >95 %) in one step by circumventing co-elutions caused by the ECL rule. This method is based on the involvement of acid strength and hydrophobicity of fatty acids during the separation process. By exploiting the preparative character of the pH-zone-refining mode, a tenfold sample amount of free fatty acids from sunflower oil could be separated in comparison to regular CCC. PMID:25943261

  1. Preparative enantioseparation of propafenone by counter-current chromatography using di-n-butyl L-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Shen, Mangmang; Zheng, Ye; Chu, Chu; Li, Xing-Nuo; Yan, Jizhong

    2013-09-01

    This paper extends the research of the utilization of borate coordination complexes in chiral separation by counter-current chromatography (CCC). Racemic propafenone was successfully enantioseparated by CCC with di-n-butyl l-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector. The two-phase solvent system was composed of chloroform/ 0.05 mol/L acetate buffer pH 3.4 containing 0.10 mol/L boric acid (1:1, v/v), in which 0.10 mol/L di-n-butyl l-tartrate was added in the organic phase. The influence of factors in the enantioseparation of propafenone were investigated and optimized. A total of 92 mg of racemic propafenone was completely enantioseparated using high-speed CCC in a single run, yielding 40-42 mg of (R)- and (S)-propafenone enantiomers with an HPLC purity over 90-95%. The recovery for propafenone enantiomers from fractions of CCC was in the range of 85-90%. PMID:23857918

  2. Organic high ionic strength aqueous two-phase solvent system series for separation of ultra-polar compounds by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yun; Liu, Gang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Existing two-phase solvent systems for high-speed countercurrent chromatography cover the separation of hydrophobic to moderately polar compounds, but often fail to provide suitable partition coefficient values for highly polar compounds such as sulfonic acids, catecholamines and zwitter ions. The present paper introduces a new solvent series which can be applied for the separation of these polar compounds. It is composed of 1-butanol, ethanol, saturated ammonium sulfate and water at various volume ratios and consists of a series of 10 steps which are arranged according to the polarity of the solvent system so that the two-phase solvent system with suitable K values for the target compound(s) can be found in a few steps. Each solvent system gives proper volume ratio and high density difference between the two phases to provide a satisfactory level of retention of the stationary phase in the spiral column assembly. The method is validated by partition coefficient measurement of four typical polar compounds including methyl green (basic dye), tartrazine (sulfonic acid), tyrosine (zwitter ion) and epinephrine (a catecholamine), all of which show low partition coefficient values in the polar 1-butanol-water system. The capability of the method is demonstrated by separation of three catecholamines. PMID:22033108

  3. Calcium isotope enrichment by means of multi-channel counter-current electrophoresis for the study of particle and nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Fukumoto, T.; Umehara, S.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a new method for enrichment of large amounts of calcium isotopes for the future study of ^{48}Ca double beta decay. The method is called multi-channel counter-current electrophoresis (MCCCE). We present the concept of MCCCE, in which the power density in the migration path is the key to efficient enrichment of a large amount of materials. In MCCCE, ions migrate in multi-channels on a boron nitride (BN) plate, allowing a substantial increase in the power density to be achieved. We made a tiny prototype instrument and obtained an enrichment factor of 3 for the ratio of the abundance of ^{48}Ca to ^{43}Ca over that of natural abundance. This corresponds to an enrichment factor of 6 for ^{48}Ca to ^{40}Ca. This remarkably large enrichment factor demonstrates that MCCCE is a realistic and promising method for the enrichment of large amounts of ions. It can be applied to many other elements and compounds.

  4. [Isolation and preparation of an imidazole alkaloid from radix radix of Aconitum pendulum Busch by semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongling; Chen, Tao; Chen, Chen; Zou, Denglang; Li, Yulin

    2014-05-01

    Aconitum pendulum Busch is rich C19 diterpenoid alkaloids, but there is no report of imidazole alkaloid in Aconitum pendulum Busch. In this study, an imidazole alkaloid named 1H-imidazole-2-carboxylic acid, butyl ester (ICABE) was successfully separated from Aconitum pendulum Busch with semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The partition coefficient was measured by HPLC to select the solvent systems for ICABE separation by HSCCC. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-chloroform-ethanol-water (10:1 : 13:2, v/v/v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase. It was operated at a flow rate of 1.8 mL/min. The apparatus was rotated at 850 r/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm. Under the selected conditions, a high efficiency separation of HSCCC was achieved, and 7.5 mg of ICABE was obtained from 100 mg of the crude sample of Aconitum pendulum in one-step separation within 350 min. The HPLC analysis showed that the purity of the compound was over 98%. The chemical structure was confirmed by UV, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The established method is simple, highly efficient and suitable for large scale separation of ICABE from radix of Aconitum pendulum Busch. PMID:25185318

  5. One-step separation of nine structural analogues from Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. via tandem high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hualiang; Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Jiang, Xinyu; Wu, Zhiliang; Wang, Meiling; Chen, Miao; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    A novel one-step separation strategy-tandem high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed with a six-port valve serving as the switch interface. Nine structural analogues including three isomers were successfully isolated from Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. by one step. Compared with conventional HSCCC, peak resolution of target compounds was effectively improved in tandem one. Purities of isolated compounds were all over 90% as determined by HPLC. Their structures were then identified via UV, MS and (1)H NMR, and eventually assigned as poricoic acid B (1), poricoic acid A (2), 3β,16α-dihydroxylanosta-7, 9(11), 24-trien-21-oic acid (3), dehydrotumulosic acid (4), polyporenic acid C (5), 3-epi-dehydrotumulosic acid (6), 3-o-acetyl-16α-hydroxydehydrotrametenolic acid (7), dehydropachymic acid (8) and dehydrotrametenolic acid (9) respectively. The results indicated that tandem HSCCC can effectively improve peak resolution of target compounds, and can be a good candidate for HSCCC separation of structural analogues. PMID:26435185

  6. Fractionation of technical octabromodiphenyl ether by countercurrent chromatography combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and offline and online (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Simon; Conrad, Jürgen; Vetter, Walter

    2015-06-12

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a technique, which uses two immiscible liquid phases for a separation process in a long and hollow tube. The technique allows the separation of high amounts of sample (50mg to several grams) with a low consumption of solvents. In this study, we fractionated 50mg technical octabromodiphenyl ether (DE-79) and analyzed the fractions by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy. CCC separations were performed with n-hexane/acetonitrile as solvent system in tail-to-head (i.e. the upper phase is mobile) mode. Twelve CCC fractions were studied for the PBDE composition. CCC elution of PBDE congeners was dependent both on the degree of bromination and substitution pattern. Higher brominated congeners eluted faster than lower brominated congeners and isomers with vicinal hydrogen atoms eluted last. In addition to several known PBDE congeners in DE-79, we were able to unequivocally identify BDE 195 in DE-79 and we could verify the presence of BDE 184. Finally, we also established the online hyphenation of CCC with (1)H NMR. The use of deuterated solvents could be avoided by using n-hexane/acetonitrile as two-phase system. By online CCC-(1)H NMR in stop-flow mode we were able to detect eight PBDE congeners in the mixture. PMID:25913330

  7. Preparative isolation and purification of antioxidative stilbene oligomers from Vitis chunganeniss using high-speed counter-current chromatography in stepwise elution mode.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Lu, Yanbin; Jiang, Liyan; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Feiying; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2009-07-01

    Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of three stilbene oligomers from Vitis chunganeniss using stepwise elution with a pair of two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (2:5:2:5, v/v) and (1:2:1:2, v/v). The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 800 mg of crude sample yielding hopeaphenol (21.1 mg), amurensin G (37.2 mg) and vitisin A (95.6 mg) in a one-step separation, with purities over 95% as determined by HPLC. The structures of these three compounds were identified by MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. In addition, their antioxidant activities were screened by DPPH assay, where vitisin A showed strong antioxidant activity. Further EPR experiments with spin-trapping technique demonstrated that vitisin A is a potent and selective singlet oxygen quencher, which may be used in singlet oxygen-mediated diseases as a pharmacological agent. PMID:19557810

  8. Peculiarities of highly burned-up NPP SNF reprocessing and new approach to simulation of solvent extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Y.S.; Zilberman, B.Y.; Goletskiy, N.D.; Puzikov, E.A.; Ryabkov, D.V.; Rodionov, S.A.; Beznosyuk, V.I.; Petrov, Y.Y.; Saprykin, V.F.; Murzin, A.A.; Bibichev, B.A.; Aloy, A.S.; Kudinov, A.S.; Blazheva, I.V.; Kurenkov, N.V.

    2013-07-01

    Substantiation, general description and performance characteristics of a reprocessing flowsheet for WWER-1000 spent fuel with burn-up >60 GW*day/t U is given. Pu and U losses were <0.1%, separation factor > 10{sup 4}; their decontamination factor from γ-emitting fission products was 4*10{sup 4} and 3*10{sup 7}, respectively. Zr, Tc, Np removal was >98% at U and Pu losses <0.05%. A new approach to simulation of extraction equilibrium has been developed. It is based on a set of simultaneous chemical reactions characterized by apparent concentration constants. A software package was created for simulation of spent fuel component distribution in multistage countercurrent extraction processes in the presence of salting out agents. (authors)

  9. Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Leal, Patrícia F; Braga, Mara E M; Sato, Daisy N; Carvalho, João E; Marques, Marcia O M; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-04-23

    In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia, and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective anticancer activities. PMID:12696930

  10. Development and Certification of Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) Experiment # 15012-U, "Near RealTime Water Quality Monitoring Demonstration for ISS Biocides Using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Shcultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D,; Lipert, Robert J.; Limardo, Jose G.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2009-01-01

    Scientists and engineers from the Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group are working with researchers at the University of Utah and Iowa State University to develop and certify an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE). The kit will be launched as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment and evaluated on the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the acceptability of CSPE technology for routine inflight water quality monitoring. Iodine and silver, the biocides used in the US and Russian on-orbit water systems, will serve as test analytes for the technology evaluation. This manuscript provides an overview of the CSPE SDTO experiment and details the development and certification of the experimental water quality monitoring kit. Initial results from reagent and standard solution stability testing and environmental testing performed on the kit hardware are also reported.

  11. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  12. Bevalac extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  13. Full-scale testing and early production results from horizontal air sparging and soil vapor extraction wells remediating jet fuel in soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, R.J.; Bianco, P.; Kirshner, M.; Pressly, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated at the International Arrivals Building (IAB) of the JFK International Airport in Jamaica, New York, are being remediated using soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS). The areal extent of the contaminated soil is estimated to be 70 acres and the volume of contaminated groundwater is estimated to be 2.3 million gallons. The remediation uses approximately 13,000 feet of horizontal SVE (HSVE) wells and 7,000 feet of horizontal AS (HAS) wells. The design of the HSVE and HAS wells was based on a pilot study followed by a full-scale test. In addition to the horizontal wells, 28 vertical AS wells and 15 vertical SVE wells are used. Three areas are being remediated, thus, three separate treatment systems have been installed. The SVE and AS wells are operated continuously while groundwater will be intermittently extracted at each HAS well, treated by liquid phase activated carbon and discharged into stormwater collection sewerage. Vapors extracted by the SVE wells are treated by vapor phase activated carbon and discharged into ambient air. The duration of the remediation is anticipated to be between two and three years before soil and groundwater are remediated to New York State cleanup criteria for the site. Based on the monitoring data for the first two months of operation, approximately 14,600 lbs. of vapor phase VOCs have been extracted. Analyses show that the majority of the VOCs are branched alkanes, branched alkenes, cyclohexane and methylated cyclohexanes.

  14. Unpolluted fractionation of wheat straw by steam explosion and ethanol extraction.

    PubMed

    Hongzhang, Chen; Liying, Liu

    2007-02-01

    An unpolluted process of wheat straw fractionation by steam explosion coupled with ethanol extraction was studied. The wheat straw was steam exploded for 4.5 min with moisture of 34.01%, a pressure of 1.5 MPa without acid or alkali. Hemicellulose sugars were recovered by water countercurrent extraction and decolored with chelating ion exchange resin D412. The gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis results indicated that there were organic acids in the hemicellulose sugars and the ratio of monosaccharides to oligosaccharides was 1:9 and the main component, xylose, was 85.9% in content. The total recovery rate of hemicellulose was 80%. Water washed materials were subsequently extracted with ethanol. The optimum extraction conditions in this work were 40% ethanol, fiber/liquor ratio 1:50 (w/v), severity log(R)=3.657 (180 degrees C for 20 min), 0.1% NaOH. The lignin yield was 75% by acid precipitation and 85% ethanol solvent was recovered. The lignin was purified using Björkman method. Infrared spectrometry (IR) results indicated that the lignin belonged to GSH (guaiacyl (G) syringyl (S) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H)) lignin and its purity rate reached 85.3%. The cellulose recovery rate was 94% and the results of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and infrared spectrometry (IR) showed that hemicellulose and lignin content decreased after steam explosion and ethanol extraction. PMID:16574408

  15. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  16. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  17. Batch-Equilibrium Hot-Cell Tests of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) with SRS Simulant Waste and Internal 137Cs Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.

    2001-09-17

    The solvent was loaded with {sup 137}Cs and subsamples were stored on a shaker table while in contact with the extract, scrub, or strip aqueous phases. Evidence of solvent degradation was evaluated at exposure times of 0, 20, 54, and 83 days. This resulted in estimated solvent doses ranging up to 1.24 Mrad, equivalent to the dose expected to be received during 16.5 years of operation at the plant proposed for the Savannah River Site. The break times and distribution of cesium of the batch samples remained constant within experimental error; in addition, no third-phase formation was observed. The solvent concentrations of calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) and 1-(2,2,3,3-tetra-fluoroproproxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol remained constant within experimental error. Solvent degradation with irradiation was evidenced by a decrease in the trioctylamine (TOA) concentration in the solvent and an increase in the solvent concentration of the degradation product 4-sec-butylphenol. No decline in extraction or scrubbing performance of the irradiated solvents was observed. The stripping performance of the solvent was seriously impaired with irradiation; however, a mild caustic wash and replenishment of the TOA concentration restored the ability to strip the irradiated solvent.

  18. A non-organic and non-enzymatic extraction method gives higher yields of genomic DNA from whole-blood samples than do nine other methods tested.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, D K; Bye, S; Nurnberger, J I; Hodes, M E; Crisp, M

    1992-12-01

    We compared ten methods for extraction of DNA from whole blood. Nine methods require incubation with either enzymes or treatment of organic solvents or both. The 'Rapid Method' (RM) (Method 10) avoids the use of organic solvents (phenol/chloroform) and eliminates completely the use of proteinase K. Thus, the time and cost of DNA extraction are reduced significantly. This is accomplished by salting out and precipitation of the cellular proteins in saturated sodium chloride. This method takes less than an hour to completion, without compromising the yield or the quality of DNA. Using RM, we can make DNA from 0.1 ml of whole blood and as little as 0.5 ml of blood yields DNA sufficient to run a few Southern blots. The RM can also be applied to packed cells. The DNA is free of RNA, protein and degrading enzymes. The uncut DNA runs as a typical slow-migrating, high-molecular-weight and undegraded species in an agarose gel. The DNA is suitable for digestion by various restriction endonucleases. This procedure works equally well with fresh blood samples and with those that are stored at 4 degrees C and -70 degrees C. To our knowledge the RM reported here is the safest, fastest and most quantitative and economical method for preparation of DNA from whole blood and cells. PMID:1494032

  19. Surgical extraction of lower third molars: diagnostic tests and operative technique in the prevention of inferior alveolar nerve injury. Case study

    PubMed Central

    MELEO, D.; PACIFICI, L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Increased knowledge and technical refinement have broadened the limits of outpatient oral surgery; however, these changes have at the same time led to a greater number of complications and poor outcomes and, accordingly, to legal action for professional responsibility. Oral surgery represents 10% of all actions, and almost all of these are attributable to exodontic surgery, of which around a third are related to inferior alveolar nerve injury following the extraction of lower third molars. The aim of this case study is to suggest operative technical strategies in accordance with a correct clinical-diagnostic pathway in order to prevent neurological complications involving the inferior alveolar nerve subsequent to lower third molar extraction. Cases should be carefully selected and surgical intervention undertaken solely when genuinely necessary. The patient should be informed of the risks, the methods and the possible results of the treatment. These are the bases for correct indication, along with a sufficient diagnostic path and a good level of communication between operator and patient. PMID:23285341

  20. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  1. Application and comparison of high-speed countercurrent chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography in preparative enantioseparation of α-substitution mandelic acids

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zhang, Hu; Shen, Mangmang; Ito, Yoichiro; Yan, Jizhong

    2014-01-01

    Preparative enantioseparations of α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and α-methylmandelic acid by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were compared using hydroxypropy-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as the chiral mobile phase additives. In preparative HPLC the enantioseparation was achieved on the ODS C18 reverse phase column with the mobile phase composed of a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.10 mol L−1 phosphate buffer at pH 2.68 containing 20 mmol L−1 HP-β-CD for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and 20 mmol L−1 SBE-β-CD for α-methylmandelic acid. The maximum sample size for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and α-methylmandelic acid was only about 10 mg and 5 mg, respectively. In preparative HSCCC the enantioseparations of these two racemates were performed with the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert.-butyl ether-0.1 molL−1 phosphate buffer solution at pH 2.67 containing 0.1 mol L−1 HP-β-CD for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid (8.5:1.5:10, v/v/v) and 0.1 mol L−1 SBE-β-CD for α-methylmandelic acid (3:7:10, v/v/v). Under the optimum separation conditions, total 250 mg of racemic α-cyclopentylmandelic acid could be completely enantioseparated by HSCCC with HP-β-CD as a chiral mobile phase additive in a single run, yielding 105-110 mg of enantiomers with 95-98% purity and 85-90% recovery. But, no complete enantioseparation of α-methylmandelic acid was achieved by preparative HSCCC with either of the chiral selectors due to their limited enantioselectivity. In this paper preparative enantioseparation by HSCCC and HPLC was compared from various aspects. PMID:25983356

  2. An approach to on-line electrospray mass spectrometric detection of polypeptide antibiotics of enramycin for high-speed counter-current chromatographic separation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichi; Hattori, Yasuko; Hino, Tomoaki; Oka, Hisao

    2010-04-01

    In the field of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis of peptides, a rapid on-line detection and identification for a methodology have been required for the discovery of new biological active products. In this study, a high-speed counter-current chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometry (HSCCC/ESI-MS) was developed for the on-line detection and purification of polypeptide antibiotics of enramycin-A and -B. The analytes were purified on HSCCC model CCC-1000 (multi-layer coil planet centrifuge) with a volatile solvent of two-phase system composed of n-butanol/hexane/0.05% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid solution (43/7/50, V/V/V), and detected on an LCMS-2010EV quadrupole mass spectrometer fitted with an ESI source system in positive ionization following scan mode (m/z 100-2000). The HSCCC/ESI-MS peaks indicated that enramycin-A (major m/z 786 [M+3H](3+) and minor m/z 1179 [M+2H](2+)) and enramycin-B (major m/z 791 [M+3H](3+) and minor m/z 1185 [M+2H](2+)) have the peak resolution value of 2.9 from 15mg of loaded enramycin powder. The HSCCC collected amounts of the peak fractions were additionally 4.3mg (enramycin-A), and 5.9mg (enramycin-B), respectively. These purified substances were analyzed by LC/ESI-MS with scan positive mode. Based on the LC/ESI-MS chromatograms and spectra of the fractions, enramycin-A and -B were estimated to be over 95% purity. The overall results indicate that this approach of HSCCC/ESI-MS is a powerful technique for the purification and identification of bioactive peptides. PMID:20004073

  3. Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE) for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Pilar; Villar, Agustí; Rull, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Background The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent membrane protein 5α-reductase catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen – 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Two 5α-reductase isoenzymes are expressed in humans: type I and type II. The latter is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been used extensively in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5α-reductase, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Clinical studies of SPE have been inconclusive – some have shown significant results, and others have not – possibly the result of varying bioactivities of the SPEs used in the studies. Purpose To determine the in vitro potency in a cell-free test system of a novel SP supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE), an inhibitor of the 5α-reductase isoenzyme type II. Materials and methods The inhibitory potency of SPSE was compared to that of finasteride, an approved 5α-reductase inhibitor, on the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5α-reduced product 5α-androstanedione. Results By concentration-dependent inhibition of 5α-reductase type II in vitro (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 3.58±0.05 μg/mL), SPSE demonstrated competitive binding toward the active site of the enzyme. Finasteride, the approved 5α-reductase inhibitor tested as positive control, led to 63%–75% inhibition of 5α-reductase type II. Conclusion SPSE effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is comparatively low. It can be confirmed from the results of this study that SPSE has bioactivity that promotes prostate health at a level that is superior to that of many other phytotherapeutic extracts. The bioactivity of SPSE corresponds favorably to that reported for the hexane extract used in a large

  4. Field tests of a new, extractive, airborne 1.4 μm -TDLAS hygrometer (SEALDH-I) on a Learjet 35A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2013-04-01

    A highly accurate and precise quantification of atmospheric humidity is a prerequisite for cloud studies as well as for environmental models in order to get a deeper understanding of physical processes and effects. On the one hand numerous trace gases measurements in airborne "laboratories" have to be corrected for water vapor influence; on the other hand satellite measurements have to be validated by in-situ H2O measurements on aircrafts. The vast majority of the airborne hygrometers require a precise and frequent sensor calibration in order to ensure a sufficient performance. UT/LS sensors in particular are often calibrated before and after each individual flight. But even this might not be sufficient which explains why recently in-flight calibrations are becoming more common. Nevertheless all calibrated sensors completely depend on the performance of the water standard used for calibration. Therefore it remains an open question if in-flight calibrations are the way to go: They also might suffer from inflight disturbances and they would need validation during flight conditions. Water calibrations at low humidity are even more complicated due to the strong water adsorption and the resulting sampling problems. An abstention from calibration would avoid many of these problems. In addition, calibration free sensors are much easier to debug as they can hardly have errors which can be hidden by calibration parameters (such as leaks, etc.). Robust cal-free sensors should therefore perform more stable in flight when the sensors boundary conditions might change. The situation can be improved further with extractive cal-free sensors as the boundary condition in measurement volume (pressure, temperature, path length, flow pattern, etc.), i.e. in an extractive cell, are much better controlled than for an open path sensor. Further cal-free extractive sensors can be designed maintain its integrity when attaching and detaching it from the carrier (airplane). This makes it much

  5. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  6. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  7. Visual test of subparts per billion-level copper(ii) by Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction coupled with a functionalized gold nanoparticle probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jing-Fu; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2012-10-01

    By combining Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction with a gold nanoparticle-based visual test, a novel method was developed for the field assay of Cu(ii) in environmental water at subparts per billion-levels within 30 min. When a 200 mL water sample was treated with 12.5 mg L-1 Fe3O4 nanoparticles by the proposed procedure, the detection limit with the naked eye was 0.2 μg L-1 Cu(ii). The proposed method is very specific to Cu(ii), with tolerance against at least 100-fold amounts of other environmentally relevant metal ions except for Hg(ii) (25-fold), and was successfully applied to the detection of trace Cu(ii) in tap water, river water, and treated wastewater, and results agreed well with that determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).By combining Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction with a gold nanoparticle-based visual test, a novel method was developed for the field assay of Cu(ii) in environmental water at subparts per billion-levels within 30 min. When a 200 mL water sample was treated with 12.5 mg L-1 Fe3O4 nanoparticles by the proposed procedure, the detection limit with the naked eye was 0.2 μg L-1 Cu(ii). The proposed method is very specific to Cu(ii), with tolerance against at least 100-fold amounts of other environmentally relevant metal ions except for Hg(ii) (25-fold), and was successfully applied to the detection of trace Cu(ii) in tap water, river water, and treated wastewater, and results agreed well with that determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, synthesis, and characterization of Cys-AuNPs and Fe3O4 NPs, magnetic-solid phase extraction and colorimetric test procedures, and effects of parameters on the extraction efficiency. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31753b

  8. Field tests of a new, extractive, airborne 1.4 μm -TDLAS hygrometer (SEALDH-I) on a Learjet 35A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2013-04-01

    A highly accurate and precise quantification of atmospheric humidity is a prerequisite for cloud studies as well as for environmental models in order to get a deeper understanding of physical processes and effects. On the one hand numerous trace gases measurements in airborne "laboratories" have to be corrected for water vapor influence; on the other hand satellite measurements have to be validated by in-situ H2O measurements on aircrafts. The vast majority of the airborne hygrometers require a precise and frequent sensor calibration in order to ensure a sufficient performance. UT/LS sensors in particular are often calibrated before and after each individual flight. But even this might not be sufficient which explains why recently in-flight calibrations are becoming more common. Nevertheless all calibrated sensors completely depend on the performance of the water standard used for calibration. Therefore it remains an open question if in-flight calibrations are the way to go: They also might suffer from inflight disturbances and they would need validation during flight conditions. Water calibrations at low humidity are even more complicated due to the strong water adsorption and the resulting sampling problems. An abstention from calibration would avoid many of these problems. In addition, calibration free sensors are much easier to debug as they can hardly have errors which can be hidden by calibration parameters (such as leaks, etc.). Robust cal-free sensors should therefore perform more stable in flight when the sensors boundary conditions might change. The situation can be improved further with extractive cal-free sensors as the boundary condition in measurement volume (pressure, temperature, path length, flow pattern, etc.), i.e. in an extractive cell, are much better controlled than for an open path sensor. Further cal-free extractive sensors can be designed maintain its integrity when attaching and detaching it from the carrier (airplane). This makes it much

  9. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  10. Technique development for the extraction of environmental levels of iodide from groundwaters at the Nevada Test Site for the purpose of {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneally, J.M.; Harris, L.J.; Nimz, G.J.

    1994-02-01

    A technique was developed to extract iodine from groundwaters with very low concentrations of iodine (on the order of {mu}g/L or ppb). Sufficient iodine was necessary (approximately 5 mg Agl) for analysis of the {sup 129}l/{sup 127}l on the Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The technique for separating iodine from groundwater was developed for the field to eliminate shipping of thousands of liters of water back to the laboratory. The technique was field tested on several springs and wells at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Preliminary isotope ratios are presented along with total iodine concentrations of the waters. It was also determined that iodine may be used as an early radionuclide migration tool.

  11. Study on separation of minor actinides from HLLW with new extractant of TODGA-DHOA/Kerosene

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Guo-an; Zhu, Wen-bin; Li, Feng-feng; Lin, Ru-shan; Li, Hui-rong

    2013-07-01

    The extraction behavior of U, Np, Pu, Am, rare earth elements and Sr from nitric acid solutions by TODGA/dodecan, DHOA/dodecane and TODGA-DHOA/dodecane were investigated, respectively. Based on experimental results, a separation process was proposed for minor actinide isolation from high level liquid waste (HLLW): the TODGA-DHOA/kerosene system. The multi-stage counter-current cascade experiments were carried out for the purpose by 0.1 mol/l TODGA-1.0 mol/l DHOA/kerosene with miniature mixer- settler contactor rigs (8 stages for extraction, 6 stages for scrubbing, 8 stages for first stripping, 8 stages for second stripping). The results show that the recovery efficiencies of the actinides and lanthanides are more than 99.9%, whereas less than 1% Sr was extracted by 0.1 mol/l TODGA - 1.0 mol/l DHOA/kerosene. The stripping efficiencies of U, Np and Pu are more than 95% in the first stripping step by 0.5 mol/l HNO{sub 3} + 0.5 mol/l AHA(aceto-hydroxamic acid), all of the remained actinides and lanthanides can be stripped by 0.01 mol/l HNO{sub 3} in the second stripping step. 99% Sr was extracted by 0.1 mol/l TODGA/kerosene, so Sr can be recovered efficiently directly from the raffinate by 0.1 mol/l TODGA/kerosene. (authors)

  12. Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE): Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) Integration and Testing - Evaluation of Lee Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Hannah; Cryderman, Kate; Captain, Janine

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) mission with the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload will prospect for water within the lunar regolith and provide a proof of concept for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) techniques, which could be used on future lunar and Martian missions. One system within the RESOLVE payload is the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem, which consists of a Fluid Sub System (FSS) that transports volatiles to the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) instrument. In order for the FSS to transport precise and accurate amounts of volatiles to the GC-MS instrumentation, high performance valves are used within the system. The focus of this investigation is to evaluate the redesigned Lee valve. Further work is needed to continue to evaluate the Lee valve. Initial data shows that the valve could meet our requirements however further work is required to raise the TRL to an acceptable level to be included in the flight design of the system. At this time the risk is too high to change our baseline design to include these non-latching Lee solenoid valves.

  13. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  14. An Object-Based Workflow Developed to Extract Aquaculture Ponds from Airborne LIDAR Data: a Test Case in Central Visayas, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loberternos, R. A.; Porpetcho, W. P.; Graciosa, J. C. A.; Violanda, R. R.; Diola, A. G.; Dy, D. T.; Otadoy, R. E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Traditional remote sensing approach for mapping aquaculture ponds typically involves the use of aerial photography and high resolution images. The current study demonstrates the use of object-based image processing and analyses of LiDAR-data-generated derivative images with 1-meter resolution, namely: CHM (canopy height model) layer, DSM (digital surface model) layer, DTM (digital terrain model) layer, Hillshade layer, Intensity layer, NumRet (number of returns) layer, and Slope layer. A Canny edge detection algorithm was also performed on the Hillshade layer in order to create a new image (Canny layer) with more defined edges. These derivative images were then used as input layers to perform a multi-resolution segmentation algorithm best fit to delineate the aquaculture ponds. In order to extract the aquaculture pond feature, three major classes were identified for classification, including land, vegetation and water. Classification was first performed by using assign class algorithm to classify Flat Surfaces to segments with mean Slope values of 10 or lower. Out of these Flat Surfaces, assign class algorithm was then performed to determine Water feature by using a threshold value of 63.5. The segments identified as Water were then merged together to form larger bodies of water which comprises the aquaculture ponds. The present study shows that LiDAR data coupled with object-based classification can be an effective approach for mapping coastal aquaculture ponds. The workflow currently presented can be used as a model to map other areas in the Philippines where aquaculture ponds exist.

  15. Design of a novel coil satellite centrifuge and its performance on counter-current chromatographic separation of 4-methylumbelliferyl sugar derivatives with organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems

    PubMed Central

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Tokura, Koji; Kimura, Emiru; Takai, Midori; Harikai, Naoki; Yoshida, Kazunori; Yanagidaira, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    A new high-speed counter-current chromatograph, named coil satellite centrifuge (CSC), was designed and fabricated in our laboratory. The CSC apparatus produces the satellite motion such that the coiled column simultaneously rotates around the sun axis (the angular velocity, ω1), the planet axis (ω2) and the satellite axis (the central axis of the column) (ω3). In order to achieve this triplicate rotary motion without twisting of the flow tube, the rotation of each axis was determined by the following formula: ω1 = ω2 + ω3. This relation enabled to lay out the flow tube by two different ways, the SS type and the JS type. In the SS type, the flow tube was introduced from the upper side of the apparatus into the sun axis of the first rotary frame and connected to the planet axis of the second rotary frame like a double letter SS. In the JS type, the flow tube was introduced from the bottom of the apparatus into the sun axis reaching the upper side of the planet axis an inversed letter J, followed by distribution as in the SS type. The performance of the apparatus was examined on separation of 4-methylumbelliferyl (MU) sugar derivatives as test samples with organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems composed of ethyl acetate/1-butanol/water (3 : 2 : 5, v/v) for lower phase mobile and (1 : 4 : 5, v/v) for upper phase mobile. With lower phase mobile, five 4-MU sugar derivatives including β-D-cellobioside (Cel), β-D-glucopyranoside, α-D-mannopyranoside, β-D-fucopyranoside and α-L-fucopyranoside (α-L-Fuc) were separated with the combined rotation around each axis at counterclockwise (CCW) (ω1) – CCW (ω2) – CCW (ω3) by the JS type flow tube distribution. With upper phase mobile, three 4-MU sugar derivatives including α-L-Fuc, β-D-galactopyranoside and Cel were separated with the combined rotation around each axis at clockwise (CW) (ω1) – CW (ω2) – CW (ω3) by the JS type flow tube distribution. A series of experiments on peak resolution and

  16. Antibacterial activity of some Artemisia species extract.

    PubMed

    Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Ivănescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Lazăr, M I

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections. PMID:20191854

  17. Preparative separation of two subsidiary colors of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Tartrazine) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D; Roque, Jose A; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-05-23

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Color Index No. 19140) limit the level of the tetrasodium salt of 4-[(4',5-disulfo[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)hydrazono]-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid and that of the trisodium salt of 4,4'-[4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)hydrazono]-1H-pyrazol-1,3-diyl]bis[benzenesulfonic acid], which are subsidiary colors abbreviated as Pk5 and Pk7, respectively. Small amounts of Pk5 and Pk7 are needed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for confirmatory analyses and for development of analytical methods. The present study describes the use of spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) to separate the closely related minor components Pk5 and Pk7 from a sample of FD&C Yellow No. 5 containing ∼3.5% Pk5 and ∼0.7% Pk7. The separations were performed with highly polar organic/high-ionic strength aqueous two-phase solvent systems that were chosen by applying the recently introduced method known as graphic optimization of partition coefficients (Zeng et al., 2013). Multiple ∼1.0g portions of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (totaling 6.4g dye) were separated, using the upper phase of the solvent system 1-butanol/abs. ethanol/saturated ammonium sulfate/water, 1.7:0.3:1:1, v/v/v/v, as the mobile phase. After removing the ammonium sulfate from the HSCCC-collected fractions, these separations resulted in an enriched dye mixture (∼160mg) of which Pk5 represented ∼46% and Pk7, ∼21%. Separation of the enriched mixture, this time using the lower phase of that solvent system as the mobile phase, resulted in ∼61mg of Pk5 collected in fractions whose purity ranged from 88.0% to 92.7%. Pk7 (20.7mg, ∼83% purity) was recovered from the upper phase of the column contents. Application of this procedure also resulted in purifying the major component of FD&C Yellow No. 5 to >99% purity. The separated compounds were characterized by high-resolution mass

  18. The NSCL electron beam ion trap for the reacceleration of rare isotopes coming to life: First extraction tests with a high-current electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, S.; Bollen, G.; Johnson, M.; Kester, O.; Kostin, M.; Ottarson, J.; Portillo, M.; Wilson, C.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Dilling, J.

    2010-02-15

    NSCL is currently constructing the ReA3 reaccelerator, which will accelerate rare isotopes obtained from gas stopping of fast-fragment beams to energies of up to 3 MeV/u for uranium and higher for lighter ions. A high-current charge breeder, based on an electron beam ion trap (EBIT), has been chosen as the first step in the acceleration process, as it has the potential to efficiently produce highly charged ions in a single charge state. These ions are fed into a compact linear accelerator consisting of a radio frequency quadrupole structure and superconducting cavities. The NSCL EBIT has been fully designed with most of the parts constructed. The design concept of the EBIT and results from initial commissioning tests of the electron gun and collector with a temporary 0.4 T magnet are presented.

  19. Laboratory studies of the behavior of undissolved solids in both pulsed and packed column extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Siemer, D.D.

    1989-04-18

    A substantial fraction of the finely divided undissolved solid material found in nuclear fuel reprocessing dissolver-product solutions is hydrophobic and tends to ``seek`` any organic-aqueous interface existing within countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction systems. While passing through pulsed-type columns this material is swept out of the aqueous phase by the combined surface area of the tiny bubbles of dispersed phase. Because these bubbles have a net velocity towards the end of the column where the nominal interface is located, the solids are swept in that direction too. These solids tend to gather in a three-phase ``crud`` layer at the nominal interface point. At equilibrium, about the same amount breaks off from the crud layer and escapes into the liquid exiting from that end of the column as enters it from the other side. If large enough, the crud layer can even interfere with interface detection and control equipment. In packed-column extraction systems, an additional problem is that feed solids can accumulate within the packing material to the point that the column `` floods`` or even totally plugs. The keys to preventing solids-related problems is the correct choice of interface level, and with packed columns, the addition of a ``pulsing leg`` at the bottom of the column. Pulsing packed column systems not only prevents solids from settling onto packing material but it also increses the number of theoretical stages available for extraction. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23099617

  1. Tecnical Note: Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Grutter, M.; Jazcilevich, A.; González-Oropeza, R.

    2006-11-01

    A methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. The analysis of the gases is performed by passing a constant flow of a sample gas from the tail-pipe into a 10 L multi-pass cell. The absorption spectra within the cell are obtained using an FTIR spectrometer at 0.5 cm-1 resolution along a 13.1 m optical path. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a textit{Pitot} tube installed at the exit of the exhaust. This configuration aims to obtain a good speciation capability by coadding spectra during 30 s and reporting the emission (in g/km) of both criteria and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO and some NMHC, during predetermined driving cycles. The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the measurement frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. To test and evaluate the proposed technique, experiments were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and typical driving cycles for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle. This car is an example of recent marketed automotive technology dedicated to reduced emissions, increasing the need for sensitive detection techniques. This study shows the potential of the proposed technique to measure and report in real time the emissions of a large variety of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO and CO2 obtained here were compared to experiments performed in other locations with the same model vehicle. The proposed technique provides a tool for future studies comparing in detail the emissions of vehicles using alternative fuels and emission control systems.

  2. Optimization of water treatment methods for the purification of peat extraction derived runoff: Evaluation of chemical treatment response to variations in incoming water quality using a 2k factorial test design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn

    2013-04-01

    environmental impacts related to this treatment method. The influence of variations in water quality parameters was accessed using a 2k factorial test design and a well-known chemical purification pilot test procedure (jar test). The k factors or parameters evaluated were: organic matter as chemical oxygen demand (COD 20mg/l and 80mg/l), suspended solids (SS 10mg/l and 60 mg/l), applied coagulant dosage (ferric sulphate 35mg/l and 100mg/l) as well as pH (4.5 and 7.0). Water samples were collected from different peat extraction sites and suitable samples were manipulated using techniques such as centrifugation, dilution and acid or base addition to produce samples with the combinations of high and low concentrations presented. The complete statistical analysis of obtained results will include evaluation of variability using the univariate repeated measures ANOVA as well as the multivariate repeated measures ANOVA methods. Preliminary results of the univariate analyses shows that the interaction between the concentration of a particular substance (COD, SS and pH) and the dosage applied impose significant higher influence on the overall purification efficiency than the substance concentration and applied dosage as individual factors.

  3. Modifications to the new soil extractant H3A-1: A multinutrient extractant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new soil extractant (H3A-1) with the ability to extract NH4-N, NO3-N, and P from soil was originally developed and tested against 32 soils, which varied greatly in clay content, organic C, and soil pH (Haney et al. 2006). The use of H3A eliminates the need for multiple soil extractants when analyz...

  4. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A neutral polymer phase system consisting of 7.5 percent dextran 40/4.5 percent PEG 6, 0.11 M Na phosphate, 5 percent fetal bovine serum (FBS), pH 7.5, was developed which has a high phase droplet electrophoretic mobility and retains cell viability over many hours. In this and related systems, the drop mobility was a linear function of drop size, at least in the range 4-30 micron diameter. Applications of and electric field of 4.5 v/cm to a system containing 10 percent v/v bottom phase cleared the system more than two orders of magnitude faster than in the absence of the field. At higher bottom phase concentrations a secondary phenomenon intervened in the field driven separations which resulted in an increase in turbidity after clearing had commenced. The increase was associated with a dilution of the phase system in the chamber. The effect depended on the presence of the electric field. It may be due to electroosmotic flow of buffer through the Amicon membranes into the sample chamber and flow of phase system out into the rinse stream. Strategies to eliminate this problem are proposed.

  5. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    It is known that the addition of phosphate buffer to two polymer aqueous phase systems has a strong effect on the partition behavior of cells and other particles in such mixtures. The addition of sodium phosphate to aqueous poly(ethylene glycol) dextran phase systems causes a concentration-dependent shift in binodial on the phase diagram, progressively lowering the critical conditions for phase separation as the phosphate concentration is increased. Sodium chloride produces no significant shift in the critical point relative to the salt-free case. Accurate determinations of the phase diagram require measurements of the density of the phases; data is presented which allows this parameter to be calculated from polarimetric measurements of the dextran concentrations of both phases. Increasing polymer concentrations in the phase systems produce increasing preference of the phosphate for the dextran-rich bottom phase. Equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that poly(ethylene glycol) effectively rejected phosphate, and to a lesser extent chloride, but that dextran had little effect on the distribution of either salt. Increasing ionic strength via addition of 0.15 M NaCl to phase systems containing 0.01 M phosphate produces an increased concentration of phosphate ions in the bottom dextran-rich phase, the expected effect in this type of Donnan distribution.

  6. Synthesis of chemically-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes by counter-current ammonia gas injection into the induction thermal plasma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahverdi, Ali

    Pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are poorly dispersible and insoluble in many solvents and need to be chemically modified prior to their use in many applications. This work is focused on the investigation of the synthesis of chemically modified SWCNTs material through an in situ approach. The main objectives of the presented research are: 1) to explore the in situ chemical process during the synthesis of SWCNT and 2) to closely examine the effect of a reactive environment on SWCNTs. Effects of the catalyst type and content on the SWCNTs final product, synthesized by induction thermal plasma (ITP), were studied to replace toxic cobalt (Co) in the feedstock. In this regard, three different catalyst mixtures (i.e. Ni-Y2O3, Ni-Co-Y2O3, and Ni-Mo-Y2O3) were used. Experimental results showed that the catalyst type affects the quality of the SWCNT final product. Similar quality SWCNTs can be produced when the same amount of Co was replaced by Ni. Moreover, the results observed in this experimental work were further explained by thermodynamic calculation results. Thermogravimetry (TG) was used throughout the work to characterize the SWCNTs product. TG was firstly standardized by studying the effects of three main instrumental parameters (temperature ramp, TR, initial mass of the sample, IM, and gas flow rate, FR) on the Tonset and full-width half maximum (FWHM) obtained from TG and derivative TG graphs of carbon black, respectively. Therefore, a two-level factorial statistical design was performed. The statistical analysis showed that the effect of TR, IM, and to a lower extent, FR, is significant on FWHM and insignificant on Tonset. A methodology was then developed based upon the SWCNTs synthesis using the ITP system, through an in situ chemistry approach. Ammonia (NH3) was selected and counter-currently injected into the ITP reactor at three different flow rates and by four different nozzle designs. Numerical simulation indicated a better mixing of NH3 in

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts.

    PubMed

    Battinelli, L; Tita, B; Evandri, M G; Mazzanti, G

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 microgml of dry extract. E. angustifolium and E. rosmarinifolium had the most broad spectrum of action inhibiting bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The extracts were devoid of toxicity on Artemia salina within the range of antimicrobial concentrations, suggesting that the action is selective on microorganisms. PMID:11482755

  8. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaseelan, E Christy; Jenothiny, S; Pathmanathan, MK; Jeyadevan, JP

    2012-01-01

    Objective To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Methods Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals. Results Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100 µl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower. Conclusions The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents. PMID:23569850

  9. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  10. Simultaneous Separation of Manganese, Cobalt, and Nickel by the Organic-Aqueous-Aqueous Three-Phase Solvent Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirayama, Sakae; Uda, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    This research outlines an organic-aqueous-aqueous three-phase solvent extraction method and proposes its use in a new metal separation process for the recycling of manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni) from used lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The three-phase system was formed by mixing xylene organic solution, 50 pct polyethylene glycol (PEG) aqueous solution, and 1 mol L-1 sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) aqueous solution. The xylene organic solution contained 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (D2EHPA) as an extractant for Mn ion, and the Na2SO4 aqueous solution contained 1 mol L-1 potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) as an extractant for Co ion. Concentrations of the metal ions were varied by dissolving metal sulfates in the Na2SO4 aqueous solution. As a result of the experiments, Mn, Co, and Ni ions were distributed in the xylene organic phase, PEG-rich aqueous phase, and Na2SO4-rich aqueous phase, respectively. The separation was effective when the pH value was around 4. Numerical simulation was also conducted in order to predict the distribution of metal ions after the multi-stage counter-current extractions.

  11. Acute and subacute toxicity tests of onion coat, natural colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), in (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Tanaka, T; Mori, H; Kato, Y; Nakamura, M

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity test of onion coat colorant (OC), a food colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), was undertaken using (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice of both sexes for the safety assessment of this product. The acute toxicity test was performed by administration of OC suspended in corn oil by gavage at doses of 2500, 5000, 7500, and 10,000 mg/kg body weight to groups of 5 or 6 males and 6 or 7 females, maintained for 14 d. Six of 12 females dosed at 10,000 mg/kg body weight and 3 of 11 females dosed at 7500 mg/kg body weight were dead before the end of the study, indicating that the tolerated dose of OC was between 7500 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The subacute toxicity test of OC was examined using 123 mice of both sexes (62 males and 61 females) by feeding a diet mixed with OC at concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.6, and 0.3% for 90 d. All mice tolerated these doses of OC well. The body weight gains of male and female mice were not affected by the treatment. Histopathological examinations showed that hyperplastic changes in the esophagus, forestomach, pancreas, cervix, and endometrium of mice were found in treated and control mice. However, their incidences were not related to the dose of OC. Moreover, only a spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in an OC-treated mouse. These results suggest that OC has no acute and subacute toxic effects in mice. PMID:8421325

  12. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  13. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  14. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  15. Continuous supercritical emulsions extraction: a new technology for biopolymer microparticles production.

    PubMed

    Porta, G Della; Falco, N; Reverchon, E

    2011-03-01

    Supercritical emulsion extraction (SEE) was recently proposed for the production of biopolymer microparticles starting from oil-in-water emulsions. This technology can improve the product quality because of the fast and selective extraction of the dispersed oily phase by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2) ). However, until now, SEE was proposed in batch configuration, sharing with the traditional processes an intrinsically discontinuous operation and problems of batches reproducibility and process yield. In this study, by using a countercurrent packed column, the SEE process was proposed in a continuous operating mode (SEE-CM) for the production of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles. The new process design takes advantage of the large contact area between the SC-CO(2) and emulsion allowing the production of PLGA microparticles with controlled and narrow size distributions in only few minutes. SEE-CM operating parameters such as pressure, temperature, and flow rate ratios were analyzed and the process efficiency in terms of recovered material and its size distribution compared with SEE (batch mode operation) and conventional evaporation technology. PLGA microparticles showed a mean particle size between 1-3 µm (depending on the droplet sizes) with a SD that was always smaller than that associated with particles produced by discontinuous processes. Single and double emulsions were successfully treated and the microparticles physico-chemical properties showed no morphological and structural differences between the SEE-CM-produced microparticles and the ones obtained by conventional evaporation technology. PMID:20967801

  16. Continuous aqueous two-phase extraction of human antibodies using a packed column.

    PubMed

    Rosa, P A J; Azevedo, A M; Sommerfeld, S; Bäcker, W; Aires-Barros, M R

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a pilot scale packed differential contactor was evaluated for the continuous counter-current aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells supernatant (CS) enriched with pure protein. Preliminary studies have been firstly performed in order to select the dispersed phase (phosphate-rich or polyethylene glycol 3350 Da (PEG)-rich phase) and the column packing material. The PEG-rich phase has been selected as the dispersed phase and the stainless steel as the preferred material for the column packing bed since it was not wetted preferentially by the selected dispersed phase. Hydrodynamic studies have been also performed, and the experimental results were successfully adjusted to the Richardson-Zaki and Mísek equations, typically used for the conventional organic-aqueous two-phase systems. An experimental set-up combining the packed column with a pump mixer-settler stage showed to have the best performance and to be advantageous when compared to the IgG batch extraction. An IgG recovery yield of 85% could be obtained with about 50% of total contaminants and more than 85% of contaminant proteins removal. Mass transfer studies have revealed that the mass transfer was controlled by the PEG-rich phase. A higher efficiency could be obtained when using an extra pump mixer-settler stage and higher flow rates. PMID:22173005

  17. Measurement of achievable plutonium decontamination from gallium by means of PUREX solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Felker, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the work described herein was to measure, experimentally, the achievable decontamination of plutonium from gallium by means of the PUREX solvent extraction process. Gallium is present in surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) at a concentration of approximately 1 wt%. Plans are to dispose of surplus WG-Pu by converting it to UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. However, the presence of high concentrations of gallium in plutonium is a potential corrosion problem during the process of MOX fuel irradiation. The batch experiments performed in this study were designed to measure the capability of the PUREX solvent extraction process to separate gallium from plutonium under idealized conditions. Radioactive tracing of the gallium with {sup 72}Ga enabled the accurate measurement of low concentrations of extractable gallium. The experiments approximated the proposed flowsheet for WG-Pu purification, except that only one stage was used for each process: extraction, scrubbing, and stripping. With realistic multistage countercurrent systems, much more efficient separations are generally obtained. The gallium decontamination factor (DF) obtained after one extraction stage was about 3 x 10{sup 6}. After one scrub stage, all gallium measurements were less than the detection limit, which corresponded to DFs >5 x 10{sup 6}. All these values exceed a 10{sup 6} DF needed to meet a hypothetical 10-ppb gallium impurity limit in MOX fuel. The results of this study showed no inherent or fundamental problem with regard to removing gallium from plutonium.

  18. Statistical Analyses for Probabilistic Assessments of the Reactor Pressure Vessel Structural Integrity: Building a Master Curve on an Extract of the 'Euro' Fracture Toughness Dataset, Controlling Statistical Uncertainty for Both Mono-Temperature and multi-temperature tests

    SciTech Connect

    Josse, Florent; Lefebvre, Yannick; Todeschini, Patrick; Turato, Silvia; Meister, Eric

    2006-07-01

    Assessing the structural integrity of a nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients is extremely important to safety. In addition to conventional deterministic calculations to confirm RPV integrity, Electricite de France (EDF) carries out probabilistic analyses. Probabilistic analyses are interesting because some key variables, albeit conventionally taken at conservative values, can be modeled more accurately through statistical variability. One variable which significantly affects RPV structural integrity assessment is cleavage fracture initiation toughness. The reference fracture toughness method currently in use at EDF is the RCCM and ASME Code lower-bound K{sub IC} based on the indexing parameter RT{sub NDT}. However, in order to quantify the toughness scatter for probabilistic analyses, the master curve method is being analyzed at present. Furthermore, the master curve method is a direct means of evaluating fracture toughness based on K{sub JC} data. In the framework of the master curve investigation undertaken by EDF, this article deals with the following two statistical items: building a master curve from an extract of a fracture toughness dataset (from the European project 'Unified Reference Fracture Toughness Design curves for RPV Steels') and controlling statistical uncertainty for both mono-temperature and multi-temperature tests. Concerning the first point, master curve temperature dependence is empirical in nature. To determine the 'original' master curve, Wallin postulated that a unified description of fracture toughness temperature dependence for ferritic steels is possible, and used a large number of data corresponding to nuclear-grade pressure vessel steels and welds. Our working hypothesis is that some ferritic steels may behave in slightly different ways. Therefore we focused exclusively on the basic french reactor vessel metal of types A508 Class 3 and A 533 grade B Class 1, taking the sampling

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26214895

  20. Repellence and toxicity of Schinus molle extracts on Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, A A; Chopa, C Sánchez; González, J O Werdin; Alzogaray, R A

    2007-06-01

    The biological activities of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle against adults of Blattella germanica were examined by repellence test and topical application. All extracts produced significant repellent effect and mortality. PMID:17490831