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1

QUALICOPC, a multi-country study evaluating quality, costs and equity in primary care  

PubMed Central

Background The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary care systems have on the performance of health care systems. QUALICOPC is funded by the European Commission under the "Seventh Framework Programme". In this article the background and design of the QUALICOPC study is described. Methods/design QUALICOPC started in 2010 and will run until 2013. Data will be collected in 31 European countries (27 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey) and in Australia, Israel and New Zealand. This study uses a three level approach of data collection: the system, practice and patient. Surveys will be held among general practitioners (GPs) and their patients, providing evidence at the process and outcome level of primary care. These surveys aim to gain insight in the professional behaviour of GPs and the expectations and actions of their patients. An important aspect of this study is that each patient's questionnaire can be linked to their own GP's questionnaire. To gather data at the structure or national level, the study will use existing data sources such as the System of Health Accounts and the Primary Health Care Activity Monitor Europe (PHAMEU) database. Analyses of the data will be performed using multilevel models. Discussion By its design, in which different data sources are combined for comprehensive analyses, QUALICOPC will advance the state of the art in primary care research and contribute to the discussion on the merit of strengthening primary care systems and to evidence based health policy development.

2011-01-01

2

Nigeria: A Country Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When research for the Area Handbook for Nigeria was completed in mid-1971, the country was struggling with problems that had arisen in an era of sociopolitical crisis-difficulties that had strained traditional regional relationships and national unity. A ...

H. D. Nelson

1981-01-01

3

Somalia: A Country Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Known in Ancient times as the Land of Punt and renowned for is frankincense and myrrh-which it still exports-Somalia is a developing country whose modern image is marked by a struggling economy, a largely nomadic population, and a history of serious confl...

H. D. Nelson

1981-01-01

4

Haemoptysis: aetiology, evaluation and outcome — a prospective study in a third-world country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemoptysis is an alarming symptom, and the management depends upon the aetiology. Emergency management depends upon localization of the site of bleeding by roentgenogram, computerized chest tompgraphy and bronchoscopy.We prospectively evaluated 52 patients with haemoptysis admitted to the Chest Hospital, Kuwait for 1 year (January 1998 to December 1998) and followed them up for 1 year (January 1999 to December

A. T ABAL; P. C NAIR; J CHERIAN

2001-01-01

5

Systematic review of studies evaluating the broader economic impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries  

PubMed Central

Background Most health economic evaluations of childhood vaccination only capture the health and short-term economic benefits. Measuring broader, long-term effects of vaccination on productivity and externalities could provide a more complete picture of the value of vaccines. Method MEDLINE, EconLit and NHS-EED databases were searched for articles published between January 1990 and July 2011, which captured broader economic benefits of vaccines in low and middle income countries. Studies were included if they captured at least one of the following categories on broader economic impact: outcome-related productivity gains, behaviour-related productivity gains, ecological externalities, equity gains, financial sustainability gains or macroeconomic benefits. Results Twenty-six relevant studies were found, including observational studies, economic models and contingent valuation studies. Of the identified broader impacts, outcome-related productivity gains and ecological externalities were most commonly accounted for. No studies captured behaviour-related productivity gains or macroeconomic effects. There was some evidence to show that vaccinated children 8–14 years of age benefit from increased cognitive ability. Productivity loss due to morbidity and mortality was generally measured using the human capital approach. When included, herd immunity effects were functions of coverage rates or based on reduction in disease outcomes. External effects of vaccines were observed in terms of equitable health outcomes and contribution towards synergistic and financially sustainable healthcare programs. Conclusion Despite substantial variation in the methods of measurement and outcomes used, the inclusion of broader economic impact was found to improve the attractiveness of vaccination. Further research is needed on how different tools and techniques can be used in combination to capture the broader impact of vaccination in a way that is consistent with other health economic evaluations. In addition, more country level evidence is needed from low and middle income countries to justify future investments in vaccines and immunization programs. Finally, the proposed broader economic impact framework may contribute towards better communication of the economic arguments surrounding vaccine uptake, leading to investments in immunization by stakeholders outside of the traditional health care sector such as ministries of finance and national treasuries.

2012-01-01

6

Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large

D. Corbus; M. Martinez; L. Rodriguez; J. Mark

1994-01-01

7

Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in ...

D. Corbus M. Martinez L. Rodriguez J. Mark

1994-01-01

8

Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure

Corey J. A. Bradshaw; Xingli Giam; Navjot S. Sodhi; Stephen Willis

2010-01-01

9

A Study to Evaluate the Language Development of Post-Institutionalised Children Adopted from Eastern European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined data collected over a period of three years from 48 children adopted from Eastern European orphanages. English language acquisition and present levels of performance were measured by the standardised language assessment, the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL). The participants ranged from 3 to 16 years of age, and were assessed on three separate occasions, one year

Lisa A. Schoenbrodt; Deborah T. Carran; Janet Preis

2007-01-01

10

Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries  

PubMed Central

Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less-developed countries, especially those in Asia, there is also a requirement to focus on the development of environmentally friendly practices in wealthier countries.

Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

2010-01-01

11

Diagnostic evaluation of people with hypertension in low income country: cohort study of "essential" method of risk stratification  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the predictive power of a risk stratification method for people with hypertension based on “essential” procedures (that is, available in economically less developed areas of the world), comparing it in the same population with the results given by the method suggested by the 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension (WHO-ISH) guidelines. Design Prospective cohort study of outcomes according to cardiovascular risk profile at baseline. Setting Primary care in a poor rural area of the Ecuadorian forest. Participants 504 people with hypertension prospectively monitored for a mean of 6.7 (SD 2.3) years. Interventions Essential data included blood pressure, medical history, smoking, age, sex, and diagnosis of diabetes; the WHO-ISH methods additionally included measurement of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and creatinine, urinalysis, and electrocardiography. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular events and total deaths. Results With both methods there was a highly significant association between the level of predicted risk and the incidence of cardiovascular events and of total deaths: up to three quarters of all cardiovascular events and two thirds of all deaths were reported among people classified as at high or very high risk with either method. The predictive discrimination of the essential method is comparable with the WHO-ISH with C statistics (95% confidence interval) of 0.788 (0.721 to 0.855) and 0.744 (0.673 to 0.815), respectively, for cardiovascular events and 0.747 (0.678 to 0.816) and 0.705 (0.632 to 0.778) for total mortality. Conclusions The risk stratification of patients with hypertension with an essential package of variables (that is, available and practicable even in the economically less developed areas of the world) serves at least as well as the more comprehensive method proposed by WHO-ISH.

2008-01-01

12

An econometric approach to macroeconomic risk. A cross country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contribution to the study of volatility and country risk is made in order to achieve a successful crosscountry comparison. We present a methodology for the evaluation of country risk that include endogenous detection of multiple structural breaks (also identifying its different kinds), determination of persistence of shocks through their structural-break free fractional integration order and determination of the adjusted

Jorge Eduardo Carrera; Ana Paula Cusolito; Mariano Féliz; Demian Panigo

2001-01-01

13

Using cross-country variances to evaluate growth theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the empirical growth literature has attempted to evaluate growth theories by estimating regressions that relate the growth rate of per capita output for a sample of countries to initial per capita output and country characteristics. The resulting inferences are shown to be invalid except under strong conditions. An alternative method that uses cross-country variances is formulated and shown

Paul Evans

1996-01-01

14

Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

Chang, Chung-chien Karen

2010-01-01

15

Culturally Competent Evaluation in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the rich tapestry of tribal cultures in the United States, it is presumptuous to assume that any evaluator, whether an Alaskan Native or a member of an American Indian tribe (or a non-Indian), can understand the culture of every group. Rather than trying to master multiple cultural specificities, the goal of a competent evaluator,…

LaFrance, Joan

2004-01-01

16

Multi-Country Evaluation of Affective Experience: Validation of an Abbreviated Version of the Day Reconstruction Method in Seven Countries  

PubMed Central

Background The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) was developed to assess affective states as measures of experienced well-being. The present study aimed to validate an abbreviated version of the DRM in a representative sample of the population in seven countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, and Spain), and to examine whether there are country differences in affect and in the relationships among the activities based on the similarity of the affect associated with each of them. Methods Interviews were conducted with 47,222 non-institutionalized adults from seven countries, using an abbreviated version of the DRM. A cluster analysis was carried out to classify activities on the basis of the similarity of the associated affect. In each country, the factorial structure of the affect adjectives was tested through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Internal consistency and construct validity were also assessed. Moreover, the differences in affect across countries and the diurnal cycles of affect were evaluated. Results The DRM showed adequate psychometric properties regarding reliability and construct validity in all countries. Respondents from Ghana and South Africa reported more positive net affect whereas Indian respondents reported less positive net affect. Most of the countries showed a similar diurnal variation of affect, which tended to improve throughout the day. Conclusions The results show that this abbreviated version of the DRM is a useful tool for multi-country evaluation of experienced well-being.

Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Miret, Marta; Caballero, Francisco Felix; Olaya, Beatriz; Haro, Josep Maria; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

2013-01-01

17

Country-of-origin effects in service evaluation in emerging markets: some insights from five West African countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore country-of-origin (COO) effects on service evaluation in an emerging market. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To gain insight, 24 in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders in five West African countries. A conjoint analysis was also conducted to further explore COO effects. Findings – Propositions were developed based on findings from the qualitative study

Jodie L. Ferguson; Kofi Q. Dadzie; Wesley J. Johnston

2008-01-01

18

How Do Other Countries Evaluate Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the primary role of teachers in affecting student achievement, U.S. policy makers and reformers have increasingly focused on monitoring and evaluating teacher effectiveness by emphasizing the links to student learning outcomes. Large-scale international assessments are frequently used as base examples to justify reform. But, relatively…

Williams, James H.; Engel, Laura C.

2012-01-01

19

The Potential for Program Evaluation in a "Developing" Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in conditions in the U.S. and one developing country, the Bahamas, suggest that evaluation of higher education programs are more welcome in the latter. U.S. evaluation programs, such as Florida's annual review of selected disciplines in its nine state institutions of higher education, are few in number and have spread only recently, in…

Greenberg, Barry

20

Healthy city projects in developing countries: the first evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The 'healthy city' concept has only recently been adopted in developing countries. From 1995 to 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, supported healthy city pro- jects (HCPs) in Cox's Bazar (Bangladesh), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Fayoum (Egypt), Managua (Nicaragua) and Quetta (Pakistan). The authors evaluated four of these projects, representing the first major evaluation of HCPs in developing

TRUDY HARPHAM; SALMA BURTON; ILONA BLUE

2001-01-01

21

Randomized Evaluations of Educational Programs in Developing Countries: Some Lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent randomized evaluations of educational programs in developing countries, including programs to increase school participation, to provide educational inputs, and to reform education. It then extracts some lessons for education policy and for the practice and political economy of randomized evaluations.

Michael Kremer

2003-01-01

22

Corporations and Capitals A Framework for Evaluating the Impacts of Transnational Corporations in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a new framework for evaluating the impacts of transnational corporations (TNCs) in developing countries. The framework is based on emerging frameworks in development studies and geographic research that assess how TNCs affect local resource access and livelihood change in developing countries. The paper argues that households are the primary local-level stake- holders

Jeffrey Bury

23

Evaluating the (your country here) olympic medal count.  

PubMed

An Olympic Games is a measurable test of a nation´s sporting power. Medal counts are the object of intense scrutiny after every Olympiad. Most countries celebrate any medal with national glee, since 60% of competing countries will win none. In 2012, 10% of the competing countries won 75% of all medals. Despite this concentration among a few countries, more countries are winning more medals now than 20 years ago, thanks in part to athlete-support and -development programs arising around the globe. Small strong sporting countries like Norway are typified by fairly large variation in medal results from Olympiad to Olympiad and a high concentration of results in a few sports. These are important factors to consider when evaluating national performance and interpreting the medal count. Medal conversion, podium placements relative to top 8 placements, may provide a measure of the competitiveness of athlete-support programs in this international zero sum game where the cost of winning Olympic gold keeps rising whether measured in dollars or human capital.  PMID:23428493

Seiler, Stephen

2013-03-01

24

A qualitative interview study on effects of diet on children's mental state and performance. Evaluation of perceptions, attitudes and beliefs of parents in four European countries.  

PubMed

Nutrition is one of the many factors that influence a child's cognitive development and performance. Understanding the relationship between nutrition and mental performance in children is important in terms of their attainment and productivity both in school and later life. Since parents are seen as nutritional gatekeepers for their children's diets, their views and beliefs are of crucial importance. The present study aims to qualitatively examine parents' perceptions of the relationship between diet and mental performance of children. The study was conducted with a total of 124 parents in four European countries using a semi-structured interview schedule. Parents speak of the effects of diet at two levels; the nature of the effects of diet and the characteristics of the foods responsible for these effects. Mental outcomes are related to diet, with the effects perceived to be associated with attention and concentration, often mediated by effects on children's mood and behaviour. Parents categorise foods as 'good' or 'bad' with positive effects related generally to a healthy balanced diet while negative effects are perceived to be associated with sugary and fatty foods. Understanding parental perceptions is important for many purposes including the targeting of dietary advice and prioritising of public health issues. PMID:22248707

Brands, Brigitte; Egan, Bernadette; Györei, Eszter; López-Robles, Juan Carlos; Gage, Heather; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamás; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique M

2012-01-10

25

Country of origin effect on services: an evaluation of entertainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With globalization in its full toll, customers today have awareness about and access to various foreign entertainment forms such as movies, music and performing arts like theatre and circus. This has magnified the need and scope of the studies on country of origin (COO) effects with respect to entertainment. However, upon reviewing the literature, it is found that, though voluminous

Sunny Bose; Abhilash Ponnam

2011-01-01

26

An comparative study based on leading CO2 emission countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the author gave an comparative study base on leading CO2 emission countries. The results showed that the objective of carbon emission reduction need the long term co-working by countries with respectively implementation feasibility.

Li Muhan; Zhang Lianzhong; Chen Jianguo

2010-01-01

27

Product-country images in the arts: a multi-country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The country-of-origin literature has focused mainly on tangible products and has neglected largely intangible services and products such as the arts. The objective of this study is to examine the impact that country of origin may have on consumer perceptions of artistic and cultural products and to explore the variables that explain how consumers form their perceptions of

Alain dAstous; Zannie Giraud Voss; François Colbert; Antonella Carù; Marylouise Caldwell; François Courvoisier

2008-01-01

28

Peru. A Country Study. Area Handbook Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Once the center of the powerful and fabulously wealthy Inca Empire, Peru in the early 1990s was an impoverished, crisis-prone country trying to cope with major societal, economic, and political changes. The strong undercurrents propelling these changes fl...

R. A. Hudson

1992-01-01

29

Country of Origin as a Stereotype: Effects of Consumer Expertise and Attribute Strength on Product Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research identifies consumer expertise and the type of attribute information as moderating the effects of country of origin on product evaluations. When attribute information was unambiguous, experts based their evaluations on attribute strength, whereas novices relied on country of origin. When attribute information was ambiguous, both experts and novices used country of origin in evaluations. Also, experts and novices

Durairaj Maheswaran

1994-01-01

30

Investigation of country bias in international genetic evaluations using full brother information  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

International Bull Evaluation Service Holstein evaluations from May 2005 were examined for country bias by comparing full-brother families. Countries with more than 25 bulls in multi-country, full-brother families were included. The model fit evaluation on the US scale by absorbing full-brother fami...

31

Review: A critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for HIV prevention in developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential impediment to evidence-based policy development on medical male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention in all countries worldwide is the uncritical acceptance by some of arguments used by opponents of this procedure. Here we evaluate recent opinion-pieces of 13 individuals opposed to MC. We find that these statements misrepresent good studies, selectively cite references, some containing fallacious information, and

Brian J. Morris; Robert C. Bailey; Jeffrey D. Klausner; Arleen Leibowitz; Richard G. Wamai; Jake H. Waskett; Joya Banerjee; Daniel T. Halperin; Laurie Zoloth; Helen A. Weiss; Catherine A. Hankins

2012-01-01

32

[Nutrition and population: study of three countries].  

PubMed

The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion, deforestation, and flooding are becoming serious problems. Kenya's population of 21 million is growing at a rate of 4.2% annually, the fastest in the world. Despite impressive growth in the 2 decades after independence, per capita income has not increased as much with the population doubling in approximately 17 years. The poorest 20% of the population share 2.6% of household income, and per capita calorie consumption has dropped to 88% of the requirement from 98% in 1965. Mexico's population of 82 million is growing at a rate of 2.6% annually, down from 3.5% in 1974 when a serious family planning program was begun. Despite an average per capita calorie consumption 126% of the requirement, rural poverty and poor income distribution mean that hunger is widespread. Most peasants growing their own food depend on poor soil and uncertain rainfall. Progress in largescale agriculture has slowed considerably since 1940-65. PMID:12157690

1988-12-01

33

Countering negative country-of-origin effects : The role of evaluation mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As multinational firms seek to acquire competitive cost advantages through global sourcing, it is also important for them to develop effective strategies to reduce possible damage of a negative country-of-origin (COO) effect. This study aims to examine whether brand image and evaluation mode could alleviate a negative COO effect. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A 2(COO)×2(brand)×2(evaluation mode) experimental design was employed

Po-Young Chu; Chia-Chi Chang; Chia-Yi Chen; Tzu-Yun Wang

2010-01-01

34

Successful Priority Setting in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Framework for Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Priority setting remains a big challenge for health managers and planners, yet there is paucity of literature on evaluating\\u000a priority setting. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for evaluating priority setting in low and middle income\\u000a countries. We conducted a qualitative study involving a review of literature and Delphi interviews with respondents knowledgeable\\u000a of priority setting

Lydia Kapiriri; Douglas K. Martin

2010-01-01

35

The IEA Reading Literacy Study and Results from the Nordic Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven articles of this special issue comment on the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Assessment Reading Literacy Study conducted from 1989 to 1991 in 31 countries. Project design and test instruments are reviewed, and results from the Nordic countries are presented and explored. (SLD)

Tonnessen, Finn Egil, Ed.

1993-01-01

36

Religious slaughter: Evaluation of current practices in selected countries.  

PubMed

As part of the project "Religious slaughter (DIALREL): improving knowledge and expertise through dialogue and debate on issues of welfare, legislation and socio-economic aspects", this paper discusses an evaluation of current practices during Halal and Shechita slaughter in cattle, sheep, goats and poultry. During religious slaughter, animals are killed with and without stunning by a transverse incision across the neck that is cutting the skin, muscles (brachiocephalic, sternocephalic, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid), trachea, esophagus, carotid arteries, jugular veins and the major, superficial and deep nerves of the cervical plexus. In this report, the restraint methods, stunning, neck cutting, exsanguination, slaughter techniques and postcut handling in the abattoir were assessed for religious slaughter. Information about the procedures used during religious slaughter in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, Turkey and Australia was collected by means of spot visits to abattoirs. To standardize the information gathered during the spot visits three guidelines were designed, one for each species, and translated into the national languages of the countries involved. The document included questions on the handling and restraint methods (stunning, neck cutting/exsanguination/slaughter techniques and postcut handling performed under religious practices) and for pain and distress of the animal during the restraint, neck cutting and induction to death in each abattoir. Results showed differences in the time from restraining to stun and to cut in the neck cutting procedures and in the time from cut to death. PMID:23921219

Velarde, A; Rodriguez, P; Dalmau, A; Fuentes, C; Llonch, P; von Holleben, K V; Anil, M H; Lambooij, J B; Pleiter, H; Yesildere, T; Cenci-Goga, B T

2013-07-19

37

Small Enterprises in Developing Countries: Case Studies and Conclusions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication includes over 20 case studies of problems encountered by small businesses in various developing countries. There are individual commentaries on the studies and, in the second part of the book, a general discussion of the factors which dete...

M. Harper T. T. Soon

1979-01-01

38

Evaluation of Immigrant Tuberculosis Screening in Industrialized Countries  

PubMed Central

In industrialized countries, tuberculosis (TB) cases are concentrated among immigrants and driven by reactivation of imported latent TB infection (LTBI). We examined mechanisms used to screen immigrants for TB and LTBI by sending an anonymous, 18-point questionnaire to 31 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Twenty-nine (93.5%) of 31 responded; 25 (86.2%) screened immigrants for active TB. Fewer countries (16/29, 55.2%) screened for LTBI. Marked variations were observed in targeted populations for age (range <5 years of age to all age groups) and TB incidence in countries of origin of immigrants (>20 cases/100,000 population to >500 cases/100,000). LTBI screening was conducted in 11/16 countries by using the tuberculin skin test. Six countries used interferon-? release assays, primarily to confirm positive tuberculin skin test results. Industrialized countries performed LTBI screening infrequently and policies varied widely. There is an urgent need to define the cost-effectiveness of LTBI screening strategies for immigrants.

Pareek, Manish; Baussano, Iacopo; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Dye, Christopher

2012-01-01

39

Stereotyping in Country Advertising: An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines whether advertising creates stereotyping effects, focusing on effects created in the target group, and not on the content of the advertising message as primarily emphasized in prior research on stereotyping in advertising. Conducts an experimental study using a rather unfamiliar travel destination – Norway – as the target object. The findings reveal that advertising may create changes in the

Kjell Grønhaug; Morten Heide

1992-01-01

40

Transformative learning through study abroad in low-income countries.  

PubMed

Study abroad in low-income countries is an emerging trend in nursing education, yet student outcomes vary from positive to negative. Study abroad in low-income countries can be transformative because it has the potential to increase student awareness of socioeconomic relations, structural oppression, and human connectedness. The authors discuss 10 strategies to facilitate transformative learning in students who study abroad. PMID:22688874

Foronda, Cynthia; Belknap, Ruth Ann

41

Improving the Performance of Contingent Valuation Studies in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses three main reasons why so many of the contingentvaluation studies conducted in developing countries are\\u000a so bad. First,the contingent valuation surveys themselves are often poorly administeredand executed. Second, contingent valuation\\u000a scenarios are often very poorlycrafted. Third, few CV studies conducted in developing countries aredesigned to test whether\\u000a some of the key assumptions that the researchermade were the

Dale Whittington

2002-01-01

42

Economic evaluation of communicable disease interventions in developing countries: a critical review of the published literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited health care budgets have emphasized the need for providers to use resources efficiently. Accordingly, there has been a rapid increase in the number of economic evaluations of communicable disease health programmes in developing countries, as there is a need to implement evidence-based policy decisions. However, given the prohibitive cost of many economic evaluations in low-income countries, interest has also

Damian Walker; Julia A. Fox-Rushby

2000-01-01

43

The process of choosing a management career : Evaluation of gender and contextual dynamics in a comparative study of six countries: Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, UK and the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this article is to identify the reasons MBA students have for their career choices, and to explore the contextual and gender-related aspects of career choice and development, based on a comparative study carried out with participants in six countries, i.e. Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, the UK and the USA. The paper seeks to investigate

Cem Tanova; Mine Karata?-Özkan; Gözde ?nal

2008-01-01

44

Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

2010-01-01

45

Drug use in children: cohort study in three European countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence of “recurrent/chronic” use (three or more prescriptions a year) and “non-recurrent” or “acute” use (less than three prescriptions a year) within each therapeutic class. Descriptions of the top five most commonly used drugs evaluated for off label status within each anatomical class. Results Three levels of drug use could be distinguished in the study population: high (>10/100 children per year), moderate (1-10/100 children per year), and low (<1/100 children per year). For all age categories, anti-infective, dermatological, and respiratory drugs were in the high use group, whereas cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs were always in the low use group. Emollients, topical steroids, and asthma drugs had the highest prevalence of recurrent use, but relative use of low prevalence drugs was more often recurrent than acute. In the top five highest prevalence drugs topical inhaled and systemic steroids, oral contraceptives, and topical or systemic antifungal drugs were most commonly used off label. Conclusion This overview of outpatient paediatric prescription patterns in a large European population could provide information to prioritise paediatric therapeutic research needs.

2008-01-01

46

Photovoltaic evaluation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

47

[Studies of psychopathology of homeless individuals in European Countries].  

PubMed

Most research on the homeless is coming from the US, where the prevelence of mental disorders concerning this population was pointed out. The surveys for the homeless in European countries focus on the mental state and community care of the homeless very early, since the 1980's. Homelessness is gradually developing in these countries, while in the countries of North America the phenomenon is much older. The prevelence of mental disorders in European countries is higher in the homeless population, with rates of 58% -100% compared with the general population. In countries like Germany, Spain, Holland, France, Switzerland, where the phenomenon of homelessness has been studied, one of the most striking features was the high prevalence of substance abuse disorders, emotional disorders, while small percentages were reported for psychotic disorders. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was very high in Germany, perhaps because it is easily accessible and less expensive than in other countries. Limited use by homeless of relevant health services was also very common in this country. The same observation was also recorded in Spain, France and the Netherlands. High rates in these countries was reported for comorbidity, most often concerning the combination of substance abuse disorder and emotional disorders. Another interesting finding in the European countries is the high prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders and the low prevalence of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. The low prevalence of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder is in contrast with studies from North America according to some authors who compared their samples with samples of homeless people in Los Angeles. The level of abuse of illegal substances was also found high in countries such as England. In Spain affective disorders was reported to be very high among the homeless population. The homeless population faces many complex mental health problems compared with those of the general population. What is a source of concern is that these problems are not adequately faced either by mental health services and rehabilitation programs, or the social services for the homeless. It is recommended that these services have to achieve integration in therapeutic and organizational level, in order to better meet the needs of this complex and heterogeneous population. PMID:23399755

Chondraki, P; Madianos, M; Papadimitriou, G N

48

Application of a multiple-trait, multiple-country genetic evaluation model for female fertility traits.  

PubMed

The need to implement a method that can handle multiple traits per country in international genetic evaluations is evident. Today, many countries have implemented multiple-trait national genetic evaluations and they may expect to have their traits simultaneously analyzed in international genetic evaluations. Traits from the same country are residually correlated and the method currently in use, single-trait multiple across-country evaluation (ST-MACE), cannot handle nonzero residual correlations. Therefore, multiple-trait, multiple across-country evaluation (MT-MACE) was proposed to handle several traits from the same country simultaneously. To test the robustness of MT-MACE on real data, female fertility was chosen as a complex trait with low heritability. Data from 7 Holstein populations, 3 with 2 traits and 4 with 1 trait, were used. The differences in the estimated genetic correlations by MT-MACE and the single ST-MACE analysis (average absolute deviation of 0.064) were due to the bias of considering several traits from the same country in the ST-MACE analysis. However, the differences between the estimated genetic correlations by MT-MACE and multiple ST-MACE analyses avoiding more than one trait per country in each analysis (average absolute deviation of 0.066) were due to the lack of analysis of the correlated traits from the same country together and using the reported within-country genetic correlations. Applying MT-MACE resulted in reliability gain in international genetic evaluations, which was different from trait to trait and from bull to bull. The average reliability gain by MT-MACE over ST-MACE was 3.0 points for domestic bulls and 6.3 points for foreign bulls. Even countries with 1 trait benefited from the joint analysis of traits from the 2-trait countries. Another superiority of MT-MACE over ST-MACE is that the bulls that do not have national genetic evaluation for some traits from multiple trait countries will receive international genetic evaluations for those traits. Rank correlations were high between ST-MACE and MT-MACE when considering all bulls. However, the situation was different for the top 100 bulls. Simultaneous analysis of traits from the same country affected bull ranks, especially for top 100 bulls. Multi-trait MACE is a recommendable and robust method for international genetic evaluations and is appropriate for handling multiple traits per country, which can increase the reliability of international genetic evaluations. PMID:21094772

Nilforooshan, M A; Jakobsen, J H; Fikse, W F; Berglund, B; Jorjani, H

2010-12-01

49

[Violence during Pregnancy: Prevalence Studies in OECD Countries].  

PubMed

Violence during pregnancy can be associated with health consequences for both the pregnant woman und the unborn child. The available data on prevalence are insufficient in Germany, an underestimation of the problem is probable. Therefore data from other OECD countries are considered. Searching in the databases EMBASE (incl. Medline), CINAHL, PsycINFO and SSCI in English or German language, primary and secondary studies from OECD countries published from 2004 to 2011 were identified. Studies without a valid instrument were excluded. 20 studies using 6 different, partially modified instruments were identified. In OECD countries the prevalence data vary, depending on the instrument applied and the design of the studies. The majority of the studies underestimate the prevalence of violence during pregnancy. Study results from OECD countries are in the analysed range of the reviews. The data collected in Germany are at the bottom of the spectrum. This suggests an underestimation of the problem in Germany. Further research is needed using more valid instruments and better study designs. PMID:23512468

Liepe, K; Blättner, B

2013-03-19

50

A study of work injuries in eight Asian countries.  

PubMed

This study is based on a survey conducted in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand on occupational injuries during the years 1975-1980. The number of work accidents have risen rapidly during this period in all of the 8 countries studied. In the case of Thailand, the total number of work injuries increased four fold from 1975-1978, whereas, in Singapore it has almost doubled in 6 years. The number of permanent disablement nearly trebled in Korea, and the Philippines for the year 1967-1980. The largest percentage of accidents are lost-time injuries in all of the 8 countries. Thailand had a three fold increase in lost-time injuries whilst in Hong Kong the figure doubled. Six out of the 8 countries indicated that the building construction industry had the largest number of fatal accidents, followed by the manufacturing industry. PMID:6497348

Ong, C N; Phoon, W O; Tan, T C; Jeyaratnam, J; Cho, S C; Suma'mur, P K; Mahathevan, R; Reverente, B R; Wongphanich, W; Kogi, K

1984-04-01

51

Educational Evaluation in Scandinavian Countries: Converging or Diverging Practices?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current educational evaluation is institutionalized as an element in national educational policy in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. This article analyses how higher education and primary and lower secondary education have adopted and institutionalized educational evaluation. The analysis shows similarities and differences in organizing and…

Hansen, Hanne Foss

2009-01-01

52

Educational Evaluation in Scandinavian Countries: Converging or Diverging Practices?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current educational evaluation is institutionalized as an element in national educational policy in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. This article analyses how higher education and primary and lower secondary education have adopted and institutionalized educational evaluation. The analysis shows similarities and differences in organizing and practicing…

Hansen, Hanne Foss

2009-01-01

53

Does globalization impact entrepreneurship? Comparative study of country level indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of increased level of globalization on entrepreneurship remains unexplored area within the domain of international business. In this paper we aim to explore the relationships between globalization and entrepreneurship based on a comparative study of globalization and entrepreneurship indicators at a country level. We use the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data for measuring level of entrepreneurship at a

G. T. Vinig; J. de Kluijver

2007-01-01

54

Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

Bui, Minh Q.

2011-01-01

55

Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

Saito, Eisuke

2012-01-01

56

A comparative study of successful aging in three Asian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to examine successful aging in three Asian countries, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand, using data from the WHO regional studies of Health and Social Aspects of Aging. Successful aging is defined as having no ADL difficulties, and at most, one Nagi difficulty. For the most part, the results are similar to those using more

Vicki L. Lamb; George C. Myers

1999-01-01

57

Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

Bui, Minh Q.

2011-01-01

58

‘Active ageing’: a qualitative study in six Caribbean countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to document the perceptions of elders in six Caribbean countries about ' active ageing ' and on the basis of their reports to make recom- mendations to improve their situation. Data were collected principally through 31 focus group discussions conducted in both urban and rural areas. Comparative analysis was carried out of the qualitative

PATRICK CLOOS; CAROLINE F. ALLEN; BEATRIZ E. ALVARADO; MARIA VICTORIA ZUNZUNEGUI; DONALD T. SIMEON; DENISE ELDEMIRE-SHEARERk

2010-01-01

59

Financing Studies: Financial Support schemes for students in selected countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most countries around the world offer financial support for students, in the sphere of higher education. The general goal is to give young people who have the abilities and the willingness to study access to higher education, despite a lack of their own financial means. But ensuring equality of access is not the only aim of financial support schemes. Promoting

Christopher Schumann

2006-01-01

60

Environmental sustainability and financial feasibility evaluation of woodfuel biomass used for a potential replacement of conventional space heating sources. Part II: a combined Greek and the nearby Balkan countries case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the proposal of biofuels introduction to the existing energy network of European countries is directed through the\\u000a recent European Legislation. The above proposal’s implementation would be successfully materialized by exploiting the Renewable\\u000a Energy Sources, which are abundant in the Greek context. At the present study, the biofuels entrance to the Greek energy network\\u000a is investigated through the three woodfuel

Grigorios Kyriakopoulos; Konstantinos G. Kolovos; Miltiadis S. Chalikias

2010-01-01

61

Humanitarian action in developing countries: who evaluates who?  

PubMed

Humanitarian NGOs and intergovernmental organisations are usually assessed by their funders, not their beneficiaries. In most cases, their evaluation relies on interviews with "professionals", neglects field surveys, does not use opinion polls and seldom tries to assess the socioeconomic impact of relief. Moreover, it is commissioned by stakeholders at the risk of being judge and party. Such a system brings several conflicts of interest: (1) it needs to be approved by those who are evaluated and so does not deal with "bad eggs" that refuse to be investigated; (2) it produces biased analysis, does not name names and passes over fundamental issues; (3) it is very formal and technocratic, if not meaningless; (4) it does not help to learn from past mistakes. Hence this article proposes a framework to develop third party evaluations. It is suggested that, to be really independent, evaluation should neither be paid or commissioned by stakeholders, i.e. NGOs and institutional funders. To facilitate learning, its methodology and its results must also be available to the general public. To be accepted by those who are evaluated, finally, it should highlight the difficulties, explain the political context, acknowledge its subjectivity, recognize its limits, focus on processes more than results and develop qualitative analysis out of quantitative indicators. PMID:21168212

Pérouse de Montclos, Marc-Antoine

2010-11-10

62

Good jobs, bad jobs: Workers' evaluations in five countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

ow good or bad is a particular job? How good or bad is my own H job? These are questions that everyone has asked or been asked. They are important questions, because they go to the heart of the issues of job quality and personal welfare. One direct way to evaluate the extent to which jobs are good or bad

Joseph A. RITTER; Richard ANKER

2002-01-01

63

An evaluation of eia system performance in eight eu countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the quality of environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports, modifications to projects as a result of EIA, and the influence of changes to EIA procedures in the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, and Portugal is reported. The overall proportion of “satisfactory” EIA reports sampled increased from 50% to 71% between 1990–1991 and 1994–1996. Several modifications

Adam Barker; Christopher Wood

1999-01-01

64

School Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current academic and policy literatures concerning school evaluation in primary and secondary education within the OECD countries. First, it provides a typology of the existing systems of school evaluation across the OECD. It encompasses the diverse criteria and instruments commonly used to carry out schools evaluation, as well as the players involved in the design and

Violaine Faubert

2009-01-01

65

Competitive analysis of the Turkish brick industry—a case study for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article was to examine the factors affecting the competition in brick industries in developing countries. Turkish brick industry was analysed as a case study within the frame of Porter's five forces model.A questionnaire survey was undertaken with Turkish brick makers and the results were evaluated by using frequency tables, Likert scale of comparisons and hypothesis testing.Findings

Emel Laptali Oral; Gulgun M?st?koglu

2007-01-01

66

Civic Education across Countries: Twenty-four National Case Studies from the IEA Civic Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume reports the results of the first phase of the Civic Education Study conducted by International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). During 1996 and 1997, researchers in 24 countries collected documentary evidence on the circumstances, contents, and processes of civic education in response to a common set of…

Torney-Purta, Judith; Schwille, John; Amadeo, Jo-Ann

67

Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: Workers' Evaluations in Five Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17…

Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard

2002-01-01

68

A study of technical, marketing, and cultural differences between virtual communities in industrially developing and developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the technical, marketing, and cultural differences between virtual communities in an industrially developing country, i.e. Bangladesh, and an industrially developed country, i.e. the USA. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 33 virtual community sites from both countries were randomly selected and evaluated based on eight criteria relating to technical, marketing, and

Majharul Talukder; Paul H. P. Yeow

2006-01-01

69

Diagnostic evaluation of primary cervical adenopathies in a developing country  

PubMed Central

Introduction To review the pathology of lymph node biopsies removed from patients with primary cervical lymphadenopathy. Methods A 20 (1987-2006) year retrospective study of all patients who had lymph node biopsy; in the Department of Pathology and Haematology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Results Of 357 lymph node biopsies accessioned, 68 (19.0%) cases were in children. Granulomatous diseases constituted 128 (35.9%) cases. Tuberculosis (Tb) was the single commonest cause of cervical lymphadenopathy constituting 125 (35.0%) cases and also the commonest cause of cervical lymphadenopathy below the age of 45 years. Tuberculosis (TB) lymphadenopathy occurred predominantly in male children and young female adults. TB lymphadenopathy was rare above the age of 45 years. Neoplastic diseases constituted 173 (48.5%) cases. Of these, lymphoma predominated comprising 93 (26.1%) cases. These included 37 (10.4%) and 56 (15.7%) cases of Hodgkin?s lymphoma and non Hodgkin?s lymphoma respectively. Hodgkin?s lymphoma occurred most commonly in young male adults. Metastatic tumours constituted 80 (22.4%) cases and was the predominant cause of cervical lymphadenopathy above the age of 45 years. Non specific reactive lymphadenitis constituted 56 (15.7%) cases. Conclusion Chronic lymphadenopathy in our environment has a high incidence of tuberculosis. We recommend urgent lymph node biopsy in significantly enlarged nodes not responding to treatment.

Olu-Eddo, Adesuwa Noma; Omoti, Caroline Edijana

2011-01-01

70

Economic evaluations of non-communicable disease interventions in developing countries: a critical review of the evidence base  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Demographic projections suggest a major increase in non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality over the next two decades in developing countries. In a climate of scarce resources, policy-makers need to know which interventions represent value for money. The prohibitive cost of performing multiple economic evaluations has generated interest in transferring the results of studies from one setting to another. This paper

Jo-Ann Mulligan; Damian Walker; Julia Fox-Rushby

2006-01-01

71

Teacher Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the most relevant issues concerning teacher evaluation in primary and secondary education by reviewing the recent literature and analysing current practices within the OECD countries. First, it provides a conceptual framework highlighting key features of teacher evaluation schemes. In particular, it emphasises the importance of clarifying the purposes of teacher appraisal, whether summative when designed to assure

Marlène Isoré

2009-01-01

72

Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a panel data set of 46 countries over the 1970–1989 period to investigate the relationship between fiscal decentralization and economic growth. We find a negative relationship between fiscal decentralization and growth in developing countries, but none in developed countries. Several explanations are offered for our findings.

Hamid Davoodi; Heng-fu Zou

1998-01-01

73

Economic evaluations of non-communicable disease interventions in developing countries: a critical review of the evidence base  

PubMed Central

Background Demographic projections suggest a major increase in non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality over the next two decades in developing countries. In a climate of scarce resources, policy-makers need to know which interventions represent value for money. The prohibitive cost of performing multiple economic evaluations has generated interest in transferring the results of studies from one setting to another. This paper aims to bridge the gap in the current literature by critically evaluating the available published data on economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Methods We identified and reviewed the methodological quality of 32 economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Developing countries were defined according to the World Bank classification for low- and lower middle-income countries. We defined NCDs as the 12 categories listed in the 1993 World Bank report Investing in Health. English language literature was searched for the period January 1984 and January 2003 inclusive in Medline, Science Citation Index, HealthStar, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and Embase using medical subheading terms and free text searches. We then assessed the quality of studies according to a set of pre-defined technical criteria. Results We found that the quality of studies was poor and resource allocation decisions made by local and global policy-makers on the basis of this evidence could be misleading. Furthermore we have identified some clear gaps in the literature, particularly around injuries and strategies for tackling the consequences of the emerging tobacco epidemic. Conclusion In the face of poor evidence the role of so-called generalised cost-effectiveness analyses has an important role to play in aiding public health decision-making at the global level. Further research is needed to investigates the causes of variation among cost, effects and cost-effectiveness data within and between settings. Such analyses still need to take a broad view, present data in a transparent manner and take account of local constraints.

Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Walker, Damian; Fox-Rushby, Julia

2006-01-01

74

Nurse Migration from a Source Country Perspective: Philippine Country Case Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe nurse migration patterns in the Philippines and their benefits and costs. Principal Findings The Philippines is a job-scarce environment and, even for those with jobs in the health care sector, poor working conditions often motivate nurses to seek employment overseas. The country has also become dependent on labor migration to ease the tight domestic labor market. National opinion has generally focused on the improved quality of life for individual migrants and their families, and on the benefits of remittances to the nation. However, a shortage of highly skilled nurses and the massive retraining of physicians to become nurses elsewhere has created severe problems for the Filipino health system, including the closure of many hospitals. As a result, policy makers are debating the need for new policies to manage migration such that benefits are also returned to the educational institutions and hospitals that are producing the emigrant nurses. Conclusions and Recommendations There is new interest in the Philippines in identifying ways to mitigate the costs to the health system of nurse emigration. Many of the policy options being debated involve collaboration with those countries recruiting Filipino nurses. Bilateral agreements are essential for managing migration in such a way that both sending and receiving countries derive benefit from the exchange.

Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn E; Galvez-Tan, Jaime; Icamina, Kriselle; Javier, Lara

2007-01-01

75

A systematic review of economic evaluations of interventions to tackle cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries  

PubMed Central

Background Low-and middle-income countries are facing both a mounting burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as severe resource constraints that keep them from emulating some of the extensive strategies pursued in high-income countries. There is thus an urgency to identify and implement those interventions that help reap the biggest reductions of the CVD burden, given low resource levels. What are the interventions to combat CVDs that represent good "value for money" in low-and middle-income countries? This study reviews the evidence-base on economic evaluations of interventions located in those countries. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of journal articles published until 2009, based on a comprehensive key-word based search in generic and specialized electronic databases, accompanied by manual searches of expert databases. The search strategy consisted of freetext and MeSH terms related to economic evaluation and cardiovascular disease. Two independent reviewers verified fulfillment of inclusion criteria and extracted study characteristics. Results Thirty-three studies met the selection criteria. We find a growing research interest, in particular in most recent years, if from a very low baseline. Most interventions fall under the category primary prevention, as opposed to case management or secondary prevention. Across the spectrum of interventions, pharmaceutical strategies have been the predominant focus, and, taken at face value, these show significant positive economic evidence, specifically when compared to the counterfactual of no interventions. Only a few studies consider non-clinical interventions, at population level. Almost half of the studies have modelled the intervention effectiveness based on existing risk-factor information and effectiveness evidence from high-income countries. Conclusion The cost-effectiveness evidence on CVD interventions in developing countries is growing, but remains scarce, and is biased towards pharmaceutical interventions. While the burden of cardiovascular disease is growing in these countries, future research should put greater emphasis on non-clinical interventions than has hitherto been the case. Significant differences in outcome measures and methodologies prohibit a direct ranking of the interventions by their degree of cost-effectiveness. Considerable caution should be exercised when transferring effectiveness estimates from developed countries for the purpose of modelling cost-effectiveness in developing countries. New local CVD risk factor and intervention follow-up studies are needed. Some pharmaceutical strategies appear cost-effective while clarifications are needed on the diagnostic approach in single high-risk factor vs. absolute risk targeting, the role of patient compliance, and the potential public health consequences of large-scale medicalization.

2012-01-01

76

Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

2011-01-01

77

Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

2011-01-01

78

Study on the impact of institutional environment in host countries on the outward FDI of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of Institution theory, this paper studied the impact of institution environment of host country on the outward direct investment of China. Based on the data of our outward direct investment to 99 countries, this paper used principal components analysis to establish the institutional index of host countries. This paper finds out the institutional index of host countries has

Zhou Jian; Xiao Shu-yu; Cui Sheng-chao; Fang Gang

2010-01-01

79

A Strategy for the Evaluation of Activities to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation strategy in which a set of process indicators is applied to programs to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries is presented. The four-stage strategy is illustrated for three interventions: (1) providing safe abortion services; (2) increasing knowledge of obstetric complications; and (3) improving medical care quality. (SLD)

Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

1994-01-01

80

Career success and satisfaction: a comparative study in nine countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This project aims to examine levels of career and life satisfaction among successful women in nine countries in the Americas. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A structured survey and in-depth interviews were used, and a variety of occupations, demographics, and personality characteristics assessed – 1,146 successful women from nine countries in the USA responded the survey: 105 from Argentina, 210 from

Betty Jane Punnett; Jo Ann Duffy; Suzy Fox; Ann Gregory; Terri Lituchy; John Miller; Silvia Inés Monserrat; Miguel R. Olivas-Luján; Neusa Maria Bastos F. Santos

2007-01-01

81

Evaluation of the impact of NCI's Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention on participants from low- and middle-income countries.  

PubMed

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention provides scientists and health care professionals training in principles and practices of cancer prevention and control, and molecular biology and genetics of cancer. Originally intended for US scientists, the curriculum's enrollment of international scientists has increased steadily. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the curriculum's impact on knowledge, skills, and career accomplishments of the international participants from low- and middle-income countries. International participants from 1998 to 2009 completed questionnaires regarding knowledge, overall experience, and accomplishments directly associated with the curriculum. Almost all respondents agreed that the curriculum enhanced their knowledge and skills, prepared them to contribute to cancer control activities in their home countries, and addressed specific needs and achieve research goals. The NCI Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention gives international participants a unique opportunity to enhance their knowledge and effectively contribute to cancer control activities in their home country. PMID:23355281

Williams, Makeda J; Otero, Isabel V; Harford, Joe B

2013-03-01

82

Evaluation of the Impact of NCI Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention's on Participants from Low- and Middle Income Countries  

PubMed Central

The NCI Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention provides scientists and health care professionals training in principles and practices of cancer prevention and control, and molecular biology and genetics of cancer. Originally intended for U.S. scientists, the Curriculum’s enrollment of international scientists has increased steadily. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the Curriculum’s impact on knowledge, skills and career accomplishments of the international participants from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). International participants from 1998 to 2009 completed questionnaires regarding knowledge, overall experience and accomplishments directly associated with the Curriculum. Almost all respondents agreed the Curriculum enhanced their knowledge and skills, prepared them to contribute to cancer control activities in their home countries and addressed specific needs and achieve research goals. The NCI Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention gives international participants a unique opportunity to enhance their knowledge and effectively contribute to cancer control activities in their home country.

Williams, Makeda J.; Otero, Isabel V.; Harford, Joe B.

2013-01-01

83

A critical and comparative evaluation of approaches and policies to measure, benchmark, reduce and manage CO2 emissions from energy use in the existing building stock of developed and rapidly-developing countries - case studies of UK, USA, and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed paper answers the questions: What can be done to achieve significant reductions in CO2 emissions from the existing building stock of developed and rapidly-developing countries to reduce the worst impacts of climate change? How can we measure, benchmark, reduce and manage CO2 emissions from energy use in the existing building stock? What are the barriers in implementing appropriate

Rajat Gupta; Smita Chandiwala

84

A Preliminary Study in Three Countries: Indonesia Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Indonesia, a country of over 300 ethnic groups, the enormous diversity of language, religion, education, culture, and custom makes the term Indonesian woman inadequate. This paper documents the social, legal, and economic status of Indonesia's 66 milli...

P. Milone

1978-01-01

85

Adjustment in Africa: Lessons from Country Case Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Adjustment in seven African countries; Burundi: learning the lessons; Cote d'Ivoire: fettered adjustment; Ghana: frontrunner in adjustment; Kenya: patchy, intermittent commitment; Nigeria: ownership abandoned; Senegal: stabilization, partial adj...

I. Husain R. Faruqee

1994-01-01

86

Gender, Information Technology, and Developing Countries: An Analytical Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information technology (IT) has become a potent force in transforming social, economic, and political life globally. Without its incorporation into the information age, there is little chance for countries or regions to develop. More and more concern is b...

N. Hafkin N. Taggart

2001-01-01

87

Dominican Republic, Country Environmental Profile: A Field Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental degradation in the Dominican Republic (DR) caused by energy and food limitations and rapid population growth portend a bleak future unless a qualitatively different relationship between the Dominican people and the country's natural resource...

G. Hartshorn G. Antonini R. DuBois D. Harcharik S. Heckadon

1981-01-01

88

Solar cell fabrication studies pertinent to developing countries  

SciTech Connect

The question of photovoltaics among the many approaches to the energy problem as being of relevance in the Third World countries is discussed. Based on these studies, which involved the physics of solar cells, various solar cell configurations, the materials for their fabrication and their fabrication sequences, it was concluded that silicon homojunction solar cells are best suited to the present needs and environment of, and suitable for development in the Third World. The cadmium sulphide-cuprous sulphide solar cell could be considered as a viable future candidate. Attendant with the adoption of photovoltaics as electric energy supply, is the problem of technology transfer and development. Towards that goal, laboratory studies were carried out on the fabrication of solar cells using very simple fabrication sequences and materials to demonstrate the tolerable efficiencies are achievable by their use. To demonstrate how basic research could benefit solar cell fabrication, a number of experiments were undertaken; such as varying fabrication sequences and materials, finding their radiation tolerance, and carrying out Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) studies, in an attempt to understand some of the fabrication and environmental factors which limit solar cell performance. It was found that subjecting wafers to preheat treatments does not improve solar cell performance, but rather reduces solar cell radiation tolerance. Also P-type substrate solar cells were found to be more radiation resistant than N-type substrate solar cells. The Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy results showed that carbon and oxygen, as one would expect, are chief contaminants of the silicon wafers that were used in the fabrication of the solar cells.

Prah, J.H.

1983-01-01

89

PRODUCT EVALUATION AND PURCHASE INTENTION: IMPACT OF COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN AND EXPERIENCE IN LIVING IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an experiment that compares the perceptions of product quality and purchase intentions of foreign versus home products by Chinese consumers who have had experience living in a western society compared to those living in China. The results indicate experience does affect purchase likelihood for home versus foreign products. Chinese, generally, find country of parts

WONG CHUI YIM; ROMANA GARMA

90

Nuclear Strategy and National Style. Volume 2. Appendices. National Strategic Style: Country Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The appendices in this volume examine the national character and national strategic style and doctrine of four countries: The Soviet Union, France, The United Kingdom and China. These country studies supplement the main body of the research project on Nuc...

C. S. Gray D. S. Yost E. S. Boylan R. Ranger R. V. Strode

1981-01-01

91

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 1, Summary: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions` levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.; Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

92

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions' levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.); Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

93

Inflation, Growth, and Income Distribution: A Cross-Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper uses a newly compiled cross-country panel data on income distribution to explore the impact of inflation on income distribution and economic growth. We have found that inflation (1) worsens income distribution; (2) increases the income share of the rich; (3) has a negative but insignificant effect on the income shares of the poor and the middle class;

Hongyi Li; Heng-fu Zou

2002-01-01

94

Persian Gulf States Country Studies, Area Handbook Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The countries of the Persian Gulf covered in this volume-Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates-have assumed added prominence as a result of Operation Desert Shield in 1990 and the Persian Gulf War in 1991. These states share certain c...

H. C. Metz

1993-01-01

95

Governmental threats for Media Freedom: Comparative Study of Asian Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Asian Countries media freedom is a controversial issue, on one side right to information and freedom of expression is provided on other side media regulations and Press laws are ready to curb the media freedom. In China the party and government are attempting to act as a media watch dog in fast changing world of open communication. Advertisements of

Naveen Kumar Mishra

96

Water Scarcity and Food Import: A Case Study for Southern Mediterranean Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking six southern Mediterranean countries as a case study, this paper addresses the water-food challenges facing water-scarce countries and the implications for the world food economy. By accounting the volume of virtual water embedded in food imports into the countries concerned, a close relationship between water endowment and food import dependence is elaborated. A projection of the cereal demand suggests

Hong Yang; Alexander J. B. Zehnder

2002-01-01

97

African Braille Production: A Statistical Review and Evaluation of Countries and Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted in 52 African countries to determine the extent of braille facilities for the blind, with the aim of choosing a location for a central braille producing facility. To make the selection, the factors of ease of communication (i.e., cen...

M. Mayer F. K. Cylke

1979-01-01

98

An Evaluation of European Countries' Health Systems through Distance Based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The issue of evaluating the efficiency of health systems has been elaborated upon frequently. Since “health” is a multi-faceted concept, many variables of different measurement units must be included in its analysis; consequently, this presents a great obstacle for researchers to overcome. Materials and Methods: A novel statistical approach for evaluating the efficiency of organizational units is here proposed, which can also be easily applied to the health sector. For these purposes, the health status of the 27 countries belonging to the European Union has been examined by employing a statistical Ivanovic-Jeremic Distance Based Analysis (DBA) on various health indicators. Results: The subsequent outcome of the Distance Based Analysis has shown that Cyprus and Ireland have a most efficient health system sectors. Greece also has exceptional indicators of health service, yet health on the individual level is not comparable. Limitations: Since it synthesizes many variables into an efficiency score, a DBA can be easily applied to other regions/countries. However, the choice of input and output variables can be considered to be potential limitations since a different choice of variables may cause different efficiency scores for the countries selected. Conclusions: A DBA approach contributes significantly to the efficiency in the field of research measurement. This analysis can be additionally performed alongside DEA and SFA methods, as a new measure of efficiency.

Jeremic, V; Bulajic, M; Martic, M; Markovic, A; Savic, G; Jeremic, D; Radojicic, Z

2012-01-01

99

Quality Assurance and Evaluation (QAE) in Scotland: Promoting Self-Evaluation within and beyond the Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article looks at policy for quality assurance and evaluation in Scotland, its history and more recent developments, and in particular, at the emphasis on school self-evaluation. It examines the history of the concept, its constituent elements and the role of the Inspectorate in establishing it. Further, the article discusses the Scottish…

Croxford, Linda; Grek, Sotiria; Shaik, Farah Jeelani

2009-01-01

100

Evaluation of a health setting-based stigma intervention in five African countries.  

PubMed

The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated. PMID:20025515

Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

2009-12-01

101

Evaluation of a Health Setting-Based Stigma Intervention in Five African Countries  

PubMed Central

Abstract The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n?=?134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated.

Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L.

2009-01-01

102

Haemodialysis prescription, adherence and nutritional indicators in five European countries: results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) is a prospective, observa- tional study designed to evaluate practice patterns in random samples of haemodialysis facilities and pati- ents across three continents. Participating countries include France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK (Euro-DOPPS), Japan and the USA. DOPPS data collection has used the same questionnaires and protocols across all participating

Erwin Hecking; Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham; Hugh C. Rayner; Ronald L. Pisoni; Vittorio E. Andreucci; Christian Combe; Roger Greenwood; Keith McCullough; Harold I. Feldman; Eric W. Young; Philip J. Held; Friedrich K. Port

2010-01-01

103

Comparison of patient evaluations of health care quality in relation to WHO measures of achievement in 12 European countries.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into similarities and differences in patient evaluations of quality of primary care across 12 European countries and to correlate patient evaluations with WHO health system performance measures (for example, responsiveness) of these countries. METHODS: Patient evaluations were derived from a series of Quote (QUality of care Through patients' Eyes) instruments designed to measure the quality of primary care. Various research groups provided a total sample of 5133 patients from 12 countries: Belarus, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom, and Ukraine. Intraclass correlations of 10 Quote items were calculated to measure differences between countries. The world health report 2000 - Health systems: improving performance performance measures in the same countries were correlated with mean Quote scores. FINDINGS: Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from low to very high, which indicated little variation between countries in some respects (for example, primary care providers have a good understanding of patients' problems in all countries) and large variation in other respects (for example, with respect to prescription of medication and communication between primary care providers). Most correlations between mean Quote scores per country and WHO performance measures were positive. The highest correlation (0.86) was between the primary care provider's understanding of patients' problems and responsiveness according to WHO. CONCLUSIONS: Patient evaluations of the quality of primary care showed large differences across countries and related positively to WHO's performance measures of health care systems.

Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Sixma, Herman J.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; van der Eijk, Ingrid

2004-01-01

104

Bulgaria Country Study to address climate change mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future developments of the Bulgarian economy, energy demand, energy supply, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected and evaluated for baseline and mitigation scenarios. Different methods and approaches are used at different stages of the study with a tendency to incorporate them in a single integrated resource planning tool such as the MARKAL-MACRO model. The results obtained indicate that the aim of Framework Convention of Climate Change to have year 2000 GHG emissions below the base year 1988 emissions will be achieved without further mitigation steps. Reducing the expected increase of GHG emissions in the decade 2000 to 2010 requires a package of mitigation measures to be implemented in the next few years.

Simeonova, Katja

1996-01-01

105

Review: a critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for HIV prevention in developed countries.  

PubMed

A potential impediment to evidence-based policy development on medical male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention in all countries worldwide is the uncritical acceptance by some of arguments used by opponents of this procedure. Here we evaluate recent opinion-pieces of 13 individuals opposed to MC. We find that these statements misrepresent good studies, selectively cite references, some containing fallacious information, and draw erroneous conclusions. In marked contrast, the scientific evidence shows MC to be a simple, low-risk procedure with very little or no adverse long-term effect on sexual function, sensitivity, sensation during arousal or overall satisfaction. Unscientific arguments have been recently used to drive ballot measures aimed at banning MC of minors in the USA, eliminate insurance coverage for medical MC for low-income families, and threaten large fines and incarceration for health care providers. Medical MC is a preventative health measure akin to immunisation, given its protective effect against HIV infection, genital cancers and various other conditions. Protection afforded by neonatal MC against a diversity of common medical conditions starts in infancy with urinary tract infections and extends throughout life. Besides protection in adulthood against acquiring HIV, MC also reduces morbidity and mortality from multiple other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital cancers in men and their female sexual partners. It is estimated that over their lifetime one-third of uncircumcised males will suffer at least one foreskin-related medical condition. The scientific evidence indicates that medical MC is safe and effective. Its favourable risk/benefit ratio and cost/benefit support the advantages of medical MC. PMID:22452415

Morris, Brian J; Bailey, Robert C; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Leibowitz, Arleen; Wamai, Richard G; Waskett, Jake H; Banerjee, Joya; Halperin, Daniel T; Zoloth, Laurie; Weiss, Helen A; Hankins, Catherine A

2012-03-28

106

Studies in Somatic Growth, Biological Maturation, Physical Fitness and Activity in Portuguese Speaking Countries: an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study has the following purposes: (1) to present and situate the studies made in the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries and (2) to present some recommendations for future investigations. Seventeen studies are considered and the following conclusions are drawn: (1) almost the totality of the studies present a cross-sectional design; (2) in the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries

DL Freitas

2002-01-01

107

Evaluation of oxygen concentrators for use in countries with limited resources.  

PubMed

Seven different models of oxygen concentrators were purchased. The manufacturer's data were evaluated by a ranking method for operation at high temperature and high relative humidity, power consumption, warranty and cost. Measurements were then made of the oxygen concentration produced at maximum operating temperature. All the concentrators were CE marked and claimed compliance with the relevant Standard ISO 8359:1996. Only two models complied with their specification. On examination of the concentrators and the accompanying documents we found that compliance with 61 points listed in ISO 8359 ranged from 85% to 98%. Oxygen concentration was measured with the machines running simultaneously under both high temperature and high humidity. All models delivered low oxygen concentrations at 40 °C and 95% relative humidity. Only two models delivered > 82% at 35 °C and 50% relative humidity. Concentrators intended for use in countries with limited resources should be evaluated before they are purchased, by independent experts, using the methods described herein. PMID:23654218

Peel, D; Neighbour, R; Eltringham, R J

2013-05-08

108

An adequacy evaluation of a 10-year, four-country nutrition and health programme  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluations of large-scale health and nutrition programmes in developing countries are needed for determining the effectiveness of interventions. This article critically analyses a non-governmental organization (NGO)-led large-scale, multi-country, 10-year micronutrient and health (MICAH) programme with an ‘adequacy evaluation’, that is, a documentation of time trends in the expected direction. Methods MICAH was implemented from 1996 to 2005 in selected areas of Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania, reaching >6 million people with numerous health and nutrition interventions. Coverage and impact were monitored through surveys at baseline, midpoint and end of funding. The data were subjected to post-hoc methods of quality determination, and, if of suitable quality, included in the adequacy evaluation. Results Most collected data were of moderate or high quality and therefore included in the adequacy evaluation. There were moderate to large improvements in vitamin A status in Ethiopian school-age children, children <5 years of age in Tanzania and Ghana and mothers in Ghana. Iodine status improved in Malawi and Tanzania. Anaemia rates and malaria prevalence decreased in women, pregnant women and pre-school children in Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania, but anaemia increased in Ethiopian women. Large increases were reported for rates of exclusive breastfeeding and immunization. Child growth improved to the maximum that would be predicted with the given interventions. Conclusions Numerous nutrition and health impacts were observed in the intervention areas, often of a magnitude equal to or larger than observed in controlled interventions or trials. These results show the value of integrated long-term interventions.

Berti, Peter R; Mildon, Alison; Siekmans, Kendra; Main, Barbara; MacDonald, Carolyn

2010-01-01

109

Catastrophe risk models for evaluating disaster risk reduction investments in developing countries.  

PubMed

Major natural disasters in recent years have had high human and economic costs, and triggered record high postdisaster relief from governments and international donors. Given the current economic situation worldwide, selecting the most effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures is critical. This is especially the case for low- and middle-income countries, which have suffered disproportionally more economic and human losses from disasters. This article discusses a methodology that makes use of advanced probabilistic catastrophe models to estimate benefits of DRR measures. We apply such newly developed models to generate estimates for hurricane risk on residential structures on the island of St. Lucia, and earthquake risk on residential structures in Istanbul, Turkey, as two illustrative case studies. The costs and economic benefits for selected risk reduction measures are estimated taking account of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. We conclude by emphasizing the advantages and challenges of catastrophe model-based cost-benefit analyses for DRR in developing countries. PMID:23237737

Michel-Kerjan, E; Hochrainer-Stigler, S; Kunreuther, H; Linnerooth-Bayer, J; Mechler, R; Muir-Wood, R; Ranger, N; Vaziri, P; Young, M

2012-12-12

110

Description and Evaluation of a Project to Improve the Identification and Management of Mood Disorders in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper describes a training program in mood disorders for senior mental health clinicians in the Pacific region and presents the qualitative evaluation findings.Method: The program, which incorporated a 2-week intensive course in Sydney and follow-up in-country, was undertaken by 13 clinicians from the Ministries of Health in seven Pacific Island countries. Evaluation data were gathered throughout the program.

Ilse Blignault; Vijaya Manicavasagar; Odille Agnes Chang; Gordon Parker

2010-01-01

111

Quality of life in adult patients with Familial Mediterranean fever living in Germany or Turkey compared to healthy subjects: a study evaluating the effect of disease severity and country of residence.  

PubMed

We assessed quality of life (QOL) and disease activity in patients with Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) of Turkish ancestry living in Germany or Turkey and conducted a correlation with FMF disease activity. 40 FMF patients in Turkey (TR), 40 FMF patients in Germany (G) and 40 healthy controls in Germany (C) were included. QOL was evaluated with the short form of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-BREF). FMF disease activity was examined with the Pras score. Mean age was TR 30.5 ± 10.6, G 35.2 ± 10.2, C 34.6 ± 10.7. Of the 120 participants, 77 were female. FMF patients in TR and G had a significantly decreased QOL physical health domain compared to controls (TR 59.7 ± 18.8, G 60.4 ± 19.4, C 76.5 ± 14.6). Turkish FMF patients had a lower QOL environment domain compared to controls (TR 62.3 ± 17.5, G 69.7 ± 16.5, C 72.3 ± 13.5). In the other QOL domains, no significant differences were found. The differences in QOL were robust to a regression analysis. No significant correlation between QOL and FMF disease activity was found. German FMF patients had longer duration of disease, younger age at onset and longer delay from disease onset to colchicine treatment. A total of 5 of 40 German FMF patients were not taking colchicine (TR:0). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was lowest in TR with significant difference between TR and G as well as G and C (TR 13.2 ± 10.3, G 27.8 ± 19.4, C 16.3 ± 12.8 mm/h). C-reactive protein did not differ between TR and G. FMF has an important impact on QOL physical health domain. No correlation between FMF disease activity and the WHOQOL-BREF could be found. PMID:23274441

Giese, Arnd; Kurucay, Mustafa; Kilic, Levent; Örnek, Ahmet; ?endur, Süleyman Nahit; Lainka, Elke; Henning, Bernhard Ferdinand

2012-12-29

112

International Case Studies of Psychosocial Ripple Effects of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public is increasingly concerned about risks associated with food. Food-borne diseases can easily mobilize public concerns and create strong emotional, behavioral, and political reactions with significant negative economic and psychosocial outcomes. This was observed in various countries globally experiencing the presence of prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). This study highlights case-study material from various countries for key psychosocial

L. Lemyre; P. Boutette; N. Karyakina; M. P. L. Markon; I. Brazeau; D. Krewski

2009-01-01

113

Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents results from the mathematics portion of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video study, which examined classroom teaching practices in eighth-grade mathematics and science in seven countries. Identifies some general features among the countries, but discernible variation in teaching methods and topics…

Hiebert, James; Gallimore, Ronald; Garnier, Helen; Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Jacobs, Jennifer; Chui, Angel Miu-Ying; Wearne, Diana; Smith, Margaret; Kersting, Nicole; Manaster, Alfred; Tseng, Ellen; Etterback, Wallace; Manaster, Carl; Gonzales, Patrick; Stigler, James

2003-01-01

114

Perceptions of countries as producers of consumer goods : A T-shirt study in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a survey of 209 Mainland Chinese male consumers carried out in the late 1990s. In this study, consumer judgements of products made in both highly and newly industrialised countries were obtained in a multi-attribute and multi-dimensional context. As expected, the results showed that Chinese consumers' perceptions of country of design and country of assembly

Sadrudin A. Ahmed; Alain dAstous

2004-01-01

115

Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. METHODS: PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded) were searched systematically for

Hani TS Benamer; Omran Bakoush

2009-01-01

116

Model evaluation studies  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsors an ongoing series of atmospheric field studies whose main objectives are to increase fundamental knowledge of atmospheric transport and dispersion. This knowledge is used to develop technologies and methodologies required for both air quality assessments and real-time emergency response. These field studies have ranged from point releases of tracers in relatively simple terrain, to intensive field studies in extremely complex terrain. Scales have ranged from the mesoscale to the synoptic. This paper will give an overview of several DOE/OHER sponsored field experiments with particular emphasis on the role they have played in helping to improve and evaluate real-time atmospheric transport and dispersion models. The Mesoscale Atmospheric Transport Studies (MATS) and STable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (STABLE), conducted at Savannah River Site in South Carolina, have provided valuable data for model evaluation over gently rolling forested terrain. In contrast, the extensive series of Atmospheric Studies in COmplex Terrain (ASCOT) involve experiments in the extremely complex terrain of the Geysers area of northern California and Brush Creek in Colorado. Remote sensing has played a significant role in ASCOT in providing meteorological parameters for input into models. The vital role played by models in the initial design of these experiments will also be discussed. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Addis, R.P.; Bunker, S.S.; Dobosy, R.J.; Lange, R.; Porch, W.M. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (USA). Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01

117

How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in…

Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

2007-01-01

118

The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

119

Peaceful Uses Bona Fides: Criteria for Evaluation and Case Studies  

SciTech Connect

This study applies a set of indicators to assess the peaceful nature of a state’s nuclear program. Evaluation of a country’s nuclear program relative to these indicators can help the international community to take appropriate actions to ensure that the growth of the global nuclear energy industry proceeds peacefully and to minimize nuclear proliferation risks.

Ajemian, Chris K.; Hazel, Mike; Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.; Morris, Fred A.; Seward, Amy M.; Peterson, Danielle J.; Smith, Brian W.

2007-06-06

120

Inappropriate Pooling of Wealthy and Poor Countries in Empirical FDI Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the question of whether less-developed countries' (LDCs') experiences with foreign direct investment (FDI) systematically different from those of developed countries (DCs). We do this by examining three types of empirical FDI studies that typically do not distinguish between LDCs and DCs in their analysis. First, we find that the underlying factors that determine the location of FDI

Bruce A. Blonigen; MIAO GRACE WANG

2004-01-01

121

Are failure prediction models transferable from one country to another? An empirical study using financial statements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with the question as to whether failure prediction models (multiple discriminant and logit analysis) from different countries can easily be transferred to other countries, this study examines the validity of a range of models on a dataset of Belgian company accounts, both when using the original and re-estimated coefficients. Firstly, contrary to expectations, models that show bad performance results

Hubert Ooghe; Sofie Balcaen

2002-01-01

122

Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. Methods: This international cross- sectional survey included 123,227 students 11, 13 and 15 years of age from a nationally representative sample of schools in 28 countries in Europe and

Pernille Due; Bjørn E. Holstein; John Lynch; Finn Diderichsen

2005-01-01

123

Global competitiveness, consumer choice and ‘country of origin’ effect: an exploratory East–West study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As protectionist sentiments rise in many countries in light of the 2008–2009 financial crisis, it is more important than ever to understand the potential role of homophily on the country of origin (COO) effect in consumer purchases and how it can impact trade and investment. This study examines these attitudes using a sample of 139 university students from different ethnic

Masud Chand; Rosalie L. Tung

2011-01-01

124

The Economic Costs of Conflict: A Case-Control Study for the Basque Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the economic effects of conflict, using the terrorist conflict in the Basque Country as a case study. Our analysis rests on two different strategies. First, we use a combination of other regions to construct a 'synthetic' control region which resembles many relevant economic characteristics of the Basque Country before the outset of political terrorism in the 1970's.

Alberto Abadie; Javier Javier Gardeazabal

2001-01-01

125

The Economic Costs of Conflict: A Case Study of the Basque Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the economic effects of conflict, using the terrorist conflict in the Basque Country as a case study. We find that, after the outbreak of terrorism in the late 1960's, per capita GDP in the Basque Country declined about 10 percentage points relative to a synthetic control region without terrorism. In addition, we use the 1998-1999 truce as

Alberto Abadie; Javier Gardeazabal

2003-01-01

126

Genderedness of Bar Drinking Culture and Alcohol-Related Harms: A Multi-Country Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…

Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

2013-01-01

127

Developing a Web Site for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention in a Middle Income Country: A Pilot Study from Thailand  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Internet has often been used to reach men who have sex with men (MSMs) in developed countries. However, its use has not been as widespread in middle income countries because of a perceived lack of access to the web by residents of these countries. However, over half of the Internet users in the world now live in middle income countries. This article describes the development of web-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention program that can serve as a model for middle income countries. Thai nursing faculty worked with MSMs to create and evaluate a Web site that provided HIV prevention messages directed toward MSMs. The steps for creating the site are described. Forty-one MSMs used the site and provided feedback to the site developers. The group was young (median=19 years), low income (median income was ?170 US$ per month). The users demonstrated that they had access to the Internet and that they could utilize the site. They also reported moderate-to-high levels of satisfaction with site design, content, ease of use, information obtained, and benefits obtained from using the site. A previous article in the Thai language also showed that they reduced risk behaviors. They also made many useful suggestions for improving the content of the site. In conclusion, the study showed that the combination of nurses and MSMs from a middle income country could develop a usable HIV prevention Web site that instructed and changed behavior.

Viseskul, Nongkran; Srikantha, Wimonsiri; Fongkaew, Warunee; Surapagdee, Natthakarn; Grimes, Richard M.

2012-01-01

128

Use of and beliefs about light cigarettes in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined reported use of, and beliefs about, so-called light cigarettes among adult smokers in four countries: Australia (Aus), Canada (Can), the United Kingdom (U.K.) and the United States (U.S.). The method used was parallel telephone surveys among 9,046 smokers across the four countries. The results indicated that more than half of all smokers in each country except the

Ron Borland; Hua-Hie Yong; Bill King; Michael Cummings; Geoffrey T. Fong; Tara Elton-Marshall; David Hammond; Ann McNeill

2004-01-01

129

Methodological challenges encountered in conducting a comparative study of psychiatric nursing education approaches in two African countries: Botswana and Nigeria.  

PubMed

This article discusses some methodological challenges encountered when conducting a comparative study of psychiatric nursing education approaches adopted in two sub-Saharan African countries - Botswana and Nigeria. The article identifies the methodological problems encountered and ways in which these challenges were addressed, including the triangulation of data collection strategies guided by Lewin's force field analysis and utilizing curriculum evaluation checklists. Data collection sources included a self-reporting questionnaire completed by psychiatric nurse educators, focus group discussions with practicing psychiatric nurses, interviews with representatives of the nursing regulatory bodies, and analyses of documents and records related to psychiatric nursing education in the two selected countries. Recommendations are provided for conducting further comparative studies that could enhance the globalization of psychiatric nursing education within the African continent, and possibly across other countries' borders as well. PMID:11925576

Adejumo, Oluyinka; Ehlers, Valerie J

2002-04-01

130

Gender and entrepreneurial orientation: a multi-country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this comparative study is to investigate the role of gender and culture in entrepreneurial orientation (EO)\\u000a among students in the selected nations. EO dimensions are important variables in the study of organizational performance.\\u000a We adopted Lumpkin and Dess’ EO dimensions. We statistically analyzed the collected data from 389 university students in the\\u000a US (96), Korea (114), Fiji

Seongbae Lim; Brooke R. Envick

131

Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

132

Understanding Quality Assurance: A Cross Country Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of understanding between an Australian university and its offshore partner institution, on quality assurance. It attempts to highlight the dynamics of quality assurance policy implementation within and across institutions for an offshore degree. Design/methodology/approach: The study used…

Choon Boey Lim, Fion

2008-01-01

133

Country of Contrasts: A Study Guide on Panama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study guide seeks to provide resources to bring the voices and experiences of Panamanian students into classrooms. This guide includes: (1) "History of a Canal" (in English and Spanish) (Pablo Neruda); (2) "Poems by Cubena"; (3) "Maps of Panama and The Canal Zone"; (4) "Historical Overview: Panama (1501-1992)"; (5) "Molas" (Maria…

Athey, Lois E., Ed.; And Others

134

Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of ‘drug addict’ was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 105 inhabitants was observed in Denmark followed, in descending order by Norway, Sweden, Finland and finally Iceland with

A. Steentoft; B. Teige; P. Holmgren; E. Vuori; J. Kristinsson; E. Kaa; G. Wethe; G. Ceder; J. Pikkarainen; K. W. Simonsen

1996-01-01

135

Cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected women: an economic evaluation in a middle-income country.  

PubMed

Due to the recent widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in middle-income countries, there has been an increase in life expectancy for women on HAART, but no corresponding decrease in cervical cancer incidence. This study evaluates the optimal cervical cancer screening strategy for HIV-infected women in a middle-income country. We developed a mathematical model, which simulates the natural history of the HPV infection, as well as the HIV-mediated immunosupression among women in Brazil. Our model was calibrated using data from the IPEC/FIOCRUZ Women's HIV-infected cohort. The model compares the lifetime effects, costs and cost-effectiveness of strategies combining cytology, HPV DNA test and colposcopy at different screening intervals for different CD4 count strata (27 strategies in total). We found that the strategy with the best cost-effectiveness profile (cost-effectiveness ratio-U$4,911/year of life saved [YLS] and probability of being cost-effective-86%) was HPV testing followed by cytology triage every year for all HIV infected women, considering a very cost-effective threshold given by Brazil's GDP per capita (US$8,625/YLS). The results were robust to changes in the input parameters as demonstrated in one-way, scenario, threshold and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Our study indicates that annual HPV testing followed by cytology triage for all HIV-infected women is likely to be very cost-effective in a middle-income country like Brazil. The results reflect the synergic effect of using a highly sensitive screening test (HPV DNA test) in sequence with a highly specific test (cytology). PMID:21964797

Vanni, Tazio; Luz, Paula Mendes; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G; Foss, Anna; Mesa-Frias, Marco; Legood, Rosa

2011-11-09

136

[Bibliometrics study of the development trend of acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trials in foreign countries].  

PubMed

On the basis of MEDLINE and EMBASE database, through bibliometrics, the quantitative research was conducted on the published literatures on the acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trial abroad. The situation of published articles in each continent, country and institution was analyzed statistically. It was found that the number of published articles was higher in Germany, America, England, Sweden, Austria, Japan, South Korea, etc. In Europe, the clinical trial of acupuncture and moxibustion was in the tendency of more country participants, wider distribution and larger amount of research. In North America, America was the main country for the study. In Asia, Japan and South Korea played the leading role. Of those countries, some institutions in Germany America, and South Korea were on the top of the list. In future, the above-mentioned countries and institutions should be monitored specifically so as to launch the active cooperation and strategic project. PMID:22734398

He, Wei; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Ying-Kai; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Hong-Cai

2012-04-01

137

Why and how to monitor the cost and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HIV services in countries.  

PubMed

The number of people in the world living with HIV is increasing as HIV-related mortality has declined but the annual number of people newly infected with HIV has not. The international response to contain the HIV pandemic, meanwhile, has grown. Since 2006, an international commitment to scale up prevention, treatment, care and support services in middle and lower-income countries by 2010 has been part of the Universal Access programme, which itself plays an important part in achieving the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Apart from providing technical support, donor countries and agencies have substantially increased their funding to enable countries to scale up HIV services. Many countries have been developing their HIV monitoring and evaluation systems to generate the strategic information required to track their response and ensure the best use of the new funds. Financial information is an important aspect of the strategic information required for scaling up existing services as well as assessing the effect of new ones. It involves two components: tracking the money available and spent on HIV at all levels, through budget tracking, national health accounts and national AIDS spending assessments, and estimating the cost and efficiency of HIV services. The cost of service provision should be monitored over time, whereas evaluations of the cost-effectiveness of services are required periodically; both should be part of any country's HIV monitoring and evaluation system. This paper provides country examples of the complementary relationship between monitoring the cost of HIV services and evaluating their cost-effectiveness. It also summarizes global initiatives that enable countries to develop their own HIV monitoring and evaluation systems and to generate relevant, robust and up-to-date strategic information. PMID:18664958

Beck, Eduard J; Santas, Xenophon M; Delay, Paul R

2008-07-01

138

Exploring substance use normalization among adolescents: A multilevel study in 35 countries.  

PubMed

The substance use normalization thesis predicts that adolescent substance users are less likely to report substance use risk factors in high than in low prevalence countries. This study tests whether national population-level alcohol, cigarette and cannabis prevalence rates moderate the strength of the relationship between individual level social and behavioral risk factors and individual level alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use. Data from 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (N = 68,045, age = 15) from 35 countries was analyzed using logistic Hierarchical Linear Modeling. As expected based on low cannabis prevalence rates in all countries studied, no evidence of normalization was found for recent cannabis use. Also in line with the normalization thesis, results show that for substance use that reaches above 40% in at least some of the countries studied (drunkenness, alcohol and cigarette use), adolescents who reported use are less likely to report social and behavioral risk factors in high prevalence countries than in low prevalence countries. However, support for the normalization thesis was only partial in that results show that in models where evidence for normalization was found, there are risk factors that predict substance use to an equal degree regardless of country level prevalence rates. The current research shows that the normalization thesis is a useful framework for understanding the contextual aspects of adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. The study has implications for drug prevention as it suggests that selective prevention efforts may be particularly useful in low prevalence countries where screening based on risk factors may usefully identify adolescents at most risk for developing drug use problems. This approach may be less useful in high prevalence countries where screening based on risk factors is less likely to satisfactorily identify those at risk for developing drug use problems. PMID:24161099

Sznitman, Sharon R; Kolobov, Tanya; Bogt, Tom Ter; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Walsh, Sophie D; Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Harel-Fisch, Yossi

2013-09-06

139

Decision support for global marketing strategies: the effect of country of origin on product evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increasing global competition, the issue of country-of-origin has received a great deal of attention recently. Examines country-of-origin image stereotyping by businesspeople in the Gulf States of the Middle East. Assesses the attitude of businesspeople toward various products of seven countries: the USA, Japan, Germany, England, France, Italy and Taiwan, that are the most active in the Gulf States.

Masood A. Badri; Donald L. Davis; Donna F. Davis

1995-01-01

140

Evaluation of pharmacotherapy of obstructive airway diseases in the Montenegrin outpatient care: comparison with two Scandinavian countries  

PubMed Central

Background This study is aimed at evaluating the pharmacotherapy of obstructive airway diseases (OAD) in the Montenegrin outpatient care (MOC) in 2010. Methods Data on the reimbursed drugs which were prescribed during the reference period were obtained from the National Database that was established within the Health Insurance Fund of Montenegro in 2004. We have applied the standard pharmacoepidemiologic methodology with the defined daily dose (DDD) along with the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification of drugs. Clinical entities of OAD were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-Revision X). Results Prescribing and the subsequent use of drugs for OAD (ATC code R03) in 2010 was 18.18 DDD/1000inhabitants/day, much lower than in some developed countries. Fenoterol/ipratropium and salmeterol/fluticasone fixed combinations had the highest utilisation level, accounting for more than 50% of all OAD drugs. About 90% of OAD drugs were prescribed for COPD and asthma. Conclusions Obtained results indicate that there are still large differences in OAD drug utilisation in MOC when compared with developed countries, but also some improvement in pharmacological approach to the pharmacotherapy of OAD in comparison to the earlier period.

2012-01-01

141

The e-health implementation toolkit: qualitative evaluation across four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Implementation researchers have attempted to overcome the research-practice gap in e-health by developing tools that summarize and synthesize research evidence of factors that impede or facilitate implementation of innovation in healthcare settings. The e-Health Implementation Toolkit (e-HIT) is an example of such a tool that was designed within the context of the United Kingdom National Health Service to promote implementation of e-health services. Its utility in international settings is unknown. Methods We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the e-HIT in use across four countries--Finland, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden. Data were generated using a combination of interview approaches (n = 22) to document e-HIT users' experiences of the tool to guide decision making about the selection of e-health pilot services and to monitor their progress over time. Results e-HIT users evaluated the tool positively in terms of its scope to organize and enhance their critical thinking about their implementation work and, importantly, to facilitate discussion between those involved in that work. It was easy to use in either its paper- or web-based format, and its visual elements were positively received. There were some minor criticisms of the e-HIT with some suggestions for content changes and comments about its design as a generic tool (rather than specific to sites and e-health services). However, overall, e-HIT users considered it to be a highly workable tool that they found useful, which they would use again, and which they would recommend to other e-health implementers. Conclusion The use of the e-HIT is feasible and acceptable in a range of international contexts by a range of professionals for a range of different e-health systems.

2011-01-01

142

Problems of Organising and Reporting Internal and External Evaluation in Developing Countries: The Case of Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to develop capacity to link knowledge to economic growth in developing countries, there is an urgent need to make quality the major element of higher education systems. In Iran, a developing country, such a need was felt a decade ago in the academic community. Based on research projects conducted, a model that combines collegial…

Bazargan, Abbas

2007-01-01

143

Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus.

2012-01-01

144

The Geography of Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Comparative Study of Five Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have undertaken rigorous comparative analyses of levels of ethnic residential segregation across two or more countries. Using data for the latest available censuses (2000–2001) and a bespoke methodology for such comparative work, this article analyzes levels of segregation across the urban systems of five major immigrant-receiving, English-speaking countries: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United

Ron Johnston; Michael Poulsen; James Forrestw

2007-01-01

145

Assessing convergence to purchasing power parity: A panel study for ten OECD countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing Convergence to Purchasing Power Parity: A Panel Study for 10 OECD Countries. — The paper analyzes whether post-Bretton\\u000a Woods real exchange rates of ten OECD countries are nonstationary so that long-run purchasing power parity (PPP) can be considered\\u000a to hold. A test procedure is proposed which treats the various real exchange rates as a panel but still allows to

Carsten-Patrick Meier

1997-01-01

146

Primary Irrigation Evaluation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five candidate repellents, ENT-28963-Ga, ENT-28975-Ga, ENT-28976-Ga, ENT-28988-Ga, and ENT-28989-Ga were evaluated for their potential to cause skin and eye irritation in New Zealand White rabbits. (Author)

S. E. Rowe

1969-01-01

147

Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This…

Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

2010-01-01

148

Social Studies. Microsift Courseware Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This compilation of 17 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 1-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

149

Advancing Structural Reforms in OECD Countries: Lessons from Twenty Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents in summary form the findings that emerge from a study of 20 structural reform episodes in 10 OECD countries. The study’s principal messages may be summarised as follows. First, it pays to have an electoral mandate for reform. Secondly, major reforms should be accompanied by consistent co-ordinated efforts to persuade voters and stakeholders of the need for

William Tompson; Thai-Thanh Dang

2010-01-01

150

Pre-School Children and Television: Two Studies Carried Out in Three Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure presents the summaries of two major studies carried out in three European countries concerning the role of television in the life of preschool children. The first study involved participant observation and interviews of 90 families from England and 50 families from Ireland over a 6-month period. The children studied were between the…

Homberg, Erentraud, Ed.

151

Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book reports teaching practices in mathematics in seven countries from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 video study. A detailed description of the methods in the mathematics portion of the study is presented in an accompanying technical report from an international perspective. Contexts of the lessons, the…

Hiebert, James; Gallimore, Ronald; Garnier, Helen; Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Jacobs, Jennifer; Chui, Angel Miu-Ying; Wearne, Diana; Smith, Margaret; Kersting, Nicole; Manaster, Alfred; Tseng, Ellen; Etterbeek, Wallace; Manaster, Carl; Gonzales, Patrick; Stigler, James

152

An evaluation of tobacco control and health insurance policies in low- and middle-income countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the many challenges facing health systems in low- and middle-income countries are access to health services, notably for the poor, and the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases. In many low- and middle-income countries, significant economic changes have resulted in substantial increases in household out-of-pocket spending on health and in tobacco use – a major risk factor of non-communicable diseases.

Godefroy Emmanuel Guindon

2010-01-01

153

Evaluation of Information on Wild Berry and Mushroom Markets in European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The income-generating dimension of berry and mushroom picking is important in many European countries or regions of countries,\\u000a predominantly for rural livelihoods. Due to the role and economic potential in the utilization of non-wood forest products\\u000a (NWFPs), there is a need, and also an increasing interest in, monitoring their market volume and values both at national and\\u000a international levels. There

Marjut Turtiainen; Tuula Nuutinen

154

Evaluation of vaccines against enteric infections: a clinical and public health research agenda for developing countries.  

PubMed

Enteric infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. To date, vaccines have played a limited role in public health efforts to control enteric infections. Licensed vaccines exist for cholera and typhoid, but these vaccines are used primarily for travellers; and there are two internationally licensed vaccines for rotavirus, but they are mainly used in affluent countries. The reasons that enteric vaccines are little used in developing countries are multiple, and certainly include financial and political constraints. Also important is the need for more cogent evidence on the performance of enteric vaccines in developing country populations. A partial inventory of research questions would include: (i) does the vaccine perform well in the most relevant settings? (ii) does the vaccine perform well in all epidemiologically relevant age groups? (iii) is there adequate evidence of vaccine safety once the vaccines have been deployed in developing countries? (iv) how effective is the vaccine when given in conjunction with non-vaccine cointerventions? (v) what is the level of vaccine protection against all relevant outcomes? and (vi) what is the expected population level of vaccine protection, including both direct and herd vaccine protective effects? Provision of evidence addressing these questions will help expand the use of enteric vaccines in developing countries. PMID:21893543

Clemens, John

2011-10-12

155

Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia in adult patients in Asian countries: a prospective study by the Asian network for surveillance of resistant pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate antimicrobial treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) should be based on the distribution of aetiological pathogens, antimicrobial resistance of major pathogens, clinical characteristics and outcomes. We performed a prospective observational study of 955 cases of adult CAP in 14 hospitals in eight Asian countries. Microbiological evaluation to determine etiological pathogens as well as clinical evaluation was performed. Bronchopulmonary disease (29.9%)

Jae-Hoon Song; Won Sup Oh; Cheol-In Kang; Doo Ryeon Chung; Kyong Ran Peck; Kwan Soo Ko; Joon Sup Yeom; Choon Kwan Kim; Shin Woo Kim; Hyun-Ha Chang; Yeon-Sook Kim; Sook-In Jung; Zhaohui Tong; Qingtao Wang; Shao-Guang Huang; Jien-Wei Liu; M. K. Lalitha; Ban-Hock Tan; Pham Hung Van; Celia C. Carlos; Thomas So

2008-01-01

156

Health-related quality of life in asthma studies. Can we combine data from different countries?  

PubMed

The aim was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with asthma from 4 countries, and to investigate the correlations between HRQL and clinical indices.341 patients; 140 (Sweden), 54 (Norway), 65 (the Netherlands) and 82 (Greece) were treated with formoterol fumarate 4.5 microg or with terbutaline sulphate 0.5mg for 12 weeks inhaled 'on demand' via Turbuhaler. The Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) and clinical indices were assessed. The mean baseline AQLQ overall scores in Sweden (4.97), in the Netherlands (5.04), in Norway (4.68) and in Greece (4.68) were in the same range, however, with a significant difference between the four countries (p=0.038). When comparing AQLQ, activity limitation and symptoms domains, the differences between the countries were not statistically significant. The cross-sectional correlations between AQLQ overall score and the clinical indices were similar in all four countries. The magnitude of change in AQLQ was consistent with the other clinical variables. The correlations between change in AQLQ overall score and change in clinical indices were low to medium in all countries. In conclusion, the consistency of cross-sectional correlations between the AQLQ overall and clinical indices across countries supports the validity of translations of the AQLQ used in this study. There were differences in baseline values between the countries. The treatment response in AQLQ differed to the same extent as other clinical indices. When combining HRQL data from different countries, there might be cultural, gender and socio-economic differences, explaining different responses to treatment. PMID:12657500

Ståhl, E; Postma, D S; Juniper, E F; Svensson, K; Mear, I; Löfdahl, C-G

2003-01-01

157

A Scientometric Study of General Internal Medicine Domain Among Muslim Countries of Middle East (1991 - 2011)  

PubMed Central

Background The position of General Internal Medicine in the Islamic countries in the Middle East has been investigated in the present study. Material and methods The scientific productions of the countries in the area on Web of science database during 1990-2011 constitute were examined. Results The result of the survey showed that the share of these countries in world scientific productions is very low. Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Iran are the first to third ones in this domain in order. In view of annual growth rate, Kuwait having high growth rate, is the first one. Libya and Syria are the next ones. The scientific poverty line of Islamic countries in the area was surveyed. The result showed that in view of the scientific poverty line, the highest is Kuwait with the population of 0.04 percent of the world. Next to it, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain are the second and third ones. Conclusion The results of this research showed that the share of Islamic countries in the Middle East in scientific production of this medicine domain is very low. It needs to be paid more attention by the countries in the area.

Hodhodinezhad, Niloofar; Zahedi, Razieh; Ashrafi-rizzi, Hassan; Shams, Asadollah

2013-01-01

158

A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high schools offering the Ontario curriculum under the auspice of the Ontario Ministry of Education. All teachers completed the Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised (Jerabeck, Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised, 2001) online. The study found that international teachers had a statistically lower level of burnout than teachers working in their country of origin.

Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

2009-01-01

159

Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study will evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different affective approaches to breast health messages--a fear appeal, a positive appeal, and an effectively neutral, cognitive appeal. The three intervent...

D. Blumenthal

2000-01-01

160

Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.  

PubMed

This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. PMID:21763362

Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

2011-07-06

161

Dell Hymes and the New Language Policy Studies: Update from an Underdeveloped Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay updates Dell Hymes's "Report from an Underdeveloped Country" (the USA), positioning our analysis in the New Language Policy Studies. Taking up Hymes's call for comparative, critical studies of language use, we examine three cases, organizing our analysis around Hymes's questions: What "counts" as a language, a language problem, and…

McCarty, Teresa L.; Collins, James; Hopson, Rodney K.

2011-01-01

162

Women's Roles and Women's Drinking: A Comparative Study in Four European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study analyzes the influence of role combinations on heavy drinking in four European countries: Finland, France, Germany, and Switzerland. Data sets come from nationally representative surveys. A growing number of studies have investigated the influence of social roles on alcohol consumption. Different theories such as role accumulation, role overload, and role deprivation aim to explain the association between

Gerhard Gmel; Kim Bloomfield; Salme Ahlström; Marie Choquet; Thérèse Lecomte

2000-01-01

163

Recent Studies on the Cost-Effectiveness of Military Training in TTCP Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes 22 recent empirical studies on the cost-effectiveness of military training reported by countries that participate in The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP), i.e., Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. A discussion of the methodology used to summarize the studies is followed by a…

Fletcher, J. D.; Orlansky, Jesse

164

A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high…

Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

2009-01-01

165

Higher Education and Social Change. Promising Experiments in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the results of a study made by developing country educators for twelve national and international agencies, directed and coordinated by the International Council for Educational Development. Volume 2 contains the reports of 25 case studies of higher education institutions and systems in Africa, Asia, and Latin America: University of…

Thompson, Kenneth W., Ed.; And Others

166

Regions, social structure and value orientations: a comparative study of 15 West European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a comparative study of regional differences in social and political value orientations. I identify four central sets of value orientations: two Old Politics orientations - religious-secular and economic left-right; and two New Politics orientations - libertarian\\/ authoritarian and green values. I use the international value studies from 15 West European countries as my empirical base. The article

K NU T SEN

2009-01-01

167

How to analyse firm dynamics in European countries? Methodology and results of a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is the result of a comprehensive comparative study on firm population and the dy- namics of market structure which was performed in eight European countries in 2007. The aim of the study is to shed a light on the comparability of national firm-level micro data regarding the dynamics of market structure, with respect to both firms and

Andreas Koch

168

Secondary Level Teachers: Supply and Demand in West Cameroon. Country Study No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of 15 country studies which together with a final volume of summary and analysis will comprise a comprehensive "Report on the Supply of Secondary Level Teachers in English-Speaking Africa." Each study focuses on determining the likely demand for overseas secondary-level personnel through 1975. Each gives a short description of the…

Haupt, W. Norman

169

A lack of neuroblastoma in Down syndrome: a study from 11 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiológica! investigation in 11 European countries comprising u total childhood population of 54.1 million children and using 8 separate data sources was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of neurohlastoma in Down syndrome IDS). No cases of US were detected among 6724 infants and children with neurohlastoma, although more than five were expected. This highly significant result (P = 11.11045

D. Satge; A. J. Sasco; N. L. T. Carlsen; C. A. Stiller; H. Rubie; B. Hero; Benardi di B; Kraker de J; C. Coze; P. Kogner; F. Langmark; F. G. A. J. Hakvoort-Cammel; D. Beck; Weid von der N; S. Parkes; O. Hartmann; R. J. J. Lippens; W. A. Kamps; D. Sommelet

1998-01-01

170

University Studies in Adult Education in the Arab Countries (A Comparative Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|That adult education is an important aspect of a country's development is an idea that is often overlooked by the institutions of higher education in the Arab countries. Although a need for adult continuing education and adult literacy training exists, these needs are often ignored or frowned upon by Arab universities, which have traditionally…

Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

171

Interaction Design for Countries with a Traditional Culture: A Comparative Study of Income Levels and Cultural Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often necessary to take differences in cultural values and ways of thinking into account when doing interaction design\\u000a for use in other countries. This paper presents an empirical study of cultural differences between a low-income traditional\\u000a country and a high-income developed country, and how these differences are reflected in design decisions made in the two countries.\\u000a The study

Georg Strøm

172

Using death certificate data to study place of death in 9 European countries: opportunities and weaknesses  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic and reliable epidemiological information at population level, preferably cross-national, is needed for an adequate planning of (end-of-life) health care policies, e.g. concerning place of death, but is currently lacking. This study illustrates opportunities and weaknesses of death certificate data to provide such information on place of death and associated factors in nine European countries (seven entire countries and five regions). Methods We investigated the possibility and modality of all partners in this international comparative study (BE, DK, IT, NL, NO, SE, UK) to negotiate a dataset containing all deaths of one year with their national/regional administration of mortality statistics, and analysed the availability of information about place of death as well as a number of clinical, socio-demographic, residential and healthcare system factors. Results All countries negotiated a dataset, but rules, procedures, and cost price to get the data varied strongly between countries. In total, about 1.1 million deaths were included. For four of the nine countries not all desired categories for place of death were available. Most desired clinical and socio-demographic information was available, be it sometimes via linkages with other population databases. Healthcare system factors could be made available by linking existing healthcare statistics to the residence of the deceased. Conclusion Death certificate data provide information on place of death and on possibly associated factors and confounders in all studied countries. Hence, death certificate data provide a unique opportunity for cross-national studying and monitoring of place of death. However, modifications of certain aspects of death certificate registration and rules of data-protection are perhaps required to make international monitoring of place of death more feasible and accurate.

Cohen, Joachim; Bilsen, Johan; Miccinesi, Guido; Lofmark, Rurik; Addington-Hall, Julia; Kaasa, Stein; Norup, Michael; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc

2007-01-01

173

Technical Maintenance Officer Service. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Begun in 1978 to provide Queensland's South-West and Central Priority Country schools with a comprehensive maintenance and repair service for most audio-visual equipment, the Technical Maintenance Officer Service (TMO) serves 76 schools with total enrollment exceeding 13,000 pupils dispersed over a 469,000 square kilometer area. Two trained…

Saide, Tom; Lamont, Ann

174

Community Water Supply in Developing Countries: Lessons from Experience. Evaluation Summaries and Conference Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because efforts to improve rural water supplies in developing countries have faced increasing criticism and declining donor interest in recent years, A.I.D. began in 1979 a 3-year effort to analyze its experience with community water supply projects. From...

D. M. Dworkin

1982-01-01

175

Policy Influences on Economic Growth in OECD Countries: An Evaluation of the Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the recent literature on economic growth with a focus on policy issues and evidence relevant to OECD countries. The review begins with an overview of developments in the theory of economic growth and also comments generally on the nature of evidence exploring the influences on growth. This is followed by an examination of issues relating to the

Sanghoon Ahn; Philip Hemmings

2000-01-01

176

Evaluating road safety interventions: prerequisites for a multi-country approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop focuses on the global road safety interventions project in 10 countries supported by the Bloomberg Philanthropies. Key to the initiative is the demonstration that established interventions on road safety make a significant impact on public health. As a result, defining the epidemiology of road injuries, monitoring the implementation of programs, and assessing the impact of the programs in

A A Hyder; A Trujillo; D Bishai; P Puvanachandra; N Tran; A Chandran; S Ma; K Stevens

2010-01-01

177

P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

178

A severe wind storm affecting the Basque country: the Xhyntia case study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a study of the Xhintia episode focusing on Basque Country area is made. On February 27th 2010 the zonal circulation is undulated creating favorable conditions for the cyclogenesis at the southwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. The cyclone generated deeps quickly with pressure values compatible with explosive cyclogenesis definition, reaching pressure minimums of 967 mb. The system moved northeastward into the Cantabric Sea on the next days. Xhyntia quickly travels over Bay of Biscay, affecting Basque Country area on late 27th early 28th January, surpassing the French coast at 06 UTC of 28th. In the Basque Country, hurricane wind gusts were recorded in various locations across the region. A 226 kilometers per hour gust was recorded in a mountainous area in the interior. These are some of the strongest winds observed since records began in Basque Country Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Mesonetwork owned by the Basque Government. We present some aspects related with this severe weather episode, including synoptical and mesoscale features, satellite data, AWS and buoy data collected in the area. Finally we focus on comparisons with others situations occurred in the past in Basque Country area.

Gaztelumendi, S.; Egaña, J.; Gelpi, I. R.; Otxoa de Alda, K.; Hernandez, R.; Pierna, D.

2010-09-01

179

A severe wind storm affecting the Basque country: the Klaus case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution deals with the study of the Klaus episode focusing on Basque Country area. On 20th January Klaus, a strong extratropical cyclone, formed in the subtropical North Atlantic, West of the Azores Islands. The system moved northeastward into the Bay of Biscay on the next days. Klaus quickly traveled over Cantabric Coast in the North of Iberian peninsula, affecting Basque Country area on late 23th early 24th January. In the Basque country, wind gusts higher than 150 kilometers per hour were recorded in various locations across the region. A 200 kilometers per hour gust was recorded in a mountainous area in the interior. These are some of the strongest winds observed since records began in Basque Country Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Mesonetwork owned by the Basque Government. On the other hand, waves as high as 21 meters were recorded at the Basque coast. We present some aspects related with this severe weather episode, including synoptical and mesoscale features from numerical analysis, satellite, AWS and buoy data collected in the area. Finally we focus on comparisons with others situations occurred in the past in Basque Country area.

Gaztelumendi, S.; Egaña, J.; Gelpi, I. R.; Otxoa de Alda, K.; Hernandez, R.; Pierna, D.

2009-09-01

180

Population-based study of dying in hospital in six European countries.  

PubMed

This study examined the proportion of deaths taking place in hospitals in six European countries in relation to demographic, epidemiologic and healthcare factors. Retrospective analyses were performed on a database integrating death certificate data of all deaths in 2002 in Sweden and 2003 in Belgium, England, Scotland, the Netherlands and Wales (N = 891,780). Data were linked with regional healthcare statistics. Of all deaths, from 33.9% (the Netherlands) to 62.8% (Wales) occurred in hospital. Large country differences in hospital deaths were partly explained by the availability of care home and hospital beds. Differences between countries were strikingly large in older patients and cancer patients. Older patients had a higher probability of dying in hospital in Sweden, Scotland, England and Wales than in Flanders and, in particular, in the Netherlands. Cancer patients often died in hospitals in Sweden but less frequently so in the Netherlands and England. Country differences in the proportion of patients dying in hospital are only partly the result of differences in health care provision, and are in particular larger for certain patient categories, suggesting country-specific end-of-life practices in these categories. These findings can contribute to rational public health policies aimed at reducing hospital deaths. PMID:18715968

Cohen, J; Bilsen, J; Addington-Hall, J; Löfmark, R; Miccinesi, G; Kaasa, S; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B; Deliens, L

2008-09-01

181

Conflicts in developing countries: a case study from Rio de Janeiro  

SciTech Connect

In developing countries, environmental conflicts are resolved mainly in the political arena. In the developed nations, approaches favoring structured negotiation support techniques are more common, with methodologies and studies designed especially for this purpose, deriving from Group Communications and Decision Theory. This paper analyzes an environmental dispute in the City of Rio de Janeiro, applying conflict analysis methods and simulating its settlement. It concludes that the use of these methodologies in the developing countries may be undertaken with adaptations, designed to train community groups in negotiating while fostering the democratization of the settlement of these disputes.

Bredariol, Celso Simoes; Magrini, Alessandra

2003-07-01

182

Analyses of Some Studies on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Family Planning in Several Latin American Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research dealing with population and family planning in specific Latin American countries is summarized in this collection of demographic studies. Countries for which information is provided include Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. Each country

International Planned Parenthood Federation, New York, NY.

183

Changes in HRM in Europe : A longitudinal comparative study among 18 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European countries with regard to certain HRM issues between the points of

Irene Nikandrou; Eleni Apospori; Nancy Papalexandris

2005-01-01

184

Determinants and antecedents of general attitudes towards advertising : A study of two EU accession countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships between determinants and primary antecedents of advertising and attitudes to advertising in the context of European Union accession countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Drawing on data from consumer surveys conducted in the major urban areas of Bulgaria and Romania the study conceptualises an extended version of Pollay and Mittal's model

Dan Petrovici; Marin Marinov

2007-01-01

185

North Country Successes: Case Studies of Successful Entrepreneurs in the ANCA Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study identifies the characteristics of both successful small businesses and their entrepreneurial owners in a 14-county area of the Adirondack North Country Association (ANCA). Of the 100 survey respondents representing successful small businesses, 50% had been in business for less than 14 years; 38% were in manufacturing; 48% employed more…

Chugh, Ram L.; Gandhi, Prem P.

186

The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

187

Developing countries’ financial vulnerability to the euro crisis: An event study of equity and bond markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global crisis highlights the continued vulnerability of developing countries to shocks from advanced economies. Just a few years after the global crisis, the eurozone sovereign debt crisis has emerged as the single biggest threat to the global outlook. In this paper, we apply the event study methodology to gauge the scope for financial contagion from the EU to developing

Joshua Aizenman; Yothin Jinjarak; Minsoo Lee; Donghyun Park

2012-01-01

188

Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth…

Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

2009-01-01

189

Early Childhood Education and Upbringing: An Empirical Study on Ideals and Realities in Eight European Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined data of two studies concerning child upbringing norms and ideals, mothers' views on public child care services, and general tendencies in family ideology in eight European countries. Found contextual differences between the compared national samples related to such circumstances as socioeconomic status, family policies, and supply and…

Lassbo, Goran; Hakvoort, Ilse

1999-01-01

190

Heritability of adult body height: a comparative study of twin cohorts in eight countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major component of variation in body height is due to genetic differences, but environmental factors have a sub- stantial contributory effect. In this study we aimed to analyse whether the genetic architecture of body height varies between affluent western societies. We analysed twin data from eight countries comprising 30,111 complete twin pairs by using the univariate genetic model of

Karri Silventoinen; Sampo Sammalisto; Markus Perola; Dorret I. Boomsma; Belinda K. Cornes; Chayna Davis; Leo Dunkel; Marlies de Lange; Jennifer R. Harris; J. V. B. Hjemborg; Michelle Luciano; Nicholas G. Martin; Jakob Mortensen; L. Nistico; Nancy L. Pedersen; Axel Skytthe; Tim D. Spector; Maria Antonietta Stazi; J Kaprio; Jaakko Kaprio

2003-01-01

191

Energy price increases in developing countries : case studies of Colombia, Ghana, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, and Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

When domestic energy prices in developing countries fall below opportunity costs, price increases are recommended to conserve fiscal revenue and to ensure efficient use of resources. Using six case studies, the authors investigate the effect of energy price increases on the poor, inflation, growth, public revenues, and industrial competitiveness. The effect on household in various income classes depends on the

Einar Hope; Balbir Singh

1995-01-01

192

Examining students’ affective commitment toward country: a case study of a Singapore primary school  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine students’ affective commitment toward Singapore. Affective commitment refers to the sense of attachment to the nation state. The sample was taken from 286 students in a primary school. In the first section of the paper, we described the design of a Likert-type Affective Commitment to Country questionnaire. Factor analyses (principal component analysis

Khe Foon Hew; Wing Sum Cheung

2011-01-01

193

Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting

Lynn Van Wezemael; Wim Verbeke; Marcia D de Barcellos; Joachim Scholderer; Federico Perez-Cueto

2010-01-01

194

Home literacy environments and children's reading performance: a comparative study of 25 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data for 4th graders in primary schools from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), I compare across 25 countries the ways in which home literacy environments influence children's reading performance. Examined are three indicators: early home literacy activities, parental attitudes toward reading, and number of books at home. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression analyses show that

Hyunjoon Park

2008-01-01

195

Medical record information disclosure laws and policies among selected countries; a comparative study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Hospitals have responsibility for responding to legitimate demands for release of health information while protecting the confidentiality of the patient health records. There have always been challenges concerning medical records confidentiality and their disclosure and release type in medical record departments. This study investigated and compared laws and policies of disclosure of health information in Iran and selected countries and tried to identify the differences and the similarities between them. METHODS: This is a descriptive and comparative study. The scope of study included related laws and policies of disclosure of health information in selected countries such as United States, Australia, England, Malaysia and Iran. Data were gathered from systematic internet search, library resources and communication with health information professionals. Data analysis was done using comparative tables and qualitative method. RESULTS: Study results showed that legislative institutions of each country have ordained laws and policies concerning disclosure and release of health information and in turn hospitals developed policies and procedures based on these laws. In Iran, however, there are few laws and policies concerning disclosure of health information in the form of formal letters and bylaws. There are no specific written policies and procedures for disclosure of health information in the hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to develop legitimate and appropriate laws and policies in different levels for information utilization by hospitals, medical universities and others. Meanwhile in all of the selected countries there are ordained limitations for release of health information for protecting health information in regard to patient rights.

Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Tavakoli, Nahid; Nansa, Leila Ghaderi

2010-01-01

196

Standardization and contextualization: A study of language and leadership across 17 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

With multinational corporations increasingly adopting English as a corporate language, the issue of language management and the pros and cons of language standardization have been widely debated in the literature. Our 17-country study considers whether the use of English as a common corporate language causes difficulties. We empirically examine whether managerial reactions to specific leadership scenario-based situations change as a

Lena Zander; Audra I. Mockaitis; Anne-Wil Harzing

2011-01-01

197

Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries – Kenyan case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level

Rotich K. Henry; Zhao Yongsheng; Dong Jun

2006-01-01

198

Rural poverty, migration, and the environment in developing countries : three case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents three case studies (of the links between highlands and lowlands in Latin America; transmigration in Indonesia; and migration and desertification in the Sudan) to illustrate the relationship between poverty, internal migration, and environmental change in rural areas of developing countries. Policies to deal with the problems of environmental degradation in areas that are destinations for migrants would

Richard E. Bilsborrow

1992-01-01

199

A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

Hien, P. D.

2010-01-01

200

Study Programmes for Engineers from Developing Countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the background of the study and fellowship programs for graduates from the developing countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. Discusses some experiences with the programs. Includes a brief description of five courses: (1) "Pulp and Paper Technology"; (2) "Marine Civil Engineering"; (3) "Hydropower Development"; (4) "Electric…

Lasson, Axel; Hermansen, John

1989-01-01

201

Place of death of older persons with dementia. A study in five European countries.  

PubMed

The aging of the European population will lead to a rapid increase in dementia cases in the coming decades, posing challenges for the organization and provision of end-of-life care. Studying the place of death of patients with dementia, and what determines it, is relevant in this context. Using death certificates, the deaths of people aged 65 and older whose underlying cause of death was a dementia-related disease was studied in Belgium, the Netherlands, England, Scotland, and Wales. Between 50% (Wales) and 92% (Netherlands) of patients with dementia died in a nursing home and between 3% (Netherlands) and 46% (Wales) in hospital. Home death was rare (3-5%) except in Belgium (11%). Multivariate analysis showed that place of death was related to age, sex, available hospital and nursing home beds, and country of residence. Although availability of hospital and nursing home beds partially explained the variation between countries, considerable variation remained even after controlling for that, plus age, sex, and social support. Place of death from dementia differed significantly between the countries studied. In all countries, a majority of patients with dementia died in a long-term care facility. The provision of appropriate long-term care facilities with appropriate staffing could be the primary policy instrument that could help patients with dementia avoid dying in the hospital and ensure quality of end-of-life care in Europe. PMID:20398157

Houttekier, Dirk; Cohen, Joachim; Bilsen, Johan; Addington-Hall, Julia; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Deliens, Luc

2010-04-01

202

Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking), and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU) countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = ?.25; p = .21). Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48). The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18). The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03). Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006). Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures is higher in countries that have more of these concerned smokers. Concerns about passive smoking seem central in the implementation of tobacco control measures, stressing the importance of continuing to educate the public about the harm from passive smoking.

2012-01-01

203

Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) in 32 countries. Review of the general methodology.  

PubMed

The aim of this project was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the American English version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and of the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) in the 32 different member countries of the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO). This effort forms part of an international study supported by the European Union to evaluate the health-related quality of life in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as compared to their healthy peers. A total of 6,644 subjects were enrolled from 32 countries: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Korea, Latvia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia. A total of 3,235 patients had JIA (20% systemic onset, 33% polyarticular onset, 17% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 30% persistent oligoarticular subtype) while 3,409 were healthy children. This introductory paper describes the methodology used by all the participants. The results and the translated version of both the CHAQ and the CHQ for each country are fully reported in the following papers. The results of the present study show that cross-cultural adaptation is a valid process to obtain reliable instruments for the different socio-economic and socio-demographic conditions of the countries participating in the project. PMID:11510308

Ruperto, N; Ravelli, A; Pistorio, A; Malattia, C; Cavuto, S; Gado-West, L; Tortorelli, A; Landgraf, J M; Singh, G; Martini, A

204

Judgment under uncertainty; a probabilistic evaluation framework for decision-making about sanitation systems in low-income countries.  

PubMed

This paper introduces the probabilistic evaluation framework, to enable transparent and objective decision-making in technology selection for sanitation solutions in low-income countries. The probabilistic framework recognizes the often poor quality of the available data for evaluations. Within this framework, the evaluations will be done based on the probabilities that the expected outcomes occur in practice, considering the uncertainties in evaluation parameters. Consequently, the outcome of evaluations will not be single point estimates; but there exists a range of possible outcomes. A first trial application of this framework for evaluation of sanitation options in the Nyalenda settlement in Kisumu, Kenya, showed how the range of values that an evaluation parameter may obtain in practice would influence the evaluation outcomes. In addition, as the probabilistic evaluation requires various site-specific data, sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the influence of each data set quality on the evaluation outcomes. Based on that, data collection activities could be (re)directed, in a trade-off between the required investments in those activities and the resolution of the decisions that are to be made. PMID:23416987

Malekpour, Shirin; Langeveld, Jeroen; Letema, Sammy; Clemens, François; van Lier, Jules B

2013-02-14

205

Content Analysis of Primary and Secondary School Textbooks Regarding Malaria Control: A Multi-Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn tropical settings, malaria education at school is potentially useful, but textbook content related to malaria education has so far received little attention. This study aimed to examine whether school textbooks contain sufficient knowledge and skills to help children in primary and lower secondary schools and their family members to cope with malaria.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis was a descriptive, cross-country study. We

Daisuke Nonaka; Masamine Jimba; Tetsuya Mizoue; Jun Kobayashi; Junko Yasuoka; Irene Ayi; Achini C. Jayatilleke; Sabina Shrestha; Kimiyo Kikuchi; Syed E. Haque; Siyan Yi

2012-01-01

206

Energy policies and the greenhouse effect volume two: Country studies and technical options  

SciTech Connect

This book is the second volume based on a 4-year study by the Energy and Environmental Programme at the Royal Institute of Interantional Affairs in the United Kingdom. First, the book provides an integrated discussion of the country studies and technical options that contain information for policy analysis. The second part explains how political, rather than technical or economic, constraints have inhibited widespread adoption of abatement policies in USA, UK, Japan, the former Soviet Union, China, and India.

Grubb, M.

1993-01-01

207

[Evaluation of total exposure to benzene and formaldehyde in the European countries].  

PubMed

Benzene and formaldehyde are among the principal components in the air of various indoor occupational and non-occupational environments. Both compounds are toxicologically relevant for humans as recognized carcinogens. In order to evaluate the total exposure and to assess the possible health risk caused by benzene and formaldehyde for different population groups at European level, the JRC Institute for Health and Consumer Protection in Ispra launched the AIRMEX (IndoorAir Monitoring and ExposureAssessment Study) project in October 2003. It aims at identifying and quantifying the main indoor pollutants particularly in kindergartens, schools and public buildings. It also intends to evaluate the overall exposure of people working and occupying these areas. Measuring campaigns were carried out in pre-selected indoor environments in various European cities (Catania, Athens, Arnhem, Nijmegen, Brussels, Thessaloniki). Preliminary results clearly indicate that indoor air concentrations for volatile compounds (VOC) including benzene are higher than/or similar to those found outdoors, ranging from a few micrograms (about 8 microg/m3) to 281 microg/m3. Outdoor concentrations vary from 7 to 153 microg/m3. Personal exposure concentrations are generally higher than the indoor/outdoor concentrations. In most cases they are twice as high as indoor concentrations (or even higher) and significantly higher than outdoor concentrations. Air concentrations of aldehydes inside buildings/kindergartens were up to 7-8 times higher than outside. This mostly concerns formaldehyde, and it seems that strong indoor sources exist which clearly determine the indoor air concentrations. Formaldehyde concentrations in public buildings and offices vary from 3 to 30 microg/m3, and those in kindergartens vary from 6 to 11 microg/m3 (Arnhem/Nijmegen). The highest values for formaldehyde, up to 29,9 microg/m3, were found in Catania, Athens and Thessaloniki. PMID:16646255

Kotzias, Dimitrios; Geiss, Otmar; Tirendi, Salvatore

208

Experiences of stigma, discrimination, care and support among people living with HIV: a four country study.  

PubMed

While it is widely agreed that HIV-related stigma may impede access to treatment and support, there is little evidence describing who is most likely to experience different forms of stigma and discrimination and how these affect disclosure and access to care. This study examined experiences of interpersonal discrimination, internalized stigma, and discrimination at health care facilities among HIV-positive adults aged 18 years and older utilizing health facilities in four countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (N = 536). Prevalence of interpersonal discrimination across all countries was 34.6 %, with women significantly more likely to experience interpersonal discrimination than men. Prevalences of internalized stigma varied across countries, ranging from 9.6 % (Malawi) to 45.0 % (Burkina Faso). Prevalence of health care discrimination was 10.4 % across all countries. In multiple regression analyses, we found positive, significant, and independent associations between disclosure and interpersonal discrimination and disclosure and support group utilization, and positive associations between both internalized stigma and health care discrimination and referral for medications. PMID:23479002

Neuman, Melissa; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

2013-06-01

209

Management strategies for agricultural biotechnology in small countries. A case study of Israel.  

PubMed

Agricultural biotechnology is concentrated in four major countries. This paper suggests strategies for developing it in small countries, based on analysis of the world trends and the characteristics of small countries. Israel is presented as a specific case study. The main relevant trends are domination by big companies, consumer concerns on genetically modified foods, and focusing on consumer benefits and specific market niches. Small countries' disadvantages include companies that are too small to benefit fully from research, difficulty in raising funds, lack of infrastructures and experienced management personnel, and public sector research organizations that are unsuitable for commercializing research. The recommended strategies include: developing a large number of low-volume products and small market niches, forming partnerships with intermediaries (such as food companies), specializing in intermediate products (such as the seed or the gene patent), and conducting market research and cost-benefit analysis in advance. Additional strategies include developing benefits that are unique to genetically modified foods and focusing on benefits specifically for consumers who accept genetically modified foods, rather than on benefits for the average consumer. A national representative organization could buy and rent out expensive equipment, finance specific projects in return for the commercial rights, and perform collective marketing research and marketing. Israel has the advantages of a successful agricultural sector and complementary scientific research, and should focus on those fruits, vegetables, and flowers for which it already has the experience and infrastructure. PMID:14538065

Shalhevet, S; Haruvy, N; Spharim, I

2001-11-01

210

Evaluation Research and Policy Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The area of policy studies is explained and comparisons are made with evaluation research. Organizational and individual interaction between these fields would be mutually beneficial. Some of the benefits are discussed. This article and the efforts of the Evaluation Network's Professional Relations Committee should stimulate more organizational…

Nagel, Stuart S.

1985-01-01

211

Analysis on productivity of clinical studies across -- Asian countries a case comparison.  

PubMed

In an era of increasing global competition and an increased interest in global clinical studies Japan has been concerned with the risk of losing its attractiveness due to perceived longer execution times and higher cost structure. In contrast, other Asian countries particularly China and Singapore are widely recognized as potential key centers for fast conduction of global clinical studies. We conducted a case comparison based on two clinical studies performed by a multinational pharmaceutical company in order to measure the productivity of clinical studies by region and country. We focused on the site-related study cost which constituted the largest portion of the cost breakdown and also impacted both time and quality management. For investigation of the productivity we propose a breakdown model with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), enrollment efficiency and site-related cost efficiency, for the comparison of the number of enrolled subject per site and cost, respectively. Through the comparative analysis we found that the Asian countries (excluding Japan) on average achieved higher efficiency than Japan in both indicators. In the Asian group, China and Singapore stood out as the most efficient on both speed and site-related cost. However, when the site-related cost efficiency was adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) the cost advantage in China disappeared, implying the price level was critical for productivity management. Although quality aspects remain to be investigated we postulate that introducing a comparative approach based on a productivity framework would be useful for an accurate productivity comparison. PMID:22504357

Takahashi, K; Sengoku, S; Kimura, H

2007-08-01

212

Comparison of interventional cardiology in two European countries: A nationwide internet based registry study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The practice of interventional cardiology differs between countries and regions. In this study we report the results of the first nation-wide long-term comparison of interventional cardiology in two countries using a common web-based registry. METHODS: The Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR) was used to prospectively and continuously collect background-, quality-, and outcome parameters for all coronary angiographies (CA) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) performed in Iceland and Sweden during one year. RESULTS: The rate of CA per million inhabitants was higher in Iceland than in Sweden. A higher proportion of patients had CA for stable angina in Iceland than in Sweden, while the opposite was true for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Left main stem stenosis was more commonly found in Iceland than in Sweden. The PCI rate was similar in the two countries as was the general success rate of PCI, achievement of complete revascularisation and the overall stent use. Drug eluting stents were more commonly used in Iceland (23% vs. 19%). The use of fractional flow reserve (0.2% vs. 10%) and the radial approach (0.6% vs. 33%) was more frequent in Sweden than in Iceland. Serious complications and death were very rare in both countries. CONCLUSION: By prospectively comparing interventional cardiology in two countries, using a common web based registry online, we have discovered important differences in technique and indications. A discovery such as this can lead to a change in clinical practice and inspire prospective multinational randomised registry trials in unselected, real world populations. PMID:23232456

Gudnason, T; Gudnadottir, G S; Lagerqvist, B; Eyjolfsson, K; Nilsson, T; Thorgeirsson, G; Thorgeirsson, G; Andersen, K; James, S

2012-12-01

213

Coronary heart disease differences across Europe: a contribution from the Seven Countries Study.  

PubMed

In the Seven Countries Study of Cardiovascular Diseases, 16 cohorts of middle-aged men were enrolled in eight nations of seven countries in three continents in the late 1950s and early 1960s for a total of 12?763 individuals. Thirteen cohorts were located in Europe, two in Finland, one in the Netherlands, three in Italy, two in Croatia - former Yugoslavia, three in Serbia - former Yugoslavia, and two in Greece. Another cohort was enrolled in the USA and two cohorts in Japan. Baseline prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) was largely different across areas, as well as 10-year incidence of major CHD events and CHD mortality for periods ranging from 25 to 40 years of follow-up. Higher rates were found in Northern Europe, lower rates in Southern Europe and intermediate rates in Eastern Europe, represented by Serbia. Differences across countries were partly explained by different entry mean levels of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, consumption of saturated fatty acids and adherence to traditional dietary patterns. Forty-year trends of CHD mortality were largely explained by early changes in serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels, with large risk increases in Serbia and Greece, and the tendency to declines in Finland and the Netherlands. These trends in Seven Countries' experience are in line with those manifests in official mortality data. An attempt of interpretation is presented pointing to socio-economic evolution in the involved countries, which heavily modifies health and dietary habits and contributes to explaining these differences at population level. PMID:24061508

Menotti, Alessandro; Puddu, Paolo E

2013-11-01

214

An econometric study of the demand for gasoline in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries  

SciTech Connect

Reliable and accurate estimation of price and income elasticities of demand for gasoline are important ingredients for long-run energy planning and policy formation. The purpose of this study is to develop and estimate a model for gasoline demand for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Oatar, Saufi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The model is capable of producing short-run and long-run price and income elasticities. Since the first oil price hike in 1973, a great deal of attention has been directed toward the demand for gasoline, especially in the industrialized countries. Few studies have been directed toward the demand for gasoline in developing countries. In terms of primary energy consumption, the GCC`s energy needs are met by oil, natural gas, and electricity. Without any doubt, oil is the largest energy source consumed and gasoline is the most important oil product. However, very few studies have been directed toward analyzing GCC energy demand, and yet there has been not attempt to model and estimate GCC gasoline demand. This study attempts to address this gap.

Eltony, M.N.

1994-12-31

215

Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

2013-09-01

216

[Statistical analysis in the evaluation of controlled diffusion of iodine in the water in developing countries].  

PubMed

This report describes the methodology and findings of a novel statistical technique for evaluation of the efficacy of the Rhodifuse Iode system in prevention of endemic goiter in Mali. The system involves continuous release of iodine in ground water used for drinking. Study was carried out in four villages for one year. The iodine release system was used in three villages. The fourth village served as the control. The incidence of goiter graded using the criteria of the WHO was assessed in each village according to sex. Statistical analysis consisted of correlating goiter grade with four predictors, i.e., village, sex, iodine release, and time. Since goiter grade is a dependent variable, its law of probability was modeled in function of the predictors. The Cat Mot procedure included in the SAS software package allowed both definition of the law of probability of grade of goiter and its transformation in function of predictor. The generalized linear model was obtained by either the generalized least square method or greatest likelihood method. The Proc Catmod procedure was then used to generalize analysis of variance in case of a nominal or ordinal, binary or polytomic response. The results of this novel statistical technique suggested that the Rhodifuse Iode system was effective. PMID:11100449

Malvy, D; Le Roux, Y; Guimart, C; Gonzalez, P L; Pichard, E; Tenenhaus, M

2000-01-01

217

Evaluating health systems strengthening interventions in low-income and middle-income countries: are we asking the right questions?  

PubMed

In recent years, there have been several calls for rigorous health policy and systems research to inform efforts to strengthen health systems (HS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including the use of systems thinking concepts in designing and evaluating HS strengthening interventions. The objectives of this paper are to assess recent evaluations of HS strengthening interventions to examine the extent to which they ask a broader set of questions, and provide an appropriately comprehensive assessment of the effects of these interventions across the health system. A review of evaluations conducted in 2009-10 was performed to answer these questions. Out of 106 evaluations, less than half (43%) asked broad research questions to allow for a comprehensive assessment of the intervention's effects across multiple HS building blocks. Only half of the evaluations referred to a conceptual framework to guide their impact assessment. Overall, 24% and 9% conducted process and context evaluations, respectively, to answer the question of whether the intervention worked as intended, and if so, for whom, and under what circumstances. Almost half of the evaluations considered HS impact on one building block, while most interventions were complex targeting two or more building blocks. None incorporated evaluation designs that took into account the characteristics of complex adaptive systems such as non-linearity of effects or interactions between the HS building blocks. While we do not argue that all evaluations should be comprehensive, there is a need for more comprehensive evaluations of the wider range of the intervention's effects, when appropriate. Our findings suggest that the full range of barriers to more comprehensive evaluations need to be examined and, where appropriate, addressed. Possible barriers may include limited capacity, lack of funding, inadequate time frames, lack of demand from both researchers and research funders, or difficulties in undertaking this type of evaluation. PMID:23014156

Adam, Taghreed; Hsu, Justine; de Savigny, Don; Lavis, John N; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bennett, Sara

2012-10-01

218

Population study of 3 STR loci in the Basque Country (northern Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tetrameric STRs, HUMTH01, HUMVWA31A and HUMFES\\/FPS, were studied in a population from the Basque Country (northern Spain) for their frequency distribution and applicability to identity and paternity testing. All systems conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; pairwise comparisons demonstrated the allelic independence between loci, and furthermore, all systems seemed to be in agreement with expectations from the Stepwise Mutation Model (SMM)

S. Alonso; A. Castro; I. Fernandez; M. Gömez de Cedrön; A. Garcia-Orad; E. Meyer; M. Martínez de Pancorbo

1995-01-01

219

The Missing Link: Deficits of Country-Level Studies. A Review of 22 Articles Explaining Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To explain country differences in an analytical or structural dependent variable, the application of a macro-micro-model containing contextual hypotheses is necessary. Our methodological study examines whether empirical studies apply such a model. We propose that a theoretical base for country differences is well described in multilevel studies,…

Nonnenmacher, Alexandra; Friedrichs, Jurgen

2013-01-01

220

Stagnant Neonatal Mortality and Persistent Health Inequality in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country’s socioeconomic-related child health inequality. Methodology Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. Findings Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education), regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. Conclusion The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality – that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system – to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country inequalities in child health.

Kraft, Aleli D.; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

2013-01-01

221

Dietary factors and pulmonary function: a cross sectional study in middle aged men from three European countries  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Results of epidemiological studies relating individual dietary factors to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are inconsistent. To evaluate the cross sectional association of dietary factors with pulmonary function, data were collected from middle aged men in three European countries.?METHODS—The data were collected in the 1960s in Finland (n = 1248), Italy (n = 1386), and the Netherlands (n = 691). Dietary intake was estimated using the cross-check dietary history method. Forced expiratory volume (FEV0.75 or FEV1, here called FEV) was measured by spirometry. Associations were adjusted for age, height, smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, and energy intake.?RESULTS—FEV was positively associated with intake of vitamin E in Finland, with intake of fruit in Italy, and with intake of ?-carotene in the Netherlands. In all three countries men with intakes of both fruit and vegetables above the median had a higher FEV than those with a low intake of both foods. The difference in FEV ranged from 110 to 169 ml before and from 53 to 118 ml after energy adjustment. Differences in FEV for intake of three antioxidants (vitamins C and E and ?-carotene) above versus below the median ranged from 61 to 181 ml before and from -35 to 58 ml after energy adjustment. Intake of fish was not associated with FEV.?CONCLUSIONS—In three European countries a high intake of fruit and vegetables was positively associated with pulmonary function. A high intake of all three antioxidants tended to be positively associated with pulmonary function before, but not after, adjustment for energy intake. Associations of individual antioxidants with pulmonary function were not consistent across countries.??

Tabak, C.; Smit, H.; Rasanen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Menotti, A.; Nissinen, A.; Feskens, E.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, D.

1999-01-01

222

BIFAD (Board for International Food and Agricultural Development) Evaluation Strategy and Action Plan for Country Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommendations and an approved evaluation strategy and action plan to help the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD) improve A.I.D.'s Title XII performance are detailed. The report first reviews BIFAD's responsibilities and pa...

B. van Blarcom J. S. Oweis

1986-01-01

223

Nuclear and isotopic techniques application used in supporting nutritional studies in Latin America countries.  

PubMed

The global nutrition community recognizes the usefulness of nuclear and isotopic techniques and especially stable isotopes for accurate measurements in key areas of human nutrition and health. Although progress has been made in many Latin America countries in reducing the absolute number of undernourished people, food policy and public health communities have to face the double burden on health. On one side they have to address the prevention of obesity and on the other side they are trying to reduce undernutrition. However, to be successful in development of sustainable nutrition programs, a combination of relevant scientific knowledge and approaches that are practical is required to assure even a reasonable level of success. The objectives of this review are to highlight the role of isotopic techniques in nutritional studies and to review the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in supporting nutrition interventions in Latin America countries. PMID:15332351

Mokhtar, N; Gerardo-Abaya, J; da-Cruz, B Miranda; Kim, Seong-Ai; Iyengar, G V

2004-03-01

224

Patterns of contraceptive use in 5 European countries. European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The use of contraception in Denmark, Germany, Poland, Italy, and Spain is described. METHODS: Data were drawn from a population-based cross-sectional study, the European Study of Infertility and Subfecundity. Interviews were conducted with 6630 women aged 25 to 44 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of factors associated with contraceptive use. RESULTS: Residents of Northern European countries tended to use more effective methods of contraception than residents of Southern European countries. The use of contraception was generally more common among single women, the more highly educated, those with children, and those with a previous induced abortion. These characteristics were also the main determinants of the use of more effective methods. Periodic abstinence and withdrawal were more common among older women. CONCLUSIONS: The European countries are in different phases of contraceptive practice: in Northern and Western Europe, use of more modern methods has been stable over the past 10 years, whereas these methods are less common in Southern and Eastern Europe. The results suggest the need for information, education, and provision of contraceptive services in Eastern and Southern Europe.

Spinelli, A; Talamanca, I F; Lauria, L

2000-01-01

225

Strategy for groundwater management in developing countries: A case study in northern Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of a case study in northern Costa Rica, in an area of one of the country’s most important volcanic aquifers, we developed a GIS-based groundwater management system suitable for the limited financial, technical and data resources of developing countries. Input and processing of attribute data-like information about groundwater wells or geological outcrops are realized with the help of an ACCESS database. The GIS-platform ArcView is used for input and analysis of all types of spatial data, e.g. maps of geology, hydrogeology, land use, or locations of groundwater wells. A three-dimensional model of the subsurface geology is constructed with the help of the interactive 3D-Modeller RHINOCEROS (R) NURBS modelling for Windows. The GIS-platform ArcView is used for the final integrated spatial analysis of the three-dimensional model and the generated spatial and attribute databases. The basic concept for data analysis is a five-step numerical index as a simple but efficient matter of standardization in order to take into account a wide spectrum of input data of varying quality and precision. As an example of application, the assessment of the vulnerability of aquifers is presented, which can be calculated on the basis of the hydrogeological profile (sequence of different strata with varying permeability), the infiltration potential of the soil layer and the distance to fault zones for each location of the study area.

Mende, Andreas; Astorga, Allan; Neumann, Detlev

2007-02-01

226

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study.  

PubMed

Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females). The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%), followed by Jordanian (21.6%), and Syrian (19.7%) adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%), followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%), and Syrian (19.7%) adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8%) and females (20.6%). Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries. PMID:23029605

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Lalla, Osama; Ali, Essa Y H; Kalam, Faiza; Benhamed, Mofida M; Saghir, Sabri; Halahleh, Ismail; Djoudi, Zahra; Chirane, Manel

2012-09-18

227

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females). The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%), followed by Jordanian (21.6%), and Syrian (19.7%) adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%), followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%), and Syrian (19.7%) adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8%) and females (20.6%). Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries.

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Lalla, Osama; Ali, Essa Y. H.; Kalam, Faiza; Benhamed, Mofida M.; Saghir, Sabri; Halahleh, Ismail; Djoudi, Zahra; Chirane, Manel

2012-01-01

228

Management Education Program Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Mainland China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: With the accession of the PRC to the WTO, Chinese education market is open to the educational service providers of the foreign countries. They are keen to offer MBA Degree programs to the Career Managers in the Mainland. Aims: This research studies program evaluation and so forth the quality assessment of a MBA degree program in the…

Sou, Gryphon; Zhou, Pinqiu

2007-01-01

229

Perceptions of countries based on personality traits: a study in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine country perceptions in China from the point of view of the personality concept. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A country personality scale developed in a Western country was adapted to the Chinese social context and used to position 11 different countries, including China, on six personality dimensions. This was accomplished by means of

Alain dAstous; Dong Li

2009-01-01

230

Field Evaluation of a Coproantigen Detection Test for Fascioliasis Diagnosis and Surveillance in Human Hyperendemic Areas of Andean Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA) was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. Methodology and Findings A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD) and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg) in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg), nor in Huacullani high burden cases (?400 epg), although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg). Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg). Conclusions The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase, early detection of treatment failure or reinfection in post-treated subjects, and usefulness in surveillance programs. However, this technique falls short when evaluating the fluke burden on its own.

Valero, Maria Adela; Periago, Maria Victoria; Perez-Crespo, Ignacio; Angles, Rene; Villegas, Fidel; Aguirre, Carlos; Strauss, Wilma; Espinoza, Jose R.; Herrera, Patricia; Terashima, Angelica; Tamayo, Hugo; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Mas-Coma, Santiago

2012-01-01

231

Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study  

PubMed Central

Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p?=?0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p?=?0.17). Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to malnutrition.

2012-01-01

232

Contextual adaptation of the Personnel Evaluation Standards for assessing faculty evaluation systems in developing countries: the case of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Faculty evaluations can identify needs to be addressed in effective development programs. Generic evaluation models exist, but these require adaptation to a particular context of interest. We report on one approach to such adaptation in the context of medical education in Iran, which is integrated into the delivery and management of healthcare services nationwide. METHODS: Using a triangulation design,

Soleiman Ahmady; Tahereh Changiz; Mats Brommels; F Andrew Gaffney; Johan Thor; Italo Masiello

2009-01-01

233

Role of smoking and diet in the cross-cultural variation in lung-cancer mortality: the Seven Countries Study. Seven Countries Study Research Group.  

PubMed

We examined the role of smoking and diet in the cross-cultural variation in lung-cancer mortality, using aggregated data of the Seven Countries Study, a follow-up study comprising 12,763 middle-aged men in 16 cohorts in Europe, the United States and Japan, which started around 1960. Smoking habits were assessed with a standardised questionnaire. Dietary intake was collected in random sub-samples of each cohort by the dietary record method. Cohort-specific 25-year lung-cancer mortality among all men and among categories of smoking behaviour was related to smoking prevalence and population average dietary intake, respectively, using Poisson regression. Smoking prevalence was positively associated with lung-cancer mortality [risk ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.07, for an increase of 10 percentage points]. Lung-cancer mortality among smokers, which varied significantly among cultures, was positively associated with average fat intake, especially saturated fat intake (rate ratio 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.17, for an increase of 4.6 g) but not with unsaturated fat intake. Average fruit and vegetable intake were not related to lung-cancer mortality. Among never-smokers, the power to detect associations was low. In conclusion, both smoking prevalence and average fat intake, especially saturated fat, may play a role in the cross-cultural variation in lung-cancer mortality, either independently or by effect modification. PMID:11058887

Mulder, I; Jansen, M C; Smit, H A; Jacobs, D R; Menotti, A; Nissinen, A; Fidanza, F; Kromhout, D

2000-11-15

234

The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Queensland Priority Country Area. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Priority Country Area (a vast, generally arid hot region some 800 km by 450 km) is a unique, dynamic, and successful program, enjoying an extremely high degree of enthusiastic support from all involved--administrators, instructors, students, schools, and communities. Begun in 1977, there are…

Briody, P.

235

Tobacco use and risk of myocardial infarction in 52 countries in the INTERHEART study: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Tobacco use is one of the major avoidable causes of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to assess the risks associated with tobacco use (both smoking and non-smoking) and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) worldwide. Methods We did a standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with 27 089 participants in 52 countries (12 461 cases, 14 637 controls).

Koon K Teo; Stephanie Ounpuu; Steven Hawken; Vicent Valentin; David Hunt; Rafael Diaz; Wafa Rashed; Rosario Freeman; Lixin Jiang; Xiaofei Zhang; Salim Yusuf

2006-01-01

236

Explaining differences in the environmental performance of countries: a comparative study.  

PubMed

What influences countries' environmental performance? Do structural differences alone affect the level of air pollution? Do economic conditions determine water quality? Might society's dominant ideology and values impact national environmental performance? Are different kinds of environmental-performance indicators affected by the same variables? This paper employs comparative empirical analyses of EPI data to address these questions. Doing so enables us to contribute the following five insights to the research literature. First, we propose a conceptual categorization of EP following their health, ecological and global aspects. Second, we demonstrate that social policy, a previously underexplored factor, affects environmental policy and performance. Third, we provide evidence for the role of international engagement in explaining global-related environmental performance. Fourth, our research extends the sample studied beyond the traditional OECD sample to 68 countries with diverse development status. Finally, we demonstrate that the multiple regression models we employed provide high levels of explanatory power (up to 89%). Collectively, the results demonstrate the important role of social policy in explaining differences in the environmental performance of countries. In addition, the differences in the influence of the explanatory variables on each of the proposed category support our theoretical arguments for differentiating between various categories of environmental performance. PMID:23094587

Kerret, Dorit; Shvartzvald, Renana

2012-11-08

237

Oil and economic development in OPEC countries, with case studies about Iraq and Algeria  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation examines the impact of the increase in oil prices in 1973 and thereafter on economic development in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in general, and in Iraq and Algeria in particular. It attempts to investigate the extent to which these countries have succeeded in utilizing oil revenues to achieve their projected goals: diversification of their economies in order to reduce dependence on exporting crude oil which is an exhaustible resource; and acceleration of the rate of growth of the non-oil sector in order to increase its contribution to GDP and foreign-exchange earnings as well as to maintain the growth of the economy in the post-oil age. While the increase in oil revenues greatly reduced the capital constraint to growth, it did not remove all other constraints at the same time. Thus, bottlenecks in transportation, institutions, skilled labor, raw and construction materials remained important obstacles. According to the criteria used by this study to judge the performance of the Iraqi and the Algerian economies after 1973, both countries did quite well. However, one of the findings about Iraq is that while the rate of growth of real per capita GDP accelerated after 1973, the rate of growth of real per capita non-oil GDP did not. Algeria succeeded in diversifying her economy, since the rate of growth of non-oil GDP accelerated after 1973, compared to the earlier period.

Al-Khalil, M.A.

1984-01-01

238

An exploratory study of the cost-effectiveness of orthodontic care in seven European countries.  

PubMed

This study investigated the orthodontic treatment of 429 consecutive patients [172 male (40.1 per cent) and 257 female (59.9 per cent)] carried out by 10 orthodontic specialist practitioners in seven European countries [two in the Czech Republic (A and B), two in Germany (A and B), Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, and Netherlands, and two in Slovenia (A and B)]. The median age of the patients at the start of treatment was 13.0 years (minimum 7.3 years maximum 50.3 years). The patients had a range of malocclusions and the majority (97 per cent) were treated with upper and lower fixed appliances. Real exchange rates were calculated using purchasing power parity (PPP) indicators to allow cross-border comparisons of costs. The Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) was used to measure the effectiveness of treatment and cost per ICON point reduction to compare cost-effectiveness of orthodontic treatment between practitioners in different European countries. The median cost per ICON point reduction for all the cases treated was 57.69 euro. The median cost per ICON point reduction varied greatly between practitioners from 21.70 euro (Lithuania) to 116.62 euro (Slovenia A). Analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests showed the differences in cost-effectiveness between the practitioners to be statistically significant (P<0.001). The cost per ICON point reduction is a simple and effective method of comparing cost-effectiveness between orthodontic practitioners in different countries. PMID:18854553

Deans, Jamie; Playle, Rebecca; Durning, Peter; Richmond, Stephen

2008-10-14

239

Evaluating large-scale health programmes at a district level in resource-limited countries.  

PubMed

Recent experience in evaluating large-scale global health programmes has highlighted the need to consider contextual differences between sites implementing the same intervention. Traditional randomized controlled trials are ill-suited for this purpose, as they are designed to identify whether an intervention works, not how, when and why it works. In this paper we review several evaluation designs that attempt to account for contextual factors that contribute to intervention effectiveness. Using these designs as a base, we propose a set of principles that may help to capture information on context. Finally, we propose a tool, called a driver diagram, traditionally used in implementation that would allow evaluators to systematically monitor changing dynamics in project implementation and identify contextual variation across sites. We describe an implementation-related example from South Africa to underline the strengths of the tool. If used across multiple sites and multiple projects, the resulting driver diagrams could be pooled together to form a generalized theory for how, when and why a widely-used intervention works. Mechanisms similar to the driver diagram are urgently needed to complement existing evaluations of large-scale implementation efforts. PMID:22084529

Svoronos, Theodore; Mate, Kedar S

2011-08-23

240

Assessment in Finland: A Scholarly Reflection on One Country's Use of Formative, Summative, and Evaluative Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finland's high test scores have prompted international comparisons of educational policy. This article explores the use of assessment in Finland, particularly the intended use of student assessment and evaluation of schools as described in the National Curriculum. This article explores Finnish educational policy through the lens of formative and…

Hendrickson, Katie A.

2012-01-01

241

Evaluating and Communicating Seismo-Volcanic Hazards Within and Between Countries in East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2005 seismo-volcanic crisis in a remote area of Ethiopia graphically illustrated the problems faced by research scientists in East Africa, as well as the need for regional hazard mitigation programs. Over a 3-week period in 2005, 163 mb > 3.9 earthquakes and a silicic eruption occurred as a 60 km-long dike was intruded along a previously identified rift segment ; the spatial scale is larger, and the deformation more intense, than historical seafloor spreading episodes in Iceland. A similar, but smaller dike intrusion episode with volcanic eruption began in July, 2007 in northern Tanzania. In both situations, geoscientists had communicated the potential seismic and volcanic hazards to politicians and planners, but they had little success obtaining funds for permanent seismic and geodetic monitoring networks. Ethiopian scientists seized the opportunity to both communicate science to the general public, and to increase pressure to develop national and regional hazard mitigation programs. The scientific aspects are equally daunting: how to coordinate international teams, each of whom has a national funding agency expecting output; how to incorporate geophysical training opportunities into field data acquisition programs; how to share seismic and geodetic data across sometimes tense political boundaries; how to allow E African scientists to be equal partners in the data analysis and interpretation? We use the response to these two volcano-seismic rifting events to illustrate ways to use short-term blue skies research projects to improve national and regional geophysical infrastructure in developing countries, and we discuss ongoing programs to communicate science to pastoralists and planners.

Ebinger, C. J.; Yirgu, G.; Mbede, E. I.; Calais, E.; Wright, T.

2007-12-01

242

Quality of cause-of-death reporting using ICD-10 drowning codes: a descriptive study of 69 countries  

PubMed Central

Background The systematic collection of high-quality mortality data is a prerequisite in designing relevant drowning prevention programmes. This descriptive study aimed to assess the quality (i.e., level of specificity) of cause-of-death reporting using ICD-10 drowning codes across 69 countries. Methods World Health Organization (WHO) mortality data were extracted for analysis. The proportion of unintentional drowning deaths coded as unspecified at the 3-character level (ICD-10 code W74) and for which the place of occurrence was unspecified at the 4th character (.9) were calculated for each country as indicators of the quality of cause-of-death reporting. Results In 32 of the 69 countries studied, the percentage of cases of unintentional drowning coded as unspecified at the 3-character level exceeded 50%, and in 19 countries, this percentage exceeded 80%; in contrast, the percentage was lower than 10% in only 10 countries. In 21 of the 56 countries that report 4-character codes, the percentage of unintentional drowning deaths for which the place of occurrence was unspecified at the 4th character exceeded 50%, and in 15 countries, exceeded 90%; in only 14 countries was this percentage lower than 10%. Conclusion Despite the introduction of more specific subcategories for drowning in the ICD-10, many countries were found to be failing to report sufficiently specific codes in drowning mortality data submitted to the WHO.

2010-01-01

243

Sustainable Agricultural and Watershed Management in Developing Countries - An India Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of sustainable agricultural and watershed management is to enhance agricultural productivity while protecting and preserving our environment and natural resources. The vast majority of information on sustainable watershed management practices is primarily derived from studies in developed nations with very few inputs from developing nations. Through a USDA-funded project, the University of Delaware (UD) initiated a collaboration with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) located in Hyderabad, India to study sustainable agricultural management practices in developing countries and their impacts on the environment, crop productivity, and socioeconomic conditions of the watershed community. As a part of this project, ICRISAT provided us with a vast amount of data on sustainable agricultural practices and their impacts on runoff, soil and water quality, crop yields, nutrient management and socioeconomic conditions. Conservation practices that were implemented included check dams, groundwater recharge wells, intercropping, nutrient management, integrated pest management and a suite of other practices. Using this information, students and faculty at UD developed teaching modules that were used for education and enrichment of existing UD courses and are also being used for the development of a stand-alone online course. The students and faculty visited India in July 2010 to get a first-hand experience of the conditions in the agricultural watersheds and the impacts of sustainable management practices. The project was a tremendous learning experience for US students and faculty and highlighted the challenges people face in developing countries and how that affects every aspect of their lives. Such challenges include environmental, agricultural, technological, economic, and transportation. Although we experience many of the same challenges, developing countries do not have the technology or economic infrastructure in place to effectively manage these challenges. This presentation highlights: (a) the agricultural and environmental challenges facing developing countries like India; (b) the types of best management practices (BMPs) employed; (c) the impacts of the BMPs in the study watersheds; (d) the development of the online course and (e) the lessons and experiences of the students and faculty from their study visit to India.

Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.

2011-12-01

244

Evaluating Adults for Further Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) provides two types of examinations to evaluate the nontraditional educational background of adults wishing to pursue college level studies. Five multiple-choice tests (the General Examinations) are designed to assess general or liberal arts background as compared to two years of undergraduate…

Allyn, Nathaniel C.

245

SHORT-TERM FOREIGN FUNDS, A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN CHINA AND VICTIM COUNTRIES OF 1997 ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1997 Asian financial crisis inflicted serious economic damages to many Asian countries. However, China was conspicuously avoided being severely attacked by this crisis. This study compares the growth patterns of foreign short-term debt, the foreign debt structure and short-term foreign capital between China and victim countries both before and after the crisis. Evidence shows that China was aggressively using

Weiping Liu

2007-01-01

246

Empirical study on information and communication technology and youth in a developing country: Nigeria as a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenal growth of information and communication technology (ICT) especially the Internet has affected youths in developed and developing countries alike. Although progressing at a slower rate in developing countries than in any other parts of the world, Internet connectivity is also transforming the face of Africa.This paper presents a study that examines what Nigerian youths use Internet for and

Abimbola Olubukola Idowu; Peter Adebayo Idowu; Emmanuel R. Adagunodo

2005-01-01

247

Contextual meanings in policy discourse: A case study of language use concerning resource policy in the New Zealand high country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the meaning and use of the term ‘landscape’ by different decision makers and decision influencers in the New Zealand high country is analysed in relation to the way they describe a resource policy issue. The case study is based upon documentary sources and oral accounts of the role that trees might play in high country land use. Links

Simon Swaffield

1998-01-01

248

Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by…

Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

2011-01-01

249

Which Countries are Studied Most by Economists? An Examination of the Regional Distribution of Economic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARYThis paper examines the distribution of economic research as catalogued in the Journal of Economic Literature across countries of the world and attempts to explain those patterns. We report the number of articles published on each country and estimate a series of regressions to understand this pattern. We find that measures of a country's size (physical and economic), connections with

Michael D. Robinson; James E. Hartley; Patricia Higino Schneider

2006-01-01

250

On importer trust and commitment: a comparative study of two developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Relationship trust and commitment are two key dimensions of international exchanges. Both have been extensively investigated from an exporter (as opposed to importer) perspective in developed country (as opposed to developing country) contexts. To address these gaps, this paper aims to develop a model of antecedents and outcomes of importer trust and commitment in two developing countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Constanza Bianchi; Abu Saleh

2010-01-01

251

Water import and transfer versus desalination in arid regions: GCC countries case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scarcity of water resources and the increasing gaps between demand and available supply in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries is a major challenging issue facing the development sectors. GCC countries have extremely dry climates with rare rainfall, high evaporation rates and limited non-renewable groundwater resources. At present all GCC countries except Oman fall in the critical water scarcity

Mohamed A. Dawoud

2011-01-01

252

Education and Rural Development in the 31 Least Developed Countries. Reports Studies...S.97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The report contains information based on the country presentation papers submitted by the 31 countries for the 1981 United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). It is intended as a background document for the Unesco meeting of experts from the LDCs on "needs and priorities in regard to education" to be held at Unesco in…

Zuberi, Habib

253

Rolling out new products across country markets: An empirical study of causes of delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with the challenge of launching a new product into numerous countries, managers may view a sequential rollout as the prudent course of action. Rather than launching the product simultaneously in diverse countries, they may believe they can reduce risk by launching first in one or two countries, and then in others. However, this strategy overlooks the interplay between timeliness

George M. Chryssochoidis; Veronica Wong

1998-01-01

254

A prospective study of patients absconding from a general hospital psychiatry unit in a developing country.  

PubMed

Characteristics of patients absconding from an open psychiatry ward in a developing country may be different from both those in developed countries and a mental hospital setting. The aim of this paper is to study the incidence and characteristics of patients absconding from an open psychiatric ward in a general hospital-based psychiatric unit in India. We studied patients consecutively admitted to an open psychiatric ward over a 2-month period. We compared those who absconded with those who did not. Out of 231 patients admitted, 33 absconded. Among those who absconded, 15 had bipolar disorder, 11 had schizophrenia and five had substance-related disorders. Nine had indicated their intention to do so at admission. Ten patients had absconded by the second day. The treatment cost was the likely influencing factor for seven patients who absconded after deemed fit for discharge on clinical grounds. Only 10 patients were readmitted to the hospital within 2 weeks of absconding. The risk of absconding is highest in the early days following. Absconding patients did not differ significantly from others in many socio-demographic and clinical features. Treatment costs are an important consideration in India. PMID:18638205

Khisty, N; Raval, N; Dhadphale, M; Kale, K; Javadekar, A

2008-08-01

255

[Children's soft tissue infections in tropical countries. Prospective study in Mayotte].  

PubMed

In France and Europe, soft tissue infections are secondary to chickenpox infection. In tropical countries, soft tissue infections seem to be different and are more frequent. We conducted a prospective and descriptive study in children hospitalised for cellulitis. We studied characteristics of our population and we tried to individualize risk factors for deep soft tissue infections. 54 children were included over a six-month period. Blood cultures were positive in 10% and local culture in 62%. Pathogenic organisms to be found, were first Staphylococcus aureus (78%) and secondly alpha-haemolytic streptococcus. Average rate hospitalisation was 4.5 days (1-28). Despite intravenous antibiotherapy, more than one third of patients had had a deep soft tissue infection (myositis, abscess, or arthritis). As regards the overall population, deep soft tissue infections associated with cellulitis were more frequent in children over six. Association with arthritis was found only in children under two. Severe malnutrition seems to be a notable risk factor for myositis. Soft tissue infections are still frequent in tropical countries. Deep soft tissue infections are encountered in more than one third of the cases, specially in children over six, and with Staphylococcus aureus. These results justify a systematic hospitalisation. If severe malnutrition is present, association with myositis should be suspected. PMID:19739411

Runel-Belliard, C; Collet, L; Hebert, J-C

2009-08-01

256

Cessation assistance reported by smokers in 15 countries participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) policy evaluation surveys  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe some of the variability across the world in levels of quit smoking attempts and use of various forms of cessation support. Design Use of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys of smokers, using the 2007 survey wave (or later, where necessary). Settings Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Ireland, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Thailand, UK, Uruguay and USA. Measures Self-report on use of cessation aids and on visits to health professionals and provision of cessation advice during the visits. Findings Prevalence of quit attempts in the last year varied from under 20% to over 50% across countries. Similarly, smokers varied greatly in reporting of visiting health professionals in the last year (< 20% to over 70%), and among those who did, provision of advice to quit also varied greatly. There was also marked variability in the levels and types of help reported. Use of medication was generally more common than use of behavioural support, except where medications are not readily available. Conclusions There is wide variation across countries in rates of attempts to stop smoking and use of assistance with higher overall use of medication than behavioural support. There is also wide variation in the provision of brief advice to stop by health professionals.

Borland, Ron; Li, Lin; Driezen, Pete; Wilson, Nick; Hammond, David; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Mons, Ute; Willemsen, Marc C.; McNeill, Ann; Thrasher, James F.; Cummings, K. Michael

2011-01-01

257

Maternal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Term Birth Weight: A Multi-Country Evaluation of Effect and Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Background: A growing body of evidence has associated maternal exposure to air pollution with adverse effects on fetal growth; however, the existing literature is inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weight and low birth weight (LBW) across 14 centers from 9 countries, and to explore the influence of site characteristics and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in this association. Methods: Using a common analytical protocol, International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) centers generated effect estimates for term LBW and continuous birth weight associated with PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter ? 10 and 2.5 µm). We used meta-analysis to combine the estimates of effect across centers (~ 3 million births) and used meta-regression to evaluate the influence of center characteristics and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in reported effect estimates. Results: In random-effects meta-analyses, term LBW was positively associated with a 10-?g/m3 increase in PM10 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05] and PM2.5 (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) exposure during the entire pregnancy, adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status. A 10-?g/m3 increase in PM10 exposure was also negatively associated with term birth weight as a continuous outcome in the fully adjusted random-effects meta-analyses (–8.9 g; 95% CI: –13.2, –4.6 g). Meta-regressions revealed that centers with higher median PM2.5 levels and PM2.5:PM10 ratios, and centers that used a temporal exposure assessment (compared with spatiotemporal), tended to report stronger associations. Conclusion: Maternal exposure to particulate pollution was associated with LBW at term across study populations. We detected three site characteristics and aspects of exposure assessment methodology that appeared to contribute to the variation in associations reported by centers.

Parker, Jennifer; Bell, Michelle L.; Bonzini, Matteo; Brauer, Michael; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana V.; Gouveia, Nelson; Ha, Eun-hee; Leem, Jong Han; van den Hooven, Edith H.; Jalaludin, Bin; Jesdale, Bill M.; Lepeule, Johanna; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Morgan, Geoffrey G.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pierik, Frank H.; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Rich, David Q.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Seo, Juhee; Slama, Remy; Strickland, Matthew; Tamburic, Lillian; Wartenberg, Daniel; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

2013-01-01

258

Country Nodes: An Anthropological Evaluation of William Keys' Desert Queen Ranch, Joshua Tree National Monument, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a study of the anthropological research value of Keys' Desert Queen Ranch, a historic site at Joshua Tree National Monument, California. General problems for research were derived from an analysis of the history of the ranch in its regional ...

P. P. Hickman

1977-01-01

259

How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the Medical Course in Portugal and African Portuguese Speaking Countries  

PubMed Central

Background A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. Methods The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. Results The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p < 0.001) and Professional Behavior (p = 0.043). Conclusions The reliability of the instrument in Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some weaknesses.

2011-01-01

260

Global Inequality in Eye Health: Country-Level Analysis From the Global Burden of Disease Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed global inequality in eye health by using data on the global burden of disease measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods. We estimated the burden of eye disease by calculating the sum of DALYs (from the Global Burden of Disease study, 2004 update) due to trachoma, vitamin A deficiency, glaucoma, cataract, refractive errors, and macular degeneration. We assessed the geographic distribution of eye disease in relation to economic status and etiology by calculating the Gini coefficient, the Theil index, and the Atkinson index. Results. The global burden of eye disease was estimated at 61.4 million DALYs worldwide (4.0% of total DALYs). Vitamin A deficiency and trachoma were distributed more unevenly than were noncommunicable eye diseases, regardless of economic status. For noncommunicable eye diseases, the major contributor was refractive errors, regardless of economic status. The most uneven distribution was observed for cataract (high-income countries) and refractive errors (middle- and low-income countries). Conclusions. Creating new eye health service for refractive errors and reducing the unacceptable eye health disparity in refractive errors should be the highest priorities for international public health services in eye care and eye health.

Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Murakami, Akira

2010-01-01

261

Childhood diabetes in Arab countries. Diabetes Epidemiology Research International Study Group.  

PubMed Central

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic disease of childhood that is associated with high costs, mortality and morbidity, but which is of unknown etiology. Globally, the incidence and prevalence of the disease are highly variable. Study of IDDM among Arab children, who have similar genetic characteristics, but markedly different environmental backgrounds, could provide important insight into its cause. Few studies of IDDM in Arab populations have been carried out, but the limited data available indicate that there are marked variations in the risk of the disease and in its distribution between the sexes. It is therefore very important that IDDM registries be established in Arab countries since this could lead to a greater understanding of the disease and perhaps its prevention.

1990-01-01

262

Paradoxes in self-evaluated health data in a developing country  

PubMed Central

Background: Statistics showed that males reported fewer illnesses and greater mortality rates than females, but are outlived by approximately 6 years by their female counterparts, yet their self-rated health status is the same as that of females. Aims: This study examines the following questions: (1) Are there paradoxes in health disparity between the sexes in Jamaica? and (2) is there an explanation for the disparity outside of education, marital status, and area of residence? Methods and Materials: The current study utilised a data set collected jointly by the Planning Institute of Jamaica and the Statistical Institute of Jamaica. The data set is a survey on the living conditions of Jamaicans. It was conducted between May and August of 2007. The JSLC is a modification of the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study. The sample size was 6,783 respondents, with a non-response rate being 26.2%. Results Good health status was correlated with self-reported illness (OR =0.23, 95% CI = 0.09-0.59), medical care-seeking behaviour (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.36-0.72), age (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.96-0.97), and income (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00-1.00). Self-reported illness is statistically correlated with sex (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.10-0.62), head of household (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.12-0.96), age (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07) and current good self-rated health status (OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.12-0.84). Conclusion This paper highlights that caution must be used by researchers in interpreting self-reported health data of males.

Bourne, Paul Andrew

2010-01-01

263

Directory of Country Environmental Studies, 1993. An Annotated Bibliography of Environmental and Natural Resource Profiles and Assessments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1993 edition of the Directory provides detailed citations and abstracts for 357 major natural resource and environmental studies (257 of which were added since the 1990 edition) covering 129 developing countries and 12 regional groupings. Most of the ...

D. B. Tunstall M. van der Wansem

1992-01-01

264

Drinking and driving in university students: an international study of 23 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol-impaired driving is a major problem in many countries. We assessed drinking and driving and associated attitudes and legislative practices in 8282 male and 10?816 female students at universities in 23 countries. The age-adjusted prevalence of drinking and driving was 20% in men, and 7% in women. There was wide variation between countries, with the highest levels in men and

Andrew Steptoe; Jane Wardle; Nuri Bages; James F. Sallis; Pablo-Alfonso Sanabria-Ferrand; Maria Sanchez

2004-01-01

265

Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: a study of fatally injured drivers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to find which drugs and drug combinations were most common in drivers who died, in particular, in single vehicle crashes where the responsibility for the crash would be referred to the driver killed. The study included all available blood samples from drivers, who died within 24h of the accident, in the years 2001 and 2002 in the five Nordic countries (total population about 24 million inhabitants). The samples were analysed for more than 200 different drugs in addition to alcohol, using a similar analytical programme and cut-off limits in all countries. In three countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden) blood samples were available for more than 70% of the drivers, allowing representative prevalence data to be collected. 60% of the drivers in single vehicle crashes had alcohol and/or drug in their blood samples, compared with 30% of drivers killed in collisions with other vehicles. In single vehicle accidents, 66% of the drivers under 30 years of age had alcohol and/or drugs in their blood (alcohol only - 40%; drugs only - 12%; alcohol and drugs - 14%). The drugs found were mostly illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs with warning labels (in 57% and 58% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30-49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case, and psychoactive medicinal drugs were detected less frequently than in younger age groups. In 75% of single vehicle crashes, the driver was under 50 years. Thus, the majority of accidents where the drivers must be considered responsible, occurred with drivers who had recently used alcohol, or drugs, alone or in combination. The drugs involved were often illicit and/or psychoactive drugs with warning labels. Therefore a large proportion of single vehicle accidents appear to be preventable, if more effective measures against driving after intake of alcohol and drugs can be implemented. PMID:21819819

Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Ojanperä, Ilkka; Vuori, Erkki; Magnusdottir, Kristin; Kristinsson, Jakob; Ceder, Gunnel; Kronstrand, Robert; Christophersen, Asbjørg

2011-05-28

266

National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.  

PubMed

Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

2011-10-31

267

Immigrant generation, socioeconomic status, and economic development of countries of origin: a longitudinal study of body mass index among children.  

PubMed

Prior research has yielded mixed evidence of a relationship between immigrant generational status or acculturation and overweight or obesity among children of immigrants. This study examined socioeconomic status (SES) and economic development of the sending country as additional factors influencing children body mass index (BMI) and as moderating the relationship between parental generational status and BMI. Using data from the kindergarten cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (N=16,664 children) carried out in the USA, the research estimated growth curve models and tested the significance of interaction terms between generational status (i.e., children of the 1.0 generation, who arrived at age 12 or older; children of the 1.5 generation, who arrived between the ages of birth and 11; and children of natives), SES, and the country of origin's gross domestic product per capita. Results indicate that the children of the 1.0 generation from higher-income countries tended to gain more weight than children from lower-income countries. The relationship between family SES and weight gain was positive among the first-generation children and stronger among those from lower-income countries than from higher-income countries. Weight gain was positively associated with generation only among lower SES children from low-income countries. It was negatively associated with generation for higher SES children from low-income countries. The results are consistent with a conceptual model of BMI assimilation that links global nutrition patterns to the levels and socioeconomic variations in BMI among the 1.0-generation and their children, and conceptualizes assimilation as occurring within socioeconomic strata. This approach leads to the expectation that overweight is likely to be positively associated with generation among those from low-income countries (as measured by GDP/capita) with low SES but negatively associated among those from low-income countries with high SES. PMID:17570571

Van Hook, Jennifer; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper

2007-06-13

268

Vocational Education in Developing Countries. A Review of Studies and Project Experience. Education Division Documents No. 34.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper looks at the position taken in available literature and evaluation reports of multinational and bilateral agencies in regard to vocational education in developing countries. Section 1 provides background on such topics as links between education and development, support of vocational education, diversified secondary education, foreign…

Hultin, Mats

269

A cross-country study of cigarette prices and affordability: evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of two primary determinants of cigarette consumption: cigarette affordability and the range of prices paid for cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in a set of 15 countries. From this cross-country comparison, identify places where opportunities may exist for reducing consumption through tax adjustments. DATA: Self-response data from 45,838 smokers from 15 countries, obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2008-2011. DESIGN: Using self-response data on individual cigarette expenditure and consumption, we construct a measure of the average cigarette price smokers pay for manufactured cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in 15 countries. We use these prices to evaluate cigarette affordability and the range of prices available in each country. These survey-derived measures of cigarette price and affordability are uniquely suited for cross-country comparison because they represent each country's distinctive mix of individual consumption characteristics such as brand choice, intensity of consumption, and purchasing behavior. RESULTS: In this sample of countries, cigarettes are most affordable in Russia, which has the most room for tobacco tax increase. Affordability is also relatively high in Brazil and China for cigarettes, and in India and Bangladesh for bidis. Although the affordability of cigarettes in India is relatively low, the range of cigarette prices paid is relatively high, providing additional evidence to support the call for simplifying the existing tax structure and reducing the width of price options. China has both high affordability and wide price ranges, suggesting multiple opportunities for reducing consumption through tax adjustments. PMID:22923477

Kostova, Deliana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Ross, Hana; Cherukupalli, Rajeev; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

2012-09-01

270

Export Profiles of Small Landlocked Countries: A Case Study Focusing on their Implications for Lesotho  

Microsoft Academic Search

World Bank demographic and country characteristic statistics identify 16 small landlocked countries that are similar to Lesotho. Ng and Yeats attempt to determine what useful policy information can be derived from the recent trade performance of these ?comparators.? Among questions they pose are whether the trade profiles of the comparators suggest potentially promising export ventures for Lesotho, do they indicate

Francis Ng; Alexander Yeats

2003-01-01

271

Empirical study on the determinants of CO2 emissions: evidence from OECD countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article empirically investigates the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for CO2 emissions in the cases of 11 OECD countries by taking into account the role of nuclear energy in electricity production. The autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration is employed as the estimation method. Our results indicate that energy consumption has a positive impact on CO2 emissions in most countries

Hiroki Iwata; Keisuke Okada; Sovannroeun Samreth

2011-01-01

272

Empirical study on the determinants of CO2 emissions: evidence from OECD countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article empirically investigates the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for CO2 emissions in the cases of 11 OECD countries by taking into account the role of nuclear energy in electricity production. The autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration is employed as the estimation method. Our results indicate that energy consumption has a positive impact on CO2 emissions in most countries

Hiroki Iwata; Keisuke Okada; Sovannroeun Samreth

2012-01-01

273

Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration

Keiko Hirota

2010-01-01

274

Information technology in developing countries: a study to guide policy formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the information gap between industrialised and developing countries. In view of this gap, the Dutch Ministry of Development Co-operation decided to finance research aimed at formulating policy recommendations on the removal of bottlenecks preventing or slowing down the growth of electronic information exchange in developing countries. From this research it can be concluded that the major bottlenecks

S. J De Boer; M. M. Walbeek

1999-01-01

275

A Study of Chinese Teachers' Cognitive Practice of the Confucian Analects in Three Asian Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from Mainland China, the citizens of many Asian countries such as Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia have also been influenced by Confucianism. Du Weiming (1996) pointed out these industrial countries in East Asia have the same feature: Confucian culture as a common characteristic of Chinese societies and an important cultural inheritance. Chinese teachers play

Jon-Chao Hong

276

Vocational Education and Training in Europe. A Four-Country Study in Four Employment Sectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an overview of vocational education and training systems in major European countries that is useful to practitioners and planners in further education. The first part provides brief descriptions of the vocational education and training systems in four countries: France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. By way of…

Further Education Unit, London (England).

277

Preoperative visual acuity among cataract surgery patients and countries' state of development: a global study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe the preoperative surgical case mix among patients undergoing cataract extraction and explore associations between case mix, country level of development (as measured by the Human Development Index, HDI) and cataract surgery rates (CSRs). Methods Ophthalmologists in 50 countries were invited to join the newly-established International Eye Research Network and asked to complete a web-based questionnaire about their eye hospitals. Those who complied received a data collection form for recording demographic and clinical data on 100 consecutive patients about to undergo cataract surgery. Countries were ranked into five HDI categories and multivariable regression was used to explore associations. Findings Ophthalmologists at 112 eye hospitals (54% of them nongovernmental) in 50 countries provided data on 11?048 cataract procedures over 9 months in 2008. Patients whose visual acuity (VA) before surgery was countries and 1% in developed countries (P?country level and inversely associated with national CSR. Conclusion The proportion of patients with very poor preoperative VA is a simple indicator that can be easily measured periodically to monitor progress in ophthalmological services. Additionally, the internet can be an effective tool for developing and supporting an ophthalmological research network capable of providing a global snapshot of service activity, particularly in developing countries.

Gilbert, Claire E; Razavi, Hessom; Turner, Elizabeth L; Lindfield, Robert J

2011-01-01

278

Improving Elementary Science Education in a Developing Country: A Case Study From Fiji  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Improved science education is seen as an important goal for many developing countries. The role of elementary science is of particular importance, given that research has shown a high correlation between economic growth and the time spent on elementary science education. However, the teaching of science in many developing countries is dominated…

Taylor, Neil; Maiwaikatakata, Tema; Biukoto, Emele; Suluma, Wili; Coll, Richard K.

2008-01-01

279

Feasibility Studies of a Power Interconnection System for Central American Countries: SIEPAC Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC

T. Gomez; J. C. Enamorado; A. Vela

1994-01-01

280

Value Orientations and Studying in School-Leisure Conflict: A Study with Samples from Five Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relations between students' value orientations and experiences of motivational interference during studying following conflicts between learning and leisure activities were investigated in a self-report study. Overall, 1075 adolescents, mostly from Catholic schools, in Bosnia-Herzegovina (n = 203), India (n = 200), Paraguay (n = 96), Spain (n…

Hofer, Manfred; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan; Zivkovic, Ilija; Dietz, Franziska

2009-01-01

281

Value orientations and studying in school–leisure conflict: A study with samples from five countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between students' value orientations and experiences of motivational interference during studying following conflicts between learning and leisure activities were investigated in a self-report study. Overall, 1075 adolescents, mostly from Catholic schools, in Bosnia–Herzegovina (n=203), India (n=200), Paraguay (n=96), Spain (n=442), and the US (n=134), participated. The samples varied substantially in terms of modern and postmodern value orientations, experience

Manfred Hofer; Sebastian Schmid; Stefan Fries; Ilija Zivkovic; Franziska Dietz

2009-01-01

282

Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…

Eid, Ashraf

2012-01-01

283

Cross-Cultural Study of Avatars' Facial Expressions and Design Considerations Within Asian Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar ex- pressions are interpreted universally among any cultures. However, our former study showed there are cultural differences in interpreting avatar facial expres- sions. This paper summarizes the results of cross cultural evaluations of avatar expressions among five Asian

Tomoko Koda

2007-01-01

284

Is physician-assisted death only for developed countries? Latin America as a case study.  

PubMed

The achievements of modern medicine are manifold and impressive. However, there is a broad recognition of the fact that continuing medical treatment is not always beneficial to the patient, nor is it always what the patient wants. This has led to a debate about the way physicians may or may not be involved in the end of life of patients. Could there be a justification for the active ending of a patient's life? This debate has a global character. In this article we will explore this debate for developing countries; we will focus on physician-assisted death (PAD) in Latin American countries. At stake is the moral relevance of differences, not the moral justification of PAD per se. We argue that arguments for PAD apply equally in affluent and in developing countries. Some of the counterarguments, however, would seem to hold more in developing countries than in affluent countries. Yet, under certain conditions, a policy tolerating PAD would be as acceptable in developing countries as in developed countries. PMID:15511034

Luna, Florencia; Van Delden, Johannes J M

2004-01-01

285

Country Profile: China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Country Studies Series presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world.

2005-01-01

286

Country Profile: Thailand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Country Studies Series presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world.

2005-01-01

287

Socioeconomic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:  To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents,\\u000a 2) whether the countries’ absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and\\u000a 3) whether the countries’ absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation\\u000a in health complaints.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:  The Health Behaviour in School-aged

Bjørn E. Holstein; Candace Currie; Will Boyce; Mogens T. Damsgaard; Inese Gobina; Gyöngyi Kökönyei; Jørn Hetland; Margaretha de Looze; Matthias Richter; Pernille Due

2009-01-01

288

Solid waste characterization, quantification and management practices in developing countries. a case study: Nablus district - Palestine.  

PubMed

Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most challenging issues faced by developing countries that suffer from serious pollution problems caused by the generation of large waste quantities. This paper presents the case study of SWM in the Nablus district - Palestine. Surveys for household residents' and SWM program operators, field investigations, on-site waste measurements and characterizations were conducted. Per capita waste generation rates varied between different localities although trends were similar. Overall, the majority of waste was organic (65.1% by weight), suggesting a strong resource recovery potential in terms of animal feed or compost. Recyclable waste (plastic, paper and card) made up 16.7% by weight the waste composition suggesting an incentive to introduce source separation. Household attitudes complemented the waste characterization study, revealing the main problems faced. SWM operators quoted on the current status, highlighting problems with disposing in unsanitary landfills, ineffective solid waste fees system, increasing solid waste quantities and lacking equipment and experienced personnel. To enhance sustainable SWM, public awareness, funding, expertise, equipment and facilities and other provisions currently lacking or inappropriate must be provided. PMID:20116162

Al-Khatib, Issam A; Monou, Maria; Abu Zahra, Abdul Salam F; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Kassinos, Despo

2010-01-29

289

Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

2010-01-01

290

Patient organisations and the reimbursement process for medicines: an exploratory study in eight European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the role European patient organisations play in the process of deciding on reimbursement for medicines. Therefore we explore the current role of patient organisations in the process of reimbursement for medicines in Western Europe. We focus in particular on collaboration between patient organisations and the pharmaceutical industry in this respect. Methods Sixty-eight patient organisations representing seven medical conditions, from ten Western European countries, were asked to participate in the study. The participating organisations reported their experiences in a web-based questionnaire. Results Twenty-one patient organisations completed the questionnaire (response rate: 31%), of which ten (47.6%) demanded reimbursement for medicines. Organisations demanding reimbursement were larger than those not demanding reimbursement. The main aim of these organisations was to create better accessibility of medicines for patients. Most organisations limited themselves to single actions. Only two engaged in multiple actions. Almost all organisations had general policies on cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry, with autonomy as the key feature. The patient organisations said they were reasonably successful and almost always satisfied with their own role in the reimbursement process. Conclusion Our study has found that the role of European patient organisations in the reimbursement process still seems limited, especially for small patient organisations.

2010-01-01

291

Shades of Gray: A Cross-Country Study of Health and Well-Being of the Older Populations in SAGE Countries, 2007-2010. International Populations Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The world's population is aging, primarily as a function of declining fertility, coupled with increasing life expectancy. Aging is occurring not only in high-income countries but in middle- and low-income countries as well. Moreover, the speed of aging in...

M. N. Muenchrath P. Kowal W. He

2012-01-01

292

Commodity Acceptance Studies in Pre-School Children of Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 1971, eleven DOD research laboratories throughout the country joined together to form the DOD Technology Transfer (T2) Consortium. The purpose of this group is to further the transfer of existing knowledge, facilities or capabilities, acquired whi...

R. C. Graeber

1974-01-01

293

U.S. Participation in Clinical Research in Developing Countries: Report of a Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States, through its support of bilateral and multilateral foreign assistance programs, has been committed for many years to helping developing countries in their efforts toward economic and social advancement. Because the health needs of develo...

1980-01-01

294

Factors associated with self-rated health status in university students: a cross-sectional study in three European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Self-rated health status (SRHS) is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to

Rafael T Mikolajczyk; Patrick Brzoska; Claudia Maier; Veronika Ottova; Sabine Meier; Urszula Dudziak; Snezhana Ilieva; Walid El Ansari

2008-01-01

295

Psychosocial correlates of substance use in adolescence: A cross-national study in six European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine the psychosocial correlates of substance use among adolescents in six European countries. Design: Cross-sectional school population survey (ESPAD) based on standardized methodological procedures. Setting: High schools in six European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Slovenia and UK. Participants: Representative samples of a total sample of 16,445 high school students whose 16th birthday fell in the year of

Anna Kokkevi; Clive Richardson; Silvia Florescu; Marina Kuzman; Eva Stergar

2007-01-01

296

What Goals Do Business Leaders Pursue? A Study in Fifteen Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals-in-use of successful businesspersons were rated by over 1,800 junior managers and professionals, attending evening MBA courses at local universities in 15 countries. A hierarchical cluster analysis of perceived goals divided the countries into seven clusters. The relative ordering of goals within these clusters suggested seven different archetypal business leader roles. Perceptions correlated significantly with national wealth, as well as

Geert Hofstede; Cheryl A. Van Deusen; Carolyn B. Mueller; Thomas A. Charles

2002-01-01

297

What Goals Do Business Leaders Pursue? A Study in Fifteen Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals-in-use of successful businesspersons were rated by over 1,800 junior managers and professionals, attending evening MBA courses at local universities in 15 countries. A hierarchical cluster analysis of perceived goals divided the countries into seven clusters. The relative ordering of goals within these clusters suggested seven different archetypal business leader roles. Perceptions correlated significantly with national wealth, as well as

Geert Hofstede; Cheryl A Van Deusen; Carolyn B Mueller; Thomas A Charles

298

Pandemic influenza in Papua New Guinea: a modelling study comparison with pandemic spread in a developed country  

PubMed Central

Objectives The possible occurrence of a highly pathogenic influenza strain is of concern to health authorities worldwide. It is known that during past influenza pandemics developing countries have experienced considerably higher death rates compared with developed countries. Furthermore, many developing countries lack appropriate pandemic preparedness plans. Mathematical modelling studies to guide the development of such plans are largely focused on predicting pandemic influenza spread in developed nations. However, intervention strategies shown by modelling studies to be highly effective for developed countries give limited guidance as to the impact which an influenza pandemic may have on low-income countries given different demographics and resource constraints. To address this, an individual-based model of a Papua New Guinean (PNG) community was created and used to simulate the spread of a novel influenza strain. The results were compared with those obtained from a comparable Australian model. Design A modelling study. Setting The towns of Madang in PNG (population ?35?000) and Albany (population ?30?000) in Australia. Outcome measures Daily and cumulative illness attack rates in both models following introduction of a novel influenza strain into a naive population, for an unmitigated scenario and two social distancing intervention scenarios. Results The unmitigated scenario indicated an approximately 50% higher attack rate in PNG compared with the Australian model. The two social distancing-based interventions strategies were 60–70% less effective in a PNG setting compared with an Australian setting. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that an influenza pandemic occurring in a low-income country such as PNG may have a greater impact than one occurring in a developed country, and that PNG-feasible interventions may be substantially less effective. The larger average household size in PNG, the larger proportion of the population under 18 and greater community-wide contact all contribute to this feature.

Milne, George J; Baskaran, Pravin; Halder, Nilimesh; Karl, Stephan; Kelso, Joel

2013-01-01

299

Knowledge and communication needs assessment of community health workers in a developing country: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary health care is a set of health services that can meet the needs of the developing world. Community health workers act as a bridge between health system and community in providing this care. Appropriate knowledge and communication skills of the workers are key to their confidence and elementary for the success of the system. We conducted this study to document the perceptions of these workers on their knowledge and communication needs, image building through mass media and mechanisms for continued education. Methods Focus group discussions were held with health workers and their supervisors belonging to all the four provinces of the country and the Azad Jammu & Kashmir region. Self-response questionnaires were also used to obtain information on questions regarding their continued education. Results About four fifths of the respondents described their communication skills as moderately sufficient and wanted improvement. Knowledge on emerging health issues was insufficient and the respondents showed willingness to participate in their continued education. Media campaigns were successful in building the image of health workers as a credible source of health information. Conclusion A continued process should be ensured to provide opportunities to health workers to update their knowledge, sharpen communication skills and bring credibility to their persona as health educators.

Haq, Zaeem; Hafeez, Assad

2009-01-01

300

Relationships between food consumption and living arrangements among university students in four European countries - A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The transition of young people from school to university has many health implications. Food choice at the university can differ because of childhood food consumption patterns, sex and the living arrangements. Food consumption may change especially if students are living away from home. We aimed to assess food consumption patterns among university students from four European countries and how they differ by their living arrangements. Methods We analysed data from a cross-country survey assessing health and health behaviours of students. The sample comprised a total of 2402 first year undergraduate students from one university in each of the countries of Germany, Denmark, Poland and Bulgaria. Food consumption was assessed by means of a food frequency questionnaire with 9 food groups (indicators). Results Students’ food consumption patterns differed across the countries. Frequent consumption of unhealthy items was common. Bulgarian students reported most often frequent consumption of sweets and cakes and snacks (e.g. chips and fast food). Polish students reported the least frequent consumption of vegetables and a low consumption of fruits. Across all countries except Bulgaria, men reported substantially more often frequent consumption of snacks than women. Students living at parental home consumed more fruit, vegetables, and meat than those who resided outside of their family home in all studied countries. There was more variation with regard to cakes and salads with more frequent consumption of cakes among Bulgarian female students and Danish male students and more frequent consumption of salads among Danish female students not living at parental home, compared to students from other countries. Conclusions Nutrition habits of university students differed across countries and by sex. Students living at parental home displayed more healthy nutrition habits, with some exceptions.

2012-01-01

301

Decisions concerning potentially life-sustaining treatments in paediatric nephrology: a multicentre study in French-speaking countries  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have looked at the way in which decisions to withhold or to withdraw potential life-sustaining treatments (LST) are taken in paediatric nephrology. The aim of this work was to evaluate such practices in all nephrology centres in French-speaking European countries, so that guidelines could be drawn up and discussed by professionals. Methods Semi-directed interviews were used to question health-care professionals prospectively. We also retrospectively analysed the medical files of all children (n= 50) for whom a decision to withhold or to withdraw LST had been taken in the last five years. The doctors (n=31) who had been involved in the decision-making process were interviewed. Results All 31 of the French-speaking paediatric nephrology centres in Europe were included in this study. Eighteen of these centres had made decisions about whether to withhold or to withdraw LST in the previous five years. Subsequent quality of life, based on long-term living conditions, was the principal criterion used to make decisions. Criteria affecting relational aspects of life and the child’s prognosis were also considered. The decision-making processes (DMP) were not always collective even though interactions between doctors and the rest of the medical team seemed to be a key element. The parents’ involvement in the DMP differed between centres. Conclusions The criteria used to decide whether to withhold or to withdraw LST are not standardised and no specific guidelines have been established.

Fauriel, Isabelle; Moutel, Gregoire; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Montuclard, Luc; Duchange, Nathalie; Callies, Ingrid; Francois, Irene; Cochat, Pierre; Herve, Christian

2004-01-01

302

Long-Term Impact of War on Healthcare Costs: An Eight-Country Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposure to war can negatively affect health and may impact on healthcare costs. Estimating these costs and identifying their predictors is important for appropriate service planning. We aimed to measure use of health services in an adult population who had experienced war in the former-Yugoslavia on average 8 years previously, and to identify characteristics associated with the use and costs of healthcare. Method War-affected community samples in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, and Serbia were recruited through a random walk technique. Refugees in Germany, Italy and the UK were contacted through registers, organisations and networking. Current service use was measured for the previous three months and combined with unit costs for each country for the year 2006/7. A two-part approach was used, to identify predictors of service use with a multiple logistic regression model and predictors of cost with a generalised linear regression model. Results 3,313 participants were interviewed in Balkan countries and 854 refugees in Western European countries. In the Balkan countries, traumatic events and mental health status were related to greater service use while in Western countries these associations were not found. Participants in Balkan countries with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had costs that were 63% higher (p?=?0.005) than those without PTSD. Distress experienced during the most traumatic war event was associated with higher costs (p?=?0.013). In Western European countries costs were 76% higher if non-PTSD anxiety disorders were present (0.027) and 63% higher for mood disorders (p?=?0.006). Conclusions War experiences and their effects on mental health are associated with increased health care costs even many years later, especially for those who stayed in the area of conflict. Focussing on the mental health impact of war is important for many reasons including those of an economic nature.

Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; McCrone, Paul; Bogic, Marija; Ajdukovic, Dean; Franciskovic, Tanja; Colombini, Niccolo; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Morina, Nexhmedin; Popovski, Mihajlo; Schutzwohl, Matthias; Priebe, Stefan

2012-01-01

303

Relations between adolescents’ self-evaluations, time perspectives, motivation for school and their achievement in different countries and at different ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on the relations between the self-efficacy, social self-concept, time perspectives, school investment\\u000a and academic achievement of students in four different European countries and in different adolescence periods. A total of\\u000a 1623 students completed questionnaires. The relations between the concepts proved not to be specific to the Western or to\\u000a the former Communist bloc countries studied. The

Thea peetsma; Tina Hascher; Ineke van der Veen; Ewoud Roede

2005-01-01

304

Clinico-pathological study of causes of perinatal mortality in a developing country.  

PubMed

Perinatal mortality rates are an important indicator of the overall obstetric and neonatal services available, and the socio-economic status of the community. These rates are also used to identify shortcomings in services provided. The aim of this study was to identify clinical causative factors of perinatal deaths (supported by post mortem evidence where possible). This was a prospective descriptive study. The total number of deliveries and perinatal deaths over a 6-month period were recorded and clinico-demographic data noted. Post mortem examination information, if available, was also recorded. There was a total of 7789 deliveries over the 6-month period and 460 perinatal deaths, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 59/1000 deliveries; 45% (n = 207) of the perinatal deaths had post mortem examinations. The mean age was 26 years; 84.8% were single mothers. One-third of the group were un-booked: the mean gestational age of fetal death was 31 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 1700 g. Two-thirds of the perinatal deaths were stillbirths. The leading obstetric causes of deaths were: abruptio placentae (25.3%), hypertension in pregnancy (24.9%), prematurity (17.4%), unexplained stillbirth (13.4%) and intrapartum asphyxia (9.2%). The perinatal mortality rate of 59/1000 deliveries is high. Although this is comparable with other developing countries, there is a need for improvement in organisation of obstetric and neonatal care, staffing levels and access to and effective utilisation of antenatal services. These will probably lead to a significant reduction of this relatively high perinatal mortality rate. PMID:12521794

Naidu, S; Moodley, J; Adhikari, M; Ramsaroop, R; Morar, N; Dunmoye, O O

2001-09-01

305

Feasibility studies of a power interconnection system for Central American countries: SIEPAC project  

SciTech Connect

The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC project which consists of a 1,678 km long 500 kV ac power transmission line that would link the six electrical systems of the region through seven power substations (one for each country and two in Panama), installed close to the highest demand national centers and six control centers of energy (one for each country) to allow coordinated operation of the interconnection.This project also considers a set of complementary assets (230 ac power transmission lines into some countries and the border transmission line between El Salvador and Honduras, and various other equipment). The power transmission line will greatly reinforce the actual border interconnections, which have a reduced capacity of exchange and technical problems associated with the stability of a weak longitudinal system. On the other hand, economic savings for the region would be achieved, coming from a higher coordination level in the operation and planning of their systems.

Gomez, T.; Enamorado, J.C. (Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica); Vela, A. (Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, Madrid (Spain))

1994-06-01

306

Deepening Learning and Inspiring Rigor: Bridging Academic and Experiential Learning Using a Host Country Approach to a Study Tour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|American students are increasingly incorporating study in a foreign country into their college educations, but many participate in short-term programs that limit their engagement with any more than the superficial aspects of the host culture. This article describes a short-term study abroad course for American students to Japan in which the…

Long, Susan Orpett; Akande, Yemi Susan; Purdy, R. W.; Nakano, Keiko

2010-01-01

307

Why do case studies on national health research systems matter? Identifying common challenges in low- and middle-income countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since health research has become increasingly acknowledged as an important tool for development, many approaches have been undertaken to understand national health research from a systems perspective. This paper reviews 28 case studies that describe or analyse health research systems in 26 low- and middle-income countries. These case studies were sponsored either by the Council on Health Research for Development

Carol D’Souza; Ritu Sadana

2006-01-01

308

Deepening Learning and Inspiring Rigor: Bridging Academic and Experiential Learning Using a Host Country Approach to a Study Tour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American students are increasingly incorporating study in a foreign country into their college educations, but many participate in short-term programs that limit their engagement with any more than the superficial aspects of the host culture. This article describes a short-term study abroad course for American students to Japan in which the…

Long, Susan Orpett; Akande, Yemi Susan; Purdy, R. W.; Nakano, Keiko

2010-01-01

309

Breast-Milk Substitutes: A New Old-Threat for Breastfeeding Policy in Developing Countries. A Case Study in a Traditionally High Breastfeeding Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDeveloping countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS) in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding.MethodsRandomised

Hubert Barennes; Gwenaelle Empis; Thao Duong Quang; Khouanheuan Sengkhamyong; Phonethepa Phasavath; Aina Harimanana; Emercia M. Sambany; Paulin N. Koffi

2012-01-01

310

Strategies for Evaluating a Freshman Studies Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study developed an economic model for the evaluation of Seaton Hall University's freshman studies program. Two techniques used to evaluate the economic success of the program are break-even analysis and elasticity coefficient. (Author/MLW)

Ketkar, Kusum; Bennett, Shelby D.

1989-01-01

311

The establishment of an academic health sciences library in a developing country: a case study.  

PubMed Central

The development of a Faculty of Medical Sciences (FMS) and an academic health sciences library for the University of the West Indies (UWI) has proven to be a polemical and political issue due to the depressed economy of the country. Although FMS is still shrouded in politics and controversy after its inaugural year, the Medical Sciences Library (MSL) has expanded its dimensions and is actively developing a biomedical information network within the country. This will result in better dissemination and control of biomedical information. The library now participates in joint projects with other health sciences libraries in the country with the goal of joint automated listings of holdings and shared cataloging projects. This paper examines the development of the library and explains the difficulties experienced in its developmental stages due to politics, the delay in appointment of a medical sciences librarian, and the financial decline in the local economy.

Ellis, L S

1991-01-01

312

The establishment of an academic health sciences library in a developing country: a case study.  

PubMed

The development of a Faculty of Medical Sciences (FMS) and an academic health sciences library for the University of the West Indies (UWI) has proven to be a polemical and political issue due to the depressed economy of the country. Although FMS is still shrouded in politics and controversy after its inaugural year, the Medical Sciences Library (MSL) has expanded its dimensions and is actively developing a biomedical information network within the country. This will result in better dissemination and control of biomedical information. The library now participates in joint projects with other health sciences libraries in the country with the goal of joint automated listings of holdings and shared cataloging projects. This paper examines the development of the library and explains the difficulties experienced in its developmental stages due to politics, the delay in appointment of a medical sciences librarian, and the financial decline in the local economy. PMID:1884084

Ellis, L S

1991-07-01

313

Prison suicide in 12 countries: an ecological study of 861 suicides during 2003–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although suicide rates among prisoners are high and vary between countries, it is uncertain whether this reflects the importation\\u000a of risk from the general population or is associated with incarceration rates.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We collected data on suicides and undetermined deaths in 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, England and Wales,\\u000a Finland, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden) directly from

Seena Fazel; Martin Grann; Boo Kling; Keith Hawton

2011-01-01

314

Influenza surveillance in the Pacific Island countries and territories during the 2009 pandemic: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Historically, Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) have been more severely affected by influenza pandemics than any other part of the world. We herein describe the emergence and epidemiologic characteristics of pandemic influenza H1N1 in PICTs from 2009 to 2010. Methods The World Health Organization gathered reports of influenza-like-illness and laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases from all 23 Pacific island countries and territories, from April 2009 through August 2010. Data were gathered through weekly email reports from Pacific island countries and territories and through email or telephone follow-up. Results Pacific island countries and territories started detecting pandemic H1N1 cases in June 2009, firstly in French Polynesia, with the last new detection occurring in August 2009 in Tuvalu. Nineteen Pacific island countries and territories reported 1,972 confirmed cases, peaking in August 2009. No confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases were identified in Niue, Pitcairn and Tokelau; the latter instituted strict maritime quarantine. Influenza-like-illness surveillance showed trends similar to surveillance of confirmed cases. Seven Pacific island countries and territories reported 21 deaths of confirmed pandemic H1N1. Case-patients died of acute respiratory distress syndrome or multi-organ failure, or both. The most reported pre-existing conditions were obesity, lung disease, heart disease, and pregnancy. Pacific island countries and territories instituted a variety of mitigation measures, including arrival health screening. Multiple partners facilitated influenza preparedness planning and outbreak response. Conclusions Pandemic influenza spread rapidly throughout the Pacific despite enormous distances and relative isolation. Tokelau and Pitcairn may be the only jurisdictions to have remained pandemic-free. Despite being well-prepared, Pacific island countries and territories experienced significant morbidity and mortality, consistent with other indigenous and low-resource settings. For the first time, regional influenza-like-illness surveillance was conducted in the Pacific, allowing health authorities to monitor the pandemic’s spread and severity in real-time. Future regional outbreak responses will likely benefit from the lessons learned during this outbreak.

2013-01-01

315

Prevalence of dementia subtypes in a developing country: a clinicopathological study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the distribution of dementia subtypes in Brazil using a population-based clinicopathological study. METHOD: Brains from deceased individuals aged ?50 years old were collected after the next of kin signed an informed consent form and provided information through standardized questionnaires. Post-mortem clinical diagnoses were established in consensus meetings, and only cases with moderate or severe dementia or without cognitive impairment were included in the analysis. Immunohistochemical neuropathological examinations were performed following the universally accepted guidelines. A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was made when there were at least both a moderate density of neuritic plaques (Consortium to Establish a Register for Alzheimer's disease B or C) and Braak stage III for neurofibrillary tangle distribution. For the diagnosis of vascular dementia, at least three zones or strategic areas had to be affected by infarcts, lacunae, or microinfarcts. RESULTS: From 1,291 subjects, 113 cases were classified as having moderate or severe dementia, and 972 cases were free of cognitive impairment. The neuropathological diagnoses of the dementia sub-group were Alzheimer's disease (35.4%), vascular dementia (21.2%), Alzheimer's disease plus vascular dementia (13.3%), and other causes of dementia (30.1%). Small-vessel disease, which alone was not considered sufficient for a vascular dementia diagnosis, was present in 38.9% of all of the dementia cases and in 16.8% of the group without cognitive impairment (odds ratio?=?2.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-5.51), adjusted for age, sex, and education. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively high frequencies of vascular dementia and small-vessel disease in the dementia sub-group constitute relevant findings for public health initiatives because control of vascular risk factors could decrease the prevalence of dementia in developing countries.

Grinberg, Lea T.; Nitrini, Ricardo; Suemoto, Claudia K.; de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah; Leite, Renata E. P.; Farfel, Jose Marcelo; Santos, Erika; de Andrade, Mara Patricia Guilhermino; Di Lorenzo Alho, Ana Tereza; do Carmo Lima, Maria; Oliveira, Katia C.; Tampellini, Edilaine; Polichiso, Livia; Santos, Glaucia B.; Rodriguez, Roberta Diehl; Ueda, Kenji; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

2013-01-01

316

Rapid assessment of environmental health risks posed by mining operations in low- and middle-income countries: selected case studies.  

PubMed

Previous studies have evaluated associated health risks and human exposure pathways at mining sites. Others have provided estimates of the scale of the issue based in part on surveys. However, a global census of mining-related hazardous waste sites has been lacking. The Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) implemented by Blacksmith Institute (New York, NY, USA) since 2009 is an ongoing effort to catalogue a wide range of chemically contaminated sites with a potential human health risk (Ericson et al., Environ Monit Assess doi:10.1007/s 10661-012-2665-2, 2012). The TSIP utilizes a rapid assessment instrument, the Initial Site Screening (ISS), to quickly and affordably identify key site criteria including human exposure pathways, estimated populations at risk, and sampling information. The resulting ISS allows for comparison between sites exhibiting different contaminants and pollution sources. This paper explores the results of a subset of ISSs completed at 131 artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas and 275 industrial mining and ore processing sites in 45 countries. The authors show that the ISS captures key data points, allowing for prioritization of sites for further investigation or remedial activity. PMID:23263764

Caravanos, Jack; Ericson, Bret; Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny; Hanrahan, David; Block, Meredith; Susilorini, Budi; Fuller, Richard

2012-12-22

317

Digital Radiology to Improve the Quality of Care in Countries with Limited Resources: A Feasibility Study from Angola  

PubMed Central

Objective Sub-standard quality in X-ray image acquisition and interpretation is common in low-resource countries, and can ultimately result in higher patient morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at evaluating; 1) feasibility of implementing a digital X-ray device in a second level hospital in Angola; 2) quality of digital X-ray images, when digital radiology was in the hands of local technicians; 3) feasibility of digital teleradiology and its potential impact on case management. Methods We developed and tested at the Hospital Divina Providencia (HDP) in Luanda, Angola, a digital X-ray device and a telemedicine network to acquire and print digital X-ray images and send them as DICOM files for remote consultation. Results 20,564 digital X-ray images were made at HDP from November 2010 to December 2012, with no major technical problems and no need for on-site supervision. Digital radiology largely improved the number of X-ray images of good and very good quality (100% of images with digital radiology, compared to 15% of screen-film images, p<0.0001). Teleradiology using digital images was used in 7.6% of paediatric cases, and provided, in these cases, an important contribution to case management. Conclusions The implementation of a digital X-ray device is feasible in low resource settings with significant improvement in quality of X-ray images compared to standard screen film radiology.

Zennaro, Floriana; Oliveira Gomes, Joaquim Antonio; Casalino, Armando; Lonardi, Magda; Starc, Meta; Paoletti, Pierpaolo; Gobbo, Daniele; Giusto, Chiara; Not, Tarcisio; Lazzerini, Marzia

2013-01-01

318

Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study  

PubMed Central

Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27?957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100?000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100?000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research.

Haglund, Bengt; Hogberg, Ulf; Essen, Birgitta

2013-01-01

319

Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: evidence from cohort studies.  

PubMed

We have previously found a positive association between milk consumption and prostate cancer risk using meta-analysis to analyze published case-control studies. In the present study, further meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the summary relative risk (RR) between the consumption of milk and dairy products and prostate cancer from cohort studies published between 1966- 2006. We found 18 relevant articles and 13 independent studies were available for our analysis. The summary RR was 1.13 (95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.24) when comparing the highest with the lowest quantile of consumption. The summary RRs by study stratification showed a positive association. A dose-response relationship was identified when combining the studies that partitioned the consumption by quintiles. We also evaluated the effects of some limitations, such as dairy classification, prostate cancer stages and publication bias, in the present study. These findings, together with the previous study, suggest that the consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk of prostate cancer. This is biologically plausible since milk contains considerable amounts of fat, hormones, and calcium that are associated with prostate cancer risk. PMID:17704029

Qin, Li-Qiang; Xu, Jia-Ying; Wang, Pei-Yu; Tong, Jian; Hoshi, Kazuhiko

2007-01-01

320

Towards a cleaner production in developing countries: a case study in a Chilean tannery.  

PubMed

A Chilean leather tanning industry (tannery) was studied in terms of input/output (I/O) analysis of beamhouse, tanyard and retanning processes. The physical-chemical characterization of 19 streams were investigated. Streams from the beamhouse process and some streams from the retanning process were found to have high organic contents ranging from 2.5 to 18.1 g COD L(-1). The pH ranged between 3.45 and 12.28. Sulphur was found in most of the streams whereas chromium was detected in two wastewaters from the tanyard and in seven streams from the retanning process. Pollution prevention opportunities were evaluated and an appropriate treatment strategy was proposed. The main emphasis was on determining waste reduction measures that can be easily implemented and are not particularly expensive. Measures for reduction at source were proposed to reduce water and chemicals consumption and wastewater pollution. A so-called S(index) strategy was used to evaluate proposals on segregation and specific treatment of the main chromium- and sulphur-containing wastewaters. It was suggested that some streams may be re-used, but it is necessary to apply anaerobic or aerobic treatment first, depending on their organic load. Solid wastes were also evaluated and a proposal for their reduction and disposal was made. PMID:15253496

Rivela, Beatriz; Méndez, Ranón; Bornhardt, Cristian; Vidal, Gladys

2004-06-01

321

Country contextualization of the mental health gap action programme intervention guide: a case study from Nigeria.  

PubMed

As one article in an ongoing series on Global Mental Health Practice, Jibril Abdulmalik and colleagues describe the implementation of the mhGAP-Intervention Guide in Nigeria, which has resulted in a country-specific version. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:23976884

Abdulmalik, Jibril; Kola, Lola; Fadahunsi, Woye; Adebayo, Kazeem; Yasamy, M Taghi; Musa, Emmanuel; Gureje, Oye

2013-08-20

322

Psychologists experience of cognitive behaviour therapy in a developing country: a qualitative study from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Psychological therapies especially Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) are used widely in the West to help patients with psychiatric problems. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has an established evidence base for the treatment of different emotional disorders. In spite of these developments in the developed world, patients in most developing countries hardly benefit from non pharmacological interventions. Although a significant number of

Farooq Naeem; Mary Gobbi; Muhammad Ayub; David Kingdon

2010-01-01

323

A scalable telemedicine architecture for under developed countries. A case study: Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telemedicine, defined as the use of telecommunications technologies to provide medical information and services, is electronic transfer of medical data being able to include the sound and the images to practice remote medicine. In under developed countries, as the Democratic Republic of Congo, the capability to remote monitor patients that live in villages or small rural town, is a \\

S. Kidiamboko; A. Mancini; S. Longhi; L. Spalazzi

2008-01-01

324

Empirical Study on the Determinants of CO2 Emissions: Evidence from OECD Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for CO2 emissions in the cases of 11 OECD countries by taking into account the role of nuclear energy in electricity production. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration is employed as the estimation method. Our results indicate that energy consumption has a positive impact on CO2 emissions in most

Hiroki Iwata; Keisuke Okada; Sovannroeun Samreth

2010-01-01

325

The publics’ concern for global warming: A cross-national study of 47 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article relies on data from the 2005–09 World Values Survey to examine individual and cross-national variation in perception of the seriousness of global warming. The data show that a large majority of the public in all countries are concerned about the problem of global warming and that this assessment is part of a broader concern for global environmental issues.

Berit Kvaløy; Henning Finseraas; Ola Listhaug

2012-01-01

326

Youth, mobility and mobile phones in Africa: findings from a three-country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of mobile phones into sub-Saharan Africa has occurred with amazing rapidity: for many young people, they now represent a very significant element of their daily life. This paper explores usage and perceived impacts among young people aged c. 9–18 years in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and South Africa. Our evidence comes from intensive qualitative research with young people,

Gina Porter; Kate Hampshire; Albert Abane; Alister Munthali; Elsbeth Robson; Augustine Tanle

2012-01-01

327

Exploring the Implementation of Blended Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores on how the blended learning method has been implemented in the developing country such as Uganda. Many higher education institutions in Uganda have acquired a new form of learning using technology that they combine with the traditional learning methods. Implementation of this form of learning using technology has been challenged by several factors. Many of the challenges

Philip O. Ayoo; Jude T. Lubega

328

Key drivers for sustainable operations in developing countries: A textile case study from Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent paradigm shift towards sustainable development of business operations worldwide. Limited resources and the need for a cleaner and unpolluted global environment, along with recent developments in governmental legislations have made it difficult for international companies to take advantage of developing countries more lenient environmental policies. This paper presents an in-depth case analysis of a leading

Sherwat E. Ibrahim; Karim H. Ahmed

2011-01-01

329

EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE ON CLIMATE CHANGE: A CROSS COUNTRY STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING CARBON EMISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture affects atmosphere by releasing green house gases and get affected in turn, from climate change. This paper reviews the literature on both the aspects and test empirically that what affects emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Data on carbon emissions, energy consumption and agriculture related national level variables are obtained for 120 countries from the World Bank's Green

Krishna Prasad Pant

2009-01-01

330

Methodology for a multi-country study of soil erosion management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the theoretical framework used in interpreting data on runoff and soil loss from field experiments to yield information on soil erodibility. This theory has been employed in the form of computer programs in the field experiments in various tropical countries and Australia which have collaborated in the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Project 8551 entitled “The

C. A. Ciesiolka; K. J. Coughlan; C. W. Rose; M. C. Escalante; G. Mohd. Hashim; E. P. Paningbatan; S. Sombatpanit

1995-01-01

331

The Digital Balance between Industrialised and Developing Countries: Futures Studies for Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of researching the digital balance between industrialised and developing countries was to discover how information and communication technology (ICT), content and e-services developed in Finland will work on the African continent, and vice versa. Globalisation and the associated new international division of labour and well-being…

Hietanen, Olli

2006-01-01

332

Determinants of outward foreign direct investment from BRIC countries: an explorative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Outward foreign direct investment (FDI) of firms from Brazil, Russia, India and China has increased significantly during the last few years. Despite this trend, comprehensive research on the specific determinants and antecedents of outward FDI from BRIC countries is still underrepresented. The purpose of this paper is to give a more comprehensive understanding of outward FDI from BRIC

Dirk Holtbrügge; Heidi Kreppel

2012-01-01

333

Quality, cost and utilization of health services in developing countries. A longitudinal study in Zaïre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developing countries, particularly in Africa, have recently introduced payment schemes based on the selling of essential drugs. This is one of the main elements of the Bamako Initiative according to which the income generated would ensure a reliable supply of drugs and would improve other aspects of the quality of the services offered. Thus, quality improvements would compensate for

Slim Haddad; Pierre Fournier

1995-01-01

334

Internationalization of multinational banks: a study of foreign direct investment in seven Latin American countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article attempts to explore and contrast the different factors that influence the foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions of multinational banks. Employing eclectic theory, an estimation model with panel data from seven Latin American countries is set to test the proposed hypotheses. The results highlight an increase in foreign assets, removal of banking restriction, banking concentration, and capital cost differential

Alejandro Santana Mariscal; Yingying Zhang; Joaquin López Pascual

2012-01-01

335

Cross Cultural Study of Attitudes Toward Women as Managers in Four Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-cultural comparison of attitudes towards women as managers involving 682 managerial and professional employees from the U. S., India, Japan, and Mexico was conducted. Various macro factors such as legislation, culture, and economic development, as well as relevant micro factors such as education, self-acceptance, and mentoring were discussed in the context of the four countries as they relate to

Shanthi Srinivas; Robert W. Allen; Shiori Sakamoto

1999-01-01

336

Modelling future urban scenarios in developing countries: an application case study in Lagos, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider urban sustainability issues in developing countries, with a focus on urban growth. The need for urban management tools that are able to provide prospective scenarios is addressed. Urban simulations can represent a useful approach to understanding the consequences of current planning policies -- or their incompleteness. Nevertheless, simulations of future urban growth are usually quite difficult without tools

José I Barredo; Luca Demicheli; Carlo Lavalle; Marjo Kasanko; Niall McCormick

2004-01-01

337

Open access and institutional repositories - a developing country perspective: a case study of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years much discussions and initiatives are taken in the area of open access. Open access, a philosophy facilitates availability and distribution of scholarly communication freely, as a means to solve the problem of inaccessibility primarily due to financial constraint particularly in the context of developing countries. Many scholarly literature are freely accessible now without any hindrance. Open

S. B. GHOSH; ANUP KUMAR DAS

2006-01-01

338

An international comparative study of basic scientific research capacity: OECD countries, Taiwan and Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an econometric model relating to the technological development problem of a technologically less developed country, by which its basic scientific research capacity (BSRC) and the gap in terms of time lag can be measured and forecasted in connection with factor analysis and the estimated BSRC progress function. Based on the analysis, the coauthors recommend some technology policies

Yang Taek Lim; Chung Han Song

1996-01-01

339

A Cross-Country Study of Market-Based Housing Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities to improve households' eligibility for long-term housing loans at fixed interest rates has been a current topic of public discussion. Yet, credit institutions have difficulties in granting such loans, unless they themselves can acquire fixed-rate funding. In many cases, the only feasible way for them to raise such funding is to issue bonds. In a number of countries,

Kaare Andersen; Karlo Kauko

1996-01-01

340

Lessons from the Pacific programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: a case study of 5 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is an important Neglected Tropical Disease, being a major cause of disability worldwide. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to eliminate LF as a public health problem by the year 2020, primarily through repeated Mass Drug Administration (MDA). The Pacific region programme commenced in 1999. By June 2007, five of the eleven countries classified

Clare Huppatz; Corinne Capuano; Kevin Palmer; Paul M Kelly; David N Durrheim

2009-01-01

341

World Directory of Environmental Education Programs. Post-Secondary Study and Training in 70 Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume identifies and describes programs of environmental education offered in over 700 post-secondary institutions in 70 different countries. Much of the information was gained through a questionnaire sent to institutions of higher learning, training institutes, and government ministries. Besides the main section, which is an annotated…

Quigg, Philip W., Ed.

342

The geography of foreign news on television: A comparative study of 17 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the advent of television in the middle of the 20th century, news has been an essential ingredient in TV programming. Often these newscasts are the most heavily viewed programmes, and by and large they are the main source of information for many people. This is particularly true for news from other countries and regions in the world. This immense

Jürgen Wilke; Christine Heimprecht; Akiba Cohen

2012-01-01

343

Educational Attainment and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Cross-Country Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…

Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati

2008-01-01

344

Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

2011-01-01

345

Sustainability of biofuel in developing countries: case study Thailand and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of energy demand together with the consequent increase of the cost of oil is great threats in developing countries economy. Alternative and sustainable energy such as biofuel seems to be a quick solution to this problem. The emerging industry is facing a lack of feedstock supplies, so it needs initiatives in crop cultivation technologies and competitive sourcing of

Anant Oonsivilai; Kenedy A. Greyson Oonsivilai

2009-01-01

346

Training Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Kuwait.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of training evaluation activity and challenges in 77 Kuwaiti organizations found that most respondents evaluate their programs only occasionally through the use of questionnaires. Most use the Kilpatrick model for evaluation and the most common level of evaluation is reaction type. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)|

Al-Athari, Ahmad; Zairi, Mohamed

2002-01-01

347

Social Studies. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This compilation of 11 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 3-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

348

Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian…

Rosser, Andrew

2012-01-01

349

Adipose tissue isomeric trans fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction in nine countries: the EURAMIC study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary isomeric trans fatty acids—mainly produced by hydrogenation of oils—are suspected of increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. Dietary trans fatty acid intake is reflected in the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue. In an international multicentre study in eight European countries and Israel (EURAMIC), adipose tissue aspiration samples were obtained from 671 men with acute myocardial infarction (AMI),

A. Aro; I. Salminen; J. K. Huttunen; A. F. M. Kardinaal; P. van't Veer; J. D. Kark; R. A. Riemersma; M. Delgado-Rodriguez; J. Gomez-Aracena; L. Kohlmeier; M. Thamm; B. C. Martin; J. M. Martin-Moreno; V. P. Mazaev; J. Ringstad; F. J. Kok

1995-01-01

350

Patterns of alcohol consumption and ischaemic heart disease in culturally divergent countries: the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the effect of alcohol intake patterns on ischaemic heart disease in two countries with contrasting lifestyles, Northern Ireland and France.Design Cohort data from the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME) were analysed. Weekly alcohol consumption, incidence of binge drinking (alcohol >50 g on at least one day a week), incidence of regular drinking (at least one

Jean-Bernard Ruidavets; Pierre Ducimetière; Alun Evans; Michèle Montaye; Bernadette Haas; Annie Bingham; John Yarnell; Philippe Amouyel; Dominique Arveiler; Frank Kee; Vanina Bongard; Jean Ferrières

2010-01-01

351

Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of High School Students from Four Countries-Austria, Czech Republic, England, and USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the attitude toward physical education of 1107 high school students from four countries, Czech Republic, Austria, England, and the United States. Survey data were gathered and measured using the Adams Scale survey instrument (Adams, 1963). While the data revealed individual differences, the overall sample indicated a…

Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James M.; Fenster, Mark J.; Langford, George

2004-01-01

352

Cultural and leadership predictors of corporate social responsibility values of top management: a GLOBE study of 15 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines cultural and leadership variables associated with corporate social responsibility values that managers apply to their decision-making. In this longitudinal study, we analyze data from 561 firms located in 15 countries on five continents to illustrate how the cultural dimensions of institutional collectivism and power distance predict social responsibility values on the part of top management team members.

David A Waldman; Mary Sully de Luque; Nathan Washburn; Robert J House; Bolanle Adetoun; Angel Barrasa; Mariya Bobina; Muzaffer Bodur; Yi-Jung Chen; Sukhendu Debbarma; Peter Dorfman; Rosemary R Dzuvichu; Idil Evcimen; Pingping Fu; Mikhail Grachev; Roberto Gonzalez Duarte; Vipin Gupta; Deanne N Den Hartog; Annebel H B de Hoogh; Jon Howell; Kuen-Yung Jone; Hayat Kabasakal; Edvard Konrad; P L Koopman; Rainhart Lang; Cheng-Chen Lin; Jun Liu; Boris Martinez; Almarie E Munley; Nancy Papalexandris; T K Peng; Leonel Prieto; Narda Quigley; James Rajasekar; Francisco Gil Rodríguez; Johannes Steyrer; Betania Tanure; Henk Thierry; V M Thomas; Peter T van den Berg; Celeste P M Wilderom

2006-01-01

353

Does Subculture Within a Country Matter? A Cross-Cultural Study of Motivational Domains and Business Performance in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of within-country subcultures on business outcomes. We first argue that individuals' values vary across subcultures. We then suggest that values, as expressed through motivational domains, influence business performance. Finally, joining these two propositions, we posit that business performance will vary by subculture. Based on data from four regional subcultures in Brazil, a subculture effect was

Tomasz Lenartowicz; Kendall Roth

2001-01-01

354

Preventive Health Care for Young Children: Findings from a 10-Country Study and Directions for United States Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earlier observations on U.S. infant health and survival as compared with other Western industrial democracies are extended in a study of preventive health services for children from infancy through adolescence and to the social benefit programs that support their families. This report looks at the condition of children in 10 European countries

Williams, Bret C.; Miller, C. Arden

355

Needs for care among patients with schizophrenia in six European countries: a one-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This article compares needs for care among patients with schizophrenia across six European countries and examines how this relates to the diversity of psychiatric systems in Europe. METHODS: A one-year prospective cohort study was set up. Inclusion criteria for patients were: a clinical lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10 (F20) diagnostic criteria for research, age between 18 and

Viviane Kovess-Masféty; Durk Wiersma; Miguel Xavier; José Miguel Caldas de Almeida; Mauro G Carta; Jacques Dubuis; Elisabeth Lacalmontie; Jacques Pellet; Jean-Luc Roelandt; Francisco Torres-Gonzalez; Berta Moreno Kustner; Dermot Walsh

2006-01-01

356

Leading Asian countries' HRD practices in the IT industry: a comparative study of South Korea and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare IT firms in two leading Asian countries in the IT industry, South Korea and India, to suggest how to leverage their human resource development (HRD) practices for continued growth. The IT industry in South Korea and India has shown fast growth and notable profits in a short time, but managing their human

Yonjoo Cho; Gary N. McLean

2009-01-01

357

Primary Irritation Evaluation Program Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eleven candidate repellents were evaluated on New Zealand White rabbits for their potential to cause skin and eye irritation. This was used as a basis for making the following recommendations concerning their use on humans. There are no restrictions for t...

S. Rowe

1969-01-01

358

Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing: Results From Field Studies and Ethnographic Interviewing in Three Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross-cultural field study of think-aloud testing done by usability vendor companies in the three countries. The result was a

Torkil Clemmensen

2011-01-01

359

Chapter 28: Studies to assess the long-term efficacy and effectiveness of HPV vaccination in developed and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review studies of the implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes in developed and developing countries. The review spans the period from establishment of long-term vaccine efficacy follow-up studies, operational research on issues of vaccine preparedness, and relevant predictive modelling studies during the pre-licensure phase to plans of phase IV effectiveness trials, forms of epidemiological surveillance, and further operational

Matti Lehtinen; Rolando Herrero; Philippe Mayaud; Ruanne Barnabas; Joakim Dillner; Jorma Paavonen; Peter G. Smith

2006-01-01

360

Material deprivation and self-rated health: a multilevel study of adolescents from 22 European and North American countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study examined the combined and interactive effects of material deprivation and area deprivation on adolescent self-rated health, using data from the World Health Organization collaborative study ‘Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 1997\\/1998’. Included in the present study were 94,915 11–15-year-old students from a total of 22 European and North American countries. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed significant additive

Torbjorn Torsheim; Candace Currie; William Boyce; Ilze Kalnins; Mary Overpeck; Siren Haugland

2004-01-01

361

Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.  

PubMed

Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates increased mortality rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, thermal stress, and increased frequency of infectious vector borne diseases in the region between 2070 and 2099. PMID:19190352

Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

2008-12-01

362

Factors associated with self-rated health status in university students: a cross-sectional study in three European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Self-rated health status (SRHS) is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to assess which candidate variables were independently associated with SRHS in university students, to compare these variables by country and by gender, and to investigate which of the variables was most important as a rating frame for SRHS. Methods The data is from the Cross-National Student Health Survey, conducted in 2005 in universities in Germany, Bulgaria, and Poland (n = 2103; mean age = 20.7 years). SRHS was assessed with a single question using a five-point scale ranging from "excellent" to "poor". The study also measured a wide range of variables including: physical and psychological health, studying, social contacts/social support, and socio-demographic status. Results Psychosomatic complaints (considered an aspect of physical health and, adjusted for psychological health) were the most important indicators in forming a rating frame for students' SRHS. There were few differences in the effects of variables associated with SRHS by gender (well-being: a measure of psychological health) and the variables associated with SRHS by country (well-being and self-efficacy). The remaining variables showed homogenous effects for both genders and for all three countries. Conclusion The results suggest that SRHS can be reasonably used to compare students' health across countries. SRHS is affected by different physical, psychological and psychosomatic aspects of health; however, its strongest association is with psychosomatic complaints.

Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Brzoska, Patrick; Maier, Claudia; Ottova, Veronika; Meier, Sabine; Dudziak, Urszula; Ilieva, Snezhana; El Ansari, Walid

2008-01-01

363

Hazard Evaluation Division, Standard Evaluation Procedure: Aqueous Photolysis Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Standard Evaluation Procedure for the Aqueous Photolysis Studies is a guidance document primarily intended for Agency reviewers and the regulated industry who evaluate data specified in 40 CFR Part 158.124. The SEP is also intended to provide informat...

N. K. Whetzel S. M. Creeger

1985-01-01

364

Factors influencing diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis after a fragility fracture among postmenopausal women in Asian countries: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background A vast amount of literature describes the incidence of fracture as a risk for recurrent osteoporotic fractures in western and Asian countries. Osteoporosis evaluation and treatment after a low-trauma fracture, however, has not been well characterized in postmenopausal women in Asia. The purpose of this study was to characterize patient and health system characteristics associated with the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women hospitalized with a fragility fracture in Asia. Methods Patient surveys and medical charts of postmenopausal women (N=1,122) discharged after a fragility hip fracture from treatment centers in mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2007 were reviewed for bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, osteoporosis diagnosis, and osteoporosis treatment. Results The mean (SD) age was 72.9 (11.5) years. A BMD measurement was reported by 28.2% of patients, 51.5% were informed that they had osteoporosis, and 33.0% received prescription medications for osteoporosis in the 6 months after discharge. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, prior history of fracture decreased the odds of a BMD measurement (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.88). Having a BMD measurement increased the odds of osteoporosis diagnosis (OR 10.1, 95% CI 6.36-16.0), as did having health insurance (OR 4.95, 95% CI 1.51-16.21 for private insurance with partial self-payment relative to 100% self-payment). A history of fracture was not independently associated with an osteoporosis diagnosis (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.56-1.15). Younger age reduced the odds of receiving medication for osteoporosis (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.96 relative to age ?65), while having a BMD measurement increased the odds (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.23-2.61). Conclusions Osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment in Asian countries were driven by BMD measurement but not by fracture history. Future efforts should emphasize education of general practitioners and patients about the importance of fracture.

2013-01-01

365

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu (Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry)

1992-08-01

366

Individualism: Collectivism and the handling of disagreement. A 23 country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of espoused values and the handling of disagreement in work settings was explored at the cultural level. Managers and supervisors from a variety of organizations within 23 countries completed a questionnaire about the handling of disagreement in their work unit. Responses were compared with value measures derived from Hofstede, 1980[Hofstede, G. (1980). Culturefn1fn1Amorim, Sabino Ayestaran, Stephen Bochner, Victor

Peter B Smith; Shaun Dugan; Ark F Peterson; Wok Leung

1998-01-01

367

Parental perceptions of feeding practices in five European countries: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To gain an insight into parental perceptions of infant feeding practices in five European countries.Design:An exploratory investigation using focus group discussions. Various aspects addressed included social and cultural setting for the consumption of food, infant feeding practice and behaviour, consumer health awareness and sources of information, and attitudes towards a healthy infant diet.Setting:Focus group participants were recruited from centres in

K Synnott; J Bogue; C A Edwards; J A Scott; S Higgins; E Norin; D Frias; S Amarri; R Adam

2007-01-01

368

Productivity, convergence and policy: a study of OECD countries and industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses trends in labour productivity and its underlying determinants in a panel of OECD countries from 1979 to\\u000a 2002. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to estimate a Malmquist measure of multifactor productivity (MFP) change. We\\u000a decompose the growth in labour productivity into (i) net technological change (ii) input biased technical change (IBTC) (iii)\\u000a efficiency change and (iv)

Dimitris Margaritis; Rolf Färe; Shawna Grosskopf

2007-01-01

369

Policy and practice in widening participation: a six country comparative study of access as flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widening participation to higher education (HE) is central to the educational policies of countries throughout the world, and takes the form of a range of types of intervention, which can be classified within a three-fold typology. Access as in-reach refers to those programmes that prioritize recruiting potential students into the institution—examples include adult Access courses and certain summer school provisions

Michael Osborne

2003-01-01

370

A Follow-Up Study on Teacher Evaluation in China: Historical Analysis and Latest Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research study follows up on previous investigations of the ongoing curriculum reform in China and its repercussions (actual and potential) on the effectiveness of the teacher evaluation process there (Liu & Teddlie, 2004, 2005). With the full implementation of the new curriculum reform throughout the country, teacher evaluation is becoming…

Liu, Shujie; Teddlie, Charles

2005-01-01

371

The World Health Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency second interlaboratory comparison study in 16 countries on quality performance of nuclear medicine imaging devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen European countries participated in this WHO-IAEA intercomparison for which transmission CAP (College of American Pathologists) thyroid and IAEA-WHO liver phantoms were used. A total of 257 laboratories submitted 428 image evaluation reports. Overall results showed differences in performance between the various countries but similarities in performance for two gamma camera subgroups defined by year of manufacture, before and after

G. N. Souchkevitch; M. Asikainen; A. Bäuml; H. Bergmann; E. Busemann-Sokole; S. Carlsson; B. Delaloye; F. Dermentzoglou; N. Herrera; W. Jasinski; B. Karanfilski; J. Mester; A. Oppelt; J. Perry; A. Skretting; G. Herk; V. Volodin; A. Wegst; R. F. Mould

1988-01-01

372

Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient?=?0.231 at lag?=??1 week). Conclusions School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data.

Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

2013-01-01

373

Evaluation of Non-Medical Costs Associated with Visual Impairment in Four European Countries: France, Italy, Germany and the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Visual impairment is a severe disability that puts a heavy burden on individuals, families and society. In developed countries, the two major diseases leading to irreversible visual impairment are glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. Their prevalence will increase dramatically with population aging. The economic consequences of visual impairment are considerable, but have rarely been documented, apart from some `top-down'

Antoine Lafuma; Antoine Brezin; Stefania Lopatriello; Klaus Hieke; Julia Hutchinson; Viviane Mimaud; Gilles Berdeaux

2006-01-01

374

P.C.A.P. Project Profiles and General Profilles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program-Evaluation Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirty-eight projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were initiated in 1977 and funded through the Disadvantaged Schools Program; the program was renamed the Country Area Program and made a permanent School Commission program in 1982. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report…

Saide, Tom, Ed.

375

New vaccine adoption: qualitative study of national decision-making processes in seven low- and middle-income countries.  

PubMed

As more new and improved vaccines become available, decisions on which to adopt into routine programmes become more frequent and complex. This qualitative study aimed to explore processes of national decision-making around new vaccine adoption and to understand the factors affecting these decisions. Ninety-five key informant interviews were conducted in seven low- and middle-income countries: Bangladesh, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Kenya, Mali and South Africa. Framework analysis was used to explore issues both within and between countries. The underlying driver for adoption decisions in GAVI-eligible countries was the desire to seize GAVI windows of opportunity for funding. By contrast, in South Africa and Guatemala, non-GAVI-eligible countries, the decision-making process was more rooted in internal and political dynamics. Decisions to adopt new vaccines are, by nature, political. The main drivers influencing decisions were the availability of funding, political prioritization of vaccination or the vaccine-preventable disease and the burden of disease. Other factors, such as financial sustainability and feasibility of introduction, were not as influential. Although GAVI procedures have established more formality in decision-making, they did not always result in consideration of all relevant factors. As familiarity with GAVI procedures increased, questioning by decision-makers about whether a country should apply for funding appeared to have diminished. This is one of the first studies to empirically investigate national processes of new vaccine adoption decision-making using rigorous methods. Our findings show that previous decision-making frameworks (developed to guide or study national decision-making) bore little resemblance to real-life decisions, which were dominated by domestic politics. Understanding the realities of vaccine policy decision-making is critical for developing strategies to encourage improved evidence-informed decision-making about new vaccine adoptions. The potential for international initiatives to encourage evidence-informed decision-making should be realised, not assumed. PMID:22513732

Burchett, H E D; Mounier-Jack, S; Griffiths, U K; Biellik, R; Ongolo-Zogo, P; Chavez, E; Sarma, H; Uddin, J; Konate, M; Kitaw, Y; Molla, M; Wakasiaka, S; Gilson, L; Mills, A

2012-05-01

376

Continuous improvement evaluation: a framework for multisite evaluation studies.  

PubMed

This article proposes the use of the continuous improvement evaluation (CIE), a framework for multisite demonstration or evaluation studies. This framework is designed for studying intervention programs that change during the evaluation. The development of family drug courts is provided as an example. CIE relies on outcome data collected over time and benchmarked across similar cases in comparison sites; thus, this study was designed to collect data on effectiveness of intervention programs at multiple sites and over time. A weight is calculated for similarity of any two cases based on features they share. In statistical process control charts, these weights are used to compare outcomes at the site against the average of similar cases in comparison groups. Once data are benchmarked, program staff meet to discuss process changes that have led to improvements in outcomes. To ensure that intervention programs have access to evaluation reports on demand, information technology is used to collect, clean, and pool data. Computers generate study reports, and evaluators review reports after release to clients. Statistical tools can be used to evaluate changing programs. Traditional evaluators may be concerned about some threats to validity associated with CIE. The article concludes with a discussion of typical threats to validity and how these threats are addressed in the CIE framework. PMID:11378974

Alemi, F; Haack, M R; Nemes, S

377

Key elements composing self-rated health in older adults: a comparative study of 11 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-rated health (SRH) is a multidimensional measure, predictive of morbidity and mortality. Comparative studies of determinants,\\u000a however, are rare due to a lack of comparable cross-national data. This paper contributes towards filling in this gap, using\\u000a data for persons aged 50 or higher in 11 European countries from the SHARE study (2004). The analysis aims at identifying\\u000a key elements composing

Georgia Verropoulou

2009-01-01

378

Postnatal depression and infant growth and development in low income countries: a cohort study from Goa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postnatal depression is a recognised cause of delayed cognitive development in infants in developed countries. Being underweight is common in South Asia.Aims: To determine whether postnatal depression contributes to poor growth and development outcomes in Goa, India.Methods: Cohort study for growth outcomes with nested case-control study for developmental outcomes. A total of 171 babies were weighed and measured at

V Patel; N DeSouza; M Rodrigues

2003-01-01

379

Renewable-energy-resource model to satisfy basic needs in Third World countries - a case study of El Salvador  

SciTech Connect

A computerized energy model was designed to estimate the energy resources required by a country of the Third World to satisfy the food and housing needs of the population as well as to maintain a certain degree of transportation and industry. The model was designed to analyze the energy situation of El Salvador; however, minor modifications in the model structure could make the model suitable to be used for other countries of the Third World. Housing needs are estimated from present deficits and future population growth. Food needs are evaluated from biological considerations. Energy resources to build the houses and cultivate the food are calculated by assuming different housing-construction techniques and cultivation practices. Energy resources required to maintain adequate levels of tranportaton and industry are evaluated. This is done by extrapolating past consumption patterns, with the feature that future fuel-consumption estimations assume a gradual incorporation of the lower economic groups in addition to the current consumption levels attributed to the upper social groups. Technological requirements to meet the energy demand with renewable energy resources are evaluated by assuming an energy policy heavily oriented to utilize solar radiation and other renewable resources. Ten small-scale decentralized and two large-scale centralized technologies are considered in the satisfaction of energy needs in El Salvador.

Navarro, R.A.

1983-01-01

380

Equity in HIV testing: evidence from a cross-sectional study in ten Southern African countries  

PubMed Central

Background HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled) are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves tested.

2010-01-01

381

Computer literacy among first year medical students in a developing country: A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of computer assisted learning (CAL) has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. Methods The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190) were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Results Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%), 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3%) owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%). Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%), self learning (63.0%) or by peer learning (49.2%). The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%), entertainment (95.0%), web browsing (80.1%) and preparing presentations (76.8%). Majority of the students (75.7%) expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty. Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6). There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p < 0.001). In the linear regression analysis, formal computer training was the strongest predictor of computer literacy (? = 13.034), followed by using internet facility, being from Western province, using computers for Web browsing and computer programming, computer ownership and doing IT (Information Technology) as a subject in GCE (A/L) examination. Conclusion Sri Lankan medical undergraduates had a low-intermediate level of computer literacy. There is a need to improve computer literacy, by increasing computer training in schools, or by introducing computer training in the initial stages of the undergraduate programme. These two options require improvement in infrastructure and other resources.

2012-01-01

382

Pain education issues in developing countries and responses to them by the International Association for the Study of Pain  

PubMed Central

Unrelieved pain remains a global health problem. There is a major difference between what could be done to relieve pain and what is being done in developing countries – this is known as the ‘treatment gap’. Poor education of health professionals, limited facilities for pain treatment and poor access to drugs for pain relief are contributing factors. While enthusiasm for pain education and clinical training in developing countries has grown, restrictions by governments and health administrations have represented a significant barrier to practice changes. Since 2002, the International Association for the Study of Pain, through its Developing Countries Working Group, has established a series of programs that have resulted in significant improvements in pain education and the clinical management of pain, together with the beginnings of a system of pain centres. These pain centres will act as regional hubs for the future expansion of education and training in pain management in developing countries. Further success will be increased with the demolition of barriers to the treatment of people in pain worldwide.

Bond, Michael

2011-01-01

383

Randomised trials relevant to mental health conducted in low and middle-income countries: protocol for a survey of studies published in 1991, 1995 and 2000 and assessment of their relevance  

PubMed Central

Background A substantial proportion of the psychiatric burden of disease falls on the world's poorest nations. Despite this, relatively little is known about the quality and content of clinical research undertaken in these countries, or the relevance of the interventions evaluated and specifically that of randomised trials. This project aims to survey the content, quality and accessibility of a sample of trials relevant to mental health conducted within low and middle-income countries; to compare these with studies conducted in high-income countries; and to assess their relevance for the needs of low and middle-income countries. Methods An extensive search for all trials, or possible trials, published in 1991, 1995 and 2000 with participants in low and middle-income countries has already been conducted. Studies evaluating prevention or treatment of a mental health problem within these three years will be identified and further searches conducted to assess completeness of the initial search. Data on study quality and characteristics will be extracted from each report. Accessibility will be estimated based on whether each citation is available on MEDLINE. Trials relevant to schizophrenia will be compared with a random sample of schizophrenia trials from high-income countries in the same years. Topics covered by the trials will be compared with the estimated burden of disease. Conclusion Trials and systematic reviews of trials are the gold standard of evaluation of care and increasingly provide the basis for recommendations to clinicians, to providers of care and to policy makers. Results from this study will present the first assessment of the scope, quality and accessibility of mental health trials in low and middle-income countries.

Syed Sheriff, Rebecca J; Jayaram, Mahesh; Tharyan, Prathap; Duley, Lelia; Adams, Clive E

2006-01-01

384

Phased Array Antenna Evaluation Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The topics studied are: (1) multimode waveguide elements for phased arrays, (2) finiteness effects in an E-plane array of parallel-plate waveguides, (3) a transition radiating element for wide-angle wide-band matching, and (4) ray methods for computation ...

L. B. Felsen A. Hessel G. H. Knittel R. Constantini J. Goldberg

1973-01-01

385

Gastrointestinal tolerance of a new infant milk formula in healthy babies: an international study conducted in 17 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that the gastrointestinal tolerance of a new infant formula equals or exceeds the tolerance of other milk-based infant formulas and compared the tolerance of this new formula with that of human milk.METHODS: This prospective, phase IV, open-label study was conducted in 17 countries. Healthy, full-term infants, 28 to 98 d old, were enrolled on their

Pedro A Alarcon; Randall L Tressler; Anthony Mulvaney; Wayne Lam; Gail M Comer

2002-01-01

386

A comparative study of eighteenth to twentieth century Chinese and American country-of-women utopian fictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study surveys a progression toward imperfection and openness in both Chinese and American women‘s utopian fictions over the eighteenth to twentieth century. In particular we investigate the texts that portray a country or a community of women: Cao Xueqin‘s Hong lou meng , Li Ruzhen‘s Jing hua yuan, Sarah Jewett‘s The County of the Pointed Firs, Charlotte Gilman‘s Herland,

Ying Liang

2008-01-01

387

Biological and Social Feasibility of Sesbania Fallow Practice in Small Holder Agricultural Farms in Developing Countries: A Zambian Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many small holder farmers in developing countries face problems of declining soil fertility and crop yields and insufficient\\u000a money to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers. The Sesbania fallow system, an agroforestry technology, seems to hold a key to these problems. Based on field studies in eastern Zambia,\\u000a this paper reports that fallow system has the potential to improve and sustain soil

CHRISTOPHER OPIO; Prince George

2001-01-01

388

Country of birth and body mass index: A national study of 2,000 immigrants in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of country of birth on body mass index (BMI) after adjustment for age, educational status, physical activity and smoking habits. Two random samples of men and women, aged 27–60, were used: 1,957 immigrants and 2,975 Swedes, both from 1996. Men and women were analysed in separate models by the use

Per Erik Wändell; Sari Ponzer; Sven-erik Johansson; Kristina Sundquist

2004-01-01

389

Parent country nationals or local nationals for executive positions in foreign affiliates: An empirical study of Japanese affiliates in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how the host country experience of Japanese multinational corporations (MNCs) affects their staffing policies\\u000a for executive manager positions at foreign affiliates. Hypotheses on executive staffing policies for foreign affiliates are\\u000a tested using survey data collected from 103 Japanese affiliates in Korea. Findings show that the level of global integration\\u000a and the degree of centralization of decision-making positively

Naoki Ando; Dong Kee Rhee; Namgyoo Kenny Park

2008-01-01

390

Country Versus Destination Image in a Developing Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the country of origin studies in international marketing, the tourism literature fails to differentiate between the image of the country and that of the destination as a tourism product. The distinction is important for developing countries suffering from negative country perceptions, as opposed to more positive views regarding the tourism destination. Therefore, this research examines the difference

Sara Campo Martínez; Maria D. Alvarez

2010-01-01

391

Antimalarial Drug Quality in the Most Severely Malarious Parts of Africa - A Six Country Study  

PubMed Central

A range of antimalarial drugs were procured from private pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas in the major cities of six African countries, situated in the part of that continent and the world that is most highly endemic for malaria. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and dissolution testing were used to measure active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards. 35% of all samples tested failed either or both tests, and were substandard. Further, 33% of treatments collected were artemisinin monotherapies, most of which (78%) were manufactured in disobservance of an appeal by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to withdraw these clinically inappropriate medicines from the market. The high persistence of substandard drugs and clinically inappropriate artemisinin monotherapies in the private sector risks patient safety and, through drug resistance, places the future of malaria treatment at risk globally.

Bate, Roger; Coticelli, Philip; Tren, Richard; Attaran, Amir

2008-01-01

392

Developing an appropriate digital hearing aid for low-resource countries: a case study.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the development process and discusses the key findings which resulted from our multidisciplinary research team's effort to develop an alternative digital hearing suitable for low-resource countries such as Thailand. A cost-effective, fully programmable digital hearing aid, with its specifications benchmarking against WHO's recommendations, was systematically designed, engineered, and tested. Clinically it had undergone a full clinical trial that employed the outcome measurement protocol adopted from the APHAB, the first time implemented in Thai language. Results indicated that using the hearing aid improves user's satisfaction in terms of ease of communication, background noises, and reverberation, with clear benefit after 3 and 6 months, confirming its efficacy. In terms of engineering, the hearing aid also proved to be robust, passing all the designated tests. As the technology has successfully been transferred to a local company for the production phase, we also discuss other challenges that may arise before the device can be introduced into the market. PMID:23818826

Israsena, P; Isaradisaikul, S; Noymai, A; Boonyanukul, S; Hemakom, A; Chinnarat, C; Navacharoen, N; Lekagul, S

2013-05-28

393

Smoking in movies and adolescent smoking: cross-cultural study in six European countries  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate whether the association between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking among youth is independent of cultural context. Method Cross-sectional survey of 16 551 pupils recruited in Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD=1.18) and an equal gender distribution. School-based surveys were conducted between November 2009 and June 2010. Using previously validated methods, exposure to movie smoking was estimated from the 250 top-grossing movies of each country (years 2004–2009) and related to ever smoking. Results Overall, 29% of the sample had tried smoking. The sample quartile (Q) of movie smoking exposure was significantly associated with the prevalence of ever smoking: 14% of adolescents in Q1 had tried smoking, 21% in Q2, 29% in Q3 and 36% in Q4. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, television screen time, number of movies seen, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents and siblings), the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking in the entire sample were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for adolescents in Q2, 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) for Q3 and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) for Q4 compared with Q1. The adjusted relationship between ever smoking and higher movie smoking exposure levels was significant in all countries with a non-linear association in Italy and Poland. Conclusions The link between smoking in movies and adolescent smoking is robust and transcends different cultural contexts. Limiting young people's exposure to movie smoking could have important public health implications.

Morgenstern, Matthis; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Karlsdottir, Solveig; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

2013-01-01

394

The Critical Role of Supervision in Retaining Staff in Obstetric Services: A Three Country Study  

PubMed Central

Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 commits us to reducing maternal mortality rates by three quarters and MDG 4 commits us to reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In order to reach these goals, greater access to basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as well as comprehensive EmOC which includes safe Caesarean section, is needed.. The limited capacity of health systems to meet demand for obstetric services has led several countries to utilize mid-level cadres as a substitute to more extensively trained and more internationally mobile healthcare workers. Although this does provide greater capacity for service delivery, concern about the performance and motivation of these workers is emerging. We propose that poor leadership characterized by inadequate and unstructured supervision underlies much of the dissatisfaction and turnover that has been shown to exist amongst these mid-level healthcare workers and indeed health workers more generally. To investigate this, we conducted a large-scale survey of 1,561 mid-level cadre healthcare workers (health workers trained for shorter periods to perform specific tasks e.g. clinical officers) delivering obstetric care in Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. Participants indicated the primary supervision method used in their facility and we assessed their job satisfaction and intentions to leave their current workplace. In all three countries we found robust evidence indicating that a formal supervision process predicted high levels of job satisfaction and low intentions to leave. We find no evidence that facility level factors modify the link between supervisory methods and key outcomes. We interpret this evidence as strongly supporting the need to strengthen leadership and implement a framework and mechanism for systematic supportive supervision. This will promote better job satisfaction and improve the retention and performance of obstetric care workers, something which has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in the countdown to 2015.

McAuliffe, Eilish; Daly, Michael; Kamwendo, Francis; Masanja, Honorati; Sidat, Mohsin; de Pinho, Helen

2013-01-01

395

Study of FMR1 gene association with ovarian dysfunction in a sample from the Basque Country.  

PubMed

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as cessation of menses before the age of 40. The most significant single gene associated with POF is the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene (FMR1). In the present work we screened women with fertility problems from the Basque Country in order to determine, whether in these women, FMR1 CGG repeat size in the intermediate and premutation range was associated with their pathology, and whether intermediate and premutation carriers had endocrine signs of diminished ovarian function, using the most established measure of ovarian reserve, the gonadotropin FSH. A patient sample of 41 women with ovarian insufficiency and a control sample of 32 women with no fertility problems from the Basque Country were examined. The patient sample was classified into three categories according to the results of the retrospective assessment of their ovarian function. In group 2 of patients, women with irregular cycles, reduced fecundity and FSH levels ? 10IU/l, there is a significant increase in the number of intermediate and premutation FMR1 alleles (35-54 CGG repeats). In group 3 of patients, women with amenorrhea for at least four consecutive months and FSH levels ? 10IU/l, a significant increase in the number of intermediate FMR1 alleles (35-54 CGG repeats) was found in patients compared with controls. In this group all the patients had a serum concentration > 40 IU/l. The results suggest that in the analysed Basque sample the FMR1 gene has a role in the aetiology of POF. However, elevated FSH levels are more related to the menstrual cycle pattern than to the CGG repeat size. PMID:23537988

Barasoain, Maitane; Barrenetxea, Gorka; Huerta, Iratxe; Télez, Mercedes; Carrillo, Amaia; Pérez, Cristina; Criado, Begoña; Arrieta, Isabel

2013-03-26

396

Where Is the Literature in Evaluation on Managing Studies, Evaluators, and Evaluation Units?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On the basis of a multistage exploration of evaluation texts, electronic searches, and nominations from the field and from managing social science, the author concludes there is little research literature on managing evaluation studies, evaluators and other workers, and evaluation units. The discussion explores what this limited literature tells…

Compton, Donald W.

2009-01-01

397

The Private Regulation of Labour Standards and Rights in the Global Clothing Industry: An Evaluation of Its Effectiveness in Two Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effectiveness of private transnational regulation of labour standards\\/rights in the clothing industry. It adopts three objectives. First, the study focuses on national states in developing countries, explaining their lack of enforcement of labour law and the suppression of labour rights. Second, the article examines the effectiveness of transnational regulatory networks (TRNs) in raising labour standards\\/rights in

Tugce Bulut

2011-01-01

398

Promoting public-private mix for TB-DOTs: a multi-country study from the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to document the implementation status of public-private mix (PPM) in 6 member countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, with a particular focus on advocacy, communication and social mobilization (ACSM) specific to PPM. Interviews and focus group discussions were held with staff of national tuberculosis control programmes and partners. Four PPM models were being practised. For all models, ACSM specific to PPM was at the elementary stage. Participants perceived that promoting private partners was difficult, specific policy guidelines were deficient and human resources and capacity for both initiatives were lacking across the region. Building ACSM capacity is required along with the development of guidelines and the implementation of country-specific communication plans to carry out local-level advocacy, strategic communication and effective social mobilization to maximize the benefits of PPM. PMID:22764425

Haq, Z; Khan, W; Seita, A

2012-05-01

399

Tropical forests: a call for action. Part 1: the plan. Part 2: case studies. Part 3: country investment profiles  

SciTech Connect

The World Resources Institute (WRI), in cooperation with multi- and bi-lateral organizations, has launched a major initiative to conserve forests in the humid and semiarid/arid areas of developing countries. The 3-part WRI report is a call to political action on this subject. Part 1 describes the high costs exacted by deforestation, but asserts that the process can be arrested and reversed by a partnership of governments, local participants, and development-assistance agencies. Proposals are presented for a 5-year action plan in farm, community, and arid-zone forestry. Parts 2 and 3 include case studies of the successful projects listed in Part 1 and 5-year investment profiles of 56 developing countries affected by deforestation.

Not Available

1985-10-01

400

An Ecological Study of the Determinants of Differences in 2009 Pandemic Influenza Mortality Rates between Countries in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 mortality rates varied widely from one country to another. Our aim was to identify potential socioeconomic determinants of pandemic mortality and explain between-country variation. Methodology Based on data from a total of 30 European countries, we applied random-effects Poisson regression models to study the relationship between pandemic mortality rates (May 2009 to May 2010) and a set of representative environmental, health care-associated, economic and demographic country-level parameters. The study was completed by June 2010. Principal Findings Most regression approaches indicated a consistent, statistically significant inverse association between pandemic influenza-related mortality and per capita government expenditure on health. The findings were similar in univariable [coefficient: –0.00028, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): –0.00046, –0.00010, p?=?0.002] and multivariable analyses (including all covariates, coefficient: –0.00107, 95% CI: –0.00196, –0.00018, p?=?0.018). The estimate was barely insignificant when the multivariable model included only significant covariates from the univariate step (coefficient: –0.00046, 95% CI: –0.00095, 0.00003, p?=?0.063). Conclusions Our findings imply a significant inverse association between public spending on health and pandemic influenza mortality. In an attempt to interpret the estimated coefficient (–0.00028) for the per capita government expenditure on health, we observed that a rise of 100 international dollars was associated with a reduction in the pandemic influenza mortality rate by approximately 2.8%. However, further work needs to be done to unravel the mechanisms by which reduced government spending on health may have affected the 2009 pandemic influenza mortality.

Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Bagos, Pantelis; Lytras, Theodoros; Bonovas, Stefanos

2011-01-01

401

Breast-Milk Substitutes: A New Old-Threat for Breastfeeding Policy in Developing Countries. A Case Study in a Traditionally High Breastfeeding Country  

PubMed Central

Background Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS) in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. Methods Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. Participants: 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. Tools: 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas). Outcome measures included: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula); 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6–3.2). One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group) living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15–2.78), p<0.009). Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41–0.99), p?=?0.04). Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. Conclusion In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries.

Barennes, Hubert; Empis, Gwenaelle; Quang, Thao Duong; Sengkhamyong, Khouanheuan; Phasavath, Phonethepa; Harimanana, Aina; Sambany, Emercia M.; Koffi, Paulin N.

2012-01-01

402

Constraints to healthcare waste treatment in low-income countries - a case study from Somaliland.  

PubMed

In low-income countries, healthcare waste is mixed with the municipal waste stream and rarely receives special attention. This paper presents the lessons learned from a pilot project targeted to improve healthcare waste management in Hargeisa (Somaliland). The interventions were carried out in three of the main hospitals in the city. Consideration was also given to improve the overall situation regarding the management of healthcare waste. Three De Montfort incinerators were built and training was provided to operators, waste workers and healthcare personnel. Although the incinerators were constructed in accordance with the required standards, major constraints were identified in the operational phase: irregular de-ashing procedures, misuse of safety equipment, and ineffective separation of healthcare waste were seen in this phase. The paper concludes that in other small hospitals in the developing world, such as those in Hargeisa, on-site incineration by use of low-cost, small-scale incinerators could be successfully applied as an interim solution, provided that an agreed and acceptable plan of operation and maintenance is in place and responsibilities for the management of the facility are clearly identified. Moreover, when replicating this experience in other settings even greater importance should be given to the technical capacity building of operators and pressure should be exercised on local administrations in order to control and supervise the whole management system. PMID:22128091

Di Bella, Veronica; Ali, Mansoor; Vaccari, Mentore

2011-11-29

403

Developing country applications of molecular farming: case studies in South Africa and Argentina.  

PubMed

Molecular farming is a technology that is very well suited to being applied in developing countries, given the reasonably high level of expertise in recombinant plant development in many centers. In addition, there is an urgent need for products such as inexpensive vaccines and therapeutics for livestock and for some human diseases - and especially those that do not occur or are rare in developed regions. South Africa and Argentina have been at the fore in this area among developing nations, as researchers have been able to use plants to produce experimental therapeutics such as nanoantibodies against rotavirus and vaccines against a wide variety of diseases, including Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, Foot and mouth disease virus, Bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine rotaviruses, Newcastle disease virus, rabbit and human papillomaviruses, Bluetongue virus, and Beak and feather disease virus of psittacines. A combination of fortuitous scientific expertise in both places, coupled with association with veterinary and human disease research centers, has enabled the growth of research groups that have managed to compete successfully with others in Europe and the USA and elsewhere, to advance this field. This review will cover relevant work from both South Africa and Argentina, as well as a discussion about the perspectives in this field for developing nations. PMID:23394557

Rybicki, Edward P; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Meyers, Ann; Dus Santos, Maria Jose; Wigdorovitz, Andres

2013-01-01

404

Dying from cancer in developed and developing countries: lessons from two qualitative interview studies of patients and their carers  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the experiences of illness and needs and use of services in two groups of patients with incurable cancer, one in a developed country and the other in a developing country. Design Scotland: longitudinal study with qualitative interviews. Kenya: cross sectional study with qualitative interviews. Settings Lothian region, Scotland, and Meru District, Kenya. Participants Scotland: 20 patients with inoperable lung cancer and their carers. Kenya: 24 patients with common advanced cancers and their main informal carers. Main outcome measures Descriptions of experiences, needs, and available services. Results 67 interviews were conducted in Scotland and 46 in Kenya. The emotional pain of facing death was the prime concern of Scottish patients and their carers, while physical pain and financial worries dominated the lives of Kenyan patients and their carers. In Scotland, free health and social services (including financial assistance) were available, but sometimes underused. In Kenya, analgesia, essential equipment, suitable food, and assistance in care were often inaccessible and unaffordable, resulting in considerable unmet physical needs. Kenyan patients thought that their psychological, social, and spiritual needs were met by their families, local community, and religious groups. Some Scottish patients thought that such non-physical needs went unmet. Conclusions In patients living in developed and developing countries there are differences not only in resources available for patients dying from cancer but also in their lived experience of illness. The expression of needs and how they are met in different cultural contexts can inform local assessment of needs and provide insights for initiatives in holistic cancer care. What is already known on this topic?Cancer treatment is a priority and is well developed in the United KingdomThere is an increasing burden on inadequately funded health services in developing countriesWhat this study addsThe experience of dying from cancer in Scotland contrasts starkly with that experienced in KenyaInequalities in provision of palliative care persist between developed and developing countriesDespite the availability of resources in the United Kingdom, people still have major areas of unmet needsConsideration of patients' experiences and provision of care in contrasting cultural settings can highlight gaps in frameworks of cancer care

Murray, Scott A; Grant, Elizabeth; Grant, Angus; Kendall, Marilyn

2003-01-01

405

A national study of socioeconomic status and tuberculosis rates by country of birth, United States, 1996-2005  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES). In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United States, overall and for the five most common foreign countries of origin. Methods National TB surveillance data for 1996–2005 was linked with ZIP Code-level measures of SES (crowding, unemployment, education, and income) from U.S. Census 2000. ZIP Codes were grouped into quartiles from low SES to high SES and TB rates were calculated for foreign-born and U.S.-born populations in each quartile. Results TB rates were highest in the quartiles with low SES for both U.S.-born and foreign-born populations. However, while TB rates increased five-fold or more from the two highest to the two lowest SES quartiles among the U.S.-born, they increased only by a factor of 1.3 among the foreign-born. Conclusions Low SES is only weakly associated with TB among foreign-born persons in the United States. The traditional associations of TB with poverty are not sufficient to explain the epidemiology of TB among foreign-born persons in this country and perhaps in other developed countries. TB outreach and research efforts that focus only on low SES will miss an important segment of the foreign-born population.

2012-01-01

406

An Explorative Analysis of User Evaluation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of user studies from a review of papers describing new visualisation applications and uses these to highlight various issues related to the evaluation of visualisations. We first consider some of the reasons why the process of evaluating visualisations is so difficult. We then dissect the problem by discussing the importance of recognising the nature of

Geoffrey Ellis; Alan Dix

407

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Fearnside, P.M. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia)

1992-08-01

408

Regionalised spatiotemporal rainfall and temperature models for flood studies in the Basque Country, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatiotemporal point process model of rainfall is fitted to data taken from three homogeneous regions in the Basque Country, Spain. The model is the superposition of two spatiotemporal Neyman-Scott processes, in which rain cells are modelled as discs with radii that follow exponential distributions. In addition, the model includes a parameter for the radius of storm discs, so that rain only occurs when both a cell and a storm disc overlap a point. The model is fitted to data for each month, taken from each of the three homogeneous regions, using a modified method of moments procedure that ensures a smooth seasonal variation in the parameter estimates. Daily temperature data from 23 sites are used to fit a stochastic temperature model. A principal component analysis of the maximum daily temperatures across the sites indicates that 92% of the variance is explained by the first component, implying that this component can be used to account for spatial variation. A harmonic equation with autoregressive error terms is fitted to the first principal component. The temperature model is obtained by regressing the maximum daily temperature on the first principal component, an indicator variable for the region, and altitude. This, together with scaling and a regression model of temperature range, enables hourly temperatures to be predicted. Rainfall is included as an explanatory variable but has only a marginal influence when predicting temperatures. A distributed model (TETIS; Francés et al., 2007) is calibrated for a selected catchment. Five hundred years of data are simulated using the rainfall and temperature models and used as input to the calibrated TETIS model to obtain simulated discharges to compare with observed discharges. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests indicate that there is no significant difference in the distributions of observed and simulated maximum flows at the same sites, thus supporting the use of the spatiotemporal models for the intended application.

Cowpertwait, P.; Ocio, D.; Collazos, G.; de Cos, O.; Stocker, C.

2013-02-01

409

Regionalised spatiotemporal rainfall and temperature models for flood studies in the Basque Country, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatial-temporal point process model of rainfall is fitted to data taken from three homogeneous regions in the Basque Country, Spain. The model is the superposition of two spatial-temporal Neyman-Scott processes, in which rain cells are modelled as discs with radii that follow exponential distributions. In addition, the model includes a parameter for the radius of storm discs, so that rain only occurs when both a cell and a storm disc overlap a point. The model is fitted to data for each month, taken from each of the three homogeneous regions, using a modified method of moments procedure that ensures a smooth seasonal variation in the parameter estimates. Daily temperature data from twenty three sites are used to fit a stochastic temperature model. A principal component analysis of the maximum daily temperatures across the sites indicates that 92% of the variance is explained by the first component, implying that this component can be used to account for spatial variation. A harmonic equation with autoregressive error terms is fitted to the first principal component. The temperature model is obtained by regressing the maximum daily temperature on the first principal component, an indicator variable for the region, and altitude. This, together with scaling and a regression model of temperature range, enables hourly temperatures to be predicted. Rainfall is included as an explanatory variable but has only a marginal influence when predicting temperatures. A distributed model (TETIS; Francés et al., 2007) is calibrated for a selected catchment. Five hundred years of data are simulated using the rainfall and temperature models and used as input to the calibrated TETIS model to obtain simulated discharges to compare with observed discharges. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests indicate that there is no significant difference in the distributions of observed and simulated maximum flows at the same sites, thus supporting the use of the spatiotemporal models for the intended application.

Cowpertwait, P.; Ocio, D.; Collazos, G.; de Cos, O.; Stocker, C.

2012-09-01

410

An Evaluation of Results of Ergometric Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of some standardized and relative indices of ergometry is presented: heart rate and oxygen consumption as percentage of individual values, indices of chromo-, inotropic, aerobic and coronary reserves. The investigation is based on the study ...

V. P. Pomerantsev V. L. Khomenko A. G. Ivashchuk A. I. Mikheyev

1975-01-01

411

Community Health Workers and Health Care Delivery: Evaluation of a Women's Reproductive Health Care Project in a Developing Country  

PubMed Central

Background As part of the mid-term evaluation of a Women's Health Care Project, a study was conducted to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to interview Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA). Information was collected on MWRA knowledge regarding danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, postnatal periods, and MNH care seeking behavior. After comparing MNH service utilization, the two areas were compared using a logistic regression model, to identify the association of different factors with the intervention after controlling for socio-demographic, economic factors and distance of the MWRA residence to a health care facility. Results The demographic characteristics of women in the two areas were similar, although socioeconomic status as indicated by level of education and better household amenities, was higher in the intervention area. Consequently, on univariate analysis, utilization of MNH services: antenatal care, TT vaccination, institutional delivery and use of modern contraceptives were higher in the intervention than control area. Nonetheless, multivariable analysis controlling for confounders such as socioeconomic status revealed that utilization of antenatal care services at health centers and TT vaccination during pregnancy are significantly associated with the intervention. Conclusions Our findings suggest positive changes in health care seeking behavior of women and families with respect to MNH. Some aspects of care still require attention, such as knowledge about danger signs and neonatal care, especially umbilical cord care. Despite overall success achieved so far in response to the Millennium Development Goals, over the past two decades decreases in maternal mortality are far from the 2015 target. This report identifies some of the key factors to improving MNH and serves as an interim measure of a national and global challenge that remains a work in progress.

Wajid, Abdul; White, Franklin; Karim, Mehtab S.

2013-01-01

412

Evaluating the Evaluator: A Case Study Illustrating Three Critical Mistakes No Evaluator Should Make  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most employees do not like to be evaluated because they fear the process and people involved. Although optimal performance evaluators can minimize people's anxieties about being assessed, actual performance evaluators can perpetuate employees' fears and, worse, lower their job performances and morale. A case study illustrates the actions of an…

Lanigan, Mary L.

2010-01-01

413

Biological and social feasibility of Sesbania fallow practice in small holder agricultural farms in developing countries: a Zambian case study.  

PubMed

Many small holder farmers in developing countries face problems of declining soil fertility and crop yields and insufficient money to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers. The Sesbania fallow system, an agroforestry technology, seems to hold a key to these problems. Based on field studies in eastern Zambia, this paper reports that fallow system has the potential to improve and sustain soil productivity in the small holder farms. However, the paper also reports that the ability for subsistence farmers to adopt the Sesbania fallow system is affected by gender differences in resource allocation to productive resources and institutional, cultural, and social structural settings in which farmers exist and make decisions. PMID:11083909

Opio, C

2001-01-01

414

Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: evidence from cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously found a positive association between milk consumption and prostate cancer risk using meta- analysis to analyze published case-control studies. In the present study, further meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the summary relative risk (RR) between the consumption of milk and dairy products and prostate cancer from cohort studies published between 1966- 2006. We found 18 relevant articles

Li-Qiang Qin; Jia-Ying Xu SM; Pei-Yu Wang; Jian Tong; Kazuhiko Hoshi

2007-01-01

415

Characteristics and Behaviors of Effective Social Studies Teachers in Selected Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study: (1) looks at what happens in social studies classrooms; and (2) attempts to determine the characteristics and behaviors of effective teachers. To collect data, the researcher observed several high school (grades 9-12) social studies classes since the fall semester of 1991 in the San Francisco (California) Bay Area for 3 months…

Fraenkel, Jack R.

416

Comparison of Multivariate Predictive Power of Major Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Diseases in Different Countries: Results from Eight Nations of the Seven Countries Study, 25Year Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background It was hypothesized that among eight national groups of men aged 40–59 years enrolled in the Seven Countries Study, the multivariate coefficients of major risk factors predicting coronary heart disease mortality over 25 years would be relatively similar.Materials and methods Sixteen cohorts were located in eight nations and pooled, comprising one cohort in the USA, two in Finland, one

Alessandro Menotti; Ancel Keys; Henry Blackburn; Daan Kromhout; Martti Karvonen; Aulikki Nissinen; Juha Pekkanen; Sven Punsar; Flaminio Fidanza; Simona Giampaoli; Fulvia Seccareccia; Ratko Buzina; Ivan Mohacek; Srecko Nedeljkovic; Christ Aravanis; Anastasios Dontas; Hironori Toshima; Mariapaola Lanti

1996-01-01

417

State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009/2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 03  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to describe and map the current state of play of the Bologna Process in the nine countries of the Southern Mediterranean participating in the Tempus programme. For the last twenty years, the Tempus programme has supported the modernisation of higher education systems in countries neighbouring the EU by financing…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

2010-01-01

418

A comparative study of the financing, provision and quality of care in nursing homes: the approach of four European countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

As result of an increase in the numbers of frail elderly people, most European countries are facing problems with the financing and provision of services by nursing homes. At the same time, the expectations of quality of these services continue to rise. The main question investigated in this study was that of how countries approach the problems of financing and

Astrid Meijer; Cretien van Campen; Ada Kerkstra

2000-01-01

419

Risk factors for falls with severe fracture in elderly people living in a middle-income country: a case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fracture after falling has been identified as an important problem in public health. Most studies of risk factors for fractures due to falls have been carried out in developed countries, although the size of the elderly population is increasing fast in middle income countries. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors for fall related to severe

Evandro SF Coutinho; Astrid Fletcher; Katia V Bloch; Laura C Rodrigues

2008-01-01

420

Ionizing radiation and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the 15-country study of nuclear industry workers.  

PubMed

In contrast to other types of leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has long been regarded as non-radiogenic, i.e. not caused by ionizing radiation. However, the justification for this view has been challenged. We therefore report on the relationship between CLL mortality and external ionizing radiation dose within the 15-country nuclear workers cohort study. The analyses included, in seven countries with CLL deaths, a total of 295,963 workers with more than 4.5 million person-years of follow-up and an average cumulative bone marrow dose of 15 mSv; there were 65 CLL deaths in this cohort. The relative risk (RR) at an occupational dose of 100 mSv compared to 0 mSv was 0.84 (95% CI 0.39, 1.48) under the assumption of a 10-year exposure lag. Analyses of longer lag periods showed little variation in the RR, but they included very small numbers of cases with relatively high doses. In conclusion, the largest nuclear workers cohort study to date finds little evidence for an association between low doses of external ionizing radiation and CLL mortality. This study had little power due to low doses, short follow-up periods, and uncertainties in CLL ascertainment from death certificates; an extended follow-up of the cohorts is merited and would ideally include incident cancer cases. PMID:18959468

Vrijheid, Martine; Cardis, Elisabeth; Ashmore, Patrick; Auvinen, Anssi; Gilbert, Ethel; Habib, Rima R; Malker, Hans; Muirhead, Colin R; Richardson, David B; Rogel, Agnes; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary; Tardy, Hélène; Telle-Lamberton, Maylis

2008-11-01

421

A Study of Hofstede's Culture Value Survey in a Post-Soviet Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the four culture dimensions developed by Hofstede's 1980 and 1983 studies exploring the potential of management-employee conflict. In the present study, employee responses to Hofstede's national culture survey were performed in Belarus, formerly of the Soviet Union, in order to establish a culture score for each of Hofstede's four culture dimensions in a centrally planned economy. The

Richard Kustin

2006-01-01

422

Organic Supply Chain Collaboration: A Case Study in Eight EU Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at contributing to a better understanding of the linkage between supply chain performance and possible performance improvement with respect to food quality and safety. Therefore, the article addresses the question whether the level of collaborative planning and close supply chain relationships could help improve the quality and safety of organic supply chains. The study was conducted as

S. Naspetti; N. Lampkin; P. Nicolas; M. Stolze; R. Zanoli

2011-01-01

423

Economic viability study of a separate household waste collection in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports a study of the economic viability of a separate household waste collection project, and considers its social and environmental benefits. The study was developed from the database obtained through the pilot project on separate collections in João Pessoa, the capital of Paraíba, in the northeast region of Brazil. The pilot project had been supported by the local

Heber Pimentel Gomes; Claudia Coutinho Nóbrega

2005-01-01

424

Assessment of scientific enquiry: a comparative study of two high achieving countries (Korea and England )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with TIMSS (Third International Mathematics and Science Study), this study shows both commonalities and differences in the National Curricula, assessment and teachers' perceptions, in depth. Teachers in both Korea and England indicate that assessment dominates their teaching. They show similarities in the way they say they would prepare their pupils for specific assessment items. Through the documentary analysis, Korean

Jung Ran Cho; Mary Ratcliffe

425

System dynamics approach to immunization healthcare issues in developing countries: a case study of Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article critically examines the challenges associated with demand for immunization, including the interplay of political, social, economic and technological forces that influence the level of immunization coverage. The article suggests a framework to capture the complex and dynamic nature of the immunization process and tests its effectiveness using a case study of Ugandan healthcare provision. Field study research methods

Agnes S. Rwashana; Ddembe W. Williams; Stella Neema

2009-01-01

426

Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to find which drugs and drug combinations were most common in drivers who died, in particular, in single vehicle crashes where the responsibility for the crash would be referred to the driver killed. The study included all available blood samples from drivers, who died within 24h of the accident, in the years 2001 and

Jørg Mørland; Anni Steentoft; Kirsten Wiese Simonsen; Ilkka Ojanperä; Erkki Vuori; Kristin Magnusdottir; Jakob Kristinsson; Gunnel Ceder; Robert Kronstrand; Asbjørg Christophersen

2011-01-01

427

Nanotechnology and sociopolitical modernity in developing countries; case study of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

What we must keep in mind is that although nanotechnology is an emerging and high technology, it is still technology or, in other words, it has an instrumental nature and in order to study its effect on societies we have to consider the role of instruments’ evolution in societies and study nanotechnology as the most recent part of this trend.

Sepehr Ghazinoory; Reza Ghazinouri

2009-01-01

428

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND SOCIOPOLITICAL MODERNITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES; CASE STUDY OF IRAN1  

Microsoft Academic Search

What we must keep in mind is that although nanotechnology is an emerging and high technology, it is still technology or, in other words, it has an instrumental nature and in order to study its effect on societies we have to consider the role of instruments' evolution in societies and study nanotechnology as the most recent part of this trend.

Sepehr Ghazinoory; Reza Ghazinouri

429

Teacher Education Matters: A Study of Middle School Mathematics Teacher Preparation in Six Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a major international teacher education research project--the Mathematics Teaching in the 21st Century Study (MT21)--this book investigates the pre-service preparation of middle school mathematics teachers in the United States, South Korea, Taiwan, Germany, Bulgaria, and Mexico. The study was funded by the National Science Foundation and…

Schmidt, William H.; Blomeke, Sigrid; Tatto, Maria Teresa

2011-01-01

430

Imprisoned in JamaicaAn Exploratory Study of Inmate Experiences and Differential Responses to Prison Life in a Developing Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on inmate experiences and responses to prison life are mostly conducted in developed countries. It has been widely documented that prisons in developing countries are inhumane and substandard and that inmates in these countries are mistreated and neglected. Yet, not much is known about the social world and experiences of inmates in these prison systems. Using a sample of

Patrice K. Morris

2008-01-01

431

Study of urban community survey in India: growing trend of high prevalence of hypertension in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

bs st tr ra ac ct t The prevalence pattern of hypertension in developing countries is different from that in the developed countries. In India, a very large, populous and typical developing country, community surveys have documented that between three and six decades, prevalence of hypertension has increased by about 30 times among urban dwellers and by about 10 times

Shyamal Kumar Das; Kalyan Sanyal; Arindam Basu

432

The European Early Promotion Project: Description of the Service and Evaluation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes an innovative cross-cultural method of working with families to promote the psychosocial well-being of children and to prevent the development of psychological and social problems. It also presents a study designed to evaluate the effects of the service. Primary health care workers in five countries from Northern, Central and Southern Europe were trained to conduct promotional interviews

Kaija Puura; Hilton Davis; Antony Cox; John Tsiantis; Tuula Tamminen; Veronika Ispanovic-Radojkovic; Anna Paradisiotou; Mirjami Mäntymaa; Rosemarie Roberts; Thalia Dragonas; Effie Layiou-Lignos; Tony Dusoir; Nenad Rudic; Lazar Tenjovic; Semeli Vizacou

2005-01-01

433

Ethics and Animal Welfare Evaluations in South East Asian Zoos: A Case Study of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern for zoo animals is palpable throughout society in many countries in South East Asia. It is important to understand problems of animal welfare in order for zoos to make significant improvement in maintaining high standards. With a case study of 3 zoos in Thailand, this article presents results for the first time on how ethics and wel- fare evaluations

Govindasamy Agoramoorthy; Bernard Harrison

2002-01-01

434

Participation rates of developing countries in international disability sport: a summary and the importance of statistics for understanding and planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the historic participation of developing countries in international disability sport competition to determine how the increases in international participation around the world have presented in developing countries. The data analysis evaluates participating and non-participating developing countries along with the ratio of male to female participation. This analysis provides new insights into the international participation of developing countries

Jackie Lauff

2011-01-01

435

Severe aplastic anaemia in the Nordic countries: a population based study of incidence, presentation, course, and outcome.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Incidence data for severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) in children are scanty and vary. Few population based studies have been reported. A retrospective and prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence and course of SAA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All children with a diagnosis of SAA in the Nordic countries from 1982 through 1993 were registered and have been followed up since 1987. RESULTS: A total of 101 children were diagnosed with SAA. The mean annual child population was 4.31 million. A constant incidence of 1.95/million children/year was found: 2.4 for boys and 1.5 for girls. A non-significant increase of cases occurred from November to March. Possible aetiological agents were noted in 29%. The actuarial survival was 79% after one year and 68% after five years without significant difference between boys and girls. CONCLUSION: The incidence of SAA in the Nordic countries remains stable with a preponderance among boys. SAA has still a high initial mortality and a risk of late deaths.

Clausen, N; Kreuger, A; Salmi, T; Storm-Mathisen, I; Johannesson, G

1996-01-01

436

Psychosocial work environment and intention to leave the nursing profession: a cross-national prospective study of eight countries.  

PubMed

Many countries throughout the world are facing a serious nursing shortage, and retention of nurses also is a challenge. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive contribution of a broad spectrum of psychosocial work factors, including job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and alternative employment opportunity, to the probability of intention to leave the nursing profession. A total of 7,990 registered female nurses working in hospitals in eight countries (Germany, Italy, France, The Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, Slovakia, and China) were included in the one-year prospective study. A standardized questionnaire on job strain, effort-reward imbalance, employment opportunity, and intention to leave the nursing profession was used in the survey. Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to analyze the data. Results showed that an imbalance between high effort and low reward (in particular, poor promotion prospects) and good employment opportunity at baseline were independently associated with a new intention to leave the nursing profession at follow-up. However, job strain appeared to have relatively less explanatory power. Findings suggest that interventions to improve the psychosocial work environment, especially the reciprocity experienced between effort and reward, may be effective in improving retention of nurses and tackling the international nursing shortage. PMID:24066419

Li, Jian; Shang, Li; Galatsch, Michael; Siegrist, Johannes; Miüller, Bernd Hans; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

2013-01-01

437

Preventing renal and cardiovascular risk by renal function assessment: insights from a cross-sectional study in low-income countries and the USA  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prevalence of microalbuminuria and kidney dysfunction in low-income countries and in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study of screening programmes in five countries. Setting Screening programmes in Nepal, Bolivia, the USA (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008) Bangladesh and Georgia. Participants General population in Nepal (n=20?811), Bolivia (n=3436) and in the USA (n=4299) and high-risk subjects in Bangladesh (n=1518) and Georgia (n=1549). Primary and secondary outcome measures Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60ml/min/1.73?m2 and microalbuminuria (defined as urinary albumin creatinine ratio values of 30–300?mg/g) were the main outcome measures. The cardiovascular (CV) risk was also evaluated on the basis of demographic, clinical and blood data. Results The prevalence of eGFR<60ml/min/1.73?m2 was 19%, 3.2% and 7% in Nepal, Bolivia and the USA, respectively. In Nepal, 7% of subjects were microalbuminuric compared to 8.6% in the USA. The prevalence of participants with predicted 10-year CV disease (CVD) risk ?10% was 16.9%, 9.4% and 17% in Nepal, Bolivia and in the USA, respectively. In Bangladesh and Georgia, subjects with eGFR<60?ml/min/1.73?m2 were 8.6% and 4.9%, whereas those with microalbuminuria were 45.4% and 56.5%, respectively. Predicted 10-year CVD risk ?10% was 25.4% and 25% in Bangladesh and Georgia, respectively. Conclusions Renal abnormalities are common among low-income countries and in the USA. Prevention programmes, particularly focused on those with renal abnormalities, should be established worldwide to prevent CVD and progression to end-stage renal disease.

Cravedi, Paolo; Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Bravo, Rodolfo Flores; Islam, Nazmul; Tchokhonelidze, Irma; Ghimire, Madhav; Pahari, Bishnu; Thapa, Sanjeev; Basnet, Anil; Tataradze, Avtandil; Tinatin, Davitaia; Beglarishvili, Lela; Fwu, Chyng-Wen; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Eggers, Paul; Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Carminati, Sergio; Perna, Annalisa; Chianca, Antonietta; Couser, William G; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Perico, Norberto

2012-01-01

438

Oasis Connections: Results from an Evaluation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose of the Study: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a community-based basic computer and Internet training program designed for older adults, provide recommendations for program refinement, and gather preliminary information on program sustainability. Design and Methods: The program was developed by the OASIS Institute, a…

Czaja, Sara J.; Lee, Chin Chin; Branham, Janice; Remis, Peggy

2012-01-01

439

Short of transformation: American ADN students' thoughts, feelings, and experiences of studying abroad in a low-income country.  

PubMed

ADN students are a large yet distinct subgroup of nursing students who require research and understanding. The purpose of this study was to describe the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of American associate degree nursing (ADN) students who participated in a short study abroad course in a low-income country. A qualitative, narrative method was used. Three categories emerged from the analysis. Participants revealed thoughts of "constant comparisons", feelings of an "emotional journey", and they experienced "learning". Participants did not demonstrate perspective transformation as defined by Mezirow as participants signified no intent for social action. Several potential blocks to perspective transformation were identified: egocentrism/emotional disconnect, perceived powerlessness/being overwhelmed, and a vacation mindset. The findings provide insight into the student experience of studying abroad. Transformative learning is not a guaranteed result. Nurse educators must consider strategies to foster transformation including discussing global systemic oppressors, international relations, coping, connecting, and social action. PMID:22673958

Foronda, Cynthia L; Belknap, Ruth Ann

2012-06-03

440

Economic evaluation of hepatitis B vaccination in low-income countries: using cost-effectiveness affordability curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective We sought to describe a method that explicitly considers both a health-care programme's cost-effectiveness and its affordability. For illustration, we apply the method to the programme to vaccinate infants against hepatitis B in the Gambia. Methods We synthesized selected data and developed a computer-based model from the societal and payer perspectives to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of routine infant vaccination

Sun-Young Kim; Joshua A Salomon; Sue J Goldie

2007-01-01

441

Evaluation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and risk-prediction models in a typical Asian country (Malaysia) with a relatively low incidence of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction The cost of genetic testing and the limited knowledge about the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in different ethnic groups has limited its availability in medium- and low-resource countries, including Malaysia. In addition, the applicability of many risk-assessment tools, such as the Manchester Scoring System and BOADICEA (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm) which were developed based on mutation rates observed primarily in Caucasian populations using data from multiplex families, and in populations where the rate of breast cancer is higher, has not been widely tested in Asia or in Asians living elsewhere. Here, we report the results of genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes in a series of families with breast cancer in the multi-ethnic population (Malay, Chinese and Indian) of Malaysia. Method A total of 187 breast cancer patients with either early-onset breast cancer (at age ? 40 years) or a personal and/or family history of breast or ovarian cancer were comprehensively tested by full sequencing of both BRCA1 and BRCA2. Two algorithms to predict the presence of mutations, the Manchester Scoring System and BOADICEA, were evaluated. Results Twenty-seven deleterious mutations were detected (14 in BRCA1 and 13 in BRCA2), only one of which was found in two unrelated individuals (BRCA2 490 delCT). In addition, 47 variants of uncertain clinical significance were identified (16 in BRCA1 and 31 in BRCA2). Notably, many mutations are novel (13 of the 30 BRCA1 mutations and 24 of the 44 BRCA2). We report that while there were an equal proportion of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the Chinese population in our study, there were significantly more BRCA2 mutations among the Malays. In addition, we show that the predictive power of the BOADICEA risk-prediction model and the Manchester Scoring System was significantly better for BRCA1 than BRCA2, but that the overall sensitivity, specificity and positive-predictive value was lower in this population than has been previously reported in Caucasian populations. Conclusion Our study underscores the need for larger collaborative studies among non-Caucasian populations to validate the role of genetic testing and the use of risk-prediction models in ensuring that the other populations in the world may also benefit from the genomics and genetics era.

Thirthagiri, E; Lee, SY; Kang, P; Lee, DS; Toh, GT; Selamat, S; Yoon, S-Y; Taib, NA Mohd; Thong, MK; Yip, CH; Teo, SH

2008-01-01

442

Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

2005-01-01

443

Development Education and Engineering: A Framework for Incorporating Reality of Developing Countries into Engineering Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To show the key points of a development education program for engineering studies fitted within the framework of the human development paradigm. Design/methodology/approach: The bases of the concept of technology for human development are presented, and the relationship with development education analysed. Special attention is dedicated…

Perez-Foguet, A.; Oliete-Josa, S.; Saz-Carranza, A.

2005-01-01

444

Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits"…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

445

Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

Onianwa, P. C.

1993-01-01

446

Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among…

Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

2013-01-01

447

A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the…

Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

448

A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

Guevara, Alvaro Agudo