Science.gov

Sample records for country study evaluation

  1. Science Education in Nineteen Countries. International Studies in Evaluation I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, L. C.; Keeves, John P.

    This volume is the result of a study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) as part of the Six Subject Survey in Science, Literature, Reading Comprehension, English and French as Foreign Languages, and Civic Education. The project was begun in 1966 with the first phase of instrument…

  2. Methodological and Conceptual Issues Confronting a Cross-Country Delphi Study of Educational Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsin-Ling; Altschuld, James W.; Lee, Yi-Fang

    2008-01-01

    Although the Delphi is widely used, research on certain methodological issues is somewhat limited. After a brief introduction to the strengths, limitations, and methodological challenges of the technique, we share our experiences (as well as problems encountered) with an electronic Delphi of educational program evaluation (EPE) in the Asia-Pacific…

  3. Systematic review of studies evaluating the broader economic impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most health economic evaluations of childhood vaccination only capture the health and short-term economic benefits. Measuring broader, long-term effects of vaccination on productivity and externalities could provide a more complete picture of the value of vaccines. Method MEDLINE, EconLit and NHS-EED databases were searched for articles published between January 1990 and July 2011, which captured broader economic benefits of vaccines in low and middle income countries. Studies were included if they captured at least one of the following categories on broader economic impact: outcome-related productivity gains, behaviour-related productivity gains, ecological externalities, equity gains, financial sustainability gains or macroeconomic benefits. Results Twenty-six relevant studies were found, including observational studies, economic models and contingent valuation studies. Of the identified broader impacts, outcome-related productivity gains and ecological externalities were most commonly accounted for. No studies captured behaviour-related productivity gains or macroeconomic effects. There was some evidence to show that vaccinated children 8–14 years of age benefit from increased cognitive ability. Productivity loss due to morbidity and mortality was generally measured using the human capital approach. When included, herd immunity effects were functions of coverage rates or based on reduction in disease outcomes. External effects of vaccines were observed in terms of equitable health outcomes and contribution towards synergistic and financially sustainable healthcare programs. Conclusion Despite substantial variation in the methods of measurement and outcomes used, the inclusion of broader economic impact was found to improve the attractiveness of vaccination. Further research is needed on how different tools and techniques can be used in combination to capture the broader impact of vaccination in a way that is consistent with other health economic evaluations. In addition, more country level evidence is needed from low and middle income countries to justify future investments in vaccines and immunization programs. Finally, the proposed broader economic impact framework may contribute towards better communication of the economic arguments surrounding vaccine uptake, leading to investments in immunization by stakeholders outside of the traditional health care sector such as ministries of finance and national treasuries. PMID:23072714

  4. Evaluating performance of a Lead Road Safety Agency (LRSA) in a low-income country: a case study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Ahmed, Aizaz

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends identifying a Lead Road Safety Agency (LRSA) within the government to coordinate preventive interventions. As LRSAs in developing countries have rarely been evaluated, this case study describes the performance of the LRSA of Pakistan with respect to the World Bank criteria. The designated LRSA, the National Road Safety Secretariat, was put into operation in 2006 and worked for about two years with World Bank funding. The agency had a stand-alone structure headed by an experienced road safety specialist during the first year only and faced difficulty in recruiting other required experts. The LRSA drafted the first National Road Safety Plan, including strategic review of road safety and existing legislation, articulated multisectorial collaboration nationally and provincially, and collected traffic injury data in some districts. Its progress was halted by its dissolution because of funding problems. Currently, two agencies specialising in traffic enforcement and transport research respectively are fulfilling LRSA functions on an ad-hoc basis. Results suggest that sustainability and consistency of LRSAs in developing countries like Pakistan may only be ensured if they are legally protected, inter-ministerial, have permanent funding and are provided with the required expertise through international cooperation, so they can perform their required functions effectively. PMID:23631447

  5. Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Martinez, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Mark, J.

    1994-08-01

    Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large carbon emissions reductions in the future, while also meeting key criteria for commercialization and acceptability in developing countries. In addition, this study evaluates the connection between technology identification and the selection of projects that are designed to demonstrate technologies with a propensity for carbon emission reductions (e.g., Global Environmental Facility projects). Although this report applies the methodology to Mexico in a case study format, the methodology is broad based and could be applied to any developing country, as well as to other technologies. The methodology used in this report is composed of four steps: technology screening, technology identification, technology deployment scenarios, and estimates of carbon emissions reductions. The four technologies with the highest ranking in the technology identification process for the on-grid category were geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind, and micro-/mini-hydro. Compressed natural gas (CNG) was the alternative that received the highest ranking for the transportation category.

  6. Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

  7. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less-developed countries, especially those in Asia, there is also a requirement to focus on the development of environmentally friendly practices in wealthier countries. PMID:20454670

  8. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River and its tributaries were not transformed upstream our sample points (Lavie et al., 2013, under press). Finally, we studied an urban drinking waters network, in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, one of the least developed countries, with chronic political crises. The nearly 6 million inhabitants of this settlement suffer many cuts and bad pressure at tap. Furthermore, Nile's waters that feed the network are summarily treated and then quite turbid, especially in summer during Nile's floods. This situation obliges the population to store and to decant water, transforming it into clear ones (Lavie and Hamza, 2013, under press). The results of our studies demonstrate that, generally, we can observe a correlation between increasing turbidity and bacteriology, and decreasing oximetry. This assumption is disproven in many cases: (1) the stagnant waters of Khartoum and (2) the clarified Mendoza River waters. Finally, (3) the seasonal anthropogenic uses of soil and waters in the Doubegue and Tunuyán Rivers have more impact on the bacteriological quality than the natural seasonality of the suspended solids because soil erosion has increased.

  9. Effect and Process Evaluation of a Cluster Randomized Control Trial on Water Intake and Beverage Consumption in Preschoolers from Six European Countries: The ToyBox-Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinket, An-Sofie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet; Androutsos, Odysseas; Koletzko, Berthold; Moreno, Luis A.; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Manios, Yannis; De Craemer, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the ToyBox-study, a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention was developed to prevent overweight and obesity in European preschoolers, targeting four key behaviours related to early childhood obesity, including water consumption. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention (cluster randomized controlled trial) on water intake and beverage consumption in European preschoolers and to investigate if the intervention effects differed by implementation score of kindergartens and parents/caregivers. Method A sample of 4964 preschoolers (4.7±0.4 years; 51.5% boys) from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, Spain) was included in the data analyses. A standardized protocol was used and parents/caregivers filled in socio-demographic data and a food-frequency questionnaire. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample and for the six country-specific samples. Based on the process evaluation questionnaire of teachers and parents/caregivers, an implementation score was constructed. To assess differences in water intake and beverage consumption by implementation score in the total sample, multilevel repeated measures analyses were performed. Results Limited intervention effects on water intake from beverages and overall beverage consumption were found. However, important results were found on prepacked fruit juice consumption, with a larger decrease in the intervention group compared to the control group. However, also a decline in plain milk consumption was found. Implementation scores were rather low in both kindergartens and parents/caregivers. Nevertheless, more favorable effects on beverage choices were found in preschoolers whose parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers had higher implementation scores compared to those with lower implementation scores. Conclusion The ToyBox-intervention can provide the basis for the development of more tailor-made interventions. However, new strategies to improve implementation of interventions should be created. PMID:27064274

  10. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the

  11. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

  12. Culturally Competent Evaluation in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Given the rich tapestry of tribal cultures in the United States, it is presumptuous to assume that any evaluator, whether an Alaskan Native or a member of an American Indian tribe (or a non-Indian), can understand the culture of every group. Rather than trying to master multiple cultural specificities, the goal of a competent evaluator, especially…

  13. Assessment and Evaluation of National Human Resource Development System Competitiveness in Emerging Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, HunSeok; Seo, DongIn; Kim, JuSeuk; Yoo, SangOk; Seong, HeeChang

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed and evaluated the competitiveness of national human resource development (NHRD) systems in emerging countries with potential for growth. The literature on emerging countries and NHRD systems was reviewed. The study developed a model mechanism with forty-one indices and nine sub-components for the NHRD system assessment in…

  14. Assessment and Evaluation of National Human Resource Development System Competitiveness in Emerging Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, HunSeok; Seo, DongIn; Kim, JuSeuk; Yoo, SangOk; Seong, HeeChang

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed and evaluated the competitiveness of national human resource development (NHRD) systems in emerging countries with potential for growth. The literature on emerging countries and NHRD systems was reviewed. The study developed a model mechanism with forty-one indices and nine sub-components for the NHRD system assessment in

  15. CD-ROM Technology Use in Developing Countries: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Jane; Balson, David

    1988-01-01

    Describes an evaluative project in which a prototype bibliographic database on optical data disk was installed in six developing country libraries and a Canadian library. The results of the project are discussed in terms of user satisfaction and cost effectiveness, and recommendations are made to donor agencies, information providers, and…

  16. A qualitative interview study on effects of diet on children's mental state and performance. Evaluation of perceptions, attitudes and beliefs of parents in four European countries.

    PubMed

    Brands, Brigitte; Egan, Bernadette; Györei, Eszter; López-Robles, Juan Carlos; Gage, Heather; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamás; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique M

    2012-04-01

    Nutrition is one of the many factors that influence a child's cognitive development and performance. Understanding the relationship between nutrition and mental performance in children is important in terms of their attainment and productivity both in school and later life. Since parents are seen as nutritional gatekeepers for their children's diets, their views and beliefs are of crucial importance. The present study aims to qualitatively examine parents' perceptions of the relationship between diet and mental performance of children. The study was conducted with a total of 124 parents in four European countries using a semi-structured interview schedule. Parents speak of the effects of diet at two levels; the nature of the effects of diet and the characteristics of the foods responsible for these effects. Mental outcomes are related to diet, with the effects perceived to be associated with attention and concentration, often mediated by effects on children's mood and behaviour. Parents categorise foods as 'good' or 'bad' with positive effects related generally to a healthy balanced diet while negative effects are perceived to be associated with sugary and fatty foods. Understanding parental perceptions is important for many purposes including the targeting of dietary advice and prioritising of public health issues. PMID:22248707

  17. Bulgaria country study address climate change mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Simeonova, K.

    1996-09-01

    The Bulgaria Country Study to address climate change is a research project that incorporates three major elements: inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), assessment of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, and mitigation analysis. The mitigation analysis is the central part of the study. Based on the assumptions of the socioeconomic development of the country up to the year 2020, it allows identification of policies and measures that may lead to the stabilization of GHG emissions, as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Bulgaria signed the FCCC in 1992, ratified it in 1995, and is now undertaking measures related to its implementation. At present Bulgaria is in the process of transition from a centrally planned economy to a market driven economy. This process is characterized by basic economic structural changes, freeing of prices (with only energy prices still controlled by the government), a drastic drop in GDP by 27% in 1992 compared to 1988, and reduction of energy consumption by 44% in 1992 compared to 1988. The analysis of the mitigation measures and their impact on the future development of economy and on the energy sector is a very complicated task. This paper will focus on the choice of methodology, some basic assumptions, and results of the study to date. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Study Abroad in Third World Countries: Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, John G.

    Perspectives on studying abroad in third world countries are presented. Fewer than 5% of Americans who study abroad do so in Third World Countries, although economically and politically the United States and these countries are interdependent. In addition, many employers are seeking individuals with cross-cultural training and sensitivity. The…

  19. A study of course deviations during cross-country soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, S. M.; Sliwa, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Several models are developed for studying the impact of deviations from course during cross country soaring flights. Analyses are performed at the microstrategy and macrostrategy levels. Two types of lift sources are considered: concentrated thermals and thermal streets. The sensitivity of the optimum speed solutions to various model, piloting and performance parameters is evaluated. Guides are presented to provide the pilot with criterions for making in-flight decisions. In general, course deviations are warranted during weak lift conditions, but are less justifiable with moderate to strong lift conditions.

  20. [Food and population: study of three countries].

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    In 1985, despite a nearly 25% worldwide surplus of cereals, more than 700 million poor people had insufficient food and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or related causes. 16% of the developing world's population is undernourished. Rapid population growth is a major reason for the world's hunger. Large families exhaust the resources of many urban couples and rural couples with little land. Closely spaced pregnancies deplete the nutritional resources of the mother and lead to low birth weight babies and inadequate lactation. Population growth in already densely populated countries reduces the land available for each family, inevitably contributing to poverty and rural malnutrition. Unemployment and underemployment reach alarming proportions in the city, where the combination of high fertility rates and migration from the countryside have produced growth twice that of the world population as a whole. Few developing countries have been able to generate sufficient investment to create new jobs for all seeking them. Unstable governments attempt to pacify urban unrest by subsidizing food prices and concentrating social and economic investments in the cities, causing further deterioration in rural conditions. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits, although not all are suffering. India, Kenya, and Mexico are 3 countries that have had some success in balancing population growth and food production, but each still has undernourished population sectors because of economic policies that fail to provide sufficient help to their poor and because of implacable population growth. Ending malnutrition in the 3 countries will require reducing the cost of food for households and increasing their incomes, but both objectives are made more difficult by rapid population growth. As a result of the green revolution and other factors, food production in India has tripled since 1950, but population has almost doubled in the same years. With rapid population growth, per capita agricultural productivity increased much more slowly than production. Kenya has enjoyed impressive economic growth since independence, but its rate of population growth of 4.2%/year, the highest in the world, has meant that per capita income increases have been modest. Average nutritional status has declined in Kenya since 1968. The rate of population growth in Mexico has declined to 2.3-2.6%/year in 1986 from the 3.5% of 1974, but population growth will be rapid for decades to come because of the young age structure. Agricultural production has increased but has not kept pace with population growth. Kenya, India, and Mexico have the human and natural resources to make further economic gains in the coming decades. The difficulty of feeding their populations adequately will increase to the extent that they fail to curb their rapid population increase. PMID:12157691

  1. Healthy city projects in developing countries: the first evaluation.

    PubMed

    Harpham, T; Burton, S; Blue, I

    2001-06-01

    The 'healthy city' concept has only recently been adopted in developing countries. From 1995 to 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, supported healthy city projects (HCPs) in Cox's Bazar (Bangladesh), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Fayoum (Egypt), Managua (Nicaragua) and Quetta (Pakistan). The authors evaluated four of these projects, representing the first major evaluation of HCPs in developing countries. Methods used were stakeholder analysis, workshops, document analysis and interviews with 102 managers/implementers and 103 intended beneficiaries. Municipal health plan development (one of the main components of the healthy city strategy) in these cities was limited, which is a similar finding to evaluations of HCPs in Europe. The main activities selected by the projects were awareness raising and environmental improvements, particularly solid waste disposal. Two of the cities effectively used the 'settings' approach of the healthy city concept, whereby places such as markets and schools are targeted. The evaluation found that stakeholder involvement varied in relation to: (i) the level of knowledge of the project; (ii) the project office location; (iii) the project management structure; and (iv) type of activities (ranging from low stakeholder involvement in capital-intensive infrastructure projects, to high in some settings-type activities). There was evidence to suggest that understanding of environment-health links was increased across stakeholders. There was limited political commitment to the healthy city projects, perhaps due to the fact that most of the municipalities had not requested the projects. Consequently, the projects had little influence on written/expressed municipal policies. Some of the projects mobilized considerable resources, and most projects achieved effective intersectoral collaboration. WHO support enabled the project coordinators to network at national and international levels, and the capacity of these individuals (although not necessarily their institutions) was increased by the project. The average annual running cost of the projects was approximately 132,000 US dollars per city, which is close to the costs of the only other HCP for which a cost analysis has been undertaken, Bangkok (115,000 US dollars per year) Recommendations for these and other HCPs are provided. PMID:11356750

  2. [Nutrition and population: study of three countries].

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion, deforestation, and flooding are becoming serious problems. Kenya's population of 21 million is growing at a rate of 4.2% annually, the fastest in the world. Despite impressive growth in the 2 decades after independence, per capita income has not increased as much with the population doubling in approximately 17 years. The poorest 20% of the population share 2.6% of household income, and per capita calorie consumption has dropped to 88% of the requirement from 98% in 1965. Mexico's population of 82 million is growing at a rate of 2.6% annually, down from 3.5% in 1974 when a serious family planning program was begun. Despite an average per capita calorie consumption 126% of the requirement, rural poverty and poor income distribution mean that hunger is widespread. Most peasants growing their own food depend on poor soil and uncertain rainfall. Progress in largescale agriculture has slowed considerably since 1940-65. PMID:12157690

  3. INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS, A COMPARISON OF TWELVE COUNTRIES, VOLUME I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUSEN, TORSTEN; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT OF AN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ALLIANCE OF TWELVE COUNTRIES EXPLAINS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PROCEDURES OF RESEARCH AND QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EDUCATION THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. RESEARCH INSTITUTES FROM TWELVE COUNTRIES ORGANIZED THE COUNCIL OF THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECT FOR THE EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL…

  4. Religious slaughter: evaluation of current practices in selected countries.

    PubMed

    Velarde, A; Rodriguez, P; Dalmau, A; Fuentes, C; Llonch, P; von Holleben, K V; Anil, M H; Lambooij, J B; Pleiter, H; Yesildere, T; Cenci-Goga, B T

    2014-01-01

    As part of the project "Religious slaughter (DIALREL): improving knowledge and expertise through dialogue and debate on issues of welfare, legislation and socio-economic aspects", this paper discusses an evaluation of current practices during Halal and Shechita slaughter in cattle, sheep, goats and poultry. During religious slaughter, animals are killed with and without stunning by a transverse incision across the neck that is cutting the skin, muscles (brachiocephalic, sternocephalic, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid), trachea, esophagus, carotid arteries, jugular veins and the major, superficial and deep nerves of the cervical plexus. In this report, the restraint methods, stunning, neck cutting, exsanguination, slaughter techniques and postcut handling in the abattoir were assessed for religious slaughter. Information about the procedures used during religious slaughter in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, Turkey and Australia was collected by means of spot visits to abattoirs. To standardize the information gathered during the spot visits three guidelines were designed, one for each species, and translated into the national languages of the countries involved. The document included questions on the handling and restraint methods (stunning, neck cutting/exsanguination/slaughter techniques and postcut handling performed under religious practices) and for pain and distress of the animal during the restraint, neck cutting and induction to death in each abattoir. Results showed differences in the time from restraining to stun and to cut in the neck cutting procedures and in the time from cut to death. PMID:23921219

  5. Methods of Evaluating Child Welfare in Indian Country: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kathleen; Cross, Terry L.; John, Laura; Carter, Patricia; Pavkov, Thomas; Wang, Ching-Tung; Diaz, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The poor quality and quantity of data collected in tribal communities today reflects a lack of true community participation and commitment. This is especially problematic for evaluation studies, in which the needs and desires of the community should be the central focus. This challenge can be met by emphasizing indigenous methods and voice. The…

  6. Evaluation of Immigrant Tuberculosis Screening in Industrialized Countries

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Manish; Baussano, Iacopo; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Dye, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In industrialized countries, tuberculosis (TB) cases are concentrated among immigrants and driven by reactivation of imported latent TB infection (LTBI). We examined mechanisms used to screen immigrants for TB and LTBI by sending an anonymous, 18-point questionnaire to 31 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Twenty-nine (93.5%) of 31 responded; 25 (86.2%) screened immigrants for active TB. Fewer countries (16/29, 55.2%) screened for LTBI. Marked variations were observed in targeted populations for age (range <5 years of age to all age groups) and TB incidence in countries of origin of immigrants (>20 cases/100,000 population to >500 cases/100,000). LTBI screening was conducted in 11/16 countries by using the tuberculin skin test. Six countries used interferon-γ release assays, primarily to confirm positive tuberculin skin test results. Industrialized countries performed LTBI screening infrequently and policies varied widely. There is an urgent need to define the cost-effectiveness of LTBI screening strategies for immigrants. PMID:22931959

  7. Photovoltaic evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

    Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

  8. The Process of Choosing a Management Career: Evaluation of Gender and Contextual Dynamics in a Comparative Study of Six Countries--Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, UK and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanova, Cem; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Inal, Gozde

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to identify the reasons MBA students have for their career choices, and to explore the contextual and gender-related aspects of career choice and development, based on a comparative study carried out with participants in six countries, i.e. Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, the UK and the USA. The paper…

  9. Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level

  10. Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

  11. Educational Evaluation in Scandinavian Countries: Converging or Diverging Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Hanne Foss

    2009-01-01

    Current educational evaluation is institutionalized as an element in national educational policy in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. This article analyses how higher education and primary and lower secondary education have adopted and institutionalized educational evaluation. The analysis shows similarities and differences in organizing and practicing…

  12. Educational Evaluation in Scandinavian Countries: Converging or Diverging Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Hanne Foss

    2009-01-01

    Current educational evaluation is institutionalized as an element in national educational policy in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. This article analyses how higher education and primary and lower secondary education have adopted and institutionalized educational evaluation. The analysis shows similarities and differences in organizing and practicing

  13. [Violence during pregnancy: prevalence studies in OECD countries].

    PubMed

    Liepe, K; Blättner, B

    2013-08-01

    Violence during pregnancy can be associated with health consequences for both the pregnant woman und the unborn child. The available data on prevalence are insufficient in Germany, an underestimation of the problem is probable. Therefore data from other OECD countries are considered. Searching in the databases EMBASE (incl. Medline), CINAHL, PsycINFO and SSCI in English or German language, primary and secondary studies from OECD countries published from 2004 to 2011 were identified. Studies without a valid instrument were excluded. 20 studies using 6 different, partially modified instruments were identified. In OECD countries the prevalence data vary, depending on the instrument applied and the design of the studies. The majority of the studies underestimate the prevalence of violence during pregnancy. Study results from OECD countries are in the analysed range of the reviews. The data collected in Germany are at the bottom of the spectrum. This suggests an underestimation of the problem in Germany. Further research is needed using more valid instruments and better study designs. PMID:23512468

  14. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved. PMID:12179461

  15. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in

  16. Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

  17. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  18. Preliminary lithostratigraphic correlation study in OAPEC member countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lababidi, M.M.; Hamdan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines a study correlating rock units in the Middle Eastern and North African member countries, based on direct information from the members. It comprises Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic correlation charts for each region and a lexicon giving the definition, age, lithology, and equivalents of each formation.

  19. Evaluating a sick child after travel to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Every year, millions of children travel internationally with their families, many to developing countries. Although the vast majority experience uneventful travel and return home well, it is not uncommon for children to present as ill during or after travel. Although the majority of travel-associated illness is mild and self-limited, serious conditions regularly occur. Almost all life-threatening conditions after travel present with fever, and malaria is the most important of these to rapidly exclude. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common after travel in the developing world, and most diarrhea in child travelers has a bacterial source. Children who have a rash in association with fever or who appear ill should receive a priority work-up focused on ruling out serious conditions. Many children traveling internationally experience respiratory illness during or shortly after travel, mainly common upper respiratory infections, yet serious conditions, such as tuberculosis, may occur. Eosinophilia is common in the returned pediatric traveler, particularly those with prolonged stays in the tropics. Not all eosinophilia is caused by parasitic infection; drug reactions, asthma, and other allergic conditions are also common causes. With a focus first on ruling out life-threatening disease and subsequently on an informed and efficient path to diagnosis and treatment, clinicians may confidently provide care for this challenging group of patients. PMID:21057065

  20. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR MEASURING SOIL CARBON IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As new field projects are considered for developing management practices that sequester carbon dioxide as soil C, a need exists for methods that accurately measure soil C. Various indirect methods have been recommended for measuring soil C, but additional evaluation is required if these methods are...

  1. Drug use in children: cohort study in three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Verhamme, Katia M C; Nicolosi, Alfredo; Murray, Macey L; Neubert, Antje; Caudri, Daan; Picelli, Gino; Sen, Elif Fatma; Giaquinto, Carlo; Cantarutti, Luigi; Baiardi, Paola; Felisi, Maria-Grazia; Ceci, Adriana; Wong, Ian C K

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence of “recurrent/chronic” use (three or more prescriptions a year) and “non-recurrent” or “acute” use (less than three prescriptions a year) within each therapeutic class. Descriptions of the top five most commonly used drugs evaluated for off label status within each anatomical class. Results Three levels of drug use could be distinguished in the study population: high (>10/100 children per year), moderate (1-10/100 children per year), and low (<1/100 children per year). For all age categories, anti-infective, dermatological, and respiratory drugs were in the high use group, whereas cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs were always in the low use group. Emollients, topical steroids, and asthma drugs had the highest prevalence of recurrent use, but relative use of low prevalence drugs was more often recurrent than acute. In the top five highest prevalence drugs topical inhaled and systemic steroids, oral contraceptives, and topical or systemic antifungal drugs were most commonly used off label. Conclusion This overview of outpatient paediatric prescription patterns in a large European population could provide information to prioritise paediatric therapeutic research needs. PMID:19029175

  2. Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kaddar, Nisrin; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean as household insecticides, pet sprays, and where malaria is endemic, impregnated into mosquito-repellent nets. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds have the potential to cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development, as was shown in limited animal studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to pyrethroids to pregnant women residing in 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Pyrethroid exposures were determined by analyzing five pyrethroid metabolites in urine samples from 295 pregnant women: cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA, and 4-F-3-PBA. Pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in Caribbean pregnant women were generally higher in the 10 Caribbean countries than levels reported for Canadian and U.S. women. In Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica participants the geometric mean concentrations of cis-DBCA was significantly higher than in the other nine countries together (p<0.0001 and <0.0012 respectively). For cis- and trans-DCCA, only Antigua & Barbuda women differed significantly from participants of the other nine Caribbean countries (p<0.0001). Urinary 4-F-3-PBA and 3-PBA levels were significantly higher in Antigua & Barbuda (p<0.0028 and p<0.0001 respectively) as well as in Grenada (p<0.0001 and p<0.007 respectively). These results indicate extensive use of pyrethroid compounds such as permethrin and cypermethrin in Caribbean households. In Antigua & Barbuda, the data reveals a greater use of deltamethrin. This study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to utilize this class of pesticides more judiciously given the potentially adverse effects of exposure on fetuses and infants. PMID:24317226

  3. [Multicentric study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; de Melo, André Nascimento; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Franco, Saúl Alonso; Alazraqui, Marcio; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián

    2012-12-01

    This article is a descriptive epidemiological study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico) from 1990 to 2007. Deaths due to external causes and homicides, as codified in the 9th and 10th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases/ICD, were analyzed considering sex, age and manner of assault. The numbers, ratios and adjusted rates for deaths by homicide are presented. A linear regression model was used to ascertain the trend of homicide rates by age group. During the period, 4,086,216 deaths from external causes and 1,432,971 homicides were registered in these countries. Deaths from external causes rose 54.5% in Argentina but fell in the other countries (37% in Mexico, 31.8% in Colombia, and 8.1% in Brazil). The ratio for deaths by homicide for both sexes was 9.1 in Colombia, 4.4 in Brazil and 1.6 in Mexico, using the Argentinian rates as a benchmark. There were differences in the evolution of homicide rates by age and sex in the countries: the rate rose in Brazil and fell in Colombia for all age groups. The need to prioritize young males in public policies related to health care and prevention is stressed, as well as the need for the region to adopt inclusive policies and broaden and consolidate democracy and the rights of inhabitants. PMID:23175395

  4. Civic Education across Countries: Twenty-four National Case Studies from the IEA Civic Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith; Schwille, John; Amadeo, Jo-Ann

    This volume reports the results of the first phase of the Civic Education Study conducted by International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). During 1996 and 1997, researchers in 24 countries collected documentary evidence on the circumstances, contents, and processes of civic education in response to a common set of…

  5. Moving towards universal health coverage: lessons from 11 country studies.

    PubMed

    Reich, Michael R; Harris, Joseph; Ikegami, Naoki; Maeda, Akiko; Cashin, Cheryl; Araujo, Edson C; Takemi, Keizo; Evans, Timothy G

    2016-02-20

    In recent years, many countries have adopted universal health coverage (UHC) as a national aspiration. In response to increasing demand for a systematic assessment of global experiences with UHC, the Government of Japan and the World Bank collaborated on a 2-year multicountry research programme to analyse the processes of moving towards UHC. The programme included 11 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam), representing diverse geographical, economic, and historical contexts. The study identified common challenges and opportunities and useful insights for how to move towards UHC. The study showed that UHC is a complex process, fraught with challenges, many possible pathways, and various pitfalls--but is also feasible and achievable. Movement towards UHC is a long-term policy engagement that needs both technical knowledge and political know-how. Technical solutions need to be accompanied by pragmatic and innovative strategies that address the national political economy context. PMID:26299185

  6. Inbreeding Depression and IQ in a Study of 72 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In this ecological study, a robust negative correlation of r = - 0.62 (P less than 0.01) is reported between national IQs and consanguinity as measured by the log10 transformed percentage of consanguineous marriages for 72 countries. This correlation is reduced in magnitude, when IQ is controlled for GDP per capita (r = - 0.41, P less than 0.01);…

  7. Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: Workers' Evaluations in Five Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17…

  8. Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: Workers' Evaluations in Five Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17

  9. Cross-cultural evaluation of the relevance of the HCAHPS survey in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Bruyneel, Luk; Aiken, Linda H.; Van den Heede, Koen; Brzostek, Tomasz; Busse, Reinhard; Ensio, Anneli; Schubert, Maria; Zikos, Dimitrios; Sermeus, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the systematic language translation and cross-cultural evaluation process that assessed the relevance of the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey in five European countries prior to national data collection efforts. Design An approach involving a systematic translation process, expert review by experienced researchers and a review by ‘patient’ experts involving the use of content validity indexing techniques with chance correction. Setting Five European countries where Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian and Polish are spoken. Participants ‘Patient’ experts who had recently experienced a hospitalization in the participating country. Main OutcomeMeasure(s) Content validity indexing with chance correction adjustment providing a quantifiable measure that evaluates the conceptual, contextual, content, semantic and technical equivalence of the instrument in relationship to the patient care experience. Results All translations except two received ‘excellent’ ratings and no significant differences existed between scores for languages spoken in more than one country. Patient raters across all countries expressed different concerns about some of the demographic questions and their relevance for evaluating patient satisfaction. Removing demographic questions from the evaluation produced a significant improvement in the scale-level scores (P= .018). The cross-cultural evaluation process suggested that translations and content of the patient satisfaction survey were relevant across countries and languages. Conclusions The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey is relevant to some European hospital systems and has the potential to produce internationally comparable patient satisfaction scores. PMID:22807136

  10. Etiology of acute diarrhoea among children in developing countries: a multicentre study in five countries.

    PubMed

    Huilan, S; Zhen, L G; Mathan, M M; Mathew, M M; Olarte, J; Espejo, R; Khin Maung, U; Ghafoor, M A; Khan, M A; Sami, Z

    1991-01-01

    A 2-year etiological survey of acute diarrhoea in children aged 0-35 months who were attending treatment facilities was carried out using a standardized protocol in five hospitals in China, India, Mexico, Myanmar, and Pakistan. A total of 3640 cases of diarrhoea and 3279 age- and sex-matched controls were studied; about 60% of the patients were aged less than 1 year and 60% were male. An enteric pathogen was detected in 68% of the cases and in 30% of the controls. In all the study centres, the pathogens most strongly associated with disease were rotavirus (16% of cases, 2% of controls), Shigella spp. (11% of cases, 1% of controls) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (16% of cases, 5% of controls). Rotavirus was commonest among 6-11-month-olds, accounting for 20% of all cases in this age group; 71% of all rotavirus episodes occurred during the first year of life. Shigella spp. were commonest among those aged 12-23 months and 24-35 months, accounting for 22% and 27% of the cases, respectively. The proportion of cases that yielded no pathogen was inversely related to age, being highest (41%) among infants below 6 months of age and lowest (19%) among those aged 24-35 months. These results suggest that microbe-specific intervention strategies for the control of childhood diarrhoeal diseases in developing countries should focus on rotavirus, Shigella spp. and enterotoxigenic E. coli. PMID:1659953

  11. Assessment of external costs for transport project evaluation: Guidelines in some European countries

    SciTech Connect

    Petruccelli, Umberto

    2015-09-15

    Many studies about the external costs generated by the transport system have been developed in the last twenty years. To standardize methodologies and assessment procedures to be used in the evaluation of the projects, some European countries recently have adopted specific guidelines that differ from each other in some aspects even sensibly. This paper presents a critical analysis of the British, Italian and German guidelines and is aimed at cataloguing the external cost types regarded and the assessment methods indicated as well as to highlight the differences of the results, in terms of applicability and reliability. The goal is to contribute to a European standardization process that would lead to the drafting of guidelines suited for all EU countries. - Highlights: • The analyzed guidelines agree on the methods to evaluate costs from air pollution, greenhouse gases and accidents. • They recommend respectively: dose-resp. approach; costs to reduce/permit emissions; whole direct, indirect and social costs. • For noise, DE guide indicates defensive expenditure or SP methods; IT guide, SP method; UK guide, the hedonic prices one. • For on territory impact, DE guide regards only the barrier effect; the IT one, also the soil consumption and system effects. • British guide proposes a qualitative methodology to estimate the impact on various landscapes and environments.

  12. How Can We Assess and Evaluate the Competitive Advantage of a Country's Human Resource Development System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hunseok; Ryu, Hyue-Hyun; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country's human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The

  13. How Can We Assess and Evaluate the Competitive Advantage of a Country's Human Resource Development System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hunseok; Ryu, Hyue-Hyun; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country's human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The…

  14. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the different cost components (vector control; surveillance; information, education and communication; direct medical and indirect costs), as percentage of total costs, differed across the respective countries. Resources used for dengue disease control and treatment were country specific. Conclusions The evidence so far collected further confirms the methodological challenges in this field: 1) to define technically dengue outbreaks (what do we measure?) and 2) to measure accurately the costs in prospective field studies (how do we measure?). Currently, consensus on the technical definition of an outbreak is sought through the International Research Consortium on Dengue Risk Assessment, Management and Surveillance (IDAMS). Best practice guidelines should be further developed, also to improve the quality and comparability of cost study findings. Modelling the costs of dengue outbreaks and validating these models through field studies should guide further research. PMID:24195519

  15. The Czech government scholarship programme for students from developing countries--evaluation findings and policy reflections.

    PubMed

    Němečková, Tereza; Krylová, Petra; Horký -Hlucháň, Ondřej; Hejkrlík, Jiří; Jílkova, Klementína

    2014-04-01

    In Czech Republic there is a long tradition of providing tertiary scholarships to students from developing countries. The government scholarship programme started in the 1950s already as a part of the Czechoslovak technical assistance to countries in the South. Even though the programme left tens of thousands of graduates all over the world, the recent programme evaluation has revealed that it is characterised by a relatively poor performance. This article brings forward the main outcomes of the programme evaluation, highlights the policy recommendations and summarises policy reflections that occurred following the evaluation. The programme evaluation was done under unfavourable circumstances and could be accordingly defined as 'shoestring evaluation'. The restrictions and their influence on evaluation outcomes are discussed in article, too. PMID:24380834

  16. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-12-01

    Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

  17. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

  18. Job insecurity and health: A study of 16 European countries

    PubMed Central

    László, Krisztina D.; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S.; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45–70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. PMID:20060634

  19. Evaluation of pressure and durability of a low-cost wheelchair cushion designed for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Evandro; Mann, William C

    2003-06-01

    Pressure sores are a medical problem for wheelchair users worldwide. In developing countries this problem is more critical because of lack of access to specialized technologies and medical assessment. Seat cushions to relieve pressure represent one of best ways to prevent pressure sores for people with spinal cord injury, amputation, cerebral palsy, and other disabilities that require use of wheelchairs for long periods of time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a low cost cushion, called the Tuball, designed for low-income communities in developing countries. The Tuball is made from bicycle inner tubes and plastic balls. Its durability and pressure-relieving characteristics were compared with the ROHOTM cushion and the foam cushions now used in Brazil. A sample of 30 participants tested the three cushions: 15 persons with paraplegia and 15 matched able-bodied persons evaluated the capacity of the cushions to distribute pressure. This study also addressed the use of samples of persons without disabilities to test wheelchair cushions.The Tuball cushion provided significantly better pressure distribution than the foam cushion. A t-test was used to compare disabled persons and non-disabled persons as samples in testing cushions. No difference between pressure distribution between non-disabled and disabled participants was found in testing the ROHO cushion or the foam cushion. However, both capacities of pressure distribution and HICPR varied between non-disabled and disabled participants for the Tuball cushion. To determine the useful life of the Tuball cushion, a fatigue test was conducted to simulate sitting and transfer. Both the Tuball and ROHO cushions withstood the equivalent of at least 1 year of use, whereas the foam cushion broke down. PMID:12799609

  20. Nurse Migration from a Source Country Perspective: Philippine Country Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn E; Galvez-Tan, Jaime; Icamina, Kriselle; Javier, Lara

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To describe nurse migration patterns in the Philippines and their benefits and costs. Principal Findings The Philippines is a job-scarce environment and, even for those with jobs in the health care sector, poor working conditions often motivate nurses to seek employment overseas. The country has also become dependent on labor migration to ease the tight domestic labor market. National opinion has generally focused on the improved quality of life for individual migrants and their families, and on the benefits of remittances to the nation. However, a shortage of highly skilled nurses and the massive retraining of physicians to become nurses elsewhere has created severe problems for the Filipino health system, including the closure of many hospitals. As a result, policy makers are debating the need for new policies to manage migration such that benefits are also returned to the educational institutions and hospitals that are producing the emigrant nurses. Conclusions and Recommendations There is new interest in the Philippines in identifying ways to mitigate the costs to the health system of nurse emigration. Many of the policy options being debated involve collaboration with those countries recruiting Filipino nurses. Bilateral agreements are essential for managing migration in such a way that both sending and receiving countries derive benefit from the exchange. PMID:17489922

  1. A systematic review of economic evaluations of interventions to tackle cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low-and middle-income countries are facing both a mounting burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as severe resource constraints that keep them from emulating some of the extensive strategies pursued in high-income countries. There is thus an urgency to identify and implement those interventions that help reap the biggest reductions of the CVD burden, given low resource levels. What are the interventions to combat CVDs that represent good "value for money" in low-and middle-income countries? This study reviews the evidence-base on economic evaluations of interventions located in those countries. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of journal articles published until 2009, based on a comprehensive key-word based search in generic and specialized electronic databases, accompanied by manual searches of expert databases. The search strategy consisted of freetext and MeSH terms related to economic evaluation and cardiovascular disease. Two independent reviewers verified fulfillment of inclusion criteria and extracted study characteristics. Results Thirty-three studies met the selection criteria. We find a growing research interest, in particular in most recent years, if from a very low baseline. Most interventions fall under the category primary prevention, as opposed to case management or secondary prevention. Across the spectrum of interventions, pharmaceutical strategies have been the predominant focus, and, taken at face value, these show significant positive economic evidence, specifically when compared to the counterfactual of no interventions. Only a few studies consider non-clinical interventions, at population level. Almost half of the studies have modelled the intervention effectiveness based on existing risk-factor information and effectiveness evidence from high-income countries. Conclusion The cost-effectiveness evidence on CVD interventions in developing countries is growing, but remains scarce, and is biased towards pharmaceutical interventions. While the burden of cardiovascular disease is growing in these countries, future research should put greater emphasis on non-clinical interventions than has hitherto been the case. Significant differences in outcome measures and methodologies prohibit a direct ranking of the interventions by their degree of cost-effectiveness. Considerable caution should be exercised when transferring effectiveness estimates from developed countries for the purpose of modelling cost-effectiveness in developing countries. New local CVD risk factor and intervention follow-up studies are needed. Some pharmaceutical strategies appear cost-effective while clarifications are needed on the diagnostic approach in single high-risk factor vs. absolute risk targeting, the role of patient compliance, and the potential public health consequences of large-scale medicalization. PMID:22214510

  2. Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational

  3. Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

  4. Project analysis procedures for an OPEC country: case study of Qatar's Northwest Dome Gas Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.B.; Khalifah, H.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of oil in most OPEC countries in the 1940s changed the economies of these countries from a state of capital shortage and stagnation to a state of capital surplus and economic growth. This growth, however, is lopsided. Oil production and export dominate the gross domestic products (GDPs) of those economies. Concern arising during the 1970s about overdependence on crude oil export as the main source of national income has resulted in the initiation of various industrial development programs in OPEC states aiming to diversify their economies. This study was conducted with two primary objectives: (1) to identify and understand the features of selected OPEC countries' development problems, strategies and plans, focusing on the role of oil and gas resources and opportunities for diversification, and (2) to suggest an appropriate development strategy, with project evaluation implications, for capital-abundant, labor-scarce OPEC countries in the Gulf region such as Qatar. This proposed approach is designed to evaluate the project from its contribution to the national income, people's welfare, the expansion of the economy's absorptive capacity, and relief of the economy's dependence on nonrenewable resources. The Northwest Dome Gas Project in Qatar was selected as an illustrative case study for this approach.

  5. A Strategy for the Evaluation of Activities to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation strategy in which a set of process indicators is applied to programs to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries is presented. The four-stage strategy is illustrated for three interventions: (1) providing safe abortion services; (2) increasing knowledge of obstetric complications; and (3) improving medical care quality. (SLD)

  6. The Challenges of Small-Scale Evaluation in a Foreign Country: Reflections on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a reflection on practice. It begins by briefly describing an evaluation of an externally-funded education programme in Kosovo (a new country in south-east Europe). The programme was managed by Save the Children in Kosovo and aimed to develop and promote models of inclusive education through three strands of activity. The first of…

  7. Evaluations of community mental health care in low- and middle-income countries: a 10-year review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wiley-Exley, Elizabeth

    2007-03-01

    Community-based models of providing mental health services are widely considered effective ways of serving individuals diagnosed with mental illness, but more comprehensive literature on these models in low- and middle-income countries is needed. This study is a systematic review of the effects of community-based models on health outcomes of adults with depression, schizophrenia, panic disorder, or bipolar disorders in middle- and low-income countries. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Reviews were searched, returning 500 articles. The seventeen interventions included in this review in 14 countries show us that community-based mental health services can provide improvements in mental health outcomes, and the limited cost analyses suggest cost savings associated with community models of care. These findings are in line with much of the research on higher income countries. In addition, the studies also point to the gaps in the literature on costs, rural areas, bipolar disorders, and panic disorders, and note the need for further reviews of interventions targeting additional diseases, children, and adolescents as well as studies published in languages other than English. This review of the literature serves as a stepping stone for further research in community-based mental health services in low- and middle-income countries. The works reviewed here provide a base of knowledge that will assist us in taking the important next steps in program implementation and evaluation. PMID:17196314

  8. Evaluation of the applicability of SWAT in the Nile Basin countries: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Griensven, A.; Ndomba, P. M.; Kilonzo, F.

    2012-04-01

    A plethora of hydrological modeling codes are nowadays available and many applications of these tools have been reported in peer reviewed journal papers. The hypothesis that the model is appropriate for the case study and the purpose of the study is however very often not questioned. We aim here at critically reviewing the use of a widely used hydrological simulation tool, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the context of the modeling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile Basin countries. Up to date, more than 20 peer reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT in this region for a variety of problems, such as erosion modeling, land use modeling, climate change impact modeling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are clustered in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. A number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, the performance, the physical representation of the model parameters, and the representativeness of the hydrological model balance. Here we evaluate the applications of within the Nile basin. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained several losses that might not be justified. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For that reason, it is difficult to give an overall positive evaluation to most of the reported SWAT models. An important gap is the lack of attention that is given to the vegetation and crop processes. None of the papers reported any adaptation to the crop parameters, or any crop related output such as leaf area index, biomass or crop yields. A proper simulation of the land cover is important for obtaining correct evapotranspiration and erosion computations. It is also found that a comparison of SWAT applications on the same or similar case study but by different research teams and/or model versions resulted in very different results. It is therefore recommended to try to find better methods to evaluate the representativeness of the distributed processes and parameters, especially when land use studies are envisaged. The main recommendation is that more details on the model set-up, the parameters and outputs should be provided in the journal papers in order to allow for a more stringent evaluation of these models.

  9. A Study Focusing on American Expatriates' Learning in Host Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, In-Sun; Paprock, Kenneth C.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 70 U.S. expatriate workers found that most learned the culture of their host country through reflective learning. Factors helping their adjustment included previous cross-cultural experience, language competence, long-term relationship with hosts, and information about the host country from both home and host sources. (Contains 29…

  10. A country-wide field evaluation of rapid diagnostic test for meningococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    We comment on a unique country-wide scale field evaluation of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for meningococcal meningitis in Niger. The authors reported the good sensitivity and specificity of the test, and the reliability of results obtained in the field by non-specialized health staff. This finding allows us to consider RDT as a good candidate laboratory tool to be used for the case-based surveillance system, post introduction of the new conjugate A vaccine (MenAfriVac) in the African meningitis belt countries. In addition, RDT is also a potential point of care test to improve the management of meningitis patients. PMID:24627423

  11. A Systematic Survey Instrument Translation Process for Multi-Country, Comparative Health Workforce Studies

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Aiken, Linda H.; van den Heede, Koen; Sermeus, Walter; Bruyneel, Luk; Lindqvist, Rikard; Schoonoven, Lisette; Stromseng, Ingeborg; Busse, Reinhard; Brozstek, Tomas; Ensio, Anneli; Moreno-Casbas, Mayte; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Schubert, Maria; Zikos, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Background As health services research (HSR) expands across the globe, researchers will adopt health services and health worker evaluation instruments developed in one country for use in another. This paper explores the cross-cultural methodological challenges involved in translating HSR in the language and context of different health systems. Objectives To describe the pre-data collection systematic translation process used in a twelve country, eleven language nursing workforce survey. Design & Settings We illustrate the potential advantages of Content Validity Indexing (CVI) techniques to validate a nursing workforce survey developed for RN4CAST, a twelve country (Belgium, England, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland), eleven language (with modifications for regional dialects, including Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Spanish, and Swedish), comparative nursing workforce study in Europe. Participants Expert review panels comprised of practicing nurses from twelve European countries who evaluated cross-cultural relevance, including translation, of a nursing workforce survey instrument developed by experts in the field. Methods The method described in this paper used Content Validity Indexing (CVI) techniques with chance correction and provides researchers with a systematic approach for standardizing language translation processes while simultaneously evaluating the cross-cultural applicability of a survey instrument in the new context. Results The cross-cultural evaluation process produced CVI scores for the instrument ranging from .61 to .95. The process successfully identified potentially problematic survey items and errors with translation. Conclusions The translation approach described here may help researchers reduce threats to data validity and improve instrument reliability in multinational health services research studies involving comparisons across health systems and language translation. PMID:22445444

  12. Applying social, behavioral and evaluation research to developing country HIV prevention programs.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, J M; Hogle, J

    1998-01-01

    The campaign against HIV/AIDS has been hindered by a disjunction between behavioral research and the design of preventive interventions. A review was conducted of over 400 social, behavioral, and evaluation studies conducted as part of Family Health International's AIDS Control and Prevention Project in 45 countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia in 1992-1997. Program-related research showed a shift from repetitive studies of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) to studies that yielded tangible information on how people change. Extensive use was made of findings from focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and baseline and follow-up KAP surveys to design culturally relevant interventions. Behavioral research evolved over time from a focus on traditional high-risk groups to broader populations such as adolescents and women. Most research continues to be descriptive, conducted in response to urgent program needs (e.g., for baseline data), and focused on individuals rather than social organizations. Valid assessment of the effectiveness of behavior change interventions presents numerous methodological and evaluation problems, including the bias inherent in self-report data, an inability to attribute behavioral changes to specific interventions, and the insensitivity of HIV prevalence as an indicator of short-term behavior change. However, the results of controlled intervention studies attest that prevention had had a substantial impact on HIV knowledge, attitudes toward those infected with HIV, perceptions of individual risk, and sex behavior among target groups. Continued triangulation of the results of a variety of sources and methodologies will reduce systemic bias in the research data. PMID:9792367

  13. Health workforce development: a needs assessment study in French speaking African countries.

    PubMed

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development. PMID:22453358

  14. Study Finds Shortage of Surgeries in World's Poorest Countries

    MedlinePlus

    ... providing the most essential operations, said Dr. Walter Johnson, coordinator of the World Health Organization's Emergency and ... in need in low- and middle-income countries," Johnson said. SOURCE: Bulletin of the World Health Organization , ...

  15. Ebola or Not? Evaluating the Ill Traveler From Ebola-Affected Countries in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Jessica K.; Kozarsky, Phyllis E.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Guarner, Jeannette; Steinberg, James P.; Anderson, Evan; Jacob, Jesse T.; Meloy, Patrick; Gillespie, Darria; Espinoza, Tamara R.; Isakov, Alexander; Vanairsdale, Sharon; Baker, Esther; Wu, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa had global impact beyond the primarily affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Other countries, including the United States, encountered numerous patients who arrived from highly affected countries with fever or other signs or symptoms consistent with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods. We describe our experience evaluating 25 travelers who met the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for a person under investigation (PUI) for EVD from July 20, 2014 to January 28, 2015. All patients were triaged and evaluated under the guidance of institutional protocols to the emergency department, outpatient tropical medicine clinic, or Emory's Ebola treatment unit. Strict attention to infection control and early involvement of public health authorities guided the safe evaluation of these patients. Results. None were diagnosed with EVD. Respiratory illnesses were common, and 8 (32%) PUI were confirmed to have influenza. Four patients (16%) were diagnosed with potentially life-threatening infections or conditions, including 3 with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 1 with diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions. In addition to preparing for potential patients with EVD, Ebola assessment centers should consider other life-threatening conditions requiring urgent treatment, and travelers to affected countries should be strongly advised to seek pretravel counseling. Furthermore, attention to infection control in all aspects of PUI evaluation is paramount and has presented unique challenges. Lessons learned from our evaluation of potential patients with EVD can help inform preparations for future outbreaks of highly pathogenic communicable diseases. PMID:26925428

  16. Ebola or Not? Evaluating the Ill Traveler From Ebola-Affected Countries in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Jessica K; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Kraft, Colleen S; Guarner, Jeannette; Steinberg, James P; Anderson, Evan; Jacob, Jesse T; Meloy, Patrick; Gillespie, Darria; Espinoza, Tamara R; Isakov, Alexander; Vanairsdale, Sharon; Baker, Esther; Wu, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa had global impact beyond the primarily affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Other countries, including the United States, encountered numerous patients who arrived from highly affected countries with fever or other signs or symptoms consistent with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods.  We describe our experience evaluating 25 travelers who met the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for a person under investigation (PUI) for EVD from July 20, 2014 to January 28, 2015. All patients were triaged and evaluated under the guidance of institutional protocols to the emergency department, outpatient tropical medicine clinic, or Emory's Ebola treatment unit. Strict attention to infection control and early involvement of public health authorities guided the safe evaluation of these patients. Results.  None were diagnosed with EVD. Respiratory illnesses were common, and 8 (32%) PUI were confirmed to have influenza. Four patients (16%) were diagnosed with potentially life-threatening infections or conditions, including 3 with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 1 with diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions.  In addition to preparing for potential patients with EVD, Ebola assessment centers should consider other life-threatening conditions requiring urgent treatment, and travelers to affected countries should be strongly advised to seek pretravel counseling. Furthermore, attention to infection control in all aspects of PUI evaluation is paramount and has presented unique challenges. Lessons learned from our evaluation of potential patients with EVD can help inform preparations for future outbreaks of highly pathogenic communicable diseases. PMID:26925428

  17. A Framework for the Monitoring and Evaluation of International Surgical Initiatives in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, George M.; Cadotte, David W.; Bernstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated two billion people worldwide lack adequate access to surgical care. To address this humanitarian emergency, an increasing number of international surgical partnerships are emerging between developed and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). At present, there are no clear indicators that may be used to assess the effectiveness of such initiatives. Study Design We conducted an international qualitative study of 31 surgeons from developed and LMICs involved in international partnerships across a variety of subspecialties. Thematic analysis and grounded theory were applied in order to develop a practical framework that may be applied to monitor and evaluate global surgical initiatives. Results Several themes emerged from the study: (i) there is a large unmet need to establish and maintain prospective databases in LMICs to inform the monitoring and evaluation of international surgical partnerships; (ii) assessment of initiatives must occur longitudinally over the span of several years; (ii) the domains of assessment are contextual and encompass cultural, institutional and regional factors; and (iv) evaluation strategies should explore broader impact within the community and country. Based on thematic analysis within the domains of inputs, outputs and outcomes, a framework for the monitoring and evaluation of international surgical initiatives, the Framework for the Assessment of InteRNational Surgical Success (FAIRNeSS) is proposed. Conclusions In response to the increasing number of surgical partnerships between developed and LMICs, we propose a framework to monitor and evaluate international surgical initiatives. PMID:25821970

  18. [Health economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccines in the developing countries: systematic reviews].

    PubMed

    Song, X B; Mao, F Z; Zhou, Z; Zhao, Q J; Fang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma has brought huge burden on patients, especially in developing countries. Preventive vaccines could effectively reduce the incidence of cervical carcinoma. The high prices were one of the most difficult problem in introducing the vaccine in developing countries, so the cost-effectiveness and health financing of the vaccines should be carefully studied before incorporated into the national immunization program. Thus, researchers used mathematical models to predict the effects of HPV vaccines and to study the cost- effectiveness. In order to understand the current situation on the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in the developing countries, a systematic searching of literature from PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Medline, ProQuest, CNKI and Wangfang Data was performed, this study aims to conduct a systematic review from aspects of project source, first author, research areas, research perspectives, prevention strategies, vaccine characteristics, cost-effectiveness. PMID:26792509

  19. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  20. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 1, Summary: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Cerutti, O.M.

    1992-08-01

    Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions` levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

  1. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Cerutti, O.M.

    1992-08-01

    Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions' levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

  2. Is decentralisation the real solution? A three country study.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Ilaria

    2006-06-01

    Decentralisation in the health care sector has been perceived in these last years as a means to revamp the performance of health care systems. Many European countries have undergone this process of delegating funding and/or management responsibilities to sub-layers of government. However, there has also been a recentralisation of health care systems in Nordic states, which typically had a highly decentralised model of service provision and funding. Three country cases will be analysed (Italy, Spain and Norway) and light will be shed on some possible difficulties that Italy and Spain might experience, given their present health decentralised structure. Moreover, there will be an analysis of the reasons that led to recentralisation of health care in Norway. The scope is to make people aware that decentralisation per se is not always successful. The three country cases highlight possible drawbacks that can arise from decentralisation. PMID:16154226

  3. Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Janić, Snežana Radisavljević; Jurak, Gregor; Milanović, Ivana; Lazarević, Dušanka; Kovač, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities. PMID:25310227

  4. Evaluation of mammography equipment performance, dose and image quality in five Latin American countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandan, M.-E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Caspani, C. E. M.; Fleitas, I.; de-la-Mora, R.; Miranda, A. A.; Plazas, M.-C.; Betancourt, C.-M.; Borras, C.

    2001-10-01

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of radiology experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities. Evaluation of the equipment performance and dose measurements in 21 mammographic units show that, on the average, 75% of the units comply with recommendations issued by various organizations. An independent evaluation of the quality of the clinical images show strong variations among the different radiological services.

  5. Quality Assurance and Evaluation (QAE) in Scotland: Promoting Self-Evaluation within and beyond the Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croxford, Linda; Grek, Sotiria; Shaik, Farah Jeelani

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at policy for quality assurance and evaluation in Scotland, its history and more recent developments, and in particular, at the emphasis on school self-evaluation. It examines the history of the concept, its constituent elements and the role of the Inspectorate in establishing it. Further, the article discusses the Scottish…

  6. Recent sedimentary study of the shelf of the Basque country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanneau, J.-M.; Weber, O.; Champilou, N.; Cirac, P.; Muxika, I.; Borja, A.; Pascual, A.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, J.; Donard, O.

    2008-07-01

    The Northern Iberian margin of the Spanish Basque country (provinces of Gipuzkoa and Viscaia) is characterized by a narrow continental platform, which receives inputs of riverine particulate matter from the numerous riverine systems located within the Basque country. This particulate matter is subsequently deposited within the Bay of Biscay, and Gouf de Capbreton [Frouin, R., Fiuza, A.F.G., Ambar, I., Boyd, T.J., 1990. Observations of a poleward surface current off the coasts of Portugal and Spain during winter. Journal of Geophysical Research 95 (C1), 679-691]. The main goal of this study is to establish a map of the surface sediment distribution of the Basque continental shelf and more specifically to map the muddy patch located at the eastern side of that continental shelf. Three oceanographic cruises were conducted in 2003 and 2004. From these campaigns 340 surface samples, 12 short cores and 3 gravity cores have been collected over the mid and outer shelf from depths ranging between 50 m and 150 m deep. 3 seismic profiles were obtained across the shelf mud patch using a Sparker device. Sediment grain-size analyses were performed by the classical physical method of sieving and use of settling columns. The POC (Particular Organic Carbon) amounts in sediment and water samples were determined using the Strickland and Parsons' method [Strickland, J.D.H., Parsons, T.R., 1972. Determination of particulate carbon. In : A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Fisheries ResearchBoard of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 207-211] as adapted by Etcheber [Etcheber, H., 1981. Comparaison des diverses méthodes d'évaluation des teneurs en matières en suspension et en carbone organique particulaire des eaux marines du plateau continental aquitain. Journal de Recherche Océanographique VI (2), 37-42]. Radioisotopic measurements ( 210Pb exc) were made using a semi-planar germanium detector coupled to a multichannel analyser. Radiographical analysis was performed with an X-ray equipment (SCOPIX®) coupled with a radioscopy instrumentation and processing unit. Firstly, a detailed sedimentological map of this shelf has been produced and secondly, geophysical surveys have precisely mapped the geometry of the main mud patch on the continental shelf. In the mud patch itself the rates of sedimentation are between 0.13 and 0.50 cm yr - 1 . The maximum rate of sedimentation is located in the central mud patch, whereas the minimum rate of deposition occurs close to the rocky outcrops. These results seem to be in agreement with the estimation of the total thickness of the mud patch revealed by seismic profiles. The central part corresponds to the maximum thickness of 7 m. Interpretations of the associated oceanic current forcing factors (current direction, wave fetch and wind directional modes) relating to the identified sediment depositional zones are also undertaken.

  7. Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate in developing countries: An IAEA study.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Barton, Michael; Mackillop, William; Fidarova, Elena; Cordero, Lisbeth; Yarney, Joel; Lim, Gerard; Abad, Anthony; Cernea, Valentin; Stojanovic-Rundic, Suzana; Strojan, Primoz; Kobachi, Lotfi; Quarneti, Aldo

    2015-07-01

    Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate (RTU) is the proportion of all cancer cases that should receive radiotherapy. Optimal RTU was estimated for 9 Middle Income Countries as part of a larger IAEA project to better understand RTU and stage distribution. PMID:26164776

  8. Neurophysiological evidence for the country-of-origin effect: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Min, Byoung-Kyong; Cho, Kwangsu; Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Erin

    2014-03-01

    Consumers often rely on observable cues that hint at the hidden quality of a product. The aim of this study was to investigate brain activities associated with the country-of-origin (COO) effect and consumer evaluation of a product design. Electroencephalogram recordings were used to observe event-related brain potentials associated with the COO effect and design evaluation. We found that the frontocentral N90 and parieto-occipital P220 amplitudes are involved in forming preference to design, whereas the COO effect is processed in the centroparietal P500 amplitude. We also found a significant interaction effect between COO and design preference with regard to reaction times. Specifically, participants tended to spend more time making a preference decision when they did not like the product design made in a country with a favorable COO. These results imply that the two cognitive processes, evaluation of COO and formation of design preference, are activated independently at an early stage. It also suggests that these two processes interact with each other toward the end of the decision phase. Together, the results of this study provide neuropsychological evidence supporting a significant role of COO in the formation of design preference. Future studies are required to further delve into other neurophysiological activities associated with the COO effect. PMID:24518230

  9. Neurophysiological evidence for the country-of-origin effect: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwangsu; Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Consumers often rely on observable cues that hint at the hidden quality of a product. The aim of this study was to investigate brain activities associated with the country-of-origin (COO) effect and consumer evaluation of a product design. Electroencephalogram recordings were used to observe event-related brain potentials associated with the COO effect and design evaluation. We found that the frontocentral N90 and parieto-occipital P220 amplitudes are involved in forming preference to design, whereas the COO effect is processed in the centroparietal P500 amplitude. We also found a significant interaction effect between COO and design preference with regard to reaction times. Specifically, participants tended to spend more time making a preference decision when they did not like the product design made in a country with a favorable COO. These results imply that the two cognitive processes, evaluation of COO and formation of design preference, are activated independently at an early stage. It also suggests that these two processes interact with each other toward the end of the decision phase. Together, the results of this study provide neuropsychological evidence supporting a significant role of COO in the formation of design preference. Future studies are required to further delve into other neurophysiological activities associated with the COO effect. PMID:24518230

  10. African Braille Production: A Statistical Review and Evaluation of Countries and Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Marc; Cylke, Frank Kurt

    A study was conducted in 52 African countries to determine the extent of braille facilities for the blind, with the aim of choosing a location for a central braille producing facility. To make the selection, the factors of ease of communication (i.e., central location), political stability, and extent of already existing organizations for the…

  11. Clearing a Hurried Path: Study on Education Programs for Migrant Workers in Six Asian Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalba, Noel C.

    Against the backdrop of the Asian economic crisis, this study examined the range of education programs for migrant workers in six Asian countries. Surveys were returned from 145 migrant worker support organizations in three host countries--Hong Kong, South Korea, and Japan--and three sending countries--the Philippines, Indonesia, and India. The…

  12. Across-country test-day model evaluations for Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lidauer, Martin H; Pösö, Jukka; Pedersen, Jørn; Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Per; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Nielsen, Ulrik S; Eriksson, Jan-Åke; Johansson, Kjell; Pitkänen, Timo; Strandén, Ismo; Aamand, Gert P

    2015-02-01

    Three random regression models were developed for routine genetic evaluation of Danish, Finnish, and Swedish dairy cattle. Data included over 169 million test-day records with milk, protein, and fat yield observations from over 8.7 million dairy cows of all breeds. Variance component analyses showed significant differences in estimates between Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey, but only small to moderate differences within a breed across countries. The obtained variance component estimates were used to build, for each breed, their own set of covariance functions. The covariance functions describe the animal effects on milk, protein, and fat yields of the first 3 lactations as 9 different traits, assuming the same heritabilities and a genetic correlation of unity across countries. Only 15, 27, and 7 eigenfunctions with the largest eigenvalues were used to describe additive genetic animal effects and nonhereditary animal effects across lactations and within later lactations, respectively. These reduced-rank covariance functions explained 99.0 to 99.9% of the original variances but reduced the number of animal equations to be solved by 44%. Moderate rank reduction for nonhereditary animal effects and use of one-third-smaller measurement error correlations than obtained from variance component estimation made the models more robust against extreme observations. Estimation of the genetic levels of the countries' subpopulations within a breed was found sensitive to the way the breed effects were modeled, especially for the genetically heterogeneous Nordic Red Cattle. Means to ensure that only additive genetic effects entered the estimated breeding values were to describe the crossbreeding effects by fixed and random cofactors and the calving age effect by an age × breed proportion interaction, and to model phantom parent groups as random effects. To ensure that genetic variances were the same across the 3 countries in breeding value estimation, as suggested by the variance component estimates, the applied multiplicative heterogeneous variance adjustment method had to be tailored using country-specific reference measurement error variances. Results showed the feasibility of across-country genetic evaluation of cows and sires based on original test-day phenotypes. Nevertheless, applying a thorough model validation procedure is essential throughout the model building process to obtain reliable breeding values. PMID:25434332

  13. Gas pricing in developing countries: A case study of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Sohail, H.M.; Abid, M.S.; Ansari, A.M.

    1994-02-01

    Pakistan, a developing country, has gone through various phases of formulating gas pricing policies during its 40-year history of natural gas production and consumption. This paper identifies critical factors that influenced gas pricing policies in Pakistan and adverse effects experienced when any of these factors was not given proper consideration. For instance, on the producer's side, discounted pricing formulas discouraged further exploration and development, leaving high-potential areas unexplored and discovered fields dormant for more than a decade. On the consumer's side, subsidized gas prices encouraged consumption to rise steeply without new discoveries to offset additional surplus consumption. The paper also discusses various short- and long-term variables that should go into a gas pricing policy for developing countries. References to recent policies are also given, indicating how these variables were incorporated in real terms. The conclusions and recommendations, based on Pakistan's long experience with the gas industry, should be useful for other oil-importing countries rich in indigenous gas resources.

  14. Comparison of patient evaluations of health care quality in relation to WHO measures of achievement in 12 European countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Sixma, Herman J.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; van der Eijk, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into similarities and differences in patient evaluations of quality of primary care across 12 European countries and to correlate patient evaluations with WHO health system performance measures (for example, responsiveness) of these countries. METHODS: Patient evaluations were derived from a series of Quote (QUality of care Through patients' Eyes) instruments designed to measure the quality of primary care. Various research groups provided a total sample of 5133 patients from 12 countries: Belarus, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom, and Ukraine. Intraclass correlations of 10 Quote items were calculated to measure differences between countries. The world health report 2000 - Health systems: improving performance performance measures in the same countries were correlated with mean Quote scores. FINDINGS: Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from low to very high, which indicated little variation between countries in some respects (for example, primary care providers have a good understanding of patients' problems in all countries) and large variation in other respects (for example, with respect to prescription of medication and communication between primary care providers). Most correlations between mean Quote scores per country and WHO performance measures were positive. The highest correlation (0.86) was between the primary care provider's understanding of patients' problems and responsiveness according to WHO. CONCLUSIONS: Patient evaluations of the quality of primary care showed large differences across countries and related positively to WHO's performance measures of health care systems. PMID:15042232

  15. Evaluation of Study Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Paul B.

    Although the practice of journeying to a foreign country for educational purposes has an ancient history, it has only recently had a great impact on American higher education. A rapid increase in the number of programs and the number of student participants began in the mid-1950's and continues presently. This research project was conducted during…

  16. A critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for HIV prevention in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brian J.; Bailey, Robert C.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Leibowitz, Arleen; Wamai, Richard G.; Waskett, Jake H.; Banerjee, Joya; Halperin, Daniel T.; Zoloth, Laurie; Weiss, Helen A.; Hankins, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    A potential impediment to evidence-based policy development on medical male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention in all countries worldwide is the uncritical acceptance by some of arguments used by opponents of this procedure. Here we evaluate recent opinion-pieces of 13 individuals opposed to MC. We find that these statements misrepresent good studies, selectively cite references, some containing fallacious information, and draw erroneous conclusions. In marked contrast, the scientific evidence shows MC to be a simple, low-risk procedure with very little or no adverse long-term effect on sexual function, sensitivity, sensation during arousal or overall satisfaction. Unscientific arguments have been recently used to drive ballot measures aimed at banning MC of minors in the USA, eliminate insurance coverage for medical MC for low-income families, and threaten large fines and incarceration for health care providers. Medical MC is a preventative health measure akin to immunisation, given its protective effect against HIV infection, genital cancers and various other conditions. Protection afforded by neonatal MC against a diversity of common medical conditions starts in infancy with urinary tract infections and extends throughout life. Besides protection in adulthood against acquiring HIV, MC also reduces morbidity and mortality from multiple other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital cancers in men and their female sexual partners. It is estimated that over their lifetime one-third of uncircumcised males will suffer at least one foreskin-related medical condition. The scientific evidence indicates that medical MC is safe and effective. Its favourable risk/benefit ratio and cost/benefit support the advantages of medical MC. PMID:22452415

  17. Evaluation of the impact of Brazil's sustainability on the behavioral intentions of stakeholders toward the country.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Janaina de Moura Engracia

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the influence of sustainability as a dimension of country image on behavioral intentions (so-called conations) of stakeholders toward Brazil. In addition, sustainable consumption, a moderating variable of the country-of-origin effect (not been identified in other studies), and consumers' gender and familiarity with the country are investigated as moderating variables. The empirical research is of a descriptive nature, and in terms of data collection, a survey method has been used on a sample of undergraduate students from foreign institutions. In total, 427 questionnaires have been considered in the analysis. The results of a multiple regression analyses show that the dimensions of country image (affective, political, technical and sustainability) are reliable factors that have a positive influence on conations toward Brazil, with the affective dimension exerting the strongest influence. Further comparisons show that the sustainability dimension is more important in shaping the conations of female respondents and those with low familiarity with Brazil, whereas the political dimension is more relevant in shaping the conations of male respondents and those with high familiarity with Brazil. Finally, the sustainability dimension has a minor influence on individuals with higher levels of sustainable consumption. PMID:26195177

  18. Usefulness of routine preoperative testing in a developing country: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bordes, Julien; Cungi, Pierre-Julien; Savoie, Pierre-Henry; Bonnet, Stéphane; Kaiser, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The assessment of anesthetic risks is an essential component of preoperative evaluation. In developing world, preanesthesia evaluation may be challenging because patient's medical history and records are scare, and language barrier limits physical examination. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of routine preoperative testing in a low-resources setting. Methods Prospective observational study performed in a French forward surgical unit in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. 201 patients who were scheduled for non urgent surgery were screened with routine laboratory exams during preoperative evaluation. Changes in surgery were assessed (delayed or scheduled). Results Abnormal hemoglobin findings were reported in 35% of patients, abnormal WBC count in 11,1% of patients, abnormal platelets in 15,3% of patients. Positive HIV results were found in 8,3% of cases. Routine tests represented 43,6% of changes causes. Conclusion Our study showed that in a developing country, routine preoperative tests showed abnormal results up to 35% of cases, and represented 43,5% of delayed surgery causes. The rate of tests leading to management changes varied widely, from 0% to 8,3%. These results suggested that selected tests would be useful to diagnose diseases that required treatment before non urgent surgery. However, larger studies are needeed to evaluate the cost/benefit ratio and the clinical impact of such a strategy. PMID:26516395

  19. Chronic Conditions and Sleep Problems among Adults Aged 50 years or over in Nine Countries: A Multi-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Ai; Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Leonardi, Matilde; Koskinen, Seppo; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on the association between chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems in low- or middle-income countries is scarce, and global comparisons of these associations with high-income countries have not been conducted. Methods Data on 42116 individuals 50 years and older from nationally-representative samples of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (Finland, Poland, Spain) and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa) conducted between 2011–2012 and 2007–2010 respectively were analyzed. Results The association between nine chronic conditions (angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke) and self-reported severe/extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days was estimated by logistic regression with multiple variables. The age-adjusted prevalence of sleep problems ranged from 2.8% (China) to 17.0% (Poland). After adjustment for confounders, angina (OR 1.75–2.78), arthritis (OR 1.39–2.46), and depression (OR 1.75–5.12) were significantly associated with sleep problems in the majority or all of the countries. Sleep problems were also significantly associated with: asthma in Finland, Spain, and India; chronic lung disease in Poland, Spain, Ghana, and South Africa; diabetes in India; and stroke in China, Ghana, and India. A linear dose-dependent relationship between the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems was observed in all countries. Compared to no chronic conditions, the OR (95%CI) for 1,2,3, and≥4 chronic conditions was 1.41 (1.09–1.82), 2.55 (1.99–3.27), 3.22 (2.52–4.11), and 7.62 (5.88–9.87) respectively in the overall sample. Conclusions Identifying co-existing sleep problems among patients with chronic conditions and treating them simultaneously may lead to better treatment outcome. Clinicians should be aware of the high risk for sleep problems among patients with multimorbidity. Future studies are needed to elucidate the best treatment options for comorbid sleep problems especially in developing country settings. PMID:25478876

  20. Beyond Resistance: Exploring Health Managers' Propensity for Participatory Evaluation in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois; Farand, Lambert

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the…

  1. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  2. Solving Educational Problems: The Theory and Reality of Innovation in Developing Countries. IBE Studies and Surveys in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havelock, R. G.; Huberman, A. M.

    This book contains a study of the process of educational change in developing countries. It is being disseminated in the hope that it may stimulate interest in the process of change, so that a more experimental and evaluative approach may emerge in the search for a better system of education. By looking at several different sources of information…

  3. Review of the current use and evaluation of cell substrates for producing biologicals in selected countries.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Na; Xu, Miao; Rodríguez, Violeta Pérez; Mefed, Kirill; Hanada, Kentaro; Ahn, Kwang-Soo; Gangakhedkar, Shri Jayant; Pakzad, Saeed Reza; Prawahju, Elizabeth Ika; Lee, Naery; Phumiamorn, Supaporn; Nemec, Martin; Meng, Shufang; Knezevic, Ivana

    2015-05-01

    In 2010, the WHO guidance document for the evaluation of cell substrates for producing biologicals was replaced with updated recommendations and in May 2013 an implementation workshop on the new recommendations was held in Beijing, China. As part of this workshop, a survey of the use and evaluation of cell substrates for producing biologicals was undertaken and the information obtained was updated in June 2014. The purpose of survey was to capture the status of national requirements related to cell substrates in various countries with particular emphasis on whether or not the updated WHO recommendations had been, or were to be, incorporated into national requirements. This paper reports the outcome of the survey and is based on information provided by regulators in eleven countries. Since the publication of the updated WHO recommendations, several activities such as the implementation workshop and publications have been undertaken by the WHO. The aim of these activities, including the publication of this article, is to contribute to the implementation of WHO recommendations so as to reduce regulatory gaps between national requirements and globally agreed expectations. PMID:25707711

  4. Economic burden of torture for a refugee host country: development of a model and presentation of a country case study

    PubMed Central

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Frey, Conrad; Chastonay, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Torture is an important social and political problem worldwide that affects millions of people. Many host countries give victims of torture the status of refugee and take care of them as far as basic needs; health care, professional reinsertion, and education. Little is known about the costs of torture. However, this knowledge could serve as an additional argument for the prevention and social mobilization to fight against torture and to provide a powerful basis of advocacy for rehabilitation programs and judiciary claims. Objectives Development of a model for estimating the economic costs of torture and applying the model to a specific country. Methods The estimation of the possible prevalence of victims of torture was based on a review of the literature. The identification of the socioeconomic factors to be considered was done by analogy with various health problems. The estimation of the loss of the productivity and of the economic burden of disease related to torture was done through the human capital approach and the component technique analysis. Case study The model was applied to the situation in Switzerland of estimated torture victims Switzerland is confronted with. Results When applied to the case study, the direct costs – such as housing, food, and clothing – represent roughly 130 million Swiss francs (CHF) per year; whereas, health care costs amount to 16 million CHF per year, and the costs related to education of young people to 34 million CHF per year. Indirect costs, namely those costs related to the loss of the productivity of direct survivors of torture, have been estimated to one-third of 1 billion CHF per year. This jumps to 10,073,419,200 CHF in the loss of productivity if one would consider 30 years of loss per survivor. Conclusion Our study shows that a rough estimation of the costs related to torture is possible with some prerequisites, such as access to social and economic indicators at the country level. PMID:24729721

  5. Perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes associated with adults’ recreational walking: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Cerin, Ester; Owen, Neville; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Conway, Terry L; Van Dyck, Delfien; Schipperijn, Jasper; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S; Mitáš, Josef; Sarmiento, Olga L; Davey, Rachel; Schofield, Grant; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults’ recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from crime, and proximity to parks were linearly associated with recreational walking, while curvilinear associations were found for residential density, land use mix, and aesthetics. The observed associations were consistent across countries, except for aesthetics. Using data collected from environmentally diverse countries, this study confirmed findings from prior single-country studies. Present findings suggest that similar environmental attributes are associated with recreational walking internationally. PMID:24721737

  6. Perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes associated with adults׳ recreational walking: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Cerin, Ester; Owen, Neville; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Conway, Terry L; Van Dyck, Delfien; Schipperijn, Jasper; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S; Mitáš, Josef; Sarmiento, Olga L; Davey, Rachel; Schofield, Grant; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Sallis, James F

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults' recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from crime, and proximity to parks were linearly associated with recreational walking, while curvilinear associations were found for residential density, land use mix, and aesthetics. The observed associations were consistent across countries, except for aesthetics. Using data collected from environmentally diverse countries, this study confirmed findings from prior single-country studies. Present findings suggest that similar environmental attributes are associated with recreational walking internationally. PMID:24721737

  7. Dynamic Transmission Economic Evaluation of Infectious Disease Interventions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Drake, Tom L; Devine, Angela; Yeung, Shunmay; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Lisa J; Lubell, Yoel

    2016-02-01

    Economic evaluation using dynamic transmission models is important for capturing the indirect effects of infectious disease interventions. We examine the use of these methods in low- and middle-income countries, where infectious diseases constitute a major burden. This review is comprised of two parts: (1) a summary of dynamic transmission economic evaluations across all disease areas published between 2011 and mid-2014 and (2) an in-depth review of mosquito-borne disease studies focusing on health economic methods and reporting. Studies were identified through a systematic search of the MEDLINE database and supplemented by reference list screening. Fifty-seven studies were eligible for inclusion in the all-disease review. The most common subject disease was HIV/AIDS, followed by malaria. A diverse range of modelling methods, outcome metrics and sensitivity analyses were used, indicating little standardisation. Seventeen studies were included in the mosquito-borne disease review. With notable exceptions, most studies did not employ economic evaluation methods beyond calculating a cost-effectiveness ratio or net benefit. Many did not adhere to health care economic evaluations reporting guidelines, particularly with respect to full model reporting and uncertainty analysis. We present a summary of the state-of-the-art and offer recommendations for improved implementation and reporting of health economic methods in this crossover discipline. 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26778620

  8. An adequacy evaluation of a 10-year, four-country nutrition and health programme

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Peter R; Mildon, Alison; Siekmans, Kendra; Main, Barbara; MacDonald, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Background Evaluations of large-scale health and nutrition programmes in developing countries are needed for determining the effectiveness of interventions. This article critically analyses a non-governmental organization (NGO)-led large-scale, multi-country, 10-year micronutrient and health (MICAH) programme with an ‘adequacy evaluation’, that is, a documentation of time trends in the expected direction. Methods MICAH was implemented from 1996 to 2005 in selected areas of Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania, reaching >6 million people with numerous health and nutrition interventions. Coverage and impact were monitored through surveys at baseline, midpoint and end of funding. The data were subjected to post-hoc methods of quality determination, and, if of suitable quality, included in the adequacy evaluation. Results Most collected data were of moderate or high quality and therefore included in the adequacy evaluation. There were moderate to large improvements in vitamin A status in Ethiopian school-age children, children <5 years of age in Tanzania and Ghana and mothers in Ghana. Iodine status improved in Malawi and Tanzania. Anaemia rates and malaria prevalence decreased in women, pregnant women and pre-school children in Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania, but anaemia increased in Ethiopian women. Large increases were reported for rates of exclusive breastfeeding and immunization. Child growth improved to the maximum that would be predicted with the given interventions. Conclusions Numerous nutrition and health impacts were observed in the intervention areas, often of a magnitude equal to or larger than observed in controlled interventions or trials. These results show the value of integrated long-term interventions. PMID:20202929

  9. International health links: an evaluation of partnerships between health-care organizations in the UK and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Dave; Killeen, Tim; Wright, John

    2006-07-01

    Increasingly, international health links are evolving between UK health-care institutions and those in developing countries, the core aims of which are to seek the transfer of ideas, knowledge, skills and training. This study aimed to evaluate established health links, what constitutes them and how they are supported. Benefits and challenges associated with the links, as perceived both by link coordinators in the UK and their overseas partners, were explored. Fourteen links between health-care organizations in the UK and those in developing countries were identified and interviews were successfully conducted with 22 link coordinators: 13 in the UK and nine in developing countries. The interviews indicated that health links offer mutual benefits to both partners in terms of shared skills and the promotion of global awareness. Links can act as important catalysts; stimulating increases in institutional capacity for research and training. They provide opportunities for personal and professional development of staff and promote the development of friendships and supportive networks between diverse communities. Many of the health links showed signs of evolving from uniprofessional links between individual institutions into broader, multidisciplinary community partnerships. The main challenges facing health links arise from cultural differences, funding problems, communication difficulties and bureaucracy. There was broad agreement that greater recognition of the value and importance of health links by the NHS and closer collaboration between government departments to provide support and resources could promote wider and more effective link partnerships. PMID:16884618

  10. Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific: Country Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    National studies of the progress being made toward the universalization of primary education in 12 Asian countries are reported in this collection. Begun in 1983, the studies were conducted to analyze the stage reached by the participating countries and the problems encountered by them in providing educational opportunities to all children at the…

  11. Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, James; Gallimore, Ronald; Garnier, Helen; Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Jacobs, Jennifer; Chui, Angel Miu-Ying; Wearne, Diana; Smith, Margaret; Kersting, Nicole; Manaster, Alfred; Tseng, Ellen; Etterback, Wallace; Manaster, Carl; Gonzales, Patrick; Stigler, James

    2003-01-01

    Presents results from the mathematics portion of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video study, which examined classroom teaching practices in eighth-grade mathematics and science in seven countries. Identifies some general features among the countries, but discernible variation in teaching methods and topics…

  12. Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, James; Gallimore, Ronald; Garnier, Helen; Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Jacobs, Jennifer; Chui, Angel Miu-Ying; Wearne, Diana; Smith, Margaret; Kersting, Nicole; Manaster, Alfred; Tseng, Ellen; Etterback, Wallace; Manaster, Carl; Gonzales, Patrick; Stigler, James

    2003-01-01

    Presents results from the mathematics portion of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video study, which examined classroom teaching practices in eighth-grade mathematics and science in seven countries. Identifies some general features among the countries, but discernible variation in teaching methods and topics

  13. Loneliness, Social Networks, and Health: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Uribe, Laura Alejandra; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Haro, Josep Maria; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is widely recognized that social networks and loneliness have effects on health. The present study assesses the differential association that the components of the social network and the subjective perception of loneliness have with health, and analyzes whether this association is different across different countries. Methods A total of 10 800 adults were interviewed in Finland, Poland and Spain. Loneliness was assessed by means of the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. Individuals’ social networks were measured by asking about the number of members in the network, how often they had contacts with these members, and whether they had a close relationship. The differential association of loneliness and the components of the social network with health was assessed by means of hierarchical linear regression models, controlling for relevant covariates. Results In all three countries, loneliness was the variable most strongly correlated with health after controlling for depression, age, and other covariates. Loneliness contributed more strongly to health than any component of the social network. The relationship between loneliness and health was stronger in Finland (|β| = 0.25) than in Poland (|β| = 0.16) and Spain (|β| = 0.18). Frequency of contact was the only component of the social network that was moderately correlated with health. Conclusions Loneliness has a stronger association with health than the components of the social network. This association is similar in three different European countries with different socio-economic and health characteristics and welfare systems. The importance of evaluating and screening feelings of loneliness in individuals with health problems should be taken into account. Further studies are needed in order to be able to confirm the associations found in the present study and infer causality. PMID:26761205

  14. Tackling the tensions in evaluating capacity strengthening for health research in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Bates, Imelda; Boyd, Alan; Aslanyan, Garry; Cole, Donald C

    2015-04-01

    Strengthening research capacity in low- and middle-income countries is one of the most effective ways of advancing their health and development but the complexity and heterogeneity of health research capacity strengthening (RCS) initiatives means it is difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. Our study aimed to enhance understanding about these difficulties and to make recommendations about how to make health RCS evaluations more effective. Through discussions and surveys of health RCS funders, including the ESSENCE on Health Research initiative, we identified themes that were important to health RCS funders and used these to guide a systematic analysis of their evaluation reports. Eighteen reports, produced between 2000 and 2013, representing 12 evaluations, were purposefully selected from 54 reports provided by the funders to provide maximum variety. Text from the reports was extracted independently by two authors against a pre-designed framework. Information about the health RCS approaches, tensions and suggested solutions was re-constructed into a narrative. Throughout the process contacts in the health RCS funder agencies were involved in helping us to validate and interpret our results. The focus of the health RCS evaluations ranged from individuals and institutions to national, regional and global levels. Our analysis identified tensions around how much stakeholders should participate in an evaluation, the appropriate balance between measuring and learning and between a focus on short-term processes vs longer-term impact and sustainability. Suggested solutions to these tensions included early and ongoing stakeholder engagement in planning and evaluating health RCS, modelling of impact pathways and rapid assimilation of lessons learned for continuous improvement of decision making and programming. The use of developmental approaches could improve health RCS evaluations by addressing common tensions and promoting sustainability. Sharing learning about how to do robust and useful health RCS evaluations should happen alongside, not after, health RCS efforts. PMID:24717984

  15. Mexican Network for the evaluation of Solar Resources in the country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, M.; Bonifaz, R.; Estevez, H.

    2014-12-01

    Information on Global Solar Radiation provides only the first approximation for the evaluation of solar energy that is necessary for locating potential exploitation sites. Depending on what technology is used, more specific components of the solar radiation (Direct. Diffuse, Global, inclined planes), as well as, certain physical characteristics of the atmosphere (atmospheric aerosol) are required for evaluating solar resources. In order to measure these radiation components in a large country such as Mexico, where there are many abrupt changes in topography and differences in climatic conditions even over small distances, it would be necessary to have a network with several hundred stations. In this situation, the use of models is a more viable solution that has been proven with a high degree of certainty, considering it is based on reliable control points for the adjustment. Here we present the network that was developed on a regional classification based on climatic elements, geology, land use, vegetation and albedo. Solar stations from different universities and research institutes in Mexico also form part of this network for the evaluation of the solar resources in Mexico and its components.

  16. Social Studies. Microsift Courseware Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This compilation of 17 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 1-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

  17. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  18. Multiple Paths to Effective National Evaluation Societies: Evidence from 37 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holvoet, Nathalie; Dewachter, Sara

    2013-01-01

    National Evaluation Societies (NES) are situated at the intersection between Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) supply and demand. To date, little research has explored NES and their potential for strengthening national M&E. This study addresses this gap, examining perceived NES performance relevant to organizational and policy-oriented goals…

  19. Theory-Driven Process Evaluation of a Complementary Feeding Trial in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jamie E.; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K. Michael; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Bose, Carl L.; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Wright, Linda L.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square

  20. Theory-Driven Process Evaluation of a Complementary Feeding Trial in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jamie E.; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K. Michael; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Bose, Carl L.; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Wright, Linda L.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square…

  1. Barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine: a bi-country evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vimarlund, Vivian; Le Rouge, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing that current practices for healthcare delivery are no longer sustainable, OECD governments are focusing more and more on how to leverage ICT to facilitate superior healthcare delivery. One such possibility is the use of Telemedicine. A major goal of telemedicine today is to develop next-generation telemedicine tools and technologies. However, key "classic" barriers continue to challenge widespread telemedicine adoption by health care organizations. These barriers include technology, financial, legal/standards, business strategy, and human resources issues. This comparative study explores the current status of barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine in two different countries: Sweden, and USA. PMID:23920707

  2. Failure to Apply for Ethical Approval for Health Studies in Low-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Simkhada, Padam

    2015-01-01

    On too many occasions researchers conduct public health and/or epidemiological studies in low-income countries without the appropriate in-country ethical approval. This article reflects on some of the underlying reasons for not applying for ethical approval. The piece concludes that we need to start by educating our (junior) researchers and research students about the importance of research ethics. We conclude with a number of recommendations for researchers, scientific journal editors and reviewers and ethical committees in high-income countries to bring the message home to researchers that ethical approval should be sought in low-income countries if and when required! PMID:26913212

  3. Population based studies of cancer survival: scope for the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Murali; Rao, Shivani; Vijaysimha, R

    2010-01-01

    Survival refers to the life of a person after diagnosis of disease, and survival studies have the objective of evaluating the overall performance of a group of patients in terms of quality and quantity of life after the diagnosis or treatment. Potentially there are two approaches for the study of population-based survival; direct (classical) and indirect. The direct approach refers to defining a cohort of patients and collecting follow-up information, whereas the indirect approach uses current data on incidence and mortality for estimating various segments of life. In general, there are numerous difficulties in the conduct of population-based survival studies by the classical method, especially in the set-up of developing countries. These include time and finance required for the conduct of the study, the problem of loss to follow-up and also the time gap between the year of diagnosis of patients and the availability of results on their survival. In fact the problem of time gap is recognized even in the developed world. There have been many studies highlighting these problems and suggesting potential solutions. Generally they have focused on three directions: viz, improving the address information and thereby reducing the loss to follow-up; development of methodologies to deal with the losses to follow-up and indirect studies of cancer survival, thereby obviating the follow-up process. This commentary covers the potential approaches of population-based survival studies, classical survival studies, problems in the same, and methods adopted for their solution. A summary of the conceptual and methodological developments on these concepts, highlighting the scope for the developing countries, is also presented. PMID:21039063

  4. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries…

  5. Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that…

  6. Brazil: Finance of Primary Education. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, D.; And Others

    Compiled by the World Bank, this study of educational finance in Brazil identifies principal problems, possible solutions, and recommendations for policy changes. The study indicates that Brazil has not given high priority to educational investment, and identifies the problems as: (1) a lack of financial policy analysis and planning; (2) too…

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of Pisa 2003-2006 Results in Reading Literacy Skills: An Example of Top-Five OECD Countries and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ayhan; Erdagf, Coskun; Tas, Nuray

    2011-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to describe and evaluate comparatively the reading literacy exam results, the finance of education and schools, and socio-cultural status of parents in Turkey and the top-five OECD countries, Finland, Korea, Canada, Australia, New Zealand respectively, in the light reports and publications by OECD regarding PISA 2003 and…

  8. The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries. IEA Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    This book focuses on the impact of private education in developing countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Peru, Romania, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The private education sector is large and innovative in the countries studied and not the domain of the wealthy. Contrary to popular opinion, private education in…

  9. Home Education in the Post-Communist Countries: Case Study of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additional information about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever…

  10. Genderedness of Bar Drinking Culture and Alcohol-Related Harms: A Multi-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…

  11. Case Study of a Course for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Peter B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a course designed to provide the necessary academic study prior to students engaging in the practice of irrigation engineering. Rationale for the course, course structure, and special features of the course are included. (JN)

  12. Developing a Web Site for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention in a Middle Income Country: A Pilot Study from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Viseskul, Nongkran; Srikantha, Wimonsiri; Fongkaew, Warunee; Surapagdee, Natthakarn; Grimes, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Internet has often been used to reach men who have sex with men (MSMs) in developed countries. However, its use has not been as widespread in middle income countries because of a perceived lack of access to the web by residents of these countries. However, over half of the Internet users in the world now live in middle income countries. This article describes the development of web-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention program that can serve as a model for middle income countries. Thai nursing faculty worked with MSMs to create and evaluate a Web site that provided HIV prevention messages directed toward MSMs. The steps for creating the site are described. Forty-one MSMs used the site and provided feedback to the site developers. The group was young (median=19 years), low income (median income was ∼170 US$ per month). The users demonstrated that they had access to the Internet and that they could utilize the site. They also reported moderate-to-high levels of satisfaction with site design, content, ease of use, information obtained, and benefits obtained from using the site. A previous article in the Thai language also showed that they reduced risk behaviors. They also made many useful suggestions for improving the content of the site. In conclusion, the study showed that the combination of nurses and MSMs from a middle income country could develop a usable HIV prevention Web site that instructed and changed behavior. PMID:23002987

  13. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  14. Teacher Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isore, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the most relevant issues concerning teacher evaluation in primary and secondary education by reviewing the recent literature and analysing current practices within the OECD countries. First, it provides a conceptual framework highlighting key features of teacher evaluation schemes. In particular, it emphasises the importance

  15. Obesity Researches Over the Past 24 years: A Scientometrics Study in Middle East Countries

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers call for updated valid evidences to monitor, prevent, and control of alarming trends of obesity. We quantify the trends of obesity/overweight researches outputs of Middle East countries. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus database as the only sources for multidisciplinary citation reports, with the most coverage in health and biomedicine disciplines for all related obesity/overweight publications, from 1990 to 2013. These scientometrics analysis assessed the trends of scientific products, citations, and collaborative papers in Middle East countries. We also provided Information on top institutions, journals, and collaborative research centers in the field of obesity/overweight. Results: Over 24-year period, the number of obesity/overweight publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. Globally, during 1990–2013, 415,126 papers have been published, from them, 3.56% were affiliated to Middle East countries. Iran with 26.27%, compare with other countries in the regions, after Turkey (47.94%) and Israel (35.25%), had the third position. Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Conclusions: Despite the ascending trends in research outputs, more efforts required for promotion of collaborative partnerships. Results could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These findings also could be used for future complementary analysis. PMID:26015861

  16. Use of Multicriteria Risk Ranking of Zoonotic Diseases in a Developing Country: Case Study of Mongolia.

    PubMed

    McFadden, A M J; Muellner, P; Baljinnyam, Z; Vink, D; Wilson, N

    2016-03-01

    Many developing countries face significant health burdens associated with a high incidence of endemic zoonoses and difficulties in integrated control measures for both the human and animal populations. The objective of this study was to develop and apply a multicriteria ranking model for zoonoses in Mongolia, a country highly affected by zoonotic disease, to inform optimal resource allocation at the national level. Diseases were evaluated based on their impact on human health, livestock sector health and the wider society through affects on the economic value of livestock, as well as the feasibility of control in both the human and livestock population. Data on disease in Mongolia were collected from various government departments including the Mongolian State Central Laboratory, the Mongolian Department of Veterinary and Animal Breeding, the Mongolian Ministry of Health, Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases, the National Center for Zoonotic Disease and expert opinion from a workshop with a number of Mongolian Government officials and researchers. A combined score for both impact of the disease and feasibility of its control was calculated. Five zoonotic diseases were determined to be of high priority from this assessment (i.e. ovine brucellosis, echinococcosis (hydatids), rabies, anthrax and bovine brucellosis). The results supported some of the findings for high-priority diseases (namely brucellosis, rabies and anthrax) from a previous priority setting exercise carried out in Mongolia in 2011, but also identified and ranked additional animal diseases of public health importance. While the process of model development was largely Mongolian specific, the experience of developing and parameterizing this multicriteria ranking model could be replicated by other countries where zoonoses have substantive impacts on both animal and human health. PMID:26177028

  17. Gaps in capacity for respiratory care in developing countries. Nigeria as a case study.

    PubMed

    Obaseki, Daniel; Adeniyi, Bamidele; Kolawole, Tolulope; Onyedum, Cajetan; Erhabor, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    There are unmet needs for respiratory medical care in developing countries. We sought to evaluate the quality and capacity for respiratory care in low- and lower-middle-income countries, using Nigeria as a case study. We obtained details of the respiratory practice of consultants and senior residents (fellows) in respiratory medicine in Nigeria via a semistructured questionnaire administered to physician attendees at the 2013 National Congress of the Nigerian Thoracic Society. Out of 76 society-registered members, 48 attended the congress, 40 completed the questionnaire, and 35 provided complete data (73% adjusted response rate). Respondents provided information on the process and costs of respiratory medicine training and facility, equipment, and supply capacities at the institutions they represented. Approximately 83% reported working at a tertiary level (teaching) hospital; 91% reported capacity for sputum smear analysis for acid alcohol-fast bacilli, 37% for GeneXpert test cartridges, and 20% for BACTEC liquid sputum culture. Only 34% of respondents could perform full spirometry on patients, and none had the capacity for performing a methacholine challenge test or for measuring the diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. We estimated the proportion of registered respiratory physicians to the national population at 1 per 2.3 million individuals. Thirteen states with an estimated combined population of 57.7 million offer no specialist respiratory services. Barriers to development of this capacity include the high cost of training. We conclude that substantial gaps exist in the capacity and quality of respiratory care in Nigeria, a pattern that probably mirrors most of sub-Saharan Africa and other countries of similar economic status. Health policy makers should address these gaps systematically. PMID:25734613

  18. Country of Contrasts: A Study Guide on Panama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athey, Lois E., Ed.; And Others

    This study guide seeks to provide resources to bring the voices and experiences of Panamanian students into classrooms. This guide includes: (1) "History of a Canal" (in English and Spanish) (Pablo Neruda); (2) "Poems by Cubena"; (3) "Maps of Panama and The Canal Zone"; (4) "Historical Overview: Panama (1501-1992)"; (5) "Molas" (Maria…

  19. Understanding Quality Assurance: A Cross Country Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choon Boey Lim, Fion

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of understanding between an Australian university and its offshore partner institution, on quality assurance. It attempts to highlight the dynamics of quality assurance policy implementation within and across institutions for an offshore degree. Design/methodology/approach: The study used…

  20. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  1. Methodological Variation in Economic Evaluations Conducted in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Information for Reference Case Development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Information generated from economic evaluation is increasingly being used to inform health resource allocation decisions globally, including in low- and middle- income countries. However, a crucial consideration for users of the information at a policy level, e.g. funding agencies, is whether the studies are comparable, provide sufficient detail to inform policy decision making, and incorporate inputs from data sources that are reliable and relevant to the context. This review was conducted to inform a methodological standardisation workstream at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and assesses BMGF-funded cost-per-DALY economic evaluations in four programme areas (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and vaccines) in terms of variation in methodology, use of evidence, and quality of reporting. The findings suggest that there is room for improvement in the three areas of assessment, and support the case for the introduction of a standardised methodology or reference case by the BMGF. The findings are also instructive for all institutions that fund economic evaluations in LMICs and who have a desire to improve the ability of economic evaluations to inform resource allocation decisions. PMID:25950443

  2. Methodological variation in economic evaluations conducted in low- and middle-income countries: information for reference case development.

    PubMed

    Santatiwongchai, Benjarin; Chantarastapornchit, Varit; Wilkinson, Thomas; Thiboonboon, Kittiphong; Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Walker, Damian G; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-01-01

    Information generated from economic evaluation is increasingly being used to inform health resource allocation decisions globally, including in low- and middle- income countries. However, a crucial consideration for users of the information at a policy level, e.g. funding agencies, is whether the studies are comparable, provide sufficient detail to inform policy decision making, and incorporate inputs from data sources that are reliable and relevant to the context. This review was conducted to inform a methodological standardisation workstream at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and assesses BMGF-funded cost-per-DALY economic evaluations in four programme areas (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and vaccines) in terms of variation in methodology, use of evidence, and quality of reporting. The findings suggest that there is room for improvement in the three areas of assessment, and support the case for the introduction of a standardised methodology or reference case by the BMGF. The findings are also instructive for all institutions that fund economic evaluations in LMICs and who have a desire to improve the ability of economic evaluations to inform resource allocation decisions. PMID:25950443

  3. Evaluating Educational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, I.; Hogarth, S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on some initial findings from an ongoing research project undertaken with staff and students at one university department of Educational Studies. The project is seeking to explore the experiences of undergraduate students who are reading Educational Studies. Graduates of the degree programme are not awarded qualified teacher…

  4. Review of country case studies on climate change. Global Environment Facility Paper 7

    SciTech Connect

    Fuglesvedt, J.; Hanisch, T.; Isaksen, I.; Selrod, R.; Strand, J.

    1994-02-01

    The report provides an overview of the status of country studies on climate change by drawing on the experience to date. Comparisons of ecological and economic efficiency are essential in determining the eligibility of projects to receive funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF). This paper examines several methodological and reporting issues and stresses the importance of comparability. Areas examined include inventories of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, impacts and vulnerability assessments, response strategies and their cost-effectiveness, the implications of country projects that have transnational benefits, and the usefulness of country studies for government policymakers.

  5. HIV vulnerability of men who have sex with men in developing countries: Horizons studies, 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    Geibel, Scott; Tun, Waimar; Tapsoba, Placide; Kellerman, Scott

    2010-01-01

    While male-to-male sexual behavior has been recognized as a primary risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), research targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) in less-developed countries has been limited due to high levels of stigma and discrimination. In response, the Population Council's Horizons Program began implementing research activities in Africa and South America beginning in 2001, with the objectives of gathering information on MSM sexual risk behaviors, evaluating HIV-prevention programs, and informing HIV policy makers. The results of this nearly decade-long program are presented in this article as a summary of the Horizons MSM studies in Africa (Senegal and Kenya) and Latin America (Brazil and Paraguay), and include research methodologies, study findings, and interventions evaluated. We also discuss future directions and approaches for HIV research among MSM in developing countries. PMID:20297760

  6. Exploring substance use normalization among adolescents: a multilevel study in 35 countries.

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Kolobov, Tanya; Bogt, Tom Ter; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Walsh, Sophie D; Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Harel-Fisch, Yossi

    2013-11-01

    The substance use normalization thesis predicts that adolescent substance users are less likely to report substance use risk factors in high than in low prevalence countries. This study tests whether national population-level alcohol, cigarette and cannabis prevalence rates moderate the strength of the relationship between individual level social and behavioral risk factors and individual level alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use. Data from 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (N = 68,045, age = 15) from 35 countries was analyzed using logistic Hierarchical Linear Modeling. As expected based on low cannabis prevalence rates in all countries studied, no evidence of normalization was found for recent cannabis use. Also in line with the normalization thesis, results show that for substance use that reaches above 40% in at least some of the countries studied (drunkenness, alcohol and cigarette use), adolescents who reported use are less likely to report social and behavioral risk factors in high prevalence countries than in low prevalence countries. However, support for the normalization thesis was only partial in that results show that in models where evidence for normalization was found, there are risk factors that predict substance use to an equal degree regardless of country level prevalence rates. The current research shows that the normalization thesis is a useful framework for understanding the contextual aspects of adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. The study has implications for drug prevention as it suggests that selective prevention efforts may be particularly useful in low prevalence countries where screening based on risk factors may usefully identify adolescents at most risk for developing drug use problems. This approach may be less useful in high prevalence countries where screening based on risk factors is less likely to satisfactorily identify those at risk for developing drug use problems. PMID:24161099

  7. Barriers to Functional and Qualitative Technology Education In Developing Countries: Nigeria as a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo, David A.

    Science and Technology have been widely recognized as the most important potent tools for socio-economic development. This paper begins with a brief critical and evaluative review of the status of science and technology education in developing countries in Africa. The conceptual framework and the major features of a functional and qualitative…

  8. Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspopovic, Miroslava; Jankulovic, Aleksandar; Runic, Jovana; Lucic, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, DeLone and McLean's updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for…

  9. Evaluation of exposure to organophosphate, carbamate, phenoxy acid, and chlorophenol pesticides in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean for both household and agricultural purposes. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds can cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure of pregnant women residing in 10 Caribbean countries to the following commonly used classes of pesticides in the Caribbean: organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, phenoxy acids, and chlorophenols. Out of 438 urine samples collected, 15 samples were randomly selected from each Caribbean country giving a total of 150 samples. Samples were analyzed for the following metabolites: six OP dialkylphosphate metabolites [dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP)]; two carbamate metabolites [2-isopropoxyphenol (2-IPP) and carbofuranphenol]; one phenoxy acid 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); and five chlorophenols [2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)]. OP metabolites were consistently detected in ≥60% of the samples from Antigua and Barbuda, Bermuda, and Jamaica. Of the carbamate metabolites, 2-IPP was detected in seven of the 10 Caribbean countries with a detection frequency around 30%, whereas carbofuranphenol was detected in only one sample. The detection frequency for the phenoxy acid 2,4-D ranged from 20% in Grenada to a maximum of 67% in Belize. Evidence of exposure to chlorophenol pesticides was also established with 2,4-DCP by geometric means ranging from 0.52 μg L(-1) in St Lucia to a maximum of 1.68 μg L(-1) in Bermuda. Several extreme concentrations of 2,5-DCP were detected in four Caribbean countries-Belize (1100 μg L(-1)), Bermuda (870 μg L(-1)), Jamaica (1300 μg L(-1)), and St Kitts and Nevis (1400 μg L(-1)). 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, and pentachlorophenol were rarely detected. This biomonitoring study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to become more aware of the potential routes of exposure to pesticides and to utilize these chemicals more cautiously given the possible adverse effects such exposures can have on their unborn children and infants. PMID:26238297

  10. Incorporating Demand and Supply Constraints into Economic Evaluations in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Vassall, Anna; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Gomez, Gabriela B; Pitt, Catherine; Foster, Nicola

    2016-02-01

    Global guidelines for new technologies are based on cost and efficacy data from a limited number of trial locations. Country-level decision makers need to consider whether cost-effectiveness analysis used to inform global guidelines are sufficient for their situation or whether to use models that adjust cost-effectiveness results taking into account setting-specific epidemiological and cost heterogeneity. However, demand and supply constraints will also impact cost-effectiveness by influencing the standard of care and the use and implementation of any new technology. These constraints may also vary substantially by setting. We present two case studies of economic evaluations of the introduction of new diagnostics for malaria and tuberculosis control. These case studies are used to analyse how the scope of economic evaluations of each technology expanded to account for and then address demand and supply constraints over time. We use these case studies to inform a conceptual framework that can be used to explore the characteristics of intervention complexity and the influence of demand and supply constraints. Finally, we describe a number of feasible steps that researchers who wish to apply our framework in cost-effectiveness analyses. PMID:26786617

  11. Problems of Organising and Reporting Internal and External Evaluation in Developing Countries: The Case of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop capacity to link knowledge to economic growth in developing countries, there is an urgent need to make quality the major element of higher education systems. In Iran, a developing country, such a need was felt a decade ago in the academic community. Based on research projects conducted, a model that combines collegial

  12. Problems of Organising and Reporting Internal and External Evaluation in Developing Countries: The Case of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop capacity to link knowledge to economic growth in developing countries, there is an urgent need to make quality the major element of higher education systems. In Iran, a developing country, such a need was felt a decade ago in the academic community. Based on research projects conducted, a model that combines collegial…

  13. Criticism of drinking as informal social control: a study in 18 countries

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Jan; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Derickx, Mieke; Selin, Klara Hradilova; Holmila, Marja

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on informal control of drinking, indicated by criticism of people in the social network on someone's alcohol consumption. It studies country and gender differences in the extent drinkers suffering from typical symptoms of heavy or prolonged alcohol use report informal control from others (reactive informal control), and country and gender differences in the extent comments on someone's drinking are (also) directed at those who do not suffer from these symptoms (pro-active informal control). The data come from eighteen general population surveys, selected from an integrated dataset on drinking and drinking-related factors including more than 35 countries. The criteria for inclusion were that data for both men and women were available and that at least 3 items about symptoms of severe physiological consequences and about criticism of drinking had valid responses. The results show that men suffering from typical symptoms of heavy or prolonged alcohol use are more likely to be criticized than equivalent women (reactive control). Irrespective of gender, reactive informal control is more prevalent in poorer countries and in countries with a high proportion of abstainers. Concerning pro-active control, among women a larger part of criticism appeared to be directed at those who (as yet) do not suffer from symptoms typical for heavy or prolonged alcohol use. There is a lot of variation between countries in pro-active informal control. This variation is only weakly related to prosperity of a country but not to its proportion of abstainers. PMID:21691455

  14. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus. PMID:22583562

  15. Tuberculosis care: an evaluability study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Cláudia Santos; Brito, Ewerton Willian Gomes; Negrão, Oswaldo Gomes Corrêa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the tuberculosis control program (TCP) is evaluable and to examine the feasibility of building an evaluation model in apriority municipality for the control of tuberculosis. METHOD: this evaluability study was conducted in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. For data collection, documental analysis and interviews with key informants were performed. For indicator validation, the nominal group technique was adopted. RESULTS: the details of TCP were described, and both the logical model and the classification framework for indicators were developed and agreed up on, with the goal of characterizing the structural elements of the program, defining the structure and process indicators, and formulating the evaluation questions. CONCLUSION: TCP is evaluable. Based on logical operational analysis, it was possible to evaluate the adequacy of the program goals for the control of tuberculosis. Therefore, the performance of a summative evaluation is recommended, with a focus on the analysis of the effects of tuberculosis control interventions on decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:25493675

  16. Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This…

  17. Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, James; Gallimore, Ronald; Garnier, Helen; Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Jacobs, Jennifer; Chui, Angel Miu-Ying; Wearne, Diana; Smith, Margaret; Kersting, Nicole; Manaster, Alfred; Tseng, Ellen; Etterbeek, Wallace; Manaster, Carl; Gonzales, Patrick; Stigler, James

    This book reports teaching practices in mathematics in seven countries from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 video study. A detailed description of the methods in the mathematics portion of the study is presented in an accompanying technical report from an international perspective. Contexts of the lessons, the…

  18. Pre-School Children and Television: Two Studies Carried Out in Three Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homberg, Erentraud, Ed.

    This brochure presents the summaries of two major studies carried out in three European countries concerning the role of television in the life of preschool children. The first study involved participant observation and interviews of 90 families from England and 50 families from Ireland over a 6-month period. The children studied were between the…

  19. A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high schools offering the Ontario curriculum under the auspice of the Ontario Ministry of Education. All teachers completed the Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised (Jerabeck, Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised, 2001) online. The study found that international teachers had a statistically lower level of burnout than teachers working in their country of origin.

  20. Theory-driven process evaluation of a complementary feeding trial in four countries

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Jamie E.; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Michael Hambidge, K.; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Bose, Carl L.; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Wright, Linda L.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square tests to examine differences between treatment groups. We administered exit interviews to 219 caregivers and 45 intervention staff to explore why caregivers may or may not have performed suggested infant feeding behaviors. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between caregiver scores and infant linear growth velocity. As message recall increased, irrespective of treatment group, linear growth velocity increased when controlling for other factors (P < 0.05), emphasizing the importance of study messages. Our detailed process evaluation revealed few differences between treatment groups, giving us confidence that the main trial’s lack of effect to reverse the progression of stunting cannot be explained by differences between groups or inconsistencies in protocol implementation. These findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting limited impact on stunting of interventions initiated during the period of complementary feeding in impoverished environments. The early onset and steady progression support the provision of earlier and comprehensive interventions. PMID:24399265

  1. Evaluation of invalid vaccine doses in 31 countries of the WHO African Region.

    PubMed

    Akmatov, Manas K; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Pessler, Frank; Guzman, Carlos A; Krause, Gérard; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2015-02-11

    We examined (a) the fraction of and extent to which vaccinations were administered earlier than recommended (age-invalid) or with too short intervals between vaccine doses (interval-invalid) in countries of the World Health Organisation (WHO) African Region and (b) individual- and community-level factors associated with invalid vaccinations using multilevel techniques. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in the last 10 years in 31 countries were used. Information about childhood vaccinations was based on vaccination records (n=134,442). Invalid vaccinations (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis [DTP1, DTP3] and measles-containing vaccine (MCV)) were defined using the WHO criteria. The median percentages of invalid DTP1, DTP3 and MCV vaccinations across all countries were 12.1% (interquartile range, 9.4-15.2%), 5.7% (5.0-7.6%), and 15.5% (10.0-18.1%), respectively. Of the invalid DTP1 vaccinations, 7.4% and 5.5% were administered at child's age of less than one and two weeks, respectively. In 12 countries, the proportion of invalid DTP3 vaccinations administered with an interval of less than two weeks before the preceding dose varied between 30% and 50%. In 13 countries, the proportion of MCV doses administered at child's age of less than six months varied between 20% and 45%. Community-level variables explained part of the variation in invalid vaccinations. Invalid vaccinations are common in African countries. Timing of childhood vaccinations should be improved to ensure an optimal protection against vaccine-preventable infections and to avoid unnecessary wastage in these economically deprived countries. PMID:25523526

  2. Diabetes research in Middle East countries; a scientometrics study from 1990 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Peykari, Niloofar; Djalalinia, Shirin; Kasaeian, Amir; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Hasannia, Tahereh; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes burden is a serious warning for urgent action plan across the world. Knowledge production in this context could provide evidences for more efficient interventions. Aimed to that, we quantify the trend of diabetes research outputs of Middle East countries focusing on the scientific publication numbers, citations, and international collaboration. Materials and Methods: This scientometrics study was performed based on the systematic analysis through three international databases; ISI, PubMed, and Scopus from 1990 to 2012. International collaboration of Middle East countries and citations was analyzed based on Scopus. Diabetes’ publications in Iran specifically were assessed, and frequent used terms were mapped by VOSviewer software. Results: Over 23-year period, the number of diabetes publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. The number of articles on diabetes in ISI, PubMed, and Scopus were respectively; 13,994, 11,336, and 20,707. Turkey, Israel, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt have devoted the five top competition positions. In addition, Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Iran in all databases stands on third position and produced 12.7% of diabetes publications within region. Regarding diabetes researches, the frequent used terms in Iranian articles were “effect,” “woman,” and “metabolic syndrome.” Conclusion: Ascending trend of diabetes research outputs in Middle East countries is appreciated but encouraging to strategic planning for maintaining this trend, and more collaboration between researchers is needed to regional health promotion. PMID:26109972

  3. Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on international trends in suicide and to identify sex/age groups and countries most affected. Design Time trend analysis comparing the actual number of suicides in 2009 with the number that would be expected based on trends before the crisis (2000-07). Setting Suicide data from 54 countries; for 53 data were available in the World Health Organization mortality database and for one (the United States) data came the CDC online database. Population People aged 15 or above. Main outcome measures Suicide rate and number of excess suicides in 2009. Results There were an estimated 4884 (95% confidence interval 3907 to 5860) excess suicides in 2009 compared with the number expected based on previous trends (2000-07). The increases in suicide mainly occurred in men in the 27 European and 18 American countries; the suicide rates were 4.2% (3.4% to 5.1%) and 6.4% (5.4% to 7.5%) higher, respectively, in 2009 than expected if earlier trends had continued. For women, there was no change in European countries and the increase in the Americas was smaller than in men (2.3%). Rises in European men were highest in those aged 15-24 (11.7%), while in American countries men aged 45-64 showed the largest increase (5.2%). Rises in national suicide rates in men seemed to be associated with the magnitude of increases in unemployment, particularly in countries with low levels of unemployment before the crisis (Spearman’s rs=0.48). Conclusions After the 2008 economic crisis, rates of suicide increased in the European and American countries studied, particularly in men and in countries with higher levels of job loss. PMID:24046155

  4. Violence as a public health problem: an ecological study of 169 countries.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Achim; Gray, Ron; Fazel, Seena

    2014-03-01

    Individual level risk factors for violence have been widely studied, but little is known about country-level determinants, particularly in low and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that income inequality, through its detrimental effects on social cohesion, would be related to an increase in violence worldwide, and in low and middle-income countries in particular. We examined country-level associations of violence with socio-economic and health-related factors, using crime statistics from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and indicators from the Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Programme. Using regression models, we measured relationships between country-level factors (age, education, measures of income, health expenditure, and alcohol consumption) and four violent outcomes (including measures of violence-related mortality and morbidity) in up to 169 countries. We stratified our analyses comparing high with low and middle-income countries, and analysed longitudinal data on homicide and income inequality in high-income countries. In low and middle-income countries, income inequality was related to homicide, robbery, and self-reported assault (all p's < 0.05). In high-income countries, urbanicity was significantly associated with official assault (p = 0.002, β = 0.716) and robbery (p = 0.011, β = 0.587) rates; income inequality was related to homicide (p = 0.006, β = 0.670) and self-reported assault (p = 0.020, β = 0.563), and longitudinally with homicide (p = 0.021). Worldwide, alcohol consumption was associated with self-reported assault rates (p < 0.001, β = 0.369) suggesting public policy interventions reducing alcohol consumption may contribute to reducing violence rates. Our main finding was that income inequality was related to violence in low and middle-income countries. Public health should advocate for global action to moderate income inequality to reduce the global health burden of violence. PMID:24581081

  5. University Studies in Adult Education in the Arab Countries (A Comparative Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

    That adult education is an important aspect of a country's development is an idea that is often overlooked by the institutions of higher education in the Arab countries. Although a need for adult continuing education and adult literacy training exists, these needs are often ignored or frowned upon by Arab universities, which have traditionally…

  6. Review of country case studies on climate change. Working paper No. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Fuglestvedt, J.; Hanisch, T.; Isaksen, I.; Selrod, R.; Strand, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the status of country studies on climate change. It examines several methodological and reporting issues, stressing the importance of comparability. Comparisons of ecological and economic efficiency are essential in determining the eligibility of projects for GEF funding. The paper also looks at the extent to which the studies are meeting or plan to meet the obligations of the Parties under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Areas covered include inventories of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, impacts and vulnerability assessments, response strategies and their cost-effectiveness, the implications of country projects that have transnational benefits, and the usefulness of country studies for government policy-makers. (Copyright (c) 1994 The Global Environment Facility.)

  7. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. PMID:21763362

  8. A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high…

  9. A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high

  10. The European Research Elite: A Cross-National Study of Highly Productive Academics in 11 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on a rare scholarly theme of highly productive academics, statistically confirming their pivotal role in knowledge production across 11 systems studied. The upper 10% of highly productive academics in 11 European countries studied (N = 17,211) provide on average almost half of all academic knowledge production. In contrast…

  11. Dell Hymes and the New Language Policy Studies: Update from an Underdeveloped Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Collins, James; Hopson, Rodney K.

    2011-01-01

    This essay updates Dell Hymes's "Report from an Underdeveloped Country" (the USA), positioning our analysis in the New Language Policy Studies. Taking up Hymes's call for comparative, critical studies of language use, we examine three cases, organizing our analysis around Hymes's questions: What "counts" as a language, a language problem, and…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Mass Media Development in Less-Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hemant

    A study was conducted to examine the causal predictors of mass media development in 105 underdeveloped countries for various lengths of time to determine if there were consistent relationships among the dependent and independent variables regardless of the time lag. The study also sought to determine how mass media developed during the 29-year…

  13. Recent Studies on the Cost-Effectiveness of Military Training in TTCP Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.; Orlansky, Jesse

    This report summarizes 22 recent empirical studies on the cost-effectiveness of military training reported by countries that participate in The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP), i.e., Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. A discussion of the methodology used to summarize the studies is followed by a…

  14. INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS, A COMPARISON OF TWELVE COUNTRIES, VOLUME II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUSEN, TORSTEN; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT BY AN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ORGANIZATION SUMMARIZES AN ASSESSMENT OF MATHEMATICAL ACHIEVEMENT IN TWELVE COUNTRIES. THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO TEST HYPOTHESES WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF COMPARATIVE EDUCATION. MANY OF THE PROBLEMS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ARE EXPLAINED, AND INTERPRETATIONS AND GENERALIZATIONS ARE TEMPERED WITH CAUTION.…

  15. Higher Education and Social Change. Promising Experiments in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kenneth W., Ed.; And Others

    Presented are the results of a study made by developing country educators for twelve national and international agencies, directed and coordinated by the International Council for Educational Development. Volume 2 contains the reports of 25 case studies of higher education institutions and systems in Africa, Asia, and Latin America: University of…

  16. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care. PMID:20440969

  17. Planning and evaluating mental health services in low- and middle-income countries using theory of change.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Erica; De Silva, Mary J; Shidaye, Rahul; Petersen, Inge; Nakku, Juliet; Jordans, Mark J D; Fekadu, Abebaw; Lund, Crick

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThere is little practical guidance on how contextually relevant mental healthcare plans (MHCPs) can be developed in low-resource settings.AimsTo describe how theory of change (ToC) was used to plan the development and evaluation of MHCPs as part of the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME).MethodToC development occurred in three stages: (a) development of a cross-country ToC by 15 PRIME consortium members; (b) development of country-specific ToCs in 13 workshops with a median of 15 (interquartile range 13-22) stakeholders per workshop; and (c) review and refinement of the cross-country ToC by 18 PRIME consortium members.ResultsOne cross-country and five district ToCs were developed that outlined the steps required to improve outcomes for people with mental disorders in PRIME districts.ConclusionsToC is a valuable participatory method that can be used to develop MHCPs and plan their evaluation. PMID:26447178

  18. Planning and evaluating mental health services in low- and middle-income countries using theory of change

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Erica; De Silva, Mary J.; Shidaye, Rahul; Petersen, Inge; Nakku, Juliet; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Fekadu, Abebaw; Lund, Crick

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little practical guidance on how contextually relevant mental healthcare plans (MHCPs) can be developed in low-resource settings. Aims To describe how theory of change (ToC) was used to plan the development and evaluation of MHCPs as part of the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME). Method ToC development occurred in three stages: (a) development of a cross-country ToC by 15 PRIME consortium members; (b) development of country-specific ToCs in 13 workshops with a median of 15 (interquartile range 13–22) stakeholders per workshop; and (c) review and refinement of the cross-country ToC by 18 PRIME consortium members. Results One cross-country and five district ToCs were developed that outlined the steps required to improve outcomes for people with mental disorders in PRIME districts. Conclusions ToC is a valuable participatory method that can be used to develop MHCPs and plan their evaluation. PMID:26447178

  19. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

    Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

  20. Technical Maintenance Officer Service. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saide, Tom; Lamont, Ann

    Begun in 1978 to provide Queensland's South-West and Central Priority Country schools with a comprehensive maintenance and repair service for most audio-visual equipment, the Technical Maintenance Officer Service (TMO) serves 76 schools with total enrollment exceeding 13,000 pupils dispersed over a 469,000 square kilometer area. Two trained…

  1. AGROCHEMICAL HAZARDS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS AND EVALUATION OF SUCH HAZARDS WITH EMPHASIS ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many developing countries are lacking protein in the diets of their population. Aquatic systems are good sources of protein in many areas with fish and shellfish as the main sources. The misuse of agrochemicals can directly or indirectly affect the use and suitability of these pr...

  2. Measuring socioeconomic status in multicountry studies: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is no standardized approach to comparing socioeconomic status (SES) across multiple sites in epidemiological studies. This is particularly problematic when cross-country comparisons are of interest. We sought to develop a simple measure of SES that would perform well across diverse, resource-limited settings. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 800 children aged 24 to 60 months across eight resource-limited settings. Parents were asked to respond to a household SES questionnaire, and the height of each child was measured. A statistical analysis was done in two phases. First, the best approach for selecting and weighting household assets as a proxy for wealth was identified. We compared four approaches to measuring wealth: maternal education, principal components analysis, Multidimensional Poverty Index, and a novel variable selection approach based on the use of random forests. Second, the selected wealth measure was combined with other relevant variables to form a more complete measure of household SES. We used child height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) as the outcome of interest. Results Mean age of study children was 41 months, 52% were boys, and 42% were stunted. Using cross-validation, we found that random forests yielded the lowest prediction error when selecting assets as a measure of household wealth. The final SES index included access to improved water and sanitation, eight selected assets, maternal education, and household income (the WAMI index). A 25% difference in the WAMI index was positively associated with a difference of 0.38 standard deviations in HAZ (95% CI 0.22 to 0.55). Conclusions Statistical learning methods such as random forests provide an alternative to principal components analysis in the development of SES scores. Results from this multicountry study demonstrate the validity of a simplified SES index. With further validation, this simplified index may provide a standard approach for SES adjustment across resource-limited settings. PMID:24656134

  3. Industrial laser welding evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hella, R.; Locke, E.; Ream, S.

    1974-01-01

    High power laser welding was evaluated for fabricating space vehicle boosters. This evaluation was made for 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. aluminum (2219) and 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. D6AC steel. The Avco HPL 10 kW industrial laser was used to perform the evaluation. The objective has been achieved through the completion of the following technical tasks: (1) parameter study to optimize welding and material parameters; (2) preparation of welded panels for MSFC evaluation; and (3) demonstration of the repeatability of laser welding equipment. In addition, the design concept for a laser welding system capable of welding large space vehicle boosters has been developed.

  4. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this market definition study is to assess the market potential for the use of photovoltaic power systems for remote villages in developing countries. The approach used was to conduct an in-depth literature search followed by in-country surveys of selected developing countries in Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The purpose of these surveys was to determine the current energy situation in these countries, the level of rural electrification activity, their knowledge and interest in solar and specifically photovoltaics, their financial resource capability, and the probability of development of a market for photovoltaics based on these and other factors. Findings are presented. The conclusion reached by the survey is that there is a significant market potential for photovoltaics in village power applications in developing countries. Extrapolation of the number of unelectrified villages results in an estimated potential of as much as 20,000 MWp, a potential similar in magnitude to previous UN and World Bank estimates. Recommendations for market stimulation are presented. (WHK)

  5. Corporal Punishment, Maternal Warmth, and Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study in Eight Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S.; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children’s behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Method Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in eight countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted one and two years later. Results Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children’s anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. Conclusions The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children’s behaviors. PMID:24885184

  6. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  7. Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors. PMID:24885184

  8. Improve the prevention of sudden cardiac arrest in emerging countries: the Improve SCA clinical study design

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Singh, Balbir; Rodriguez, Diego A.; Chasnoits, Alexandr Robertovich; Hussin, Azlan; Ching, Chi-Keong; Huang, Dejia; Liu, Yen-Bin; Cerkvenik, Jeffrey; Willey, Sarah; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study aims to demonstrate that primary prevention (PP) patients with one or more additional risk factors are at a similar risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias when compared with secondary prevention (SP) patients, and would receive similar benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), or cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) implant. The study evaluates the benefits of therapy for high-risk patients in countries where defibrillation therapy for PP of SCA is underutilized. Methods Enrolment will consist of 4800 ICD-eligible patients from Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Upon enrolment, patients will be categorized as SP or PP. Primary prevention patients will be assessed for additional risk factors: syncope/pre-syncope, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, frequent premature ventricular contractions, and low left ventricular ejection fraction. Those PP patients with one or more risk factors will be categorized as ‘1.5’ patients. Implant of an ICD/CRT-D will be left to the patient and/or physician's discretion. The primary endpoint will compare the appropriate ICD therapy rate between SP and 1.5 patients. The secondary endpoint compares mortality between 1.5 implanted and non-implanted patients. Conclusion The Improve SCA study will investigate a subset of PP patients, believed to be at similar risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias as SP patients. Results may help clinicians identify and refer the highest risk PP patients for ICDs, help local societies expand guidelines to include PP of SCA utilizing ICDs, and provide additional geographical-relevant evidence to allow patients to make an informed decision whether to receive an ICD. Trial registration NCT02099721. PMID:26037794

  9. Stillbirth rates in low-middle income countries 2010 - 2013: a population-based, multi-country study from the Global Network

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Stillbirth rates remain nearly ten times higher in low-middle income countries (LMIC) than high income countries. In LMIC, where nearly 98% of stillbirths worldwide occur, few population-based studies have documented characteristics or care for mothers with stillbirths. Non-macerated stillbirths, those occurring around delivery, are generally considered preventable with appropriate obstetric care. Methods We undertook a prospective, population-based observational study of all pregnant women in defined geographic areas across 7 sites in low-resource settings (Kenya, Zambia, India, Pakistan, Guatemala and Argentina). Staff collected demographic and health care characteristics with outcomes obtained at delivery. Results From 2010 through 2013, 269,614 enrolled women had 272,089 births, including 7,865 stillbirths. The overall stillbirth rate was 28.9/1000 births, ranging from 13.6/1000 births in Argentina to 56.5/1000 births in Pakistan. Stillbirth rates were stable or declined in 6 of the 7 sites from 2010-2013, only increasing in Pakistan. Less educated, older and women with less access to antenatal care were at increased risk of stillbirth. Furthermore, women not delivered by a skilled attendant were more likely to have a stillbirth (RR 2.8, 95% CI 2.2, 3.5). Compared to live births, stillbirths were more likely to be preterm (RR 12.4, 95% CI 11.2, 13.6). Infants with major congenital anomalies were at increased risk of stillbirth (RR 9.1, 95% CI 7.3, 11.4), as were multiple gestations (RR 2.8, 95% CI 2.4, 3.2) and breech (RR 3.0, 95% CI 2.6, 3.5). Altogether, 67.4% of the stillbirths were non-macerated. 7.6% of women with stillbirths had cesarean sections, with obstructed labor the primary indication (36.9%). Conclusions Stillbirth rates were high, but with reductions in most sites during the study period. Disadvantaged women, those with less antenatal care and those delivered without a skilled birth attendant were at increased risk of delivering a stillbirth. More than two-thirds of all stillbirths were non-macerated, suggesting potentially preventable stillbirth. Additionally, 8% of women with stillbirths were delivered by cesarean section. The relatively high rate of cesarean section among those with stillbirths suggested that this care was too late or not of quality to prevent the stillbirth; however, further research is needed to evaluate the quality of obstetric care, including cesarean section, on stillbirth in these low resource settings. Study registration Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475) PMID:26063292

  10. A bibliometric study of publication patterns in access to medicines research in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Lindsay Sarah; Adam, Taghreed; Laing, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Developing countries face considerable problems in both accessing and properly utilizing essential medicines. One challenge to achieving these goals in resource-poor settings is a limited knowledge base as to what works to improve the selection, access and use of essential medicines including; ways to ensure affordable prices, increase sustainable financing, and strengthen reliable supply systems that are relevant to these settings. The objective of this study was to search the existing evidence base on access to medicine issues in developing countries and to assess publication patterns regarding the nature of topics studied, areas where gaps of information exist and the general trends in publications in this area. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted to retrieve publications on access to medicines in developing countries between 1999-2008. Our search strategy builds and expands on a search strategy developed for a Cochrane review to include a wider range of topics related to access to medicines and pharmaceutical policy. Retrieved articles were categorized by research topics, year of publication, study area, and country of residence of corresponding author to establish patterns in publications with respect to these categories over the past 10 years. Results: Medicine selection, intellectual property rights, and monitoring and quality assurance were among the top topics studied over the last 10 years. Corresponding authors residing in high-income countries represented around 50% of all publications relative to low-income (18%) and middle-income countries (32%). Although an increasing trend in the number of publications per year was found, the increase was relatively small and variable over a 10-year period. Conclusions: There are few peer-reviewed publications on access to medicines in developing countries with an average of only 76 publications per year over the past 10 years. Increasing the local evidence base as to what works to improve access to medicines in resource poor countries, particularly to the poor, is of the utmost priority to accelerating the achievement of global medicine goals. PMID:23093876

  11. Study Programmes for Engineers from Developing Countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasson, Axel; Hermansen, John

    1989-01-01

    Describes the background of the study and fellowship programs for graduates from the developing countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. Discusses some experiences with the programs. Includes a brief description of five courses: (1) "Pulp and Paper Technology"; (2) "Marine Civil Engineering"; (3) "Hydropower Development"; (4) "Electric…

  12. Training, Recruitment and Utilization of Teachers in Primary and Secondary Education. Country Case Studies: Switzerland, Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

    This is one of a series of studies on the training, recruitment, and utilization of teachers in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This volume deals with Switzerland and Yugoslavia. The section on Switzerland (37 pages) is in French with no translation. The chapters deal with training of teachers and…

  13. The Experiences of Host Country Nationals in International Schools: A Case-Study from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been considerable research into expatriate children attending international schools, there has been little investigation into children who attend international schools within their own nation. Seeking to redress this imbalance, this article analyses interview data from a small-scale study of host country nationals attending an

  14. North Country Successes: Case Studies of Successful Entrepreneurs in the ANCA Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chugh, Ram L.; Gandhi, Prem P.

    This study identifies the characteristics of both successful small businesses and their entrepreneurial owners in a 14-county area of the Adirondack North Country Association (ANCA). Of the 100 survey respondents representing successful small businesses, 50% had been in business for less than 14 years; 38% were in manufacturing; 48% employed more

  15. Medical record information disclosure laws and policies among selected countries; a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Tavakoli, Nahid; Nansa, Leila Ghaderi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitals have responsibility for responding to legitimate demands for release of health information while protecting the confidentiality of the patient health records. There have always been challenges concerning medical records confidentiality and their disclosure and release type in medical record departments. This study investigated and compared laws and policies of disclosure of health information in Iran and selected countries and tried to identify the differences and the similarities between them. METHODS: This is a descriptive and comparative study. The scope of study included related laws and policies of disclosure of health information in selected countries such as United States, Australia, England, Malaysia and Iran. Data were gathered from systematic internet search, library resources and communication with health information professionals. Data analysis was done using comparative tables and qualitative method. RESULTS: Study results showed that legislative institutions of each country have ordained laws and policies concerning disclosure and release of health information and in turn hospitals developed policies and procedures based on these laws. In Iran, however, there are few laws and policies concerning disclosure of health information in the form of formal letters and bylaws. There are no specific written policies and procedures for disclosure of health information in the hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to develop legitimate and appropriate laws and policies in different levels for information utilization by hospitals, medical universities and others. Meanwhile in all of the selected countries there are ordained limitations for release of health information for protecting health information in regard to patient rights. PMID:21526073

  16. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  17. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted

  18. Higher Education in Nine Countries: A Comparative Study of Colleges and Universities Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B.

    In each of the countries studied in this report, colleges and universities have been adapted to national conditions, customs, social structures, and political systems; but familiar trends are visible. Among the most important trends are rapid enrollment growth and a movement toward universal access; rising expenditures; increasing public support;…

  19. The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

  20. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Japan. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    This report is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. In order to contribute to the OECD activity from the Japanese perspective, the Research Institute for Higher Education at…

  1. The Experiences of Host Country Nationals in International Schools: A Case-Study from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been considerable research into expatriate children attending international schools, there has been little investigation into children who attend international schools within their own nation. Seeking to redress this imbalance, this article analyses interview data from a small-scale study of host country nationals attending an…

  2. Examining Students' Affective Commitment toward Country: A Case Study of a Singapore Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' affective commitment toward Singapore. Affective commitment refers to the sense of attachment to the nation state. The sample was taken from 286 students in a primary school. In the first section of the paper, we described the design of a Likert-type Affective Commitment to Country questionnaire.

  3. Study Programmes for Engineers from Developing Countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasson, Axel; Hermansen, John

    1989-01-01

    Describes the background of the study and fellowship programs for graduates from the developing countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. Discusses some experiences with the programs. Includes a brief description of five courses: (1) "Pulp and Paper Technology"; (2) "Marine Civil Engineering"; (3) "Hydropower Development"; (4) "Electric

  4. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: United States of America. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report on the United States of America is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. The United States maintains the largest and most diverse system of higher education in the…

  5. Examining Students' Affective Commitment toward Country: A Case Study of a Singapore Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' affective commitment toward Singapore. Affective commitment refers to the sense of attachment to the nation state. The sample was taken from 286 students in a primary school. In the first section of the paper, we described the design of a Likert-type Affective Commitment to Country questionnaire.…

  6. Education Data Quality in the Third World: A Five Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.

    1991-01-01

    Reports findings from a study of the confidence expressed by ministry-level decision makers in five developing countries (i.e., Somalia, Botswana, Liberia, Yemen, and Nepal) about the quality of the national-level education data available to them and reasons for the perceived 16-40 percent error rate. (DMM)

  7. Understanding and Measuring Student Engagement in School: The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Kikas, Eve; Shin, Hyeonsook; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Cefai, Carmel; Negovan, Valeria; Stanculescu, Elena; Yang, Hongfei; Liu, Yi; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Nelson, Brett; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a scale that is appropriate for use internationally to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data of 3,420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th grade) from 12 countries (Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia,…

  8. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

  9. A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hien, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

  10. Factors Influencing Teachers' Views of Health and Health Education: A Study in 15 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourdan, D.; Pironom, J.; Berger, D.; Carvalho, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyse teachers' health views in order to obtain general trends in factors influencing health and health education and to fit them into the negative-positive model of health proposed by Downie and collaborators. Method: This large international study involved 15 countries from Western and Eastern Europe, North and Sub-Saharan…

  11. The Association between Peace and Life Expectancy: An Empirical Study of the World Countries

    PubMed Central

    YAZDI FEYZABADI, Vahid; HAGHDOOST, Aliakbar; MEHROLHASSANI, Mohammad Hossein; AMINIAN, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. Methods: In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. Results: GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient −0.039; 95% CI: −0.058, −0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (−0.019; 95% CI: −0.035, −0.003), GNI (−0.035; 95% CI: −0.055, −0.015), and both EI and GNI (−0.017; 95% CI: −0.033, −0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. Conclusion: The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries. PMID:25905077

  12. Judgment under uncertainty; a probabilistic evaluation framework for decision-making about sanitation systems in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Malekpour, Shirin; Langeveld, Jeroen; Letema, Sammy; Clemens, François; van Lier, Jules B

    2013-03-30

    This paper introduces the probabilistic evaluation framework, to enable transparent and objective decision-making in technology selection for sanitation solutions in low-income countries. The probabilistic framework recognizes the often poor quality of the available data for evaluations. Within this framework, the evaluations will be done based on the probabilities that the expected outcomes occur in practice, considering the uncertainties in evaluation parameters. Consequently, the outcome of evaluations will not be single point estimates; but there exists a range of possible outcomes. A first trial application of this framework for evaluation of sanitation options in the Nyalenda settlement in Kisumu, Kenya, showed how the range of values that an evaluation parameter may obtain in practice would influence the evaluation outcomes. In addition, as the probabilistic evaluation requires various site-specific data, sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the influence of each data set quality on the evaluation outcomes. Based on that, data collection activities could be (re)directed, in a trade-off between the required investments in those activities and the resolution of the decisions that are to be made. PMID:23416987

  13. The Development of Education Systems in Postcolonial Africa: A Study of a Selected Number of African Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenhuis, F. J.

    This study traces educational policy development and implementation in the postcolonial era in eight sub-Saharan African countries. A basic premise is that the education system in any country is a result of interacting forces in the unique historical development of the country. The volume analyzes the forces in terms of their relevance and…

  14. Place of death of older persons with dementia. A study in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Houttekier, Dirk; Cohen, Joachim; Bilsen, Johan; Addington-Hall, Julia; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Deliens, Luc

    2010-04-01

    The aging of the European population will lead to a rapid increase in dementia cases in the coming decades, posing challenges for the organization and provision of end-of-life care. Studying the place of death of patients with dementia, and what determines it, is relevant in this context. Using death certificates, the deaths of people aged 65 and older whose underlying cause of death was a dementia-related disease was studied in Belgium, the Netherlands, England, Scotland, and Wales. Between 50% (Wales) and 92% (Netherlands) of patients with dementia died in a nursing home and between 3% (Netherlands) and 46% (Wales) in hospital. Home death was rare (3-5%) except in Belgium (11%). Multivariate analysis showed that place of death was related to age, sex, available hospital and nursing home beds, and country of residence. Although availability of hospital and nursing home beds partially explained the variation between countries, considerable variation remained even after controlling for that, plus age, sex, and social support. Place of death from dementia differed significantly between the countries studied. In all countries, a majority of patients with dementia died in a long-term care facility. The provision of appropriate long-term care facilities with appropriate staffing could be the primary policy instrument that could help patients with dementia avoid dying in the hospital and ensure quality of end-of-life care in Europe. PMID:20398157

  15. Neonatal death in Low-Middle Income Countries: A Global Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Belizán, José M; McClure, Elizabeth M; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Pasha, Omrana; Esamai, Fabian; Patel, Archana; Chomba, Elwyn; Garces, Ana; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Moore, Janet; Althabe, Fernando; Kodkany, Bhala S; Sami, Neelofar; Manasyan, Albert; Derman, Richard J; Liechty, Edward A; Hibberd, Patricia; Carlo, Waldemar A; Hambidge, K Michael; Buekens, Pierre; Jobe, Alan H; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine population-based neonatal mortality rates in low and middle income countries and to examine gestational age, birth-weight and timing of death to assess the potentially preventable neonatal deaths. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted in communities in five low-income countries (Kenya, Zambia, Guatemala, India, and Pakistan) and one mid-income country (Argentina). Over a two-year period, all pregnant women in the study communities were enrolled by trained study staff and their infants followed to 28 days of age. Results Between October 2009 and March 2011, 153,728 babies were delivered and followed through day 28. Neonatal death rates ranged from 41 per 1000 births in Pakistan to 8 per 1000 in Argentina. 54% of the neonatal deaths were >37 weeks and 46% weighed 2500 grams or more. Half the deaths occurred within 24 hours of delivery. Conclusions In our population-based low and middle income country registries, the majority of neonatal deaths occurred in babies >37 weeks gestation and almost half weighed at least 2500 grams. Most deaths occurred shortly after birth. With access to better medical care and hospitalization, especially in the intrapartum and early neonatal period, many of these neonatal deaths might be prevented. PMID:22644832

  16. Measuring and evaluating the role of institutionalisation in the outcomes of participation in countries of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma; Blöschl, Günter

    2010-05-01

    Stakeholder participation in water resource management is becoming established in the policies of countries of the European Union through the Water Framework Directive. The institutionalisation of participatory processes is often described as essential in order to ensure the development and successful functioning of stakeholder involvement. To explore the role of institutionalisation in enhancing participation in water resource management, the extent and outcomes of participation will be compared for several countries in the Mediterranean region. The processes and effects of stakeholder involvement in countries which have adopted the Water Framework Directive will be evaluated against countries where participation is not embedded in policy. One of the greatest challenges of this work is the determination of appropriate methods, criteria and evaluation tools with which to "measure participation". This poster will present a review of the methods, strategies and tools adopted to date with consideration for their suitability for research into participation in different regions. Particular attention is paid to methods which may offer the potential to explore the success of participation in terms of its impact on water resources, but which also attempt to understand the mechanisms by which participation is taking place. Such methods are likely to incorporate aspects of both the social and environmental sciences, such as participatory evaluation combined with environmental monitoring. Future work will then attempt to employ suitable methods to address the research question of how the institutionalisation of stakeholder involvement in resource management raises participation, and the extent to which such participation leads to appropriate water resource management to ensure the sustainability of limited resources.

  17. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Kulhánová, Ivana; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Clemens, Tom; Costa, Giuseppe; Dibben, Chris; Kalediene, Ramune; Lundberg, Olle; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Östergren, Olof; Prochorskas, Remigijus; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Looman, Caspar W N; de Gelder, Rianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. Design Register based study. Data source Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on absolute and relative inequalities in mortality (measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively). Setting All European countries for which data on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were available for the approximate period between years 1990 and 2010. These included Finland, Norway, Sweden, Scotland, England and Wales (data applied to both together), France, Switzerland, Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Turin), Slovenia, and Lithuania. Results Substantial mortality declines occurred in lower socioeconomic groups in most European countries covered by this study. Relative inequalities in mortality widened almost universally, because percentage declines were usually smaller in lower socioeconomic groups. However, as absolute declines were often smaller in higher socioeconomic groups, absolute inequalities narrowed by up to 35%, particularly among men. Narrowing was partly driven by ischaemic heart disease, smoking related causes, and causes amenable to medical intervention. Progress in reducing absolute inequalities was greatest in Spain (Barcelona), Scotland, England and Wales, and Italy (Turin), and absent in Finland and Norway. More detailed studies preferably using individual level data are necessary to identify the causes of these variations. Conclusions Over the past two decades, trends in inequalities in mortality have been more favourable in most European countries than is commonly assumed. Absolute inequalities have decreased in several countries, probably more as a side effect of population wide behavioural changes and improvements in prevention and treatment, than as an effect of policies explicitly aimed at reducing health inequalities. PMID:27067249

  18. The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD), or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban–rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1) To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2) To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3) To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Methods Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents’ occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. Results The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35) with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7), India (33.2), Peru (39.4). Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest good internal consistency. High agreement was observed between this scale and a dichotomized version of the urbanicity scale (Kappa 0.76; Spearman’s rank-correlation coefficient 0.84 (p < 0.0001). Linear regression of socioeconomic indicators on the urbanicity scale supported construct validity in all three countries (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study demonstrates and validates a robust multidimensional, multi-country urbanicity scale. It is an important step on the path to creating a tool to assess complex processes like urbanization. This scale provides the means to understand which elements of urbanization have the greatest impact on health. PMID:22818019

  19. First aid guidelines for psychosis in Asian countries: A Delphi consensus study

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony F; Minas, Harry; Langlands, Robyn L; Kelly, Claire M

    2008-01-01

    Background Guidelines for how a member of the public should give first aid to a person who is becoming psychotic have been developed for English-speaking countries. However, these guidelines may not be appropriate for use in other cultures. A study was therefore carried out to examine whether it was possible to achieve consensus on guidelines that could apply in a range of Asian countries. Methods A Delphi consensus study was carried out with a panel of 28 Asian mental health clinicians drawn from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. The panel was given a 211 item questionnaire about possible first aid actions and asked to rate whether they thought these should be included in guidelines. Panel members were invited to propose additional items. Results After three Delphi rounds, there were 128 items that were rated as "essential" or "important" by 80% or more of the panel members. These items covered: recognition of psychosis, encouraging and assisting the person to seek help, how to interact with the person, responding to acute psychosis, responding to aggression, and what to do if the person refuses to get professional help. Conclusion Despite the diversity of the countries involved, there was consensus on a core set of first aid items that were considered as suitable for assisting a psychotic person. Future work is needed to develop guidelines for specific countries. PMID:18291042

  20. Considerations for conducting epidemiologic case-control studies of cancer in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brinton, L A; Herrero, R; Brenes, M; Montalván, P; de la Guardia, M E; Avila, A; Domínguez, I L; Basurto, E; Reeves, W C

    1991-01-01

    The challenges involved in conducting epidemiologic studies of cancer in developing countries can be and often are unique. This article reports on our experience in performing a case-control study of invasive cervical cancer in four Latin American countries (Columbia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Panama), the summary medical results of which have been published in a previous issue of this journal (1). The study involved a number of principal activities--mainly selecting, conducting interviews with, and obtaining appropriate biologic specimens from 759 cervical cancer patients, 1,467 matched female controls, and 689 male sex partners of monogamous female subjects. This presentation provides an overview of the planning and methods used to select the subjects, conduct the survey work, and obtain complete and effectively unbiased data. It also points out some of the important advantages and disadvantages of working in developing areas similar to those serving as locales for this study. PMID:2054548

  1. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  2. Norovirus Infection and Acquired Immunity in 8 Countries: Results From the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Saba; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Siguas Salas, Mery; Rengifo Trigoso, Dixner; Mondal, Dinesh; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Platts-Mills, James; Samie, Amidou; Kabir, Furqan; Lima, Aldo; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl J.; Kalam, Adil; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mduma, Estomih; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Lima, Ila; Ramdass, Rakhi; Lang, Dennis; George, Ajila; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric; Kosek, Margaret N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Norovirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhea. We present data from a longitudinal, multicountry study describing norovirus epidemiology during the first 2 years of life. Methods. A birth cohort of 1457 children across 8 countries contributed 7077 diarrheal stools for norovirus testing. A subset of 199 children contributed additional asymptomatic samples (2307) and diarrheal stools (770), which were used to derive incidence rates and evaluate evidence for acquired immunity. Results. Across sites, 89% of children experienced at least 1 norovirus infection before 24 months, and 22.7% of all diarrheal stools were norovirus positive. Severity of norovirus-positive diarrhea was comparable to other enteropathogens, with the exception of rotavirus. Incidence of genogroup II (GII) infection was higher than genogroup I and peaked at 6–11 months across sites. Undernutrition was a risk factor for symptomatic norovirus infection, with an increase in 1 standard deviation of length-for-age z score associated with a 17% reduction (odds ratio, 0.83 [95% confidence interval, .72–.97]; P = .011) in the odds of experiencing diarrhea when norovirus was present, after accounting for genogroup, rotavirus vaccine, and age. Evidence of acquired immunity was observed among GII infections only: Children with prior GII infection were found to have a 27% reduction in the hazard of subsequent infection (hazard ratio, 0.727; P = .010). Conclusions. The high prevalence of norovirus across 8 sites in highly variable epidemiologic settings and demonstration of protective immunity for GII infections provide support for investment in vaccine development. PMID:27013692

  3. Does financial development reduce environmental degradation? Evidence from a panel study of 129 countries.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Tang, Chor Foon; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of financial development on CO2 emission in 129 countries classified by the income level. A panel CO2 emission model using urbanisation, GDP growth, trade openness, petroleum consumption and financial development variables that are major determinants of CO2 emission was constructed for the 1980-2011 period. The results revealed that the variables are cointegrated based on the Pedroni cointegration test. The dynamic ordinary least squares (OLS) and the Granger causality test results also show that financial development can improve environmental quality in the short run and long run due to its negative effect on CO2 emission. The rest of the determinants, especially petroleum consumption, are determined to be the major source of environmental damage in most of the income group countries. Based on the results obtained, the investigated countries should provide banking loans to projects and investments that can promote energy savings, energy efficiency and renewable energy to help these countries reduce environmental damage in both the short and long run. PMID:25994273

  4. Association between Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Mortality: An Explorative Study across Three European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Malmusi, Davide; Juel, Knud; Rey, Grégoire; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To integrate immigrants into their societies, European countries have adopted different types of policies, which may influence health through both material and psychosocial determinants. Recent studies have suggested poorer health outcomes for immigrants living in countries with poorly rated integration policies. Objective To analyse mortality differences of immigrants from the same country of origin living in countries with distinct integration policy contexts. Methods From the mortality dataset collected in the Migrant Ethnic Health Observatory (MEHO) project, we chose the Netherlands (linked data from 1996-2006), France (unlinked; 2005-2007) and Denmark (linked; 1992-2001) as representatives of the inclusive, assimilationist and exclusionist policy models, respectively, based on the Migrant Integration Policy Index. We calculated for each country sex- and age-standardized mortality rates for Turkish-, Moroccan- and local-born populations aged 20-69 years. Poisson regression was used to estimate the mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for cross-country and within-country comparisons. The analyses were further stratified by age group and cause of death. Results Compared with their peers in the Netherlands, Turkish-born immigrants had higher all-cause mortality in Denmark (MRR men 1.92; 95% CI 1.74-2.13 and women 2.11; 1.80-2.47) but lower in France (men 0.64; 0.59-0.69 and women 0.58; 0.51-0.67). A similar pattern emerged for Moroccan-born immigrants. The relative differences between immigrants and the local-born population were also largest in Denmark and lowest in France (e.g., Turkish-born men MRR 1.52; 95% CI 1.38-1.67 and 0.62; 0.58-0.66, respectively). These patterns were consistent across all age groups, and more marked for cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Although confounders and data comparability issues (e.g., French cross-sectional data) may affect the findings, this study suggests that different macro-level policy contexts may influence immigrants’ mortality. Comparable mortality registration systems across Europe along with detailed socio-demographic information on immigrants may help to better assess this association. PMID:26067249

  5. Analysis on productivity of clinical studies across -- Asian countries a case comparison.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Sengoku, S; Kimura, H

    2007-08-01

    In an era of increasing global competition and an increased interest in global clinical studies Japan has been concerned with the risk of losing its attractiveness due to perceived longer execution times and higher cost structure. In contrast, other Asian countries particularly China and Singapore are widely recognized as potential key centers for fast conduction of global clinical studies. We conducted a case comparison based on two clinical studies performed by a multinational pharmaceutical company in order to measure the productivity of clinical studies by region and country. We focused on the site-related study cost which constituted the largest portion of the cost breakdown and also impacted both time and quality management. For investigation of the productivity we propose a breakdown model with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), enrollment efficiency and site-related cost efficiency, for the comparison of the number of enrolled subject per site and cost, respectively. Through the comparative analysis we found that the Asian countries (excluding Japan) on average achieved higher efficiency than Japan in both indicators. In the Asian group, China and Singapore stood out as the most efficient on both speed and site-related cost. However, when the site-related cost efficiency was adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) the cost advantage in China disappeared, implying the price level was critical for productivity management. Although quality aspects remain to be investigated we postulate that introducing a comparative approach based on a productivity framework would be useful for an accurate productivity comparison. PMID:22504357

  6. Cost of dengue cases in eight countries in the Americas and Asia: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Suaya, Jose A; Shepard, Donald S; Siqueira, João B; Martelli, Celina T; Lum, Lucy C S; Tan, Lian Huat; Kongsin, Sukhontha; Jiamton, Sukhum; Garrido, Fàtima; Montoya, Romeo; Armien, Blas; Huy, Rekol; Castillo, Leticia; Caram, Mariana; Sah, Binod K; Sughayyar, Rana; Tyo, Karen R; Halstead, Scott B

    2009-05-01

    Despite the growing worldwide burden of dengue fever, the global economic impact of dengue illness is poorly documented. Using a common protocol, we present the first multicountry estimates of the direct and indirect costs of dengue cases in eight American and Asian countries. We conducted prospective studies of the cost of dengue in five countries in the Americas (Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, and Venezuela) and three countries in Asia (Cambodia, Malaysia, and Thailand). All studies followed the same core protocol with interviews and medical record reviews. The study populations were patients treated in ambulatory and hospital settings with a clinical diagnosis of dengue. Most studies were performed in 2005. Costs are in 2005 international dollars (I$). We studied 1,695 patients (48% pediatric and 52% adult); none died. The average illness lasted 11.9 days for ambulatory patients and 11.0 days for hospitalized patients. Among hospitalized patients, students lost 5.6 days of school, whereas those working lost 9.9 work days per average dengue episode. Overall mean costs were I$514 and I$1,394 for an ambulatory and hospitalized case, respectively. With an annual average of 574,000 cases reported, the aggregate annual economic cost of dengue for the eight study countries is at least I$587 million. Preliminary adjustment for under-reporting could raise this total to $1.8 billion, and incorporating costs of dengue surveillance and vector control would raise the amount further. Dengue imposes substantial costs on both the health sector and the overall economy. PMID:19407136

  7. A population based study of Helicobacter pylori infection in a European country: the San Marino Study. Relations with gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Gasbarrini, G; Pretolani, S; Bonvicini, F; Gatto, M R; Tonelli, E; Mégraud, F; Mayo, K; Ghironzi, G; Giulianelli, G; Grassi, M

    1995-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is present worldwide but few large population studies exist on the epidemiology of the infection. A random cross sectional study was performed of H pylori infection in the adult population of San Marino, a European country with high gastric cancer rate, to assess its prevalence and to evaluate its relations with gastrointestinal disease. In 2237 subjects (77% of the initial sample) H pylori IgG antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. A questionnaire including questions about occupation, place of birth, and smoking was given to all subjects. Dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer in the subjects, relatives, and partners as well as use of drug, dental treatment/prostheses, and gastrointestinal endoscopies, were evaluated by multivariate analysis. H pylori prevalence was of 51%, increased with age from 23% (20-29 years) to 68% (> or = 70 years), and was higher among manual workers. H pylori was independently associated with ulcer (OR = 1.63, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.16 to 2.27), H2 antagonists (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.10), and benzodiazepines (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.42), dental prostheses (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.49), gastroscopy in the past five years (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.14), peptic ulcer in siblings (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.12), gastric cancer in father (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.52). The association of seropositivity with history of ulcer, gastric cancer in family, gastroscopy, and H2 antagonists suggests that H pylori is an epidemiological key factor in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases in this area. PMID:7615270

  8. Perspectives on the Impact of Varicella Immunization on Herpes Zoster. A Model-Based Evaluation from Three European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Poletti, Piero; Melegaro, Alessia; Ajelli, Marco; del Fava, Emanuele; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Faustini, Luca; Scalia Tomba, Giampaolo; Lopalco, Pierluigi; Rizzo, Caterina; Merler, Stefano; Manfredi, Piero

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of mass vaccination against Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV) is being delayed in many European countries because of, among other factors, the possibility of a large increase in Herpes Zoster (HZ) incidence in the first decades after the initiation of vaccination, due to the expected decline of the boosting of Cell Mediated Immunity caused by the reduced varicella circulation. A multi-country model of VZV transmission and reactivation, is used to evaluate the possible impact of varicella vaccination on HZ epidemiology in Italy, Finland and the UK. Despite the large uncertainty surrounding HZ and vaccine-related parameters, surprisingly robust medium-term predictions are provided, indicating that an increase in HZ incidence is likely to occur in countries where the incidence rate is lower in absence of immunization, possibly due to a higher force of boosting (e.g. Finland), whereas increases in HZ incidence might be minor where the force of boosting is milder (e.g. the UK). Moreover, a convergence of HZ post vaccination incidence levels in the examined countries is predicted despite different initial degrees of success of immunization policies. Unlike previous model-based evaluations, our investigation shows that after varicella immunization an increase of HZ incidence is not a certain fact, rather depends on the presence or absence of factors promoting a strong boosting intensity and which might or not be heavily affected by changes in varicella circulation due to mass immunization. These findings might explain the opposed empirical evidences observed about the increases of HZ in sites where mass varicella vaccination is ongoing. PMID:23613740

  9. Yield estimation using SPOT-VEGETATION products: A case study of wheat in European countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalik, Wanda; Dabrowska-Zielinska, Katarzyna; Meroni, Michele; Raczka, Teresa Urszula; de Wit, Allard

    2014-10-01

    In the period 1999-2009 ten-day SPOT-VEGETATION products of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) at 1 km spatial resolution were used in order to estimate and forecast the wheat yield over Europe. The products were used together with official wheat yield statistics to fine-tune a statistical model for each NUTS2 region, based on the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) method. This method has been chosen to construct the model in the presence of many correlated predictor variables (10-day values of remote sensing indicators) and a limited number of wheat yield observations. The model was run in two different modalities: the "monitoring mode", which allows for an overall yield assessment at the end of the growing season, and the "forecasting mode", which provides early and timely yield estimates when the growing season is on-going. Performances of yield estimation at the regional and national level were evaluated using a cross-validation technique against yield statistics and the estimations were compared with those of a reference crop growth model. Models based on either NDVI or FAPAR normalized indicators achieved similar results with a minimal advantage of the model based on the FAPAR product. Best modelling results were obtained for the countries in Central Europe (Poland, North-Eastern Germany) and also Great Britain. By contrast, poor model performances characterize countries as follows: Sweden, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, Romania and Hungary. Country level yield estimates using the PLSR model in the monitoring mode, and those of a reference crop growth model that do not make use of remote sensing information showed comparable accuracies. The largest estimation errors were observed in Portugal, Spain and Finland for both approaches. This convergence may indicate poor reliability of the official yield statistics in these countries.

  10. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  11. An econometric study of the demand for gasoline in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries

    SciTech Connect

    Eltony, M.N.

    1994-12-31

    Reliable and accurate estimation of price and income elasticities of demand for gasoline are important ingredients for long-run energy planning and policy formation. The purpose of this study is to develop and estimate a model for gasoline demand for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Oatar, Saufi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The model is capable of producing short-run and long-run price and income elasticities. Since the first oil price hike in 1973, a great deal of attention has been directed toward the demand for gasoline, especially in the industrialized countries. Few studies have been directed toward the demand for gasoline in developing countries. In terms of primary energy consumption, the GCC`s energy needs are met by oil, natural gas, and electricity. Without any doubt, oil is the largest energy source consumed and gasoline is the most important oil product. However, very few studies have been directed toward analyzing GCC energy demand, and yet there has been not attempt to model and estimate GCC gasoline demand. This study attempts to address this gap.

  12. Association between Obesity and Selected Morbidities: A Study of BRICS Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ankita; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Singh, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Objective Over the past few decades, obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic diseases and disability. There is little evidence on obesity related co-morbidities in BRICS countries. The first objective is to examine the factors associated with overweight and obesity in four of the five BRICS countries (China, India, Russia and South Africa). The second is to examine the linkage of obesity with selected morbidities. Methods We used data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in China, India, Russia and South Africa during 2007–10. The morbidities included in the analysis are Hypertension, Diabetes, Angina, Stroke, Arthritis and Depression. Findings The prevalence of obesity was highest in South Africa (35%) followed by Russia (22%), China (5%) and India (3%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in females as compared to males in all the countries. While the wealth quintile was associated with overweight in India and China, engaging in work requiring physical activity was associated with obesity in China and South Africa. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with Hypertension and Diabetes in all the four countries. Obesity was also positively associated with Arthritis and Angina in China, Russia and South Africa. In comparison, overweight/obesity was not associated with Stroke and Depression in any of the four countries. Conclusion Obesity was statistically associated with Hypertension, Angina, Diabetes and Arthritis in China, Russia and South Africa. In India, obesity was associated only with Hypertension and Diabetes. PMID:24718033

  13. Evaluation of an Android-based mHealth system for population surveillance in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Mbugua, Samuel; Amadi, David; Chepnǵeno, Viola; Saleem, Jason J; Anokwa, Yaw; Hartung, Carl; Borriello, Gaetano; Mamlin, Burke W; Ndege, Samson K; Were, Martin C

    2012-01-01

    Objective In parts of the developing world traditionally modeled healthcare systems do not adequately meet the needs of the populace. This can be due to imbalances in both supply and demand—there may be a lack of sufficient healthcare and the population most at need may be unable or unwilling to take advantage of it. Home-based care has emerged as a possible mechanism to bring healthcare to the populace in a cost-effective, useful manner. This study describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile device-based system to support such services. Materials and Methods Mobile phones were utilized and a structured survey was implemented to be administered by community health workers using Open Data Kit. This system was used to support screening efforts for a population of two million persons in western Kenya. Results Users of the system felt it was easy to use and facilitated their work. The system was also more cost effective than pen and paper alternatives. Discussion This implementation is one of the largest applications of a system utilizing handheld devices for performing clinical care during home visits in a resource-constrained environment. Because the data were immediately available electronically, initial reports could be performed and important trends in data could thus be detected. This allowed adjustments to the programme to be made sooner than might have otherwise been possible. Conclusion A viable, cost-effective solution at scale has been developed and implemented for collecting electronic data during household visits in a resource-constrained setting. PMID:22366295

  14. Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

  15. Comparison of Economic Evaluation Methods Across Low-income, Middle-income and High-income Countries: What are the Differences and Why?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Ulla Kou; Legood, Rosa; Pitt, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    There are marked differences in methods used for undertaking economic evaluations across low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries. We outline the most apparent dissimilarities and reflect on their underlying reasons. We randomly sampled 50 studies from each of three country income groups from a comprehensive database of 2844 economic evaluations published between January 2012 and May 2014. Data were extracted on ten methodological areas: (i) availability of guidelines; (ii) research questions; (iii) perspective; (iv) cost data collection methods; (v) cost data analysis; (vi) outcome measures; (vii) modelling techniques; (viii) cost-effectiveness thresholds; (ix) uncertainty analysis; and (x) applicability. Comparisons were made across income groups and odds ratios calculated. Contextual heterogeneity rightly drives some of the differences identified. Other differences appear less warranted and may be attributed to variation in government health sector capacity, in health economics research capacity and in expectations of funders, journals and peer reviewers. By highlighting these differences, we seek to start a debate about the underlying reasons why they have occurred and to what extent the differences are conducive for methodological advancements. We suggest a number of specific areas in which researchers working in countries of differing environments could learn from one another. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26775571

  16. Outcomes in Economic Evaluations of Public Health Interventions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Health, Capabilities and Subjective Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Greco, Giulia; Lorgelly, Paula; Yamabhai, Inthira

    2016-02-01

    Public health programmes tend to be complex and may combine social strategies with aspects of empowerment, capacity building and knowledge across sectors. The nature of the programmes means that some effects are likely to occur outside the healthcare sector; this breadth impacts on the choice of health and non-health outcomes to measure and value in an economic evaluation. Employing conventional outcome measures in evaluations of public health has been questioned. There are concerns that such measures are too narrow, overlook important dimensions of programme effect and, thus, lead to such interventions being undervalued. This issue is of particular importance for low-income and middle-income countries, which face considerable budget constraints, yet deliver a large proportion of health activities within public health programmes. The need to develop outcome measures, which include broader measures of quality of life, has given impetus to the development of a variety of new, holistic approaches, including Sen's capability framework and measures of subjective wellbeing. Despite their promise, these approaches have not yet been widely applied, perhaps because they present significant methodological challenges. This paper outlines the methodological challenges for the identification and measurement of broader outcomes of public health interventions in economic evaluation in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:26804360

  17. Epidemiology of stillbirth in low-middle income countries: A Global Network Study

    PubMed Central

    McCLURE, ELIZABETH M.; PASHA, OMRANA; GOUDAR, SHIVAPRASAD S.; CHOMBA, ELWYN; GARCES, ANA; TSHEFU, ANTOINETTE; ALTHABE, FERNANDO; ESAMAI, FABIAN; PATEL, ARCHANA; WRIGHT, LINDA L.; MOORE, JANET; KODKANY, BHALCHANDRA S.; BELIZAN, JOSE M.; SALEEM, SARAH; DERMAN, RICHARD J.; CARLO, WALDEMAR A.; HAMBIDGE, K. MICHAEL; BUEKENS, PIERRE; LIECHTY, EDWARD A.; BOSE, CARL; KOSO-THOMAS, MARION; JOBE, ALAN H.; GOLDENBERG, ROBERT L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine population-based stillbirth rates and to determine whether the timing and maturity of the stillbirths suggest a high proportion of potentially preventable deaths. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Communities in six low-income countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Zambia, Guatemala, India, and Pakistan) and one site in a mid-income country (Argentina). Population Pregnant women residing in the study communities. Methods Over a five-year period, in selected catchment areas, using multiple methodologies, trained study staff obtained pregnancy outcomes on each delivery in their area. Main outcome measures Pregnancy outcome, stillbirth characteristics. Results Outcomes of 195 400 deliveries were included. Stillbirth rates ranged from 32 per 1 000 in Pakistan to 8 per 1 000 births in Argentina. Three-fourths (76%) of stillbirth off-spring were not macerated, 63% were ≥37 weeks and 48% weighed 2 500g or more. Across all sites, women with no education, of high and low parity, of older age, and without access to antenatal care were at significantly greater risk for stillbirth (p<0.001). Compared to those delivered by a physician, women delivered by nurses and traditional birth attendants had a lower risk of stillbirth. Conclusions In these low-middle income countries, most stillbirth offspring were not macerated, were reported as ≥37 weeks’ gestation, and almost half weighed at least 2 500g. With access to better medical care, especially in the intrapartum period, many of these stillbirths could likely be prevented. PMID:21916854

  18. Field Evaluation of a Coproantigen Detection Test for Fascioliasis Diagnosis and Surveillance in Human Hyperendemic Areas of Andean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Valero, María Adela; Periago, María Victoria; Pérez-Crespo, Ignacio; Angles, René; Villegas, Fidel; Aguirre, Carlos; Strauss, Wilma; Espinoza, José R.; Herrera, Patricia; Terashima, Angelica; Tamayo, Hugo; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA) was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. Methodology and Findings A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD) and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg) in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg), nor in Huacullani high burden cases (≥400 epg), although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg). Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg). Conclusions The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase, early detection of treatment failure or reinfection in post-treated subjects, and usefulness in surveillance programs. However, this technique falls short when evaluating the fluke burden on its own. PMID:23029575

  19. The Missing Link: Deficits of Country-Level Studies. A Review of 22 Articles Explaining Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonnenmacher, Alexandra; Friedrichs, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    To explain country differences in an analytical or structural dependent variable, the application of a macro-micro-model containing contextual hypotheses is necessary. Our methodological study examines whether empirical studies apply such a model. We propose that a theoretical base for country differences is well described in multilevel studies,

  20. Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries. PMID:24973053

  1. Using information technology for an improved pharmaceutical care delivery in developing countries. Study case: Benin.

    PubMed

    Edoh, Thierry Oscar; Teege, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    One of the problems in health care in developing countries is the bad accessibility of medicine in pharmacies for patients. Since this is mainly due to a lack of organization and information, it should be possible to improve the situation by introducing information and communication technology. However, for several reasons, standard solutions are not applicable here. In this paper, we describe a case study in Benin, a West African developing country. We identify the problem and the existing obstacles for applying standard ECommerce solutions. We develop an adapted system approach and describe a practical test which has shown that the approach has the potential of actually improving the pharmaceutical care delivery. Finally, we consider the security aspects of the system and propose an organizational solution for some specific security problems. PMID:21519942

  2. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Lalla, Osama; Ali, Essa Y. H.; Kalam, Faiza; Benhamed, Mofida M.; Saghir, Sabri; Halahleh, Ismail; Djoudi, Zahra; Chirane, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females). The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%), followed by Jordanian (21.6%), and Syrian (19.7%) adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%), followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%), and Syrian (19.7%) adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8%) and females (20.6%). Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries. PMID:23029605

  3. The Relative Impacts of Disease on Health Status and Capability Wellbeing: A Multi-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Paul Mark; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Richardson, Jeff; Iezzi, Angelo; Coast, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluations of the impact of interventions for resource allocation purposes commonly focus on health status. There is, however, also concern about broader impacts on wellbeing and, increasingly, on a person's capability. This study aims to compare the impact on health status and capability of seven major health conditions, and highlight differences in treatment priorities when outcomes are measured by capability as opposed to health status. Methods The study was a cross-sectional four country survey (n = 6650) of eight population groups: seven disease groups with: arthritis, asthma, cancer, depression, diabetes, hearing loss, and heart disease and one health population ‘comparator’ group. Two simple self-complete questionnaires were used to measure health status (EQ-5D-5L) and capability (ICECAP-A). Individuals were classified by illness severity using condition-specific questionnaires. Effect sizes were used to estimate: (i) the difference in health status and capability for those with conditions, relative to a healthy population; and (ii) the impact of the severity of the condition on health status and capability within each disease group. Findings 5248 individuals were included in the analysis. Individuals with depression have the greatest mean reduction in both health (effect size, 1.26) and capability (1.22) compared to the healthy population. The effect sizes for capability for depression are much greater than for all other conditions, which is not the case for health. For example, the arthritis group effect size for health (1.24) is also high and similar to that of depression, whereas for the same arthritis group, the effect size for capability is much lower than that for depression (0.55). In terms of severity within disease groups, individuals categorised as 'mild' have similar capability levels to the healthy population (effect sizes <0.2, excluding depression) but lower health status than the healthy population (≥0.4). Conclusion Significant differences exist in the relative effect sizes across diseases when measured by health status and capability. In terms of treating morbidity, a shift in focus from health gain to capability gain would increase funding priorities for patients with depression specifically and severe illnesses more generally. PMID:26630131

  4. Health Checkup and Telemedical Intervention Program for Preventive Medicine in Developing Countries: Verification Study

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Eiko; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Islam, Rafiqul; Ahmed, Ashir; Kuroda, Masahiro; Inoue, Sozo; Hiramatsu, Tatsuo; Kimura, Michio; Shimizu, Shuji; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Baba, Yukino; Kashima, Hisashi; Tsuda, Koji; Sugiyama, Masashi; Blondel, Mathieu; Ueda, Naonori; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Nakashima, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases is increasing throughout the world, including developing countries. Objective The intent was to conduct a study of a preventive medical service in a developing country, combining eHealth checkups and teleconsultation as well as assess stratification rules and the short-term effects of intervention. Methods We developed an eHealth system that comprises a set of sensor devices in an attaché case, a data transmission system linked to a mobile network, and a data management application. We provided eHealth checkups for the populations of five villages and the employees of five factories/offices in Bangladesh. Individual health condition was automatically categorized into four grades based on international diagnostic standards: green (healthy), yellow (caution), orange (affected), and red (emergent). We provided teleconsultation for orange- and red-grade subjects and we provided teleprescription for these subjects as required. Results The first checkup was provided to 16,741 subjects. After one year, 2361 subjects participated in the second checkup and the systolic blood pressure of these subjects was significantly decreased from an average of 121 mmHg to an average of 116 mmHg (P<.001). Based on these results, we propose a cost-effective method using a machine learning technique (random forest method) using the medical interview, subject profiles, and checkup results as predictor to avoid costly measurements of blood sugar, to ensure sustainability of the program in developing countries. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the benefits of an eHealth checkup and teleconsultation program as an effective health care system in developing countries. PMID:25630348

  5. Selecting a Learning Management System (LMS) in Developing Countries: Instructors' Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2013-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMSs) contain hidden costs, unclear user environments, bulky developer and administration manuals, and limitations with regard to interoperability, integration, localization, and bandwidth requirements. Careful evaluation is required in selecting the most appropriate LMS for use, and this is a general problem in…

  6. Evaluating large-scale health programmes at a district level in resource-limited countries.

    PubMed

    Svoronos, Theodore; Mate, Kedar S

    2011-11-01

    Recent experience in evaluating large-scale global health programmes has highlighted the need to consider contextual differences between sites implementing the same intervention. Traditional randomized controlled trials are ill-suited for this purpose, as they are designed to identify whether an intervention works, not how, when and why it works. In this paper we review several evaluation designs that attempt to account for contextual factors that contribute to intervention effectiveness. Using these designs as a base, we propose a set of principles that may help to capture information on context. Finally, we propose a tool, called a driver diagram, traditionally used in implementation that would allow evaluators to systematically monitor changing dynamics in project implementation and identify contextual variation across sites. We describe an implementation-related example from South Africa to underline the strengths of the tool. If used across multiple sites and multiple projects, the resulting driver diagrams could be pooled together to form a generalized theory for how, when and why a widely-used intervention works. Mechanisms similar to the driver diagram are urgently needed to complement existing evaluations of large-scale implementation efforts. PMID:22084529

  7. Assessment in Finland: A Scholarly Reflection on One Country's Use of Formative, Summative, and Evaluative Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Katie A.

    2012-01-01

    Finland's high test scores have prompted international comparisons of educational policy. This article explores the use of assessment in Finland, particularly the intended use of student assessment and evaluation of schools as described in the National Curriculum. This article explores Finnish educational policy through the lens of formative and…

  8. Assessment in Finland: A Scholarly Reflection on One Country's Use of Formative, Summative, and Evaluative Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Katie A.

    2012-01-01

    Finland's high test scores have prompted international comparisons of educational policy. This article explores the use of assessment in Finland, particularly the intended use of student assessment and evaluation of schools as described in the National Curriculum. This article explores Finnish educational policy through the lens of formative and

  9. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    PubMed

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities. Therefore, communication documents should be seen as templates with essential information clearly indicated and the option for each country to tailor the material to reflect these differences. Future studies should consider setting up multidisciplinary networks of medical professionals and communication experts, and holding training workshops to discuss the interpretation of results and risk communication. Publicity and wide dissemination of the results helped to raise awareness of human biomonitoring to the general public, policy makers and other key stakeholders. Effective and timely communication, at all stages of a study, is essential if the potential of human biomonitoring research to improve public health is to be realised. PMID:25499539

  10. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project: Methodology of a 34-Country Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Anthony W.; Pavluck, Alexandre L.; Courtright, Paul; Aboe, Agatha; Adamu, Liknaw; Alemayehu, Wondu; Alemu, Menbere; Alexander, Neal D. E.; Kello, Amir Bedri; Bero, Berhanu; Brooker, Simon J.; Chu, Brian K.; Dejene, Michael; Emerson, Paul M.; Flueckiger, Rebecca M.; Gadisa, Solomon; Gass, Katherine; Gebre, Teshome; Habtamu, Zelalem; Harvey, Erik; Haslam, Dominic; King, Jonathan D.; Mesurier, Richard Le; Lewallen, Susan; Lietman, Thomas M.; MacArthur, Chad; Mariotti, Silvio P.; Massey, Anna; Mathieu, Els; Mekasha, Addis; Millar, Tom; Mpyet, Caleb; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ogden, Stephanie; Pearce, Joseph; Sarah, Virginia; Sisay, Alemayehu; Smith, Jennifer L.; Taylor, Hugh R.; Thomson, Jo; West, Sheila K.; Willis, Rebecca; Bush, Simon; Haddad, Danny; Foster, Allen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To complete the baseline trachoma map worldwide by conducting population-based surveys in an estimated 1238 suspected endemic districts of 34 countries. Methods: A series of national and sub-national projects owned, managed and staffed by ministries of health, conduct house-to-house cluster random sample surveys in evaluation units, which generally correspond to “health district” size: populations of 100,000–250,000 people. In each evaluation unit, we invite all residents aged 1 year and older from h households in each of c clusters to be examined for clinical signs of trachoma, where h is the number of households that can be seen by 1 team in 1 day, and the product h × c is calculated to facilitate recruitment of 1019 children aged 1–9 years. In addition to individual-level demographic and clinical data, household-level water, sanitation and hygiene data are entered into the purpose-built LINKS application on Android smartphones, transmitted to the Cloud, and cleaned, analyzed and ministry-of-health-approved via a secure web-based portal. The main outcome measures are the evaluation unit-level prevalence of follicular trachoma in children aged 1–9 years, prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in adults aged 15 + years, percentage of households using safe methods for disposal of human feces, and percentage of households with proximate access to water for personal hygiene purposes. Results: In the first year of fieldwork, 347 field teams commenced work in 21 projects in 7 countries. Conclusion: With an approach that is innovative in design and scale, we aim to complete baseline mapping of trachoma throughout the world in 2015. PMID:26158580

  11. Medical records standards in selected countries and Iran: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hajavi, Abazar; Azar, F Ebadi F; Meidani, Zahra

    2005-02-01

    Studies conducted in Iran showed that the absence of specific and applied standards relating to medical records, and the absence of a custodian organization, resulted in an incompatibility of medical records with standards and a deviation in the path of the activities of medical records departments from their main goals. Today's medical record professionals identified the development of a mechanism for establishing medical records standards as a reform priority. So, conducting a comparative study of related medical records standards in developed countries with Iran, is important in order to facilitate a nationwide standardization movement in Iran's medical record departments. PMID:15776838

  12. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress. PMID:22789097

  13. Understanding and measuring student engagement in school: the results of an international study from 12 countries.

    PubMed

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Wong, Bernard P H; Kikas, Eve; Shin, Hyeonsook; Veiga, Feliciano H; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Cefai, Carmel; Negovan, Valeria; Stanculescu, Elena; Yang, Hongfei; Liu, Yi; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Nelson, Brett; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a scale that is appropriate for use internationally to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data of 3,420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th grade) from 12 countries (Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States). The intraclass correlation of the full-scale scores of student engagement between countries revealed that it was appropriate to aggregate the data from the 12 countries for further analyses. Coefficient alphas revealed good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability coefficients were also acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the data fit well to a second-order model with affective, behavioral, and cognitive engagement as the first-order factors and student engagement as the second-order factor. The results support the use of this scale to measure student engagement as a metaconstruct. Furthermore, the significant correlations of the scale with instructional practices, teacher support, peer support, parent support, emotions, academic performance, and school conduct indicated good concurrent validity of the scale. Considerations and implications regarding the international use of this student engagement in school measure are discussed. PMID:24933218

  14. Pharmacists remuneration models in iran and selected countries: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Keshavarz, Khosro; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Vazirian, Iman; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists are members of the healthcare teams that provide valuable services to society. Their incentive to deliver such services is influenced by remuneration methods. In this study, we aimed to review the remuneration models for pharmacists' services and the factors affecting the profitability of pharmacies in some selected countries, including France, Ireland, Canada and Turkey, and compared them to Iran. International data were collected by literature review on Google, Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus. In addition, domestic data were collected by contacting relevant organizations. There is no payment for pharmacists' cognitive services in Iran and in the countries investigated, except for some Canadian provinces. The dispensing fee system in Iran does not seem to be adequate, especially considering that most of the insurers do not cover these fees. The pricing method in Iran has resulted in a low price level, in comparison to the other countries, and this issue has dramatically affected the profitability of pharmacies in standard practice. It could be concluded that changing the current formulation for the dispensing fee to a more appropriate one, defining a remuneration system for non-owner pharmacists other than salary and implementing the new pricing method are necessary in order to improve the services provided by pharmacies. PMID:24523777

  15. International technology transfer: study of selected problems encountered by multinational businesses in lesser-developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This project describes some of the problems encountered in the transfer of technology to Lesser Developed Countries (LDC) by Multinational Corporations. (MNC) In this study, the concept of technology is expanded to include industrial processes as well as the marketing of the goods containing the technical knowledge. The development and use of this technology is created under the values and standards existing in the MNC's country. However, when it is transferred to Third World Nations, the corporation frequently encounters cultural situations that are contrary to its domestic situation. In the Nestle case, baby formula was marketed in the Third World under assumptions that were valid in the Western World but which had tragic consequencesin the LDCs. The assumption of a clean water supply was taken for granted in the advanced nations. In the LDCs, however, impure water supplies were a fact of life. This and other circumstances led to misuse of the formula. The Union Carbide case involved the transfer of an industrial process for the manufacture of pesticides. These products were prohibited in the MNC's country but the lax regulations in India permitted the corporation to produce the toxic materials using less-stringent control. Many thousands of Indians were killed and injured when a deadly gas escaped from the plant. In both situations, the MNC failed to consider the local cultural conditions in its strategic planning.

  16. Energy requirements of pregnancy: an integration of the longitudinal data from the five-country study.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1987-11-14

    Longitudinal data on the energy requirements of pregnant women in 5 countries--Scotland, Netherlands, Gambia, Thailand, and Philippines--indicate that the energy costs of pregnancy are about 250 MJ (60,000 kilocalories). When expressed as a proportion of the initial body weight, weight gain during pregnancy was identical for Scottish, Thai, and Philippine women. A striking finding was that Gambian women save so much energy in basal metabolism through becoming pregnant that they end up with a positive energy balance of about 46 MJ over the whole gestational period. This reflects a remarkable physiological adaptation to pregnancy in the face of severe nutritional stress. With the exception of the Thai women, energy intakes did not conform to theoretically expected quantities. In the other 4 groups, energy intakes increased overall by no more than 420 kJ/day compared with 1 MJ/day among Thai women. It remains to be determined whether Thai women are more representative of women in developing countries than Gambian or Philippine women. More studies on much larger groups of women in developing countries, with adequate prepregnancy measurements, are needed to make definitive statements about energy requirements. PMID:2890029

  17. You Cannot Go Home Again: A Phenomenological Investigation of Returning to the Sojourn Country after Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofi, Victoria; Thompson, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to describe the structure of the experience of individuals who returned home after studying abroad, became disillusioned with their home country, and returned to their sojourn country. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with participants. The emerging bipolar themes of conflict/peace, reality/idealization,…

  18. Global childhood unintentional injury surveillance in four cities in developing countries: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sugerman, David E; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Razzak, Junaid; El-Sayed, Hesham; Isaza, Andres; Rahman, Fazlur; Peden, Margie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the frequency and nature of childhood injuries and to explore the risk factors for such injuries in low-income countries by using emergency department (ED) surveillance data. Methods This pilot study represents the initial phase of a multi-country global childhood unintentional injury surveillance (GCUIS) project and was based on a sequential sample of children < 11 years of age of either gender who presented to selected EDs in Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt and Pakistan over a 3–4 month period, which varied for each site, in 2007. Findings Of 1559 injured children across all sites, 1010 (65%) were male; 941 (60%) were aged ≥ 5 years, 32 (2%) were < 1 year old. Injuries were especially frequent (34%) during the morning hours. They occurred in and around the home in 56% of the cases, outside while children played in 63% and during trips in 11%. Of all the injuries observed, 913 (56%) involved falls; 350 (22%), road traffic injuries; 210 (13%), burns; 66 (4%), poisoning; and 20 (1%), near drowning or drowning. Falls occurred most often from stairs or ladders; road traffic injuries most often involved pedestrians; the majority of burns were from hot liquids; poisonings typically involved medicines, and most drowning occurred in the home. The mean injury severity score was highest for near drowning or drowning (11), followed closely by road traffic injuries (10). There were 6 deaths, of which 2 resulted from drowning, 2 from falls and 2 from road traffic injuries. Conclusion Hospitals in low-income countries bear a substantial burden of childhood injuries, and systematic surveillance is required to identify the epidemiological distribution of such injuries and understand their risk factors. Methodological standardization for surveillance across countries makes it possible to draw international comparisons and identify common issues. PMID:19551252

  19. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95% level of confidence: 37% variance explained on the environmental sustainability performance composite indicator out of 73%, 55% (of 55%) on the waste and pollution subindex, 20% (of 70%) on the sustainable energy subindex, 5% (of 100%) on the sustainable cities subindex, and 55% (of 81%) on the GHG indicator. Energy prices are relevant to Canadian policy; increasing prices could substantially improve Canada's performance. Policy makers should increase energy prices through a carbon pricing strategy that is congruent with the ecological fiscal reform advanced by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Keywords: sustainable development; composite indices; environmental policy; environmental governance; energy prices; Canada.

  20. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality, responsible for 28% of neonatal deaths overall. The administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk of preterm birth is a powerful perinatal intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in resource rich environments. The effect of antenatal steroids to reduce mortality and morbidity among preterm infants in hospital settings in developed countries with high utilization is well established, yet they are not routinely used in developing countries. The impact of increasing antenatal steroid use in hospital or community settings with low utilization rates and high infant mortality among premature infants due to lack of specialized services has not been well researched. There is currently no clear evidence about the safety of antenatal corticosteroid use for community-level births. Methods We hypothesize that a multi country, two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multifaceted intervention to increase the use of antenatal corticosteroids, including components to improve the identification of pregnancies at high risk of preterm birth and providing and facilitating the appropriate use of steroids, will reduce neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm newborns, compared with the standard delivery of care in selected populations of six countries. 102 clusters in Argentina, Guatemala, Kenya, India, Pakistan, and Zambia will be randomized, and around 60,000 women and newborns will be enrolled. Kits containing vials of dexamethasone, syringes, gloves, and instructions for administration will be distributed. Improving the identification of women at high risk of preterm birth will be done by (1) diffusing recommendations for antenatal corticosteroids use to health providers, (2) training health providers on identification of women at high risk of preterm birth, (3) providing reminders to health providers on the use of the kits, and (4) using a color-coded tape to measure uterine height to estimate gestational age in women with unknown gestational age. In both intervention and control clusters, health providers will be trained in essential newborn care for low birth weight babies. The primary outcome is neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm infants. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01084096 PMID:22992312

  1. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A; Egan, Bernadette M; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL ("Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour"). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%-27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children's development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%-1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging. PMID:26950149

  2. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A.; Egan, Bernadette M.; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%–27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children’s development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%–1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging. PMID:26950149

  3. Using routine health information systems for well-designed health evaluations in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Bradley H; Sherr, Kenneth; Fernandes, Quinhas; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-02-01

    Routine health information systems (RHISs) are in place in nearly every country and provide routinely collected full-coverage records on all levels of health system service delivery. However, these rich sources of data are regularly overlooked for evaluating causal effects of health programmes due to concerns regarding completeness, timeliness, representativeness and accuracy. Using Mozambique's national RHIS (Módulo Básico) as an illustrative example, we urge renewed attention to the use of RHIS data for health evaluations. Interventions to improve data quality exist and have been tested in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Intrinsic features of RHIS data (numerous repeated observations over extended periods of time, full coverage of health facilities, and numerous real-time indicators of service coverage and utilization) provide for very robust quasi-experimental designs, such as controlled interrupted time-series (cITS), which are not possible with intermittent community sample surveys. In addition, cITS analyses are well suited for continuously evolving development contexts in LMICs by: (1) allowing for measurement and controlling for trends and other patterns before, during and after intervention implementation; (2) facilitating the use of numerous simultaneous control groups and non-equivalent dependent variables at multiple nested levels to increase validity and strength of causal inference; and (3) allowing the integration of continuous 'effective dose received' implementation measures. With expanded use of RHIS data for the evaluation of health programmes, investments in data systems, health worker interest in and utilization of RHIS data, as well as data quality will further increase over time. Because RHIS data are ministry-owned and operated, relying upon these data will contribute to sustainable national capacity over time. PMID:25887561

  4. Sustainable Agricultural and Watershed Management in Developing Countries - An India Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of sustainable agricultural and watershed management is to enhance agricultural productivity while protecting and preserving our environment and natural resources. The vast majority of information on sustainable watershed management practices is primarily derived from studies in developed nations with very few inputs from developing nations. Through a USDA-funded project, the University of Delaware (UD) initiated a collaboration with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) located in Hyderabad, India to study sustainable agricultural management practices in developing countries and their impacts on the environment, crop productivity, and socioeconomic conditions of the watershed community. As a part of this project, ICRISAT provided us with a vast amount of data on sustainable agricultural practices and their impacts on runoff, soil and water quality, crop yields, nutrient management and socioeconomic conditions. Conservation practices that were implemented included check dams, groundwater recharge wells, intercropping, nutrient management, integrated pest management and a suite of other practices. Using this information, students and faculty at UD developed teaching modules that were used for education and enrichment of existing UD courses and are also being used for the development of a stand-alone online course. The students and faculty visited India in July 2010 to get a first-hand experience of the conditions in the agricultural watersheds and the impacts of sustainable management practices. The project was a tremendous learning experience for US students and faculty and highlighted the challenges people face in developing countries and how that affects every aspect of their lives. Such challenges include environmental, agricultural, technological, economic, and transportation. Although we experience many of the same challenges, developing countries do not have the technology or economic infrastructure in place to effectively manage these challenges. This presentation highlights: (a) the agricultural and environmental challenges facing developing countries like India; (b) the types of best management practices (BMPs) employed; (c) the impacts of the BMPs in the study watersheds; (d) the development of the online course and (e) the lessons and experiences of the students and faculty from their study visit to India.

  5. Care provider perspectives on medical travel: A three-country study of destination hospitals.

    PubMed

    Garman, Andrew N; Johnson, Tricia J; Lynch, Elizabeth B; Satjapot, Siriporn

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the current and potential role of medical travel in U.S. patient care, very little research has been conducted on clinician and other provider organizations' perspectives on providing international patient care. The present study sought to gain formative insights about medical travel from the providers' perspectives, by conducting structured interviews and focus groups in six hospitals from three countries catering to patients traveling from the United States. Findings highlighted the surprising role of international events and policies in the evolution of medical travel, as well as both the desire and need for more transparent quality standards. PMID:26950538

  6. Improving integration for integrated coastal zone management: an eight country study.

    PubMed

    Portman, M E; Esteves, L S; Le, X Q; Khan, A Z

    2012-11-15

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is a widely accepted approach for sustainable management of the coastal environment. ICZM emphasizes integration across sectors, levels of government, uses, stakeholders, and spatial and temporal scales. While improving integration is central to progress in ICZM, the role of and the achievement of integration remain understudied. To further study these two points, our research analyzes the performance of specific mechanisms used to support ICZM in eight countries (Belgium, India, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, UK, and Vietnam). The assessment is based on a qualitative comparative analysis conducted through the use of two surveys. It focuses on five ICZM mechanisms (environmental impact assessment; planning hierarchy; setback lines; marine spatial planning, and regulatory commission) and their role in improving integration. Our findings indicate that certain mechanisms enhance specific types of integration more effectively than others. Environmental impact assessment enhances science-policy integration and can be useful to integrate knowledge across sectors. Planning hierarchy and regulatory commissions are effective mechanisms to integrate policies across government levels, with the latter also promoting public-government integration. Setback lines can be applied to enhance integration across landscape units. Marine spatial planning is a multi-faceted mechanism with the potential to promote all types of integration. Policy-makers should adopt the mechanisms that are suited to the type of integration needed. Results of this study also contribute to evidence-based coastal management by identifying the most common impediments related to the mechanisms of integration in the eight studied countries. PMID:23063925

  7. Students' perceptions and doubts about menstruation in developing countries: a case study from India.

    PubMed

    Chothe, Vikas; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Seabert, Denise; Asalkar, Mahesh; Rakshe, Sarika; Firke, Arti; Midha, Inuka; Simmons, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Menstrual education is a vital aspect of adolescent health education. Culture, awareness, and socioeconomic status often exert profound influence on menstrual practices. However, health education programs for young women in developing countries do not often address menstrual hygiene, practices, and disorders. Developing culturally sensitive menstrual health education and hygiene programs for adolescent females has been recommended by professional health organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. These programs cannot be developed without understanding existing myths and perceptions about menstruation in adolescent females of developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study from India was to document existing misconceptions regarding menstruation and perceptions about menarche and various menstrual restrictions that have been understudied. Out of the 612 students invited to participate by asking questions, 381 girls participated by asking specific questions about menstruation (response rate = 62%). The respondents consisted of 84 girls from sixth grade, 117 from seventh grade, and 180 from eighth grade. The questions asked were arranged into the following subthemes: anatomy and physiology, menstrual symptoms, menstrual myths and taboos, health and beauty, menstrual abnormalities, seeking medical advice and home remedies; sanitary pads usage and disposal; diet and lifestyle; and sex education. Results of our study indicate that students had substantial doubts about menstruation and were influenced by societal myths and taboos in relation to menstrual practices. Parents, adolescent care providers, and policy makers in developing countries should advocate for comprehensive sexuality education and resources (e.g., low-cost sanitary pads and school facilities) to promote menstrual health and hygiene promotion. PMID:24618653

  8. An international labour migration to developing countries in Asia: a case study of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J K

    1996-12-01

    This study is based on a random sample of 431 temporary migrant workers from developing countries in Korea. Interviews were conducted from mid-October 1995 to mid-March 1996 with 105 Pakistanis, 77 Filipinos, 71 Sri Lankans, 67 Bangladeshi, 40 Indonesians, 26 individuals from Myanmar, 22 Chinese, 16 Nepalese, 2 Iranians, 2 Kazakstanians, 1 Malaysian, 1 Vietnamese, and 1 Ghanaian. Migration follows legal and illegal patterns. Legal trainee migrants leave before their contract time due to low pay, inadequate living conditions, forced overtime work, and lack of freedom. Trainees tend to be ethnic Koreans born in China and Chinese nationals. The number of illegal migrants is increasing. Foreign workers gain entry illegally through smuggling networks and legally through industrial work or tourist visas. Sample data reveal that the average age ranged from 26 to 32 years. Almost 70% were unmarried, and most were males. Filipinos tended to be older and show gender and marital balance. Age, marital status, religion, and education varied widely by ethnic group. Indonesians and Sri Lankans had lower household income than Pakistanis and Filipinos. Pakistanis tended to come from larger families. Total travel costs ranged from $3000 to $5000. Korea is one of four rapidly developing countries that shifted from being a major exporter of labor to a major importer of workers. Shortages of workers accompanied the shift. This case study illustrates that the traditional structural paradigm does not explain some unique features of international labor migration (ILM) in Asia, including the encouragement of illegal migration. The clandestine networks are different from those in developed countries. State policies mediate the flow of ILM. PMID:12320871

  9. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the

  10. Comparative Study of the Status of Women in Sport and Athletics Across Four Countries: Egypt, Japan, Norway, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Anne

    The purpose of this study was to assemble a profile of the status of women in four countries, including their accomplishments in international sports events. The status of women within a country must be defined and understood before equivalence in sport opportunities for males and females can be comprehended. The first hypothesis was that a lack

  11. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  12. Analyses of Some Studies on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Family Planning in Several Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, New York, NY.

    Research dealing with population and family planning in specific Latin American countries is summarized in this collection of demographic studies. Countries for which information is provided include Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. Each country…

  13. Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. Recent Developments in Continuing Professional Education. Country Study: United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Keith

    This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in continuing professional education, looks at recent developments in Great Britain. In particular the report concentrates on developments at the interface between the country's higher education system and working adults in managerial or professional…

  14. Strategy for groundwater management in developing countries: A case study in northern Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, Andreas; Astorga, Allan; Neumann, Detlev

    2007-02-01

    SummaryOn the basis of a case study in northern Costa Rica, in an area of one of the country's most important volcanic aquifers, we developed a GIS-based groundwater management system suitable for the limited financial, technical and data resources of developing countries. Input and processing of attribute data-like information about groundwater wells or geological outcrops are realized with the help of an ACCESS database. The GIS-platform ArcView is used for input and analysis of all types of spatial data, e.g. maps of geology, hydrogeology, land use, or locations of groundwater wells. A three-dimensional model of the subsurface geology is constructed with the help of the interactive 3D-Modeller RHINOCEROS (R) - NURBS modelling for Windows. The GIS-platform ArcView is used for the final integrated spatial analysis of the three-dimensional model and the generated spatial and attribute databases. The basic concept for data analysis is a five-step numerical index as a simple but efficient matter of standardization in order to take into account a wide spectrum of input data of varying quality and precision. As an example of application, the assessment of the vulnerability of aquifers is presented, which can be calculated on the basis of the hydrogeological profile (sequence of different strata with varying permeability), the infiltration potential of the soil layer and the distance to fault zones for each location of the study area.

  15. Towards Age-Friendly Hospitals in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ahmad; Seyedin, Hesam; Fadaye-Vatan, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Developing countries such as Iran are experiencing a growth in the elderly population. This is a challenge for healthcare providers and their families. This study investigated the extent in which hospitals at Tehran meet the criteria of age-friendly hospitals. Methods: In this descriptive study, using convenience sampling, 26 hospitals were selected in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. The instrument was a checklist included 50 items in the three dimensions of information and training of service providers, management systems in health care centers, physical environment and accessibility of hospitals. Results: Most hospitals were in a good condition regarding physical environment and access to public transportation, but in a poor condition for special healthcare programs for the elderly, teaching principles of geriatrics and gerontology, interaction of medical staff, physicians and nurses with senior patients and systems of priority for them. Conclusion: Due to the growing elderly population, it is necessary for health policymakers, especially in developing countries, to consider seriously the issue of elderly healthcare and their need for special outpatient and inpatient services. PMID:26000245

  16. Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity, particularly in Morocco, will be a crucial first step. PMID:23230285

  17. Integrated risk index for seafood contaminants (IRISC): Pilot study in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Cano-Sancho, German; Sioen, Isabelle; Vandermeersch, Griet; Jacobs, Silke; Robbens, Johan; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2015-11-01

    Consumption of seafood is one of the most relevant pathways of exposure to environmental pollutants present in food. The list of toxic compounds in seafood is very extensive, including heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to quantify the importance of the problem, tools to combine and simplify large data collections are mandatory for risk managers and decision-makers. In this study, the development of a prioritization setting focusing on chemical hazards taken up through seafood was aimed. For this purpose, the toxicity data of several chemicals was integrated with concentration and seafood consumption data, building an integrated risk index for seafood contaminants (IRISC) able to draw a map of risk for each chemical and family of chemicals. A pilot trial was performed on a sample of 74 pollutants, four seafood species and five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). The preliminary results revealed that Portugal and Spain presented the highest IRISC, while Belgium was the region with the lowest IRISC. The contribution of each group of contaminants to the IRISC was very similar among countries, with heavy metals being the major contributor, followed by PCBs, PCDD/Fs and endocrine disrupting compounds. When the contribution of different seafood species to the Risk Indexes (RIs) was compared, the results elucidated the high input from sardines, showing the highest rates (54.9-76.1) in the five countries. The IRISC provides a friendly approach to the chemical risk scene in Europe, establishing normalized prioritization criteria considering toxicity and consumption as well as concentration of each chemical. PMID:25795543

  18. Safe-sex belief and sexual risk behaviours among adolescents from three developing countries: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13–18. Results One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. PMID:25916489

  19. Multi sensor satellite data interpretation techniques for littoral water quality evaluation: a developing countries experiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perni, Venkateswarlu

    Water quality of coastal wetlands has remained critical to those engaged in critical habitat management due to the dynamics of natural processes and the economy that involves dependent surrounding population. In this regard, the Chilika Lake, one of the largest wetland in southeast Asia located on the coast of Bay of Bengal has drawn attention of the scientists as well as environmentalist over the years. A good amount of field data on water quality is being collected to suggest measures to be taken to improve the state of Lake Environment and conserve the natural resources besides catering to the ever increasing demands of the local dependents. However the extent of coverage and manpower involvement prompted authorities to utilize satellite remote sensing data from a wide variety of sensors in high spatial resolution like, IRS LISS and PAN, Terra ASTER data and IKONOS, Quickbird. Multi-sensor multi-date data need normalization before creating geophysical databases on critical water quality parameters. This lead to examine field observation along with some of high resolution satellite data sets to evolve methods for creating a database on water quality for better management and analysis of Lake environment. Some of the field data sets acquired during 2001 and 2003 at selected stations were analyzed indicating changes in water quality through primary productivity varying from 0.004 to 1.01 mgC/l/hr with an average value of 0.08 mgC/l/hr. High values are observed in December months with high transparency and low turbidity values. Satellite data examined with IRS data also indicated similar results with high turbidity observed in north eastern region exposed to tributaries of river Mahanadi. The water in the southern region with less turbidity in satellite data was relatively high saline with field observation. The water quality estimated with IRS data sets are further evaluated with high resolution satellites like, IKONOS and Quickbird data and multi-spectral sensors like, terra ASTER. Such high resolution of water quality products provides better management of water quality in the Lake environment.

  20. Alcohol consumption and social inequality at the individual and country levels--results from an international study.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Grittner U; Kuntsche S; Gmel G; Bloomfield K

    2013-04-01

    BACKGROUND: International comparisons of social inequalities in alcohol use have not been extensively investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol consumption in 33 countries.METHODS: Data on 101,525 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 33 countries of the GENACIS study were used. Individual SES was measured by highest attained educational level. Alcohol use measures included drinking status and monthly risky single occasion drinking (RSOD). The relationship between individuals' education and drinking indicators was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step the individual level data and country data were combined and tested in multilevel models. As country level indicators we used the Purchasing Power Parity of the gross national income, the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index.RESULTS: For both genders and all countries higher individual SES was positively associated with drinking status. Also higher country level SES was associated with higher proportions of drinkers. Lower SES was associated with RSOD among men. Women of higher SES in low income countries were more often RSO drinkers than women of lower SES. The opposite was true in higher income countries.CONCLUSION: For the most part, findings regarding SES and drinking in higher income countries were as expected. However, women of higher SES in low and middle income countries appear at higher risk of engaging in RSOD. This finding should be kept in mind when developing new policy and prevention initiatives.

  1. Rapid assessment of the performance of malaria control strategies implemented by countries in the Amazon subregion using adequacy criteria: case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to implement a rapid assessment of the performance of four malaria control strategies (indoor spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, timely diagnosis, and artemisinin-based combination therapy) using adequacy criteria. The assessment was carried out in five countries of the Amazon subregion (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, and Peru). Methods A list of criteria in three areas was created for each of the four strategies: preliminary research that supports the design and adaptation of the control strategies, coverage of the control strategies and quality of the implementation of the strategies. The criteria were selected by the research team and based on the technical guidelines established by the World Health Organization. Each criterion included in the four lists was graded relative to whether evidence exists that the criterion is satisfied (value 1), not satisfied (value 0) or partially satisfied (value 0.5). The values obtained were added and reported according to a scale of three implementation categories: adequate, intermediate and deficient. Results Implementation of residual indoor spraying and timely diagnosis was adequate in one country and intermediate or deficient in the rest. Insecticide-treated bed nets ranged between deficient and intermediate in all the countries, while implementation of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was adequate in three countries and intermediate in the other two countries evaluated. Conclusions Although ACT is the strategy with the better implementation in all countries, major gaps exist in implementation of the other three malaria control strategies in terms of technical criteria, coverage and quality desiredThe countries must implement action plans to close the gaps in the various criteria and thereby improve the performance of the interventions. The assessment tools developed, based on adequacy criteria, are considered useful for a rapid assessment by malaria control authorities in the different countries. PMID:22185638

  2. Total hydrocarbon analyzer evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Shamat, N. ); Crumpler, E. ); Roddan, A. )

    1991-10-01

    Measuring and controlling organic emissions from incineration processes has become a major environmental concern in recent years. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed a regulation for sewage sludge incinerators under section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act that will require all sludge incinerators to monitor total hydrocarbon emissions (THCs) on a continuous basis. Such a requirement would be part of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits and site-specific THC limits would be established for facilities based on a risk assessment of organic emissions. Before EPA can finalize the proposed requirement, THC monitoring must be successfully conducted in a plant environment and the system required by any final regulation must be kept in operation so that facilities can comply with their permits. The Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) in St. Paul, Minn., and Rosemount Analytical Division in La Habre, Calif., entered into a joint agreement with EPA to demonstrate a hot' THC monitoring system to detect THCs in stack gases. The objectives of the study are to determine the feasibility of THC monitoring of sludge incinerator emissions; evaluate the long term reliability, cost of operation, and consistency of a continuous THC monitoring system in an incinerator environment; and determine the correlation of THC stack concentration to incinerator and scrubber operating conditions, carbon monoxide concentration, and specific VOC emissions.

  3. How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the Medical Course in Portugal and African Portuguese Speaking Countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. Methods The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. Results The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p < 0.001) and Professional Behavior (p = 0.043). Conclusions The reliability of the instrument in Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some weaknesses. PMID:21612609

  4. Evaluation of local treatment effect by borrowing information from similar countries in multi-regional clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hua; Chen, Joshua; Quan, Hui

    2016-02-28

    One key objective of a multi-regional clinical trial (MRCT) is to quantify country-specific treatment effects to support local registration. Naïve estimate of the treatment effects based on country-specific subsets of data are inefficient because of relatively sparse country-specific sample sizes, even in large MRCTs, and subject to many limitations. The recently developed shrinkage estimate approach improves efficiency by incorporating data from other countries but treating all other countries equally, thus ignoring similarity to the country of interest. Ideally, for the estimation of treatment effect in a country of interest, it is more efficient to use all relevant data such as that from countries that are similar to the one of interest. We propose a tree-based approach to incorporate similarity, with branches or forks used to represent the relationship of treatment effects between countries. Similarity in certain characteristics among countries in either continuous scale or categorical scale is used to build the tree. By allowing local treatment effects for countries to be random effects and follow a Gaussian process along the tree, we demonstrate that countries sharing the same internal parent nodes are more correlated and a country borrows more information from the neighbors sharing the same parent node. We illustrated this statistical framework using a MRCT with a continuous endpoint. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26619964

  5. Conducting research in developing countries: experiences of the informed consent process from community studies in Peru.

    PubMed

    Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Oré, Beatriz; Scurrah, María; Gil, Ana; Penny, Mary

    2005-04-01

    This article discusses the process for obtaining genuine informed consent for the participation of human subjects in research in developing countries. We discuss the consent process in the light of recently published guidelines, the experience of nutrition and health research projects, and the ethics review process of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional with peri-urban and rural populations in Peru. We discuss the cultural context in relation to (i) who should be involved in the decision for participation, especially for research in children and in community settings; (ii) when to use written or verbal consent; (iii) the format and presentation of the consent form to ensure understanding by the target population; and (iv) the process of how and by whom information is given and consent is obtained. Common concerns of participants with regard to their involvement in research studies are presented, as well as aspects that participants find difficult to understand. Some specific concerns of conducting research with Indigenous Peoples are discussed. We recommend future research to further understand and implement informed consent processes to assure genuine and voluntary consent in different developing country contexts. PMID:15795463

  6. The effectiveness of the Copper-T intrauterine device: a collaborative study in five countries.

    PubMed

    Sivin, I

    1973-07-01

    Investigators in 5 countries collaborated with the Population Council to study the use-effectiveness of a new intrauterine contraceptive -- a T-shaped inert plastic device modified to bear 200 mm of exposed copper surface. After clinical trials in Santiago, Chile, the TCu-200 was tested on a total of 6257 women in the U.S.A., Colombia, Iran, Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand from May to November 1971. Postacceptance data are available for 95.3%, most of whom were interviewed at home 6 to 13 months after the initial insertion. For women with 1,2, or 3 living children at the time of acceptance, copper-T had higher continuation rates than Lippes Loop acceptors in the same countries. For women with 4 or more living children at the time of acceptance, continuation rates for the T device were only slightly higher, or the same, as those for the Lippes Loop. Pregnancy and expulsion rates for the copper-T were below those for the loop. Because of the uncertainty of the effective life of the copper, it is currently recommended that the device be replaced every 2 years, which would seem to limit it as a preferred device in mass family planning programs. However, recent evidence indicates that the antifertility effect of the copper-T device may last longer than 2 years. PMID:4730757

  7. Food composition database harmonization for between-country comparisons of nutrient data in the TEDDY Study

    PubMed Central

    Uusitalo, Ulla; Kronberg-Kippila, Carina; Aronsson, Carin Andren; Schakel, Sally; Schoen, Stefanie; Mattisson, Irene; Reinivuo, Heli; Silvis, Katherine; Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Stevens, Mary; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young Study (TEDDY) aims at examining the associations between islet autoimmunity and various environmental exposures, (e.g. diet) in Finland, Germany, Sweden and the United States (US). In order to produce comparable results from dietary assessments, the national food composition databases (FCDB) must contain mutually comparable food composition data. Systematic comparison (definition, unit of measurement, and method of analysis) of energy, protein, fats, carbohydrates, cholesterol, fiber, 13 vitamins, and 8 minerals was carried out among the FCDB of the four countries. Total fat, cholesterol, vitamin A: retinol equivalents and beta-carotene, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, and zinc are comparable across all four databases. Carbohydrates, fiber, sugars, fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E: alpha-tocopherol, vitamin K, vitamin C, pantothenic acid, niacin, manganese, and copper are comparable or can be converted comparable at least across three of the databases. Vitamin E: alpha-tocopherol equivalents, will be comparable across all databases after Finland and Germany subtract tocotrienols from their values. Nitrogen values were added to the Swedish and US databases. After recalculation of protein from nitrogen (Sweden and US), and subtraction of fiber from the total carbohydrate (Finland) followed by recalculations of energy, these values will be comparable across the countries. Starch and folate are not comparable. PMID:22058606

  8. Early developmental delay in children with autism: A study from a developing country.

    PubMed

    Arabameri, Elahe; Sotoodeh, Mohammad Saber

    2015-05-01

    Early diagnosis is appropriate and important for developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder. In many less developed countries, unfortunately, diagnosis of this disorder is delayed. The aim of the present study is to determine whether this disorder can be screened using simple strategies such as comparison of the age of acquisition of motor skills. For this purpose, 124 children with autism were chosen to enter the study, and their parents were asked to retrospectively specify the age of achieving milestones of sitting without support, standing alone and walking alone. Information obtained from the parents was compared with World Health Organization standards. Results indicate that participants (male and female) have significantly delayed age of acquisition of all three skills. Based on this result, it can be suggested that existing standards, as a simple means with low cost and easy availability, can be used for early screening of the disease at a younger age so that treatment can be provided more quickly. PMID:25827390

  9. Barriers to medication counselling for people with mental health disorders: a six country study

    PubMed Central

    Aaltonen, S. Elina; Laine, Niina P.; Volmer, Daisy; Gharat, Manjiri S.; Muceniece, Ruta; Vitola, Anna; Foulon, Veerle; Desplenter, Franciska A.; Airaksinen, Marja S.; Chen, Timothy F.; Bell, J. Simon

    2009-01-01

    Provision of medication information may improve adherence and prevent medication related problems. People with mental health disorders commonly receive less medication counselling from pharmacists than people with other common long term and persistent disorders. Objective The objective of this study was to compare and contrast barriers pharmacy students perceive toward providing medication counselling for people with mental health disorders in Australia, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, India and Latvia. Methods Barriers identified by third-year pharmacy students as part of the International Pharmacy Students’ Health Survey were content analysed using a directed approach. Students’ responses were categorised as pharmacist related, patient related, health-system related, or social or cultural related. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS version 14.0. Results Survey instruments were returned by 649 students. Of the respondents, 480 identified one or more barriers to medication counselling for people with mental health disorders. Patient related factors accounted for between 25.3% and 36.2% of barriers identified by the pharmacy students. Pharmacist related factors accounted for between 17.6% and 45.1% of the barriers identified by the pharmacy students. Students in India were more likely to attribute barriers to pharmacist and social and cultural related factors, and less likely to health-system related factors, than students studying in other countries. Conclusion The nature of barriers identified by pharmacy students differed according to the country in which they studied. Undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy education programs may need to be amended to address common misconceptions among pharmacy students. PMID:25132880

  10. How to Build a Standardized Country-Specific Environmental Food Database for Nutritional Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bertoluci, Gwenola; Masset, Gabriel; Gomy, Catherine; Mottet, Julien; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of standardized country-specific environmental data to combine with nutritional and dietary data for assessing the environmental impact of individual diets in epidemiology surveys, which are consequently reliant on environmental food datasets based on values retrieved from a heterogeneous literature. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the relative strengths and limits of a database of food greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) values estimated with a hybrid method combining input/output and LCA approaches, with a dataset of GHGE values retrieved from the literature. France is the geographical perimeter considered in this study, but the methodology could be applied to other countries. The GHGE of 402 foodstuffs, representative of French diet, were estimated using the hybrid method. In parallel, the GHGE of individual foods were collected from existing literature. Median per-food-category GHGE values from the hybrid method and the reviewed literature were found to correlate strongly (Spearman correlation was 0.83), showing similar rankings of food categories. Median values were significantly different for only 5 (out of 29) food categories, including the ruminant meats category for which the hybrid method gave lower estimates than those from existing literature. Analysis also revealed that literature values came from heterogeneous studies that were not always sourced and that were conducted under different LCA modeling hypotheses. In contrast, the hybrid method helps build reliably-sourced, representative national standards for product-based datasets. We anticipate this hybrid method to be a starting point for better environmental impact assessments of diets. PMID:27054565

  11. How to Build a Standardized Country-Specific Environmental Food Database for Nutritional Epidemiology Studies.

    PubMed

    Bertoluci, Gwenola; Masset, Gabriel; Gomy, Catherine; Mottet, Julien; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of standardized country-specific environmental data to combine with nutritional and dietary data for assessing the environmental impact of individual diets in epidemiology surveys, which are consequently reliant on environmental food datasets based on values retrieved from a heterogeneous literature. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the relative strengths and limits of a database of food greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) values estimated with a hybrid method combining input/output and LCA approaches, with a dataset of GHGE values retrieved from the literature. France is the geographical perimeter considered in this study, but the methodology could be applied to other countries. The GHGE of 402 foodstuffs, representative of French diet, were estimated using the hybrid method. In parallel, the GHGE of individual foods were collected from existing literature. Median per-food-category GHGE values from the hybrid method and the reviewed literature were found to correlate strongly (Spearman correlation was 0.83), showing similar rankings of food categories. Median values were significantly different for only 5 (out of 29) food categories, including the ruminant meats category for which the hybrid method gave lower estimates than those from existing literature. Analysis also revealed that literature values came from heterogeneous studies that were not always sourced and that were conducted under different LCA modeling hypotheses. In contrast, the hybrid method helps build reliably-sourced, representative national standards for product-based datasets. We anticipate this hybrid method to be a starting point for better environmental impact assessments of diets. PMID:27054565

  12. Correlations Between Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma and Other Cancers: An Ecological Study in Forty European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet; Serrano, Jose Luis Fernandez-Crehuet; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Navajas, Rafael Fernandez-Crehuet

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson's correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–0.89]), myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46–0.81]), prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43–0.80]), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39–0.78]). In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64–0.88]), colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52–0.83]), and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50–0.83]). Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular. PMID:27217938

  13. Cigarette smoking in a Middle Eastern country and its association with hospitalisation use: a nationwide cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Iskandarani, Mohamad; Darzi, Andrea; Nakkash, Rima; Saleh, Shadi; Fares, Souha; Hwalla, Nahla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the distribution of cigarette smoking by place and persons at the national level or its burden on healthcare expenditure in countries of the Middle East. We examine in this study the pattern of cigarette smoking by age, gender and geography and assess its association with hospitalisation use in Lebanon, a small middle-income country in the Middle East. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting The study draws on data collected as part of the nationwide multistage cluster sample Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor survey conducted in Lebanon in 2009. Participants A total of 2836 Lebanese adults 18 years and over. Measures Hospitalisation, the outcome variable, was measured using one item and recoded as a dichotomous variable. Cigarette smoking, the main exposure variable, was assessed by examining smoking status and pack-years, capturing intensity, frequency and duration of exposure. Results The overall prevalence rate of current smoking in this study was 34.7%, with significantly higher rates in males than females (42.9% and 27.5%, respectively). Close to two-thirds of the study population reported ever being hospitalised (62.8%). Compared to non-smokers, past and current smokers were significantly more likely to be hospitalised, after controlling for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.34, and OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.63, respectively). Hospitalisation use increased significantly in a dose–response manner with increasing pack-years. Conclusions When compared to regional and international estimates, the prevalence rates of smoking in Lebanon are considerably high, with percentages among women being among the highest in the region. Our findings of increased odds of hospitalisation among ever smokers, net of the effect of comorbidity, underscore the additional burden of smoking on the healthcare bill cost. Continued monitoring of smoking rates and disease surveillance frameworks are warranted in developing countries for policy development and evaluation. PMID:27059466

  14. Survey of Yogurt Powder Storage in Ambient Export Countries A Safety Evaluation Standard Compliance and Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na-Kyeong; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Ha-Jung; Oh, Sejong; Imm, Jee-Young; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Kim, Jin-Man

    2015-01-01

    Yogurt powder is fermented milk processed in the form of dry yogurt, and has advantages such as stability, storability, convenience, and portability. China and Vietnam are important export target countries because of the increased demand for dairy products. Therefore, we surveyed dairy product standardization in order to establish an export strategy. Lactic acid bacteria counts are unregulated in Korea and Vietnam. In China, lactic acid bacteria counts are regulated at 1×106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and detected at 6.24±0.33 Log CFU/mL. All three countries have regulated standards for total bacterial counts. In China, total bacterial counts of milk powder are regulated to n=5, c=2, m=50,000, M=200,000 and detected at 6.02±0.12 Log CFU/mL, exceeding the acceptable level. Lactic acid bacterial counts appeared to exceed total bacterial counts. Coliform group counts, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella species were not detected. Acidity is not regulated in Korea and Vietnam. In China, acidity was regulated to over 70°T and detected 352.38±10.24°T. pH is unregulated in all three countries. pH was compared to that of general fermented milk, which is 4.2, and that of the sample was 4.28±0.01. Aflatoxin levels are not regulated in Korea and China. In Vietnam, aflatoxin level is regulated at 0.05 ppb. Therefore, all ingredients of the yogurt powder met the safety standards. This data obtained in this study can be used as the basic data in assessing the export quality of yogurt powder. PMID:26761812

  15. The impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics on life expectancy: a cross-country study in three Southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographic changes on life expectancy in Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. This was a cross-country study to collect annual data (1980-2008) from each target country. Life expectancy was the dependent variable and health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics were the 3 main determinants. Structural equation modeling was employed, and the results indicate that the availability of more health care resources (Indonesia: coefficient = .47, P = .008; Philippines: coefficient = .48, P = .017; Vietnam: coefficient = .48, P = .004) and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages (Indonesia: coefficient = .41, P = .014; Vietnam: coefficient = .34, P = .026) are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy because of the wide range of health care resources. These findings suggest that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to health care services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a shortage of medical resources. PMID:23417906

  16. A Cross-Cultural Study on Behaviors When Death Is Approaching in East Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shao-Yi; Suh, Sang-Yeon; Morita, Tatsuya; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Koh, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Yoshie, Taeko; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to explore common beliefs and practices when death is approaching in East-Asian countries. A cross-sectional survey was performed involving palliative care physicians in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Measurement outcomes were physician-perceived frequencies of the following when patient death was approaching: (1) reluctance to take part in end-of-life discussions, (2) role of family members, (3) home death, and (4) circumstances surrounding death. A total of 505, 211, and 207 responses were obtained from Japanese, Korea, and Taiwan physicians, respectively. While 50% of the Japanese physicians reported that they often or very often experienced families as being reluctant to discuss end-of-life issues, the corresponding figures were 59% in Korea and 70% in Taiwan. Two specific reasons to avoid end-of-life discussion, “bad things happen after you say them out loud” and “a bad life is better than a good death” were significantly more frequently observed in Taiwan. Prioritizing the oldest of the family in breaking bad news and having all family members present at the time of death were significantly more frequently observed in Korea and Taiwan. Half of Taiwanese physicians reported they often or very often experienced the patients/family wanted to go back home to die because the soul would not be able to return from the hospital. In all countries, more than 70% of the physicians reported certain family members were expected to care for the patient at home. At the time of death, while no Japanese physicians stated that they often experienced patients wanted a religious person to visit, the corresponding figure in Korean and Taiwan was about 40%. Uncovered expression of emotion was significantly frequently observed in Korean and Taiwan, and 42% of the Japanese physicians reported family members cleaned the dead body of the patient themselves. There seem to be significant intercountry differences in beliefs and practices when death is approaching in East Asian countries. Future studies on direct observations of patients and families are needed. PMID:26426631

  17. Social Studies. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This compilation of 11 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 3-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

  18. Training Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Athari, Ahmad; Zairi, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    A study of training evaluation activity and challenges in 77 Kuwaiti organizations found that most respondents evaluate their programs only occasionally through the use of questionnaires. Most use the Kilpatrick model for evaluation and the most common level of evaluation is reaction type. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)

  19. National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-03-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

  20. Risk stratification for venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients in a developing country: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Awidi, Abdallah; Obeidat, Nathir; Magablah, Ahmad; Bsoul, Nazzal

    2009-10-01

    Venous Thrombo-Embolism (VTE) is a serious complication in hospitalized patients but can be preventable. This prospective study addresses risk factors assessment and the use of heparin in this population. About 2,496 non pediatric patients were admitted to Jordan University Hospital between June 12, 2007 and July 19, 2007. A random sample of 624 patients consisting of every fourth admission was chosen. The stratification of risk factors was assessed using Caprini model and the ACCP score. The mean age of the patients (229 males and 395 females) was 45.34 +/- 18.3 years. More than 80% of the admitted patients were considered at high risk for VTE but heparin was used in only 26% of the patients. The majority of our patients constitute a high-risk population. Implementation of strategies including educational sessions and risk stratification guidelines can reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of VTE especially in developing countries. PMID:19023522

  1. The Role of Eportfolios in Finance Studies: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez, Amparo S.; Morales, Lucía; Tarkovska, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of ePortfolios as an efficient assessment tool to support students pursuing a Business degree, where Finance is a major component. We conducted an analysis on the role of ePortfolios in Higher Education at Dublin Institute of Technology (Republic of Ireland) and at Universitat Jaume I (Spain) for undergraduate studies.…

  2. Value Orientations and Studying in School-Leisure Conflict: A Study with Samples from Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Manfred; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan; Zivkovic, Ilija; Dietz, Franziska

    2009-01-01

    The relations between students' value orientations and experiences of motivational interference during studying following conflicts between learning and leisure activities were investigated in a self-report study. Overall, 1075 adolescents, mostly from Catholic schools, in Bosnia-Herzegovina (n = 203), India (n = 200), Paraguay (n = 96), Spain (n…

  3. Bias in Terms of Culture and a Method for Reducing It: An Eight-Country "Explanations of Unemployment Scale" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mylonas, Kostas; Furnham, Adrian; Divale, William; Leblebici, Cigdem; Gondim, Sonia; Moniz, Angela; Grad, Hector; Alvaro, Jose Luis; Cretu, Romeo Zeno; Filus, Ania; Boski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Several sources of bias can plague research data and individual assessment. When cultural groups are considered, across or even within countries, it is essential that the constructs assessed and evaluated are as free as possible from any source of bias and specifically from bias caused due to culturally specific characteristics. Employing the

  4. Vocational Education in Developing Countries. A Review of Studies and Project Experience. Education Division Documents No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultin, Mats

    This paper looks at the position taken in available literature and evaluation reports of multinational and bilateral agencies in regard to vocational education in developing countries. Section 1 provides background on such topics as links between education and development, support of vocational education, diversified secondary education, foreign…

  5. Bias in Terms of Culture and a Method for Reducing It: An Eight-Country "Explanations of Unemployment Scale" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mylonas, Kostas; Furnham, Adrian; Divale, William; Leblebici, Cigdem; Gondim, Sonia; Moniz, Angela; Grad, Hector; Alvaro, Jose Luis; Cretu, Romeo Zeno; Filus, Ania; Boski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Several sources of bias can plague research data and individual assessment. When cultural groups are considered, across or even within countries, it is essential that the constructs assessed and evaluated are as free as possible from any source of bias and specifically from bias caused due to culturally specific characteristics. Employing the…

  6. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-01-01

    The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

  7. A descriptive study of commonly used postoperative approaches to pediatric stoma care in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Lofty-John C; Mohammad, Aminu; Oyebanji, Tunde

    2013-12-01

    Construction of an enterostomy is a common procedure in pediatric surgery. However, caring for the child with a stoma is challenging for parents in developing countries. Modern devices such as colostomy bags and accessories are expensive and not readily available. The purpose of this study was to describe methods of effluent collection and peristomal skin protection used by the mothers of colostomy patients. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted between January and December 2011 during the first three postoperative outpatient clinic visits among mothers of children who had a colostomy constructed in the authors' hospital. The mothers of 44 children (27 males, 17 females, median age 3.3 months, range 2 days to 11 years) consented to participate. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the records, and mothers were interviewed and asked to describe their preferred methods of colostomy effluent collection and peristomal skin protection. The stomas also were inspected at each clinic visit. Anorectal malformations were the most common indication for a colostomy (32, 72.73%), followed by Hirschsprung's disease (11, 25%). Forty-two (42) patients had a divided sigmoid colostomy (95.45%); two patients had a right loop transverse colostomy (4.55%). Nine mothers alternated between two different collection methods. The diaper collection method was described most frequently (22 out of 53; 41.51%), followed by wraparound waistbands (19; 35.85%) and improvised colostomy bags (12; 22.64%). Peristomal skin excoriations were commonly seen within the first 3 weeks postsurgery and had mostly disappeared by the week 6 postoperative visit. Petrolatum jelly was the most commonly used barrier ointment. These locally available, acceptable, and affordable collection methods may be useful for children in other developing countries. PMID:24334363

  8. Decentralized domestic wastewater systems in developing countries: the case study of Harare (Zimbabwe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirisa, Innocent; Bandauko, Elmond; Matamanda, Abraham; Mandisvika, Gladys

    2016-02-01

    Until recently there has been little, if any, concern over revamping let alone improving wastewater management system in Zimbabwe's urban areas given the dominance and institutionalised water-borne system. Yet, the current constraints in this system and the immensity of urbanisation in the country begs and compels planners, engineers and systems thinkers to rethink what best can work as a sustainable wastewater system. With particular reference to the ever-expanding Harare metropolitan region, this article provides an evaluative analysis on the potentiality, risks and strategies that can be adopted by Harare and its satellites in addressing the problems of the conventional wastewater management system. The suggested framework of operation is a decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system which however has its own multifarious risks. Using systems dynamics conceptualisation of the potentiality, opportunities, risks and strategies, the paper seeks to model the path and outcomes of this decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system and also suggests a number of policy measures and strategies that the city of Harare and its satellites can adopt.

  9. Reflection on Four Multisite Evaluation Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    What do the findings of four National Science Foundation evaluation case studies suggest to an evaluation scholar who was not part of the research team that created them? This chapter carefully reviews the cases and summarizes their comparative findings. The four Beyond Use case studies add to the literature on levels of evaluation use, with the…

  10. Redefining Entrepreneurial Learning Paradigms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Manu, D.; Afrane, S. K.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.; Brown, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a rapidly changing world of knowledge exchange, innovation and technological advancements, entrepreneurship continues to fuel economic growth in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, an increased influx of graduate entrepreneurs sustains economic growth whilst, in contrast, developing countries continue to suffer from…

  11. Lessons Learned from the Advanced Developing Countries. GENESYS Special Studies No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joekes, Susan P.

    This paper examines the experience of development in the advanced developing countries in Asia from a gender perspective and draws some lessons for women in development policy in middle income countries in the Asian and Near East regions. The nature of the paper is exploratory, asking many questions on which further research and information are…

  12. Autonomy and Decentralisation: Between Hopes and Illusions. A Comparative Study of Reforms in Five European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottani, Norberto

    This paper analyzes changes in decision-making in France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom and tries to identify trends in these countries' reforms. In general, the reforms initiated by these five countries redesigned the loci of decision-making between the government levels, modified the modes of decision at these levels, and…

  13. Redefining Entrepreneurial Learning Paradigms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Manu, D.; Afrane, S. K.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.; Brown, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a rapidly changing world of knowledge exchange, innovation and technological advancements, entrepreneurship continues to fuel economic growth in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, an increased influx of graduate entrepreneurs sustains economic growth whilst, in contrast, developing countries continue to suffer from

  14. Vocational Education and Training in Europe. A Four-Country Study in Four Employment Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This report provides an overview of vocational education and training systems in major European countries that is useful to practitioners and planners in further education. The first part provides brief descriptions of the vocational education and training systems in four countries: France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. By way of…

  15. NORTHERN OHIO AEROSOL STUDY: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

  16. Studies of missed opportunities for immunization in developing and industrialized countries.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, S. S.; Jansen, H. A.; Robertson, S. E.; Evans, P.; Kim-Farley, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Missed opportunities for immunization are an obstacle to raising immunization coverage among children and women of childbearing age. To determine their global magnitude and reasons, studies reported up to July 1991 were reviewed. A standard measure for the prevalence of missed opportunities was calculated for each study. Seventy-nine studies were identified from 45 countries; 18 were population-based, 52 were health-service-based, and 9 were intervention trials. A median of 32% (range, 0-99%) of the children and women of childbearing age who were surveyed had missed opportunities during visits to the health services for immunization or other reasons. Missed opportunities were mainly due to failure to administer simultaneously all vaccines for which a child was eligible; false contraindications; health workers' practices, including not opening a multidose vaccine vial for a small number of persons to avoid vaccine wastage; and logistical problems. To eliminate missed opportunities for immunization, programmes should emphasize routine supervision and periodic in-service training of health workers which would ensure simultaneous immunizations, reinforce information about true contraindications, and improve health workers' practices. PMID:8261558

  17. An overview of impact of subsurface drainage project studies on salinity management in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Priyanka; Goel, Arun

    2015-09-01

    Subsurface drainage has been used for more than a century to keep water table at a desired level of salinity and waterlogging control. This paper has been focused on the impact assessment of pilot studies in India and some other countries from 1969 to 2014 . This review article may prove quite useful in deciding the installation of subsurface drainage project depending on main design parameters, such as drain depth and drain spacing, installation area and type of used outlet. A number of pilot studies have been taken up in past to solve the problems of soil salinity and waterlogging in India. The general guidelines that arise on the behalf of this review paper are to adapt drain depth >1.2 m and spacing depending on soil texture classification, i.e., 100-150 m for light-textured soils, 50-100 m for medium-textured soils and 30-50 m heavy-textured soils, for better result obtained from the problem areas in Indian soil and climatic conditions. An attempt has been made in the manner of literature survey to highlight the salient features of these studies, and it is hopeful to go a long way in selecting design parameters for subsurface drainage problems in the future with similar soil, water table and climatic conditions.

  18. Hospital managers' need for information in decision-making--An interview study in nine European countries.

    PubMed

    Kidholm, Kristian; Ølholm, Anne Mette; Birk-Olsen, Mette; Cicchetti, Americo; Fure, Brynjar; Halmesmäki, Esa; Kahveci, Rabia; Kiivet, Raul-Allan; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Wild, Claudia; Sampietro-Colom, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Assessments of new health technologies in Europe are often made at the hospital level. However, the guidelines for health technology assessment (HTA), e.g. the EUnetHTA Core Model, are produced by national HTA organizations and focus on decision-making at the national level. This paper describes the results of an interview study with European hospital managers about their need for information when deciding about investments in new treatments. The study is part of the AdHopHTA project. Face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted with 53 hospital managers from nine European countries. The hospital managers identified the clinical, economic, safety and organizational aspects of new treatments as being the most relevant for decision-making. With regard to economic aspects, the hospital managers typically had a narrower focus on budget impact and reimbursement. In addition to the information included in traditional HTAs, hospital managers sometimes needed information on the political and strategic aspects of new treatments, in particular the relationship between the treatment and the strategic goals of the hospital. If further studies are able to verify our results, guidelines for hospital-based HTA should be altered to reflect the information needs of hospital managers when deciding about investments in new treatments. PMID:26362086

  19. The MARCOPOLO Study of Ustekinumab Utilization and Efficacy in a Real-World Setting: Treatment of Patients with Plaque Psoriasis in Asia-Pacific Countries

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Sang Woong; Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Theng, Colin; Choon, Siew-Eng; Wiryadi, Benny E.; Pires, Antonio; Tan, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Background Ustekinumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in adults. However, factors including efficacy, tolerability, ease of use, and cost burden may affect ustekinumab utilization. Noncompliance may, in turn, affect treatment response. Objective To evaluate ustekinumab utilization in the real-world setting in Asia-Pacific countries. Methods In this phase 4 observational study conducted in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Korea, and Taiwan, adults with plaque psoriasis receiving ustekinumab were followed for up to 52 weeks. Study endpoints were the proportion of all patients using ustekinumab according to label-recommended intervals and the proportion of Korean patients who achieved a psoriasis area severity index 75 response at week 16. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events. Results Overall, 169 patients received ustekinumab (Korea, n=102; other countries, n=67). Just over half (56.2%) of patients used ustekinumab with the label-recommended interval from baseline to week 40; the proportion was higher in Korea (73.5%) than in other countries (29.9%), probably because ustekinumab was provided without charge for Korean patients up to week 40. Noncompliance increased after week 40 in Korea and from week 28 in other Asia-Pacific countries, with cost cited as the most common reason. At week 16, 56.9% of Korean patients achieved a Psoriasis Area Severity Index 75 response. Safety results were in line with those seen in previous studies. Conclusion More than half of all patients in Asia-Pacific countries used ustekinumab as per the label-recommended dose interval, but reimbursement variations between countries may have confounded overall results. PMID:27081271

  20. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…

  1. Philippines: Environment and natural resource management study. World Bank country study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This study addresses the most significant issues of natural-resource management in the Philippines. These include the disappearence or degradation of forests; erosion and changes in hydrological regimes; the conversion of mangrove swamps to fishponds; degradation of coral reefs; and depletion of nearshore fisheries through overfishing and destructive techniques. The issues addressed concern the extent and rate of degradation of these resource stocks, the impact thereof on the national economy, and the scope for ameliorative measures through policy responses, management changes, and investments. The Government is responsible for management of public resources, which include over half of the land area of the Philippines as well as the coastal waters. Historically, public management has been less than optimal, as evidenced by an unsustainable rate of deforestation and the recent stagnation or decline in extractive fisheries.

  2. Nurse staffing and education and hospital mortality in nine European countries: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Linda H; Sloane, Douglas M; Bruyneel, Luk; Van den Heede, Koen; Griffiths, Peter; Busse, Reinhard; Diomidous, Marianna; Kinnunen, Juha; Kózka, Maria; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; McHugh, Matthew D; Moreno-Casbas, M T; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Schwendimann, Rene; Scott, P Anne; Tishelman, Carol; van Achterberg, Theo; Sermeus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Austerity measures and health-system redesign to minimise hospital expenditures risk adversely affecting patient outcomes. The RN4CAST study was designed to inform decision making about nursing, one of the largest components of hospital operating expenses. We aimed to assess whether differences in patient to nurse ratios and nurses’ educational qualifications in nine of the 12 RN4CAST countries with similar patient discharge data were associated with variation in hospital mortality after common surgical procedures. Methods For this observational study, we obtained discharge data for 422 730 patients aged 50 years or older who underwent common surgeries in 300 hospitals in nine European countries. Administrative data were coded with a standard protocol (variants of the ninth or tenth versions of the International Classification of Diseases) to estimate 30 day in-hospital mortality by use of risk adjustment measures including age, sex, admission type, 43 dummy variables suggesting surgery type, and 17 dummy variables suggesting comorbidities present at admission. Surveys of 26 516 nurses practising in study hospitals were used to measure nurse staffing and nurse education. We used generalised estimating equations to assess the effects of nursing factors on the likelihood of surgical patients dying within 30 days of admission, before and after adjusting for other hospital and patient characteristics. Findings An increase in a nurses’ workload by one patient increased the likelihood of an inpatient dying within 30 days of admission by 7% (odds ratio 1·068, 95% CI 1·031–1·106), and every 10% increase in bachelor’s degree nurses was associated with a decrease in this likelihood by 7% (0·929, 0·886–0·973). These associations imply that patients in hospitals in which 60% of nurses had bachelor’s degrees and nurses cared for an average of six patients would have almost 30% lower mortality than patients in hospitals in which only 30% of nurses had bachelor’s degrees and nurses cared for an average of eight patients. Interpretation Nurse staffing cuts to save money might adversely affect patient outcomes. An increased emphasis on bachelor’s education for nurses could reduce preventable hospital deaths. Funding European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme, National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health, the Norwegian Nurses Organisation and the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Swedish Association of Health Professionals, the regional agreement on medical training and clinical research between Stockholm County Council and Karolinska Institutet, Committee for Health and Caring Sciences and Strategic Research Program in Care Sciences at Karolinska Institutet, Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. PMID:24581683

  3. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study

    PubMed Central

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Siani, Alfonso; Russo, Paola; Kourides, Yannis; Sion, Isabelle; Molnár, Denés; Moreno, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Howe, Laura; Lissner, Lauren; Mehlig, Kirsten; Regber, Susann; Bammann, Karin; Foraita, Ronja

    2016-01-01

    Background Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences. Methods The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences. Results Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers’ smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found. Conclusion Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association with children’s BMI growth. PMID:26901773

  4. Increased Duration of Paid Maternity Leave Lowers Infant Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Arijit; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Harper, Sam; Koski, Alissa; Strumpf, Erin C.; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternity leave reduces neonatal and infant mortality rates in high-income countries. However, the impact of maternity leave on infant health has not been rigorously evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, we utilized a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate whether paid maternity leave policies affect infant mortality in LMICs. Methods and Findings We used birth history data collected via the Demographic and Health Surveys to assemble a panel of approximately 300,000 live births in 20 countries from 2000 to 2008; these observational data were merged with longitudinal information on the duration of paid maternity leave provided by each country. We estimated the effect of an increase in maternity leave in the prior year on the probability of infant (<1 y), neonatal (<28 d), and post-neonatal (between 28 d and 1 y after birth) mortality. Fixed effects for country and year were included to control for, respectively, unobserved time-invariant confounders that varied across countries and temporal trends in mortality that were shared across countries. Average rates of infant, neonatal, and post-neonatal mortality over the study period were 55.2, 30.7, and 23.0 per 1,000 live births, respectively. Each additional month of paid maternity was associated with 7.9 fewer infant deaths per 1,000 live births (95% CI 3.7, 12.0), reflecting a 13% relative reduction. Reductions in infant mortality associated with increases in the duration of paid maternity leave were concentrated in the post-neonatal period. Estimates were robust to adjustment for individual, household, and country-level characteristics, although there may be residual confounding by unmeasured time-varying confounders, such as coincident policy changes. Conclusions More generous paid maternity leave policies represent a potential instrument for facilitating early-life interventions and reducing infant mortality in LMICs and warrant further discussion in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. From a policy planning perspective, further work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms that explain the benefits of paid maternity leave for infant mortality. PMID:27022926

  5. Perspectives, perceptions and experiences in postoperative pain management in developing countries: A focus group study conducted in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ana P; Mahaffey, Ryan; Egan, Rylan; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Parlow, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Access to postoperative acute pain treatment is an important component of perioperative care and is frequently managed by a multidisciplinary team of anesthesiologists, surgeons, pharmacists, technicians and nurses. In some developing countries, treatment modalities are often not performed due to scarce health care resources, knowledge deficiencies and cultural attitudes. OBJECTIVES: In advance of a comprehensive knowledge translation initiative, the present study aimed to determine the perspectives, perceptions and experiences of anesthesia residents regarding postoperative pain management strategies. METHODS: The present study was conducted using a qualitative assessment strategy in a large teaching hospital in Rwanda. During two sessions separated by seven days, a 10-participant semistructured focus group needs analysis was conducted with anesthesia residents at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (Kigali, Rwanda). Field notes were analyzed using interpretative and descriptive phenomenological approaches. Participants were questioned regarding their perspectives, perceptions and experiences in pain management. RESULTS: The responses from the focus groups were related to five general areas: general patient and medical practice management; knowledge base regarding postoperative pain management; pain evaluation; institutional/system issues related to protocol implementation; and perceptions about resource allocation. Within these areas, challenges (eg, communication among stakeholders and with patients) and opportunities (eg, on-the-job training, use of protocols, routine pain assessment, participation in resource allocation decisions) were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the prevalent challenges residents perceive in implementing postoperative pain management strategies, and offers practical suggestions to overcoming them, primarily through training and the implementation of practice recommendations. PMID:26448971

  6. Intraclass correlation and design effect in BMI, physical activity and diet: a cross-sectional study of 56 countries

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Mohd; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and design effect (DE) may help to modify the public health interventions for body mass index (BMI), physical activity and diet according to geographic targeting of interventions in different countries. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of clustering and DE in BMI, physical activity and diet in 56 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Design Cross-sectional study design. Setting Multicountry national survey data. Methods The World Health Survey (WHS), 2003, data were used to examine clustering in BMI, physical activity in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and diet in fruits and vegetables intake (FVI) from low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Multistage sampling in the WHS used geographical clusters as primary sampling units (PSU). These PSUs were used as a clustering or grouping variable in this analysis. Multilevel intercept only regression models were used to calculate the ICC and DE for each country. Results The median ICC (0.039) and median DE (1.82) for BMI were low; however, FVI had a higher median ICC (0.189) and median DE (4.16). For MET, the median ICC was 0.141 and median DE was 4.59. In some countries, however, the ICC and DE for BMI were large. For instance, South Africa had the highest ICC (0.39) and DE (11.9) for BMI, whereas Uruguay had the highest ICC (0.434) for MET and Ethiopia had the highest ICC (0.471) for FVI. Conclusions This study shows that across a wide range of countries, there was low area level clustering for BMI, whereas MET and FVI showed high area level clustering. These results suggested that the country level clustering effect should be considered in developing preventive approaches for BMI, as well as improving physical activity and healthy diets for each country. PMID:26743697

  7. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular. PMID:20550647

  8. Patient organisations and the reimbursement process for medicines: an exploratory study in eight European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the role European patient organisations play in the process of deciding on reimbursement for medicines. Therefore we explore the current role of patient organisations in the process of reimbursement for medicines in Western Europe. We focus in particular on collaboration between patient organisations and the pharmaceutical industry in this respect. Methods Sixty-eight patient organisations representing seven medical conditions, from ten Western European countries, were asked to participate in the study. The participating organisations reported their experiences in a web-based questionnaire. Results Twenty-one patient organisations completed the questionnaire (response rate: 31%), of which ten (47.6%) demanded reimbursement for medicines. Organisations demanding reimbursement were larger than those not demanding reimbursement. The main aim of these organisations was to create better accessibility of medicines for patients. Most organisations limited themselves to single actions. Only two engaged in multiple actions. Almost all organisations had general policies on cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry, with autonomy as the key feature. The patient organisations said they were reasonably successful and almost always satisfied with their own role in the reimbursement process. Conclusion Our study has found that the role of European patient organisations in the reimbursement process still seems limited, especially for small patient organisations. PMID:20170557

  9. CII Protection - Lessons for Developing Countries: South Africa as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndlangisa, Mboneli; Herbst, Deon

    We explore the process followed in formulating the South African CII (Critical Information Infrastructure) identification criteria and its application. We report on a three pronged approach that defines National Security, severity of CII security incidents and roles and responsibilities for CII protection. Our Criteria assumes the existence of basic ICT security roles within a country as per application of the South African criteria and its suitability for a country with limited resources. We conclude by recommending a CII protection approach that is best suited for developing countries based on our experiences.

  10. Stagnant Neonatal Mortality and Persistent Health Inequality in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Aleli D.; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country’s socioeconomic-related child health inequality. Methodology Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. Findings Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education), regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. Conclusion The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality – that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system – to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country inequalities in child health. PMID:23308278

  11. Social Studies Project Evaluation: Case Study and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a model for social studies program evaluations. A case study showing how the model's three-step process was used to evaluate the Improving Citizenship Education Project in Fulton County, Georgia is included. (AM)

  12. The multinational transfer of competency-based foster parent assessment, selection, and training: a nine-country case study.

    PubMed

    Herczog, M; van Pagée, R; Pasztor, E M

    2001-01-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child mandates (Articles 19 and 20) that alternative care be available to protect children from maltreatment by parents and caregivers. Increasingly, countries around the world have recognized the benefits to child well-being of family-based care as an alternative to institutional care. The special if not extraordinary needs of children separated from parents because of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment and placed with foster families requires a commensurate effort to develop foster families who have special if not extraordinary skills. Methods that are effective and replicable across countries offer significant advantages, reducing investments in policies and practices that otherwise would have to be developed independently, country by country. This case study describes the factors that contributed to the transfer of knowledge in the assessment, selection, and training of foster parents and the impact to date. PMID:11678420

  13. Integrated circuit tester evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, P.

    1980-03-01

    The primary AIMD test requirements for a small, inexpensive, commercially available, digital IC tester could be met by only one tester. This was the Automatic Fault Isolation Tester (AFIT) model 2050 manufactured by Testline Co. Many other testers were available that had the basic testing capability but were outside the price constraints or that were edge board testers. Bed-of-nails testers were not considered for AIMD use. The AFIT was submitted for technical and User Evaluations and demonstrated that it could detect faulty IC's on PC boards not coated with a conformal moisture-proofing compound. This fault detection ability was demonstrated for both the in-circuit and out-of-circuit modes of operation.

  14. The Quest for Comparability: Studying the Invariance of the Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES) Measure across Countries

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Ronny; Jansen, Malte; Nilsen, Trude; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers’ self-efficacy is an important motivational construct that is positively related to a variety of outcomes for both the teachers and their students. This study addresses challenges associated with the commonly used ‘Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES)’ measure across countries and provides a synergism between substantive research on teachers’ self-efficacy and the novel methodological approach of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). These challenges include adequately representing the conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy in a measurement model (cross-loadings) and comparing means and factor structures across countries (measurement invariance). On the basis of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013 data set comprising 32 countries (N = 164,687), we investigate the effects of cross-loadings in the TSES measurement model on the results of measurement invariance testing and the estimation of relations to external constructs (i.e., working experience, job satisfaction). To further test the robustness of our results, we replicate the 32-countries analyses for three selected sub-groups of countries (i.e., Nordic, East and South-East Asian, and Anglo-Saxon country clusters). For each of the TALIS 2013 participating countries, we found that the factor structure of the self-efficacy measure is better represented by ESEM than by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models that do not allow for cross-loadings. For both ESEM and CFA, only metric invariance could be achieved. Nevertheless, invariance levels beyond metric invariance are better achieved with ESEM within selected country clusters. Moreover, the existence of cross-loadings did not affect the relations between the dimensions of teachers’ self-efficacy and external constructs. Overall, this study shows that a conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy exists and can be well-represented by ESEM. We further argue for the cross-cultural generalizability of the corresponding measurement model. PMID:26959236

  15. The Quest for Comparability: Studying the Invariance of the Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES) Measure across Countries.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Ronny; Jansen, Malte; Nilsen, Trude; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Marsh, Herbert W

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' self-efficacy is an important motivational construct that is positively related to a variety of outcomes for both the teachers and their students. This study addresses challenges associated with the commonly used 'Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES)' measure across countries and provides a synergism between substantive research on teachers' self-efficacy and the novel methodological approach of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). These challenges include adequately representing the conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy in a measurement model (cross-loadings) and comparing means and factor structures across countries (measurement invariance). On the basis of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013 data set comprising 32 countries (N = 164,687), we investigate the effects of cross-loadings in the TSES measurement model on the results of measurement invariance testing and the estimation of relations to external constructs (i.e., working experience, job satisfaction). To further test the robustness of our results, we replicate the 32-countries analyses for three selected sub-groups of countries (i.e., Nordic, East and South-East Asian, and Anglo-Saxon country clusters). For each of the TALIS 2013 participating countries, we found that the factor structure of the self-efficacy measure is better represented by ESEM than by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models that do not allow for cross-loadings. For both ESEM and CFA, only metric invariance could be achieved. Nevertheless, invariance levels beyond metric invariance are better achieved with ESEM within selected country clusters. Moreover, the existence of cross-loadings did not affect the relations between the dimensions of teachers' self-efficacy and external constructs. Overall, this study shows that a conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy exists and can be well-represented by ESEM. We further argue for the cross-cultural generalizability of the corresponding measurement model. PMID:26959236

  16. Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and

  17. Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

  18. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  19. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimnez, Juan E.; Rodrguez, Cristina; Surez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher

  20. Feasibility of a large cohort study in sub-Saharan Africa assessed through a four-country study

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Shona; Holmes, Michelle D.; Laurence, Carien; Bajunirwe, Francis; Guwatudde, David; Njelekela, Marina; Adebamowo, Clement; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Chiwanga, Faraja S.; Volmink, Jimmy; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Kalyesubula, Robert; Reid, Todd G.; Dockery, Douglas; Hemenway, David; Adami, Hans-Olov

    2015-01-01

    Background Large prospective epidemiologic studies are vital in determining disease etiology and forming national health policy. Yet, such studies do not exist in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) notwithstanding the growing burden of chronic diseases. Objective We explored the feasibility of establishing a large-scale multicountry prospective study at five sites in four sub-Saharan countries. Design Based on country-specific considerations of feasibility, Nigeria enrolled health care professionals, South Africa and Tanzania enrolled teachers, and Uganda enrolled village residents at one rural and one periurban site each. All sites used a 6-month follow-up period but different approaches for data collection, namely standardized questionnaires filled out by participants or face-to-face interviews. Results We enrolled 1415 participants from five sites (range 200–489) with a median age of 41 years. Approximately half had access to clean-burning cooking fuel and 70% to piped drinking water, yet 92% had access to a mobile phone. The prevalence of chronic diseases was 49% among 45- to 54-year-olds and was dominated by hypertension (21.7% overall) – ranging from 4.5 to 31.2% across sites – and a serious injury in the past 12 months (12.4% overall). About 80% of participants indicated willingness to provide blood samples. At 6-month follow-up, 68% completed a questionnaire (45 to 96% across sites) with evidence that mobile phones were particularly useful. Conclusions Our pilot study indicates that a large-scale prospective study in SSA is feasible, and the burden of chronic disease in SSA may already be substantial necessitating urgent etiologic research and primary prevention. PMID:26015082

  1. A Multicentre Study of Shigella Diarrhoea in Six Asian Countries: Disease Burden, Clinical Manifestations, and Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Lee, Hyejon; Wang, XuanYi; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Canh, Do Gia; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Agtini, Magdarina D; Hossain, Anowar; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Mason, Carl; Sethabutr, Ornthipa; Talukder, Kaisar; Nair, G. B; Deen, Jacqueline L; Kotloff, Karen; Clemens, John

    2006-01-01

    Background The burden of shigellosis is greatest in resource-poor countries. Although this diarrheal disease has been thought to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of 1,000,000 deaths globally per year, little recent data are available to guide intervention strategies in Asia. We conducted a prospective, population-based study in six Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the current disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology of shigellosis in Asia. Methods and Findings Over 600,000 persons of all ages residing in Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand were included in the surveillance. Shigella was isolated from 2,927 (5%) of 56,958 diarrhoea episodes detected between 2000 and 2004. The overall incidence of treated shigellosis was 2.1 episodes per 1,000 residents per year in all ages and 13.2/1,000/y in children under 60 months old. Shigellosis incidence increased after age 40 years. S. flexneri was the most frequently isolated Shigella species (1,976/2,927 [68%]) in all sites except in Thailand, where S. sonnei was most frequently detected (124/146 [85%]). S. flexneri serotypes were highly heterogeneous in their distribution from site to site, and even from year to year. PCR detected ipaH, the gene encoding invasion plasmid antigen H in 33% of a sample of culture-negative stool specimens. The majority of S. flexneri isolates in each site were resistant to amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. Ciprofloxacin-resistant S. flexneri isolates were identified in China (18/305 [6%]), Pakistan (8/242 [3%]), and Vietnam (5/282 [2%]). Conclusions Shigella appears to be more ubiquitous in Asian impoverished populations than previously thought, and antibiotic-resistant strains of different species and serotypes have emerged. Focusing on prevention of shigellosis could exert an immediate benefit first by substantially reducing the overall diarrhoea burden in the region and second by preventing the spread of panresistant Shigella strains. The heterogeneous distribution of Shigella species and serotypes suggest that multivalent or cross-protective Shigella vaccines will be needed to prevent shigellosis in Asia. PMID:16968124

  2. Cognitive Test Performance in Relation to Health and Function in 12 European Countries: The SHARE Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterniczuk, Roxanne; Theou, Olga; Rusak, Benjamin; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background Even subtle impairments on cognitive test scores can be associated with future cognitive decline and dementia. We assayed the relationships between test score impairment and adverse outcomes. Methods Secondary analyses were performed on data from non-institutionalized participants, 50+ years of age (N = 30,038), from 12 countries taking part in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) longitudinal study on aging. At baseline, participants’ cognition was tested using verbal fluency, immediate recall, and delayed recall tasks. Results Greater levels of cognitive impairment at baseline were strongly associated with future poor health outcomes and functional impairment. Controlling for age, sex and education, those with 1 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.34–1.87) or ≥ 2 (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 2.17–3.09) impaired tests at baseline were more likely to die after an average of 40 months compared to individuals with no impairments. After selecting for participants who reported the absence of dementia initially, those with ≥ 2 cognitive impairments at baseline (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 2.27–4.92) were more likely to report dementia at follow-up compared to those with no impairment. Conclusions People with impaired cognitive test scores at baseline are at greater risk to die or develop dementia within four years than their less impaired or unimpaired counterparts. PMID:26495048

  3. General Practitioners Recognizing Alcohol Dependence: A Large Cross-Sectional Study in 6 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Vedova, Roberto Della; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Landsmane, Inga; Manthey, Jakob; Moreno-España, José; Pieper, Lars; Probst, Charlotte; Snikere, Sigita; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Voller, Fabio; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Although alcohol dependence causes marked mortality and disease burden in Europe, the treatment rate is low. Primary care could play a key role in reducing alcohol-attributable harm by screening, brief interventions, and initiating or referral to treatment. This study investigates identification of alcohol dependence in European primary care settings. METHODS Assessments from 13,003 general practitioners, and 9,098 interviews (8,476 joint number of interviewed patients with a physician’s assessment) were collected in 6 European countries. Alcohol dependence, comorbidities, and health service utilization were assessed by the general practitioner and independently using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and other structured interviews. Weighted regression analyses were used to compare the impact of influencing variables on both types of diagnoses. RESULTS The rate of patients being identified as alcohol dependent by the CIDI or a general practitioner was about equally high, but there was not a lot of overlap between cases identified. Alcohol-dependent patients identified by a physician were older, had higher rates of physicial comorbidity (liver disease, hypertension), and were socially more marginalized, whereas average consumption of alcohol and mental comorbidity were equally high in both groups. CONCLUSION General practitioners were able to identify alcohol dependence, but the cases they identified differed from cases identified using the CIDI. The role of the CIDI as the reference standard should be reexamined, as older alcohol-dependent patients with severe comorbidities seemed to be missed in this assessment. PMID:25583889

  4. Iron-Fortified Drinking Water Studies for the Prevention of Children's Anemia in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Dutra-de-Oliveira, Jose E; Marchini, J Sergio; Lamounier, Joel; Almeida, Carlos A N

    2011-01-01

    Anemia and iron deficiency should receive special attention considering their high prevalence and serious consequences. For prevention, globally it is recommended to increase dietary iron intake, iron fortification of industrialized foods, and medical iron supplementation. Food fortification for the prevention of iron deficiency in developing countries should consider carriers locally available and consumed daily, requiring limited infrastructure and technology. Drinking water is the iron carrier we have been working for years for the prevention of iron deficiency and anemia in small children in Brazil. It was shown that studies with iron-fortified drinking water were proved to be effective on children's anemia prevention. Water is found everywhere, consumed daily by everyone may be easily fortified with simple technology, is low priced and was effective on the prevention of children's anemia. Fortification of drinking water with iron was locally implemented with the direct participation of the government and community. Government authorities, health personnel and population were part of the project and responsible for its community implementation. The mayor/municipality permitted and supported the proposal to supply it to children at their day-care centers. To keep the children drinking water iron fortified supply an officially authorized legislation was also approved. PMID:21826263

  5. Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Rotich K.; Zhao Yongsheng . E-mail: zhaoyongsheng@jlu.edu.cn; Dong Jun

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.

  6. Incidence of abdominal incisional hernia in developing country: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Litian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the incidence of abdominal incisional hernia in developing countries. Methods: This population-based retrospective cohort study identified all patients with abdominal surgery between 2006 to 2011 in Aden Public Hospital, Aden, Yemen and the Second Hospital Affiliated with Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China. The cohort was followed from their first until 1 year after their last abdominal surgery within the inclusion period or until the first of the following events: hernia repair, death, emigration, second abdominal surgery. For patients who had a hernia repair, hospital records regarding the surgery and previous abdominal surgery were tracked and manually analyzed to confirm the relationship between hernia repair and abdominal surgery. Results: We identified 2096 patients who had abdominal surgery during the inclusion period and 51 cases were excluded. During follow-up, 80 of these patients who had a hernia requiring repair were analyzed. Of these 20 had infected incision and 80 had non-infected incision. The incidence is significantly higher in infected incision (20/202) than that in non-infected incision (60/1843). There were no any differences in the incidence between Aden and Dalian. Conclusions: The overall incidence of abdominal incisional hernia requiring surgical repair within 1 year after abdominal surgery was 80/2045 in a population from Aden and Dalian. Infected incision is prone to occur incisional hernia during the follow-up period. PMID:26550309

  7. Enacted Sexual Stigma, Stigma Consciousness, and Subjective Happiness Scale Adaptation: A Two-Country Study.

    PubMed

    Strizzi, Jenna; Fernández-Agis, Inmaculada; Parrón-Carreño, Tesifon; Alarcón-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Violence against people due to their sexual orientation is a phenomenon that exists within a framework of sexual stigma and sexual prejudice that can result in enacted stigma. The present study primarily aimed to validate the Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; for lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] populations) in the Spanish context by using samples from two countries (Spain [N = 157] and the United States [N = 83]). Also, to examine how the construct of stigma consciousness correlates with anti-LGBQ (anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) hate crime victimization and violent incidents, as well as examine whether the former influences subjective happiness. The population from the United States reported higher stigma consciousness and received more anti-LGBQ threats and insults. Hate crime victimization was the same across the two samples and positively correlated with violent incidents in both samples. Subjective happiness was negatively correlated with SCQ, although its subscales it did not correlate with enacted stigma measures. PMID:25381273

  8. Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries--Kenyan case study.

    PubMed

    Henry, Rotich K; Yongsheng, Zhao; Jun, Dong

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored. PMID:16006111

  9. Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Solano, J Bernar; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Sacristan, A Diez; Eklof, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external radiation with a total follow-up of 5.2 million person years. Main outcome measurements Estimates of excess relative risks per sievert (Sv) of radiation dose for mortality from cancers other than leukaemia and from leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the main causes of death considered by radiation protection authorities. Results The excess relative risk for cancers other than leukaemia was 0.97 per Sv, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.97. Analyses of causes of death related or unrelated to smoking indicate that, although confounding by smoking may be present, it is unlikely to explain all of this increased risk. The excess relative risk for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 1.93 per Sv (< 0 to 8.47). On the basis of these estimates, 1-2% of deaths from cancer among workers in this cohort may be attributable to radiation. Conclusions These estimates, from the largest study of nuclear workers ever conducted, are higher than, but statistically compatible with, the risk estimates used for current radiation protection standards. The results suggest that there is a small excess risk of cancer, even at the low doses and dose rates typically received by nuclear workers in this study. PMID:15987704

  10. Comparative evaluation of the potential impact of rotavirus versus hpv vaccination in GAVI-eligible countries: A preliminary analysis focused on the relative disease burden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Immunization policymakers at global and local levels need to establish priorities among new vaccines competing for limited resources. However, comparison of the potential impact of single vaccination programs is challenging, primarily due to the limited number of vaccine analyses as well as their differing analytic approaches and reporting formats. The purpose of this study is to provide early insight into how the comparative impact of different new vaccines could be assessed in resource-poor settings with respect to affordability, cost-effectiveness, and distributional equity. Methods We compared the health, economic, and financial consequences of introducing the two vaccines in 72 GAVI-eligible countries using a number of different outcome measures to evaluate affordability, cost-effectiveness, and distributional equity. We use simple static models to standardize the analytic framework and improve comparability between the two new vaccines. These simple models were validated by leveraging previously developed, more complex models for rotavirus and human papillomavirus (HPV). Results With 70% coverage of a single-age cohort of infants and pre-adolescent girls, the lives saved with rotavirus (~274,000) and HPV vaccines (~286,000) are similar, although the timing of averted mortality differs; rotavirus-attributable deaths occur in close proximity to infection, while HPV-related cancer deaths occur largely after age 30. Deaths averted per 1000 vaccinated are 5.2 (rotavirus) and 12.6 (HPV). Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted were ~7.15 million (rotavirus) and ~1.30 million (HPV), reflecting the greater influence of discounting on the latter, given the lagtime between vaccination and averted cancer. In most countries (68 for rotavirus and 66 for HPV, at the cost of I$25 per vaccinated individual) the incremental cost per DALY averted was lower than each country's GDP per capita. Financial resources required for vaccination with rotavirus are higher than with HPV since both genders are vaccinated. Conclusions While lifesaving benefits of rotavirus and HPV vaccines will be realized at different times, the number of lives saved over each target populations' lifetimes will be similar. Model-based analyses that use a standardized analytic approach and generate comparable outputs can enrich the priority-setting dialogue. Although new vaccines may be deemed cost-effective, other factors including affordability and distributional equity need to be considered in different settings. We caution that for priority setting in an individual country, more rigorous comparisons should be performed, using more comprehensive models and considering all relevant vaccines and delivery strategies. PMID:21679420

  11. Pandemic influenza in Papua New Guinea: a modelling study comparison with pandemic spread in a developed country

    PubMed Central

    Milne, George J; Baskaran, Pravin; Halder, Nilimesh; Karl, Stephan; Kelso, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The possible occurrence of a highly pathogenic influenza strain is of concern to health authorities worldwide. It is known that during past influenza pandemics developing countries have experienced considerably higher death rates compared with developed countries. Furthermore, many developing countries lack appropriate pandemic preparedness plans. Mathematical modelling studies to guide the development of such plans are largely focused on predicting pandemic influenza spread in developed nations. However, intervention strategies shown by modelling studies to be highly effective for developed countries give limited guidance as to the impact which an influenza pandemic may have on low-income countries given different demographics and resource constraints. To address this, an individual-based model of a Papua New Guinean (PNG) community was created and used to simulate the spread of a novel influenza strain. The results were compared with those obtained from a comparable Australian model. Design A modelling study. Setting The towns of Madang in PNG (population ∼35 000) and Albany (population ∼30 000) in Australia. Outcome measures Daily and cumulative illness attack rates in both models following introduction of a novel influenza strain into a naive population, for an unmitigated scenario and two social distancing intervention scenarios. Results The unmitigated scenario indicated an approximately 50% higher attack rate in PNG compared with the Australian model. The two social distancing-based interventions strategies were 60–70% less effective in a PNG setting compared with an Australian setting. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that an influenza pandemic occurring in a low-income country such as PNG may have a greater impact than one occurring in a developed country, and that PNG-feasible interventions may be substantially less effective. The larger average household size in PNG, the larger proportion of the population under 18 and greater community-wide contact all contribute to this feature. PMID:23535701

  12. Contradictions and conflict: A meta-ethnographic study of migrant women’s experiences of breastfeeding in a new country

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies report mixed findings about rates of both exclusive and partial breastfeeding amongst women who are migrants or refugees in high income countries. It is important to understand the beliefs and experiences that impact on migrant and refugee women’s infant feeding decisions in order to appropriately support women to breastfeed in a new country. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a meta-ethnographic study that explored migrant and refugee women’s experiences and practices related to breastfeeding in a new country. Methods CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library with Full Text databases were searched for the period January 2000 to May 2012. Out of 2355 papers retrieved 11 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was undertaken using the analytic strategies and theme synthesis techniques of reciprocal translation and refutational investigation. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Results Eight qualitative studies and three studies reporting both qualitative and quantitative data were included and one overarching theme emerged: ‘Breastfeeding in a new country: facing contradictions and conflict’. This theme comprised four sub-themes ‘Mother’s milk is best’; ‘Contradictions and conflict in breastfeeding practices’; ‘Producing breast milk requires energy and good health’; and ‘The dominant role of female relatives’. Migrant women who valued, but did not have access to, traditional postpartum practices, were more likely to cease breastfeeding. Women reported a clash between their individual beliefs and practices and the dominant practices in the new country, and also a tension with family members either in the country of origin or in the new country. Conclusion Migrant women experience tensions in their breastfeeding experience and require support from professionals who can sensitively address their individual needs. Strategies to engage grandmothers in educational opportunities may offer a novel approach to breastfeeding support. PMID:23270315

  13. Relationships between food consumption and living arrangements among university students in four European countries - A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The transition of young people from school to university has many health implications. Food choice at the university can differ because of childhood food consumption patterns, sex and the living arrangements. Food consumption may change especially if students are living away from home. We aimed to assess food consumption patterns among university students from four European countries and how they differ by their living arrangements. Methods We analysed data from a cross-country survey assessing health and health behaviours of students. The sample comprised a total of 2402 first year undergraduate students from one university in each of the countries of Germany, Denmark, Poland and Bulgaria. Food consumption was assessed by means of a food frequency questionnaire with 9 food groups (indicators). Results Students food consumption patterns differed across the countries. Frequent consumption of unhealthy items was common. Bulgarian students reported most often frequent consumption of sweets and cakes and snacks (e.g. chips and fast food). Polish students reported the least frequent consumption of vegetables and a low consumption of fruits. Across all countries except Bulgaria, men reported substantially more often frequent consumption of snacks than women. Students living at parental home consumed more fruit, vegetables, and meat than those who resided outside of their family home in all studied countries. There was more variation with regard to cakes and salads with more frequent consumption of cakes among Bulgarian female students and Danish male students and more frequent consumption of salads among Danish female students not living at parental home, compared to students from other countries. Conclusions Nutrition habits of university students differed across countries and by sex. Students living at parental home displayed more healthy nutrition habits, with some exceptions. PMID:22531503

  14. Clinical Applications of Evaluation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barry S.

    A series of followup investigations exploring the impact of methadone maintenance treatment, methadone detoxification treatment, therapeutic communities, and outpatient drug-free treatment for the drug abuser was conducted. Limitations of these modalities were revealed in the followup studies. Implications for treatment and policy include: (1)…

  15. Systemic antibiotic prescribing to paediatric outpatients in 5 European countries: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe the utilisation of antibiotics in children and adolescents across 5 European countries based on the same drug utilisation measures and age groups. Special attention was given to age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups, since comparison in this regard between countries is lacking so far. Methods Outpatient paediatric prescriptions of systemic antibiotics during the years 2005-2008 were analysed using health care databases from the UK, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy and Germany. Annual antibiotic prescription rates per 1,000 person years were estimated for each database and stratified by age (≤4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-18 years). Age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups were calculated for 2008. Results With 957 prescriptions per 1000 person years, the highest annual prescription rate in the year 2008 was found in the Italian region Emilia Romagna followed by Germany (561), the UK (555), Denmark (481) and the Netherlands (294). Seasonal peaks during winter months were most pronounced in countries with high utilisation. Age-group-specific use varied substantially between countries with regard to total prescribing and distributions of antibiotic subgroups. However, prescription rates were highest among children in the age group ≤4 years in all countries, predominantly due to high use of broad spectrum penicillins. Conclusions Strong increases of antibiotic prescriptions in winter months in high utilising countries most likely result from frequent antibiotic treatment of mostly viral infections. This and strong variations of overall and age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups across countries, suggests that antibiotics are inappropriately used to a large extent. PMID:24997585

  16. Methodological Issues to Consider When Collecting Data to Estimate Poverty Impact in Economic Evaluations in Low-income and Middle-income Countries.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sedona; Vassall, Anna; Foster, Nicola; Simms, Victoria; Ilboudo, Patrick; Kimaro, Godfather; Mudzengi, Don; Guinness, Lorna

    2016-02-01

    Out-of-pocket spending is increasingly recognized as an important barrier to accessing health care, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where a large portion of health expenditure comes from out-of-pocket payments. Emerging universal healthcare policies prioritize reduction of poverty impact such as catastrophic and impoverishing healthcare expenditure. Poverty impact is therefore increasingly evaluated alongside and within economic evaluations to estimate the impact of specific health interventions on poverty. However, data collection for these metrics can be challenging in intervention-based contexts in LMICs because of study design and practical limitations. Using a set of case studies, this letter identifies methodological challenges in collecting patient cost data in LMIC contexts. These components are presented in a framework to encourage researchers to consider the implications of differing approaches in data collection and to report their approach in a standardized and transparent way. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26774106

  17. Early life bereavement and childhood cancer: a nationwide follow-up study in two countries

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Natalie C; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika; Cnattingius, Sven; Li, Jiong

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood cancer is a leading cause of child deaths in affluent countries, but little is known about its aetiology. Psychological stress has been suggested to be associated with cancer in adults; whether this is also seen in childhood cancer is largely unknown. We investigated the association between bereavement as an indicator of severe childhood stress exposure and childhood cancer, using data from Danish and Swedish national registers. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark and Sweden. Participants All live-born children born in Denmark between 1968 and 2007 (n=2 729 308) and in Sweden between 1973 and 2006 (n=3 395 166) were included in this study. Exposure was bereavement by the death of a close relative before 15 years of age. Follow-up started from birth and ended at the first of the following: date of a cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, day before their 15th birthday or end of follow-up (2007 in Denmark, 2006 in Sweden). Outcome measures Rates and HRs for all childhood cancers and specific childhood cancers. Results A total of 1 505 938 (24.5%) children experienced bereavement at some point during their childhood and 9823 were diagnosed with cancer before the age of 15 years. The exposed children had a small (10%) increased risk of childhood cancer (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.17). For specific cancers, a significant association was seen only for central nervous system tumours (HR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.28). Conclusions Our data suggest that psychological stress in early life is associated with a small increased risk of childhood cancer. PMID:23793702

  18. Climate variability as a threat for countries progressing towards malaria elimination: The case study of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousam, Aneela; Maggioni, Viviana; Quispe, Antonio; Aquila, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Malaria cases reported by the Peruvian Ministry of Health demonstrate a 61% reduction of malaria in the last decade (2001- 2010). However, during the years 2011-14 malaria increased by ~2.7 folds in Peru and ~5 folds in Loreto, an Amazonian department that continues contributing over 90% of the malaria cases in Peru. Past studies have indicated that there is a strong association between climate variability and malaria rates. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that climate variables have played a key role in the recent increase of malaria cases in Peru. Climate data, such as precipitation, temperature, humidity and surface pressure simulated by the NASA MERRA model during a 10-year ling time series (2004-2013) are used to verify this hypothesis. Preliminary data analyses show large deviations from the 10-year mean (i.e., climatological anomalies) in humidity, surface pressure, and temperature during 2010 up to four times larger than previous and subsequent years. An increase of 8% in precipitation yearly averages is observed in 2010, which also corresponds with the following reverse of the downward trend of malaria incidence, particularly in Loreto. The sudden amplification of climatological anomalies in 2010 could have set the environmental conditions that caused the re-emergence of malaria in 2011. Investigation is underway to link weekly malaria data from different districts in Peru to the climate conditions at those locations during the past ten years. This will be crucial in understanding why some countries, despite all necessary efforts, are unable to completely eliminate malaria.

  19. Evaluating Evaluation Systems: Policy Levers and Strategies for Studying Implementation of Educator Evaluation. Policy Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlach, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation studies can provide feedback on implementation, support continuous improvement, and increase understanding of evaluation systems' impact on teaching and learning. Despite the importance of educator evaluation studies, states often need support to prioritize and fund them. Successful studies require expertise, time, and a shared…

  20. Applying the food technology neophobia scale in a developing country context. A case-study on processed matooke (cooking banana) flour in Central Uganda.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Odongo, Walter; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The success of new food technologies largely depends on consumers' behavioral responses to the innovation. In Eastern Africa, and Uganda in particular, a technology to process matooke into flour has been introduced with limited success. We measure and apply the Food technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS) to this specific case. This technique has been increasingly used in consumer research to determine consumers' fear for foods produced by novel technologies. Although it has been successful in developed countries, the low number and limited scope of past studies underlines the need for testing its applicability in a developing country context. Data was collected from 209 matooke consumers from Central Uganda. In general, respondents are relatively neophobic towards the new technology, with an average FTNS score of 58.7%, which hampers the success of processed matooke flour. Besides socio-demographic indicators, 'risk perception', 'healthiness' and the 'necessity of technologies' were key factors that influenced consumer's preference of processed matooke flour. Benchmarking the findings against previous FTNS surveys allows to evaluate factor solutions, compare standardized FTNS scores and further lends support for the multidimensionality of the FTNS. Being the first application in a developing country context, this study provides a case for examining food technology neophobia for processed staple crops in various regions and cultures. Nevertheless, research is needed to replicate this method and evaluate the external validity of our findings. PMID:26463016

  1. Feasibility studies of a power interconnection system for Central American countries: SIEPAC project

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Enamorado, J.C. . Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica); Vela, A. )

    1994-06-01

    The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC project which consists of a 1,678 km long 500 kV ac power transmission line that would link the six electrical systems of the region through seven power substations (one for each country and two in Panama), installed close to the highest demand national centers and six control centers of energy (one for each country) to allow coordinated operation of the interconnection.This project also considers a set of complementary assets (230 ac power transmission lines into some countries and the border transmission line between El Salvador and Honduras, and various other equipment). The power transmission line will greatly reinforce the actual border interconnections, which have a reduced capacity of exchange and technical problems associated with the stability of a weak longitudinal system. On the other hand, economic savings for the region would be achieved, coming from a higher coordination level in the operation and planning of their systems.

  2. Women's Studies Collections: A Checklist Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Brooke A.

    2009-01-01

    A checklist evaluation on thirty-seven Women's Studies programs conducted using the individual institutions' online public access catalogs (OPACs) is presented. Although Women's Studies collections are very difficult to build, an evaluation of existing programs shows that collections, for the most part, have managed substantial coverage of the…

  3. Students' Peer Interactions within a Cohort and in Host Countries during a Short-Term Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Aragones, Aileen

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we explored students' peer interactions within their cohort and in the host countries during a short-term study abroad. Framed by Bronfenbrenner's (1993) ecological systems theory, findings revealed that students spent considerable energy reflecting on interactions with peers. The students considered…

  4. The International Pilot Study of Severe Childhood Disability. Final Report: Screening for Severe Mental Retardation in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belmont, Lillian

    The final report of the 5-year International Pilot Study of Severe Childhood Disability outlines findings concerning the prevalence of severe mental retardation in nine developing countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan (Karachi and Lahore), the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Zambia. The study attempted to determine the…

  5. Deepening Learning and Inspiring Rigor: Bridging Academic and Experiential Learning Using a Host Country Approach to a Study Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Susan Orpett; Akande, Yemi Susan; Purdy, R. W.; Nakano, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    American students are increasingly incorporating study in a foreign country into their college educations, but many participate in short-term programs that limit their engagement with any more than the superficial aspects of the host culture. This article describes a short-term study abroad course for American students to Japan in which the…

  6. The Professional Value of Temporary Study in Another European Country: Employment and Work of Former ERASMUS Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich; Janson, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Temporary study in another European country supported by the ERASMUS programmes spread from a few thousand participants in the late 1980s to about 150,000 annually in recent years. Such a study period is not only viewed as academically, culturally, and linguistically valuable but is also expected to have a positive impact on subsequent employment…

  7. Understanding the Relationships among PISA Scores, Economic Growth and Employment in Different Sectors: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores in mathematics, science and reading and the employment rates in the following four economic activities: research and development, agriculture, industry, and service industries. Thirty-three countries were included in the study, and most…

  8. Students' Peer Interactions within a Cohort and in Host Countries during a Short-Term Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Aragones, Aileen

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we explored students' peer interactions within their cohort and in the host countries during a short-term study abroad. Framed by Bronfenbrenner's (1993) ecological systems theory, findings revealed that students spent considerable energy reflecting on interactions with peers. The students considered

  9. Experimental study and evaluation of radioprotective drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Thomson, J. F.

    1968-01-01

    Experimental study evaluates radioprotective drugs administered before exposure either orally or intravenously. Specifically studied are the sources of radiation, choice of radiation dose, choice of animals, administration of drugs, the toxicity of protective agents and types of protective drug.

  10. Work related complaints of neck, shoulder and arm among computer office workers: a cross-sectional evaluation of prevalence and risk factors in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Complaints of arms, neck and shoulders (CANS) is common among computer office workers. We evaluated an aetiological model with physical/psychosocial risk-factors. Methods We invited 2,500 computer office workers for the study. Data on prevalence and risk-factors of CANS were collected by validated Maastricht-Upper-extremity-Questionnaire. Workstations were evaluated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Visual-Display-Terminal workstation-checklist. Participants' knowledge and awareness was evaluated by a set of expert-validated questions. A binary logistic regression analysis investigated relationships/correlations between risk-factors and symptoms. Results Sample size was 2,210. Mean age 30.8 ± 8.1 years, 50.8% were males. The 1-year prevalence of CANS was 56.9%, commonest region of complaint was forearm/hand (42.6%), followed by neck (36.7%) and shoulder/arm (32.0%). In those with CANS, 22.7% had taken treatment from a health care professional, only in 1.1% seeking medical advice an occupation-related injury had been suspected/diagnosed. In addition 9.3% reported CANS-related absenteeism from work, while 15.4% reported CANS causing disruption of normal activities. A majority of evaluated workstations in all participants (88.4%,) and in those with CANS (91.9%) had OSHA non-compliant workstations. In the binary logistic regression analyses female gender, daily computer usage, incorrect body posture, bad work-habits, work overload, poor social support and poor ergonomic knowledge were associated with CANS and its' severity In a multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender and duration of occupation, incorrect body posture, bad work-habits and daily computer usage were significant independent predictors of CANS Conclusions The prevalence of work-related CANS among computer office workers in Sri Lanka, a developing, South Asian country is high and comparable to prevalence in developed countries. Work-related physical factors, psychosocial factors and lack of awareness were all important associations of CANS and effective preventive strategies need to address all three areas. PMID:21816073

  11. Where Is the Literature in Evaluation on Managing Studies, Evaluators, and Evaluation Units?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a multistage exploration of evaluation texts, electronic searches, and nominations from the field and from managing social science, the author concludes there is little research literature on managing evaluation studies, evaluators and other workers, and evaluation units. The discussion explores what this limited literature tells…

  12. Towards a cleaner production in developing countries: a case study in a Chilean tannery.

    PubMed

    Rivela, Beatriz; Mndez, Rann; Bornhardt, Cristian; Vidal, Gladys

    2004-06-01

    A Chilean leather tanning industry (tannery) was studied in terms of input/output (I/O) analysis of beamhouse, tanyard and retanning processes. The physical-chemical characterization of 19 streams were investigated. Streams from the beamhouse process and some streams from the retanning process were found to have high organic contents ranging from 2.5 to 18.1 g COD L(-1). The pH ranged between 3.45 and 12.28. Sulphur was found in most of the streams whereas chromium was detected in two wastewaters from the tanyard and in seven streams from the retanning process. Pollution prevention opportunities were evaluated and an appropriate treatment strategy was proposed. The main emphasis was on determining waste reduction measures that can be easily implemented and are not particularly expensive. Measures for reduction at source were proposed to reduce water and chemicals consumption and wastewater pollution. A so-called S(index) strategy was used to evaluate proposals on segregation and specific treatment of the main chromium- and sulphur-containing wastewaters. It was suggested that some streams may be re-used, but it is necessary to apply anaerobic or aerobic treatment first, depending on their organic load. Solid wastes were also evaluated and a proposal for their reduction and disposal was made. PMID:15253496

  13. Rapid assessment of environmental health risks posed by mining operations in low- and middle-income countries: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Caravanos, Jack; Ericson, Bret; Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny; Hanrahan, David; Block, Meredith; Susilorini, Budi; Fuller, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated associated health risks and human exposure pathways at mining sites. Others have provided estimates of the scale of the issue based in part on surveys. However, a global census of mining-related hazardous waste sites has been lacking. The Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) implemented by Blacksmith Institute (New York, NY, USA) since 2009 is an ongoing effort to catalogue a wide range of chemically contaminated sites with a potential human health risk (Ericson et al., Environ Monit Assess doi:10.1007/s 10661-012-2665-2, 2012). The TSIP utilizes a rapid assessment instrument, the Initial Site Screening (ISS), to quickly and affordably identify key site criteria including human exposure pathways, estimated populations at risk, and sampling information. The resulting ISS allows for comparison between sites exhibiting different contaminants and pollution sources. This paper explores the results of a subset of ISSs completed at 131 artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas and 275 industrial mining and ore processing sites in 45 countries. The authors show that the ISS captures key data points, allowing for prioritization of sites for further investigation or remedial activity. PMID:23263764

  14. Digital Radiology to Improve the Quality of Care in Countries with Limited Resources: A Feasibility Study from Angola

    PubMed Central

    Zennaro, Floriana; Oliveira Gomes, Joaquim António; Casalino, Armando; Lonardi, Magda; Starc, Meta; Paoletti, Pierpaolo; Gobbo, Daniele; Giusto, Chiara; Not, Tarcisio; Lazzerini, Marzia

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sub-standard quality in X-ray image acquisition and interpretation is common in low-resource countries, and can ultimately result in higher patient morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at evaluating; 1) feasibility of implementing a digital X-ray device in a second level hospital in Angola; 2) quality of digital X-ray images, when digital radiology was in the hands of local technicians; 3) feasibility of digital teleradiology and its potential impact on case management. Methods We developed and tested at the Hospital Divina Providencia (HDP) in Luanda, Angola, a digital X-ray device and a telemedicine network to acquire and print digital X-ray images and send them as DICOM files for remote consultation. Results 20,564 digital X-ray images were made at HDP from November 2010 to December 2012, with no major technical problems and no need for on-site supervision. Digital radiology largely improved the number of X-ray images of good and very good quality (100% of images with digital radiology, compared to 15% of screen-film images, p<0.0001). Teleradiology using digital images was used in 7.6% of paediatric cases, and provided, in these cases, an important contribution to case management. Conclusions The implementation of a digital X-ray device is feasible in low resource settings with significant improvement in quality of X-ray images compared to standard screen film radiology. PMID:24086301

  15. Knowledge translation: a case study on pneumonia research and clinical guidelines in a low- income country

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The process and effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported. In Cambodia, a low-income country (LIC), an intervention aiming to provide evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia to health authorities was developed to help update pediatric and adult national clinical guidelines. Through a case study, we assessed the effectiveness of this KT intervention, with the goal of identifying the barriers to KT and suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. Methods An extensive search for all relevant sources of data documenting the processes of updating adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines was done. Documents included among others, reports, meeting minutes, and email correspondences. The study was conducted in successive phases: an appraisal of the content of both adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines; an appraisal of the quality of guidelines by independent experts, using the AGREE-II instrument; a description and modeling of the KT process within the guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools 2.2; and the listing of the barriers and facilitators to KT we identified during the study. Results The first appraisal showed that the integration of the KT key messages in pediatric and adult guidelines varied with a better efficiency in the pediatric guidelines. The overall AGREE-II quality assessments scored 37% and 44% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Scores were lowest for the domains of ‘rigor of development’ and ‘editorial independence.’ The UML analysis highlighted that time frames and constraints of the involved stakeholders greatly differed and that there were several missed opportunities to translate on evidence into the adult pneumonia guideline. Seventeen facilitating factors and 18 potential barriers to KT were identified. Main barriers were related to the absence of a clear mandate from the Ministry of Health for the researchers and to a lack of synchronization between knowledge production and policy-making. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stakeholders, both researchers and policy makers planning to update clinical guidelines in LIC may need methodological support to overcome the expected barriers. PMID:24969242

  16. Development and human resources in the Islamic world: a study of selected countries.

    PubMed

    Duza, M B

    1987-01-01

    "The present paper attempts to provide an analytical profile of development and human resources in [12] selected [Islamic] countries." The countries--Bangladesh, Somalia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey, Malaysia, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates--vary in income levels from low to high and in population size from 1 million to 159 million. Using data from the World Bank and the Population Council, comparisons are made on the basis of mortality and fertility levels, family size, income, urbanization, labor force size and growth, education, nutrition, and health. Governmental policy changes and future directions are discussed. PMID:12315536

  17. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs) between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated. PMID:22280469

  18. A prospective study of maternal, fetal and neonatal deaths in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Sarah; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Patel, Archana; Esamai, Fabian; Garces, Ana; Chomba, Elwyn; Althabe, Fernando; Moore, Janet; Kodkany, Bhalachandra; Pasha, Omrana; Belizan, Jose; Mayansyan, Albert; Derman, Richard J; Hibberd, Patricia L; Liechty, Edward A; Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael; Buekens, Pierre; Carlo, Waldemar A; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Jobe, Alan H; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries, to identify when deaths occur and to identify relationships between maternal deaths and stillbirths and neonatal deaths. Methods A prospective study of pregnancy outcomes was performed in 106 communities at seven sites in Argentina, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia. Pregnant women were enrolled and followed until six weeks postpartum. Findings Between 2010 and 2012, 214 070 of 220 235 enrolled women (97.2%) completed follow-up. The maternal mortality ratio was 168 per 100 000 live births, ranging from 69 per 100 000 in Argentina to 316 per 100 000 in Pakistan. Overall, 29% (98/336) of maternal deaths occurred around the time of delivery: most were attributed to haemorrhage (86/336), pre-eclampsia or eclampsia (55/336) or sepsis (39/336). Around 70% (4349/6213) of stillbirths were probably intrapartum; 34% (1804/5230) of neonates died on the day of delivery and 14% (755/5230) died the day after. Stillbirths were more common in women who died than in those alive six weeks postpartum (risk ratio, RR: 9.48; 95% confidence interval, CI: 7.97–11.27), as were perinatal deaths (RR: 4.30; 95% CI: 3.26–5.67) and 7-day (RR: 3.94; 95% CI: 2.74–5.65) and 28-day neonatal deaths (RR: 7.36; 95% CI: 5.54–9.77). Conclusion Most maternal, fetal and neonatal deaths occurred at or around delivery and were attributed to preventable causes. Maternal death increased the risk of perinatal and neonatal death. Improving obstetric and neonatal care around the time of birth offers the greatest chance of reducing mortality. PMID:25177075

  19. Directory of country environmental studies, 1993. An annotated bibliography of environmental and natural resource profiles and assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Tunstall, D.B.; van der Wansem, M.

    1992-11-01

    The 1993 edition of the Directory provides detailed citations and abstracts for 357 major natural resource and environmental studies (257 of which were added since the 1990 edition) covering 129 developing countries and 12 regional groupings. Most of the studies (93%) were prepared between 1987 and 1992. Included are 66 national reports prepared for the U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Thirty-three countries, including Algeria, Bhutan, Cuba, Republic of Korea, Laos, Namibia, South Africa, Suriname, Taiwan, and Venezuela, are new to this edition of the directory, which focuses on reports that link quantitative assessment of a country's natural resources to economic development and the maintenance of ecosystems, with particular emphasis on natural resource management strategies and action plans.

  20. Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian…

  1. Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian

  2. Economic Evaluation alongside Multinational Studies: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Oppong, Raymond; Jowett, Sue; Roberts, Tracy E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study This study seeks to explore methods for conducting economic evaluations alongside multinational trials by conducting a systematic review of the methods used in practice and the challenges that are typically faced by the researchers who conducted the economic evaluations. Methods A review was conducted for the period 2002 to 2012, with potentially relevant articles identified by searching the Medline, Embase and NHS EED databases. Studies were included if they were full economic evaluations conducted alongside a multinational trial. Results A total of 44 studies out of a possible 2667 met the inclusion criteria. Methods used for the analyses varied between studies, indicating a lack of consensus on how economic evaluation alongside multinational studies should be carried out. The most common challenge appeared to be related to addressing differences between countries, which potentially hinders the generalisability and transferability of results. Other challenges reported included inadequate sample sizes and choosing cost-effectiveness thresholds. Conclusions It is recommended that additional guidelines be developed to aid researchers in this area and that these be based on an understanding of the challenges associated with multinational trials and the strengths and limitations of alternative approaches. Guidelines should focus on ensuring that results will aid decision makers in their individual countries. PMID:26121465

  3. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jørn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport accidents—especially in children aged 5–9 years. PMID:26744840

  4. Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27 957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100 000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

  5. International Evaluation Studies of Second Step, a Primary Prevention Programme: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Second Step is a social-emotional, skill-based, violence-prevention programme, which has been adapted for several European countries. The various versions of the programme (for kindergarten/preschool, elementary school, middle school) have been evaluated in a series of research studies. The outcomes and study designs of these studies are reported…

  6. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality. PMID:26177800

  7. Classroom Literacy Practices in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Interpretative Synthesis of Ethnographic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nag, Sonali; Snowling, Margaret J.; Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun

    2016-01-01

    Surveys in low- and middle-income (LMI countries) reveal persistently low levels of learning among children in disadvantaged communities. Against this background, our synthesis of ethnographies aims at a fresh interpretation of classroom practices to clarify instruction-related barriers to literacy attainments. The review focuses on the period…

  8. Ground water regimes containing country rock minerals in Southern Kuzbass (case study: Narysk-Ostashkin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrocheva, E.; Lepokurova, O.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the calculation results revealing groundwater in equilibrium to carbonates and aluminosilicate minerals of country rocks in Narysk-Ostashkinsk area. It was proved that groundwater is in nonequilibrium to primary (endogenous) minerals in which they dissolve, however are in equilibrium to clays and carbonates which precipitate in the groundwater. The groundwater composition varies.

  9. GIS solutions for ecosystem management in developing countries: A case study of Sao Tome and Principe

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.; Barrasso, T.; Pinto da Costa, H.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote awareness of the application of the Geographic information system (GIS) technology to the management of ecosystems in developing countries. The adoptation of systematic environmental research and management techniques by national and local conservation programs helps ensure the sustainability of important biological resources.

  10. Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

  11. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political

  12. The Shock of Studying in Germany: Students from Developing Countries in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Uwe

    1981-01-01

    Describes problems faced by foreign students from developing countries as they go through advanced training in West Germany. These problems include curriculum inflexibility and inapplicability, cultural alienation, and racism. Descriptions of innovative programs and policies designed to ease the culture shock students experience upon reentering…

  13. The Digital Balance between Industrialised and Developing Countries: Futures Studies for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Olli

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of researching the digital balance between industrialised and developing countries was to discover how information and communication technology (ICT), content and e-services developed in Finland will work on the African continent, and vice versa. Globalisation and the associated new international division of labour and well-being…

  14. Implementation of Large-Scale Science Curricula: A Study in Seven European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, G. M.; Waddington, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Salters Chemistry courses, context-led curricula for 13-16 and 17-18 year old students, first developed by the Science Education Group at the University of York in the UK, have now been translated and/or adapted in seven other European countries. This paper describes and discusses the different reasons for taking up the courses, the ways in…

  15. Education in Countries in Transition Facing Globalization--A Case Study Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaus, Ivo; Slaus-Kokotovic, Andrea; Morovic, Jasenka

    2004-01-01

    The status of the educational system of Croatia is presented and several human development indicators for Croatia are compared with those of other countries in transition. The role of education in facing globalisation and in assuring sustainable development is analysed. The aims of various levels of education: primary, secondary and higher…

  16. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

  17. Analyzing the oil refining industry in developing countries: A comparative study of China and India

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, F.C.

    1994-12-31

    The oil refining industry is a critical link in the energy chain in many developing and industrialized countries, transforming crude oil into transport fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel), residual fuel oil (widely used as a fuel in industry and the electric power sector), and other products such as kerosine, frequently for lighting an cooking usages. Three to four decades ago, the demand for oil products in most developing countries was centered to a few large cities; thus, few refineries were built in these regions. But because of the astonishing economic growth in many developing nations, demand for oil products has increased rapidly. As a result, the refining industry has expanded rapidly in such countries, even in cases were there is no domestic crude oil production. Oil product demand and refinery expansion in Asian developing countries in particular have experienced significant growth. Between 1976 and 1993, oil product demand and refinery capacity in that region (excluding Japan) increased annually an average of 5.2 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively, whereas the comparable figures for the world as a whole remained virtually unchanged during the same period. The substantial gains in Asia`s crude oil production in the 1970s is believed to have facilitated this refinery expansion.

  18. New Patterns of Adult Learning: A Six-Country Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert; Belanger, Paul, Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers based on a data set from the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey, which collected data from more than 20,000 individual respondents in samples representative of the adult populations in 6 countries: Canada, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. The papers are: "Foreword" (Paul…

  19. Reducing hospital-acquired infections and improving the rational use of antibiotics in a developing country: an effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Murni, Indah K; Duke, Trevor; Kinney, Sharon; Daley, Andrew J; Soenarto, Yati

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevention of hospital-acquired infections (HAI) is central to providing safe and high quality healthcare. Transmission of infection between patients by health workers, and the irrational use of antibiotics have been identified as preventable aetiological factors for HAIs. Few studies have addressed this in developing countries. Aims To implement a multifaceted infection control and antibiotic stewardship programme and evaluate its effectiveness on HAIs and antibiotic use. Methods A before-and-after study was conducted over 27 months in a teaching hospital in Indonesia. All children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit and paediatric wards were observed daily. Assessment of HAIs was made based on the criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The multifaceted intervention consisted of a hand hygiene campaign, antibiotic stewardship (using the WHO Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children guidelines as standards of antibiotic prescribing for community-acquired infections), and other elementary infection control practices. Data were collected using an identical method in the preintervention and postintervention periods. Results We observed a major reduction in HAIs, from 22.6% (277/1227 patients) in the preintervention period to 8.6% (123/1419 patients) in the postintervention period (relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 0.38 (0.31 to 0.46)). Inappropriate antibiotic use declined from 43% (336 of 780 patients who were prescribed antibiotics) to 20.6% (182 of 882 patients) (RR 0.46 (0.40 to 0.55)). Hand hygiene compliance increased from 18.9% (319/1690) to 62.9% (1125/1789) (RR 3.33 (2.99 to 3.70)). In-hospital mortality decreased from 10.4% (127/1227) to 8% (114/1419) (RR 0.78 (0.61 to 0.97)). Conclusions Multifaceted infection control interventions are effective in reducing HAI rates, improving the rational use of antibiotics, increasing hand hygiene compliance, and may reduce mortality in hospitalised children in developing countries. PMID:25503715

  20. Peer Evaluation: An Interview Study of Teachers Evaluating Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzley, Janet; And Others

    The Salt Lake City School District (SLCSD) teacher evaluation system, which includes peer review and assistance for deficient teachers, was instituted in 1975. The Performance Assistance program provides for strong, experienced teachers (peer reviewers) to work with teachers identified by their principals as deficient. This study addresses the…

  1. Cannabis Liberalization and Adolescent Cannabis Use: A Cross-National Study in 38 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuyan; Lenzi, Michela; An, Ruopeng

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the associations between types of cannabis control policies at country level and prevalence of adolescent cannabis use. Setting, Participants and Design Multilevel logistic regressions were performed on 172,894 adolescents 15 year of age who participated in the 2001/2002, 2005/2006, or 2009/2010 cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey in 38 European and North American countries. Measures Self-reported cannabis use status was classified into ever use in life time, use in past year, and regular use. Country-level cannabis control policies were categorized into a dichotomous measure (whether or not liberalized) as well as 4 detailed types (full prohibition, depenalization, decriminalization, and partial prohibition). Control variables included individual-level sociodemographic characteristics and country-level economic characteristics. Findings Considerable intra-class correlations (.15-.19) were found at country level. With respect to the dichotomized cannabis control policy, adolescents were more likely to ever use cannabis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, p = .001), use in past year (OR = 1.09, p = .007), and use regularly (OR = 1.26, p = .004). Although boys were substantially more likely to use cannabis, the correlation between cannabis liberalization and cannabis use was smaller in boys than in girls. With respect to detailed types of policies, depenalization was associated with higher odds of past-year use (OR = 1.14, p = .013) and regular use (OR = 1.23, p = .038), and partial prohibition was associated with higher odds of regular use (OR = 2.39, p = .016). The correlation between cannabis liberalization and regular use was only significant after the policy had been introduced for more than 5 years. Conclusions Cannabis liberalization with depenalization and partial prohibition policies was associated with higher levels of regular cannabis use among adolescents. The correlations were heterogeneous between genders and between short- and long-terms. PMID:26605550

  2. Dietary habits in three Central and Eastern European countries: the HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The high cardiovascular mortality in Eastern Europe has often been attributed to poor diet, but individual-level data on nutrition in the region are generally not available. This paper describes the methods of dietary assessment and presents preliminary findings on food and nutrient intakes in large general population samples in Russia, Poland and the Czech Republic. Methods The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study examined random samples of men and women aged 45-69 years at baseline in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and six Czech urban centres in 2002-2005. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (at least 136 items); complete dietary information was available for 26,870 persons. Results Total energy intakes among men ranged between 8.7 MJ in the Czech sample and 11.7 MJ in the Russian sample, while among women, energy intakes ranged between 8.2 MJ in the Czech sample and 9.8 MJ in the Russian sample. A Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), ranging from a score of 0 (lowest) to 7 (highest), was developed using the World Health Organisation's (WHO) guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases. The mean HDI scores were low, ranging from 1.0 (SD = 0.7) among the Polish subjects to 1.7 (SD = 0.8) among the Czech females. Very few subjects met the WHO recommended intakes for complex carbohydrates, pulses or nuts; intakes of saturated fatty acids, sugar and protein were too high. Only 16% of Polish subjects met the WHO recommendation for polyunsaturated fat intake. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was lower than recommended, especially among those Russian subjects who were assessed during the low intake season. Fewer than 65% of subjects consumed adequate amounts of calcium, magnesium and potassium, when compared with the United Kingdom's Reference Nutrient Intake. Conclusion This first large scale study of individual-based dietary intakes in the general population in Eastern Europe implies that intakes of saturated fat, sugar and complex carbohydrates are a cause for concern. The development of country-specific nutritional tools must be encouraged and nutritional campaigns must undergo continuing development. PMID:19951409

  3. Indexation of psychiatric journals from low- and middle-income countries: a survey and a case study

    PubMed Central

    KIELING, CHRISTIAN; HERRMAN, HELEN; PATEL, VIKRAM; MARI, JAIR DE JESUS

    2009-01-01

    There is a marked underepresentation of low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC) in the psychiatric literature, which may reflect an overall low representation of LAMIC publications in databases of indexed journals. This paper investigates the worldwide distribution of indexed psychiatric journals. A survey in both Medline and ISI Web of Science was performed in order to identify journals in the field of psychiatry according to their country of origin. Two hundred and twenty-two indexed psychiatric journals were found. Of these, 213 originated from high-income countries and only nine (4.1%) from middle-income countries. None were found in low-income countries. We also present the experience of a LAMIC psychiatric journal, the Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, in its recent indexation process. This case study may serve as an example for other LAMIC journals to pursue indexation in major databases as a strategy to widen the international foundation of psychiatric research. There is an important need for the inclusion of LAMIC psychiatric publications in the major indexation databases. This process will require multiple agents to partner with journals from LAMIC to improve their quality and strengthen their chances of being indexed. PMID:19293959

  4. The influence of world societal forces on social tolerance. A time comparative study of prejudices in 32 countries.

    PubMed

    Hadler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Societal variation in xenophobia, homophobia, and other prejudices is frequently explained by the economic background and political history of different countries. This article expands these explanations by considering the influence of world societal factors on individual attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on survey data collected within the World Value Survey and European Values Study framework between 1989 and 2010. Data are combined to a three-wave cross-sectional design including about 130,000 respondents from 32 countries. Results show that xenophobia and homophobia are influenced by the national political history, societal affluence, and the presence of international organizations. Global forces, however, are of particular importance for homophobia. PMID:22616117

  5. Improving antimicrobial use among health workers in first-level facilities: results from the multi-country evaluation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, Eleanor; Bryce, Jennifer; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Amaral, João; Pariyo, George; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Fontaine, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) case management training on the use of antimicrobial drugs among health-care workers treating young children at first-level facilities. Antimicrobial drugs are an essential child-survival intervention. Ensuring that children younger than five who need these drugs receive them promptly and correctly can save their lives. Prescribing these drugs only when necessary and ensuring that those who receive them complete the full course can slow the development of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Data collected through observation-based surveys in randomly selected first-level health facilities in Brazil, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania were statistically analysed. The surveys were carried out as part of the multi-country evaluation of IMCI effectiveness, cost and impact (MCE). FINDINGS: Results from three MCE sites show that children receiving care from health workers trained in IMCI are significantly more likely to receive correct prescriptions for antimicrobial drugs than those receiving care from workers not trained in IMCI.They are also more likely to receive the first dose of the drug before leaving the health facility, to have their caregiver advised how to administer the drug, and to have caregivers who are able to describe correctly how to give the drug at home as they leave the health facility. CONCLUSIONS: IMCI case management training is an effective intervention to improve the rational use of antimicrobial drugs for sick children visiting first-level health facilities in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:15508195

  6. Training, Recruitment and Utilization of Teachers in Primary and Secondary Education. Country Case Studies: Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

    This is one of a series of studies on the training, recruitment, and utilization of teachers in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This volume deals with Germany, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. The section on Germany (129 pages) has chapters on the German educational system, trends in the demand for…

  7. Training, Recruitment and Utilization of Teachers in Primary and Secondary Education. Country Case Studies: Austria, Greece, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

    This one of a series of studies on the training, recruitment, and utilization of teachers in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This volume deals with Austria, Greece and Sweden. The section on Austria (134 pages) has chapters on the demand and supply of teachers from 1950 to 1965; teacher legislation…

  8. Internationalisation in Online Distance Learning Postgraduate Education: A Case Study on Student Views on Learning Alongside Students from Other Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemmell, Isla; Harrison, Roger; Clegg, Judith; Reed, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Internationalisation in higher education has been shown to provide both intellectual and cultural benefits to students which can help in their future employment. This case study describes student views on learning alongside students from different countries in an online distance learning environment. Seventy-three students undertaking the online

  9. The Uses of Calculators and Computers in Mathematics Classes in Twenty Countries: Summary Report. Second International Mathematics Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaji, Gail

    This document summarizes the findings of the Second International Mathematics Study relative to calculator and computer usage by students in 20 countries. Two target populations were identified. The data on these two populations were provided by three basic questionnaires: (1) a school questionnaire; (2) a teacher questionnaire; and (3) a student…

  10. Cultural Universality and Specificity of Student Engagement in School: The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Shin, Hyeonsook; Cefai, Carmel; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Kikas, Eve; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Stanculescu, Elena; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Liu, Yi; Negovan, Valeria; Nelson, Brett; Yang, Hongfei; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive understanding of the contextual factors that are linked to student engagement requires research that includes cross-cultural perspectives. Aims: This study investigated how student engagement in school is associated with grade, gender, and contextual factors across 12 countries. It also investigated whether these…

  11. The Influence of Classroom Disciplinary Climate of Schools on Reading Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Bo; Van Damme, Jan; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Yang, Xiangdong; Gielen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in research and practice in the effect of classroom disciplinary climate of schools on academic achievement, little is known about the generalizability of this effect over countries. Using hierarchical linear analyses, the present study reveals that a better classroom disciplinary climate in a school is significantly…

  12. Internationalisation in Online Distance Learning Postgraduate Education: A Case Study on Student Views on Learning Alongside Students from Other Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemmell, Isla; Harrison, Roger; Clegg, Judith; Reed, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Internationalisation in higher education has been shown to provide both intellectual and cultural benefits to students which can help in their future employment. This case study describes student views on learning alongside students from different countries in an online distance learning environment. Seventy-three students undertaking the online…

  13. Preventive Health Care for Young Children: Findings from a 10-Country Study and Directions for United States Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bret C.; Miller, C. Arden

    Earlier observations on U.S. infant health and survival as compared with other Western industrial democracies are extended in a study of preventive health services for children from infancy through adolescence and to the social benefit programs that support their families. This report looks at the condition of children in 10 European countries

  14. Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP). Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9%) and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major challenge in the future will be prevention and management of imported malaria infections from neighbouring Indian states. Bhutan plans to implement screening at border points to prevent importation of malaria and to targeted prevention and surveillance efforts towards at-risk Bhutanese and migrant workers in construction sites. PMID:22230355

  15. Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.

    PubMed

    Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

    2008-12-01

    Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates increased mortality rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, thermal stress, and increased frequency of infectious vector borne diseases in the region between 2070 and 2099. PMID:19190352

  16. Developing pediatric surgery in low- and middle-income countries: An evaluation of contemporary education and care delivery models.

    PubMed

    Butler, Marilyn W

    2016-02-01

    There are several different models of education and care delivery models in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and many endeavors combine more than one of the described models. This article summarizes the burden of pediatric surgical disease and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of the following: faith-based missions; short-term surgical trips; partnerships, twinning, and academic collaborations; teaching workshops, "train the trainer," and pediatric surgery camps; specialty treatment centers; online conferences, telemedicine, and mobile health; specific programs for exchange and education; and training in high-income countries (HICs), fellowships, and observorships. It then addresses ethical concerns common to all humanitarian pediatric surgical efforts. PMID:26831137

  17. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. . Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu . Research Inst. of Forestry)

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  18. Summary of an eleven-country study of socio-legal measures to combat drug abuse and related crime.

    PubMed

    Asuni, T; Bruno, F

    1984-01-01

    In a comparative study of a group of experimental and control subjects in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Japan, Jordan, Italy, Malaysia, Singapore and the United States of America (State of New York), and of the results of independent studies conducted in Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, a rather close association was found to exist between drug abuse, criminal behaviour and social attitudes to such problems. Both drug abuse and the socio-legal systems varied greatly in the countries involved. No correlation was found between the level of foreseen or actual harshness of the socio-legal system and the level of seriousness of drug abuse and its associated criminality, but there was a significant correlation between knowledge of the law and the efficacy of the socio-legal system. In each country informal control systems, such as the family, church, school, neighbourhood and work environment, were active. Approximately one half of the subjects that were interviewed from countries with the most punitive socio-legal systems perceived informal controls as harsh and punitive while in the other countries such controls were generally perceived as positive. The study encouraged the review, testing and implementation of alternative measures to penal sanctions, particularly with a view to creating a genuine therapeutic approach to correcting the deviant behaviour of drug abusers. PMID:6570650

  19. Internal fixation of femoral shaft fractures in children by intramedullary Kirschner wires (a prospective study): its significance for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Chitgopkar, Shashank D

    2005-01-01

    Background To evaluate internal fixation by intramedullary Kirschner wires as a surgical technique in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children by a prospective study. Methods 17 femoral shaft fractures at various levels in 16 children aged 2–15 years were treated by closed intramedullary Kirschner wiring under image intensifier control between May 2000 and October 2003. No external splint was used. Results Fracture union was achieved in 6–14 weeks. Non-weight bearing crutch walking was started 2–3 days after surgery. Full weight bearing started 6–14 weeks. Average operative time was 40 min (range 20–72 min). Wires were removed after 8–22 weeks. There were no infections, no limb length disparity. One child had pin track ulceration. A big child of 14 years had angulation of the fracture. Conclusion Intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in children by stainless steel Kirschner wires is an effective method, which compares well with other studies. It is a simple procedure, which can be easily reproduced. Blood loss is minimal, and the operative time short. There is no need pre-bend the wires in a C or S curve. Stainless steel Kirschner wires are cheap, universally available, and can be manufactured locally. The cost of Image intensifiers is affordable in most of the cities of the developing countries. The hospital does not have to maintain a costly inventory. Provides early mobility, return to home and, school. Gives a predictable clinical pathway and reduces occupancy of hospital beds. The technique was successfully applied for internal fixation of other diaphyseal fractures in children and some selected diaphyseal fractures in adults. Based on my experience and a review of the literature, I recommend this technique as a modality for treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children aged 2 to 14 years. PMID:15796775

  20. A preliminary study of a cloud-computing model for chronic illness self-care support in an underdeveloped country

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D.; Mendoza-Avelares, Milton O.; Ganser, Martha; Mohamed, Muhima; Marinec, Nicolle; Krishnan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Background Although interactive voice response (IVR) calls can be an effective tool for chronic disease management, many regions of the world lack the infrastructure to provide these services. Objective This study evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of an IVR program using a cloud-computing model to improve diabetes management in Honduras. Methods A single group, pre-post study was conducted between June and August 2010. The telecommunications infrastructure was maintained on a U.S. server, and calls were directed to patients’ cell phones using VoIP. Eighty-five diabetes patients in Honduras received weekly IVR disease management calls for six weeks, with automated follow-up emails to clinicians, and voicemail reports to family caregivers. Patients completed interviews at enrollment and a six week follow-up. Other measures included patients’ glycemic control (A1c) and data from the IVR calling system. Results 55% of participants completed the majority of their IVR calls and 33% completed 80% or more. Higher baseline blood pressures, greater diabetes burden, greater distance from the clinic, and better adherence were related to higher call completion rates. Nearly all participants (98%) reported that because of the program, they improved in aspects of diabetes management such as glycemic control (56%) or foot care (89%). Mean A1c’s decreased from 10.0% at baseline to 8.9% at follow-up (p<.01). Most participants (92%) said that if the service were available in their clinic they would use it again. Conclusions Cloud computing is a feasible strategy for providing IVR services globally. IVR self-care support may improve self-care and glycemic control for patients in under-developed countries. PMID:21565655

  1. Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient = 0.231 at lag = −1 week). Conclusions School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data. PMID:24155907

  2. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D.

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  3. Role of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing risk of developing gestational hypertensive disorders: a meta-analysis of studies from developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypertension in pregnancy stand alone or with proteinuria is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world. Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that an inverse relationship exists between calcium intake and development of hypertension in pregnancy though the effect varies based on baseline calcium intake and pre-existing risk factors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate preventive effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on gestational hypertensive disorders and related maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries. Methods A literature search was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional databases. Data were extracted into a standardized excel sheet. Identified studies were graded based on strengths and limitations of studies. All the included studies were from developing countries. Meta-analyses were generated where data were available from more than one study for an outcome. Primary outcomes were maternal mortality, eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, and severe preeclampsia. Neonatal outcomes like neonatal mortality, preterm birth, small for gestational age and low birth weight were also evaluated. We followed standardized guidelines of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) to generate estimates of effectiveness of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries, for inclusion in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Results Data from 10 randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Pooled analysis showed that calcium supplementation during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction of 45% in risk of gestational hypertension [Relative risk (RR) 0.55; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.85] and 59% in the risk of pre-eclampsia [RR 0.41; 95 % CI 0.24-0.69] in developing countries. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy was also associated with a significant reduction in neonatal mortality [RR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.56-0.88] and risk of pre-term birth [RR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.78-0.99]. Recommendations for LiST for reduction in maternal mortality were based on risk reduction in gestational hypertensive related severe morbidity/mortality [RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.70-0.91] and that for neonatal mortality were based on risk reduction in all-cause neonatal mortality [RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.56-0.88]. Conclusion Calcium supplementation during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in risk of gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia neonatal mortality and pre-term birth in developing countries. PMID:21501435

  4. Evaluation Procedures Used To Measure the Efficiency of Higher Education Systems and Institutions. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockrell, W. B.; And Others

    This study of higher education efficiency evaluation consists of five country reports from five different regions of the world: Colombia, Jordan, Malaysia, the Netherlands, and Nigeria. The reports describe the approaches to the evaluation process in each country and in the process highlight common concerns and awareness. The studies were all…

  5. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)

  6. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles and General Profilles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program-Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saide, Tom, Ed.

    Thirty-eight projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were initiated in 1977 and funded through the Disadvantaged Schools Program; the program was renamed the Country Area Program and made a permanent School Commission program in 1982. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report…

  7. The Mobile Manual Arts Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Clifford F.; Peters, Joanne

    Begun in 1978 to bring manual arts experience to children in Queensland's "disadvantaged country areas," the Mobile Manual Arts Unit by the end of the 1980 school year had visited 16 separate locations, involving 25 different schools. A total of 727 students had participated (out of a target population of 992 pupils) and a total of 259 contact…

  8. Student Loans in Developing Countries: An Evaluation of the Colombian Performance. Bank Staff Working Paper No. 182.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jallade, Jean-Pierre

    The student loan program run by the Instituto Colombiano de Credito Educativo y Estudios Tecnicos en el Exterior (ICETEX) has three main objectives: to increase the country's supply of highly skilled manpower, to achieve more equality of educational opportunity, and to provide a meaningful source of finance for higher education. An analysis of…

  9. Evaluating the Evaluator: A Case Study Illustrating Three Critical Mistakes No Evaluator Should Make

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Most employees do not like to be evaluated because they fear the process and people involved. Although optimal performance evaluators can minimize people's anxieties about being assessed, actual performance evaluators can perpetuate employees' fears and, worse, lower their job performances and morale. A case study illustrates the actions of an…

  10. Evaluating the Madrasa Preschool Programme in East Africa: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaura, Peter A. M.; Sylva, Kathy; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of preschool experience (two types of preschool: Madrasa and non-Madrasa) on the cognitive development of children in East Africa. In the three countries studied (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania/Zanzibar) preschool education is burgeoning and government standards are being set. This quasi experimental evaluation used…

  11. The evaluation of soybean meals from 3 major soybean-producing countries on productive performance and feeding value of pig diets.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Hong, S M; Yan, L; Cho, J H; Lee, H S; Kim, I H

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate 1) the effects of soybean meal (SBM) from 3 major SBM-producing countries (United States, Brazil, and India) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs and 2) the feeding value of the evaluated SBM as a feedstuff for growing-finishing pigs. Soybean meal representative of each country was purchased on the open market. A total of 144 barrows with the average BW of 23.77 (SD = 1.52 kg) were allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 12 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. The US SBM used in this trial had greater CP and total AA contents, greater KOH protein solubility, and less crude fiber than SBM from either Brazil or India. Diets were formulated to be isolysinic and isocaloric. Pigs fed diets containing US SBM were heavier (P < 0.05) than pigs fed diets containing Brazilian or Indian SBM at 12 and 18 wk. Pigs fed diets containing US SBM had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F throughout the overall period when compared with pigs fed SBM produced in Brazil or India. The DM and N digestibility were greater for US SBM (P < 0.05) than Brazilian and India SBM at 6, 12, and 18 wk. Pigs were slaughtered at the end of 18 wk, and no differences were observed on meat quality (backfat thickness, LM area, pH, meat color, water holding capacity, and drip loss) among the treatments, except lean percentages were less and backfat thickness was greater in pigs fed Brazilian and Indian SBM than US SBM. The cost per kilogram of BW gain of the experimental diet containing US SBM was less than that of diets containing Brazilian or Indian SBM, but it would depend on the relative prices of each SBM. Based on the results of the current experiment, the productivity and feeding value of US SBM seems to be greater than the SBM produced in Brazil and India. PMID:21512120

  12. User and researcher collaborations in mental health in low and middle income countries: a case study of the EMPOWER project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing recognition has been given to the interaction of users and researchers in shaping the perspective and practice of mental health care. However, there remains very little evidence exploring how this interaction works, particularly in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to explore experiences of how users and researchers worked together to communicate research, using a case study of the EMPOWER project. Methods The study followed a case-study approach. EMPOWER was a project that sought to strengthen the capacity of user organizations in India, Kenya, Nepal and Zambia by encouraging user-researcher collaborations to communicate research findings in the four countries. A qualitative research method was applied for this study, with semi-structured interviews conducted with seven people: two researchers, one communications developer, and four user group members (one from each of the four countries). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The findings indicated positive perceptions of the collaboration between researchers and users. Key themes were partnership and support, the value of the personal experience of users and their knowledge of the target audiences, and empowerment. Key challenges related to differences in levels of education and technical knowledge and the lack of payments to users. Conclusions This exploratory study provides insight to help understand collaborative processes for communicating mental health research. It highlights many positive outcomes from the EMPOWER collaboration but also highlights the need for more in-depth research on this issue. PMID:24423150

  13. Environmental health and development in a developing country: Rwanda, a case study.

    PubMed

    Blanc, P

    1984-06-01

    This article reports the author's field investigation into the effects of economic development on environmental health in Rwanda. It was hypothesized that the placement of environmentally hazardous industry would not be given meaningful consideration in the course of the introduction of advanced technolgies. Rwanda is a poor, overpopulated country with a subsistence economy whose development has been largely stimulated by international aid projects. Site visits to industrial and agricultural processing facilities revealed significant perticide exposure, lack of respiratory protection from mineral dusts, respiratory symptoms from organic dusts, and sources of heavy metal contamination. The Rwanda experience suggests that 2 major economic activities are most likely to have a major environmental impact in developing countries: exploitation of natural resources and agricultural commercialization. Mining activity, for example, has produced both chronic diseases such as silicosis and general environmental degradation such as runoff to surface water sources. The use of agricultural petrochemicals is likely to produce acute and chronic poisoning among peasant farmers with little access to adequate health care. Even the smallest industrial installation can have widespread impact if the proper infrastructure for waste treatment is not established. In addition, the technology required to test for environmental contamination is beyond the scope of Third World economies. Hazardous environmental exposures may have amplified or additive effects in the presence of compromised baseline health and sanitary conditions and inadequate health care facilities. It is concluded that Rwanda represents an example of the failure of economic developers to consider the far-reaching effects of changes in the work environment, introduction of new agricultural techniques, alteration of the rural-urban equilibrium, and degradation of the air, water, and soil quality. There is a need to adapt models of environmental protection in industrialized developed countries to developing economies. PMID:6470135

  14. Diabetes Knowledge Translation Status in Developing Countries: A Mixed Method Study Among Diabetes Researchers in Case of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Valinejadi, Ali; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. Methods: This was a survey that executed in 2015 by concurrent mixed methods approach in a descriptive, cross-sectional method. The research population was 65 diabetes researchers from 14 diabetes research centers throughout Iran. The research was carried out via the self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI), a valid and reliable tool. Focus group discussions were used to complete this tool. The data were analyzed using quantitative (descriptive method by Excel software) and qualitative approaches (thematic analysis) based on SATORI-extracted seven themes. Results: The mean of scores “the question of research,” “knowledge production,” “knowledge transfer,” “promoting the use of evidence,” and all aspects altogether were 2.48, 2.80, 2.18, 2.06, and 2.39, respectively. The themes “research quality and timeliness” and “promoting and evaluating the use of evidence” received the lowest (1.91) and highest mean scores (2.94), respectively. Except for the theme “interaction with research users” with a relatively mediocre scores (2.63), the other areas had scores below the mean. Conclusions: The overall status of diabetes KT in Iran was lower than the ideal situation. There are many challenges that require great interventions at the organizational or macro level. To reinforce diabetes KT in Iran, it should hold a more leading and centralized function in the strategies of the country's diabetes research system. PMID:26955462

  15. The Invisible Scientist in India -- a case study for emergent countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Anita

    2008-03-01

    Emergent countries such as India, China, and Brazil, face unique problems in the realisation of their science and technology potential. I will discuss the situation in India, which may be relevant at least in part to the others. The basic focus of the talk will be the possible ways in which the invisible scientist, the person on the ground who has no part in the pyramid of the science establishment, can be rendered more visible—both for her or his own sake, and to prevent the erosion of an enormous intellectual potential by a still continuing brain drain.

  16. The Competency-Based Approach to Curriculum Reform in Five African Countries: What Can We Learn from the 2008-2009 Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Roger-François

    2013-01-01

    This is a critical reflection on the results of a study that the French International Center for Pedagogical Studies (CIEP) piloted in 2008-2009 in five sub-Saharan African countries which were implementing curriculum reforms adopting the "competency-based approach". The article refers to a seminar on this process and the ideas expressed…

  17. The "Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries" (PROVIDE) study: description of methods of an interventional study designed to explore complex biologic problems.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Colgate, E Ross; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Haque, Rashidul; Dickson, Dorothy M; Carmolli, Marya P; Nayak, Uma; Taniuchi, Mami; Naylor, Caitlin; Qadri, Firdausi; Ma, Jennie Z; Alam, Masud; Walsh, Mary Claire; Diehl, Sean A; Petri, William A

    2015-04-01

    Oral vaccines appear less effective in children in the developing world. Proposed biologic reasons include concurrent enteric infections, malnutrition, breast milk interference, and environmental enteropathy (EE). Rigorous study design and careful data management are essential to begin to understand this complex problem while assuring research subject safety. Herein, we describe the methodology and lessons learned in the PROVIDE study (Dhaka, Bangladesh). A randomized clinical trial platform evaluated the efficacy of delayed-dose oral rotavirus vaccine as well as the benefit of an injectable polio vaccine replacing one dose of oral polio vaccine. This rigorous infrastructure supported the additional examination of hypotheses of vaccine underperformance. Primary and secondary efficacy and immunogenicity measures for rotavirus and polio vaccines were measured, as well as the impact of EE and additional exploratory variables. Methods for the enrollment and 2-year follow-up of a 700 child birth cohort are described, including core laboratory, safety, regulatory, and data management practices. Intense efforts to standardize clinical, laboratory, and data management procedures in a developing world setting provide clinical trials rigor to all outcomes. Although this study infrastructure requires extensive time and effort, it allows optimized safety and confidence in the validity of data gathered in complex, developing country settings. PMID:25711607

  18. Removing user fees for facility-based delivery services: a difference-in-differences evaluation from ten sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Britt; Harper, Sam; Kaufman, Jay S; Bergevin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Background Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa have recently adopted policies that remove user fees for facility-based delivery services. There is little rigorous evidence of the impact of these policies on utilization of delivery services and no evaluations have examined effects on neonatal mortality rates (NMR). In this article, we estimate the causal effect of removing user fees on the proportion of births delivered in facilities, the proportion of births delivered by Caesarean section, and NMR. Methods We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 10 African countries between 1997 and 2012. Kenya, Ghana and Senegal adopted policies removing user fees for facility-based deliveries between 2003 and 2007, while seven other countries not changing user fee policies were used as controls. We used a difference-in-differences (DD) regression approach to control for secular trends in the outcomes that are common across countries and for time invariant differences between countries. Results According to covariate-adjusted DD models, the policy change was consistent with an increase of 3.1 facility-based deliveries per 100 live births (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 5.2) and an estimated reduction of 2.9 neonatal deaths per 1000 births (95% CI: −6.8, 1.0). In relative terms, this corresponds to a 5% increase in facility deliveries and a 9% reduction in NMR. There was no evidence of an increase in Caesarean deliveries. We examined lead and lag-time effects, finding evidence that facility deliveries continued to increase following fee removal. Conclusions Our findings suggest removing user fees increased facility-based deliveries and possibly contributed to a reduction in NMR. Evidence from this evaluation may be useful to governments weighing the potential benefits of removing user fees. PMID:24816570

  19. Nurse educators' perceptions of critical thinking in developing countries: Ghana as a case study.

    PubMed

    Boso, Christian Makafui; Gross, Janet J

    2015-01-01

    The ability to critically evaluate information for the purpose of rendering health care is a prerequisite for modern nurses in a complex and ever-changing health care environment. The nurse educators' perceptions influence the utilization of critical thinking strategies in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess nursing faculty's perceptions of critical thinking. Using a questionnaire 106 nurse educators from two types of nursing educational program self-reported their perceptions. Data were collected from November 2013 to March 2014. Results were presented using frequencies, percentages, and t-test. The findings revealed that majority (95.3%) of nurse educators could not provide definitions that captured both affective and cognitive aspects of critical thinking. However, the majority of nurse educators had positive perceptions of critical thinking. Nurse educators in universities had more positive perceptions of critical thinking than those in the nurses' training colleges (P=0.007). The results suggested that the current nursing programs are not preparing nurses with the necessary critical thinking skills for the complex health care environment. Professional development programs in critical thinking should be instituted for nurse educators to assist them in developing appropriate teaching strategies to foster students' acquisition of critical thinking skills. PMID:26379453

  20. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Aisa S; Szántó, Gábor L

    2011-10-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal level for viable compost production. This paper presents a multidisciplinary analysis of factors influencing the success and failure of the composting initiative of KIWODET, a community based organization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The results show that despite the ready availability and good compostability of the waste stream, not all fractions of municipal organic wastes qualify as feedstock. Negative consumer attitude hindered the acceptance of compost produced from residential wastes. KIWODET did manage to successfully implement a composting operation for commercial organic wastes. Their additional waste collection and sorting activities also contributed to an increased feedstock control as well as the integration of informal waste collecting activities. When KIWODET was forced to suspend its composting activities because of land use issues, their diversified waste sector activities proved crucial in reducing the negative financial impact on their overall performance. This paper emphasizes that successful composting initiatives can arise from local capacity in developing countries. However, the lack of municipal integration and support leaves such technically viable initiatives strongly vulnerable to external factors. PMID:21558081

  1. Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

    2013-06-01

    Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

  2. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. Centro de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  3. Oasis Connections: Results from an Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Sara J.; Lee, Chin Chin; Branham, Janice; Remis, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a community-based basic computer and Internet training program designed for older adults, provide recommendations for program refinement, and gather preliminary information on program sustainability. Design and Methods: The program was developed by the OASIS Institute, a nonprofit

  4. Oasis Connections: Results from an Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Sara J.; Lee, Chin Chin; Branham, Janice; Remis, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a community-based basic computer and Internet training program designed for older adults, provide recommendations for program refinement, and gather preliminary information on program sustainability. Design and Methods: The program was developed by the OASIS Institute, a nonprofit…

  5. Earthquake Loss Assessment for the Evaluation of the Sovereign Risk and Financial Sustainability of Countries and Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, O. D.

    2013-05-01

    Recently earthquakes have struck cities both from developing as well as developed countries, revealing significant knowledge gaps and the need to improve the quality of input data and of the assumptions of the risk models. The quake and tsunami in Japan (2011) and the disasters due to earthquakes in Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), New Zealand (2011) and Spain (2011), only to mention some unexpected impacts in different regions, have left several concerns regarding hazard assessment as well as regarding the associated uncertainties to the estimation of the future losses. Understanding probable losses and reconstruction costs due to earthquakes creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to cope with sovereign risk, including allocating the sustained budgetary resources necessary to reduce those potential damages and safeguard development. Therefore the use of robust risk models is a need to assess the future economic impacts, the country's fiscal responsibilities and the contingent liabilities for governments and to formulate, justify and implement risk reduction measures and optimal financial strategies of risk retention and transfer. Special attention should be paid to the understanding of risk metrics such as the Loss Exceedance Curve (empiric and analytical) and the Expected Annual Loss in the context of conjoint and cascading hazards.

  6. Cultural Issues in Evaluation Studies of Middle Eastern Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, K. E.

    1996-01-01

    Many Middle Eastern students in Western graduate programs in higher education wish to undertake evaluations of home country institutions, but their approaches reflect significant cultural differences. Issues confronting students and supervisors in this context are discussed, and a relatively recent "fourth generation" approach to evaluation that…

  7. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Peter A.; Rubincam, Clara; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Chuang, Deng-Min; Tepjan, Suchon; Shunmugam, Murali; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Logie, Carmen; Koen, Jennifer; Lindegger, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations. Methods From 2008–2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement. Results Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of “community”; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted. Conclusions This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the GPP Blueprint, as well as highlighting challenges in the implementation of important guidelines. GPP guidance documents could be strengthened through greater focus on: identifying and addressing the community-specific roots of mistrust and its impact on trial literacy activities; achieving and evaluating representativeness in community stakeholder groups; and addressing the impact of power and funding streams on meaningful engagement and independent decision-making. PMID:26295159

  8. How the Seven Countries Study contributed to the definition and development of the Mediterranean diet concept: a 50-year journey.

    PubMed

    Menotti, A; Puddu, P E

    2015-03-01

    The Seven Countries Study of Cardiovascular Diseases was started at the end of the 1950s and it continues to be run after >50 years. It enrolled, at entry, 16 population cohorts in eight nations of seven countries for a total of 12,763 middle-aged men. It was the prototype of epidemiological studies seeking cultural contrasts and the first to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates related to diet differences. The study has shown that populations suffer widely different incidence and mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as from other CVDs and overall mortality. Higher rates were found in North America and northern Europe, and lower rates in southern Europe - Mediterranean countries - and Japan. These differences in CHD rates were strongly associated with different levels of saturated fat consumption and average serum cholesterol levels, with lowest rates in Greece and Japan where the total fat intake was very different. The cohorts were also different in dietary patterns defined by the ratio of calories derived from plant foods and fish on the one hand and calories derived from animal foods and sugar on the other. These findings pointed to the so-called Mediterranean diet, which is characterized by large values of that plant/animal ratio, a pattern associated with lower incidence and mortality from CHD and also with the lowest death rates and the greatest survival rates. More recent studies have refined these concepts and documented on a larger scale the virtues of these eating habits. PMID:25650160

  9. A review of international and UK-based ethical guidelines for researchers conducting nontherapeutic genetic studies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Shormila; Knapp, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    Initiation and implementation of nontherapeutic genetic research projects, sponsored by developed countries and conducted in developing countries, requires careful consideration and awareness of procedures that ensure ethical research. This article reviews, and discusses controversies surrounding, the ethical principles established internationally and recommended by institutions in the UK for designing and implementing nontherapeutic genetic research studies. Before project commencement, the researcher should submit proposals to appropriate ethics committees and, wherever possible, seek guidance from experienced researchers. The researcher must also be aware of his/her responsibilities when conducting research with human participants. Responsibilities include respecting autonomy, privacy and confidentiality of participants, respecting social and cultural differences, providing appropriate information to participants, obtaining informed consent and offering appropriate compensation for participation. Finally, researchers involved in human genetics studies must also consider specific issues and public concerns when collecting biological samples. This includes using anonymised samples, considering future use of samples and ensuring confidentiality of results. PMID:16175190

  10. Psychological Stress and Hospitalization for Childhood Asthma-a Nationwide Cohort Study in Two Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Olsen, Jørn; Agerbo, Esben; Yuan, Wei; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong

    2013-01-01

    Objective Exposures to psychological stress in early life may contribute to the development or exacerbation of asthma. We undertook a cohort study based on data from several population-based registers in Denmark and Sweden to examine whether bereavement in childhood led to increased asthma hospitalization. Methods All singleton children born in Denmark during 1977-2008 and in Sweden during 1973-2006 were included in the study (N=5,202,576). The children were followed from birth to the date of first asthma hospitalization, emigration, death, their 18th birthday, or the end of study (31 December 2007 in Sweden and 31 December 2008 in Denmark), whichever came first. All the children were assigned to the non-bereaved group until they lost a close relative (mother, father or a sibling), from when they were included in the bereaved group. We evaluated the hazard ratio (HR) of first hospitalization for asthma in bereaved children using Cox proportional hazards regression models, compared to those who were in the non-bereaved group. We also did a sub-analysis on the association between bereavement and first asthma medication. Results A total of 147,829 children were hospitalized for asthma. The overall adjusted HR of asthma hospitalization in bereaved children was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.16), compared to non-bereaved children. The risk of asthma hospitalization was increased in those who lost a close relative at age of 14-17 years (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.23-1.92), but not in younger age groups. The association between bereavement and asthma hospitalization did not change over time since bereavement. In the sub-analysis in singleton live births during 1996-2008 recorded in the DMBR, bereavement was associated with a lower use of asthma medication (HR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.95). Conclusions Our data suggests that psychological stress following bereavement in late adolescence is associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalization or lowers the threshold for asthma hospitalization. PMID:24205324

  11. An exploration of parents' perceptions and beliefs about changes following participation in a family skill training program: a qualitative study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Anilena; Ulph, Fiona; Calam, Rachel

    2015-07-01

    Family skill training programs have been recognized as effective strategies for preventing substance use. However, they have been evaluated mainly in high-income countries. Families in developing countries also face difficulties; therefore, it is important to explore the fit of existing programs in this context. The present study explores parents' perceptions and beliefs about changes following participation in the Strengthening Families Program 10-14, which was implemented in Panama by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Thirty parents who had taken part in the program between 2010 and 2011 were interviewed. Thematic analysis was conducted taking a participant-driven inductive stand. An exploration of parents' narratives suggested that, after the program, they observed changes in themselves as parents, in their children, in the interaction between the two of them, and in their functioning as a couple. Perceived changes centered on communication, limits, obedience, relationship roles, emotional regulation, and social development. For example, parents reported being able to control their emotions in a healthier manner, reducing the use of shouting and setting limits in a more effective way. All these factors have been recognized in previous research as strategies for preventing substance use. It is important to assess participants' perceptions of programs brought from elsewhere before dissemination efforts can take place. Parents interviewed for this study appeared to hold positive views about this program. This methodology is discussed as a means of evaluating evidence-based interventions in different cultural settings. PMID:25387790

  12. The GERAS Study: a prospective observational study of costs and resource use in community dwellers with Alzheimer's disease in three European countries--study design and baseline findings.

    PubMed

    Wimo, Anders; Reed, Catherine C; Dodel, Richard; Belger, Mark; Jones, Roy W; Happich, Michael; Argimon, Josep M; Bruno, Giuseppe; Novick, Diego; Vellas, Bruno; Haro, Josep Maria

    2013-01-01

    To address socioeconomic challenges associated with its increasing prevalence, data are needed on country-level resource use and costs associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). GERAS is an 18-month observational study being conducted in France, Germany, and the U.K. (with an 18-month extension in France and Germany), aimed at determining resource use and total costs associated with AD, stratified by AD severity at baseline. Resource use information and time spent on informal care by non-professional caregivers was obtained using the Resource Utilization in Dementia instrument. Total baseline societal costs were based on four cost components: patient health care costs, patient social care costs, caregiver health care costs, and caregiver informal care costs. Overall, 1,497 community-dwelling patients with AD were analyzed at baseline. Estimated mean monthly total societal costs per patient at baseline differed significantly between groups with mild, moderate, and moderately severe/severe AD (p < 0.001 in each country): euro $1,418, euro 1,737, and euro 2,453 in France; euro 1,312, euro $2,412, and euro 3,722 in Germany; and euro 1,621, euro 1,836, andeuro 2,784 in the U.K., respectively. All cost components except caregiver health care costs increased with AD severity. Informal caregiver costs were the largest cost component accounting for about half to just over 60% of total societal costs, depending on country and AD severity group. In conclusion, GERAS study baseline results showed that country-specific costs increase with AD severity. Informal care costs formed the greatest proportion of total societal costs, increasing with AD severity independent of costing method. Longitudinal data will provide information on cost trends with disease progression. PMID:23629588

  13. Antimalarial Drug Quality in the Most Severely Malarious Parts of Africa – A Six Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Roger; Coticelli, Philip; Tren, Richard; Attaran, Amir

    2008-01-01

    A range of antimalarial drugs were procured from private pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas in the major cities of six African countries, situated in the part of that continent and the world that is most highly endemic for malaria. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and dissolution testing were used to measure active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards. 35% of all samples tested failed either or both tests, and were substandard. Further, 33% of treatments collected were artemisinin monotherapies, most of which (78%) were manufactured in disobservance of an appeal by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to withdraw these clinically inappropriate medicines from the market. The high persistence of substandard drugs and clinically inappropriate artemisinin monotherapies in the private sector risks patient safety and, through drug resistance, places the future of malaria treatment at risk globally. PMID:18461128

  14. Smoking in movies and adolescent smoking: cross-cultural study in six European countries

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Karlsdottir, Solveig; Jonsson, Stefán Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the association between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking among youth is independent of cultural context. Method Cross-sectional survey of 16 551 pupils recruited in Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD=1.18) and an equal gender distribution. School-based surveys were conducted between November 2009 and June 2010. Using previously validated methods, exposure to movie smoking was estimated from the 250 top-grossing movies of each country (years 2004–2009) and related to ever smoking. Results Overall, 29% of the sample had tried smoking. The sample quartile (Q) of movie smoking exposure was significantly associated with the prevalence of ever smoking: 14% of adolescents in Q1 had tried smoking, 21% in Q2, 29% in Q3 and 36% in Q4. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, television screen time, number of movies seen, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents and siblings), the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking in the entire sample were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for adolescents in Q2, 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) for Q3 and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) for Q4 compared with Q1. The adjusted relationship between ever smoking and higher movie smoking exposure levels was significant in all countries with a non-linear association in Italy and Poland. Conclusions The link between smoking in movies and adolescent smoking is robust and transcends different cultural contexts. Limiting young people's exposure to movie smoking could have important public health implications. PMID:21873322

  15. The critical role of supervision in retaining staff in obstetric services: a three country study.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Eilish; Daly, Michael; Kamwendo, Francis; Masanja, Honorati; Sidat, Mohsin; de Pinho, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 commits us to reducing maternal mortality rates by three quarters and MDG 4 commits us to reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In order to reach these goals, greater access to basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as well as comprehensive EmOC which includes safe Caesarean section, is needed.. The limited capacity of health systems to meet demand for obstetric services has led several countries to utilize mid-level cadres as a substitute to more extensively trained and more internationally mobile healthcare workers. Although this does provide greater capacity for service delivery, concern about the performance and motivation of these workers is emerging. We propose that poor leadership characterized by inadequate and unstructured supervision underlies much of the dissatisfaction and turnover that has been shown to exist amongst these mid-level healthcare workers and indeed health workers more generally. To investigate this, we conducted a large-scale survey of 1,561 mid-level cadre healthcare workers (health workers trained for shorter periods to perform specific tasks e.g. clinical officers) delivering obstetric care in Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. Participants indicated the primary supervision method used in their facility and we assessed their job satisfaction and intentions to leave their current workplace. In all three countries we found robust evidence indicating that a formal supervision process predicted high levels of job satisfaction and low intentions to leave. We find no evidence that facility level factors modify the link between supervisory methods and key outcomes. We interpret this evidence as strongly supporting the need to strengthen leadership and implement a framework and mechanism for systematic supportive supervision. This will promote better job satisfaction and improve the retention and performance of obstetric care workers, something which has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in the countdown to 2015. PMID:23555581

  16. The Critical Role of Supervision in Retaining Staff in Obstetric Services: A Three Country Study

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, Eilish; Daly, Michael; Kamwendo, Francis; Masanja, Honorati; Sidat, Mohsin; de Pinho, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 commits us to reducing maternal mortality rates by three quarters and MDG 4 commits us to reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In order to reach these goals, greater access to basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as well as comprehensive EmOC which includes safe Caesarean section, is needed.. The limited capacity of health systems to meet demand for obstetric services has led several countries to utilize mid-level cadres as a substitute to more extensively trained and more internationally mobile healthcare workers. Although this does provide greater capacity for service delivery, concern about the performance and motivation of these workers is emerging. We propose that poor leadership characterized by inadequate and unstructured supervision underlies much of the dissatisfaction and turnover that has been shown to exist amongst these mid-level healthcare workers and indeed health workers more generally. To investigate this, we conducted a large-scale survey of 1,561 mid-level cadre healthcare workers (health workers trained for shorter periods to perform specific tasks e.g. clinical officers) delivering obstetric care in Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. Participants indicated the primary supervision method used in their facility and we assessed their job satisfaction and intentions to leave their current workplace. In all three countries we found robust evidence indicating that a formal supervision process predicted high levels of job satisfaction and low intentions to leave. We find no evidence that facility level factors modify the link between supervisory methods and key outcomes. We interpret this evidence as strongly supporting the need to strengthen leadership and implement a framework and mechanism for systematic supportive supervision. This will promote better job satisfaction and improve the retention and performance of obstetric care workers, something which has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in the countdown to 2015. PMID:23555581

  17. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries: Case study of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kerstens, S M; Spiller, M; Leusbrock, I; Zeeman, G

    2016-04-15

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a government policy to nationwide planning is missing. Therefore, we propose a framework to facilitate the nationwide planning process for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste services. The framework requires inputs from government planners and experts in the formulation of starting points and targets. Based on a limited number of indicators (population density, urban functions) three outputs are generated. The first output is a visualization of the spatial distribution of wastewater and solid waste systems to support regional priority setting in planning and create awareness. Secondly, the total number of people served, budget requirements and distribution of systems is determined. Thirdly, the required budget is allocated to the responsible institution to assure effective implementation. The determined budgets are specified by their beneficiaries, distinguishing urban, rural, poor and non-poor households. The framework was applied for Indonesia and outputs were adopted in the National Development Plan. The required budget to reach the Indonesian government's 2019 target was determined to be 25 billion US$ over 5years. The contribution from the national budget required a more than fivefold increase compared to the current budget allocation in Indonesia, corresponding to an increase from 0.5 to 2.7 billion US$ per year. The budget for campaigning, advocacy and institutional strengthening to enable implementation was determined to be 10% of the total budget. The proposed framework is not only suitable for Indonesia, but could also be applied to any developing country that aims to increase access to wastewater and solid waste facilities. PMID:26849332

  18. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  19. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.

    PubMed

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour tester cette hypothèse, 832 étudiants collégiaux issus de six ethnies/nationalités différentes (la France, l'Allemagne, l'Autriche, la Suisse romande et allemande, la Belgique française et néerlandaise, les Pays-Bas) ont complété un questionnaire sur les taux de sympathie et de similitude. Les résultats ont indiqué que les différences en taille en combinaison avec la similitude linguistique avec une autre nation représentent une menace pour l'identité de la nation ou du groupe ethnique plus petit. Les différences en taille en combinaison avec la similitude linguistique étaient associées, d'une part, avec des asymétries dans la sympathie mutuelle et, d'autre part, avec des perceptions asymétriques de similitude avec l'autre nation. Les conclusions de cette étude sont en accord avec les résultats des études antérieures et soutiennent l'importance du langage pour l'identité d'une nation. De plus, les résultats appuient l'utilité de la théorie de l'identité sociale pour comprendre les relations intergroupes et internationales. Naciones vecinas con similitudes lingüísticas pero que difieren en tamaño son frecuentemente asimétricas respecto de sus relaciones actitudinales una respecto de la otra. Los cuidadanos de naciones pequeñas tienden a ver a naciones más grandes como menos simpáticas y parecidas que viceversa. Nosotros hipotetizamos que la reacción de las naciones más pequeñas es la consequencia de una identidad amenazada debido a su menor tamaño combinada con una similitud muy grande relacionada con una parte vital de su identidad: es decir el lenguaje. Para probar esta hipótesis 832 alumnos de la escuela secundaria de seis diferentes grupos étnicos/nacionales (Francia, Alemania, Austria, regiones en Suiza en las que se habla francés y alemán, regiones en Bélgica en las que se habla francés y holandés así como los Países Bajos) completaron un cuestionario sobre gustos y similitudes. Los resultados mostraron - en alto grado - que las diferencias en el tamaño en combinación con las similitudes lingüísticas con otras naciones, se asocian con la amenaza de la identidad de las naciones o grupos étnicos más pequeños. Las diferencias en tamaño en combinación con las similitudes lingüísticas estuvieron asociadas con asimetrías repecto del aprecio mutuo por un lado, así como por otro lado, con percepciones asimétricas de similitud con el otro país. Las conclusiones de este estudio son consistentes con los descubrimientos de estudios previos y recalcan la importancia del lenguaje en la identidad de una nación. Adicionalmente estos resultados soportan la Teoría de la Identidad Social como una teoría útil en la comprensión de las relaciones entre grupos así como a nivel de las relaciones internacionales. PMID:22043848

  20. Smartphone Use for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Resource Countries: A Pilot Study Conducted in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Catarino, Rosa; Vassilakos, Pierre; Scaringella, Stefano; Undurraga-Malinverno, Manuela; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Ricard-Gauthier, Dominique; Matute, Juan Carlos; Petignat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Visual inspection of the cervix after application of 5% acetic acid (VIA) is a screening technique for cervical cancer used widely in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). To improve VIA screening performance, digital images after acid acetic application (D-VIA) are taken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a smartphone for on- and off-site D-VIA diagnosis. Materials and Methods Women aged 30–65 years, living in the city of Ambanja, Madagascar, were recruited through a cervical cancer screening campaign. Each performed a human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sample as a primary screen. Women testing positive for HPV were referred for VIA followed by D-VIA, cervical biopsy and endocervical curettage according to routine protocol. In addition, the same day, the D-VIA was emailed to a tertiary care center for immediate assessment. Results were scored as either D-VIA normal or D-VIA abnormal, requiring immediate therapy or referral to a tertiary center. Each of the three off-site physicians were blinded to the result reported by the one on-site physician and each gave their individual assessment followed by a consensus diagnosis. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA software. Results Of the 332 women recruited, 137 (41.2%) were HPV-positive and recalled for VIA triage; compliance with this invitation was 69.3% (n = 95). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was detected in 17.7% and 21.7% of digital images by on-site and off-site physicians, respectively. The on-site physician had a sensitivity of 66.7% (95%CI: 30.0–90.3) and a specificity of 85.7% (95%CI: 76.7–91.6); the off-site physician consensus sensitivity was 66.7% (95%CI: 30.0–90.3) with a specificity of 82.3% (95%CI: 72.4–89.1). Conclusion This pilot study supports the use of telemedicine for off-site diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, with diagnostic performance similar to those achieved on-site. Further studies need to determine if smartphones can improve cervical cancer screening efficiency in LMIC. PMID:26222772

  1. Study Abroad in a Developing and a Developed Country: A Comparison of American Undergraduate Students' Experiences in Ghana and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the differences among the experiences of 7 American undergraduate students; 4 who studied for a semester in Ghana, a developing country, and 3 who studied for a semester in England, a developed country. Using phenomenology as its guiding framework, transcribed interviews were analyzed and the focal phenomenon of the…

  2. Harmonising Evidence-based medicine teaching: a study of the outcomes of e-learning in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Kulier, Regina; Hadley, Julie; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Meyerrose, Berrit; Decsi, Tamas; Horvath, Andrea R; Nagy, Eva; Emparanza, Jose I; Coppus, Sjors FPJ; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Burls, Amanda; Cabello, Juan B; Kaczor, Marcin; Zanrei, Gianni; Pierer, Karen; Stawiarz, Katarzyna; Kunz, Regina; Mol, Ben WJ; Khan, Khalid S

    2008-01-01

    Background We developed and evaluated the outcomes of an e-learning course for evidence based medicine (EBM) training in postgraduate medical education in different languages and settings across five European countries. Methods We measured changes in knowledge and attitudes with well-developed assessment tools before and after administration of the course. The course consisted of five e-learning modules covering acquisition (formulating a question and search of the literature), appraisal, application and implementation of findings from systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions, each with interactive audio-visual learning materials of 15 to 20 minutes duration. The modules were prepared in English, Spanish, German and Hungarian. The course was delivered to 101 students from different specialties in Germany (psychiatrists), Hungary (mixture of specialties), Spain (general medical practitioners), Switzerland (obstetricians-gynaecologists) and the UK (obstetricians-gynaecologists). We analysed changes in scores across modules and countries. Results On average across all countries, knowledge scores significantly improved from pre- to post-course for all five modules (p < 0.001). The improvements in scores were on average 1.87 points (14% of total score) for module 1, 1.81 points (26% of total score) for module 2, 1.9 points (11% of total score) for module 3, 1.9 points (12% of total score) for module 4 and 1.14 points (14% of total score) for module 5. In the country specific analysis, knowledge gain was not significant for module 4 in Spain, Switzerland and the UK, for module 3 in Spain and Switzerland and for module 2 in Spain. Compared to pre-course assessment, after completing the course participants felt more confident that they can assess research evidence and that the healthcare system in their country should have its own programme of research about clinical effectiveness. Conclusion E-learning in EBM can be harmonised for effective teaching and learning in different languages, educational settings and clinical specialties, paving the way for development of an international e-EBM course. PMID:18442424

  3. Comparative study of desert truffles from Kuwait and other countries in the Middle East for radionuclide concentration.

    PubMed

    al-Azmi, D; Saad, H R; Farhan, A R

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of some radionuclides, including 137Cs, in desert truffles in Kuwait were studied and compared with similar samples from other countries in the Middle East, namely Iran, Egypt, and Tunisia. In addition, sand samples from Kuwait were assayed to calculate the transfer factor of the radionuclides under consideration. The measured concentrations of 40K, 226Ra, and 137Cs show that 137Cs is much higher in Egyptian samples, whereas 40K is much lower in samples from Tunisia. The average effective dose equivalent calculated for the Kuwaiti population according to their diet habits was found to be in the range 0.14-0.23 microSv/a. The results are compared with values from other countries. PMID:10676505

  4. How have trends in lifespan variation changed since 1950? A comparative study of 17 Western European countries

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, A. H.; Popham, F.

    2016-01-01

    Lifespan variation adds to life expectancy by measuring the inequality surrounding age of death that a population faces. Countries that tackle premature mortality generally have decreasing lifespan variation but this is the first study to compare and statistically assess when and to what extent trends in lifespan variation have changed across Western Europe. Lifespan variation was measured using e† and joinpoint regression analysed the timing and rate of change. Trends have been mostly downward with the recent exception of men in Scotland, Northern Ireland, Ireland and Finland where trends have flattened or show slight increases. Future research aimed at identifying the ages and causes of death, driving trends in these countries, is key to preventing increasing inequalities. PMID:26614636

  5. How have trends in lifespan variation changed since 1950? A comparative study of 17 Western European countries.

    PubMed

    Seaman, R; Leyland, A H; Popham, F

    2016-04-01

    Lifespan variation adds to life expectancy by measuring the inequality surrounding age of death that a population faces. Countries that tackle premature mortality generally have decreasing lifespan variation but this is the first study to compare and statistically assess when and to what extent trends in lifespan variation have changed across Western Europe. Lifespan variation was measured using e† and joinpoint regression analysed the timing and rate of change. Trends have been mostly downward with the recent exception of men in Scotland, Northern Ireland, Ireland and Finland where trends have flattened or show slight increases. Future research aimed at identifying the ages and causes of death, driving trends in these countries, is key to preventing increasing inequalities. PMID:26614636

  6. Promoting public-private mix for TB-DOTs: a multi-country study from the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Haq, Z; Khan, W; Seita, A

    2012-05-01

    This study was carried out to document the implementation status of public-private mix (PPM) in 6 member countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, with a particular focus on advocacy, communication and social mobilization (ACSM) specific to PPM. Interviews and focus group discussions were held with staff of national tuberculosis control programmes and partners. Four PPM models were being practised. For all models, ACSM specific to PPM was at the elementary stage. Participants perceived that promoting private partners was difficult, specific policy guidelines were deficient and human resources and capacity for both initiatives were lacking across the region. Building ACSM capacity is required along with the development of guidelines and the implementation of country-specific communication plans to carry out local-level advocacy, strategic communication and effective social mobilization to maximize the benefits of PPM. PMID:22764425

  7. Tropical forests: a call for action. Part 1: the plan. Part 2: case studies. Part 3: country investment profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The World Resources Institute (WRI), in cooperation with multi- and bi-lateral organizations, has launched a major initiative to conserve forests in the humid and semiarid/arid areas of developing countries. The 3-part WRI report is a call to political action on this subject. Part 1 describes the high costs exacted by deforestation, but asserts that the process can be arrested and reversed by a partnership of governments, local participants, and development-assistance agencies. Proposals are presented for a 5-year action plan in farm, community, and arid-zone forestry. Parts 2 and 3 include case studies of the successful projects listed in Part 1 and 5-year investment profiles of 56 developing countries affected by deforestation.

  8. Low Request of Antibiotics from Patients with Respiratory Tract Infections in Six Countries: Results from the Happy Audit Study

    PubMed Central

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars; Strandberg, Eva Lena; Radzeviciene, Ruta; Reutskiy, Anatoliy; Caballero, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    A total of 59,535 patients with respiratory tract infections were registered in the Happy Audit project, an audit-based, before-and-after study conducted in primary care centres of six countries (Argentina, Denmark, Lithuania, Russia, Spain, and Sweden) in 2008 and 2009. An antibiotic was explicitly requested by the patient in 1,255 cases (2.1%), with a great variation across countries ranging from 0.4%–4.9%. Antibiotics were significantly more often prescribed to patients requesting them compared to those who did not (64% vs. 28%; p < 0.001). Patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were most likely to request antibiotics while those with common colds were least likely (3.9% vs. 1.2%, respectively). The presence of tonsillar exudates and dyspnoea were more commonly associated with a demand for antibiotics. Even though physicians very often perceive that patients demand an antibiotic, the results of this study clearly show that patients only request antibiotics in a low percentage of cases. Patients were most likely to request antibiotics when they had symptoms of lower respiratory tract infections and when they came with more severe symptoms. Furthermore, there were considerable differences between countries, suggesting that the different backgrounds and traditions largely explain this variability in patients’ requests for antibiotics.

  9. The Politics of Universal Health Coverage in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Framework for Evaluation and Action.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Reich, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Universal health coverage has recently become a top item on the global health agenda pressed by multilateral and donor organizations, as disenchantment grows with vertical, disease-specific health programs. This increasing focus on universal health coverage has brought renewed attention to the role of domestic politics and the interaction between domestic and international relations in the health reform process. This article proposes a theory-based framework for analyzing the politics of health reform for universal health coverage, according to four stages in the policy cycle (agenda setting, design, adoption, and implementation) and four variables that affect reform (interests, institutions, ideas, and ideology). This framework can assist global health policy researchers, multilateral organization officials, and national policy makers in navigating the complex political waters of health reforms aimed at achieving universal health coverage. To derive the framework, we critically review the theoretical and applied literature on health policy reform in developing countries and illustrate the framework with examples of health reforms moving toward universal coverage in low- and middle-income countries. We offer a series of lessons stemming from these experiences to date. PMID:26195606

  10. Individualized Study Program. Interim Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tom, Alice K.

    Results of an evaluation of the Individualized Study Program (ISP), a 2-year pilot program at the Learning Skills Center (LSC) of the University of California, Davis, are presented. The program target group were disadvantaged students who had not met the university's entrance requirements. The ISP, which is designed to improve retention of…

  11. Evaluating Innovation: The Case Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez, Maria Jose; Carretero, Antonia J.

    1998-01-01

    Characterized the methodology of case studies, using examples from science education, with regard to their potential for the analysis of innovation and formulation of emerging trends. The theoretical and empirical support of evaluation will generate a call for negotiation as the formula that regulates the assessment of a program's efficiency and…

  12. Patterns of finasteride use in the male populations of four Nordic countries: A cross-national drug utilization study.

    PubMed

    Kjærulff, T M; Ersbøll, A K; Green, A; Emneus, M; Pukkala, E; Bolin, K; Stavem, K; Iversen, P; Brasso, K; Hallas, J; Thygesen, L C

    2016-06-01

    Objective Finasteride 5 mg is a drug used to treat prostate hyperplasia. Little is known about its pattern of usage. This cross-national analysis of individual-level data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was undertaken to appraise its usage and describe cross-national differences. Materials and methods Individual-level data from nationwide prescription registers in Denmark (1995-2009), Finland (1997-2010), Norway (2004-2009) and Sweden (July 2005-2011) were used to examine cross-national finasteride utilization patterns in the adult male population (≥15 years). The study presents period prevalences, incidence rates, waiting time distributions and Lorenz curves. Results During the study period, 295,620 men had at least one prescription redemption of finasteride 5 mg, and there were approximately 3 million dispensing events of finasteride prescriptions in the four Nordic countries. Different patterns of finasteride use were observed among the four Nordic countries. The period prevalence was markedly higher in Finland and Sweden than in Denmark and Norway. In 2009, period prevalences were 18.2/1000 males in Finland and 12.0/1000 males in Sweden compared to 6.7/1000 males in Norway and 4.9/1000 males in Denmark. Incidence rates of finasteride use for Finland, Norway and Sweden were about three times that for Denmark in 2008-2009. Long-term use of finasteride was found in all four Nordic countries with a high ratio between prevalent and incident users. Conclusion Despite resemblances regarding political systems and healthcare services in the Nordic countries, differences in finasteride utilization were found across Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. PMID:26901820

  13. A PILOT EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE STUDY OF TRANSFUSION SCREENING FOR HIV, HCV AND HBSAG IN TWELVE AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Evan M; Shah, Avani; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Laperche, Syria; Lefrere, Jean-Jacques; van Hasselt, James; Zacharias, Peter; Murphy, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serologic screening for the major transfusion transmissible viruses (TTV) is critical to blood safety and has been widely implemented. However, actual performance as measured by proficiency testing has not been well studied in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted an external quality assessment of laboratories engaged in transfusion screening in the region. Materials and Methods Blinded test panels, each comprising 25 serum samples that were pedigreed for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and negative status, were sent to participating laboratories. The panels were tested using the laboratories’ routine donor screening methods and conditions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and multivariable analysis was used to compare performance against mode of testing, country and infrastructure. Results A total of 12 African countries and 44 laboratories participated in the study. The mean (range) sensitivities for HIV, HBsAg and HCV were 91.9% (14.3-100), 86.7% (42.9-100) and 90.1% (50-100), respectively. Mean specificities for HIV, HBsAg and HCV were 97.7%, 97% and 99.5% respectively. After adjusting for country and infrastructure, rapid tests had significantly lower sensitivity than enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for both HBsAg (p<0.0001) and HCV (p<0.05). Sensitivity also varied by country and selected infrastructure variables. Conclusion While specificity was high, sensitivity was more variable and deficient in a substantial number of testing laboratories. These findings underscore the importance of proficiency testing and quality control, particularly in Africa where TTV prevalence is high. PMID:25052195

  14. An Ecological Study of the Determinants of Differences in 2009 Pandemic Influenza Mortality Rates between Countries in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Bagos, Pantelis; Lytras, Theodoros; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2011-01-01

    Background Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 mortality rates varied widely from one country to another. Our aim was to identify potential socioeconomic determinants of pandemic mortality and explain between-country variation. Methodology Based on data from a total of 30 European countries, we applied random-effects Poisson regression models to study the relationship between pandemic mortality rates (May 2009 to May 2010) and a set of representative environmental, health care-associated, economic and demographic country-level parameters. The study was completed by June 2010. Principal Findings Most regression approaches indicated a consistent, statistically significant inverse association between pandemic influenza-related mortality and per capita government expenditure on health. The findings were similar in univariable [coefficient: –0.00028, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): –0.00046, –0.00010, p = 0.002] and multivariable analyses (including all covariates, coefficient: –0.00107, 95% CI: –0.00196, –0.00018, p = 0.018). The estimate was barely insignificant when the multivariable model included only significant covariates from the univariate step (coefficient: –0.00046, 95% CI: –0.00095, 0.00003, p = 0.063). Conclusions Our findings imply a significant inverse association between public spending on health and pandemic influenza mortality. In an attempt to interpret the estimated coefficient (–0.00028) for the per capita government expenditure on health, we observed that a rise of 100 international dollars was associated with a reduction in the pandemic influenza mortality rate by approximately 2.8%. However, further work needs to be done to unravel the mechanisms by which reduced government spending on health may have affected the 2009 pandemic influenza mortality. PMID:21589928

  15. Developing an Appropriate Digital Hearing Aid for Low-Resource Countries: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Israsena, P.; Isaradisaikul, S.; Noymai, A.; Boonyanukul, S.; Hemakom, A.; Chinnarat, C.; Navacharoen, N.; Lekagul, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the development process and discusses the key findings which resulted from our multidisciplinary research team's effort to develop an alternative digital hearing suitable for low-resource countries such as Thailand. A cost-effective, fully programmable digital hearing aid, with its specifications benchmarking against WHO's recommendations, was systematically designed, engineered, and tested. Clinically it had undergone a full clinical trial that employed the outcome measurement protocol adopted from the APHAB, the first time implemented in Thai language. Results indicated that using the hearing aid improves user's satisfaction in terms of ease of communication, background noises, and reverberation, with clear benefit after 3 and 6 months, confirming its efficacy. In terms of engineering, the hearing aid also proved to be robust, passing all the designated tests. As the technology has successfully been transferred to a local company for the production phase, we also discuss other challenges that may arise before the device can be introduced into the market. PMID:23818826

  16. Inequalities of Income and Inequalities of Longevity: A Cross-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Plümper, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of market income inequality (income inequality before taxes and transfers) and income redistribution via taxes and transfers on inequality in longevity. Methods. We used life tables to compute Gini coefficients of longevity inequality for all individuals and for individuals who survived to at least 10 years of age. We regressed longevity inequality on market income inequality and income redistribution, and we controlled for potential confounders, in a cross-sectional time-series sample of up to 28 predominantly Western developed countries and up to 37 years (1974–2011). Results. Income inequality before taxes and transfers was positively associated with inequality in the number of years lived; income redistribution (the difference between market income inequality and income inequality after taxes and transfers were accounted for) was negatively associated with longevity inequality. Conclusions. To the extent that our estimated effects derived from observational data are causal, governments can reduce longevity inequality not only via public health policies, but also via their influence on market income inequality and the redistribution of incomes from the relatively rich to the relatively poor. PMID:26562120

  17. Quality control aspects of herbs and botanicals in developing countries: Coleus forskohlii Briq a case study

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Ennus Tajuddin; Chester, Karishma; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Current trend of commercialization of herbal medicines draw a huge need of maintaining their quality. The declaration of quality, safety and efficacy of medicinal plants as well as poly-herbal formulations has become an important issue. Hence, qualitative and quantitative analysis of herbal drugs and formulations viz., fingerprint profiles and quantification of the various markers become key factors of quality control. Materials and Methods: Present investigation is a detailed report for quality control of well-known herb Coleus forskohlii Briq, which includes physicochemical parameter determination, safety evaluation, microscropical evaluation, and chromatographic fingerprinting as well. Results: Physico-chemical characters were evaluated according to Indian Pharmacopoeia, further microscopic evaluation of transverse section of Coleus reveals that periderm, secondary phloem, and wide secondary xylem cylinder, which occupies major portion of the root fragmentary. Chromatographic fingerprint profiles of Coleus have been generated, and a marker based standardization strategy was adopted; using different analytical technique like high-performance thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to maintain quality and ensure safety as well as efficacy. Conclusion: These advancements in modern techniques of analysis can lead to effective quality control of Coleus as well as other herbs. Present report can act as pioneer for quality control of modern herbal medicine. PMID:26681877

  18. Breast-Milk Substitutes: A New Old-Threat for Breastfeeding Policy in Developing Countries. A Case Study in a Traditionally High Breastfeeding Country

    PubMed Central

    Barennes, Hubert; Empis, Gwenaelle; Quang, Thao Duong; Sengkhamyong, Khouanheuan; Phasavath, Phonethepa; Harimanana, Aina; Sambany, Emercia M.; Koffi, Paulin N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS) in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. Methods Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. Participants: 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. Tools: 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas). Outcome measures included: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula); 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6–3.2). One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group) living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15–2.78), p<0.009). Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41–0.99), p = 0.04). Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. Conclusion In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries. PMID:22347392

  19. Risk of disordered eating attitudes among adolescents in seven Arab countries by gender and obesity: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Lalla, Osama; Ali, Essa Y A; Kalam, Faiza; Benhamed, Mofida M; Saghir, Sabri; Halahleh, Ismail; Djoudi, Zahra; Chirane, Manel

    2013-01-01

    The objectives were to discover the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes (EAs) among adolescent males and females, and the association of obesity with EA in seven Arab countries. A multistage stratified sampling technique was used to select secondary students aged 15-18 years from cities in Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria and Sharijah Emirate (United Arab Emirates). The total sample was 4698 (2240 males and 2458 females). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to measure those at risk of disordered EA. Obesity was calculated according to the International Obesity Taskforce criteria. Participants were grouped into two categories, non-obese and obese (overweight and obese). The risk of disordered EA was twice as high among females as in males in Jordan, Libya, Palestine and Syria. Kuwaiti adolescents (males and females) showed higher prevalence of disordered EA than their counterparts in other countries. The risk of disordered EA among obese adolescents was two to three times higher than that of non-obese adolescents, in both genders. Excepting Kuwaiti females and Palestinian males. The association of obesity with disordered EA was statistically significant. This study highlighted the magnitude of the risk of disordered eating attitudes among both male and female adolescents in Arab countries and identified the need for programmes to prevent and control these disorders in the Arab region. PMID:23092757

  20. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth: a comparative study of the Nordic countries from 1981 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Christina B; Mortensen, Laust H; Morgen, Camilla S; Madsen, Mia; Schnor, Ole; Arntzen, Annett; Gissler, Mika; Cnattingius, Sven; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2009-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (<32 gestational weeks) and moderately preterm birth (32-36 gestational weeks) were calculated by maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with <10 years of education had similarly increased risks of very, and to a lesser extent moderately, preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm birth remained broadly stable from 1981 to 2000 in all four countries. Consequently, the socio-economic inequalities in preterm birth were not strongly influenced by structural changes during the period. PMID:19228316

  1. Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Lalla, Osama; Ali, Essa Y. A.; Kalam, Faiza; Benhamed, Mofida M.; Saghir, Sabri; Halahleh, Ismail; Djoudi, Zahra; Chirane, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females) from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity. PMID:24348144

  2. Community Health Workers and Health Care Delivery: Evaluation of a Women's Reproductive Health Care Project in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Wajid, Abdul; White, Franklin; Karim, Mehtab S.

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of the mid-term evaluation of a Women's Health Care Project, a study was conducted to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to interview Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA). Information was collected on MWRA knowledge regarding danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, postnatal periods, and MNH care seeking behavior. After comparing MNH service utilization, the two areas were compared using a logistic regression model, to identify the association of different factors with the intervention after controlling for socio-demographic, economic factors and distance of the MWRA residence to a health care facility. Results The demographic characteristics of women in the two areas were similar, although socioeconomic status as indicated by level of education and better household amenities, was higher in the intervention area. Consequently, on univariate analysis, utilization of MNH services: antenatal care, TT vaccination, institutional delivery and use of modern contraceptives were higher in the intervention than control area. Nonetheless, multivariable analysis controlling for confounders such as socioeconomic status revealed that utilization of antenatal care services at health centers and TT vaccination during pregnancy are significantly associated with the intervention. Conclusions Our findings suggest positive changes in health care seeking behavior of women and families with respect to MNH. Some aspects of care still require attention, such as knowledge about danger signs and neonatal care, especially umbilical cord care. Despite overall success achieved so far in response to the Millennium Development Goals, over the past two decades decreases in maternal mortality are far from the 2015 target. This report identifies some of the key factors to improving MNH and serves as an interim measure of a national and global challenge that remains a work in progress. PMID:24086541

  3. Evaluation of decentralized treatment of sewage employing Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor (USBR) in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Tarek

    2010-02-15

    A new concept for a low-cost modified septic tank, named Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor (USBR), was constructed and tested in a small village in Egypt. During almost one year of continuous operation and monitoring, this system was found to have very satisfactory removal results, where the average results of COD, BOD, and TSS removal efficiencies were 84%, 81%, and 89%, respectively, and the results of the experiment proved that the second compartment (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) was the main treatment unit in removing the pollutants during the start-up period and at the very early steady-state stage. However, after this period and during the steady-state operation conditions, the second compartment served as a polishing step. Also, it was observed that the USBR system was not affected by the imposed shock loads at the peak flow and organic periods. The results showed that the system is slightly influenced by the drop in the temperature. Decreasing in BOD and COD removal by factor of 9% was observed, when temperature decreases from the average of 35 degrees C in summer time (for the first 127 days) to the average of 22 degrees C in winter time (between day 252 and day 280). Whereas, the TSS removals were not affected by the drop in temperature. The results of the sewage flow variations during one year of operation were compared with Goodrich Formula to see the applicability of this equation in rural developing countries. MAIN FINDING OF THE WORK: The Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor system could become a promising alternative to the conventional treatment plants in rural developing countries. PMID:19819068

  4. Evaluating the value proposition for improving vaccine thermostability to increase vaccine impact in low and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Karp, Christopher L; Lans, Deborah; Esparza, José; Edson, Eleanore B; Owen, Katey E; Wilson, Christopher B; Heaton, Penny M; Levine, Orin S; Rao, Raja

    2015-07-01

    The need to keep vaccines cold in the face of high ambient temperatures and unreliable access to electricity is a challenge that limits vaccine coverage in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Greater vaccine thermostability is generally touted as the obvious solution. Despite conventional wisdom, comprehensive analysis of the value proposition for increasing vaccine thermostability has been lacking. Further, while significant investments have been made in increasing vaccine thermostability in recent years, no vaccine products have been commercialized as a result. We analyzed the value proposition for increasing vaccine thermostability, grounding the analysis in specific vaccine use cases (e.g., use in routine immunization [RI] programs, or in campaigns) and in the broader context of cold chain technology and country level supply chain system design. The results were often surprising. For example, cold chain costs actually represent a relatively small fraction of total vaccine delivery system costs. Further, there are critical, vaccine use case-specific temporal thresholds that need to be overcome for significant benefits to be reaped from increasing vaccine thermostability. We present a number of recommendations deriving from this analysis that suggest a rational path toward unlocking the value (maximizing coverage, minimizing total system costs) of increased vaccine thermostability, including: (1) the full range of thermostability of existing vaccines should be defined and included in their labels; (2) for new vaccines, thermostability goals should be addressed up-front at the level of the target product profile; (3) improving cold chain infrastructure and supply chain system design is likely to have the largest impact on total system costs and coverage in the short term-and will influence the degree of thermostability required in the future; (4) in the long term, there remains value in monitoring the emergence of disruptive technologies that could remove the entire RI portfolio out of the cold chain. PMID:26055297

  5. Sponsorship and Leverage: Sources of Support and Field of Study Decisions of Students from Developing Countries. IIE Research Report Number Nineteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Alan P.; And Others

    The study examined the influence of financial sources on field of study decisions of non-sponsored and sponsored students from developing countries at both the graduate and undergraduate levels. Findings are based on analysis of survey responses of 868 foreign students from five countries (Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Nigeria) studying…

  6. Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study in 35 countries

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, E P M; Mathijssen, J; Van Bortel, T; Knifton, L; Wahlbeck, K; Van Audenhove, C; Kadri, N; Chang, Ch; Goud, B R; Ballester, D; Tófoli, LF; Bello, R; Jorge-Monteiro, M F; Zäske, H; Milaćić, I; Uçok, A; Bonetto, C; Lasalvia, A; Thornicroft, G; Van Weeghel, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers’ attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known about how stigma and discrimination affect work participation of workers with MDD, especially from their own perspective. We aimed to assess, in a working age population including respondents with MDD from 35 countries: (1) if people with MDD anticipate and experience discrimination when trying to find or keep paid employment; (2) if participants in high, middle and lower developed countries differ in these respects; and (3) if discrimination experiences are related to actual employment status (ie, having a paid job or not). Method Participants in this cross-sectional study (N=834) had a diagnosis of MDD in the previous 12 months. They were interviewed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12). Analysis of variance and generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the data. Results Overall, 62.5% had anticipated and/or experienced discrimination in the work setting. In very high developed countries, almost 60% of respondents had stopped themselves from applying for work, education or training because of anticipated discrimination. Having experienced workplace discrimination was independently related to unemployment. Conclusions Across different countries and cultures, people with MDD very frequently reported discrimination in the work setting. Effective interventions are needed to enhance work participation in people with MDD, focusing simultaneously on decreasing stigma in the work environment and on decreasing self-discrimination by empowering workers with MDD. PMID:26908523

  7. Reproductive and Hormonal Risk Profile According to Language Acculturation and Country of Residence in the Ella Binational Breast Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda; Cooper, Renee; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Natarajan, Loki; Thompson, Patricia A.; Komenaka, Ian K.; Brewster, Abenaa; Bondy, Melissa; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Meza-Montenegro, María Mercedes; Gutierrez-Millan, Luis Enrique; Martínez, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: We compared the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Methods: To compare the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent, taking into account level of education, we analyzed data on 581 Mexican and 620 Mexican American (MA) women with a history of invasive breast cancer from the Ella Binational Breast Cancer Study. An eight-item language-based acculturation measure was used to classify MA women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test associations between language acculturation, country of residence, and reproductive and hormonal risk factors. Results: After adjustment for age and education, compared to women residing in Mexico, English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have an earlier age at menarche (<12 years; odds ratio [OR]=2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30–3.34), less likely to have a late age at first birth (≥30 years; OR=0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.97), and less likely to ever breastfeed (OR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.08–0.21). Conclusions: Differences in reproductive and hormonal risk profile according to language acculturation and country of residence are evident; some of these were explained by education. Results support continued efforts to educate Mexican and MA women on screening and early detection of breast cancer along with promotion of modifiable factors, such as breastfeeding. PMID:24475760

  8. Breastfeeding practices in relation to country of origin among women living in Denmark: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002-2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database. The data was linked with data on maternal socio-demographic information from Danish population-covering registries. Suboptimal breastfeeding was defined as <4 months of full breastfeeding as described by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority. We used logistic regression to model the crude associations between suboptimal breastfeeding and country of origin, and taking maternal age and parity, and a variety of parental socio-economic measures into account. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among non-Western migrant women than among women of Danish origin. Women who were descendants of Turkish and Pakistani immigrants had a higher risk of suboptimal breastfeeding as compared to the group of women who had migrated from the same countries, suggesting that acculturation did not favor breastfeeding. For all but the group of women who had migrated from Pakistan, adjustment for socio-demographic indicators (age, parity, education, attachment to labour market, and income) eliminated the increased risk of suboptimal breastfeeding. There was no evidence for differences in the breastfeeding support provided at hospital level according to migrant status. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among women who were non-Nordic migrants and descendants of migrants than among women with Danish origin. PMID:24748214

  9. Regionalised spatiotemporal rainfall and temperature models for flood studies in the Basque Country, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowpertwait, P.; Ocio, D.; Collazos, G.; de Cos, O.; Stocker, C.

    2013-02-01

    A spatiotemporal point process model of rainfall is fitted to data taken from three homogeneous regions in the Basque Country, Spain. The model is the superposition of two spatiotemporal Neyman-Scott processes, in which rain cells are modelled as discs with radii that follow exponential distributions. In addition, the model includes a parameter for the radius of storm discs, so that rain only occurs when both a cell and a storm disc overlap a point. The model is fitted to data for each month, taken from each of the three homogeneous regions, using a modified method of moments procedure that ensures a smooth seasonal variation in the parameter estimates. Daily temperature data from 23 sites are used to fit a stochastic temperature model. A principal component analysis of the maximum daily temperatures across the sites indicates that 92% of the variance is explained by the first component, implying that this component can be used to account for spatial variation. A harmonic equation with autoregressive error terms is fitted to the first principal component. The temperature model is obtained by regressing the maximum daily temperature on the first principal component, an indicator variable for the region, and altitude. This, together with scaling and a regression model of temperature range, enables hourly temperatures to be predicted. Rainfall is included as an explanatory variable but has only a marginal influence when predicting temperatures. A distributed model (TETIS; Francés et al., 2007) is calibrated for a selected catchment. Five hundred years of data are simulated using the rainfall and temperature models and used as input to the calibrated TETIS model to obtain simulated discharges to compare with observed discharges. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests indicate that there is no significant difference in the distributions of observed and simulated maximum flows at the same sites, thus supporting the use of the spatiotemporal models for the intended application.

  10. Regionalised spatiotemporal rainfall and temperature models for flood studies in the Basque Country, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowpertwait, P.; Ocio, D.; Collazos, G.; de Cos, O.; Stocker, C.

    2012-09-01

    A spatial-temporal point process model of rainfall is fitted to data taken from three homogeneous regions in the Basque Country, Spain. The model is the superposition of two spatial-temporal Neyman-Scott processes, in which rain cells are modelled as discs with radii that follow exponential distributions. In addition, the model includes a parameter for the radius of storm discs, so that rain only occurs when both a cell and a storm disc overlap a point. The model is fitted to data for each month, taken from each of the three homogeneous regions, using a modified method of moments procedure that ensures a smooth seasonal variation in the parameter estimates. Daily temperature data from twenty three sites are used to fit a stochastic temperature model. A principal component analysis of the maximum daily temperatures across the sites indicates that 92% of the variance is explained by the first component, implying that this component can be used to account for spatial variation. A harmonic equation with autoregressive error terms is fitted to the first principal component. The temperature model is obtained by regressing the maximum daily temperature on the first principal component, an indicator variable for the region, and altitude. This, together with scaling and a regression model of temperature range, enables hourly temperatures to be predicted. Rainfall is included as an explanatory variable but has only a marginal influence when predicting temperatures. A distributed model (TETIS; Francés et al., 2007) is calibrated for a selected catchment. Five hundred years of data are simulated using the rainfall and temperature models and used as input to the calibrated TETIS model to obtain simulated discharges to compare with observed discharges. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests indicate that there is no significant difference in the distributions of observed and simulated maximum flows at the same sites, thus supporting the use of the spatiotemporal models for the intended application.

  11. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Fearnside, P.M. , Manaus, AM . Departmento de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  12. Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia: results from the CEPHEUS study in Arabian Gulf countries.

    PubMed

    Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al Tamimi, Omer; Al Herz, Shorook; Al Anazi, Faisal; Al Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Alkhadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel Razak; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Al Jassim, Obaid; Al Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad Omar Ahmed S; Alawadhi, Mahmoud; Amin, Haitham; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Shehab, Abdullah

    2014-11-01

    The Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS) survey evaluated the attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals among patients on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) guideline. The survey was conducted in 6 Arabian Gulf countries. Patients aged ≥18 years on LLDs for at least ≥3 months (stable medication for ≥6 weeks) were recruited. Fasting blood samples were collected at a single visit. In this survey, 5276 (58.2% male) patients were included in the final analysis. The LDL-C goal was attained in 91.1% of low-risk, 52.7% of high-risk, and 32.0% in very-high-risk categories. Goal attainment was directly related to female gender, age<40 years, history of diabetes, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The results of this survey highlight the suboptimal management of hypercholesterolemia across Arabian Gulf countries. PMID:24301426

  13. Violence and non-violence-related injuries and alcohol in women from developed and developing countries: a multi-site emergency room study.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rosiane Lopes; Diehl, Alessandra; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Figlie, Neliana B

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the occurrence of injuries in women attending the emergency room (ER) from developing and developed countries. The sample consisted of ER data from women in 15 countries that were collected as part of two multi-site studies using similar methodologies: the Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project (ERCAAP), and World Health Organization Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injuries (WHO Study). Women ranged in age from 18 to 98years. Those from developed countries had higher levels of education (43% completed high-school) than women from developing countries (37%). Over half of the women from developing countries reported they had not consumed alcohol in the last 12months (abstentious), while 2% reported drinking every day. In addition, current drinking women from developing countries reported more binge drinking episodes (33% reported 5 to 11 drinks and 15% reported 12 or more drinks on an occasion) compared to those from developed countries (28% and 11%, respectively). Violence-related injury was more prevalent in developing countries (18%) compared to developed countries (9%). An association between injury and the frequency of alcohol consumption in the last 12months was observed in both developing and developed countries. Although women from developing countries who suffered violence-related injuries were more likely to demonstrate alcohol abstinence or have lower rates of daily alcohol consumption, these women drank in a more dangerous way, and violence-related injuries were more likely to occur in these women than in those living in developed countries. PMID:25452073

  14. Immigrant Integration policies and perceived Group Threat: A Multilevel Study of 27 Western and Eastern European Countries.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, Elmar; Meuleman, Bart; Davidov, Eldad

    2013-05-01

    Although immigrant integration policies have long been hypothesized to be associated with majority members' anti-immigrant sentiments, systematic empirical research exploring this relationship is largely absent. To address this gap in the literature, the present research takes a cross-national perspective. Drawing from theory and research on group conflict and intergroup norms, we conduct two studies to examine whether preexisting integration policies that are more permissive promote or impede majority group members' subsequent negative attitudes regarding immigrants. For several Western and Eastern European countries, we link country-level information on immigrant integration policies from 2006 with individual-level survey data from the Eurobarometer 71.3 collected in 2009 (Study 1) and from the fourth wave of the European Value Study collected between 2008 and 2009 (Study 2). For both studies, the results from multilevel regression models demonstrate that immigrant integration policies that are more permissive are associated with decreased perceptions of group threat from immigrants. These findings suggest that immigrant integration policies are of key importance in improving majority members' attitudes regarding immigrants, which is widely considered desirable in modern immigrant-receiving societies. PMID:23521987

  15. Rethinking Indicators of Microbial Drinking Water Quality for Health Studies in Tropical Developing Countries: Case Study in Northern Coastal Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2012-01-01

    To address the problem of the health impacts of unsafe drinking water, methods are needed to assess microbiologic contamination in water. However, indicators of water quality have provided mixed results. We evaluate five assays (three for Escherichia coli and one each for enterococci and somatic coliphage) of microbial contamination in villages in rural Ecuador that rely mostly on untreated drinking water. Only membrane filtration for E. coli using mI agar detected a significant association with household diarrheal disease outcome (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–1.65 in household containers and odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–1.37) in source samples. Our analysis and other published research points to the need for further consideration of study design factors, such as sample size and variability in measurements, when using indicator organisms, especially when relating water quality exposure to health outcomes. Although indicator organisms are used extensively in health studies, we argue that their use requires a full understanding of their purposes and limitations. PMID:22403326

  16. Changing mobility patterns and road mortality among pre-license teens in a late licensing country: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas the safety of teens in early licensing countries has been extensively studied, little is known about the safety of pre-license teens in late licensing countries, where these teens also may be at risk. This risk exists because of the combination of a) increasing use of travel modes with a high injury risk, such as bicycles and mopeds, b) inexperience, and c) teens’ developmental stage, known to be associated with risk taking and novelty seeking, especially among males. To explore the magnitude and nature of pre-license road risk, this study analysed epidemiological data from the Netherlands, and hypothesized that in this late licensing country, ‘independent travel’ and the use of riskier modes of transport increase among pre-license teens 10 to 17 years of age, resulting in higher fatality rates, with ‘experience’ and ‘gender’ as risk modifying factors. Method National travel and fatality data of pre-license adolescents in the Netherlands were analysed by traffic role (cyclist, pedestrian, car passenger and moped rider), and compared to a younger age group (0–9 years) and an older age group (18+ years). Results The study of travel data showed that teens migrate from being car occupants to being users of riskier modes of transport, specifically bicycles and mopeds. This migration resulted in a strong rise in road fatalities, illustrating the importance of mobility patterns for understanding changes in road fatalities in this age group. The data further suggested a protective role of early cycle experience for young adolescent cyclists, particularly for young males. But further study into the underlying mechanism is needed to confirm this relationship. Moped risk was extremely high, especially among young males, and even higher than that of young male car drivers. Conclusions The study confirmed the importance of changes in mobility patterns for understanding the rising road mortality when youngsters enter into their teens. The focus on fatalities has led to an underestimation of the magnitude of the problem because of the physical resilience of young adolescents that leads to high survival rates but probably also to long term disabilities. In addition, to explore the generalizability of these results, international comparisons among and between early and late licensing countries are necessary, especially in relation to moped riding as an alternative for car driving. PMID:23577703

  17. Japanese and US multinational firms in Brazil: a study of technology selection and adaptation in a developing country

    SciTech Connect

    de Curtis, R.L.P.

    1985-01-01

    The hypotheses examined in this study are that (1) Japanese firms operating in developing countries are more labor-intensive, and (2) Japanese firms are more productive than are US-owned subsidiaries operating in the same overseas environment. To test these hypotheses, a field study was conducted in Brazil. Brazil was chosen because it is a developing country and has a sizeable population of Japanese and American firms with manufacturing facilities located there. Detailed interview and plant tours were completed with 34 enterprises (17 US and 17 Japanese) which yielded 20 matched pairs of products for study. The findings do not support the hypotheses. Indeed, most of the statistical analysis supports the notion that the Japanese firms are more capital-intensive (rather than labor-intensive) and about the same or modestly superior in level of productivity when compared with their US counterparts. Although it is true that the managerial systems differ, these different systems do not seem to lead to vastly differing outcomes in terms of measurable operating characteristics. Some authors have suggested that Japanese firms are smaller and more export-oriented than US firms. Where firms produce the same products (as was the case in this study) , the results are the opposite, i.e., the US firms are more export-oriented than Japanese firms.

  18. Reference ranges of handgrip strength from 125,462 healthy adults in 21 countries: a prospective urban rural epidemiologic (PURE) study

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Koon K.; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Kutty, V. Raman; Lanas, Fernando; Hui, Chen; Quanyong, Xiang; Zhenzhen, Qian; Jinhua, Tang; Noorhassim, Ismail; AlHabib, Khalid F; Moss, Sarah J.; Rosengren, Annika; Akalin, Ayse Arzu; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Orlandini, Andrés; Kumar, Rajesh; Yeates, Karen; Gupta, Rajeev; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Dans, Antonio; Avezum, Álvaro; Lopez‐Jaramillo, Patricio; Poirier, Paul; Heidari, Hosein; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Iqbal, Romaina; Khatib, Rasha; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The measurement of handgrip strength (HGS) has prognostic value with respect to all‐cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular disease, and is an important part of the evaluation of frailty. Published reference ranges for HGS are mostly derived from Caucasian populations in high‐income countries. There is a paucity of information on normative HGS values in non‐Caucasian populations from low‐ or middle‐income countries. The objective of this study was to develop reference HGS ranges for healthy adults from a broad range of ethnicities and socioeconomically diverse geographic regions. Methods HGS was measured using a Jamar dynamometer in 125,462 healthy adults aged 35‐70 years from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Results HGS values differed among individuals from different geographic regions. HGS values were highest among those from Europe/North America, lowest among those from South Asia, South East Asia and Africa, and intermediate among those from China, South America, and the Middle East. Reference ranges stratified by geographic region, age, and sex are presented. These ranges varied from a median (25th–75th percentile) 50 kg (43–56 kg) in men <40 years from Europe/North America to 18 kg (14–20 kg) in women >60 years from South East Asia. Reference ranges by ethnicity and body‐mass index are also reported. Conclusions Individual HGS measurements should be interpreted using region/ethnic‐specific reference ranges. PMID:27104109

  19. The aim and participation of scientific tourism in evaluation, recognition and widening of the country's historical and cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashchyan, Davit

    2015-07-01

    Though the phenomenon of scientific tourism is widely spread in the USA and Europe, it is a new branch in Armenian tourism. The aim of the scientific tourism is to establish relationship between the tourist and the scientist, without the tourist having any material interest. The main aim is to involve the tourist in the scientific works, giving him a chance to be a part of the expedition. One of the main goals is also to involve the local tourist in the exploration of the historical and cultural heritage. It is important to mention that besides having the chance to take part in the scientific exploration, they also enjoy the time. It gives an opportunity to make the relation between the tourist and the scientist more strengthen, and let them partnering for future. The scientific tourism gives the scientist an opportunity to get new volunteers to make it wide known for the society. What refers to a tourist it is a good chance for him to be a part of a scientific exploration, to satisfy his own interest, to get new knowledge, and take part in the development of his own country.

  20. SMS reminders to improve the tuberculosis cure rate in developing countries (TB-SMS Cameroon): a protocol of a randomised control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a public health problem in Cameroon, just like in many other countries in the world. The National Tuberculosis Control Programme (PNLT) put in place by the state, aims to fight tuberculosis through the implementation of international directives (Directly Observed Treatment Short, DOTS). Despite the deployment of this strategy across the world, its implementation is difficult in the context of low-resource countries. Some expected results are not achieved. In Cameroon, the cure rate for patients with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TPM+) after 6 months is only about 65%, 20% below the target. This is mainly due to poor patient adherence to treatment. By relying on the potential of mobile Health, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of SMS reminders on the cure rate of TPM + patients, measured using 6-month bacilloscopy. Methods/design This is a blinded, randomised controlled multicentre study carried out in Cameroon. The research hypothesis is that sending daily SMS messages to remind patients to take their prescribed tuberculosis medication, together with the standard DOTS strategy, will increase the cure rate from 65% (control group: DOTS, no SMS intervention) to 85% (intervention group: DOTS, with SMS intervention) in a group of new TPM + patients. In accordance with each treatment centre, the participants will be randomly allocated into the two groups using a computer program: the intervention group and the control group. A member of the research team will send daily SMS messages. Study data will be collected by health professionals involved in the care of patients. Data analysis will be done by the intention-to-treat method. Discussion The achieving of expected outcomes by the PNLT through implementation of DOTS requires several challenges. Although it has been demonstrated that the DOTS strategy is effective in the fight against tuberculosis, its application remains difficult in developing countries. This study explores the potential of mHealth to support DOTS strategy. It will gather new evidence on the effectiveness of mHealth-based interventions and SMS reminders in the improvement of treatment adherence and the cure rate of tuberculosis patients, especially in a low-resource country such as Cameroon. Trial registration The trial is registered on the Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.pactr.org) under unique identification number: PACTR201307000583416. PMID:24460827