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1

A systematic evaluation of stroke surveillance studies in low- and middle-income countries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Reliable quantification of the burden of stroke in low- and middle-income (LMI) countries is difficult as population-based surveillance reports are scarce and may vary considerably in methodology. We aimed to evaluate all available primary stroke surveillance studies by applying components of a benchmark protocol (WHO STEPwise approach to stroke surveillance) and quantify the reported burden of stroke in LMI settings. Methods: Electronic databases Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge were searched for population-based surveillance studies. Studies conducted in the LMI countries that reported on incident stroke were included. Data were extracted from each study using a prestructured format. Information on epidemiologic measures including crude and age-adjusted incidence rates, person-years, admission rates, case fatality rates, death certification, autopsy rates, measures of disability, and other study-specific information, in line with WHO STEPS stroke protocol, were recorded. Age-adjusted incidence rate data of stroke were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Results: We identified 7 studies that reported on burden of stroke in 9 LMI countries, including aggregate information from 1,711,372 participants collected over 5,240,923 person-years. The age-adjusted incidence rates across the LMI countries varied widely, with the burden of total first-ever strokes ranging from 41 to 909 events per 100,000 person-years. Conclusions: Systematic evaluation of all available primary surveillance studies, particularly in the context of WHO STEPS guidelines, indicates inadequate adherence to standardized surveillance methodology in LMI countries. Incorporation of standardized approaches is essential to enhance generalizability and estimate stroke burden accurately in these resource-poor settings. PMID:23400318

Chowdhury, Rajiv; Felix, Janine F.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Mendis, Shanthi; Tiemeier, Henning; Mant, Jonathan; Franco, Oscar H.

2013-01-01

2

The Mobile Field Study Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effectiveness of the Mobile Field Study Unit's work in environmental education in south-west Queensland during 1979-1980 was evaluated through records kept by the Unit and the Priority Country Area Program (PCAP) office, evaluations by teachers, interviews with teachers and educational administrators, and participant observation of the Unit. The…

Fowler, Clifford F.

3

Economic evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination for developing countries.  

PubMed

Economic evaluations, in particular cost-effectiveness, are important determinants for policy makers and stakeholders involved in decision-making for health interventions. Up until now, most evaluations of cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination have been performed in developed countries. Appropriate health-economic studies on this topic specifically targeted at the developing world are essential in order to justify adding another vaccine into the existing Expanded Program on Immunization in these countries. We present a systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccination against HBV for developing and less-developed countries. Vaccine price, the discount rate, incidence and prevalence of HBV infection were found to be major drivers of cost-effectiveness. Data accuracy and reliability were also major issues, with major potentials for improvement in studies of these countries. The choice between monovalent or combination vaccines (diphteria, tetanus and polio-hepatitis B) poses new challenges to cost-effectiveness analysis. It is concluded that for many developing countries implementation of universal immunization against HBV to reduce the level of endemicity of hepatitis B is an appropriate strategy, and probably cost effective in many settings. Given their limited financial resources, developing countries should properly plan how to achieve this. Further country-specific economic evaluations and related gathering of high-quality data must be conducted in developing countries in order to raise both public awareness of the effectiveness and economic attractiveness of universal immunization against HBV. PMID:19538116

Tu, Hong-Anh T; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Kane, Sumit; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; van Hulst, Marinus; Postma, Maarten J

2009-07-01

4

Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large carbon emissions reductions in the future, while also meeting key criteria for commercialization and acceptability in developing countries. In addition, this study evaluates the connection between technology identification and the selection of projects that are designed to demonstrate technologies with a propensity for carbon emission reductions (e.g., Global Environmental Facility projects). Although this report applies the methodology to Mexico in a case study format, the methodology is broad based and could be applied to any developing country, as well as to other technologies. The methodology used in this report is composed of four steps: technology screening, technology identification, technology deployment scenarios, and estimates of carbon emissions reductions. The four technologies with the highest ranking in the technology identification process for the on-grid category were geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind, and micro-/mini-hydro. Compressed natural gas (CNG) was the alternative that received the highest ranking for the transportation category.

Corbus, D.; Martinez, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Mark, J.

1994-08-01

5

Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

Not Available

1987-01-01

6

Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure

Corey J. A. Bradshaw; Xingli Giam; Navjot S. Sodhi; Stephen Willis

2010-01-01

7

Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.  

PubMed

Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less-developed countries, especially those in Asia, there is also a requirement to focus on the development of environmentally friendly practices in wealthier countries. PMID:20454670

Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

2010-01-01

8

Using cross-country variances to evaluate growth theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the empirical growth literature has attempted to evaluate growth theories by estimating regressions that relate the growth rate of per capita output for a sample of countries to initial per capita output and country characteristics. The resulting inferences are shown to be invalid except under strong conditions. An alternative method that uses cross-country variances is formulated and shown

Paul Evans

1996-01-01

9

Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River and its tributaries were not transformed upstream our sample points (Lavie et al., 2013, under press). Finally, we studied an urban drinking waters network, in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, one of the least developed countries, with chronic political crises. The nearly 6 million inhabitants of this settlement suffer many cuts and bad pressure at tap. Furthermore, Nile's waters that feed the network are summarily treated and then quite turbid, especially in summer during Nile's floods. This situation obliges the population to store and to decant water, transforming it into clear ones (Lavie and Hamza, 2013, under press). The results of our studies demonstrate that, generally, we can observe a correlation between increasing turbidity and bacteriology, and decreasing oximetry. This assumption is disproven in many cases: (1) the stagnant waters of Khartoum and (2) the clarified Mendoza River waters. Finally, (3) the seasonal anthropogenic uses of soil and waters in the Doubegue and Tunuyán Rivers have more impact on the bacteriological quality than the natural seasonality of the suspended solids because soil erosion has increased.

Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

2013-04-01

10

Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

Chang, Chung-chien Karen

2010-01-01

11

Culturally Competent Evaluation in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the rich tapestry of tribal cultures in the United States, it is presumptuous to assume that any evaluator, whether an Alaskan Native or a member of an American Indian tribe (or a non-Indian), can understand the culture of every group. Rather than trying to master multiple cultural specificities, the goal of a competent evaluator, especially…

LaFrance, Joan

2004-01-01

12

Acid deposition study in the Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

1996-12-31

13

The Potential for Program Evaluation in a "Developing" Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in conditions in the U.S. and one developing country, the Bahamas, suggest that evaluation of higher education programs are more welcome in the latter. U.S. evaluation programs, such as Florida's annual review of selected disciplines in its nine state institutions of higher education, are few in number and have spread only recently, in…

Greenberg, Barry

14

Peace Corps/Ghana. Country Program Evaluation. ACTION Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ghana first received Peace Corps assistance in 1961 (the first country in the world to receive volunteers) and since then volunteer strength has fluctuated from between 185 to 415 (presently 179). Secondary education has been the major thrust in programing until recently when Peace Corps/Ghana (PC/G) shifted its emphases to agriculture and rural…

Boyle, Neil; And Others

15

US Country Studies Program: an example of bilateral assistance to developing countries on climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) developing and transition countries are eventually required to report greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories and response (mitigation) options. The United States (US) and other donors are providing financial and technical support for climate change country studies to help meet their needs under the UNFCCC. The US Country Studies Program (US CSP)

Joseph C. K. Huang; Robert K. Dixon

1995-01-01

16

Economic evaluation of rural woodlots in a developing country: Tanzania  

SciTech Connect

Rural areas in developing countries use wood as their main source of energy. Previously, wood has been obtained free from natural forests and woodlands. The pressure of increased demand through population growth, and the fact that natural trees take longer to grow, has made this resource scarce. Thus, raising trees in woodlots has been adopted as the solution to its shortage in the wild. However, growing trees in woodlots will inevitably require resources in terms of capital, land and manpower. Economic evaluation becomes necessary to ascertain that these resources are used economically. This paper dwells on some of the salient features of the economic evaluation of woodlots, such as interest rates, shadow prices of factors of production, social opportunity, cost of capital and sensitivity analysis of such woodlots in a developing country such as Tanzania. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

Kihiyo, V.B.M.S. [Sokoine Univ. of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania, United Republic of)] [Sokoine Univ. of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania, United Republic of)

1996-03-01

17

LOC Federal Research Division: Country Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Research Division (FRD) provides customized research and analytical services on foreign and domestic topics to United States Government and District of Columbia agencies. This Web site "presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world and examines the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors." The online books can be searched or browsed by particular country and include everything from a country profile, history, and physical environment description to economy, government, and national security information. Perhaps the most unique part of the site is an attempt to include only lesser known areas, making the conglomeration a good source of uncommon knowledge.

18

A study of course deviations during cross-country soaring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several models are developed for studying the impact of deviations from course during cross country soaring flights. Analyses are performed at the microstrategy and macrostrategy levels. Two types of lift sources are considered: concentrated thermals and thermal streets. The sensitivity of the optimum speed solutions to various model, piloting and performance parameters is evaluated. Guides are presented to provide the pilot with criterions for making in-flight decisions. In general, course deviations are warranted during weak lift conditions, but are less justifiable with moderate to strong lift conditions.

Sliwa, S. M.; Sliwa, D. J.

1979-01-01

19

Creative Industries: Case Studies from Arab Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes and explains empirically the economic performance of four key creative industries (the book publishing, music sound recording, film production and software industries) in five Arab countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon). Using the Porter (Diamond) model as its theoretical background, a survey was conducted in the years 2002-03 among 242 experts, covering firm representatives, industry and

Najib Harabi

2009-01-01

20

Healthy city projects in developing countries: the first evaluation.  

PubMed

The 'healthy city' concept has only recently been adopted in developing countries. From 1995 to 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, supported healthy city projects (HCPs) in Cox's Bazar (Bangladesh), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Fayoum (Egypt), Managua (Nicaragua) and Quetta (Pakistan). The authors evaluated four of these projects, representing the first major evaluation of HCPs in developing countries. Methods used were stakeholder analysis, workshops, document analysis and interviews with 102 managers/implementers and 103 intended beneficiaries. Municipal health plan development (one of the main components of the healthy city strategy) in these cities was limited, which is a similar finding to evaluations of HCPs in Europe. The main activities selected by the projects were awareness raising and environmental improvements, particularly solid waste disposal. Two of the cities effectively used the 'settings' approach of the healthy city concept, whereby places such as markets and schools are targeted. The evaluation found that stakeholder involvement varied in relation to: (i) the level of knowledge of the project; (ii) the project office location; (iii) the project management structure; and (iv) type of activities (ranging from low stakeholder involvement in capital-intensive infrastructure projects, to high in some settings-type activities). There was evidence to suggest that understanding of environment-health links was increased across stakeholders. There was limited political commitment to the healthy city projects, perhaps due to the fact that most of the municipalities had not requested the projects. Consequently, the projects had little influence on written/expressed municipal policies. Some of the projects mobilized considerable resources, and most projects achieved effective intersectoral collaboration. WHO support enabled the project coordinators to network at national and international levels, and the capacity of these individuals (although not necessarily their institutions) was increased by the project. The average annual running cost of the projects was approximately 132,000 US dollars per city, which is close to the costs of the only other HCP for which a cost analysis has been undertaken, Bangkok (115,000 US dollars per year) Recommendations for these and other HCPs are provided. PMID:11356750

Harpham, T; Burton, S; Blue, I

2001-06-01

21

Country report Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level

Rotich K. Henry; Zhao Yongsheng; Dong Jun

22

Evaluation of Immigrant Tuberculosis Screening in Industrialized Countries  

PubMed Central

In industrialized countries, tuberculosis (TB) cases are concentrated among immigrants and driven by reactivation of imported latent TB infection (LTBI). We examined mechanisms used to screen immigrants for TB and LTBI by sending an anonymous, 18-point questionnaire to 31 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Twenty-nine (93.5%) of 31 responded; 25 (86.2%) screened immigrants for active TB. Fewer countries (16/29, 55.2%) screened for LTBI. Marked variations were observed in targeted populations for age (range <5 years of age to all age groups) and TB incidence in countries of origin of immigrants (>20 cases/100,000 population to >500 cases/100,000). LTBI screening was conducted in 11/16 countries by using the tuberculin skin test. Six countries used interferon-? release assays, primarily to confirm positive tuberculin skin test results. Industrialized countries performed LTBI screening infrequently and policies varied widely. There is an urgent need to define the cost-effectiveness of LTBI screening strategies for immigrants. PMID:22931959

Pareek, Manish; Baussano, Iacopo; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Dye, Christopher

2012-01-01

23

Modeling impacts of policy measures in the Polish country study  

SciTech Connect

As Poland has signed and ratified the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), proper methodology for modeling the response of the economic system to greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement measures should be developed. The scheme of the Polish Country Study modeling system as well as the modeling algorithm for creating GHG abatement scenarios at the country level are presented. The mechanism of encouraging GHG emission reduction by policy measures is considered. The problem is discussed both from micro- and macroeconomic perspectives. Analysis of externalities was found to be an important element of the Country Study. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Gaj, H. [Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency, Warsaw (Poland)

1996-09-01

24

Photovoltaic evaluation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

25

Cannabis supply and demand reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD study of adolescents in 31 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level differences in the availability and

Thoroddur Bjarnason; Andreea Steriu; Anna Kokkevi

2008-01-01

26

The Process of Choosing a Management Career: Evaluation of Gender and Contextual Dynamics in a Comparative Study of Six Countries--Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, UK and the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this article is to identify the reasons MBA students have for their career choices, and to explore the contextual and gender-related aspects of career choice and development, based on a comparative study carried out with participants in six countries, i.e. Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, the UK and the USA. The paper…

Tanova, Cem; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Inal, Gozde

2008-01-01

27

[Study on usage of pesticides in various countries].  

PubMed

Usage of pesticides in food items in export countries was studied, focusing items which Japan imports in large quantity. Japan has imported field crops such as wheat, corn and soy bean, and also grapefruit in large quantity on a weight base, mainly from United States, Australia and Canada. While, Japan has imported various kinds of vegetables in which China had the largest share. We collected usage data of pesticides for 44 food items of 17 countries of 2004. Pesticides which were used frequently (usage rank within top ten in each item/country) were dichlorvos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate (insecticides), mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, chlorthalonil (fungicides), glyphosate, 2,4-D, paraquat, acetochlor (herbicides). Carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, acetochlor and dichlorvos were mainly used in China. Dithiocarbamates are used frequently in various food items in various countries, and also frequently detected in monitoring in foreign countries. Some pesticides such as bisultap, monosultap, etaboxam and triazmate were used only in certain countries, and available information on toxicity or analytical method was very limited. Some of pesticides described above have not been analyzed in the pesticide residue monitoring in Japan before 2005,however, many of them are subjects of analysis for import food after 2006 with the enforcement of positivelist system for residues of pesticide and veterinary medicines in food in Japan. PMID:18220053

Yamamoto, Miyako; Toda, Miou; Tanaka, Keiko; Sugita, Takiko; Sasaki, Shiho; Uneyama, Chikako; Morikawa, Kaoru

2007-01-01

28

Using Strong Evaluation Designs in Developing Countries: Experience and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to extend the discussion of issues currently being debated on the need for more rigorous program evaluation in educational and other sectors of research, to the field of international development evaluation, reviewing the different approaches which can be adopted to rigorous evaluation methodology and their…

Bamberger, Michael; White, Howard

2007-01-01

29

Educational Evaluation in Scandinavian Countries: Converging or Diverging Practices?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current educational evaluation is institutionalized as an element in national educational policy in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. This article analyses how higher education and primary and lower secondary education have adopted and institutionalized educational evaluation. The analysis shows similarities and differences in organizing and practicing…

Hansen, Hanne Foss

2009-01-01

30

Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

Saito, Eisuke

2012-01-01

31

Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on economic growth has exploded in the past decade. Hundreds of empirical studies on economic growth across countries have highlighted the correlation between growth and a variety of variables. Determinants of Economic Growth, based on Robert Barro's Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures, delivered at the London School of Economics in February 1996, summarizes this important literature. The book contains three

Robert J. Barro

1999-01-01

32

The Information Needs of the Developing Countries: Analytical Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the generalized conclusions from analytical case studies undertaken by UNESCO and the United Nations Interim Fund for Science and Technology for Development (IFSTD) on the needs and options for access to scientific and technical information in eight developing countries. (Author/JL)

Salman, Lamia

1981-01-01

33

Training for Urban Studies in Third World Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban and regional development in Third World countries has been changing in terms of aims, planning style, analytic methods and scope. These evolving perspectives are reviewed, and recommendations for incorporating such changes into professional programs in urban and regional studies are presented. (WB)

Rodwin, Lloyd

1980-01-01

34

The correlates of corruption Evidence from cross-country studies  

E-print Network

of the five corruption indexes. Sensitivity Analysis #12;Government effectiveness Rule of law GDP per capitaThe correlates of corruption Evidence from cross-country studies Dr Toke S Aidt Faculty of Economics University of Cambridge #12;Institutions Factor endowments Demographics Corruption Public policy

Sussex, University of

35

Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

Bui, Minh Q.

2011-01-01

36

Consanguinity Associated with Child and Adult Mortality in 24 Asian and African Countries, an Ecological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although numerous studies have found deleterious effects of inbreeding on childhood and pre-reproductive mortality, one question remains inadequately addressed: Dose inbreeding lead to increased childhood mortality rates in countries with high level of consanguinity? Methods: To evaluate the public health impact of inbreeding on offspring mortality, the association between mean of inbreeding coefficient (?) and sex specific child and

M Saadat

2007-01-01

37

Comparing Poverty Rates Internationally: Lessons from Recent Studies in Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies comparing poverty in different countries frequently inform the evaluation of past policies and the formulation of future policies for reducing poverty. If the comparisons are to be a valid foundation for such assessments, in particular if they are to be a guide to the effective allocation of funds, the underlying concepts must be examined and defined. This article discusses

Anthony B. Atkinson

1991-01-01

38

Developing a framework for evaluation of renewable energy in developing countries   

E-print Network

Abstract In this dissertation, I develop a framework for evaluation of renewable energy projects in developing countries. There is a global common sense that addressing the increasing energy demands of both developed ...

Kiarsi, Sepideh

2011-11-24

39

How Can We Assess and Evaluate the Competitive Advantage of a Country's Human Resource Development System?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country's human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The…

Oh, Hunseok; Ryu, Hyue-Hyun; Choi, Myungweon

2013-01-01

40

Etiology of acute diarrhoea among children in developing countries: a multicentre study in five countries.  

PubMed Central

A 2-year etiological survey of acute diarrhoea in children aged 0-35 months who were attending treatment facilities was carried out using a standardized protocol in five hospitals in China, India, Mexico, Myanmar, and Pakistan. A total of 3640 cases of diarrhoea and 3279 age- and sex-matched controls were studied; about 60% of the patients were aged less than 1 year and 60% were male. An enteric pathogen was detected in 68% of the cases and in 30% of the controls. In all the study centres, the pathogens most strongly associated with disease were rotavirus (16% of cases, 2% of controls), Shigella spp. (11% of cases, 1% of controls) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (16% of cases, 5% of controls). Rotavirus was commonest among 6-11-month-olds, accounting for 20% of all cases in this age group; 71% of all rotavirus episodes occurred during the first year of life. Shigella spp. were commonest among those aged 12-23 months and 24-35 months, accounting for 22% and 27% of the cases, respectively. The proportion of cases that yielded no pathogen was inversely related to age, being highest (41%) among infants below 6 months of age and lowest (19%) among those aged 24-35 months. These results suggest that microbe-specific intervention strategies for the control of childhood diarrhoeal diseases in developing countries should focus on rotavirus, Shigella spp. and enterotoxigenic E. coli. PMID:1659953

Huilan, S.; Zhen, L. G.; Mathan, M. M.; Mathew, M. M.; Olarte, J.; Espejo, R.; Khin Maung, U.; Ghafoor, M. A.; Khan, M. A.; Sami, Z.

1991-01-01

41

Evaluation of collared peccary translocations in the Texas Hill Country  

E-print Network

Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Roel R. Lopez Committee Members, Nova J. Silvy Donald S. Davis Head of Department... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the members of my committee for their support and direction throughout my graduate studies: Roel Lopez, Nova Silvy, and Donald Davis. I also would like to thank my fellow graduate students in the Department of Wildlife...

Porter, Brad Alan

2007-09-17

42

Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: Workers' Evaluations in Five Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17…

Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard

2002-01-01

43

Multiple-trait multiple-country genetic evaluation of Holstein bulls for female fertility and milk production traits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of including milk yield data in the international genetic evaluation of female fertility traits to reduce or eliminate a possible bias because of across-country selection for milk yield. Data included two female fertility traits from Great Britain, Italy and the Netherlands, together with milk yield data from the same countries and from the United States, because the genetic trends in other countries may be influenced by selection decisions on bulls in the United States. Potentially, female fertility data had been corrected nationally for within-country selection and management biases for milk yield. Using a multiple-trait multiple across-country evaluation (MT-MACE) for the analysis of female fertility traits with milk yield, across-country selection patterns both for female fertility and milk yield can be considered simultaneously. Four analyses were performed; one single-trait multiple across-country evaluation analysis including only milk yield data, one MT-MACE analysis including only female fertility traits, and one MT-MACE analysis including both female fertility and milk yield traits. An additional MT-MACE analysis was performed including both female fertility and milk yield traits, but excluding the United States. By including milk yield traits to the analysis, female fertility reliabilities increased, but not for all bulls in all the countries by trait combinations. The presence of milk yield traits in the analysis did not considerably change the genetic correlations, genetic trends or bull rankings of female fertility traits. Even though the predicted genetic merits of female fertility traits hardly changed by including milk yield traits to the analysis, the change was not equally distributed to the whole data. The number of bulls in common between the two sets of Top 100 bulls for each trait in the two analyses of female fertility traits, with and without the four milk yield traits and their rank correlations were low, not necessarily because of the absence of the US milk yield data. The joint international genetic evaluation of female fertility traits with milk yield is recommended to make use of information on several female fertility traits from different countries simultaneously, to consider selection decisions for milk yield in the genetic evaluation of female fertility traits for obtaining more accurate estimating breeding values (EBV) and to acquire female fertility EBV for bulls evaluated for milk yield, but not for female fertility. PMID:24840559

Nilforooshan, M A; Jakobsen, J H; Fikse, W F; Berglund, B; Jorjani, H

2014-06-01

44

Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the different cost components (vector control; surveillance; information, education and communication; direct medical and indirect costs), as percentage of total costs, differed across the respective countries. Resources used for dengue disease control and treatment were country specific. Conclusions The evidence so far collected further confirms the methodological challenges in this field: 1) to define technically dengue outbreaks (what do we measure?) and 2) to measure accurately the costs in prospective field studies (how do we measure?). Currently, consensus on the technical definition of an outbreak is sought through the International Research Consortium on Dengue Risk Assessment, Management and Surveillance (IDAMS). Best practice guidelines should be further developed, also to improve the quality and comparability of cost study findings. Modelling the costs of dengue outbreaks and validating these models through field studies should guide further research. PMID:24195519

2013-01-01

45

Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation.  

PubMed

Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

2014-12-01

46

Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

2014-01-01

47

Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a panel data set of 46 countries over the 1970–1989 period to investigate the relationship between fiscal decentralization and economic growth. We find a negative relationship between fiscal decentralization and growth in developing countries, but none in developed countries. Several explanations are offered for our findings.

Hamid Davoodi; Heng-fu Zou

1998-01-01

48

[QUALICOPC -- primary care study on quality, costs and equity in European countries: the Hungarian branch].  

PubMed

The importance of primary care has already been recognized in the developed countries, where the structure and function of primary care is very heterogeneous. In the QUALICOPC study, the costs, quality and equity of primary care systems will be compared in the 34 participating countries. Representative samples of primary care practices were recruited in Hungary. An evaluation with questionnaire was performed in 222 practices on the work circumstances, conditions, competency and financial initiatives. Ten patients in each practice were also questioned by independent fieldworkers. In this work, the methodology and Hungarian experience are described. The final results of the international evaluation will be analyzed and published later. It is expected that data obtained from the QUALICOPC study may prove to be useful in health service planning and may be shared with policy makers. PMID:22935433

Rurik, Imre; Boerma, W G Wienke; Kolozsvári, László Róbert; Lánczi, Levente István; Mester, Lajos; Móczár, Csaba; Schäfer, L A Willemijn; Schmidt, Péter; Torzsa, Péter; Végh, Mária; Gronewegen, P Peter

2012-09-01

49

Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

2011-01-01

50

Nurse Migration from a Source Country Perspective: Philippine Country Case Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe nurse migration patterns in the Philippines and their benefits and costs. Principal Findings The Philippines is a job-scarce environment and, even for those with jobs in the health care sector, poor working conditions often motivate nurses to seek employment overseas. The country has also become dependent on labor migration to ease the tight domestic labor market. National opinion has generally focused on the improved quality of life for individual migrants and their families, and on the benefits of remittances to the nation. However, a shortage of highly skilled nurses and the massive retraining of physicians to become nurses elsewhere has created severe problems for the Filipino health system, including the closure of many hospitals. As a result, policy makers are debating the need for new policies to manage migration such that benefits are also returned to the educational institutions and hospitals that are producing the emigrant nurses. Conclusions and Recommendations There is new interest in the Philippines in identifying ways to mitigate the costs to the health system of nurse emigration. Many of the policy options being debated involve collaboration with those countries recruiting Filipino nurses. Bilateral agreements are essential for managing migration in such a way that both sending and receiving countries derive benefit from the exchange. PMID:17489922

Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn E; Galvez-Tan, Jaime; Icamina, Kriselle; Javier, Lara

2007-01-01

51

Evaluation of the impact of NCI's Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention on participants from low- and middle-income countries.  

PubMed

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention provides scientists and health care professionals training in principles and practices of cancer prevention and control, and molecular biology and genetics of cancer. Originally intended for US scientists, the curriculum's enrollment of international scientists has increased steadily. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the curriculum's impact on knowledge, skills, and career accomplishments of the international participants from low- and middle-income countries. International participants from 1998 to 2009 completed questionnaires regarding knowledge, overall experience, and accomplishments directly associated with the curriculum. Almost all respondents agreed that the curriculum enhanced their knowledge and skills, prepared them to contribute to cancer control activities in their home countries, and addressed specific needs and achieve research goals. The NCI Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention gives international participants a unique opportunity to enhance their knowledge and effectively contribute to cancer control activities in their home country. PMID:23355281

Williams, Makeda J; Otero, Isabel V; Harford, Joe B

2013-03-01

52

The Mobile Classroom in Central Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of the Mobile Classroom Project, which provided complementary and supplementary educational experiences not available through the Primary Correspondence Schools (PCS) for 58 isolated country children in Central Queensland during 1978 and 1979, used personal observations; comments from parents, home supervisors, and key educators…

Briody, P. M.

53

The Challenges of Small-Scale Evaluation in a Foreign Country: Reflections on Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a reflection on practice. It begins by briefly describing an evaluation of an externally-funded education programme in Kosovo (a new country in south-east Europe). The programme was managed by Save the Children in Kosovo and aimed to develop and promote models of inclusive education through three strands of activity. The first of…

Saunders, Lesley

2010-01-01

54

Evaluation of the applicability of SWAT in the Nile Basin countries: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plethora of hydrological modeling codes are nowadays available and many applications of these tools have been reported in peer reviewed journal papers. The hypothesis that the model is appropriate for the case study and the purpose of the study is however very often not questioned. We aim here at critically reviewing the use of a widely used hydrological simulation tool, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the context of the modeling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile Basin countries. Up to date, more than 20 peer reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT in this region for a variety of problems, such as erosion modeling, land use modeling, climate change impact modeling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are clustered in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. A number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, the performance, the physical representation of the model parameters, and the representativeness of the hydrological model balance. Here we evaluate the applications of within the Nile basin. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained several losses that might not be justified. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For that reason, it is difficult to give an overall positive evaluation to most of the reported SWAT models. An important gap is the lack of attention that is given to the vegetation and crop processes. None of the papers reported any adaptation to the crop parameters, or any crop related output such as leaf area index, biomass or crop yields. A proper simulation of the land cover is important for obtaining correct evapotranspiration and erosion computations. It is also found that a comparison of SWAT applications on the same or similar case study but by different research teams and/or model versions resulted in very different results. It is therefore recommended to try to find better methods to evaluate the representativeness of the distributed processes and parameters, especially when land use studies are envisaged. The main recommendation is that more details on the model set-up, the parameters and outputs should be provided in the journal papers in order to allow for a more stringent evaluation of these models.

van Griensven, A.; Ndomba, P. M.; Kilonzo, F.

2012-04-01

55

Health workforce development: a needs assessment study in French speaking African countries.  

PubMed

In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development. PMID:22453358

Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

2013-05-01

56

Economic gradients in early child neurodevelopment: A multi-country study  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the importance of household wealth for child neurodevelopment very early in life including during infancy. Previous studies have focused on specific developmental domains instead of more holistic multi-domain measures of neurodevelopment and on economic effects for the “average” child instead of evaluating the heterogeneity in economic gradients by different levels of developmental ability. Furthermore, not much is known about whether economic gradients in early child neurodevelopment are country-specific or generalizable between populations. We evaluate wealth gradients in child neurodevelopment, an important predictor of future health and human capital, between ages 3 and 24 months in four South American countries. We also assess the heterogeneity in these gradients at different locations of the neurodevelopment distribution using quantile regression. Employing a unique dataset of 2032 children with neurodevelopment measures obtained by physicians in 2005–2006, we find a large positive wealth gradient in neurodevelopment in Brazil. The wealth gradient is larger for children at higher neurodevelopment rankings, suggesting that wealth is associated with child development inequalities in the form of a wider gap between low and high achievers on neurodevelopment in Brazil. This result highlights the need to target poverty in Brazil as a key factor in health and human capital disparities earlier in life rather than later as early developmental deficits will be carried forward and possibly multiplied later in life. More importantly, small or insignificant wealth gradients are generally found in the other countries. These results suggest that wealth gradients in child neurodevelopment are country-specific and vary with population demographic, health, and socioeconomic characteristics. Therefore, findings from previous studies based on specific populations may not be generalizable to other countries. Furthermore, wealth gradients in child neurodevelopment appear to be dynamic rather than fixed and sensitive to population characteristics that modify their intensity. PMID:23273409

Wehby, George L.; McCarthy, Ann Marie

2013-01-01

57

A Study Focusing on American Expatriates' Learning in Host Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 70 U.S. expatriate workers found that most learned the culture of their host country through reflective learning. Factors helping their adjustment included previous cross-cultural experience, language competence, long-term relationship with hosts, and information about the host country from both home and host sources. (Contains 29…

Shim, In-Sun; Paprock, Kenneth C.

2002-01-01

58

Therapeutic research in low-income countries: studying trial communities.  

PubMed

Social scientists undertaking studies of transnational medical research in developing countries focus on 'trial communities': networks of funders, institutions, researchers, clinical staff, fieldworkers and study participants. They relate these to the political economy that brings powerful research resources to poor settings. Whereas bioethicists tend to consider universal ethical requirements, social scientists examine how ethics are practiced in given situations in the light of the concerns and interests held by different parties involved in medical research. In conditions of poverty, high morbidity and weak public health services, research subjects are heavily induced by the prospect of high quality medical care and other benefits that researchers seem to offer. Studies of medical research undertaken by well-established internationally funded institutions in Africa show that parents are keen to have their children 'join' projects at these organisations. They assess benefits and risks less in terms of specific research projects and more in terms of their overall trust in the care these institutions are known to have provided previously for others in the community. Bioethics should widen its scope beyond concern with protecting individual subjects from the risks of specific research projects. It should recognise that clinical and research functions are indistinguishable for many participants, who want information on results of clinical investigations and sustained support for improving the health of their children. PMID:24748638

Whyte, Susan Reynolds

2014-11-01

59

A Framework for the Monitoring and Evaluation of International Surgical Initiatives in Low- and Middle-Income Countries  

PubMed Central

Background An estimated two billion people worldwide lack adequate access to surgical care. To address this humanitarian emergency, an increasing number of international surgical partnerships are emerging between developed and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). At present, there are no clear indicators that may be used to assess the effectiveness of such initiatives. Study Design We conducted an international qualitative study of 31 surgeons from developed and LMICs involved in international partnerships across a variety of subspecialties. Thematic analysis and grounded theory were applied in order to develop a practical framework that may be applied to monitor and evaluate global surgical initiatives. Results Several themes emerged from the study: (i) there is a large unmet need to establish and maintain prospective databases in LMICs to inform the monitoring and evaluation of international surgical partnerships; (ii) assessment of initiatives must occur longitudinally over the span of several years; (ii) the domains of assessment are contextual and encompass cultural, institutional and regional factors; and (iv) evaluation strategies should explore broader impact within the community and country. Based on thematic analysis within the domains of inputs, outputs and outcomes, a framework for the monitoring and evaluation of international surgical initiatives, the Framework for the Assessment of InteRNational Surgical Success (FAIRNeSS) is proposed. Conclusions In response to the increasing number of surgical partnerships between developed and LMICs, we propose a framework to monitor and evaluate international surgical initiatives. PMID:25821970

Ibrahim, George M.; Cadotte, David W.; Bernstein, Mark

2015-01-01

60

Home Start Evaluation Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of seven Home Start programs are given as the third section of an evaluation study. Communities involved are Huntsville, Alabama; Fairbanks, Alaska; Fort Defiance, Arizona; Dardanelle, Arkansas; Wichita, Kansas; Gloucester, Massachusetts; and Reno, Nevada. Although each study varies in format, each describes in detail the degree and…

High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI.

61

Studying, Working, and Living in Another EU Country: French Youth's Point of View  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the willingness of French youth to go and study or work for some time in another EU country. We examined three types of questions: (a) What is the overall level of willingness to go in another EU country? Does age, gender or socioeconomic status (SES) of the family influence this overall level? Which country do French youth

Etienne Mullet; Véronique Dej; Isabelle Lemaire; Philippe Raïff; Jolyon Barthorpe

2000-01-01

62

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 1, Summary: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions` levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.; Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

63

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions' levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.); Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

64

Patterns of Long Term Care in 29 European countries: evidence from an exploratory study  

PubMed Central

Background The challenges posed by the rapidly ageing population, and the increased preponderance of disabled people in this group, coupled with the rising level of public expenditure required to service the complex organization of long term care (LTC) delivery are causing increased pressure on LTC systems in Europe. A pan-European survey was carried out to evaluate whether patterns of LTC can be identified across Europe and what are the trends of the countries along them. Methods An ecological study was conducted on the 27 EU Member States plus Norway and Iceland, referring to the period 2003-2007. Several variables related to organizational features, elderly needs and expenditure were drawn from OECD Health Data and the Eurostat Statistics database and combined using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Results Two global Principal Components were taken into consideration given that their expressed total variance was greater than 60%. They were interpreted according to the higher (more than 0.5) positive or negative correlation coefficients between them and the original variables; thus patterns of LTC were identified. High alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs characterizes Nordic and Western European countries, the former also having a higher level of formal care than the latter. Mediterranean as well as Central and South Eastern European countries show lower alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs, coupled with a level of provision of formal care that is around or slightly above the average European level. In the dynamic comparison, linear, stable or unclear trends were shown for the studied countries. Conclusions The analysis carried out is an explorative and descriptive study, which is an attempt to reveal patterns and trends of LTC in Europe, allowing comparisons between countries. It also stimulates further researches with lower aggregated data useful to gain meaningful policy-making evidence. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/124 PMID:22098693

2011-01-01

65

Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities. PMID:25310227

Jani?, Snežana Radisavljevi?; Jurak, Gregor; Milanovi?, Ivana; Lazarevi?, Dušanka; Kova?, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

2014-10-01

66

Protecting HIV information in countries scaling up HIV services: a baseline study  

PubMed Central

Background Individual-level data are needed to optimize clinical care and monitor and evaluate HIV services. Confidentiality and security of such data must be safeguarded to avoid stigmatization and discrimination of people living with HIV. We set out to assess the extent that countries scaling up HIV services have developed and implemented guidelines to protect the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Methods Questionnaires were sent to UNAIDS field staff in 98 middle- and lower-income countries, some reportedly with guidelines (G-countries) and others intending to develop them (NG-countries). Responses were scored, aggregated and weighted to produce standard scores for six categories: information governance, country policies, data collection, data storage, data transfer and data access. Responses were analyzed using regression analyses for associations with national HIV prevalence, gross national income per capita, OECD income, receiving US PEPFAR funding, and being a G- or NG-country. Differences between G- and NG-countries were investigated using non-parametric methods. Results Higher information governance scores were observed for G-countries compared with NG-countries; no differences were observed between country policies or data collection categories. However, for data storage, data transfer and data access, G-countries had lower scores compared with NG-countries. No significant associations were observed between country score and HIV prevalence, per capita gross national income, OECD economic category, and whether countries had received PEPFAR funding. Conclusions Few countries, including G-countries, had developed comprehensive guidelines on protecting the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Countries must develop their own guidelines, using established frameworks to guide their efforts, and may require assistance in adapting, adopting and implementing them. PMID:21294916

2011-01-01

67

The impact of inflation and unemployment on subjective personal and country evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors use data from the Gallup World Poll to analyze what determines individual assessments of past, present, and future personal and country well-being. These measures allow the analysis of two dimensions of happiness data not previously examined in the literature: the better-than-average effect and optimism. The authors find that individuals tend to evaluate their personal well-being as being better

Néstor Gándelman; Rubén Hernández-Murillo

2009-01-01

68

Colostomy for high anorectal malformation: an evaluation of morbidity and mortality in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostomy is a life-saving procedure in newborns with high anorectal malformations (ARM). However, the procedure may be attended\\u000a by complications, particularly in resource limited settings. This is an evaluation of the morbidity and mortality following\\u000a colostomy for ARM in newborns in two paediatric teaching centres in a developing country. A retrospective review of 61 neonates\\u000a who had colostomy for high

Lohfa B. Chirdan; Francis A. Uba; Emmanuel A. Ameh; Philip M. Mshelbwala

2008-01-01

69

Neurophysiological evidence for the country-of-origin effect: an event-related potential study  

PubMed Central

Consumers often rely on observable cues that hint at the hidden quality of a product. The aim of this study was to investigate brain activities associated with the country-of-origin (COO) effect and consumer evaluation of a product design. Electroencephalogram recordings were used to observe event-related brain potentials associated with the COO effect and design evaluation. We found that the frontocentral N90 and parieto-occipital P220 amplitudes are involved in forming preference to design, whereas the COO effect is processed in the centroparietal P500 amplitude. We also found a significant interaction effect between COO and design preference with regard to reaction times. Specifically, participants tended to spend more time making a preference decision when they did not like the product design made in a country with a favorable COO. These results imply that the two cognitive processes, evaluation of COO and formation of design preference, are activated independently at an early stage. It also suggests that these two processes interact with each other toward the end of the decision phase. Together, the results of this study provide neuropsychological evidence supporting a significant role of COO in the formation of design preference. Future studies are required to further delve into other neurophysiological activities associated with the COO effect. PMID:24518230

Cho, Kwangsu; Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Erin

2014-01-01

70

Clearing a Hurried Path: Study on Education Programs for Migrant Workers in Six Asian Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Against the backdrop of the Asian economic crisis, this study examined the range of education programs for migrant workers in six Asian countries. Surveys were returned from 145 migrant worker support organizations in three host countries--Hong Kong, South Korea, and Japan--and three sending countries--the Philippines, Indonesia, and India. The…

Villalba, Noel C.

71

Water Scarcity and Food Import: A Case Study for Southern Mediterranean Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking six southern Mediterranean countries as a case study, this paper addresses the water-food challenges facing water-scarce countries and the implications for the world food economy. By accounting the volume of virtual water embedded in food imports into the countries concerned, a close relationship between water endowment and food import dependence is elaborated. A projection of the cereal demand suggests

Hong Yang; Alexander J. B. Zehnder

2002-01-01

72

Recent sedimentary study of the shelf of the Basque country  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northern Iberian margin of the Spanish Basque country (provinces of Gipuzkoa and Viscaia) is characterized by a narrow continental platform, which receives inputs of riverine particulate matter from the numerous riverine systems located within the Basque country. This particulate matter is subsequently deposited within the Bay of Biscay, and Gouf de Capbreton [Frouin, R., Fiuza, A.F.G., Ambar, I., Boyd, T.J., 1990. Observations of a poleward surface current off the coasts of Portugal and Spain during winter. Journal of Geophysical Research 95 (C1), 679-691]. The main goal of this study is to establish a map of the surface sediment distribution of the Basque continental shelf and more specifically to map the muddy patch located at the eastern side of that continental shelf. Three oceanographic cruises were conducted in 2003 and 2004. From these campaigns 340 surface samples, 12 short cores and 3 gravity cores have been collected over the mid and outer shelf from depths ranging between 50 m and 150 m deep. 3 seismic profiles were obtained across the shelf mud patch using a Sparker device. Sediment grain-size analyses were performed by the classical physical method of sieving and use of settling columns. The POC (Particular Organic Carbon) amounts in sediment and water samples were determined using the Strickland and Parsons' method [Strickland, J.D.H., Parsons, T.R., 1972. Determination of particulate carbon. In : A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Fisheries ResearchBoard of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 207-211] as adapted by Etcheber [Etcheber, H., 1981. Comparaison des diverses méthodes d'évaluation des teneurs en matières en suspension et en carbone organique particulaire des eaux marines du plateau continental aquitain. Journal de Recherche Océanographique VI (2), 37-42]. Radioisotopic measurements ( 210Pb exc) were made using a semi-planar germanium detector coupled to a multichannel analyser. Radiographical analysis was performed with an X-ray equipment (SCOPIX®) coupled with a radioscopy instrumentation and processing unit. Firstly, a detailed sedimentological map of this shelf has been produced and secondly, geophysical surveys have precisely mapped the geometry of the main mud patch on the continental shelf. In the mud patch itself the rates of sedimentation are between 0.13 and 0.50 cm yr - 1 . The maximum rate of sedimentation is located in the central mud patch, whereas the minimum rate of deposition occurs close to the rocky outcrops. These results seem to be in agreement with the estimation of the total thickness of the mud patch revealed by seismic profiles. The central part corresponds to the maximum thickness of 7 m. Interpretations of the associated oceanic current forcing factors (current direction, wave fetch and wind directional modes) relating to the identified sediment depositional zones are also undertaken.

Jouanneau, J.-M.; Weber, O.; Champilou, N.; Cirac, P.; Muxika, I.; Borja, A.; Pascual, A.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, J.; Donard, O.

2008-07-01

73

Development of Hydropower: A Case Study in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, global electricity production has more than doubled, and electricity demand is rising rapidly around the world as economic development spreads to emerging economies. Therefore, technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. In addition, small hydropower (SHP) represents an

I. Yüksel

2007-01-01

74

Effect of the Science Learning Environment on Science Achievement: A Comparison of 12 Countries from the IEA Second International Science Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Second International Science Study (SISS) was conducted in 1984, resulting in a vast amount of educational data collected from 23 countries and educational systems. This research study reports on the analyses of 12 of those countries using multilevel modeling, investigating the relationships between the students’ reported perceptions of the science

Deidra J. Young

1995-01-01

75

Can Voluntary Environmental Regulation Work in Developing Countries? Lessons from Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstrung by weak institutions that undermine conventional environmental regulatory tools, policymakers in developing countries are increasingly turning to voluntary approaches. To date, however, there have been few evaluations of these policy experiments. To help fill this gap, we summarize arguments for and against the use of voluntary regulation in developing countries, review the nascent literature on the topic, and present

Allen Blackman

2008-01-01

76

Comparison of patient evaluations of health care quality in relation to WHO measures of achievement in 12 European countries.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into similarities and differences in patient evaluations of quality of primary care across 12 European countries and to correlate patient evaluations with WHO health system performance measures (for example, responsiveness) of these countries. METHODS: Patient evaluations were derived from a series of Quote (QUality of care Through patients' Eyes) instruments designed to measure the quality of primary care. Various research groups provided a total sample of 5133 patients from 12 countries: Belarus, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom, and Ukraine. Intraclass correlations of 10 Quote items were calculated to measure differences between countries. The world health report 2000 - Health systems: improving performance performance measures in the same countries were correlated with mean Quote scores. FINDINGS: Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from low to very high, which indicated little variation between countries in some respects (for example, primary care providers have a good understanding of patients' problems in all countries) and large variation in other respects (for example, with respect to prescription of medication and communication between primary care providers). Most correlations between mean Quote scores per country and WHO performance measures were positive. The highest correlation (0.86) was between the primary care provider's understanding of patients' problems and responsiveness according to WHO. CONCLUSIONS: Patient evaluations of the quality of primary care showed large differences across countries and related positively to WHO's performance measures of health care systems. PMID:15042232

Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Sixma, Herman J.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; van der Eijk, Ingrid

2004-01-01

77

Across-country test-day model evaluations for Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey.  

PubMed

Three random regression models were developed for routine genetic evaluation of Danish, Finnish, and Swedish dairy cattle. Data included over 169 million test-day records with milk, protein, and fat yield observations from over 8.7 million dairy cows of all breeds. Variance component analyses showed significant differences in estimates between Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey, but only small to moderate differences within a breed across countries. The obtained variance component estimates were used to build, for each breed, their own set of covariance functions. The covariance functions describe the animal effects on milk, protein, and fat yields of the first 3 lactations as 9 different traits, assuming the same heritabilities and a genetic correlation of unity across countries. Only 15, 27, and 7 eigenfunctions with the largest eigenvalues were used to describe additive genetic animal effects and nonhereditary animal effects across lactations and within later lactations, respectively. These reduced-rank covariance functions explained 99.0 to 99.9% of the original variances but reduced the number of animal equations to be solved by 44%. Moderate rank reduction for nonhereditary animal effects and use of one-third-smaller measurement error correlations than obtained from variance component estimation made the models more robust against extreme observations. Estimation of the genetic levels of the countries' subpopulations within a breed was found sensitive to the way the breed effects were modeled, especially for the genetically heterogeneous Nordic Red Cattle. Means to ensure that only additive genetic effects entered the estimated breeding values were to describe the crossbreeding effects by fixed and random cofactors and the calving age effect by an age × breed proportion interaction, and to model phantom parent groups as random effects. To ensure that genetic variances were the same across the 3 countries in breeding value estimation, as suggested by the variance component estimates, the applied multiplicative heterogeneous variance adjustment method had to be tailored using country-specific reference measurement error variances. Results showed the feasibility of across-country genetic evaluation of cows and sires based on original test-day phenotypes. Nevertheless, applying a thorough model validation procedure is essential throughout the model building process to obtain reliable breeding values. PMID:25434332

Lidauer, Martin H; Pösö, Jukka; Pedersen, Jørn; Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Per; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Nielsen, Ulrik S; Eriksson, Jan-Åke; Johansson, Kjell; Pitkänen, Timo; Strandén, Ismo; Aamand, Gert P

2015-02-01

78

Pyrolysis system evaluation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

1974-01-01

79

How can countries use cross-national research results to address "the big policy issues"? Case studies from Francophone Africa  

E-print Network

. Since then, 13 individual country evaluations have been carried out in francophone sub-Saharan Africa quality. Given the tight budget constraints limiting educational expenditure in most sub-Saharan African studies from Francophone Africa Jean-Marc Bernard, CONFEMEN secretariat Katharina Michaelowa, Hamburg

Boyer, Edmond

80

A critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for HIV prevention in developed countries  

PubMed Central

A potential impediment to evidence-based policy development on medical male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention in all countries worldwide is the uncritical acceptance by some of arguments used by opponents of this procedure. Here we evaluate recent opinion-pieces of 13 individuals opposed to MC. We find that these statements misrepresent good studies, selectively cite references, some containing fallacious information, and draw erroneous conclusions. In marked contrast, the scientific evidence shows MC to be a simple, low-risk procedure with very little or no adverse long-term effect on sexual function, sensitivity, sensation during arousal or overall satisfaction. Unscientific arguments have been recently used to drive ballot measures aimed at banning MC of minors in the USA, eliminate insurance coverage for medical MC for low-income families, and threaten large fines and incarceration for health care providers. Medical MC is a preventative health measure akin to immunisation, given its protective effect against HIV infection, genital cancers and various other conditions. Protection afforded by neonatal MC against a diversity of common medical conditions starts in infancy with urinary tract infections and extends throughout life. Besides protection in adulthood against acquiring HIV, MC also reduces morbidity and mortality from multiple other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital cancers in men and their female sexual partners. It is estimated that over their lifetime one-third of uncircumcised males will suffer at least one foreskin-related medical condition. The scientific evidence indicates that medical MC is safe and effective. Its favourable risk/benefit ratio and cost/benefit support the advantages of medical MC. PMID:22452415

Morris, Brian J.; Bailey, Robert C.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Leibowitz, Arleen; Wamai, Richard G.; Waskett, Jake H.; Banerjee, Joya; Halperin, Daniel T.; Zoloth, Laurie; Weiss, Helen A.; Hankins, Catherine A.

2013-01-01

81

Peaceful Uses Bona Fides: Criteria for Evaluation and Case Studies  

SciTech Connect

This study applies a set of indicators to assess the peaceful nature of a state’s nuclear program. Evaluation of a country’s nuclear program relative to these indicators can help the international community to take appropriate actions to ensure that the growth of the global nuclear energy industry proceeds peacefully and to minimize nuclear proliferation risks.

Ajemian, Chris K.; Hazel, Mike; Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.; Morris, Fred A.; Seward, Amy M.; Peterson, Danielle J.; Smith, Brian W.

2007-06-06

82

Beyond Resistance: Exploring Health Managers' Propensity for Participatory Evaluation in a Developing Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the…

Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois; Farand, Lambert

2012-01-01

83

An adequacy evaluation of a 10-year, four-country nutrition and health programme  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluations of large-scale health and nutrition programmes in developing countries are needed for determining the effectiveness of interventions. This article critically analyses a non-governmental organization (NGO)-led large-scale, multi-country, 10-year micronutrient and health (MICAH) programme with an ‘adequacy evaluation’, that is, a documentation of time trends in the expected direction. Methods MICAH was implemented from 1996 to 2005 in selected areas of Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania, reaching >6 million people with numerous health and nutrition interventions. Coverage and impact were monitored through surveys at baseline, midpoint and end of funding. The data were subjected to post-hoc methods of quality determination, and, if of suitable quality, included in the adequacy evaluation. Results Most collected data were of moderate or high quality and therefore included in the adequacy evaluation. There were moderate to large improvements in vitamin A status in Ethiopian school-age children, children <5 years of age in Tanzania and Ghana and mothers in Ghana. Iodine status improved in Malawi and Tanzania. Anaemia rates and malaria prevalence decreased in women, pregnant women and pre-school children in Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania, but anaemia increased in Ethiopian women. Large increases were reported for rates of exclusive breastfeeding and immunization. Child growth improved to the maximum that would be predicted with the given interventions. Conclusions Numerous nutrition and health impacts were observed in the intervention areas, often of a magnitude equal to or larger than observed in controlled interventions or trials. These results show the value of integrated long-term interventions. PMID:20202929

Berti, Peter R; Mildon, Alison; Siekmans, Kendra; Main, Barbara; MacDonald, Carolyn

2010-01-01

84

Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results from the mathematics portion of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video study, which examined classroom teaching practices in eighth-grade mathematics and science in seven countries. Identifies some general features among the countries, but discernible variation in teaching methods and topics…

Hiebert, James; Gallimore, Ronald; Garnier, Helen; Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Jacobs, Jennifer; Chui, Angel Miu-Ying; Wearne, Diana; Smith, Margaret; Kersting, Nicole; Manaster, Alfred; Tseng, Ellen; Etterback, Wallace; Manaster, Carl; Gonzales, Patrick; Stigler, James

2003-01-01

85

Catastrophe risk models for evaluating disaster risk reduction investments in developing countries.  

PubMed

Major natural disasters in recent years have had high human and economic costs, and triggered record high postdisaster relief from governments and international donors. Given the current economic situation worldwide, selecting the most effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures is critical. This is especially the case for low- and middle-income countries, which have suffered disproportionally more economic and human losses from disasters. This article discusses a methodology that makes use of advanced probabilistic catastrophe models to estimate benefits of DRR measures. We apply such newly developed models to generate estimates for hurricane risk on residential structures on the island of St. Lucia, and earthquake risk on residential structures in Istanbul, Turkey, as two illustrative case studies. The costs and economic benefits for selected risk reduction measures are estimated taking account of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. We conclude by emphasizing the advantages and challenges of catastrophe model-based cost-benefit analyses for DRR in developing countries. PMID:23237737

Michel-Kerjan, E; Hochrainer-Stigler, S; Kunreuther, H; Linnerooth-Bayer, J; Mechler, R; Muir-Wood, R; Ranger, N; Vaziri, P; Young, M

2013-06-01

86

A study of students' understanding of electricity in five European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study of the understanding of basic electrical concepts shown by 15?17 year?old students in England, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and West Germany, the same objective test having been administered to samples of students in each of these countries.When within?country results were averaged across student groups the between?country differences on many aspects of this subject were quite

D. M. Shipstone; C. V. Rhöneck; W. Jung; C. Kärrqvist; J.-J. Dupin; S. Johsua; P. Licht

1988-01-01

87

Tackling the tensions in evaluating capacity strengthening for health research in low- and middle-income countries  

PubMed Central

Strengthening research capacity in low- and middle-income countries is one of the most effective ways of advancing their health and development but the complexity and heterogeneity of health research capacity strengthening (RCS) initiatives means it is difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. Our study aimed to enhance understanding about these difficulties and to make recommendations about how to make health RCS evaluations more effective. Through discussions and surveys of health RCS funders, including the ESSENCE on Health Research initiative, we identified themes that were important to health RCS funders and used these to guide a systematic analysis of their evaluation reports. Eighteen reports, produced between 2000 and 2013, representing 12 evaluations, were purposefully selected from 54 reports provided by the funders to provide maximum variety. Text from the reports was extracted independently by two authors against a pre-designed framework. Information about the health RCS approaches, tensions and suggested solutions was re-constructed into a narrative. Throughout the process contacts in the health RCS funder agencies were involved in helping us to validate and interpret our results. The focus of the health RCS evaluations ranged from individuals and institutions to national, regional and global levels. Our analysis identified tensions around how much stakeholders should participate in an evaluation, the appropriate balance between measuring and learning and between a focus on short-term processes vs longer-term impact and sustainability. Suggested solutions to these tensions included early and ongoing stakeholder engagement in planning and evaluating health RCS, modelling of impact pathways and rapid assimilation of lessons learned for continuous improvement of decision making and programming. The use of developmental approaches could improve health RCS evaluations by addressing common tensions and promoting sustainability. Sharing learning about how to do robust and useful health RCS evaluations should happen alongside, not after, health RCS efforts. PMID:24717984

Bates, Imelda; Boyd, Alan; Aslanyan, Garry; Cole, Donald C

2015-01-01

88

Tackling the tensions in evaluating capacity strengthening for health research in low- and middle-income countries.  

PubMed

Strengthening research capacity in low- and middle-income countries is one of the most effective ways of advancing their health and development but the complexity and heterogeneity of health research capacity strengthening (RCS) initiatives means it is difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. Our study aimed to enhance understanding about these difficulties and to make recommendations about how to make health RCS evaluations more effective. Through discussions and surveys of health RCS funders, including the ESSENCE on Health Research initiative, we identified themes that were important to health RCS funders and used these to guide a systematic analysis of their evaluation reports. Eighteen reports, produced between 2000 and 2013, representing 12 evaluations, were purposefully selected from 54 reports provided by the funders to provide maximum variety. Text from the reports was extracted independently by two authors against a pre-designed framework. Information about the health RCS approaches, tensions and suggested solutions was re-constructed into a narrative. Throughout the process contacts in the health RCS funder agencies were involved in helping us to validate and interpret our results. The focus of the health RCS evaluations ranged from individuals and institutions to national, regional and global levels. Our analysis identified tensions around how much stakeholders should participate in an evaluation, the appropriate balance between measuring and learning and between a focus on short-term processes vs longer-term impact and sustainability. Suggested solutions to these tensions included early and ongoing stakeholder engagement in planning and evaluating health RCS, modelling of impact pathways and rapid assimilation of lessons learned for continuous improvement of decision making and programming. The use of developmental approaches could improve health RCS evaluations by addressing common tensions and promoting sustainability. Sharing learning about how to do robust and useful health RCS evaluations should happen alongside, not after, health RCS efforts. PMID:24717984

Bates, Imelda; Boyd, Alan; Aslanyan, Garry; Cole, Donald C

2015-04-01

89

Health informatics from theory to practice: lessons from a case study in a developing country.  

PubMed

Implementation of IT in developing countries has had successes and failures. The theory of successful implementation has mainly been researched in developed countries. There is now evidence that there are other issues that are of importance to developing country health systems. Case studies allow us to identify pitfalls that implementors can fall into. The implementation of a computerized Field Health Information System in the Philippines provides insight into some factors of importance. While there are similarities to issues in developed countries, there are also many differences. PMID:8591511

Jayasuriya, R

1995-01-01

90

Lessons learned in evaluating the Familias Fuertes program in three countries in Latin America.  

PubMed

This report describes 1) the evaluation of the Familias Fuertes primary prevention program in three countries (Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador) and 2) the effect of program participation on parenting practices. Familias Fuertes was implemented in Bolivia (10 groups, 96 parents), Colombia (12 groups, 173 parents), and Ecuador (five groups, 42 parents) to prevent the initiation and reduce the prevalence of health-compromising behaviors among adolescents by strengthening family relationships and enhancing parenting skills. The program consists of seven group sessions (for 6-12 families) designed for parents/caregivers and their 10-14-year-old child. Parents/caregivers answered a survey before the first session and at the completion of the program. The survey measured two important mediating constructs: "positive parenting" and "parental hostility." The Pan American Health Organization provided training for facilitators. After the program, parents/caregivers from all three countries reported significantly higher mean scores for "positive parenting" and significantly lower mean scores for "parental hostility" than at the pre-test. "Positive parenting" practices paired with low "parental hostility" are fundamental to strengthening the relationship between parents/caregivers and the children and reducing adolescents' health-compromising behaviors. More research is needed to examine the long-term impact of the program on adolescent behaviors. PMID:25711749

Orpinas, Pamela; Ambrose, Ashley; Maddaleno, Matilde; Vulanovic, Lauren; Mejia, Martha; Butrón, Betzabé; Gutierrez, Gonzalo Sosa; Soriano, Ismael

2014-12-01

91

Inappropriate Pooling of Wealthy and Poor Countries in Empirical FDI Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the question of whether less-developed countries' (LDCs') experiences with foreign direct investment (FDI) systematically different from those of developed countries (DCs). We do this by examining three types of empirical FDI studies that typically do not distinguish between LDCs and DCs in their analysis. First, we find that the underlying factors that determine the location of FDI

Bruce A. Blonigen; MIAO GRACE WANG

2004-01-01

92

Genderedness of Bar Drinking Culture and Alcohol-Related Harms: A Multi-Country Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…

Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

2013-01-01

93

Food Security Implication Of Climate Change In Developing Countries: Findings From A Case Study In Mali  

E-print Network

1 Food Security Implication Of Climate Change In Developing Countries: Findings From A Case Study.S.A. Seniority of authorship is shared by Butt and McCarl. #12;2 FOOD SECURITY IMPLICATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE change on food security in developing countries and various adaptations that can be pursued by presenting

McCarl, Bruce A.

94

Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. Methods: This international cross- sectional survey included 123,227 students 11, 13 and 15 years of age from a nationally representative sample of schools in 28 countries in Europe and

Pernille Due; Bjørn E. Holstein; John Lynch; Finn Diderichsen

2005-01-01

95

The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries. IEA Studies in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on the impact of private education in developing countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Peru, Romania, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The private education sector is large and innovative in the countries studied and not the domain of the wealthy. Contrary to popular opinion, private education in…

Tooley, James

96

How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

2007-01-01

97

Teacher Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the most relevant issues concerning teacher evaluation in primary and secondary education by reviewing the recent literature and analysing current practices within the OECD countries. First, it provides a conceptual framework highlighting key features of teacher evaluation schemes. In particular, it emphasises the importance…

Isore, Marlene

2009-01-01

98

Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that…

Fujii, Toshiakira

2014-01-01

99

Distribution of Country of Origin in Studies Used in Cochrane Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Inclusion in systematic reviews is one important component in judging the potential impact of clinical studies upon practice and hence the ‘value for money’ of spending for clinical research. This study aims to quantify the distribution of countries of origin of clinical studies used in Cochrane Reviews (CRs), and to link these data to the size of a country and to its spending on research. Methods Random sample of publications used for CRs published in Issue 1 2008 and of publications used in CRs in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Publications without original data were excluded. Likely countries of origin determined based on abstracts/full texts. CIA World Factbook (population data) and OECD database (economic data) were used. Results 1,000 random entries out of 140,005 references available in all specialities. In 876 (91.4%) of 959 eligible studies, country of origin was determined. The USA was the leading contributor (36.0% of the studies), followed by UK (13.4%), Canada (5.3%), Australia and Sweden (3.7%). In the CAM sample, country of origin was determined in 458 (93.5%) of 497 assessed studies. Again, the USA was the leading contributor (24.9%), with China also emerging as a significant contributor (24.7%) in this field. For both samples, the contribution of smaller countries (especially Scandinavian countries, Greece, and Ireland) became more noteworthy when considered in relation to population size and research spending. Conclusions Our results support the leading roles of both the USA and the UK in publishing clinical papers. The emerging role of China can be seen, particularly related to CAM studies. Taking into account size of population and economic power, countries like France, Germany, Italy, and Spain provide small contributions. In contrast, smaller countries like Australia, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, and Sweden also play major roles. PMID:21526195

Wolff, Robert F.; Reinders, Stefan; Barth, Michael; Antes, Gerd

2011-01-01

100

Case Study of a Course for Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course designed to provide the necessary academic study prior to students engaging in the practice of irrigation engineering. Rationale for the course, course structure, and special features of the course are included. (JN)

Morice, Peter B.

1985-01-01

101

Social Studies. Microsift Courseware Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of 17 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 1-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

102

Violence as a public health problem: An ecological study of 169 countries?  

PubMed Central

Individual level risk factors for violence have been widely studied, but little is known about country-level determinants, particularly in low and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that income inequality, through its detrimental effects on social cohesion, would be related to an increase in violence worldwide, and in low and middle-income countries in particular. We examined country-level associations of violence with socio-economic and health-related factors, using crime statistics from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and indicators from the Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Programme. Using regression models, we measured relationships between country-level factors (age, education, measures of income, health expenditure, and alcohol consumption) and four violent outcomes (including measures of violence-related mortality and morbidity) in up to 169 countries. We stratified our analyses comparing high with low and middle-income countries, and analysed longitudinal data on homicide and income inequality in high-income countries. In low and middle-income countries, income inequality was related to homicide, robbery, and self-reported assault (all p's < 0.05). In high-income countries, urbanicity was significantly associated with official assault (p = 0.002, ? = 0.716) and robbery (p = 0.011, ? = 0.587) rates; income inequality was related to homicide (p = 0.006, ? = 0.670) and self-reported assault (p = 0.020, ? = 0.563), and longitudinally with homicide (p = 0.021). Worldwide, alcohol consumption was associated with self-reported assault rates (p < 0.001, ? = 0.369) suggesting public policy interventions reducing alcohol consumption may contribute to reducing violence rates. Our main finding was that income inequality was related to violence in low and middle-income countries. Public health should advocate for global action to moderate income inequality to reduce the global health burden of violence. PMID:24581081

Wolf, Achim; Gray, Ron; Fazel, Seena

2014-01-01

103

Development based climate change adaptation and mitigation—conceptual issues and lessons learned in studies in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the conceptual basis for linking development policies and climate change adaptation and mitigation and\\u000a suggests an analytical approach that can be applied to studies in developing countries. The approach is centred on a broad\\u000a set of policy evaluation criteria that merge traditional economic and sectoral goals and broader social issues related to\\u000a health and income distribution. The

Kirsten Halsnæs; Jan Verhagen

2007-01-01

104

Development based climate change adaptation and mitigation—conceptual issues and lessons learned in studies in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract,This paper discusses the conceptual basis for linking development,policies and climate change,adaptation and mitigation and suggests an analytical approach,that can be applied to studies in developing,countries. The approach,is centred on a broad set of policy evaluation criteria that merge,traditional economic,and sectoral goals and broader social issues related to health and income,distribution. The approach,is inspired by institutional economics and development paradigms

Kirsten Halsnæs Æ Jan Verhagen

105

Understanding Quality Assurance: A Cross Country Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of understanding between an Australian university and its offshore partner institution, on quality assurance. It attempts to highlight the dynamics of quality assurance policy implementation within and across institutions for an offshore degree. Design/methodology/approach: The study used…

Choon Boey Lim, Fion

2008-01-01

106

Country of Contrasts: A Study Guide on Panama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide seeks to provide resources to bring the voices and experiences of Panamanian students into classrooms. This guide includes: (1) "History of a Canal" (in English and Spanish) (Pablo Neruda); (2) "Poems by Cubena"; (3) "Maps of Panama and The Canal Zone"; (4) "Historical Overview: Panama (1501-1992)"; (5) "Molas" (Maria…

Athey, Lois E., Ed.; And Others

107

Decision support for global marketing strategies: the effect of country of origin on product evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increasing global competition, the issue of country-of-origin has received a great deal of attention recently. Examines country-of-origin image stereotyping by businesspeople in the Gulf States of the Middle East. Assesses the attitude of businesspeople toward various products of seven countries: the USA, Japan, Germany, England, France, Italy and Taiwan, that are the most active in the Gulf States.

Masood A. Badri; Donald L. Davis; Donna F. Davis

1995-01-01

108

The e-health implementation toolkit: qualitative evaluation across four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Implementation researchers have attempted to overcome the research-practice gap in e-health by developing tools that summarize and synthesize research evidence of factors that impede or facilitate implementation of innovation in healthcare settings. The e-Health Implementation Toolkit (e-HIT) is an example of such a tool that was designed within the context of the United Kingdom National Health Service to promote implementation of e-health services. Its utility in international settings is unknown. Methods We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the e-HIT in use across four countries--Finland, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden. Data were generated using a combination of interview approaches (n = 22) to document e-HIT users' experiences of the tool to guide decision making about the selection of e-health pilot services and to monitor their progress over time. Results e-HIT users evaluated the tool positively in terms of its scope to organize and enhance their critical thinking about their implementation work and, importantly, to facilitate discussion between those involved in that work. It was easy to use in either its paper- or web-based format, and its visual elements were positively received. There were some minor criticisms of the e-HIT with some suggestions for content changes and comments about its design as a generic tool (rather than specific to sites and e-health services). However, overall, e-HIT users considered it to be a highly workable tool that they found useful, which they would use again, and which they would recommend to other e-health implementers. Conclusion The use of the e-HIT is feasible and acceptable in a range of international contexts by a range of professionals for a range of different e-health systems. PMID:22098945

2011-01-01

109

Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus. PMID:22583562

2012-01-01

110

Problems of Organising and Reporting Internal and External Evaluation in Developing Countries: The Case of Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to develop capacity to link knowledge to economic growth in developing countries, there is an urgent need to make quality the major element of higher education systems. In Iran, a developing country, such a need was felt a decade ago in the academic community. Based on research projects conducted, a model that combines collegial…

Bazargan, Abbas

2007-01-01

111

Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This…

Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

2010-01-01

112

NAT2, meat consumption and colorectal cancer incidence: an ecological study among 27 countries.  

PubMed

The polymorphic gene NAT2 is a major determinant of N-acetyltransferase activity and, thus, may be responsible for differences in one's ability to bioactivate heterocyclic amines, a class of procarcinogens in cooked meat. An unusually marked geographic variation in enzyme activity has been described for NAT2. The present study re-examines the international direct correlation reported for meat intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, and evaluates the potential modifying effects of NAT2 phenotype and other lifestyle factors on this correlation. Country-specific CRC incidence data, per capita consumption data for meat and other dietary factors, prevalence of the rapid/intermediate NAT2 phenotype, and prevalence of smoking for 27 countries were used. Multiple linear regression models were fit and partial correlation coefficients (PCCs) were computed for men and women separately. Inclusion of the rapid/intermediate NAT2 phenotype with meat consumption improved the fit of the regression model for CRC incidence in both sexes (males-R (2) = 0.78, compared to 0.70 for meat alone; p for difference in model fit-0.009; females-R (2) = 0.76 compared to 0.69 for meat alone; p = 0.02). Vegetable consumption (inversely and in both sexes) and fish consumption (directly and in men only) were also weakly correlated with CRC, whereas smoking prevalence and alcohol consumption had no effects on the models. The PCC between NAT2 and CRC incidence was 0.46 in males and 0.48 in females when meat consumption was included in the model, compared to 0.14 and 0.15, respectively, when it was not. These data suggest that, in combination with meat intake, some proportion of the international variability in CRC incidence may be attributable to genetic susceptibility to heterocyclic amines, as determined by NAT2 genotype. PMID:17006723

Ognjanovic, Simona; Yamamoto, Jennifer; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Le Marchand, Loïc

2006-11-01

113

Pre-School Children and Television: Two Studies Carried Out in Three Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure presents the summaries of two major studies carried out in three European countries concerning the role of television in the life of preschool children. The first study involved participant observation and interviews of 90 families from England and 50 families from Ireland over a 6-month period. The children studied were between the…

Homberg, Erentraud, Ed.

114

Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports teaching practices in mathematics in seven countries from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 video study. A detailed description of the methods in the mathematics portion of the study is presented in an accompanying technical report from an international perspective. Contexts of the lessons, the…

Hiebert, James; Gallimore, Ronald; Garnier, Helen; Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Jacobs, Jennifer; Chui, Angel Miu-Ying; Wearne, Diana; Smith, Margaret; Kersting, Nicole; Manaster, Alfred; Tseng, Ellen; Etterbeek, Wallace; Manaster, Carl; Gonzales, Patrick; Stigler, James

115

The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry: study of errors in dosimetry.  

PubMed

To provide direct estimates of cancer risk after low-dose protracted exposure to ionizing radiation, a large-scale epidemiological study of nuclear industry workers was conducted in 15 countries. As part of this study, identification and quantification of errors in historical recorded doses was conducted based on a review of dosimetric practices and technologies in participating facilities. The main sources of errors on doses from "high-energy" photons (100-3000 keV) were identified as the response of dosimeters in workplace exposure conditions and historical calibration practices. Errors related to dosimetry technology and radiation fields were quantified to derive period- and facility-specific estimates of bias and uncertainties in recorded doses. This was based on (1) an evaluation of predominant workplace radiation from measurement studies and dosimetry expert assessment and (2) an estimation of the energy and geometry response of dosimeters used historically in study facilities. Coefficients were derived to convert recorded doses to H(p) (10) and organ dose, taking into account different aspects of the calibration procedures. A parametric, lognormal error structure model was developed to describe errors in doses as a function of facility and time period. Doses from other radiation types, particularly neutrons and radionuclide intake, could not be adequately reconstructed in the framework of the 15-Country Study. Workers with substantial doses from these radiation types were therefore identified and excluded from analyses. Doses from "lower-energy" photons (<100 keV) and from "higher-energy" photons (>3 MeV) were estimated to be small. PMID:17388692

Thierry-Chef, I; Marshall, M; Fix, J J; Bermann, F; Gilbert, E S; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Murray, W; Pearce, M S; Utterback, D; Bernar, K; Deboodt, P; Eklof, M; Griciene, B; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Lee, M-C; Moser, M; Pernicka, F; Cardis, E

2007-04-01

116

Evaluation of the Seismic Hazard in Venezuela with a revised seismic catalog that seeks for harmonization along the country borders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment is a complex endeavor that relies on the quality of the information that comes from different sources: the seismic catalog, active faults parameters, strain rates, etc. Having this in mind, during the last several months, the FUNVISIS seismic hazard group has been working on a review and update of the local data base that form the basis for a reliable PSHA calculation. In particular, the seismic catalog, which provides the necessary information that allows the evaluation of the critical b-value, which controls how seismic occurrence distributes with magnitude, has received particular attention. The seismic catalog is the result of the effort of several generations of researchers along the years; therefore, the catalog necessarily suffers from the lack of consistency, homogeneity and completeness for all ranges of magnitude over any seismic study area. Merging the FUNVISIS instrumental catalog with the ones obtained from international agencies, we present the work that we have been doing to produce a consistent seismic catalog that covers Venezuela entirely, with seismic events starting from 1910 until 2012, and report the magnitude of completeness for the different periods. Also, we present preliminary results on the Seismic Hazard evaluation that takes into account such instrumental catalog, the historical catalog, updated known fault geometries and its correspondent parameters, and the new seismic sources that have been defined accordingly. Within the spirit of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), all these efforts look for possible bridges with neighboring countries to establish consistent hazard maps across the borders.

Rendon, H.; Alvarado, L.; Paolini, M.; Olbrich, F.; González, J.; Ascanio, W.

2013-05-01

117

The Transport Requirements of P.C.A.P. Field Staff in the South-West and Central Priority Country Areas. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General transport requirements of the Priority Country Area Program (PCAP) field staff in the South-West and Central Priority Country Areas in Queensland, Australia, (exceeding 320,000 and 150,000 square kilometers respectively) for 1978-79 were evaluated, with emphasis on: duties of PCAP staff and their consequent transport needs; existing…

Fowler, Clifford F.

118

Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on international trends in suicide and to identify sex/age groups and countries most affected. Design Time trend analysis comparing the actual number of suicides in 2009 with the number that would be expected based on trends before the crisis (2000-07). Setting Suicide data from 54 countries; for 53 data were available in the World Health Organization mortality database and for one (the United States) data came the CDC online database. Population People aged 15 or above. Main outcome measures Suicide rate and number of excess suicides in 2009. Results There were an estimated 4884 (95% confidence interval 3907 to 5860) excess suicides in 2009 compared with the number expected based on previous trends (2000-07). The increases in suicide mainly occurred in men in the 27 European and 18 American countries; the suicide rates were 4.2% (3.4% to 5.1%) and 6.4% (5.4% to 7.5%) higher, respectively, in 2009 than expected if earlier trends had continued. For women, there was no change in European countries and the increase in the Americas was smaller than in men (2.3%). Rises in European men were highest in those aged 15-24 (11.7%), while in American countries men aged 45-64 showed the largest increase (5.2%). Rises in national suicide rates in men seemed to be associated with the magnitude of increases in unemployment, particularly in countries with low levels of unemployment before the crisis (Spearman’s rs=0.48). Conclusions After the 2008 economic crisis, rates of suicide increased in the European and American countries studied, particularly in men and in countries with higher levels of job loss. PMID:24046155

2013-01-01

119

An evaluation of tobacco control and health insurance policies in low- and middle-income countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the many challenges facing health systems in low- and middle-income countries are access to health services, notably for the poor, and the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases. In many low- and middle-income countries, significant economic changes have resulted in substantial increases in household out-of-pocket spending on health and in tobacco use – a major risk factor of non-communicable diseases.

Godefroy Emmanuel Guindon

2010-01-01

120

Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.  

PubMed

This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. PMID:21763362

Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

2010-12-20

121

The use of direct clinician observation and vignettes for health services quality evaluation in developing countries.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a comparison between two different methods of examining quality in outpatient services in a developing country. Data from rural and urban Tanzania are used to compare the measures of quality collected by direct clinician observation (DCO) (where clinicians are observed in the course of their normal consultations) and vignettes (unblind case studies with an actor). The vignettes are shown to exhibit a strong connection between the inputs provided during consultation (rational history taking, physical examination and health education) and the ability of the clinician to properly diagnose the presented illness. However, the inputs provided in vignettes are not well correlated with the inputs provided in DCO, suggesting that the inputs provided in the vignette are not well correlated with the inputs that would be provided in an actual consultation. We conclude that since vignettes do not appear to be measuring what would be provided in an actual consultation they are not a good measure of quality. Instead, we suggest that vignettes and DCO be used simultaneously. We show how the scores obtained using vignettes in conjunction with DCO can be used to improve the reliability of DCO and therefore our estimates of actual clinician quality. PMID:15936863

Leonard, Kenneth L; Masatu, Melkiory C

2005-11-01

122

Diffusion of solar technology in developing countries : Focus group study in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the growing trend of power outages in Ghana and the possible diffusion of a solar solution from the solar technologies; it also seeks to ascertain whether people in Ghana as well as developing countries would resort to renewable energy because of its “greenness”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A focus group study was

Emmanuel Ndzibah

2010-01-01

123

Higher Education and Social Change. Promising Experiments in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the results of a study made by developing country educators for twelve national and international agencies, directed and coordinated by the International Council for Educational Development. Volume 2 contains the reports of 25 case studies of higher education institutions and systems in Africa, Asia, and Latin America: University of…

Thompson, Kenneth W., Ed.; And Others

124

Access to electronic health knowledge in five countries in Africa: a descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Access to medical literature in developing countries is helped by open access publishing and initiatives to allow free access to subscription only journals. The effectiveness of these initiatives in Africa has not been assessed. This study describes awareness, reported use and factors influencing use of on-line medical literature via free access initiatives. METHODS: Descriptive study in four teaching hospitals

Helen Smith; Hasifa Bukirwa; Oscar Mukasa; Paul Snell; Sylvester Adeh-Nsoh; Selemani Mbuyita; Masanja Honorati; Bright Orji; Paul Garner

2007-01-01

125

Caribbean Region: Access, Quality, and Efficiency in Education. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores education and training systems of the Caribbean nations that are members both of The World Bank and the Caribbean Group for Cooperation in Economic Development (CGCED). The study does not attempt to provide a detailed blueprint for each country or set of institutions or present new research findings. Overall, the emphasis is to…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

126

PHS 810-644: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease: Country Studies  

E-print Network

1 PHS 810-644: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease: Country Studies Course and those participating in the Certificate in Global Health. Upper-level undergraduate students may also plan to participate in a PHS 645 Global Health Field Study or other credit-based field experiences

Sheridan, Jennifer

127

Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. Recent Developments in Continuing Professional Education. Country Study: Yugoslavia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in continuing professional education, contains two papers on recent developments in Yugoslavia. The first presents the findings of a study of continuing professional education at Belgrade University in Serbia and at Titograd University in Montenegro.…

Savicevic, Dusan; Jovanovic, Goran

128

Writing Curricula in Sixteen Countries: International Study in Written Composition (IEA). Research Report 42.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study (part of the IEA Written Composition Study) which used a questionnaire to collect curricular information from 16 countries about mother tongue teaching in general and teaching writing in particular. The report describes some basic dimensions of mother tongue curricula and writing composition curricula as well as how…

Saari, Hannu

129

Dell Hymes and the New Language Policy Studies: Update from an Underdeveloped Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay updates Dell Hymes's "Report from an Underdeveloped Country" (the USA), positioning our analysis in the New Language Policy Studies. Taking up Hymes's call for comparative, critical studies of language use, we examine three cases, organizing our analysis around Hymes's questions: What "counts" as a language, a language problem, and…

McCarty, Teresa L.; Collins, James; Hopson, Rodney K.

2011-01-01

130

The practice of obtaining approval from medical research ethics committees: a comparison within 12 European countries for a descriptive study on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across Europe the protection of research subjects with dementia has to meet a variety of national legislation and ethical codes. This research project compared how in different EU countries one single descriptive multinational study on dementia treatment strategies was evaluated by medical ethical committees and how the issues of informed consent and capacity to consent were dealt with. The study

M. G. M. Olde Rikkert; S. Lauque; L. Frolich; B. Vellas; W. J. M. Dekkers

2005-01-01

131

Tuberculosis care: an evaluability study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the tuberculosis control program (TCP) is evaluable and to examine the feasibility of building an evaluation model in apriority municipality for the control of tuberculosis. METHOD: this evaluability study was conducted in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. For data collection, documental analysis and interviews with key informants were performed. For indicator validation, the nominal group technique was adopted. RESULTS: the details of TCP were described, and both the logical model and the classification framework for indicators were developed and agreed up on, with the goal of characterizing the structural elements of the program, defining the structure and process indicators, and formulating the evaluation questions. CONCLUSION: TCP is evaluable. Based on logical operational analysis, it was possible to evaluate the adequacy of the program goals for the control of tuberculosis. Therefore, the performance of a summative evaluation is recommended, with a focus on the analysis of the effects of tuberculosis control interventions on decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:25493675

Coelho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Cláudia Santos; Brito, Ewerton Willian Gomes; Negrão, Oswaldo Gomes Corrêa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa

2014-01-01

132

Theory-driven process evaluation of a complementary feeding trial in four countries.  

PubMed

We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square tests to examine differences between treatment groups. We administered exit interviews to 219 caregivers and 45 intervention staff to explore why caregivers may or may not have performed suggested infant feeding behaviors. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between caregiver scores and infant linear growth velocity. As message recall increased, irrespective of treatment group, linear growth velocity increased when controlling for other factors (P < 0.05), emphasizing the importance of study messages. Our detailed process evaluation revealed few differences between treatment groups, giving us confidence that the main trial's lack of effect to reverse the progression of stunting cannot be explained by differences between groups or inconsistencies in protocol implementation. These findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting limited impact on stunting of interventions initiated during the period of complementary feeding in impoverished environments. The early onset and steady progression support the provision of earlier and comprehensive interventions. PMID:24399265

Newman, Jamie E; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Michael Hambidge, K; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A; Bose, Carl L; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F

2014-04-01

133

Evaluation of invalid vaccine doses in 31 countries of the WHO African Region.  

PubMed

We examined (a) the fraction of and extent to which vaccinations were administered earlier than recommended (age-invalid) or with too short intervals between vaccine doses (interval-invalid) in countries of the World Health Organisation (WHO) African Region and (b) individual- and community-level factors associated with invalid vaccinations using multilevel techniques. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in the last 10 years in 31 countries were used. Information about childhood vaccinations was based on vaccination records (n=134,442). Invalid vaccinations (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis [DTP1, DTP3] and measles-containing vaccine (MCV)) were defined using the WHO criteria. The median percentages of invalid DTP1, DTP3 and MCV vaccinations across all countries were 12.1% (interquartile range, 9.4-15.2%), 5.7% (5.0-7.6%), and 15.5% (10.0-18.1%), respectively. Of the invalid DTP1 vaccinations, 7.4% and 5.5% were administered at child's age of less than one and two weeks, respectively. In 12 countries, the proportion of invalid DTP3 vaccinations administered with an interval of less than two weeks before the preceding dose varied between 30% and 50%. In 13 countries, the proportion of MCV doses administered at child's age of less than six months varied between 20% and 45%. Community-level variables explained part of the variation in invalid vaccinations. Invalid vaccinations are common in African countries. Timing of childhood vaccinations should be improved to ensure an optimal protection against vaccine-preventable infections and to avoid unnecessary wastage in these economically deprived countries. PMID:25523526

Akmatov, Manas K; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Pessler, Frank; Guzman, Carlos A; Krause, Gérard; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

2015-02-11

134

Cost for tuberculosis care in developed countries: which data for an economic evaluation?  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) seems to be eradicated in developed countries. However, current migration flows and increasing use of immunosuppressive and biologic drugs for rheumatic diseases are increasing the risk of latent TB and TB onset for citizens of developed countries. Because little is known about the economic burden of TB in developed countries, we set out to describe the order and dimension of the costs of TB care in developed countries. A review of the literature indicated that the cost for anti-TB therapy is about $2000 US per patient. Costs of drugs associated with standard therapy for active TB [2HRZE/4HR, i.e., 2 months of isoniazid (H), rifampin (R), pyrazinamide (Z), and ethambutol (E), followed by 4 months of HR] are about $600. Standard therapy for latent TB care costs about $80 for 9H and $256 for 4R, respectively. However, these data are very limited because of the horizon of analysis and because data are strongly localized. It can be concluded that in developed countries, available data on TB care costs are insufficient for detailed analysis of the economic burden of TB. PMID:24789005

Trieste, Leopoldo; Turchetti, Giuseppe

2014-05-01

135

Managing information systems for health services in a developing country: a case study using a contextualist framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investments in information technology (IT) have been escalating in the health sector in both developed and developing countries. However, the failure rate of applications is of concern especially for countries with scarce resources. There is insufficient understanding of factors that lead to such failures in developing countries. A case study of implementing a computerised information system (IS) for health services

Rohan Jayasuriya

1999-01-01

136

Implementing facility-based kangaroo mother care services: lessons from a multi-country study in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Some countries have undertaken programs that included scaling up kangaroo mother care. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the implementation status of facility-based kangaroo mother care services in four African countries: Malawi, Mali, Rwanda and Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional, mixed-method research design was used. Stakeholders provided background information at national meetings and in individual interviews. Facilities were assessed by means of a standardized tool previously applied in other settings, employing semi-structured key-informant interviews and observations in 39 health care facilities in the four countries. Each facility received a score out of a total of 30 according to six stages of implementation progress. Results Across the four countries 95 per cent of health facilities assessed demonstrated some evidence of kangaroo mother care practice. Institutions that fared better had a longer history of kangaroo mother care implementation or had been developed as centres of excellence or had strong leaders championing the implementation process. Variation existed in the quality of implementation between facilities and across countries. Important factors identified in implementation are: training and orientation; supportive supervision; integrating kangaroo mother care into quality improvement; continuity of care; high-level buy in and support for kangaroo mother care implementation; and client-oriented care. Conclusion The integration of kangaroo mother care into routine newborn care services should be part of all maternal and newborn care initiatives and packages. Engaging ministries of health and other implementing partners from the outset may promote buy in and assist with the mobilization of resources for scaling up kangaroo mother care services. Mechanisms for monitoring these services should be integrated into existing health management information systems. PMID:25001366

2014-01-01

137

Seasonal Variation of Overall and Cardiovascular Mortality: A Study in 19 Countries from Different Geographic Locations  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality has been shown to follow a seasonal pattern. Several studies suggested several possible determinants of this pattern, including misclassification of causes of deaths. We aimed at assessing seasonality in overall, CVD, cancer and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality using data from 19 countries from different latitudes. Methods and Findings Monthly mortality data were compiled from 19 countries, amounting to over 54 million deaths. We calculated ratios of the observed to the expected numbers of deaths in the absence of a seasonal pattern. Seasonal variation (peak to nadir difference) for overall and cause-specific (CVD, cancer or non-CVD/non-cancer) mortality was analyzed using the cosinor function model. Mortality from overall, CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer showed a consistent seasonal pattern. In both hemispheres, the number of deaths was higher than expected in winter. In countries close to the Equator the seasonal pattern was considerably lower for mortality from any cause. For CVD mortality, the peak to nadir differences ranged from 0.185 to 0.466 in the Northern Hemisphere, from 0.087 to 0.108 near the Equator, and from 0.219 to 0.409 in the Southern Hemisphere. For cancer mortality, the seasonal variation was nonexistent in most countries. Conclusions In countries with seasonal variation, mortality from overall, CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer show a seasonal pattern with mortality being higher in winter than in summer. Conversely, cancer mortality shows no substantial seasonality. PMID:25419711

Gubelmann, Cédric; Stringhini, Silvia; Bovet, Pascal; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Paccaud, Fred; Tsai, Dai-Hua; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

2014-01-01

138

Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.  

PubMed

Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Filho, Alberto Pellegrini; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

2014-10-15

139

A severe wind storm affecting the Basque country: the Xhyntia case study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a study of the Xhintia episode focusing on Basque Country area is made. On February 27th 2010 the zonal circulation is undulated creating favorable conditions for the cyclogenesis at the southwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. The cyclone generated deeps quickly with pressure values compatible with explosive cyclogenesis definition, reaching pressure minimums of 967 mb. The system moved northeastward into the Cantabric Sea on the next days. Xhyntia quickly travels over Bay of Biscay, affecting Basque Country area on late 27th early 28th January, surpassing the French coast at 06 UTC of 28th. In the Basque Country, hurricane wind gusts were recorded in various locations across the region. A 226 kilometers per hour gust was recorded in a mountainous area in the interior. These are some of the strongest winds observed since records began in Basque Country Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Mesonetwork owned by the Basque Government. We present some aspects related with this severe weather episode, including synoptical and mesoscale features, satellite data, AWS and buoy data collected in the area. Finally we focus on comparisons with others situations occurred in the past in Basque Country area.

Gaztelumendi, S.; Egaña, J.; Gelpi, I. R.; Otxoa de Alda, K.; Hernandez, R.; Pierna, D.

2010-09-01

140

Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.  

PubMed

Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors. PMID:24885184

Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

2014-01-01

141

Home literacy environments and children's reading performance: a comparative study of 25 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data for 4th graders in primary schools from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), I compare across 25 countries the ways in which home literacy environments influence children's reading performance. Examined are three indicators: early home literacy activities, parental attitudes toward reading, and number of books at home. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression analyses show that

Hyunjoon Park

2008-01-01

142

Rural poverty, migration, and the environment in developing countries : three case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents three case studies (of the links between highlands and lowlands in Latin America; transmigration in Indonesia; and migration and desertification in the Sudan) to illustrate the relationship between poverty, internal migration, and environmental change in rural areas of developing countries. Policies to deal with the problems of environmental degradation in areas that are destinations for migrants would

Richard E. Bilsborrow

1992-01-01

143

Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting

Lynn Van Wezemael; Wim Verbeke; Marcia D de Barcellos; Joachim Scholderer; Federico Perez-Cueto

2010-01-01

144

A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

Hien, P. D.

2010-01-01

145

Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external

E Cardis; M Vrijheid; M Blettner; E Gilbert; M Hakama; C Hill; G Howe; J Kaldor; C R Muirhead; T Yoshimura; F Bermann; G Cowper; C Hacker; M Marshall; I Thierry-Chef; D Utterback; E Amoros; P Ashmore; A Auvinen; J Bernar Solano; A Biau; E Combalot; P Deboodt; A Diez Sacristan; M Eklof; H Engels; G Engholm; G Gulis; K Holan R Habib; A Kerekes; J Kurtinaitis; H Malker; M Martuzzi; A Mastauskas; A Monnet; M Moser; M S Pearce; D B Richardson; F Rodriguez-Artalejo; A Rogel; H Tardy; M Telle-Lamberton; I Turai; M Usel; K Veress

2005-01-01

146

Modeling the Logistics Performance in Developing Countries: An exploratory study of Moroccan context  

E-print Network

1 Modeling the Logistics Performance in Developing Countries: An exploratory study of Moroccan to raise their levels of logistics performance. This article is a research progress; it presents, Technological Practices, Supply Chain performance, Morocco. 1. INTRODUCTION: Logistic in Morocco is still

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

Home Literacy Environments and Children's Reading Performance: A Comparative Study of 25 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data for 4th graders in primary schools from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), I compare across 25 countries the ways in which home literacy environments influence children's reading performance. Examined are three indicators: early home literacy activities, parental attitudes toward reading, and number of books…

Park, Hyunjoon

2008-01-01

148

Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries – Kenyan case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level

Rotich K. Henry; Zhao Yongsheng; Dong Jun

2006-01-01

149

Factors Influencing Teachers' Views of Health and Health Education: A Study in 15 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To analyse teachers' health views in order to obtain general trends in factors influencing health and health education and to fit them into the negative-positive model of health proposed by Downie and collaborators. Method: This large international study involved 15 countries from Western and Eastern Europe, North and Sub-Saharan…

Jourdan, D.; Pironom, J.; Berger, D.; Carvalho, G. S.

2013-01-01

150

Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): Case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Although more than 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries, knowledge of the importance of risk factors is largely derived from developed countries. Therefore, the effect of such factors on risk of coronary heart disease in most regions of the world is unknown. Methods We established a standardised case-control study of

Salim Yusuf; Steven Hawken; S. Ounpuu

2004-01-01

151

Family Structure and Children’s Living Conditions. A Comparative Study of 24 Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses large-scale cross-national data from 24 countries to describe the living conditions of children residing with\\u000a a single mother as compared with children who live with two original parents. Three central areas are studied: children’s\\u000a social support, health, and material resources. The data are derived from the international WHO study Health Behaviour in\\u000a School-aged Children (HBSC) of 2001\\/02.

Sara Brolin Låftman

2010-01-01

152

The Association between Peace and Life Expectancy: An Empirical Study of the World Countries  

PubMed Central

Background: Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. Methods: In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. Results: GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient ?0.039; 95% CI: ?0.058, ?0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (?0.019; 95% CI: ?0.035, ?0.003), GNI (?0.035; 95% CI: ?0.055, ?0.015), and both EI and GNI (?0.017; 95% CI: ?0.033, ?0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. Conclusion: The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries.

YAZDI FEYZABADI, Vahid; HAGHDOOST, Aliakbar; MEHROLHASSANI, Mohammad Hossein; AMINIAN, Zahra

2015-01-01

153

Technology Education in Developing Countries: Curriculum Guidelines for Program Design and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delphi and Q-sort techniques were used by 34 educators to rank technology education curriculum guidelines for developing countries. The highest-ranked issues included the following: technology education should teach creative thinking and problem solving, it should be part of general education for all, and it should integrate other subjects. (SK)

Volk, Kenneth S.

1993-01-01

154

P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

155

Measuring socioeconomic status in multicountry studies: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study  

PubMed Central

Background There is no standardized approach to comparing socioeconomic status (SES) across multiple sites in epidemiological studies. This is particularly problematic when cross-country comparisons are of interest. We sought to develop a simple measure of SES that would perform well across diverse, resource-limited settings. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 800 children aged 24 to 60 months across eight resource-limited settings. Parents were asked to respond to a household SES questionnaire, and the height of each child was measured. A statistical analysis was done in two phases. First, the best approach for selecting and weighting household assets as a proxy for wealth was identified. We compared four approaches to measuring wealth: maternal education, principal components analysis, Multidimensional Poverty Index, and a novel variable selection approach based on the use of random forests. Second, the selected wealth measure was combined with other relevant variables to form a more complete measure of household SES. We used child height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) as the outcome of interest. Results Mean age of study children was 41 months, 52% were boys, and 42% were stunted. Using cross-validation, we found that random forests yielded the lowest prediction error when selecting assets as a measure of household wealth. The final SES index included access to improved water and sanitation, eight selected assets, maternal education, and household income (the WAMI index). A 25% difference in the WAMI index was positively associated with a difference of 0.38 standard deviations in HAZ (95% CI 0.22 to 0.55). Conclusions Statistical learning methods such as random forests provide an alternative to principal components analysis in the development of SES scores. Results from this multicountry study demonstrate the validity of a simplified SES index. With further validation, this simplified index may provide a standard approach for SES adjustment across resource-limited settings. PMID:24656134

2014-01-01

156

Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

NONE

1996-08-01

157

Energy policies and the greenhouse effect volume two: Country studies and technical options  

SciTech Connect

This book is the second volume based on a 4-year study by the Energy and Environmental Programme at the Royal Institute of Interantional Affairs in the United Kingdom. First, the book provides an integrated discussion of the country studies and technical options that contain information for policy analysis. The second part explains how political, rather than technical or economic, constraints have inhibited widespread adoption of abatement policies in USA, UK, Japan, the former Soviet Union, China, and India.

Grubb, M.

1993-01-01

158

Content Analysis of Primary and Secondary School Textbooks Regarding Malaria Control: A Multi-Country Study  

PubMed Central

Background In tropical settings, malaria education at school is potentially useful, but textbook content related to malaria education has so far received little attention. This study aimed to examine whether school textbooks contain sufficient knowledge and skills to help children in primary and lower secondary schools and their family members to cope with malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a descriptive, cross-country study. We collected textbooks that were used by children in grades one to nine from nine countries endemic for malaria: Laos, Cambodia, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Zambia, Niger, Benin, and Ghana. Two reviewers per country identified descriptions about malaria by seeking the term “malaria” or a local word that corresponds to malaria in languages other than English. The authors categorized the identified descriptions according to the content of the descriptions. Additionally, the authors examined whether the identified contents addressed life skill messages. Of a total of 474 textbooks collected, 35 contained descriptions about malaria. The most commonly included content was transmission mode/vector (77.1%), followed by preventive measures (60.0%), epidemiology (57.1%), cause/agent (54.3%), signs/symptoms (37.1%) and treatment (22.9%). Treatment-related content was not included in any textbooks from four countries and textbooks failed to recommend the use of insecticide-treated bed nets in five countries. Very few textbooks included content that facilitated prompt treatment, protection of risk groups, and use of recommended therapy. Conclusion/Significance Textbooks rarely included knowledge and skills that are crucial to protect schoolchildren and their families from malaria. This study identified the need for improvement to textbook contents regarding malaria. PMID:22574203

Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Jun; Yasuoka, Junko; Ayi, Irene; Jayatilleke, Achini C.; Shrestha, Sabina; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Haque, Syed E.; Yi, Siyan

2012-01-01

159

Management strategies for agricultural biotechnology in small countries. A case study of Israel.  

PubMed

Agricultural biotechnology is concentrated in four major countries. This paper suggests strategies for developing it in small countries, based on analysis of the world trends and the characteristics of small countries. Israel is presented as a specific case study. The main relevant trends are domination by big companies, consumer concerns on genetically modified foods, and focusing on consumer benefits and specific market niches. Small countries' disadvantages include companies that are too small to benefit fully from research, difficulty in raising funds, lack of infrastructures and experienced management personnel, and public sector research organizations that are unsuitable for commercializing research. The recommended strategies include: developing a large number of low-volume products and small market niches, forming partnerships with intermediaries (such as food companies), specializing in intermediate products (such as the seed or the gene patent), and conducting market research and cost-benefit analysis in advance. Additional strategies include developing benefits that are unique to genetically modified foods and focusing on benefits specifically for consumers who accept genetically modified foods, rather than on benefits for the average consumer. A national representative organization could buy and rent out expensive equipment, finance specific projects in return for the commercial rights, and perform collective marketing research and marketing. Israel has the advantages of a successful agricultural sector and complementary scientific research, and should focus on those fruits, vegetables, and flowers for which it already has the experience and infrastructure. PMID:14538065

Shalhevet, S; Haruvy, N; Spharim, I

2001-11-01

160

Experiences of stigma, discrimination, care and support among people living with HIV: a four country study.  

PubMed

While it is widely agreed that HIV-related stigma may impede access to treatment and support, there is little evidence describing who is most likely to experience different forms of stigma and discrimination and how these affect disclosure and access to care. This study examined experiences of interpersonal discrimination, internalized stigma, and discrimination at health care facilities among HIV-positive adults aged 18 years and older utilizing health facilities in four countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (N = 536). Prevalence of interpersonal discrimination across all countries was 34.6 %, with women significantly more likely to experience interpersonal discrimination than men. Prevalences of internalized stigma varied across countries, ranging from 9.6 % (Malawi) to 45.0 % (Burkina Faso). Prevalence of health care discrimination was 10.4 % across all countries. In multiple regression analyses, we found positive, significant, and independent associations between disclosure and interpersonal discrimination and disclosure and support group utilization, and positive associations between both internalized stigma and health care discrimination and referral for medications. PMID:23479002

Neuman, Melissa; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

2013-06-01

161

2014 BIQSFP-ImagingStudyEvaluationTemplate  

Cancer.gov

BIQSFP ’14 (Biomarker, Imaging, and Quality of Life Studies Funding Program) IMAGING STUDY Evaluation Template BIQSFP ’14 IMAGING STUDY Evaluation Template 4/13,11/13 STUDY EVALUATION TEMPLATE Imaging Reviewer’s Name: Date

162

BIQSFP-12-CEA-Study-Evaluation-Template  

Cancer.gov

BIQSFP ‘12 (Biomarker, Imaging, & Quality of Life Studies Funding Program) COST- EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS (CEA) Study Evaluation Template BIQSFP ‘12 CEA Study Evaluation Template 3/11,3/12 STUDY EVALUATION TEMPLATE Cost-Effectiveness

163

Yield estimation using SPOT-VEGETATION products: A case study of wheat in European countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the period 1999-2009 ten-day SPOT-VEGETATION products of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) at 1 km spatial resolution were used in order to estimate and forecast the wheat yield over Europe. The products were used together with official wheat yield statistics to fine-tune a statistical model for each NUTS2 region, based on the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) method. This method has been chosen to construct the model in the presence of many correlated predictor variables (10-day values of remote sensing indicators) and a limited number of wheat yield observations. The model was run in two different modalities: the "monitoring mode", which allows for an overall yield assessment at the end of the growing season, and the "forecasting mode", which provides early and timely yield estimates when the growing season is on-going. Performances of yield estimation at the regional and national level were evaluated using a cross-validation technique against yield statistics and the estimations were compared with those of a reference crop growth model. Models based on either NDVI or FAPAR normalized indicators achieved similar results with a minimal advantage of the model based on the FAPAR product. Best modelling results were obtained for the countries in Central Europe (Poland, North-Eastern Germany) and also Great Britain. By contrast, poor model performances characterize countries as follows: Sweden, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, Romania and Hungary. Country level yield estimates using the PLSR model in the monitoring mode, and those of a reference crop growth model that do not make use of remote sensing information showed comparable accuracies. The largest estimation errors were observed in Portugal, Spain and Finland for both approaches. This convergence may indicate poor reliability of the official yield statistics in these countries.

Kowalik, Wanda; Dabrowska-Zielinska, Katarzyna; Meroni, Michele; Raczka, Teresa Urszula; de Wit, Allard

2014-10-01

164

The Missing Link: Deficits of Country-Level Studies. A Review of 22 Articles Explaining Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explain country differences in an analytical or structural dependent variable, the application of a macro-micro-model containing contextual hypotheses is necessary. Our methodological study examines whether empirical studies apply such a model. We propose that a theoretical base for country differences is well described in multilevel studies,…

Nonnenmacher, Alexandra; Friedrichs, Jurgen

2013-01-01

165

Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

2013-09-01

166

An econometric study of the demand for gasoline in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries  

SciTech Connect

Reliable and accurate estimation of price and income elasticities of demand for gasoline are important ingredients for long-run energy planning and policy formation. The purpose of this study is to develop and estimate a model for gasoline demand for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Oatar, Saufi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The model is capable of producing short-run and long-run price and income elasticities. Since the first oil price hike in 1973, a great deal of attention has been directed toward the demand for gasoline, especially in the industrialized countries. Few studies have been directed toward the demand for gasoline in developing countries. In terms of primary energy consumption, the GCC`s energy needs are met by oil, natural gas, and electricity. Without any doubt, oil is the largest energy source consumed and gasoline is the most important oil product. However, very few studies have been directed toward analyzing GCC energy demand, and yet there has been not attempt to model and estimate GCC gasoline demand. This study attempts to address this gap.

Eltony, M.N.

1994-12-31

167

What have studies of non-industrialized countries told us about the cause of allergic disease?  

PubMed

The increase in allergic diseases that was observed in countries that had experienced rapid economic growth since the mid-20th century initiated a search for environmental exposures that may explain these phenomena that continues to the present day. Societies that are in the earlier stages of the process of industrialization provide an opportunity to compare the initial stages of economic development and the lifestyle changes that may accompany this, with other communities whose way of life may not have changed appreciably for centuries. These studies have consistently demonstrated higher levels of allergic disease in the relatively affluent populations compared with those who maintain a more traditional lifestyle. Environmental changes that have emerged from these studies that may modify the risk of allergic disease include microbial exposures including parasite infection, pollution, diet and obesity. In addition, food and drug allergies represent a neglected area of research in these countries that may be causing a relatively high burden of disease. PMID:24807225

Fogarty, A W

2015-01-01

168

Association between Obesity and Selected Morbidities: A Study of BRICS Countries  

PubMed Central

Objective Over the past few decades, obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic diseases and disability. There is little evidence on obesity related co-morbidities in BRICS countries. The first objective is to examine the factors associated with overweight and obesity in four of the five BRICS countries (China, India, Russia and South Africa). The second is to examine the linkage of obesity with selected morbidities. Methods We used data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in China, India, Russia and South Africa during 2007–10. The morbidities included in the analysis are Hypertension, Diabetes, Angina, Stroke, Arthritis and Depression. Findings The prevalence of obesity was highest in South Africa (35%) followed by Russia (22%), China (5%) and India (3%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in females as compared to males in all the countries. While the wealth quintile was associated with overweight in India and China, engaging in work requiring physical activity was associated with obesity in China and South Africa. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with Hypertension and Diabetes in all the four countries. Obesity was also positively associated with Arthritis and Angina in China, Russia and South Africa. In comparison, overweight/obesity was not associated with Stroke and Depression in any of the four countries. Conclusion Obesity was statistically associated with Hypertension, Angina, Diabetes and Arthritis in China, Russia and South Africa. In India, obesity was associated only with Hypertension and Diabetes. PMID:24718033

Shukla, Ankita; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Singh, Abhishek

2014-01-01

169

Stagnant Neonatal Mortality and Persistent Health Inequality in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country’s socioeconomic-related child health inequality. Methodology Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. Findings Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education), regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. Conclusion The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality – that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system – to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country inequalities in child health. PMID:23308278

Kraft, Aleli D.; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

2013-01-01

170

Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

NONE

1996-07-01

171

Does Globalization Benefit Developed or Developing Country? – Case Studies on Chinese and Australian Construction Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Globalization has penetrated deeply into all areas of the world. The researches on this topic have been never stopped in recent\\u000a years. The debate on globalization’s benefits and concerns for develop and developing countries is still intense in recent\\u000a years. This paper adopts Chinese and Australian construction industry as case studies to explore the answer for that debate.\\u000a The International

Peng Zhang; Kerry London

172

A CROSS-COUNTRY STUDY OF ELECTRONIC BUSINESS ADOPTION USING THE TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION-ENVIRONMENT FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we developed a conceptual model for electronic business (e-business or EB) adoption incorporating six adoption facilitators and inhibitors, based on the technology-organization-environment framework. Survey data from 3,100 businesses and 7,500 consumers in eight European countries were used to test the model. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis to assess the reliability and validity of constructs. To examine whether

Kevin Zhu; Kenneth L. Kraemer; Sean Xu

173

Attitudes of pharmacy students toward people with mental disorders, a six country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare and contrast the extent to which pharmacy students in Australia, Belgium, Finland, India, Estonia and Latvia hold\\u000a stigmatising attitudes toward people with schizophrenia and severe depression. Method Data were collected as part of the International Pharmacy Students Health Survey, a census survey of third-year pharmacy\\u000a students studying at eight universities in six countries. Respondents (n = 642) indicated how

J. Simon Bell; S. Elina Aaltonen; Elina Bronstein; Franciska A. Desplenter; Veerle Foulon; Anna Vitola; Ruta Muceniece; Manjiri S. Gharat; Daisy Volmer; Marja S. Airaksinen; Timothy F. Chen

2008-01-01

174

Field Evaluation of a Coproantigen Detection Test for Fascioliasis Diagnosis and Surveillance in Human Hyperendemic Areas of Andean Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA) was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. Methodology and Findings A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD) and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg) in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg), nor in Huacullani high burden cases (?400 epg), although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg). Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg). Conclusions The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase, early detection of treatment failure or reinfection in post-treated subjects, and usefulness in surveillance programs. However, this technique falls short when evaluating the fluke burden on its own. PMID:23029575

Valero, María Adela; Periago, María Victoria; Pérez-Crespo, Ignacio; Angles, René; Villegas, Fidel; Aguirre, Carlos; Strauss, Wilma; Espinoza, José R.; Herrera, Patricia; Terashima, Angelica; Tamayo, Hugo; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Mas-Coma, Santiago

2012-01-01

175

Using information technology for an improved pharmaceutical care delivery in developing countries. Study case: Benin.  

PubMed

One of the problems in health care in developing countries is the bad accessibility of medicine in pharmacies for patients. Since this is mainly due to a lack of organization and information, it should be possible to improve the situation by introducing information and communication technology. However, for several reasons, standard solutions are not applicable here. In this paper, we describe a case study in Benin, a West African developing country. We identify the problem and the existing obstacles for applying standard ECommerce solutions. We develop an adapted system approach and describe a practical test which has shown that the approach has the potential of actually improving the pharmaceutical care delivery. Finally, we consider the security aspects of the system and propose an organizational solution for some specific security problems. PMID:21519942

Edoh, Thierry Oscar; Teege, Gunnar

2011-10-01

176

Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study.Design Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure.Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into

Madlen Schütze; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Jürgen Rehm; Tara Kehoe; Gerrit Gmel; Anja Olsen; Anne M Tjønneland; Christina C Dahm; Kim Overvad; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Antonia Trichopoulou; Vasiliki Benetou; Dimosthenis Zylis; Rudolf Kaaks; Sabine Rohrmann; Domenico Palli; Franco Berrino; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Laudina Rodríguez; Antonio Agudo; María-José Sánchez; Miren Dorronsoro; Maria-Dolores Chirlaque; Aurelio Barricarte; Petra H Peeters; Carla H van Gils; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nick Wareham; Naomi E Allen; Timothy J Key; Paolo Boffetta; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Dora Romaguera; Petra A Wark; Elio Riboli; Manuela M Bergmann

2011-01-01

177

Health Checkup and Telemedical Intervention Program for Preventive Medicine in Developing Countries: Verification Study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases is increasing throughout the world, including developing countries. Objective The intent was to conduct a study of a preventive medical service in a developing country, combining eHealth checkups and teleconsultation as well as assess stratification rules and the short-term effects of intervention. Methods We developed an eHealth system that comprises a set of sensor devices in an attaché case, a data transmission system linked to a mobile network, and a data management application. We provided eHealth checkups for the populations of five villages and the employees of five factories/offices in Bangladesh. Individual health condition was automatically categorized into four grades based on international diagnostic standards: green (healthy), yellow (caution), orange (affected), and red (emergent). We provided teleconsultation for orange- and red-grade subjects and we provided teleprescription for these subjects as required. Results The first checkup was provided to 16,741 subjects. After one year, 2361 subjects participated in the second checkup and the systolic blood pressure of these subjects was significantly decreased from an average of 121 mmHg to an average of 116 mmHg (P<.001). Based on these results, we propose a cost-effective method using a machine learning technique (random forest method) using the medical interview, subject profiles, and checkup results as predictor to avoid costly measurements of blood sugar, to ensure sustainability of the program in developing countries. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the benefits of an eHealth checkup and teleconsultation program as an effective health care system in developing countries. PMID:25630348

Kai, Eiko; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Islam, Rafiqul; Ahmed, Ashir; Kuroda, Masahiro; Inoue, Sozo; Hiramatsu, Tatsuo; Kimura, Michio; Shimizu, Shuji; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Baba, Yukino; Kashima, Hisashi; Tsuda, Koji; Sugiyama, Masashi; Blondel, Mathieu; Ueda, Naonori; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Nakashima, Naoki

2015-01-01

178

Social roles and alcohol consumption: a study of 10 industrialised countries.  

PubMed

The empirical evidence as regards the precise associations between alcohol use and social roles, and these associations across genders and cultures is heterogeneous. The literature tends to focus on two central but conflicting theories. The first - classic role theory - assumes that a higher number of social roles is associated with a more structured life and thus fewer opportunities to drink heavily. The second - the multiple burden hypothesis - posits that the increasing complexity of multiple social roles leads to higher stress levels, and thus to increased alcohol use. Survey data on 25-54-year olds in 10 western industrialised countries which participate in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GenACIS) project were used to test whether holding the three main social roles - partnership, parenthood, and paid labour - had a more protective or a more detrimental association with problematic alcohol use than holding fewer roles. Age and education were included as possible confounders, while the outcome variables were risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) and heavy-volume drinking. For both men and women and in almost all countries, the study found that those who had all three roles were least likely to drink heavily or engage in RSOD, thus supporting the assumptions of classic role theory. It also found that the protective effect of multiple roles was more consistent for RSOD. There were a few countries where a two-role model gave a better fit. Results for Germany (RSOD), Switzerland, and the Unites States (heavy-volume drinking) indicate that the role of paid labour appears to be particularly relevant for risky alcohol use among women. Despite some variability in the association between paid labour and heavy drinking or RSOD among women, in almost all countries the greater the number of roles a person held, the lower their risk of this type of alcohol use was. PMID:19232807

Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald A; Gmel, Gerhard

2009-04-01

179

Systematic sports medical prophylactic evaluations in the countries of the former USSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPeriodic health evaluations for athletes are widely discussed in the sports medical literature, and are intended to screen for underlying cardiovascular disease, identify sports injury risk factors and posture disturbances, as well as exercise induced physiological conditions.ObjectiveTo review the systematic the athletes' periodic health evaluations in the territories of the former USSR.ParticipantsSelected sports medicine outpatient centres (SMC) and sports medicine

P Mustafins; A Landyr; I Schybria; J Istomina; T Gurevich

2011-01-01

180

Contextual adaptation of the Personnel Evaluation Standards for assessing faculty evaluation systems in developing countries: the case of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Faculty evaluations can identify needs to be addressed in effective development programs. Generic evaluation models exist, but these require adaptation to a particular context of interest. We report on one approach to such adaptation in the context of medical education in Iran, which is integrated into the delivery and management of healthcare services nationwide. METHODS: Using a triangulation design,

Soleiman Ahmady; Tahereh Changiz; Mats Brommels; F Andrew Gaffney; Johan Thor; Italo Masiello

2009-01-01

181

An Ecological Study of the Determinants of Differences in 2009 Pandemic Influenza Mortality Rates between Countries in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPandemic A (H1N1) 2009 mortality rates varied widely from one country to another. Our aim was to identify potential socioeconomic determinants of pandemic mortality and explain between-country variation.MethodologyBased on data from a total of 30 European countries, we applied random-effects Poisson regression models to study the relationship between pandemic mortality rates (May 2009 to May 2010) and a set of

Georgios Nikolopoulos; Pantelis Bagos; Theodoros Lytras; Stefanos Bonovas; Benjamin J. Cowling

2011-01-01

182

Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991.  

PubMed

The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of 'drug addict' was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 10(5) inhabitants was observed in Denmark followed, in descending order by Norway, Sweden, Finland and finally Iceland with only four deaths. The main difference between the countries was found in the number of fatal poisonings. The distribution according to geographical regions showed that about half of all drug addict deaths occurred in the metropolitan areas. Of the capitals, the greatest number of fatal poisonings per 10(5) inhabitants was seen in Oslo, followed by Copenhagen with a similar number, Stockholm with only the half, and Helsinki with a quarter. Heroin/morphine dominated as cause of death in fatal poisonings in Norway and Sweden. In Denmark, heroin/morphine caused about half of the fatal poisonings only, and nearly one third of the fatal poisonings was caused by methadone. Except for two cases in Sweden, methadone deaths were not seen in the other Nordic countries. Amphetamine caused one tenth of the fatal poisonings in Sweden. In Finland only one tenth of the deaths were caused by heroin/morphine and more by codeine, ethylmorphine and different drugs and poisons not classified in Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961 or the International Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971. A widespread use of alcohol, cannabis and benzodiazepines, diazepam especially, was seen in all the countries. PMID:8675131

Steentoft, A; Teige, B; Holmgren, P; Vuori, E; Kristinsson, J; Kaa, E; Wethe, G; Ceder, G; Pikkarainen, J; Simonsen, K W

1996-01-12

183

Pharmacists Remuneration Models in Iran and Selected Countries: a Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Pharmacists are members of the healthcare teams that provide valuable services to society. Their incentive to deliver such services is influenced by remuneration methods. In this study, we aimed to review the remuneration models for pharmacists’ services and the factors affecting the profitability of pharmacies in some selected countries, including France, Ireland, Canada and Turkey, and compared them to Iran. International data were collected by literature review on Google, Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus. In addition, domestic data were collected by contacting relevant organizations. There is no payment for pharmacists’ cognitive services in Iran and in the countries investigated, except for some Canadian provinces. The dispensing fee system in Iran does not seem to be adequate, especially considering that most of the insurers do not cover these fees. The pricing method in Iran has resulted in a low price level, in comparison to the other countries, and this issue has dramatically affected the profitability of pharmacies in standard practice. It could be concluded that changing the current formulation for the dispensing fee to a more appropriate one, defining a remuneration system for non-owner pharmacists other than salary and implementing the new pricing method are necessary in order to improve the services provided by pharmacies. PMID:24523777

Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Keshavarz, Khosro; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Vazirian, Iman; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

2013-01-01

184

Understanding and measuring student engagement in school: the results of an international study from 12 countries.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to develop a scale that is appropriate for use internationally to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data of 3,420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th grade) from 12 countries (Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States). The intraclass correlation of the full-scale scores of student engagement between countries revealed that it was appropriate to aggregate the data from the 12 countries for further analyses. Coefficient alphas revealed good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability coefficients were also acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the data fit well to a second-order model with affective, behavioral, and cognitive engagement as the first-order factors and student engagement as the second-order factor. The results support the use of this scale to measure student engagement as a metaconstruct. Furthermore, the significant correlations of the scale with instructional practices, teacher support, peer support, parent support, emotions, academic performance, and school conduct indicated good concurrent validity of the scale. Considerations and implications regarding the international use of this student engagement in school measure are discussed. PMID:24933218

Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Wong, Bernard P H; Kikas, Eve; Shin, Hyeonsook; Veiga, Feliciano H; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Cefai, Carmel; Negovan, Valeria; Stanculescu, Elena; Yang, Hongfei; Liu, Yi; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Nelson, Brett; Zollneritsch, Josef

2014-06-01

185

Projecting the health and economic impact of road safety initiatives: a case study of a multi-country project  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe Road Safety in 10 Countries (RS-10) project will implement 12 different road safety interventions at specific sites within 10 low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This evaluation reports the number of lives RS-10 is projected to save in those locations, the economic value of the risk reduction, and the maximum level of investment a public health intervention of this magnitude

Alexo Esperato; David Bishai; Adnan A. Hyder

2012-01-01

186

Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the reduction in mortality after standard titre measles immunisation in developing countries can be explained simply by the prevention of acute measles and its long term consequences. DESIGN--An analysis of all studies comparing mortality of unimmunised children and children immunised with standard titre measles vaccine in developing countries. STUDIES--10 cohort and two case-control studies from Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Senegal, and Zaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Protective efficacy of standard titre measles immunisation against all cause mortality. Extent to which difference in mortality between immunised and unimmunised children could be explained by prevention of measles disease. RESULTS--Protective efficacy against death after measles immunisation ranged from 30% to 86%. Efficacy was highest in the studies with short follow up and when children were immunised in infancy (range 44-100%). Vaccine efficacy against death was much greater than the proportion of deaths attributed to acute measles disease. In four studies from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Burundi vaccine efficacy against death remained almost unchanged when cases of measles were excluded from the analysis. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and polio vaccinations were not associated with reduction in mortality. CONCLUSION--These observations suggest that standard titre measles vaccine may confer a beneficial effect which is unrelated to the specific protection against measles disease. PMID:7647643

Aaby, P.; Samb, B.; Simondon, F.; Seck, A. M.; Knudsen, K.; Whittle, H.

1995-01-01

187

Selecting a Learning Management System (LMS) in Developing Countries: Instructors' Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning management systems (LMSs) contain hidden costs, unclear user environments, bulky developer and administration manuals, and limitations with regard to interoperability, integration, localization, and bandwidth requirements. Careful evaluation is required in selecting the most appropriate LMS for use, and this is a general problem in…

Cavus, Nadire

2013-01-01

188

Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

2011-01-01

189

Measuring the Social Rate of Return to R&D in the Energy Industry: A Study of the OECD Countries  

E-print Network

1 Measuring the Social Rate of Return to R&D in the Energy Industry: A Study of the OECD Countries and development in the energy industry using a similar approach to Jones and Williams (1998). Our model tries and significant rate of return that varies for each country. Keywords: social rate of return to R&D, energy, R

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

190

Occupational class and cause specific mortality in middle aged men in 11 European countries: comparison of population based studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare countries in western Europe with respect to class differences in mortality from specific causes of death and to assess the contributions these causes make to class differences in total mortality. Design: Comparison of cause of death in manual and non›manual classes, using data on mortality from national studies. Setting: Eleven western European countries in the period 1980›9.

Anton E Kunst; Johan P

191

Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

2014-08-01

192

Evaluating and Communicating Seismo-Volcanic Hazards Within and Between Countries in East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2005 seismo-volcanic crisis in a remote area of Ethiopia graphically illustrated the problems faced by research scientists in East Africa, as well as the need for regional hazard mitigation programs. Over a 3-week period in 2005, 163 mb > 3.9 earthquakes and a silicic eruption occurred as a 60 km-long dike was intruded along a previously identified rift segment ; the spatial scale is larger, and the deformation more intense, than historical seafloor spreading episodes in Iceland. A similar, but smaller dike intrusion episode with volcanic eruption began in July, 2007 in northern Tanzania. In both situations, geoscientists had communicated the potential seismic and volcanic hazards to politicians and planners, but they had little success obtaining funds for permanent seismic and geodetic monitoring networks. Ethiopian scientists seized the opportunity to both communicate science to the general public, and to increase pressure to develop national and regional hazard mitigation programs. The scientific aspects are equally daunting: how to coordinate international teams, each of whom has a national funding agency expecting output; how to incorporate geophysical training opportunities into field data acquisition programs; how to share seismic and geodetic data across sometimes tense political boundaries; how to allow E African scientists to be equal partners in the data analysis and interpretation? We use the response to these two volcano-seismic rifting events to illustrate ways to use short-term blue skies research projects to improve national and regional geophysical infrastructure in developing countries, and we discuss ongoing programs to communicate science to pastoralists and planners.

Ebinger, C. J.; Yirgu, G.; Mbede, E. I.; Calais, E.; Wright, T.

2007-12-01

193

Evaluation of the FTA carrier device for human papillomavirus testing in developing countries.  

PubMed

Liquid-based methods for the collection, transportation, and storage of cervical cells are cumbersome and expensive and involve laborious DNA extraction. An FTA cartridge is a solid carrier device, easier to handle and allowing simple DNA elution for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. HPV-DNA results from cervical specimens collected in PreservCyt medium (Hologic, Inc.) and the indicating FTA elute cartridge were compared in an area where transportation and storage may affect the performance of the test. Cervical cells from 319 young adult women enrolled in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial were collected by a nurse using a Cervex brush (Roberts), which was placed on the FTA cartridge and subsequently rinsed in 20 ml of PreservCyt medium. Two 0.5-ml PreservCyt aliquots were frozen for HPV-PCR testing; the FTA cartridges were kept at room temperature. HPV-DNA detection and typing was performed using SPF(10) PCR/DEIA (DNA enzyme immunoassay detection of amplimers)/LiPA(25) system. The percent agreement, agreement among positives, and kappas were estimated. Positivity was higher for FTA compared to PreservCyt specimens (54.5% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). For oncogenic types, the overall agreement was 0.92, the agreement between positives was 0.74, and the kappa was 0.79. For individual HPV types, the overall agreement ranged from 0.97 to 1.00. We did not observe reduced cytology adequacy when specimen collection for cytology was preceded by FTA collection for HPV testing. HPV-DNA detection from FTA cartridges is broadly comparable to detection from PC medium. The higher HPV detection observed for FTA-collected specimens should be explored further. FTA cartridges could provide a simpler and more cost-effective method for cervical cell collection, storage, and transportation for HPV-DNA detection in research settings in developing countries. PMID:22993174

Gonzalez, Paula; Cortes, Bernal; Quint, Wim; Kreimer, Aimée R; Porras, Carolina; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Jimenez, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Struijk, Linda; Hildesheim, Allan; Melchers, Willem

2012-12-01

194

Sustainable Agricultural and Watershed Management in Developing Countries - An India Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of sustainable agricultural and watershed management is to enhance agricultural productivity while protecting and preserving our environment and natural resources. The vast majority of information on sustainable watershed management practices is primarily derived from studies in developed nations with very few inputs from developing nations. Through a USDA-funded project, the University of Delaware (UD) initiated a collaboration with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) located in Hyderabad, India to study sustainable agricultural management practices in developing countries and their impacts on the environment, crop productivity, and socioeconomic conditions of the watershed community. As a part of this project, ICRISAT provided us with a vast amount of data on sustainable agricultural practices and their impacts on runoff, soil and water quality, crop yields, nutrient management and socioeconomic conditions. Conservation practices that were implemented included check dams, groundwater recharge wells, intercropping, nutrient management, integrated pest management and a suite of other practices. Using this information, students and faculty at UD developed teaching modules that were used for education and enrichment of existing UD courses and are also being used for the development of a stand-alone online course. The students and faculty visited India in July 2010 to get a first-hand experience of the conditions in the agricultural watersheds and the impacts of sustainable management practices. The project was a tremendous learning experience for US students and faculty and highlighted the challenges people face in developing countries and how that affects every aspect of their lives. Such challenges include environmental, agricultural, technological, economic, and transportation. Although we experience many of the same challenges, developing countries do not have the technology or economic infrastructure in place to effectively manage these challenges. This presentation highlights: (a) the agricultural and environmental challenges facing developing countries like India; (b) the types of best management practices (BMPs) employed; (c) the impacts of the BMPs in the study watersheds; (d) the development of the online course and (e) the lessons and experiences of the students and faculty from their study visit to India.

Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.

2011-12-01

195

Issues of Sustainable Redevelopment of City Core: A Study of Developed and Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inner city core has undergone maximum misuse and transformation in the absence of building bye laws and regulation, resulting in decay and dilapidated buildings. These city core areas have been places of life, vitality, wealth, power, enlightenment and culture. However these inner city areas have become marginalized in the process of urban growth and has problems related to decay, dwindling economic conditions and dilapidation leading to migration of the population to better and modern areas. This study intends to investigate the impacts of redevelopment within the core area of developed and developing countries, involving environmental, technical, socioeconomic and legal issues that may influence the attainment of sustainable targets for city core redevelopment.

Munoth, N.; Jain, R. K.; Raheja, G.; Brar, T. S.

2013-05-01

196

Rapid assessment of the performance of malaria control strategies implemented by countries in the Amazon subregion using adequacy criteria: case study  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to implement a rapid assessment of the performance of four malaria control strategies (indoor spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, timely diagnosis, and artemisinin-based combination therapy) using adequacy criteria. The assessment was carried out in five countries of the Amazon subregion (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, and Peru). Methods A list of criteria in three areas was created for each of the four strategies: preliminary research that supports the design and adaptation of the control strategies, coverage of the control strategies and quality of the implementation of the strategies. The criteria were selected by the research team and based on the technical guidelines established by the World Health Organization. Each criterion included in the four lists was graded relative to whether evidence exists that the criterion is satisfied (value 1), not satisfied (value 0) or partially satisfied (value 0.5). The values obtained were added and reported according to a scale of three implementation categories: adequate, intermediate and deficient. Results Implementation of residual indoor spraying and timely diagnosis was adequate in one country and intermediate or deficient in the rest. Insecticide-treated bed nets ranged between deficient and intermediate in all the countries, while implementation of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was adequate in three countries and intermediate in the other two countries evaluated. Conclusions Although ACT is the strategy with the better implementation in all countries, major gaps exist in implementation of the other three malaria control strategies in terms of technical criteria, coverage and quality desiredThe countries must implement action plans to close the gaps in the various criteria and thereby improve the performance of the interventions. The assessment tools developed, based on adequacy criteria, are considered useful for a rapid assessment by malaria control authorities in the different countries. PMID:22185638

2011-01-01

197

Crowded outpatient departments in city hospitals of developing countries: a case study from Lesotho.  

PubMed

'Overuse' of hospital outpatient departments in urban areas of developing countries is perceived as a problem by many health planners. The World Health Organization is promoting advanced health centres, or 'reference centres', as part of a strategy to develop urban health systems and to reduce primary contact care at hospitals. However, hospital-based information to assist city health service planning is limited in many countries. This study examined user characteristics, patient flow and prescribing quality at the national referral hospital in Maseru, Lesotho, using simple and replicable methods. The study found that most users were self-referred and came from the city. The majority of respondents were aware of their local health centre but reported they would normally use the hospital when they were ill. Examination of patient flow showed that, on average, patients spent a total of 3.7 h waiting. Quality of care was compromised by a tendency to over-prescribe, particularly antibiotics and sedatives. The study suggests that in Maseru, the perception of 'overuse' is due to congestion and that improved patient flow management will reduce the numbers of patients waiting. Quality of care could be strengthened by regular audit of prescribing practices by clinicians in the hospital. PMID:10134933

Holdsworth, G; Garner, P A; Harphan, T

1993-01-01

198

How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the Medical Course in Portugal and African Portuguese Speaking Countries  

PubMed Central

Background A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. Methods The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. Results The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p < 0.001) and Professional Behavior (p = 0.043). Conclusions The reliability of the instrument in Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some weaknesses. PMID:21612609

2011-01-01

199

Alcohol consumption and social inequality at the individual and country levels—results from an international study  

PubMed Central

Background: International comparisons of social inequalities in alcohol use have not been extensively investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol consumption in 33 countries. Methods: Data on 101?525 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 33 countries of the GENACIS study were used. Individual SES was measured by highest attained educational level. Alcohol use measures included drinking status and monthly risky single occasion drinking (RSOD). The relationship between individuals’ education and drinking indicators was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step the individual level data and country data were combined and tested in multilevel models. As country level indicators we used the Purchasing Power Parity of the gross national income, the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: For both genders and all countries higher individual SES was positively associated with drinking status. Also higher country level SES was associated with higher proportions of drinkers. Lower SES was associated with RSOD among men. Women of higher SES in low income countries were more often RSO drinkers than women of lower SES. The opposite was true in higher income countries. Conclusion: For the most part, findings regarding SES and drinking in higher income countries were as expected. However, women of higher SES in low and middle income countries appear at higher risk of engaging in RSOD. This finding should be kept in mind when developing new policy and prevention initiatives. PMID:22562712

Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard; Bloomfield, Kim

2013-01-01

200

Maternal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Term Birth Weight: A Multi-Country Evaluation of Effect and Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Background: A growing body of evidence has associated maternal exposure to air pollution with adverse effects on fetal growth; however, the existing literature is inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weight and low birth weight (LBW) across 14 centers from 9 countries, and to explore the influence of site characteristics and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in this association. Methods: Using a common analytical protocol, International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) centers generated effect estimates for term LBW and continuous birth weight associated with PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter ? 10 and 2.5 µm). We used meta-analysis to combine the estimates of effect across centers (~ 3 million births) and used meta-regression to evaluate the influence of center characteristics and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in reported effect estimates. Results: In random-effects meta-analyses, term LBW was positively associated with a 10-?g/m3 increase in PM10 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05] and PM2.5 (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) exposure during the entire pregnancy, adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status. A 10-?g/m3 increase in PM10 exposure was also negatively associated with term birth weight as a continuous outcome in the fully adjusted random-effects meta-analyses (–8.9 g; 95% CI: –13.2, –4.6 g). Meta-regressions revealed that centers with higher median PM2.5 levels and PM2.5:PM10 ratios, and centers that used a temporal exposure assessment (compared with spatiotemporal), tended to report stronger associations. Conclusion: Maternal exposure to particulate pollution was associated with LBW at term across study populations. We detected three site characteristics and aspects of exposure assessment methodology that appeared to contribute to the variation in associations reported by centers. PMID:23384584

Parker, Jennifer; Bell, Michelle L.; Bonzini, Matteo; Brauer, Michael; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana V.; Gouveia, Nelson; Ha, Eun-hee; Leem, Jong Han; van den Hooven, Edith H.; Jalaludin, Bin; Jesdale, Bill M.; Lepeule, Johanna; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Morgan, Geoffrey G.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pierik, Frank H.; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Rich, David Q.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Seo, Juhee; Slama, Rémy; Strickland, Matthew; Tamburic, Lillian; Wartenberg, Daniel; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

2013-01-01

201

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LAWS AND PROCEDURES PERTAINING TO THE MEDICAL RECORDS RETENTION IN SELECTED COUNTRIES  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The health record serves several purposes and must be retained to meet those purposes. These varied purposes influence how long health records must be kept, or their retention period. Aim: Present study aimed to recognize laws and procedures pertaining to retention of health records in selected countries and provide a proposed guideline for Iran. Methods: This was an applied and descriptive-comparative research on laws and procedures pertaining to retention of medical records in USA, United Kingdom, Australia and Iran that performed in 2011. The data were collected via library sources, websites, and consultation with specialists in and out of the country. The validity of the data was confirmed by experts. Finally, the recommendations were provided for medical record retention in Iran. Results: The study revealed that, there are complete and transparent record retention schedules in selected counties so that retention situation for adults, minors, emergency, outpatients and deaths records is clearly recommended. But in Iran, either there aren’t specific laws and procedures for medical record or they are unspecified. Conclusion: The lack of a complete, transparent and update medical record retention schedule in Iran, lead to confusion for hospitals. Some of hospitals maintain medical records more than of determined retention period and some of them destruct them before expiring of essential retention period. In order to optimize the situation of health records retention in Iran, it is necessary to review, correction and correction and completion of medical records retention schedule on the provided recommendations for kinds of medical record. PMID:23322974

Tavakoli, Nahid; Saghaiannejad, Sakineh; Reza Habibi, Mohammad

2012-01-01

202

Cessation assistance reported by smokers in 15 countries participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) policy evaluation surveys  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe some of the variability across the world in levels of quit smoking attempts and use of various forms of cessation support. Design Use of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys of smokers, using the 2007 survey wave (or later, where necessary). Settings Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Ireland, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Thailand, UK, Uruguay and USA. Measures Self-report on use of cessation aids and on visits to health professionals and provision of cessation advice during the visits. Findings Prevalence of quit attempts in the last year varied from under 20% to over 50% across countries. Similarly, smokers varied greatly in reporting of visiting health professionals in the last year (< 20% to over 70%), and among those who did, provision of advice to quit also varied greatly. There was also marked variability in the levels and types of help reported. Use of medication was generally more common than use of behavioural support, except where medications are not readily available. Conclusions There is wide variation across countries in rates of attempts to stop smoking and use of assistance with higher overall use of medication than behavioural support. There is also wide variation in the provision of brief advice to stop by health professionals. PMID:21883605

Borland, Ron; Li, Lin; Driezen, Pete; Wilson, Nick; Hammond, David; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Mons, Ute; Willemsen, Marc C.; McNeill, Ann; Thrasher, James F.; Cummings, K. Michael

2011-01-01

203

Migration as a form of workforce attrition: a nine-country study of pharmacists  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of evidence to inform policy development on the reasons why health professionals migrate. Few studies have sought to empirically determine factors influencing the intention to migrate and none have explored the relationship between factors. This paper reports on the first international attempt to investigate the migration intentions of pharmacy students and identify migration factors and their relationships. Methods Responses were gathered from 791 final-year pharmacy students from nine countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Croatia, Egypt, Portugal, Nepal, Singapore, Slovenia and Zimbabwe. Data were analysed by means of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and two-step cluster analysis to determine the relationships between factors influencing migration and the characteristics of subpopulations most likely and least likely to migrate. Results Results showed a significant difference in attitudes towards the professional and sociopolitical environment of the home country and perceptions of opportunities abroad between those who have no intention of migrating and those who intend to migrate on a long-term basis. Attitudes of students planning short-term migration were not significantly different from those of students who did not intend to migrate. These attitudes, together with gender, knowledge of other migrant pharmacists and past experiences abroad, are associated with an increased propensity for migration. Conclusion Given the influence of the country context and environment on migration intentions, research and policy should frame the issue of migration in the context of the wider human resource agenda, thus viewing migration as one form of attrition and a symptom of other root causes. Remuneration is not an independent stand-alone factor influencing migration intentions and cannot be decoupled from professional development factors. Comprehensive human resource policy development that takes into account the issues of both remuneration and professional development are necessary to encourage retention. PMID:19358704

Wuliji, Tana; Carter, Sarah; Bates, Ian

2009-01-01

204

Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity, particularly in Morocco, will be a crucial first step. PMID:23230285

Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

2013-01-01

205

Who Uses Smoking Cessation Apps? A Feasibility Study Across Three Countries via Smartphones  

PubMed Central

Background Smartphone use is growing worldwide. While hundreds of smoking cessation apps are currently available in the app stores, there is no information about who uses them. Smartphones also offer potential as a research tool, but this has not previously been explored. Objective This study aims to measure and compare the uptake of a smoking cessation app over one year in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also assesses the feasibility of conducting research via an app, describing respondents’ characteristics (demographics, smoking status, and other health related app use), and examining differences across countries. Methods This is a cross-sectional exploratory study of adults 18 years and older, passively recruited over one year in 2012, who downloaded this study app (Quit Advisor) via the two largest app stores (Apple and Android). Results The total number of app downloads after one year was 1751, 72.98% (1278/1751) of them were Apple operation system users. Of these 1751 participants, 47.68% (835/1751) were from the United States, 29.18% (511/1751) were from the United Kingdom, and 16.68% (292/1751) were from Australia. There were 602 participants, 36.75% (602/1638) that completed a questionnaire within the app. Of these 602 participants, 58.8% (354/602) were female and the mean age was 32 years. There were no significant differences between countries in terms of age, operation system used, number of quitting attempts, and language spoken at home. However, there were significant differences between countries in terms of gender and stage of change. There were 77.2% (465/602) of the respondents that were ready to quit in the next 30 days and the majority of these had never sought professional help (eg, “Quitline”). More than half had downloaded smoking cessation apps in the past and of these, three-quarters had made quitting attempts (lasted at least 24 hours) using an app before. Respondents who had attempted to quit three times or more in the previous year were more likely to have tried smoking cessation apps (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1-5.2). There were 50.2% (302/602) of the respondents that had used other health related apps before. Of these, 89.4% (270/302) were using health related apps at least once a week, but 77.5% (234/302) never checked the credibility of the health app publishers before downloading. Conclusions A smartphone app was able to reach smokers across three countries that were not seeking professional help, but were ready to quit within the next 30 days. Respondents were relatively young and almost demographically similar across all three countries. They also frequently used other health related apps, mostly without checking the credibility of their publishers. PMID:25098439

McGeechan, Kevin; Trevena, Lyndal

2014-01-01

206

The IEA Six Subject Survey: An Empirical Study of Education in Twenty-One Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to describe in nontechnical language the objectives, methods and findings of the six subject study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement during the years 1966-1973. The six subjects covered in the study were Science, Reading Comprehension, Literature, English as a…

Walker, David A.

207

Essential facets of competence that enable trust in medical graduates: a ranking study among physician educators in two countries.  

PubMed

One way to operationalize the assessment of trainees in a competency-based context is to determine whether they can be entrusted with critical activities. To determine which facets of competence (FOCs) are most informative for such decisions, we performed a Delphi study among Dutch educators. In the current study, the resulting list of facets of competence was evaluated among experienced Dutch and German clinical educators to determine which facets appear most relevant and to evaluate the agreement among experts in different countries as a support for their external validity. Eight Dutch and eight German experts scored each FOC on a five-point scale for relevance. A rank-order comparison showed that there was almost full agreement about the top 10 FOCs, among which 'Scientific and empirical grounded method of working', 'Knowing and maintaining own personal bounds and possibilities', 'Active professional development', 'Teamwork and collegiality', 'Active listening to patients', and 'Verbal communication with colleagues and supervisors'. We conclude that these facets of competence may be used in a training for educators who need to make entrustment decisions about trainees. PMID:24142879

Wijnen-Meijer, Marjo; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Nillesen, Kirstin; Harendza, Sigrid; Ten Cate, Olle

2013-11-01

208

The costs in provision of haemodialysis in a developing country: A multi-centered study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic Kidney Disease is a major public health problem worldwide with enormous cost burdens on health care systems in developing countries. We aimed to provide a detailed analysis of the processes and costs of haemodialysis in Sri Lanka and provide a framework for modeling similar financial audits. Methods This prospective study was conducted at haemodialysis units of three public and two private hospitals in Sri Lanka for two months in June and July 2010. Cost of drugs and consumables for the three public hospitals were obtained from the price list issued by the Medical Supplies Division of the Department of Health Services, while for the two private hospitals they were obtained from financial departments of the respective hospitals. Staff wages were obtained from the hospital chief accountant/chief financial officers. The cost of electricity and water per month was calculated directly with the assistance of expert engineers. An apportion was done from the total hospital costs of administration, cleaning services, security, waste disposal and, laundry and sterilization for each unit. Results The total number of dialysis sessions (hours) at the five hospitals for June and July were 3341 (12959) and 3386 (13301) respectively. Drug and consumables costs accounted for 70.4-84.9% of the total costs, followed by the wages of the nursing staff at each unit (7.8-19.7%). The mean cost of a dialysis session in Sri Lanka was LKR 6,377 (US$ 56). The annual cost of haemodialysis for a patient with chronic renal failure undergoing 2-3 dialysis session of four hours duration per week was LKR 663,208-994,812 (US$ 5,869-8,804). At one hospital where facilities are available for the re-use of dialyzers (although not done during study period) the cost of consumables would have come down from LKR 5,940,705 to LKR 3,368,785 (43% reduction) if the method was adopted, reducing costs of haemodialysis per hour from LKR 1,327 at present to LKR 892 (33% reduction). Conclusions This multi-centered study demonstrated that the costs of haemodialysis in a developing country remained significantly lower compared to developed countries. However, it still places a significant burden on the health care sector, whilst possibility of further cost reduction exists. PMID:21896190

2011-01-01

209

Vocational Education in Developing Countries. A Review of Studies and Project Experience. Education Division Documents No. 34.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the position taken in available literature and evaluation reports of multinational and bilateral agencies in regard to vocational education in developing countries. Section 1 provides background on such topics as links between education and development, support of vocational education, diversified secondary education, foreign…

Hultin, Mats

210

Bias in Terms of Culture and a Method for Reducing It: An Eight-Country "Explanations of Unemployment Scale" Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several sources of bias can plague research data and individual assessment. When cultural groups are considered, across or even within countries, it is essential that the constructs assessed and evaluated are as free as possible from any source of bias and specifically from bias caused due to culturally specific characteristics. Employing the…

Mylonas, Kostas; Furnham, Adrian; Divale, William; Leblebici, Cigdem; Gondim, Sonia; Moniz, Angela; Grad, Hector; Alvaro, Jose Luis; Cretu, Romeo Zeno; Filus, Ania; Boski, Pawel

2014-01-01

211

Psychological distress among patients of an orthopaedic outpatient clinic: a study from a low-income country  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression is common among general trauma patients and is associated with a poor outcome. We evaluated the relationship of psychological distress to physical injury, musculoskeletal complaints, and social factors in a low-income country. METHODS: We administered the Self-Rating Questionnaire (SRQ), the Oslo social support questionnaire, and the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ). RESULTS: An SRQ score of 9 or more,

Nusrat Husain; Syed M Humail; Imran B Chaudhry; Raza Rahman; Holly Robinson; Francis Creed

2010-01-01

212

The impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics on life expectancy: a cross-country study in three southeast asian countries.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographic changes on life expectancy in Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. This was a cross-country study to collect annual data (1980-2008) from each target country. Life expectancy was the dependent variable and health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics were the 3 main determinants. Structural equation modeling was employed, and the results indicate that the availability of more health care resources (Indonesia: coefficient = .47, P = .008; Philippines: coefficient = .48, P = .017; Vietnam: coefficient = .48, P = .004) and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages (Indonesia: coefficient = .41, P = .014; Vietnam: coefficient = .34, P = .026) are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy because of the wide range of health care resources. These findings suggest that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to health care services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a shortage of medical resources. PMID:23417906

Chan, Moon Fai

2015-03-01

213

2014 BIQSFP-BiomarkerStudyEvaluationTemplate  

Cancer.gov

BIQSFP ’1 4 (Biomarker, Imaging, and Quality of Life Studies Funding Program) BIOMARKER STUDY Evaluation Template BIQSFP ’1 4 BIOMARKER STUDY Evaluation Template 6/08,2/09,3/09,5/09,3/10,3/11,3/12 ,4/13, 11/13 STUDY EVALUATION TEMPLATE

214

Developing social capital in implementing a complex intervention: a process evaluation of the early implementation of a suicide prevention intervention in four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Variation in the implementation of complex multilevel interventions can impact on their delivery and outcomes. Few suicide prevention interventions, especially multilevel interventions, have included evaluation of both the process of implementation as well as outcomes. Such evaluation is essential for the replication of interventions, for interpreting and understanding outcomes, and for improving implementation science. This paper reports on a process evaluation of the early implementation stage of an optimised suicide prevention programme (OSPI-Europe) implemented in four European countries. Methods The process analysis was conducted within the framework of a realist evaluation methodology, and involved case studies of the process of implementation in four European countries. Datasets include: repeated questionnaires to track progress of implementation including delivery of individual activities and their intensity; serial interviews and focus groups with stakeholder groups; and detailed observations at OSPI implementation team meetings. Results Analysis of local contexts in each of the four countries revealed that the advisory group was a key mechanism that had a substantial impact on the ease of implementation of OSPI interventions, particularly on their ability to recruit to training interventions. However, simply recruiting representatives of key organisations into an advisory group is not sufficient to achieve impact on the delivery of interventions. In order to maximise the potential of high level ‘gatekeepers’, it is necessary to first transform them into OSPI stakeholders. Motivations for OSPI participation as a stakeholder included: personal affinity with the shared goals and target groups within OSPI; the complementary and participatory nature of OSPI that adds value to pre-existing suicide prevention initiatives; and reciprocal reward for participants through access to the extended network capacity that organisations could accrue for themselves and their organisations from participation in OSPI. Conclusions Exploring the role of advisory groups and the meaning of participation for these participants revealed some key areas for best practice in implementation: careful planning of the composition of the advisory group to access target groups; the importance of establishing common goals; the importance of acknowledging and complementing existing experience and activity; and facilitating an equivalence of benefit from network participation. PMID:23425005

2013-01-01

215

National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.  

PubMed

Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

2012-03-01

216

A descriptive study of commonly used postoperative approaches to pediatric stoma care in a developing country.  

PubMed

Construction of an enterostomy is a common procedure in pediatric surgery. However, caring for the child with a stoma is challenging for parents in developing countries. Modern devices such as colostomy bags and accessories are expensive and not readily available. The purpose of this study was to describe methods of effluent collection and peristomal skin protection used by the mothers of colostomy patients. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted between January and December 2011 during the first three postoperative outpatient clinic visits among mothers of children who had a colostomy constructed in the authors' hospital. The mothers of 44 children (27 males, 17 females, median age 3.3 months, range 2 days to 11 years) consented to participate. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the records, and mothers were interviewed and asked to describe their preferred methods of colostomy effluent collection and peristomal skin protection. The stomas also were inspected at each clinic visit. Anorectal malformations were the most common indication for a colostomy (32, 72.73%), followed by Hirschsprung's disease (11, 25%). Forty-two (42) patients had a divided sigmoid colostomy (95.45%); two patients had a right loop transverse colostomy (4.55%). Nine mothers alternated between two different collection methods. The diaper collection method was described most frequently (22 out of 53; 41.51%), followed by wraparound waistbands (19; 35.85%) and improvised colostomy bags (12; 22.64%). Peristomal skin excoriations were commonly seen within the first 3 weeks postsurgery and had mostly disappeared by the week 6 postoperative visit. Petrolatum jelly was the most commonly used barrier ointment. These locally available, acceptable, and affordable collection methods may be useful for children in other developing countries. PMID:24334363

Anyanwu, Lofty-John C; Mohammad, Aminu; Oyebanji, Tunde

2013-12-01

217

Stroke Outcomes in Malawi, a Country with High Prevalence of HIV: A Prospective Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke contributes significantly to disability and mortality in developing countries yet little is known about the determinants of stroke outcomes in such countries. 12% of Malawian adults have HIV/AIDS. It is not known whether having HIV-infection alters the outcome of stroke. The aim of this study was to document the functional outcome and mortality at 1 year of first-ever acute stroke in Malawi. Also to find out if the baseline variables, including HIV-infection, affect the outcome of stroke. Methods and Findings 147 adult patients with first-ever acute stroke were prospectively followed up for 12 months. Conventional risk factors and HIV-infection were assessed at baseline. Stroke severity was evaluated with modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS) and functional outcome with modified Rankin scale (mRS). Fifty (34%) of patients were HIV-seropositive. 53.4% of patients had a poor outcome (severe disability or death, mRS 4–6) at 1 year. Poor outcome was related to stroke severity and female gender but not to presence of HIV-infection. HIV-seropositive patients were younger and had less often common risk factors for stroke. They suffer more often ischemic stroke than HIV-seronegative patients. Conclusions Mild stroke and male gender were associated with favourable outcome. HIV-infection is common in stroke patients in Malawi but does not worsen the outcome of stroke. However, it may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke for young people, who do not have the common stroke risk factors. Our results are significant, because stroke outcome in HIV-seropositive patients has not been studied before in a setting such as ours, with very limited resources and a high prevalence of HIV. PMID:22479439

Heikinheimo, Terttu; Chimbayo, Daniel; Kumwenda, Johnstone J.; Kampondeni, Sam; Allain, Theresa J.

2012-01-01

218

Selectivity of migrants to a metropolis in a developing country: a mexican case study.  

PubMed

A proper evaluation of native-migrant differences requires information on migrant selectivity. Are migrants positively or negatively selective or are they representative of the populations from which they originate? This question was posed for a sample of male migrants to Monterrey, Mexico, a rapidly growing metropolis in a developing country. A comparison was made between the characteristics of migrants and census information for the origin populations for 1940 and 1960. Overall, in terms of education and occupational position, migrants are positively selective. However, using three time-of-arrival cohorts, it is shown that migrants have become less selective over time. There has been a shift from a "pioneer" to a "mass" pattern of migration, with the latter group more closely approximating the characteristics of the origin population. Besides having lower educational and skill levels, the "mass" migrants are more likely to be made up of married men and their families. To the extent that the Monterrey pattern will be encountered in other large and fast-growing urban areas in Latin America, it suggests that the assimilation of migrants in these places will become more rather than less difficult. PMID:21279791

Browning, H L; Feindt, W

1969-11-01

219

Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…

Eid, Ashraf

2012-01-01

220

Work stress and health in Western European and post-communist countries: an East–West comparison study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:There is evidence that psychosocial factors at work influence the risk of poor health in Western societies, but little is known about the effect of work stress in the former communist countries. The aim of this paper is to compare the association of work stress with self-rated health in Western European and post-communist countries.Methods:Data from four epidemiological studies were used:

G Salavecz; T Chandola; H Pikhart; N Dragano; J Siegrist; K-H Jöckel; R Erbel; A Pajak; S Malyutina; R Kubinova; M Marmot; M Bobak; M Kopp

2010-01-01

221

Value Orientations and Studying in School-Leisure Conflict: A Study with Samples from Five Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relations between students' value orientations and experiences of motivational interference during studying following conflicts between learning and leisure activities were investigated in a self-report study. Overall, 1075 adolescents, mostly from Catholic schools, in Bosnia-Herzegovina (n = 203), India (n = 200), Paraguay (n = 96), Spain (n…

Hofer, Manfred; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan; Zivkovic, Ilija; Dietz, Franziska

2009-01-01

222

The impact of presumed consent legislation on cadaveric organ donation: A cross-country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., Great Britain and in many other countries, the gap between the demand and the supply of human organs for transplantation is on the rise, despite the efforts of governments and health agencies to promote donor registration. In some countries of continental Europe, however, cadaveric organ procurement is based on the principle of presumed consent. Under presumed consent

Alberto Abadie; Sebastien Gay

2006-01-01

223

The Impact of Presumed Consent Legislation on Cadaveric Organ Donation: A Cross Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., Great Britain, and in many other countries, the gap between the demand and the supply of human organs for transplantation is on the rise, despite the efforts of governments and health agencies to promote donor registration. In some countries of continental Europe, however, cadaveric organ procurement is based on the principle of presumed consent. Under presumed consent

Alberto Abadie; Sebastien Gay

2004-01-01

224

Lessons Learned from the Advanced Developing Countries. GENESYS Special Studies No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the experience of development in the advanced developing countries in Asia from a gender perspective and draws some lessons for women in development policy in middle income countries in the Asian and Near East regions. The nature of the paper is exploratory, asking many questions on which further research and information are…

Joekes, Susan P.

225

Redefining Entrepreneurial Learning Paradigms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a rapidly changing world of knowledge exchange, innovation and technological advancements, entrepreneurship continues to fuel economic growth in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, an increased influx of graduate entrepreneurs sustains economic growth whilst, in contrast, developing countries continue to suffer from…

Owusu-Manu, D.; Afrane, S. K.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.; Brown, M.

2013-01-01

226

Improving Elementary Science Education in a Developing Country: A Case Study From Fiji  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improved science education is seen as an important goal for many developing countries. The role of elementary science is of particular importance, given that research has shown a high correlation between economic growth and the time spent on elementary science education. However, the teaching of science in many developing countries is dominated by…

Taylor, Neil; Maiwaikatakata, Tema; Biukoto, Emele; Suluma, Wili; Coll, Richard K.

2008-01-01

227

Promoting ICT education in developing countries: Case Study in the Philippine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid development of information and communication Technology (ICT) lead to Information revolution in the new millennium. However, it also left a huge gap in accessibility and benefit between developed countries and developing countries. To address this, The Philippine government elaborated the policy on implementation of ICT Education. This paper summarizes the current ICT Education setting at school in rural and

Kenichi Kubota; Ryota Yamamoto; Hiroshi Morioka

228

Training Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Kuwait.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of training evaluation activity and challenges in 77 Kuwaiti organizations found that most respondents evaluate their programs only occasionally through the use of questionnaires. Most use the Kilpatrick model for evaluation and the most common level of evaluation is reaction type. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)

Al-Athari, Ahmad; Zairi, Mohamed

2002-01-01

229

Parents' labour market participation as a predictor of children's health and wellbeing: a comparative study in five Nordic countries  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. Design: Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross sectional study of random samples of children and their families in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). Participants: A total of 10 317 children aged 2–17 years. Results: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of recurrent psychosomatic symptoms (odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence intervals 1.16 to 2.40), chronic illness (odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence intervals 1.00 to 1.84), and low wellbeing (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence intervals 1.12 to 1.94). Social class, family type, parents' immigrant status, gender and age of the child, respondent, and country were included as confounders. When social class, family type and the parents' immigrant status (one or more born in the Nordic country versus both born elsewhere) were introduced into the model, the odds ratios were reduced but were still statistically significant. Health outcomes and parents' labour market participation were associated in all five countries. Conclusions: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of ill health and low wellbeing in the five Nordic countries despite differences in employment rates and social benefits. PMID:12388579

Reinhardt, P; Madsen, M

2002-01-01

230

The practice of obtaining approval from medical research ethics committees: a comparison within 12 European countries for a descriptive study on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's dementia.  

PubMed

Across Europe the protection of research subjects with dementia has to meet a variety of national legislation and ethical codes. This research project compared how in different EU countries one single descriptive multinational study on dementia treatment strategies was evaluated by medical ethical committees and how the issues of informed consent and capacity to consent were dealt with. The study that was evaluated is the ICTUS study, which studies the impact of treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-I) on Europeans with mildly or moderately severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participating centres in all 12 countries that take part in the study received a questionnaire with items on the process of approval by the ethical committee and the informed consent procedure. From the 29 centres we received 21 completed questionnaires (response rate of 72%). There were great differences in valuation of the study, varying from the judgement that the ICTUS study was 'no experimental study' to the judgement that it was a phase IV drug trial. All centres got approval, after 3-90 days. Informed consent was addressed very differently by the researchers. There was no formal informed consent procedure required by the ethical committees. The data from this survey suggest that there should be more consensus across the EU about which studies or interventions do and which do not require approval of an ethics committee. Procedures for the assessment of informed consent in dementia research should be harmonized by central national or European bodies. PMID:15693811

Rikkert, M G M Olde; Lauque, S; Frölich, L; Vellas, B; Dekkers, W

2005-03-01

231

Solid waste characterization, quantification and management practices in developing countries. a case study: Nablus district - Palestine.  

PubMed

Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most challenging issues faced by developing countries that suffer from serious pollution problems caused by the generation of large waste quantities. This paper presents the case study of SWM in the Nablus district - Palestine. Surveys for household residents' and SWM program operators, field investigations, on-site waste measurements and characterizations were conducted. Per capita waste generation rates varied between different localities although trends were similar. Overall, the majority of waste was organic (65.1% by weight), suggesting a strong resource recovery potential in terms of animal feed or compost. Recyclable waste (plastic, paper and card) made up 16.7% by weight the waste composition suggesting an incentive to introduce source separation. Household attitudes complemented the waste characterization study, revealing the main problems faced. SWM operators quoted on the current status, highlighting problems with disposing in unsanitary landfills, ineffective solid waste fees system, increasing solid waste quantities and lacking equipment and experienced personnel. To enhance sustainable SWM, public awareness, funding, expertise, equipment and facilities and other provisions currently lacking or inappropriate must be provided. PMID:20116162

Al-Khatib, Issam A; Monou, Maria; Abu Zahra, Abdul Salam F; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Kassinos, Despo

2010-05-01

232

Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular. PMID:20550647

2010-01-01

233

Patient organisations and the reimbursement process for medicines: an exploratory study in eight European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the role European patient organisations play in the process of deciding on reimbursement for medicines. Therefore we explore the current role of patient organisations in the process of reimbursement for medicines in Western Europe. We focus in particular on collaboration between patient organisations and the pharmaceutical industry in this respect. Methods Sixty-eight patient organisations representing seven medical conditions, from ten Western European countries, were asked to participate in the study. The participating organisations reported their experiences in a web-based questionnaire. Results Twenty-one patient organisations completed the questionnaire (response rate: 31%), of which ten (47.6%) demanded reimbursement for medicines. Organisations demanding reimbursement were larger than those not demanding reimbursement. The main aim of these organisations was to create better accessibility of medicines for patients. Most organisations limited themselves to single actions. Only two engaged in multiple actions. Almost all organisations had general policies on cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry, with autonomy as the key feature. The patient organisations said they were reasonably successful and almost always satisfied with their own role in the reimbursement process. Conclusion Our study has found that the role of European patient organisations in the reimbursement process still seems limited, especially for small patient organisations. PMID:20170557

2010-01-01

234

Reflection on Four Multisite Evaluation Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do the findings of four National Science Foundation evaluation case studies suggest to an evaluation scholar who was not part of the research team that created them? This chapter carefully reviews the cases and summarizes their comparative findings. The four Beyond Use case studies add to the literature on levels of evaluation use, with the…

Brandon, Paul R.

2011-01-01

235

Incorporating geology and geomorphology in land management decisions in developing countries: A case study in Southern Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast and uncontrolled expansion of industries, agriculture and settlements in developing countries implies a definite need to develop strategies for effective land management. For this reason we carried out a case study in southern Costa Rica within an area of high vulnerability for landslides and seismic hazards aiming at the development of a GIS-based system for the analysis of the physical environment that is of practical use for land management decisions in developing regions with limited financial, technical and data resources. Our concept is based upon the assessment of five so-called geofactors, reflecting the most important aspects for land management planning: (1) Lithology/Petrophysics, (2) Geomorphology, (3) Hydrogeology, (4) Slope Stability and (5) Seismic Hazards. In order to take as much advantage as possible of the limited existing base data, and efficient tools for data collection, evaluation of data quality and data analysis were developed. Second-degree normalization of all database attributes guarantees extensive data query and access possibilities. The application of geofactor terrain analysis for land management is discussed on the basis of a land use plan for the town of Rio Claro located in the NE of the study area.

Andreas, Mende; Allan, Astorga

2007-06-01

236

Pandemic influenza in Papua New Guinea: a modelling study comparison with pandemic spread in a developed country  

PubMed Central

Objectives The possible occurrence of a highly pathogenic influenza strain is of concern to health authorities worldwide. It is known that during past influenza pandemics developing countries have experienced considerably higher death rates compared with developed countries. Furthermore, many developing countries lack appropriate pandemic preparedness plans. Mathematical modelling studies to guide the development of such plans are largely focused on predicting pandemic influenza spread in developed nations. However, intervention strategies shown by modelling studies to be highly effective for developed countries give limited guidance as to the impact which an influenza pandemic may have on low-income countries given different demographics and resource constraints. To address this, an individual-based model of a Papua New Guinean (PNG) community was created and used to simulate the spread of a novel influenza strain. The results were compared with those obtained from a comparable Australian model. Design A modelling study. Setting The towns of Madang in PNG (population ?35?000) and Albany (population ?30?000) in Australia. Outcome measures Daily and cumulative illness attack rates in both models following introduction of a novel influenza strain into a naive population, for an unmitigated scenario and two social distancing intervention scenarios. Results The unmitigated scenario indicated an approximately 50% higher attack rate in PNG compared with the Australian model. The two social distancing-based interventions strategies were 60–70% less effective in a PNG setting compared with an Australian setting. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that an influenza pandemic occurring in a low-income country such as PNG may have a greater impact than one occurring in a developed country, and that PNG-feasible interventions may be substantially less effective. The larger average household size in PNG, the larger proportion of the population under 18 and greater community-wide contact all contribute to this feature. PMID:23535701

Milne, George J; Baskaran, Pravin; Halder, Nilimesh; Karl, Stephan; Kelso, Joel

2013-01-01

237

Contradictions and conflict: A meta-ethnographic study of migrant women’s experiences of breastfeeding in a new country  

PubMed Central

Background Studies report mixed findings about rates of both exclusive and partial breastfeeding amongst women who are migrants or refugees in high income countries. It is important to understand the beliefs and experiences that impact on migrant and refugee women’s infant feeding decisions in order to appropriately support women to breastfeed in a new country. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a meta-ethnographic study that explored migrant and refugee women’s experiences and practices related to breastfeeding in a new country. Methods CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library with Full Text databases were searched for the period January 2000 to May 2012. Out of 2355 papers retrieved 11 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was undertaken using the analytic strategies and theme synthesis techniques of reciprocal translation and refutational investigation. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Results Eight qualitative studies and three studies reporting both qualitative and quantitative data were included and one overarching theme emerged: ‘Breastfeeding in a new country: facing contradictions and conflict’. This theme comprised four sub-themes ‘Mother’s milk is best’; ‘Contradictions and conflict in breastfeeding practices’; ‘Producing breast milk requires energy and good health’; and ‘The dominant role of female relatives’. Migrant women who valued, but did not have access to, traditional postpartum practices, were more likely to cease breastfeeding. Women reported a clash between their individual beliefs and practices and the dominant practices in the new country, and also a tension with family members either in the country of origin or in the new country. Conclusion Migrant women experience tensions in their breastfeeding experience and require support from professionals who can sensitively address their individual needs. Strategies to engage grandmothers in educational opportunities may offer a novel approach to breastfeeding support. PMID:23270315

2012-01-01

238

Philippines: Environment and natural resource management study. World Bank country study  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the most significant issues of natural-resource management in the Philippines. These include the disappearence or degradation of forests; erosion and changes in hydrological regimes; the conversion of mangrove swamps to fishponds; degradation of coral reefs; and depletion of nearshore fisheries through overfishing and destructive techniques. The issues addressed concern the extent and rate of degradation of these resource stocks, the impact thereof on the national economy, and the scope for ameliorative measures through policy responses, management changes, and investments. The Government is responsible for management of public resources, which include over half of the land area of the Philippines as well as the coastal waters. Historically, public management has been less than optimal, as evidenced by an unsustainable rate of deforestation and the recent stagnation or decline in extractive fisheries.

Not Available

1989-01-01

239

NORTHERN OHIO AEROSOL STUDY: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

240

Economic Aspects of Agricultural Development in Africa. A Selective Annotated Reading List of Reports and Studies Concerning 40 African Countries During the Period 1960 - 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some 1394 research studies from various African countries are annotated in this bibliography, which is divided into 37 country sections with a separate section (Africa General) for studies dealing with the continent as a whole, with geographical regions, or with groups of countries. The publications listed and summarized were published primarily…

Neville-Rolfe, Edmund, Comp.

241

Relationships between food consumption and living arrangements among university students in four European countries - A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The transition of young people from school to university has many health implications. Food choice at the university can differ because of childhood food consumption patterns, sex and the living arrangements. Food consumption may change especially if students are living away from home. We aimed to assess food consumption patterns among university students from four European countries and how they differ by their living arrangements. Methods We analysed data from a cross-country survey assessing health and health behaviours of students. The sample comprised a total of 2402 first year undergraduate students from one university in each of the countries of Germany, Denmark, Poland and Bulgaria. Food consumption was assessed by means of a food frequency questionnaire with 9 food groups (indicators). Results Students’ food consumption patterns differed across the countries. Frequent consumption of unhealthy items was common. Bulgarian students reported most often frequent consumption of sweets and cakes and snacks (e.g. chips and fast food). Polish students reported the least frequent consumption of vegetables and a low consumption of fruits. Across all countries except Bulgaria, men reported substantially more often frequent consumption of snacks than women. Students living at parental home consumed more fruit, vegetables, and meat than those who resided outside of their family home in all studied countries. There was more variation with regard to cakes and salads with more frequent consumption of cakes among Bulgarian female students and Danish male students and more frequent consumption of salads among Danish female students not living at parental home, compared to students from other countries. Conclusions Nutrition habits of university students differed across countries and by sex. Students living at parental home displayed more healthy nutrition habits, with some exceptions. PMID:22531503

2012-01-01

242

Tenements : dwellings for the urban poor. Comparative study illustrating 28 cases in developing countries  

E-print Network

Tenements are significant systems that provide habitation to the poor in most of the urban areas of the developing countries. Yet, tenements are practically ignored if not prohibited by the public sector and consequently ...

Aliman, Isam Mohammad

1981-01-01

243

MYCOTOXINS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF MAIZE IN NEPAL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For both developed and developing countries, mycotoxin management begins in the field with improved farming practices and improved crop plants with increased resistance to insect damage, fungal infection, and mycotoxin production. Mycotoxin management continues with improved harvesting practices an...

244

Do socioeconomic differences in tobacco use exist also in developing countries? A study of Ghanaian adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Western countries, tobacco use is most prevalent among adolescents in lower socioeconomic groups. The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and tobacco use among adolescents in developing countries is unexplored. Using multiple SES measures, we investigated this association among adolescents in Ghana. METHOD: A school-based survey of a representative sample of 13-18-year-old Ghanaians (N = 1,165, response rate =

David Doku; Leena Koivusilta; Susanna Raisamo; Arja Rimpelä

2010-01-01

245

What Goals Do Business Leaders Pursue? A Study in Fifteen Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals-in-use of successful businesspersons were rated by over 1,800 junior managers and professionals, attending evening MBA courses at local universities in 15 countries. A hierarchical cluster analysis of perceived goals divided the countries into seven clusters. The relative ordering of goals within these clusters suggested seven different archetypal business leader roles. Perceptions correlated significantly with national wealth, as well as

Geert Hofstede; Cheryl A. Van Deusen; Carolyn B. Mueller; Thomas A. Charles

2002-01-01

246

Anemia management and outcomes from 12 countries in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (DOPPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Anemia is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods:Data collected from nationally representative samples of HD patients (n = 11,041) in 2002 to 2003 were used to describe current anemia management for long-term HD patients at 309 dialysis units in 12 countries. Analyses of associations and outcomes were adjusted for demographics, 15 comorbid classes, laboratory values, country, and facility clustering. Results:For

Ronald L Pisoni; Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham; Eric W Young; Tadao Akizawa; Yasushi Asano; Francesco Locatelli; Juergen Bommer; Jose Miguel Cruz; Peter G Kerr; David C Mendelssohn; Philip J Held; Friedrich K Port

2004-01-01

247

Preterm birth time trends in Europe: a study of 19 countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate time trends in preterm birth in Europe by multiplicity, gestational age, and onset of delivery. Design Analysis of aggregate data from routine sources. Setting Nineteen European countries. Population Live births in 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008. Methods Annual risk ratios of preterm birth in each country were estimated with year as a continuous variable for all births and by subgroup using log-binomial regression models. Main outcome measures Overall preterm birth rate and rate by multiplicity, gestational age group, and spontaneous versus non-spontaneous (induced or prelabour caesarean section) onset of labour. Results Preterm birth rates rose in most countries, but the magnitude of these increases varied. Rises in the multiple birth rate as well as in the preterm birth rate for multiple births contributed to increases in the overall preterm birth rate. About half of countries experienced no change or decreases in the rates of singleton preterm birth. Where preterm birth rates rose, increases were no more prominent at 35–36 weeks of gestation than at 32–34 weeks of gestation. Variable trends were observed for spontaneous and non-spontaneous preterm births in the 13 countries with mode of onset data; increases were not solely attributed to non-spontaneous preterm births. Conclusions There was a wide variation in preterm birth trends in European countries. Many countries maintained or reduced rates of singleton preterm birth over the past 15 years, challenging a widespread belief that rising rates are the norm. Understanding these cross-country differences could inform strategies for the prevention of preterm birth. PMID:23700966

Zeitlin, J; Szamotulska, K; Drewniak, N; Mohangoo, AD; Chalmers, J; Sakkeus, L; Irgens, L; Gatt, M; Gissler, M; Blondel, B

2013-01-01

248

Preoperative visual acuity among cataract surgery patients and countries’ state of development: a global study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe the preoperative surgical case mix among patients undergoing cataract extraction and explore associations between case mix, country level of development (as measured by the Human Development Index, HDI) and cataract surgery rates (CSRs). Methods Ophthalmologists in 50 countries were invited to join the newly-established International Eye Research Network and asked to complete a web-based questionnaire about their eye hospitals. Those who complied received a data collection form for recording demographic and clinical data on 100 consecutive patients about to undergo cataract surgery. Countries were ranked into five HDI categories and multivariable regression was used to explore associations. Findings Ophthalmologists at 112 eye hospitals (54% of them nongovernmental) in 50 countries provided data on 11?048 cataract procedures over 9 months in 2008. Patients whose visual acuity (VA) before surgery was countries and 1% in developed countries (P?country level and inversely associated with national CSR. Conclusion The proportion of patients with very poor preoperative VA is a simple indicator that can be easily measured periodically to monitor progress in ophthalmological services. Additionally, the internet can be an effective tool for developing and supporting an ophthalmological research network capable of providing a global snapshot of service activity, particularly in developing countries. PMID:22084513

Gilbert, Claire E; Razavi, Hessom; Turner, Elizabeth L; Lindfield, Robert J

2011-01-01

249

Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

2003-01-01

250

A Multicentre Study of Shigella Diarrhoea in Six Asian Countries: Disease Burden, Clinical Manifestations, and Microbiology  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of shigellosis is greatest in resource-poor countries. Although this diarrheal disease has been thought to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of 1,000,000 deaths globally per year, little recent data are available to guide intervention strategies in Asia. We conducted a prospective, population-based study in six Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the current disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology of shigellosis in Asia. Methods and Findings Over 600,000 persons of all ages residing in Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand were included in the surveillance. Shigella was isolated from 2,927 (5%) of 56,958 diarrhoea episodes detected between 2000 and 2004. The overall incidence of treated shigellosis was 2.1 episodes per 1,000 residents per year in all ages and 13.2/1,000/y in children under 60 months old. Shigellosis incidence increased after age 40 years. S. flexneri was the most frequently isolated Shigella species (1,976/2,927 [68%]) in all sites except in Thailand, where S. sonnei was most frequently detected (124/146 [85%]). S. flexneri serotypes were highly heterogeneous in their distribution from site to site, and even from year to year. PCR detected ipaH, the gene encoding invasion plasmid antigen H in 33% of a sample of culture-negative stool specimens. The majority of S. flexneri isolates in each site were resistant to amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. Ciprofloxacin-resistant S. flexneri isolates were identified in China (18/305 [6%]), Pakistan (8/242 [3%]), and Vietnam (5/282 [2%]). Conclusions Shigella appears to be more ubiquitous in Asian impoverished populations than previously thought, and antibiotic-resistant strains of different species and serotypes have emerged. Focusing on prevention of shigellosis could exert an immediate benefit first by substantially reducing the overall diarrhoea burden in the region and second by preventing the spread of panresistant Shigella strains. The heterogeneous distribution of Shigella species and serotypes suggest that multivalent or cross-protective Shigella vaccines will be needed to prevent shigellosis in Asia. PMID:16968124

von Seidlein, Lorenz; Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Lee, Hyejon; Wang, XuanYi; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Canh, Do Gia; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Agtini, Magdarina D; Hossain, Anowar; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Mason, Carl; Sethabutr, Ornthipa; Talukder, Kaisar; Nair, G. B; Deen, Jacqueline L; Kotloff, Karen; Clemens, John

2006-01-01

251

Environmental accident and its treatment in a developing country: a case study on China.  

PubMed

Along with their rapid progress, developing countries have had to deal with more environmental problems, which have been a cause for concern among policy makers and the public in general. This study cites two accidents that happened in China in 2006 that caused serious environmental problems in nearby communities and discusses the problems these accidents created and the resulting disputes among the concerned people. Pollution-causing accidents not only pose threats to the health of the victims but also give rise to environmental disputes that jeopardise national security and social stability. Conflicts normally ensue following a pollution-causing accident, which are more likely to happen within a development zone or industrial park. Few environmental conflicts in the past decades were resolved through litigation. Nevertheless, there are lapses in the regulatory system, which have to be addressed to ensure that the public's rights and interests are protected. Currently, reports on pollution-causing accidents are difficult to obtain and are often released very late. A majority of industrial firms operate without environmental clearance, thus highlighting the government's inefficiency in environmental management. It is about time that the Chinese government takes seriously the use of the Environmental Impact Assessment. PMID:21909707

Hou, Yu

2012-08-01

252

Iron-Fortified Drinking Water Studies for the Prevention of Children's Anemia in Developing Countries.  

PubMed

Anemia and iron deficiency should receive special attention considering their high prevalence and serious consequences. For prevention, globally it is recommended to increase dietary iron intake, iron fortification of industrialized foods, and medical iron supplementation. Food fortification for the prevention of iron deficiency in developing countries should consider carriers locally available and consumed daily, requiring limited infrastructure and technology. Drinking water is the iron carrier we have been working for years for the prevention of iron deficiency and anemia in small children in Brazil. It was shown that studies with iron-fortified drinking water were proved to be effective on children's anemia prevention. Water is found everywhere, consumed daily by everyone may be easily fortified with simple technology, is low priced and was effective on the prevention of children's anemia. Fortification of drinking water with iron was locally implemented with the direct participation of the government and community. Government authorities, health personnel and population were part of the project and responsible for its community implementation. The mayor/municipality permitted and supported the proposal to supply it to children at their day-care centers. To keep the children drinking water iron fortified supply an officially authorized legislation was also approved. PMID:21826263

Dutra-de-Oliveira, Jose E; Marchini, J Sergio; Lamounier, Joel; Almeida, Carlos A N

2011-01-01

253

Designing evaluations: A study examining preferred evaluation designs of educational evaluators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of educational evaluators was asked to design an outcomes-focused evaluation of a school program that aims to improve the academic achievement and self-esteem of students. Evaluators provided detailed descriptions of their evaluation design and methodology in their responses. These descriptions were coded and analyzed to determine the design trends of practicing educational evaluators. Findings from the study indicated

Tarek Azzam; Michael Szanyi

2011-01-01

254

A History of Abuse and Operative Delivery – Results from a European Multi-Country Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult. Design The Bidens study, a cohort study in six European countries (Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden) recruited 6724 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care. History of abuse was assessed through questionnaire and linked to obstetric information from hospital records. The main outcome measure was operative delivery as a dichotomous variable, and categorized as an elective caesarean section (CS), or an operative vaginal birth, or an emergency CS. Non-obstetrically indicated were CSs performed on request or for psychological reasons without another medical reason. Binary and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. Results Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (?18 years) increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28–3.49), and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24–11.24). Women expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46–11.3). Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood <18 years), nor sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416 multiparous women, neither sexual, nor emotional abuse was significantly associated with any kind of operative delivery, while physical abuse had an increased AOR for emergency CS of 1.51 (1.05–2.19). Conclusion Sexual abuse as an adult increases the risk of an elective CS among women with no prior birth experience, in particular for non-obstetrical reasons. Among multiparous women, a history of physical abuse increases the risk of an emergency CS. PMID:24498142

Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Karro, Helle; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Laanpere, Made; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Tabor, Ann; Temmerman, Marleen; Van Parys, An-Sofie; Wangel, Anne-Marie; Steingrimsdottir, Thora

2014-01-01

255

Deepening Learning and Inspiring Rigor: Bridging Academic and Experiential Learning Using a Host Country Approach to a Study Tour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American students are increasingly incorporating study in a foreign country into their college educations, but many participate in short-term programs that limit their engagement with any more than the superficial aspects of the host culture. This article describes a short-term study abroad course for American students to Japan in which the…

Long, Susan Orpett; Akande, Yemi Susan; Purdy, R. W.; Nakano, Keiko

2010-01-01

256

Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether flavonoid intake explains differences in mortality rates from chronic diseases between populations. DESIGN: Cross-cultural correlation study. SETTING\\/PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen cohorts of the Seven Countries Study in whom flavonoid intake at baseline around 1960 was estimated by flavonoid analysis of equivalent food composites that represented the average diet in the cohorts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from coronary heart disease,

M. G. L. Hertog; D. Kromhout; C. Aravanis; H. Blackburn; R. Buzina; F. Fidanza; S. Giampaoli; A. Jansen; A. Menotti; S. I. Nedeljkovic; M. Pekkarinen; B. S. Simic; H. Toshima; E. J. M. Feskens; P. C. H. Hollman; M. B. Katan

1995-01-01

257

Understanding the Relationships among PISA Scores, Economic Growth and Employment in Different Sectors: A Cross-Country Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores in mathematics, science and reading and the employment rates in the following four economic activities: research and development, agriculture, industry, and service industries. Thirty-three countries were included in the study, and most…

Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

2008-01-01

258

WHO Collaborative Study on Alcohol Education and Young People: outcomes of a four-country pilot study.  

PubMed

In 1985 the Division of Mental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, convened a group of investigators from centers in four countries--Australia, Chile, Norway, Swaziland--to participate in a pilot study on the efficacy of school-based alcohol education. The goal of the educational program was to delay onset and minimize involvement of alcohol use among 13- to 14-year-old adolescents. Twenty-five schools in the four countries, representing middle- and lower-class populations, were randomly assigned to peer-led education, teacher-led education, or a control condition. The educational program was derived from social-psychological theory and etiological research on adolescent alcohol use. The program focused on the social and environmental influences to drink alcohol and skills to resist those influences. It consisted of five lessons over 2 months. Baseline and posttest data measured alcohol use knowledge, attitudes, skills, and friends' drinking patterns. Data were collected immediately prior to and 2 months following the educational program. The data converge on the finding that peer-led education appears to be efficacious in reducing alcohol use across a variety of settings and cultures. PMID:2634032

Perry, C L; Grant, M; Ernberg, G; Florenzano, R U; Langdon, M C; Myeni, A D; Waahlberg, R; Berg, S; Andersson, K; Fisher, K J

1989-12-01

259

Work related complaints of neck, shoulder and arm among computer office workers: a cross-sectional evaluation of prevalence and risk factors in a developing country  

PubMed Central

Background Complaints of arms, neck and shoulders (CANS) is common among computer office workers. We evaluated an aetiological model with physical/psychosocial risk-factors. Methods We invited 2,500 computer office workers for the study. Data on prevalence and risk-factors of CANS were collected by validated Maastricht-Upper-extremity-Questionnaire. Workstations were evaluated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Visual-Display-Terminal workstation-checklist. Participants' knowledge and awareness was evaluated by a set of expert-validated questions. A binary logistic regression analysis investigated relationships/correlations between risk-factors and symptoms. Results Sample size was 2,210. Mean age 30.8 ± 8.1 years, 50.8% were males. The 1-year prevalence of CANS was 56.9%, commonest region of complaint was forearm/hand (42.6%), followed by neck (36.7%) and shoulder/arm (32.0%). In those with CANS, 22.7% had taken treatment from a health care professional, only in 1.1% seeking medical advice an occupation-related injury had been suspected/diagnosed. In addition 9.3% reported CANS-related absenteeism from work, while 15.4% reported CANS causing disruption of normal activities. A majority of evaluated workstations in all participants (88.4%,) and in those with CANS (91.9%) had OSHA non-compliant workstations. In the binary logistic regression analyses female gender, daily computer usage, incorrect body posture, bad work-habits, work overload, poor social support and poor ergonomic knowledge were associated with CANS and its' severity In a multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender and duration of occupation, incorrect body posture, bad work-habits and daily computer usage were significant independent predictors of CANS Conclusions The prevalence of work-related CANS among computer office workers in Sri Lanka, a developing, South Asian country is high and comparable to prevalence in developed countries. Work-related physical factors, psychosocial factors and lack of awareness were all important associations of CANS and effective preventive strategies need to address all three areas. PMID:21816073

2011-01-01

260

International Evaluation Studies of Second Step, a Primary Prevention Programme: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second Step is a social-emotional, skill-based, violence-prevention programme, which has been adapted for several European countries. The various versions of the programme (for kindergarten/preschool, elementary school, middle school) have been evaluated in a series of research studies. The outcomes and study designs of these studies are reported…

Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred

2013-01-01

261

Digital Radiology to Improve the Quality of Care in Countries with Limited Resources: A Feasibility Study from Angola  

PubMed Central

Objective Sub-standard quality in X-ray image acquisition and interpretation is common in low-resource countries, and can ultimately result in higher patient morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at evaluating; 1) feasibility of implementing a digital X-ray device in a second level hospital in Angola; 2) quality of digital X-ray images, when digital radiology was in the hands of local technicians; 3) feasibility of digital teleradiology and its potential impact on case management. Methods We developed and tested at the Hospital Divina Providencia (HDP) in Luanda, Angola, a digital X-ray device and a telemedicine network to acquire and print digital X-ray images and send them as DICOM files for remote consultation. Results 20,564 digital X-ray images were made at HDP from November 2010 to December 2012, with no major technical problems and no need for on-site supervision. Digital radiology largely improved the number of X-ray images of good and very good quality (100% of images with digital radiology, compared to 15% of screen-film images, p<0.0001). Teleradiology using digital images was used in 7.6% of paediatric cases, and provided, in these cases, an important contribution to case management. Conclusions The implementation of a digital X-ray device is feasible in low resource settings with significant improvement in quality of X-ray images compared to standard screen film radiology. PMID:24086301

Zennaro, Floriana; Oliveira Gomes, Joaquim António; Casalino, Armando; Lonardi, Magda; Starc, Meta; Paoletti, Pierpaolo; Gobbo, Daniele; Giusto, Chiara; Not, Tarcisio; Lazzerini, Marzia

2013-01-01

262

Dental students' perceived sources of stress: a multi-country study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify dental students' self-reported sources of stress and to explore the role of specific curricular and institutional differences in the variation of perceived stressors among dental students in Greece, Ireland, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, and Croatia. A thirty-item modified version of the Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was administered to all undergraduate students enrolled at six European dental schools selected to reflect geographical, curricular, and professional environment diversity: Athens, Greece; Dublin, Ireland; Ljubljana, Slovenia; Malmö, Sweden; Santiago de Compostela, Spain; and Zagreb, Croatia. Participation varied from 93 percent in Athens to 65 percent in Dublin. A total of 1,492 questionnaires were available for analysis. Univariate analysis and multivariate modelling were used for data analysis. Performance pressure, workload, and self-efficacy beliefs constituted the students' main concerns. In the univariate analysis, student responses differed by country: Swedish students provided the lowestst scores in five out of six DES factors, Spanish students were the most concerned about "clinical training" and "performance pressure," whereas Greek students were the most concerned about "patient treatment." Multivariate modelling revealed that problem-based learning (PBL) was inversely associated with perceived stress for "self-efficacy beliefs" OR (95% CI): 0.66 (0.52, 0.84), "workload" OR (95% CI): 0.58 (0.41, 0.80); and "clinical training" OR (95% CI): 0.69 (0.50, 0.95) when compared to traditional curricula. Students' perceived stressors differed greatly among the six institutions and were associated with both individual (gender, study level) and educational/institutional (curriculum type, class size, educational costs) parameters. PMID:19433538

Polychronopoulou, Argy; Divaris, Kimon

2009-05-01

263

Access to electronic health knowledge in five countries in Africa: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background Access to medical literature in developing countries is helped by open access publishing and initiatives to allow free access to subscription only journals. The effectiveness of these initiatives in Africa has not been assessed. This study describes awareness, reported use and factors influencing use of on-line medical literature via free access initiatives. Methods Descriptive study in four teaching hospitals in Cameroon, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda plus one externally funded research institution in The Gambia. Survey with postgraduate doctors and research scientists to determine Internet access patterns, reported awareness of on-line medical information and free access initiatives; semi structured interviews with a sub-sample of survey participants to explore factors influencing use. Results In the four African teaching hospitals, 70% of the 305 postgraduate doctors reported textbooks as their main source of information; 66% had used the Internet for health information in the last week. In two hospitals, Internet cafés were the main Internet access point. For researchers at the externally-funded research institution, electronic resources were their main source, and almost all had used the Internet in the last week. Across all 333 respondents, 90% had heard of PubMed, 78% of BMJ on line, 49% the Cochrane Library, 47% HINARI, and 19% BioMedCentral. HINARI use correlates with accessing the Internet on computers located in institutions. Qualitative data suggested there are difficulties logging into HINARI and that sometimes it is librarians that limit access to passwords. Conclusion Text books remain an important resource for postgraduate doctors in training. Internet use is common, but awareness of free-access initiatives is limited. HINARI and other initiatives could be more effective with strong institutional endorsement and management to promote and ensure access. PMID:17509132

Smith, Helen; Bukirwa, Hasifa; Mukasa, Oscar; Snell, Paul; Adeh-Nsoh, Sylvester; Mbuyita, Selemani; Honorati, Masanja; Orji, Bright; Garner, Paul

2007-01-01

264

Directory of country environmental studies, 1993. An annotated bibliography of environmental and natural resource profiles and assessments  

SciTech Connect

The 1993 edition of the Directory provides detailed citations and abstracts for 357 major natural resource and environmental studies (257 of which were added since the 1990 edition) covering 129 developing countries and 12 regional groupings. Most of the studies (93%) were prepared between 1987 and 1992. Included are 66 national reports prepared for the U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Thirty-three countries, including Algeria, Bhutan, Cuba, Republic of Korea, Laos, Namibia, South Africa, Suriname, Taiwan, and Venezuela, are new to this edition of the directory, which focuses on reports that link quantitative assessment of a country's natural resources to economic development and the maintenance of ecosystems, with particular emphasis on natural resource management strategies and action plans.

Tunstall, D.B.; van der Wansem, M.

1992-11-01

265

Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian…

Rosser, Andrew

2012-01-01

266

The establishment of an academic health sciences library in a developing country: a case study.  

PubMed Central

The development of a Faculty of Medical Sciences (FMS) and an academic health sciences library for the University of the West Indies (UWI) has proven to be a polemical and political issue due to the depressed economy of the country. Although FMS is still shrouded in politics and controversy after its inaugural year, the Medical Sciences Library (MSL) has expanded its dimensions and is actively developing a biomedical information network within the country. This will result in better dissemination and control of biomedical information. The library now participates in joint projects with other health sciences libraries in the country with the goal of joint automated listings of holdings and shared cataloging projects. This paper examines the development of the library and explains the difficulties experienced in its developmental stages due to politics, the delay in appointment of a medical sciences librarian, and the financial decline in the local economy. PMID:1884084

Ellis, L S

1991-01-01

267

Knowledge translation: a case study on pneumonia research and clinical guidelines in a low- income country  

PubMed Central

Background The process and effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported. In Cambodia, a low-income country (LIC), an intervention aiming to provide evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia to health authorities was developed to help update pediatric and adult national clinical guidelines. Through a case study, we assessed the effectiveness of this KT intervention, with the goal of identifying the barriers to KT and suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. Methods An extensive search for all relevant sources of data documenting the processes of updating adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines was done. Documents included among others, reports, meeting minutes, and email correspondences. The study was conducted in successive phases: an appraisal of the content of both adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines; an appraisal of the quality of guidelines by independent experts, using the AGREE-II instrument; a description and modeling of the KT process within the guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools 2.2; and the listing of the barriers and facilitators to KT we identified during the study. Results The first appraisal showed that the integration of the KT key messages in pediatric and adult guidelines varied with a better efficiency in the pediatric guidelines. The overall AGREE-II quality assessments scored 37% and 44% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Scores were lowest for the domains of ‘rigor of development’ and ‘editorial independence.’ The UML analysis highlighted that time frames and constraints of the involved stakeholders greatly differed and that there were several missed opportunities to translate on evidence into the adult pneumonia guideline. Seventeen facilitating factors and 18 potential barriers to KT were identified. Main barriers were related to the absence of a clear mandate from the Ministry of Health for the researchers and to a lack of synchronization between knowledge production and policy-making. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stakeholders, both researchers and policy makers planning to update clinical guidelines in LIC may need methodological support to overcome the expected barriers. PMID:24969242

2014-01-01

268

The influence of world societal forces on social tolerance. A time comparative study of prejudices in 32 countries.  

PubMed

Societal variation in xenophobia, homophobia, and other prejudices is frequently explained by the economic background and political history of different countries. This article expands these explanations by considering the influence of world societal factors on individual attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on survey data collected within the World Value Survey and European Values Study framework between 1989 and 2010. Data are combined to a three-wave cross-sectional design including about 130,000 respondents from 32 countries. Results show that xenophobia and homophobia are influenced by the national political history, societal affluence, and the presence of international organizations. Global forces, however, are of particular importance for homophobia. PMID:22616117

Hadler, Markus

2012-01-01

269

Internationalisation in Online Distance Learning Postgraduate Education: A Case Study on Student Views on Learning Alongside Students from Other Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internationalisation in higher education has been shown to provide both intellectual and cultural benefits to students which can help in their future employment. This case study describes student views on learning alongside students from different countries in an online distance learning environment. Seventy-three students undertaking the online…

Gemmell, Isla; Harrison, Roger; Clegg, Judith; Reed, Katie

2015-01-01

270

Climate policies : what if emerging country baseline were not so optimistic? a case study related to India  

E-print Network

1 of 14 Climate policies : what if emerging country baseline were not so optimistic? ­ a case study-mail address: mathy@centre-cired.fr (S. Mathy) Keywords India, domestic policies and measures, climate policies, long term scenarios, international negotiations, power sector, climate regime, policies and measures

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

A cross-country comparative study on technological & infrastructure factors as the critical growth factors of e-commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to identify the critical growth factors (hereafter called CGFs) that are essential to the development and growth of e-commerce in a country. The paper starts with reviewing and reclassifying factors explicitly examined by prior studies that have never been unified. The technological & infrastructure factors consist of sub factors that are (a) security, (b) the capacity of

K. Atchariyachanvanich; H. Okada

2005-01-01

272

Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of High School Students from Four Countries-Austria, Czech Republic, England, and USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitude toward physical education of 1107 high school students from four countries, Czech Republic, Austria, England, and the United States. Survey data were gathered and measured using the Adams Scale survey instrument (Adams, 1963). While the data revealed individual differences, the overall sample indicated a…

Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James M.; Fenster, Mark J.; Langford, George

2004-01-01

273

Consumer perception of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The present study addresses consumer acceptance of food products involving the use of different applications of genetic modification in four Nordic countries. Three food products were used as examples: hard cheese, hard candy, and salmon. Three types of applications of genetic modification were investigated: modification of the raw material, use of genetic modification in enzyme production, and direct use

Klaus G. Grunert; Liisa Lähteenmäki; Niels A. Nielsen; Jacob B. Poulsen; Oydis Ueland; Annika Åström

2000-01-01

274

Increasing the Number of Women Teachers in Rural Schools: A Synthesis of Country Case Studies, South Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report synthesizes case studies of women teachers in rural areas of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. In each country, interviews and focus groups were conducted in selected states and districts with administrators and women teachers in rural elementary schools, as well as policymakers and community members. Following an introduction to…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

275

TransFatty Acids in French Fries, Soups, and Snacks from 14 European Countries: The TRANSFAIR Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the TRANSFAIR study, foods contributing to 95% of total fat intake were collected in 14 European countries. In addition to edible fats, dairy, meat, and bakery products some specific food items with relatively high amounts oftransfatty acids were found. French fried potatoes, both those from fast-food restaurants and those from the supermarkets (including potato chips), contained mostly between 12

A. Aro; E. Amaral; H. Kesteloot; A. Rimestad; M. Thamm; G. van Poppel

1998-01-01

276

RAPID URBAN SECTOR PROFILING FOR SUSTAINABILITY STUDIES (RUSPS) IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR URBAN PLANNING IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the application of rapid urban profiling for sustainability studies (RUSPS) in articulating city strategic plans in developing countries with the aim of determining its implications for urban planning in Ondo State, Nigeria. Ondo State is one of the 36 states of Nigeria where urban planning is undertaken by the state government. It discusses the usefulness of the

Johnson Bade FALADE; Afolabi ARIBIGBOLA

2010-01-01

277

Impact of College Rankings on Institutional Decision Making: Four Country Case Studies. Issue Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ranking of higher education institutions is a growing phenomenon around the globe, with ranking systems in place in more than 40 countries and the emergence of international ranking systems that compare institutions across national lines. With this proliferation of rankings come questions about the goals, uses, and outcomes of these systems.…

Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2009

2009-01-01

278

Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

279

GIS solutions for ecosystem management in developing countries: A case study of Sao Tome and Principe  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to promote awareness of the application of the Geographic information system (GIS) technology to the management of ecosystems in developing countries. The adoptation of systematic environmental research and management techniques by national and local conservation programs helps ensure the sustainability of important biological resources.

Barnes, L.; Barrasso, T. [Booz, Allen & Hamilton Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Pinto da Costa, H. [ECO Sao Tome e Principe (Sao Tome and Principe)

1995-12-01

280

Lessons from the Pacific programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: a case study of 5 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is an important Neglected Tropical Disease, being a major cause of disability worldwide. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to eliminate LF as a public health problem by the year 2020, primarily through repeated Mass Drug Administration (MDA). The Pacific region programme commenced in 1999. By June 2007, five of the eleven countries classified

Clare Huppatz; Corinne Capuano; Kevin Palmer; Paul M Kelly; David N Durrheim

2009-01-01

281

The Digital Balance between Industrialised and Developing Countries: Futures Studies for Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of researching the digital balance between industrialised and developing countries was to discover how information and communication technology (ICT), content and e-services developed in Finland will work on the African continent, and vice versa. Globalisation and the associated new international division of labour and well-being…

Hietanen, Olli

2006-01-01

282

Global Value Chains and Technological Capabilities: A Frameworkto Study Learning and Innovation in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a critical review of the global value chain (GVC) literature in light of the “technological capabilities” approach to innovation in less-developed countries (LDCs). Participation in GVC is beneficial for firms in LDCs, which are bound to source technology internationally. However, the issues of learning and technological efforts at the firm level remain largely hidden in the GVC

Andrea Morrison; Carlo Pietrobelli; Roberta Rabellotti

2008-01-01

283

Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

2011-01-01

284

New Patterns of Adult Learning: A Six-Country Comparative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 10 papers based on a data set from the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey, which collected data from more than 20,000 individual respondents in samples representative of the adult populations in 6 countries: Canada, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. The papers are: "Foreword" (Paul…

Tuijnman, Albert; Belanger, Paul, Ed.

285

Student Engagement in Two Countries: A Comparative Study Using NSSE Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare college and university student engagement in two countries with different responses to global forces, Canada and the U.S., a series of hierarchical linear regression (HLM) models were developed to analyze data from the 2006 administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement. Overall, students in the U.S. are more engaged, particularly in areas of active and collaborative learning

C. B. Kandiko

286

Student Engagement in Two Countries: A Comparative Study Using National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare college and university student engagement in two countries with different responses to global forces, Canada and the United States (US), a series of hierarchical linear regression (HLM) models were developed to analyse data from the 2006 administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Overall, students in the U.S. are more engaged, particularly in areas of active

C. B. KANDIKO

287

A Multi-Country Study of InterGenerational Educational Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses intergenerational educational mobility using survey data for twenty countries. We find that a number of interesting patterns emerge. Estimating a measure of mobility as movement and an index of mobility as equality of opportunity we find that while these two measures are positively correlated, the correlation is far from perfect. Examining the link with educational inequality we

Arnaud Chevalier; Kevin Denny; Dorren McMahon

2003-01-01

288

Financing the Delivery of Animal Health Services in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate financing for the delivery of animal health services in many developing countries has been blamed for lack of efficiency and effectiveness of veterinary services. There are no reports of how the delivery of veterinary services in Ghana is financed. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the funding of veterinary services in Ghana to help in

P. K. Turkson; C. F. Brownie

1999-01-01

289

Risk management in milk production: A study in five European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU agricultural policy has recently been characterised by radical changes that increase market volatilities. Especially in the dairy market, fluctuating prices as well as production and political risks lead to high uncertainty for farmers. Based on a comprehensive survey, this paper discusses the risk perception and risk management strategies of dairy farmers in selected European countries. This approach allows

Christian Schaper; Birthe Lassen; Ludwig Theuvsen

2010-01-01

290

Risk Management in Milk Production: A Study in Five European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU agricultural policy has recently been characterized by radical changes that increase market volatilities. Especially in the dairy market, fluctuating prices as well as production and political risks lead to high uncertainty for farmers. Based on a comprehensive survey, this paper discusses the risk perception and risk management strategies of dairy farmers in selected European countries. This approach allows

Christian Schaper; Birthe J. Lassen; Ludwig Theuvsen

2009-01-01

291

A STUDY OF HOST COUNTRY FACTORS IN ATTRACTING FOREIGN INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER  

Microsoft Academic Search

To seek foreign direct investment and acquire technology, developing countries must provide the best conditions for investors whose choice of location will be influenced by what can be provided compared with their own requirements. National investment agencies (NIAs) are responsible for carrying the message to potential foreign investors. The investment decision making process can be divided into two stages. First,

Oktay Ozdenli; David Bennett

292

Consumer Movements in Newly Industrialized Countries: Taiwan as a Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the evolution of a consumer society in the newly industrialized countries of Asia, especially Taiwan. Looks at Taiwan's growing consumer presence , emerging consumer policy framework, and evolving family and social structure as well as consumer movement efforts and the impact of international organizations. (Contains 52 references.) (JOW)

McGregor, Sue L. T.

2000-01-01

293

Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.  

PubMed

Municipal wastewater treatment results to the production of large quantities of sewage sludge, which requires proper and environmentally accepted management before final disposal. In European Union, sludge management remains an open and challenging issue for the Member States as the relative European legislation is fragmentary and quite old, while the published data concerning sludge treatment and disposal in different European countries are often incomplete and inhomogeneous. The main objective of the current study was to outline the current situation and discuss future perspectives for sludge treatment and disposal in EU countries. According to the results, specific sludge production is differentiated significantly between European countries, ranging from 0.1 kg per population equivalent (p.e.) and year (Malta) to 30.8 kg per p.e. and year (Austria). More stringent legislations comparing to European Directive 86/278/EC have been adopted for sludge disposal in soil by several European countries, setting lower limit values for heavy metals as well as limit values for pathogens and organic micropollutants. A great variety of sludge treatment technologies are used in EU countries, while differences are observed between Member States. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion seems to be the most popular stabilization methods, applying in 24 and 20 countries, respectively. Mechanical sludge dewatering is preferred comparing to the use of drying beds, while thermal drying is mainly applied in EU-15 countries (old Member States) and especially in Germany, Italy, France and UK. Regarding sludge final disposal, sludge reuse (including direct agricultural application and composting) seems to be the predominant choice for sludge management in EU-15 (53% of produced sludge), following by incineration (21% of produced sludge). On the other hand, the most common disposal method in EU-12 countries (new Member States that joined EU after 2004) is still landfilling. Due to the obligations set by Directive 91/271/EC, a temporary increase of sludge amounts that are disposed in landfills is expected during the following years in EU-12 countries. Beside the above, sludge reuse in land and sludge incineration seem to be the main practices further adopted in EU-27 (all Member States) up to 2020. The reinforcement of these disposal practices will probably result to adoption of advanced sludge treatment technologies in order to achieve higher pathogens removal, odors control and removal of toxic compounds and ensure human health and environmental protection. PMID:22336390

Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

2012-06-01

294

Exploring evidence-policy linkages in health research plans: A case study from six countries  

PubMed Central

The complex evidence-policy interface in low and middle income country settings is receiving increasing attention. Future Health Systems (FHS): Innovations for Equity, is a research consortium conducting health systems explorations in six Asian and African countries: Bangladesh, India, China, Afghanistan, Uganda, and Nigeria. The cross-country research consortium provides a unique opportunity to explore the research-policy interface. Three key activities were undertaken during the initial phase of this five-year project. First, key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages in health system research were developed by FHS researchers through workshops and electronic communications. Four key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages are postulated: development context; research characteristics; decision-making processes; and stakeholder engagement. Second, these four considerations were applied to research proposals in each of the six countries to highlight features in the research plans that potentially strengthen the research-policy interface and opportunities for improvement. Finally, the utility of the approach for setting research priorities in health policy and systems research was reflected upon. These three activities yielded interesting findings. First, developmental consideration with four dimensions – poverty, vulnerabilities, capabilities, and health shocks – provides an entry point in examining research-policy interfaces in the six settings. Second, research plans focused upon on the ground realities in specific countries strengthens the interface. Third, focusing on research prioritized by decision-makers, within a politicized health arena, enhances chances of research influencing action. Lastly, early and continued engagement of multiple stakeholders, from local to national levels, is conducive to enhanced communication at the interface. The approach described has four main utilities: first, systematic analyses of research proposals using key considerations ensure such issues are incorporated into research proposals; second, the exact meaning, significance, and inter-relatedness of these considerations can be explored within the research itself; third, cross-country learning can be enhanced; and finally, translation of evidence into action may be facilitated. Health systems research proposals in low and middle income countries should include reflection on transferring research findings into policy. Such deliberations may be informed by employing the four key considerations suggested in this paper in analyzing research proposals. PMID:18331651

Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Hyder, Adnan A; Bloom, Gerald; Sundaram, Sandhya; Bhuiya, Abbas; Zhenzhong, Zhang; Kanjilal, Barun; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Pariyo, George; Peters, David H

2008-01-01

295

SEASAT SAR performance evaluation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor was evaluated using data processed by the MDA digital processor. Two particular aspects are considered the location accuracy of image data, and the calibration of the measured backscatter amplitude of a set of corner reflectors. The image location accuracy was assessed by selecting identifiable targets in several scenes, converting their image location to UTM coordinates, and comparing the results to map sheets. The error standard deviation is measured to be approximately 30 meters. The amplitude was calibrated by measuring the responses of the Goldstone corner reflector array and comparing the results to theoretical values. A linear regression of the measured against theoretical values results in a slope of 0.954 with a correlation coefficient of 0.970.

1982-01-01

296

Experimental study and evaluation of radioprotective drugs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental study evaluates radioprotective drugs administered before exposure either orally or intravenously. Specifically studied are the sources of radiation, choice of radiation dose, choice of animals, administration of drugs, the toxicity of protective agents and types of protective drug.

Smith, D. E.; Thomson, J. F.

1968-01-01

297

A preliminary study of a cloud-computing model for chronic illness self-care support in an underdeveloped country  

PubMed Central

Background Although interactive voice response (IVR) calls can be an effective tool for chronic disease management, many regions of the world lack the infrastructure to provide these services. Objective This study evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of an IVR program using a cloud-computing model to improve diabetes management in Honduras. Methods A single group, pre-post study was conducted between June and August 2010. The telecommunications infrastructure was maintained on a U.S. server, and calls were directed to patients’ cell phones using VoIP. Eighty-five diabetes patients in Honduras received weekly IVR disease management calls for six weeks, with automated follow-up emails to clinicians, and voicemail reports to family caregivers. Patients completed interviews at enrollment and a six week follow-up. Other measures included patients’ glycemic control (A1c) and data from the IVR calling system. Results 55% of participants completed the majority of their IVR calls and 33% completed 80% or more. Higher baseline blood pressures, greater diabetes burden, greater distance from the clinic, and better adherence were related to higher call completion rates. Nearly all participants (98%) reported that because of the program, they improved in aspects of diabetes management such as glycemic control (56%) or foot care (89%). Mean A1c’s decreased from 10.0% at baseline to 8.9% at follow-up (p<.01). Most participants (92%) said that if the service were available in their clinic they would use it again. Conclusions Cloud computing is a feasible strategy for providing IVR services globally. IVR self-care support may improve self-care and glycemic control for patients in under-developed countries. PMID:21565655

Piette, John D.; Mendoza-Avelares, Milton O.; Ganser, Martha; Mohamed, Muhima; Marinec, Nicolle; Krishnan, Sheila

2013-01-01

298

Evaluating the Madrasa Preschool Programme in East Africa: A Quasi-Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of preschool experience (two types of preschool: Madrasa and non-Madrasa) on the cognitive development of children in East Africa. In the three countries studied (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania/Zanzibar) preschool education is burgeoning and government standards are being set. This quasi experimental evaluation used…

Mwaura, Peter A. M.; Sylva, Kathy; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

2008-01-01

299

Home Start Evaluation Study. Interim Case Studies IIb.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eight interim case study summaries included in this booklet are part of "Report II" of the "Home Start Evaluation Study." Each case study was developed after field visits to each of the demonstration programs by case study workers from the evaluation agencies. The summaries are divided into six areas: (1) a statistical description of the…

High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI.

300

SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF COMPLEMENTARITIES, SUBSTITUTION AND SPILLOVERS IN THE IT INDUSTRY OF THE OECD COUNTRIES  

E-print Network

Firms use information technology (IT) to make better use of capital and labor in producing goods or services with the aim to increase productivity and efficiency. Because of the supply-and-demand relationship, the performance of the IT industry is critical to a country’s economy. We explore the productivity and efficiency of the IT industry in the context of globalization. We use production function and stochastic frontier analysis methods to examine the impacts of IT goods imports and IT services offshoring on country-level IT industry. Our data cover 2000 to 2006 for fourteen OECD countries. Because our explanatory variables are measured at the country level, we are able to capture cross-industry interactions between the IT-producing industry and IT-using industries. Because of the limitations of our data set, we employ resampling methods from small sample statistics as a means to show the stability and robustness of our empirical results. We report that the import of IT goods has a positive effect on the productivity and efficiency of the IT industry in the OECD countries we studied. We posit that this occurs because international knowledge spillovers have brought technological progress to the IT industry across the OECD. We also have evidence to suggest that IT services offshoring negatively affects the productivity and efficiency of the IT industry. This occurs when the scale of production is reduced due to adverse complementarities that exist between IT services and IT goods. Our findings provide implications for policy-makers on international IT trade and the welfare tradeoffs that occur with the development of IT offshoring practices.

Yenchun Chou; Robert J. Kauffman; Benjamin B. M. Shao

2009-01-01

301

Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination  

PubMed Central

Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP). Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9%) and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major challenge in the future will be prevention and management of imported malaria infections from neighbouring Indian states. Bhutan plans to implement screening at border points to prevent importation of malaria and to targeted prevention and surveillance efforts towards at-risk Bhutanese and migrant workers in construction sites. PMID:22230355

2012-01-01

302

Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.  

PubMed

Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates increased mortality rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, thermal stress, and increased frequency of infectious vector borne diseases in the region between 2070 and 2099. PMID:19190352

Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

2008-12-01

303

Clinical Applications of Evaluation Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of followup investigations exploring the impact of methadone maintenance treatment, methadone detoxification treatment, therapeutic communities, and outpatient drug-free treatment for the drug abuser was conducted. Limitations of these modalities were revealed in the followup studies. Implications for treatment and policy include: (1)…

Brown, Barry S.

304

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu (Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry)

1992-08-01

305

Policies for developing defense technology in newly industrialised countries: a case study of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post-Cold War era has witnessed considerably reduced national defense budgets and a consequent decline in the international arms trade. Therefore, the world’s arms suppliers have begun to sell high-performance weapons as another means of acquiring additional foreign exchange, thus enabling newly industrialised countries (NICs) to procure relatively advanced weaponry at lower prices. This trend is driving defense procurement policies

Chiou-Guey Jan

2003-01-01

306

E-Government Challenges in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments worldwide are increasingly becoming aware of the importance of employing e-government to improve the delivery of public services to the people. E-government readiness index is a composite measurement of the capacity and willingness of countries to use e-government for ICT-led development. This paper analyzes the Global e-Government readiness with a focus on e-Government Readiness Index of Pakistan, causes of

Faizullah Khan; Surat Khan; Bin Zhang

2010-01-01

307

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

1992-08-01

308

User and researcher collaborations in mental health in low and middle income countries: a case study of the EMPOWER project  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing recognition has been given to the interaction of users and researchers in shaping the perspective and practice of mental health care. However, there remains very little evidence exploring how this interaction works, particularly in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to explore experiences of how users and researchers worked together to communicate research, using a case study of the EMPOWER project. Methods The study followed a case-study approach. EMPOWER was a project that sought to strengthen the capacity of user organizations in India, Kenya, Nepal and Zambia by encouraging user-researcher collaborations to communicate research findings in the four countries. A qualitative research method was applied for this study, with semi-structured interviews conducted with seven people: two researchers, one communications developer, and four user group members (one from each of the four countries). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The findings indicated positive perceptions of the collaboration between researchers and users. Key themes were partnership and support, the value of the personal experience of users and their knowledge of the target audiences, and empowerment. Key challenges related to differences in levels of education and technical knowledge and the lack of payments to users. Conclusions This exploratory study provides insight to help understand collaborative processes for communicating mental health research. It highlights many positive outcomes from the EMPOWER collaboration but also highlights the need for more in-depth research on this issue. PMID:24423150

2014-01-01

309

Country Briefings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economist has placed online a very useful reference collection of country profiles, which contain background information, forecasts and statistics, market updates, new headlines, articles from the newspaper, and links to more information. These profiles may prove helpful to a variety of users and can be browsed by country. Updates are listed at the bottom of the page.

310

The "Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries" (PROVIDE) Study: Description of Methods of an Interventional Study Designed to Explore Complex Biologic Problems.  

PubMed

Oral vaccines appear less effective in children in the developing world. Proposed biologic reasons include concurrent enteric infections, malnutrition, breast milk interference, and environmental enteropathy (EE). Rigorous study design and careful data management are essential to begin to understand this complex problem while assuring research subject safety. Herein, we describe the methodology and lessons learned in the PROVIDE study (Dhaka, Bangladesh). A randomized clinical trial platform evaluated the efficacy of delayed-dose oral rotavirus vaccine as well as the benefit of an injectable polio vaccine replacing one dose of oral polio vaccine. This rigorous infrastructure supported the additional examination of hypotheses of vaccine underperformance. Primary and secondary efficacy and immunogenicity measures for rotavirus and polio vaccines were measured, as well as the impact of EE and additional exploratory variables. Methods for the enrollment and 2-year follow-up of a 700 child birth cohort are described, including core laboratory, safety, regulatory, and data management practices. Intense efforts to standardize clinical, laboratory, and data management procedures in a developing world setting provide clinical trials rigor to all outcomes. Although this study infrastructure requires extensive time and effort, it allows optimized safety and confidence in the validity of data gathered in complex, developing country settings. PMID:25711607

Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Colgate, E Ross; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Haque, Rashidul; Dickson, Dorothy M; Carmolli, Marya P; Nayak, Uma; Taniuchi, Mami; Naylor, Caitlin; Qadri, Firdausi; Ma, Jennie Z; Alam, Masud; Walsh, Mary Claire; Diehl, Sean A; Petri, William A

2015-04-01

311

Student Loans in Developing Countries: An Evaluation of the Colombian Performance. Bank Staff Working Paper No. 182.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The student loan program run by the Instituto Colombiano de Credito Educativo y Estudios Tecnicos en el Exterior (ICETEX) has three main objectives: to increase the country's supply of highly skilled manpower, to achieve more equality of educational opportunity, and to provide a meaningful source of finance for higher education. An analysis of…

Jallade, Jean-Pierre

312

P.C.A.P. Project Profiles and General Profilles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program-Evaluation Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-eight projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were initiated in 1977 and funded through the Disadvantaged Schools Program; the program was renamed the Country Area Program and made a permanent School Commission program in 1982. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report…

Saide, Tom, Ed.

313

The Mobile Manual Arts Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Begun in 1978 to bring manual arts experience to children in Queensland's "disadvantaged country areas," the Mobile Manual Arts Unit by the end of the 1980 school year had visited 16 separate locations, involving 25 different schools. A total of 727 students had participated (out of a target population of 992 pupils) and a total of 259 contact…

Fowler, Clifford F.; Peters, Joanne

314

Economic Renewal and Demographic Change Evaluation of policies for well functioning local labour markets in the Nordic countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional imbalances caused by and effecting demographic change are unevenly spread between the Nordic countries. A common threat is that of labour shortage, which is already experienced in certain sectors in particular regions and forecasted on a broader scale in the future. The also common characteristic of an ageing labour force has important side effects from a social and economic

Elli Heikkilä; Mats Johansson; Ingi Runar Edvardsson; Torben Dall Schmidt; Lasse Sigbjørn Stambøl; Lars Olof Persson

2004-01-01

315

An Exploration of Parents' Perceptions and Beliefs About Changes Following Participation in a Family Skill Training Program: a Qualitative Study in a Developing Country.  

PubMed

Family skill training programs have been recognized as effective strategies for preventing substance use. However, they have been evaluated mainly in high-income countries. Families in developing countries also face difficulties; therefore, it is important to explore the fit of existing programs in this context. The present study explores parents' perceptions and beliefs about changes following participation in the Strengthening Families Program 10-14, which was implemented in Panama by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Thirty parents who had taken part in the program between 2010 and 2011 were interviewed. Thematic analysis was conducted taking a participant-driven inductive stand. An exploration of parents' narratives suggested that, after the program, they observed changes in themselves as parents, in their children, in the interaction between the two of them, and in their functioning as a couple. Perceived changes centered on communication, limits, obedience, relationship roles, emotional regulation, and social development. For example, parents reported being able to control their emotions in a healthier manner, reducing the use of shouting and setting limits in a more effective way. All these factors have been recognized in previous research as strategies for preventing substance use. It is important to assess participants' perceptions of programs brought from elsewhere before dissemination efforts can take place. Parents interviewed for this study appeared to hold positive views about this program. This methodology is discussed as a means of evaluating evidence-based interventions in different cultural settings. PMID:25387790

Mejia, Anilena; Ulph, Fiona; Calam, Rachel

2014-11-12

316

Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.  

PubMed

Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour tester cette hypothèse, 832 étudiants collégiaux issus de six ethnies/nationalités différentes (la France, l'Allemagne, l'Autriche, la Suisse romande et allemande, la Belgique française et néerlandaise, les Pays-Bas) ont complété un questionnaire sur les taux de sympathie et de similitude. Les résultats ont indiqué que les différences en taille en combinaison avec la similitude linguistique avec une autre nation représentent une menace pour l'identité de la nation ou du groupe ethnique plus petit. Les différences en taille en combinaison avec la similitude linguistique étaient associées, d'une part, avec des asymétries dans la sympathie mutuelle et, d'autre part, avec des perceptions asymétriques de similitude avec l'autre nation. Les conclusions de cette étude sont en accord avec les résultats des études antérieures et soutiennent l'importance du langage pour l'identité d'une nation. De plus, les résultats appuient l'utilité de la théorie de l'identité sociale pour comprendre les relations intergroupes et internationales. Naciones vecinas con similitudes lingüísticas pero que difieren en tamaño son frecuentemente asimétricas respecto de sus relaciones actitudinales una respecto de la otra. Los cuidadanos de naciones pequeñas tienden a ver a naciones más grandes como menos simpáticas y parecidas que viceversa. Nosotros hipotetizamos que la reacción de las naciones más pequeñas es la consequencia de una identidad amenazada debido a su menor tamaño combinada con una similitud muy grande relacionada con una parte vital de su identidad: es decir el lenguaje. Para probar esta hipótesis 832 alumnos de la escuela secundaria de seis diferentes grupos étnicos/nacionales (Francia, Alemania, Austria, regiones en Suiza en las que se habla francés y alemán, regiones en Bélgica en las que se habla francés y holandés así como los Países Bajos) completaron un cuestionario sobre gustos y similitudes. Los resultados mostraron - en alto grado - que las diferencias en el tamaño en combinación con las similitudes lingüísticas con otra

van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

2010-02-01

317

Study Abroad in a Developing and a Developed Country: A Comparison of American Undergraduate Students' Experiences in Ghana and England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the differences among the experiences of 7 American undergraduate students; 4 who studied for a semester in Ghana, a developing country, and 3 who studied for a semester in England, a developed country. Using phenomenology as its guiding framework, transcribed interviews were analyzed and the focal phenomenon of the…

Costa, Maria

2012-01-01

318

Palliative Care Service Use in Four European Countries: A Cross-National Retrospective Study via Representative Networks of General Practitioners  

PubMed Central

Background Due to a rising number of deaths from cancer and other chronic diseases a growing number of people experience complex symptoms and require palliative care towards the end of life. However, population-based data on the number of people receiving palliative care in Europe are scarce. The objective of this study is to examine, in four European countries, the number of people receiving palliative care in the last three months of life and the factors associated with receiving palliative care. Methods Cross-national retrospective study. Over two years (2009–2010), GPs belonging to representative epidemiological surveillance networks in Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, and Spain registered weekly all deaths of patients (?18 years) in their practices and the care they received in the last three months of life using a standardized form. Sudden deaths were excluded. Results We studied 4,466 deaths. GPs perceived to have delivered palliative care to 50% of patients in Belgium, 55% in Italy, 62% in the Netherlands, and 65% in Spain (p<.001). Palliative care specialists attended to 29% of patients in the Netherlands, 39% in Italy, 45% in Spain, and 47% in Belgium (p<.001). Specialist palliative care lasted a median (inter-quartile range) of 15 (23) days in Belgium to 30 (70) days in Italy (p<.001). Cancer patients were more likely than non-cancer patients to receive palliative care in all countries as were younger patients in Italy and Spain with regard to specialist palliative care. Conclusions Although palliative care is established in the countries studied, there are considerable differences in its provision. Two potentially underserved groups emerge non-cancer patients in all countries and older people in Italy and Spain. Future research should examine how differences in palliative care use relate to both patient characteristics and existing national health care policies. PMID:24386381

Pivodic, Lara; Pardon, Koen; Van den Block, Lieve; Van Casteren, Viviane; Miccinesi, Guido; Donker, Gé A.; Alonso, Tomás Vega; Alonso, José Lozano; Aprile, Pierangelo Lora; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Deliens, Luc

2013-01-01

319

A method for estimating vaccine-preventable pediatric influenza pneumonia hospitalizations in developing countries: Thailand as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burden of influenza in children is increasingly appreciated; some middle-income countries are considering support for influenza vaccine programs. To support decision-making, methods to estimate the potential impact of proposed programs are needed. Using Thailand as a case-study, we present a model that uses surveillance data, published vaccine effectiveness estimates, and vaccination coverage assumptions to estimate the impact of influenza

Fatimah S. Dawood; Alicia M. Fry; Charung Muangchana; Wiwan Sanasuttipun; Henry C. Baggett; Supamit Chunsuttiwat; Susan A. Maloney; James Mark Simmerman

2011-01-01

320

Work stress and health in Western European and post-communist countries: an East–West comparison study  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence that psychosocial factors at work influence the risk of poor health in Western societies, but little is known about the effect of work stress in the former communist countries. The aim of this paper is to compare the association of work stress with self-rated health in Western European and post-communist countries. Methods Data from four epidemiological studies were used: the HAPIEE study (Poland, Russia and the Czech Republic), the Hungarian Epidemiological Panel (Hungary), the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (Germany) and the Whitehall II study (UK). The overall sample consisted of 18 494 male and female workers aged 35–65 years. Results High effort-reward imbalance at work was associated with poor self-rated health. The adjusted odds ratios for the highest versus lowest quartile of the effort-reward ratio were 3.8 (95% CI 1.9 to 7.7) in Hungary, 3.6 (95% CI 2.3 to 5.7) in the Czech Republic, 2.5 (95% CI 1.5 to 4.1) in the UK, 2.3 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.5) in Germany, 1.5 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.1) in Poland and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.8) in Russia. The differences in odds ratios between countries were statistically significant (p<0.05). A similar pattern was observed for the effect of overcommitment on poor health. Conclusion The association of effort-reward imbalance at work and of a high degree of work-related overcommitment with poor self-rated health was seen in all countries, but the size of the effects differed considerably. It does not appear that the effects in Eastern Europe are systematically stronger than in the West. PMID:19692735

Salavecz, G; Chandola, T; Pikhart, H; Dragano, N; Siegrist, J; Jöckel, K-H; Erbel, R; Pajak, A; Malyutina, S; Kubinova, R; Marmot, M; Bobak, M; Kopp, M

2014-01-01

321

Case Studies for Method and Tool Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case studies help industry evaluate the benefits of methods and tools and provide a cost-effective way to ensure that process changes provide the desired results. However, unlike formal experiments and surveys, case studies do not have a well-understood theoretical basis. This article provides guidelines for organizing and analyzing case studies so that they produce meaningful results

Barbara Kitchenham; Lesley Pickard; Shari Lawrence Pfleeger

1995-01-01

322

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

1992-08-01

323

Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

2013-06-01

324

Evaluating the Experience of GAPS—A Methodology for Improving Quality of Mass Immunization Campaigns in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of pockets of under-vaccinated persons has allowed outbreaks of disease in countries that have achieved high levels of vaccination coverage. A field-based methodology—GAPS (Geographic Assess- ment of Planning and Services)—was developed to predict, in advance of an immunization campaign, the sites of which are most likely to have a pocket of unvaccinated persons and then use this information

William M. Weiss; Gilbert Burnham; Peter J. Winch

2009-01-01

325

Earthquake Loss Assessment for the Evaluation of the Sovereign Risk and Financial Sustainability of Countries and Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently earthquakes have struck cities both from developing as well as developed countries, revealing significant knowledge gaps and the need to improve the quality of input data and of the assumptions of the risk models. The quake and tsunami in Japan (2011) and the disasters due to earthquakes in Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), New Zealand (2011) and Spain (2011), only to mention some unexpected impacts in different regions, have left several concerns regarding hazard assessment as well as regarding the associated uncertainties to the estimation of the future losses. Understanding probable losses and reconstruction costs due to earthquakes creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to cope with sovereign risk, including allocating the sustained budgetary resources necessary to reduce those potential damages and safeguard development. Therefore the use of robust risk models is a need to assess the future economic impacts, the country's fiscal responsibilities and the contingent liabilities for governments and to formulate, justify and implement risk reduction measures and optimal financial strategies of risk retention and transfer. Special attention should be paid to the understanding of risk metrics such as the Loss Exceedance Curve (empiric and analytical) and the Expected Annual Loss in the context of conjoint and cascading hazards.

Cardona, O. D.

2013-05-01

326

Country News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

1987-01-01

327

The Private Regulation of Labour Standards and Rights in the Global Clothing Industry: An Evaluation of Its Effectiveness in Two Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effectiveness of private transnational regulation of labour standards\\/rights in the clothing industry. It adopts three objectives. First, the study focuses on national states in developing countries, explaining their lack of enforcement of labour law and the suppression of labour rights. Second, the article examines the effectiveness of transnational regulatory networks (TRNs) in raising labour standards\\/rights in

Tugce Bulut

2011-01-01

328

Psychological Stress and Hospitalization for Childhood Asthma-a Nationwide Cohort Study in Two Nordic Countries  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposures to psychological stress in early life may contribute to the development or exacerbation of asthma. We undertook a cohort study based on data from several population-based registers in Denmark and Sweden to examine whether bereavement in childhood led to increased asthma hospitalization. Methods All singleton children born in Denmark during 1977-2008 and in Sweden during 1973-2006 were included in the study (N=5,202,576). The children were followed from birth to the date of first asthma hospitalization, emigration, death, their 18th birthday, or the end of study (31 December 2007 in Sweden and 31 December 2008 in Denmark), whichever came first. All the children were assigned to the non-bereaved group until they lost a close relative (mother, father or a sibling), from when they were included in the bereaved group. We evaluated the hazard ratio (HR) of first hospitalization for asthma in bereaved children using Cox proportional hazards regression models, compared to those who were in the non-bereaved group. We also did a sub-analysis on the association between bereavement and first asthma medication. Results A total of 147,829 children were hospitalized for asthma. The overall adjusted HR of asthma hospitalization in bereaved children was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.16), compared to non-bereaved children. The risk of asthma hospitalization was increased in those who lost a close relative at age of 14-17 years (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.23-1.92), but not in younger age groups. The association between bereavement and asthma hospitalization did not change over time since bereavement. In the sub-analysis in singleton live births during 1996-2008 recorded in the DMBR, bereavement was associated with a lower use of asthma medication (HR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.95). Conclusions Our data suggests that psychological stress following bereavement in late adolescence is associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalization or lowers the threshold for asthma hospitalization. PMID:24205324

Liu, Xiaoqin; Olsen, Jørn; Agerbo, Esben; Yuan, Wei; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong

2013-01-01

329

Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Internet risk has been recognised as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child’s online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Methods Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Detailed Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries. Correlations were found using quasi-Poisson regression. Countries’ prevalence rates of psychiatric problems (European Social Survey Round 3 and 6, 2006 and 2012) were used to test for possible spuriousness. Results This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the national prevalence of depressive symptoms or traditional bullying. Conclusions Explanations are given for the findings. We conclude that intervention programs designed to serve as precautionary measures for risk minimisation should be considered. PMID:25079144

2014-01-01

330

Developing an Appropriate Digital Hearing Aid for Low-Resource Countries: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the development process and discusses the key findings which resulted from our multidisciplinary research team's effort to develop an alternative digital hearing suitable for low-resource countries such as Thailand. A cost-effective, fully programmable digital hearing aid, with its specifications benchmarking against WHO's recommendations, was systematically designed, engineered, and tested. Clinically it had undergone a full clinical trial that employed the outcome measurement protocol adopted from the APHAB, the first time implemented in Thai language. Results indicated that using the hearing aid improves user's satisfaction in terms of ease of communication, background noises, and reverberation, with clear benefit after 3 and 6?months, confirming its efficacy. In terms of engineering, the hearing aid also proved to be robust, passing all the designated tests. As the technology has successfully been transferred to a local company for the production phase, we also discuss other challenges that may arise before the device can be introduced into the market. PMID:23818826

Israsena, P.; Isaradisaikul, S.; Noymai, A.; Boonyanukul, S.; Hemakom, A.; Chinnarat, C.; Navacharoen, N.; Lekagul, S.

2013-01-01

331

The critical role of supervision in retaining staff in obstetric services: a three country study.  

PubMed

Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 commits us to reducing maternal mortality rates by three quarters and MDG 4 commits us to reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In order to reach these goals, greater access to basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as well as comprehensive EmOC which includes safe Caesarean section, is needed.. The limited capacity of health systems to meet demand for obstetric services has led several countries to utilize mid-level cadres as a substitute to more extensively trained and more internationally mobile healthcare workers. Although this does provide greater capacity for service delivery, concern about the performance and motivation of these workers is emerging. We propose that poor leadership characterized by inadequate and unstructured supervision underlies much of the dissatisfaction and turnover that has been shown to exist amongst these mid-level healthcare workers and indeed health workers more generally. To investigate this, we conducted a large-scale survey of 1,561 mid-level cadre healthcare workers (health workers trained for shorter periods to perform specific tasks e.g. clinical officers) delivering obstetric care in Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. Participants indicated the primary supervision method used in their facility and we assessed their job satisfaction and intentions to leave their current workplace. In all three countries we found robust evidence indicating that a formal supervision process predicted high levels of job satisfaction and low intentions to leave. We find no evidence that facility level factors modify the link between supervisory methods and key outcomes. We interpret this evidence as strongly supporting the need to strengthen leadership and implement a framework and mechanism for systematic supportive supervision. This will promote better job satisfaction and improve the retention and performance of obstetric care workers, something which has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in the countdown to 2015. PMID:23555581

McAuliffe, Eilish; Daly, Michael; Kamwendo, Francis; Masanja, Honorati; Sidat, Mohsin; de Pinho, Helen

2013-01-01

332

The Critical Role of Supervision in Retaining Staff in Obstetric Services: A Three Country Study  

PubMed Central

Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 commits us to reducing maternal mortality rates by three quarters and MDG 4 commits us to reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In order to reach these goals, greater access to basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as well as comprehensive EmOC which includes safe Caesarean section, is needed.. The limited capacity of health systems to meet demand for obstetric services has led several countries to utilize mid-level cadres as a substitute to more extensively trained and more internationally mobile healthcare workers. Although this does provide greater capacity for service delivery, concern about the performance and motivation of these workers is emerging. We propose that poor leadership characterized by inadequate and unstructured supervision underlies much of the dissatisfaction and turnover that has been shown to exist amongst these mid-level healthcare workers and indeed health workers more generally. To investigate this, we conducted a large-scale survey of 1,561 mid-level cadre healthcare workers (health workers trained for shorter periods to perform specific tasks e.g. clinical officers) delivering obstetric care in Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. Participants indicated the primary supervision method used in their facility and we assessed their job satisfaction and intentions to leave their current workplace. In all three countries we found robust evidence indicating that a formal supervision process predicted high levels of job satisfaction and low intentions to leave. We find no evidence that facility level factors modify the link between supervisory methods and key outcomes. We interpret this evidence as strongly supporting the need to strengthen leadership and implement a framework and mechanism for systematic supportive supervision. This will promote better job satisfaction and improve the retention and performance of obstetric care workers, something which has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in the countdown to 2015. PMID:23555581

McAuliffe, Eilish; Daly, Michael; Kamwendo, Francis; Masanja, Honorati; Sidat, Mohsin; de Pinho, Helen

2013-01-01

333

Smoking in movies and adolescent smoking: cross-cultural study in six European countries  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate whether the association between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking among youth is independent of cultural context. Method Cross-sectional survey of 16 551 pupils recruited in Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD=1.18) and an equal gender distribution. School-based surveys were conducted between November 2009 and June 2010. Using previously validated methods, exposure to movie smoking was estimated from the 250 top-grossing movies of each country (years 2004–2009) and related to ever smoking. Results Overall, 29% of the sample had tried smoking. The sample quartile (Q) of movie smoking exposure was significantly associated with the prevalence of ever smoking: 14% of adolescents in Q1 had tried smoking, 21% in Q2, 29% in Q3 and 36% in Q4. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, television screen time, number of movies seen, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents and siblings), the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking in the entire sample were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for adolescents in Q2, 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) for Q3 and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) for Q4 compared with Q1. The adjusted relationship between ever smoking and higher movie smoking exposure levels was significant in all countries with a non-linear association in Italy and Poland. Conclusions The link between smoking in movies and adolescent smoking is robust and transcends different cultural contexts. Limiting young people's exposure to movie smoking could have important public health implications. PMID:21873322

Morgenstern, Matthis; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Karlsdottir, Solveig; Jonsson, Stefán Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

2013-01-01

334

An Ecological Study of the Determinants of Differences in 2009 Pandemic Influenza Mortality Rates between Countries in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 mortality rates varied widely from one country to another. Our aim was to identify potential socioeconomic determinants of pandemic mortality and explain between-country variation. Methodology Based on data from a total of 30 European countries, we applied random-effects Poisson regression models to study the relationship between pandemic mortality rates (May 2009 to May 2010) and a set of representative environmental, health care-associated, economic and demographic country-level parameters. The study was completed by June 2010. Principal Findings Most regression approaches indicated a consistent, statistically significant inverse association between pandemic influenza-related mortality and per capita government expenditure on health. The findings were similar in univariable [coefficient: –0.00028, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): –0.00046, –0.00010, p?=?0.002] and multivariable analyses (including all covariates, coefficient: –0.00107, 95% CI: –0.00196, –0.00018, p?=?0.018). The estimate was barely insignificant when the multivariable model included only significant covariates from the univariate step (coefficient: –0.00046, 95% CI: –0.00095, 0.00003, p?=?0.063). Conclusions Our findings imply a significant inverse association between public spending on health and pandemic influenza mortality. In an attempt to interpret the estimated coefficient (–0.00028) for the per capita government expenditure on health, we observed that a rise of 100 international dollars was associated with a reduction in the pandemic influenza mortality rate by approximately 2.8%. However, further work needs to be done to unravel the mechanisms by which reduced government spending on health may have affected the 2009 pandemic influenza mortality. PMID:21589928

Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Bagos, Pantelis; Lytras, Theodoros; Bonovas, Stefanos

2011-01-01

335

Transgressions, regressions and relative sea level changes on the Cretaceous shelf of Israel and adjacent countries. A critical evaluation of Cretaceous global sea level correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cretaceous transgressive regressive cycles over the northern margins of the Arabo-Nubian craton in the region of present- day Israel and the adjacent countries were reconstructed by tracing the position of the ancient Tethyan shorelines. Many of these cycles suggest inverse relationships to the relative sea-level changes deduced from litho- and biofacies analyses. Transgressions are frequently associated with shallowing, resulting in local exposure. The following rapid relative sea-level rise is associated with regressive oscillations caused by prograding sedimentation. Generally, the relative sea-level gradually rose throughout the Cretaceous, as reflected by the onlapping trend of the marine sediments. With the exception of one greater relative sea-level drop in the Middle Turonian, probably tectonically induced, all other relative sea-level variations were short stillstands and very minor falls. The dominant tectonic control on the relative sea-level changes and transgressive- regressive cycles during the Late Coniacian-Maastrichtian times, and on the Middle Turonian and early Late Coniacian shallowing events recognised in Israel render their previous attribution exclusively to eustasy erroneous. The opposing relationship between relative bathymetric changes and transgressive-regressive tendencies, as well as the poor biostratigraphic control in many of the sea-level curves compiled on the basis of these two criteria, raise additional doubts as to their presumed significance for global correlations. The present study supports Jeletzky's [1977, 1978] critical analysis, and his call for similar critical re-evaluation of previous studies throughout the world, rather than the "emendation" of data to improve correlation to a given scheme.

Lewy, Zeev

1990-08-01

336

Violence and non-violence-related injuries and alcohol in women from developed and developing countries: a multi-site emergency room study.  

PubMed

This study sought to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the occurrence of injuries in women attending the emergency room (ER) from developing and developed countries. The sample consisted of ER data from women in 15 countries that were collected as part of two multi-site studies using similar methodologies: the Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project (ERCAAP), and World Health Organization Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injuries (WHO Study). Women ranged in age from 18 to 98years. Those from developed countries had higher levels of education (43% completed high-school) than women from developing countries (37%). Over half of the women from developing countries reported they had not consumed alcohol in the last 12months (abstentious), while 2% reported drinking every day. In addition, current drinking women from developing countries reported more binge drinking episodes (33% reported 5 to 11 drinks and 15% reported 12 or more drinks on an occasion) compared to those from developed countries (28% and 11%, respectively). Violence-related injury was more prevalent in developing countries (18%) compared to developed countries (9%). An association between injury and the frequency of alcohol consumption in the last 12months was observed in both developing and developed countries. Although women from developing countries who suffered violence-related injuries were more likely to demonstrate alcohol abstinence or have lower rates of daily alcohol consumption, these women drank in a more dangerous way, and violence-related injuries were more likely to occur in these women than in those living in developed countries. PMID:25452073

da Silva, Rosiane Lopes; Diehl, Alessandra; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Figlie, Neliana B

2015-02-01

337

Automated summative usability studies: an empirical evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates a method for summative usability testing using an automated data collection system. We found automated summative testing to be a simple and effective alternative to lab-based summative testing and could be successfully conducted remotely. In our study, a web-based control window led participants through the summative study, provided tasks to perform, and asked follow up questions about

Ryan West; Katherine R. Lehman

2006-01-01

338

Oasis Connections: Results from an Evaluation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a community-based basic computer and Internet training program designed for older adults, provide recommendations for program refinement, and gather preliminary information on program sustainability. Design and Methods: The program was developed by the OASIS Institute, a nonprofit…

Czaja, Sara J.; Lee, Chin Chin; Branham, Janice; Remis, Peggy

2012-01-01

339

The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin American countries: the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Latin America, we found a 11.18 (95% CI 9.23–13.4) prevalence\\u000a of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 1,922 women from cities within five different countries.\\u000a These figures are similar to findings from studies in Beijing, China, some regions of Europe, and slightly lower than those\\u000a found in the

P. Clark; F. Cons-Molina; M. Deleze; S. Ragi; L. Haddock; J. R. Zanchetta; J. J. Jaller; L. Palermo; J. O. Talavera; D. O. Messina; J. Morales-Torres; J. Salmeron; A. Navarrete; E. Suarez; C. M. Pérez; S. R. Cummings

2009-01-01

340

Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females) from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity. PMID:24348144

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Lalla, Osama; Ali, Essa Y. A.; Kalam, Faiza; Benhamed, Mofida M.; Saghir, Sabri; Halahleh, Ismail; Djoudi, Zahra; Chirane, Manel

2013-01-01

341

Correlates of functional outcome among stroke survivors in a developing country--a prospective community-based study from India.  

PubMed

Stroke survivors (SS) are rising with higher incidence of stroke in developing countries. In addition to physical impairment, other factors such as cognition, social interaction, and depression determine the functional outcome after stroke. Considering the paucity of data from developing countries, we planned to determine the change in various functional parameters among SS. This community-based prospective study was carried out in Kolkata, India among 283 SS between 2006 and 2010. Functional outcome was assessed at baseline and at 3 annual follow-up visits using validated tools. A stepwise regression analysis was performed with demographic and stroke-related covariates against various measures of functional outcome. Result showed that mean Barthel Index score at baseline was 76.4 ± 30.8. Bengali version of mental status examination and Geriatric Depression Scale scores trended down over time with a negative regression coefficient of -.2061 (standard error [SE], .0937) and -.4488 (SE, .2145). Other outcomes did not change. Female gender, depression, and cognitive dysfunction had an unfavorable impact, whereas education correlated positively. In conclusions female gender and neuropsychiatric disturbances showed poor functional outcome compared with education, which correlates with better outcome. This information will be helpful for patients in developing countries for planning stroke rehabilitation. PMID:25238928

Ghosal, Malay Kumar; Burman, Prabir; Singh, Vineeta; Das, Sujata; Paul, Neelanjana; Ray, Biman Kanti; Hazra, Avijit; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Basu, Arindam; Chaudhuri, Arijit; Das, Shyamal Kumar

2014-01-01

342

Risk of disordered eating attitudes among adolescents in seven Arab countries by gender and obesity: a cross-cultural study.  

PubMed

The objectives were to discover the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes (EAs) among adolescent males and females, and the association of obesity with EA in seven Arab countries. A multistage stratified sampling technique was used to select secondary students aged 15-18 years from cities in Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria and Sharijah Emirate (United Arab Emirates). The total sample was 4698 (2240 males and 2458 females). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to measure those at risk of disordered EA. Obesity was calculated according to the International Obesity Taskforce criteria. Participants were grouped into two categories, non-obese and obese (overweight and obese). The risk of disordered EA was twice as high among females as in males in Jordan, Libya, Palestine and Syria. Kuwaiti adolescents (males and females) showed higher prevalence of disordered EA than their counterparts in other countries. The risk of disordered EA among obese adolescents was two to three times higher than that of non-obese adolescents, in both genders. Excepting Kuwaiti females and Palestinian males. The association of obesity with disordered EA was statistically significant. This study highlighted the magnitude of the risk of disordered eating attitudes among both male and female adolescents in Arab countries and identified the need for programmes to prevent and control these disorders in the Arab region. PMID:23092757

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Lalla, Osama; Ali, Essa Y A; Kalam, Faiza; Benhamed, Mofida M; Saghir, Sabri; Halahleh, Ismail; Djoudi, Zahra; Chirane, Manel

2013-01-01

343

Health interventions for the metal working industry: which is the most cost-effective? A study from a developing country.  

PubMed

This study ranked the cost-effectiveness of health interventions in the metal working industry in a developing country. Data were based on 82 034 workers of the Northern region of Mexico. Effectiveness was measured through 'healthy life years' (HeaLYs) gained. Costs were estimated per worker according to type and appropriate inputs from selected health interventions. 'Hand' was the anatomical region that yielded the most gain of HeaLYs and amputation was the injury that yielded the most gain of HeaLYs. The most effective health intervention corresponded to training, followed by medical care, education, helmets, safety shoes, lumbar supports, safety goggles, gloves and safety aprons. In dollar terms, education presented the best cost-effectiveness ratio (US$637) and safety aprons presented the worst cost-effectiveness ratio (US$1 147 770). Training proved to be a very expensive intervention, but presented the best effectiveness outcome and the second best cost-effectiveness ratio (US$2084). Cost-effectiveness analyses in developing countries are critical. Corporations might not have the same funds and technology as those in developed countries or multinational companies. PMID:12063358

Salinas, A M; Villarreal, E; Nuñez, G M; Garza, M E; Briones, H; Navarro, O

2002-05-01

344

Financing the delivery of animal health services in developing countries: a case study of Ghana.  

PubMed

Inadequate financing for the delivery of animal health services in many developing countries has been blamed for lack of efficiency and effectiveness of veterinary services. There are no reports of how the delivery of veterinary services in Ghana is financed. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the funding of veterinary services in Ghana to help in decision making on resource allocation. Various indicators and measures were used in assessing the adequacy of financing and resource allocation from 1990 to 1995. These measures were the veterinary budget as proportions of the national budget, GDP and AGDP; the proportions of the veterinary budget allocated to salaries; the ratios of salaries to non-staff expenditure and of non-staff expenditure to veterinary livestock units and technical staff; coefficient of efficacy; and R-ratio. These generally declined or worsened over the period, deviating from recommended norms where such norms exist. This confirmed the paucity of financing and resource allocation for the delivery of veterinary services. Revenue generation from cost recovery over the 1993-95 period was a potential source of funding, exceeding 100% of non-staff expenditure for 1993 and 1994. However, the revenue generated was not channelled back to veterinary services but went to the national coffers. This served as a disincentive. There is an urgent need to review how veterinary services are financed in Ghana, if the delivery of services is to improve in efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:10399815

Turkson, P K; Brownie, C F

1999-02-01

345

Constraints to healthcare waste treatment in low-income countries - a case study from Somaliland.  

PubMed

In low-income countries, healthcare waste is mixed with the municipal waste stream and rarely receives special attention. This paper presents the lessons learned from a pilot project targeted to improve healthcare waste management in Hargeisa (Somaliland). The interventions were carried out in three of the main hospitals in the city. Consideration was also given to improve the overall situation regarding the management of healthcare waste. Three De Montfort incinerators were built and training was provided to operators, waste workers and healthcare personnel. Although the incinerators were constructed in accordance with the required standards, major constraints were identified in the operational phase: irregular de-ashing procedures, misuse of safety equipment, and ineffective separation of healthcare waste were seen in this phase. The paper concludes that in other small hospitals in the developing world, such as those in Hargeisa, on-site incineration by use of low-cost, small-scale incinerators could be successfully applied as an interim solution, provided that an agreed and acceptable plan of operation and maintenance is in place and responsibilities for the management of the facility are clearly identified. Moreover, when replicating this experience in other settings even greater importance should be given to the technical capacity building of operators and pressure should be exercised on local administrations in order to control and supervise the whole management system. PMID:22128091

Di Bella, Veronica; Ali, Mansoor; Vaccari, Mentore

2012-06-01

346

BIQSFP-12-Biomarker-Imaging-Study-Evaluation-Template  

Cancer.gov

BIQSFP ’12 (Biomarker, Imaging, and Quality of Life Studies Funding Program) BIOMARKER & IMAGING Study Evaluation Template BIQSFP ’12 Biomarker -Imaging Study Evaluation Template 6/08,2/09,3/09,5/09,3/10,3/11,3/12 STUDY EVALUATION

347

Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia: results from the CEPHEUS study in Arabian Gulf countries.  

PubMed

The Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS) survey evaluated the attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals among patients on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) guideline. The survey was conducted in 6 Arabian Gulf countries. Patients aged ?18 years on LLDs for at least ?3 months (stable medication for ?6 weeks) were recruited. Fasting blood samples were collected at a single visit. In this survey, 5276 (58.2% male) patients were included in the final analysis. The LDL-C goal was attained in 91.1% of low-risk, 52.7% of high-risk, and 32.0% in very-high-risk categories. Goal attainment was directly related to female gender, age<40 years, history of diabetes, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The results of this survey highlight the suboptimal management of hypercholesterolemia across Arabian Gulf countries. PMID:24301426

Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al Tamimi, Omer; Al Herz, Shorook; Al Anazi, Faisal; Al Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Alkhadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel Razak; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Al Jassim, Obaid; Al Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad Omar Ahmed S; Alawadhi, Mahmoud; Amin, Haitham; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Shehab, Abdullah

2014-11-01

348

Breast-Milk Substitutes: A New Old-Threat for Breastfeeding Policy in Developing Countries. A Case Study in a Traditionally High Breastfeeding Country  

PubMed Central

Background Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS) in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. Methods Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. Participants: 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. Tools: 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas). Outcome measures included: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula); 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6–3.2). One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group) living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15–2.78), p<0.009). Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41–0.99), p?=?0.04). Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. Conclusion In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries. PMID:22347392

Barennes, Hubert; Empis, Gwenaelle; Quang, Thao Duong; Sengkhamyong, Khouanheuan; Phasavath, Phonethepa; Harimanana, Aina; Sambany, Emercia M.; Koffi, Paulin N.

2012-01-01

349

SMS reminders to improve the tuberculosis cure rate in developing countries (TB-SMS Cameroon): a protocol of a randomised control study  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis is a public health problem in Cameroon, just like in many other countries in the world. The National Tuberculosis Control Programme (PNLT) put in place by the state, aims to fight tuberculosis through the implementation of international directives (Directly Observed Treatment Short, DOTS). Despite the deployment of this strategy across the world, its implementation is difficult in the context of low-resource countries. Some expected results are not achieved. In Cameroon, the cure rate for patients with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TPM+) after 6 months is only about 65%, 20% below the target. This is mainly due to poor patient adherence to treatment. By relying on the potential of mobile Health, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of SMS reminders on the cure rate of TPM?+?patients, measured using 6-month bacilloscopy. Methods/design This is a blinded, randomised controlled multicentre study carried out in Cameroon. The research hypothesis is that sending daily SMS messages to remind patients to take their prescribed tuberculosis medication, together with the standard DOTS strategy, will increase the cure rate from 65% (control group: DOTS, no SMS intervention) to 85% (intervention group: DOTS, with SMS intervention) in a group of new TPM?+?patients. In accordance with each treatment centre, the participants will be randomly allocated into the two groups using a computer program: the intervention group and the control group. A member of the research team will send daily SMS messages. Study data will be collected by health professionals involved in the care of patients. Data analysis will be done by the intention-to-treat method. Discussion The achieving of expected outcomes by the PNLT through implementation of DOTS requires several challenges. Although it has been demonstrated that the DOTS strategy is effective in the fight against tuberculosis, its application remains difficult in developing countries. This study explores the potential of mHealth to support DOTS strategy. It will gather new evidence on the effectiveness of mHealth-based interventions and SMS reminders in the improvement of treatment adherence and the cure rate of tuberculosis patients, especially in a low-resource country such as Cameroon. Trial registration The trial is registered on the Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.pactr.org) under unique identification number: PACTR201307000583416. PMID:24460827

2014-01-01

350

Changing mobility patterns and road mortality among pre-license teens in a late licensing country: an epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background Whereas the safety of teens in early licensing countries has been extensively studied, little is known about the safety of pre-license teens in late licensing countries, where these teens also may be at risk. This risk exists because of the combination of a) increasing use of travel modes with a high injury risk, such as bicycles and mopeds, b) inexperience, and c) teens’ developmental stage, known to be associated with risk taking and novelty seeking, especially among males. To explore the magnitude and nature of pre-license road risk, this study analysed epidemiological data from the Netherlands, and hypothesized that in this late licensing country, ‘independent travel’ and the use of riskier modes of transport increase among pre-license teens 10 to 17 years of age, resulting in higher fatality rates, with ‘experience’ and ‘gender’ as risk modifying factors. Method National travel and fatality data of pre-license adolescents in the Netherlands were analysed by traffic role (cyclist, pedestrian, car passenger and moped rider), and compared to a younger age group (0–9 years) and an older age group (18+ years). Results The study of travel data showed that teens migrate from being car occupants to being users of riskier modes of transport, specifically bicycles and mopeds. This migration resulted in a strong rise in road fatalities, illustrating the importance of mobility patterns for understanding changes in road fatalities in this age group. The data further suggested a protective role of early cycle experience for young adolescent cyclists, particularly for young males. But further study into the underlying mechanism is needed to confirm this relationship. Moped risk was extremely high, especially among young males, and even higher than that of young male car drivers. Conclusions The study confirmed the importance of changes in mobility patterns for understanding the rising road mortality when youngsters enter into their teens. The focus on fatalities has led to an underestimation of the magnitude of the problem because of the physical resilience of young adolescents that leads to high survival rates but probably also to long term disabilities. In addition, to explore the generalizability of these results, international comparisons among and between early and late licensing countries are necessary, especially in relation to moped riding as an alternative for car driving. PMID:23577703

2013-01-01

351

Community Health Workers and Health Care Delivery: Evaluation of a Women's Reproductive Health Care Project in a Developing Country  

PubMed Central

Background As part of the mid-term evaluation of a Women's Health Care Project, a study was conducted to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to interview Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA). Information was collected on MWRA knowledge regarding danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, postnatal periods, and MNH care seeking behavior. After comparing MNH service utilization, the two areas were compared using a logistic regression model, to identify the association of different factors with the intervention after controlling for socio-demographic, economic factors and distance of the MWRA residence to a health care facility. Results The demographic characteristics of women in the two areas were similar, although socioeconomic status as indicated by level of education and better household amenities, was higher in the intervention area. Consequently, on univariate analysis, utilization of MNH services: antenatal care, TT vaccination, institutional delivery and use of modern contraceptives were higher in the intervention than control area. Nonetheless, multivariable analysis controlling for confounders such as socioeconomic status revealed that utilization of antenatal care services at health centers and TT vaccination during pregnancy are significantly associated with the intervention. Conclusions Our findings suggest positive changes in health care seeking behavior of women and families with respect to MNH. Some aspects of care still require attention, such as knowledge about danger signs and neonatal care, especially umbilical cord care. Despite overall success achieved so far in response to the Millennium Development Goals, over the past two decades decreases in maternal mortality are far from the 2015 target. This report identifies some of the key factors to improving MNH and serves as an interim measure of a national and global challenge that remains a work in progress. PMID:24086541

Wajid, Abdul; White, Franklin; Karim, Mehtab S.

2013-01-01

352

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Fearnside, P.M. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia)

1992-08-01

353

State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009/2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 03  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to describe and map the current state of play of the Bologna Process in the nine countries of the Southern Mediterranean participating in the Tempus programme. For the last twenty years, the Tempus programme has supported the modernisation of higher education systems in countries neighbouring the EU by financing…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

2010-01-01

354

Education for All: Policy Lessons from High-Achieving Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws upon case studies of countries that universalized primary education early in their development process and rapidly increased secondary enrollments thereafter. Examines the common elements of social and education policy among these high achievers, and also evaluates the policy lessons for other developing countries from the experience of…

Mehrotra, Santosh

1998-01-01

355

Project identification and evaluation techniques for transportation infrastructure : assessing their role in metropolitan areas of developing countries  

E-print Network

Project identification and evaluation of transportation infrastructure play a vital role in shaping and sustaining the forms of cities all over the world. These cities differ substantially in character and urban form and ...

Kumar, Vimal, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

356

Evaluation of decentralized treatment of sewage employing Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor (USBR) in developing countries.  

PubMed

A new concept for a low-cost modified septic tank, named Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor (USBR), was constructed and tested in a small village in Egypt. During almost one year of continuous operation and monitoring, this system was found to have very satisfactory removal results, where the average results of COD, BOD, and TSS removal efficiencies were 84%, 81%, and 89%, respectively, and the results of the experiment proved that the second compartment (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) was the main treatment unit in removing the pollutants during the start-up period and at the very early steady-state stage. However, after this period and during the steady-state operation conditions, the second compartment served as a polishing step. Also, it was observed that the USBR system was not affected by the imposed shock loads at the peak flow and organic periods. The results showed that the system is slightly influenced by the drop in the temperature. Decreasing in BOD and COD removal by factor of 9% was observed, when temperature decreases from the average of 35 degrees C in summer time (for the first 127 days) to the average of 22 degrees C in winter time (between day 252 and day 280). Whereas, the TSS removals were not affected by the drop in temperature. The results of the sewage flow variations during one year of operation were compared with Goodrich Formula to see the applicability of this equation in rural developing countries. MAIN FINDING OF THE WORK: The Upflow Septic Tank/Baffled Reactor system could become a promising alternative to the conventional treatment plants in rural developing countries. PMID:19819068

Sabry, Tarek

2010-02-15

357

Moving beyond prevalence studies: screening and interventions for children with disabilities in low-income and middle-income countries.  

PubMed

Research understanding the lives of children with disabilities in low-income and middle-income countries has predominantly focused on prevalence studies with little progress on evidence-based service development. At the same time, global attention in child health has shifted from child survival strategies to those that bring child survival and development together. This review examines whether intervention research can be better aligned with current theoretical constructs of disability and international guidelines that advocate for the realisation of rights for children with disabilities and inclusive early childhood development. PMID:24647995

Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lynch, Paul; Gladstone, Melissa

2014-09-01

358

Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this evidence has shown complexity with regard to setting, conflict-phase, gender, and age. These complex findings raise the need of a detailed evaluation of the specific factors which influence size and direction of intervention effects. Individual patient data meta-analysis is a specific type of meta-analysis that allows the collection of exact information at an individual patient level, and to examine whether intervention and socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support may act as moderators and mediators of intervention effect. The aim of the present study is to carry out an individual patient data meta-analysis using data from all available randomized controlled trials (either published or unpublished) comparing psychosocial intervention with waiting list or no intervention arms in children exposed to traumatic events living in low- and middle-income countries. Methods/Design All randomized trials comparing selective preventive psychosocial intervention versus waiting list or no treatment conditions in children (0–18 years) living in low- and middle-income countries will be included. Studies will be identified in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. There will be no restrictions on publication type, status, language, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be psychological symptoms (post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (coping methods, social support, self-esteem), and function impairment. Discussion We are expecting that some variables, like socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support will act as moderators/mediators of intervention effect. The investigation of the role of these factors on the intervention effects will help in the appropriate selection, development, implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based programs in low- and middle-income countries. Trial registration This protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (registration number: CRD42013006960). PMID:24721115

2014-01-01

359

Individualized Study Program. Interim Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of an evaluation of the Individualized Study Program (ISP), a 2-year pilot program at the Learning Skills Center (LSC) of the University of California, Davis, are presented. The program target group were disadvantaged students who had not met the university's entrance requirements. The ISP, which is designed to improve retention of…

Tom, Alice K.

360

Rethinking Indicators of Microbial Drinking Water Quality for Health Studies in Tropical Developing Countries: Case Study in Northern Coastal Ecuador  

PubMed Central

To address the problem of the health impacts of unsafe drinking water, methods are needed to assess microbiologic contamination in water. However, indicators of water quality have provided mixed results. We evaluate five assays (three for Escherichia coli and one each for enterococci and somatic coliphage) of microbial contamination in villages in rural Ecuador that rely mostly on untreated drinking water. Only membrane filtration for E. coli using mI agar detected a significant association with household diarrheal disease outcome (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–1.65 in household containers and odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–1.37) in source samples. Our analysis and other published research points to the need for further consideration of study design factors, such as sample size and variability in measurements, when using indicator organisms, especially when relating water quality exposure to health outcomes. Although indicator organisms are used extensively in health studies, we argue that their use requires a full understanding of their purposes and limitations. PMID:22403326

Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

2012-01-01

361

Rich countries and poor countries revisited.  

PubMed

A sharp divergence of views between developed and developing countries on the problems of development has resulted in an increasingly open politicization of world economic issues. Related to this has been a manifest subordination of specific population and development issues to the political call for a new economic order viewed as a panacea to all problems. The basic facts and figures show that the world economic scene at the time of the 5th UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was even gloomier in many ways than a decade before. The debate which resulted from confrontation between the developed and developing countries at this conference is reviewed and an assessment is made of the impact of the confrontation. The failure of UNCTAD 5 to produce a joint resolution of consensus about an evaluation of the world economic situation at the end of the 1970s was reflected in the reluctance of the majority to come to grips with several issues, including the interrelationship of population problems and economic development. Since the 1970 World Population Conference at Bucharest many developing countries refuse to consider their populations as: 1) being a cause of their underdevelopment; 2) being at the same level of acuteness as their economic struggle; and 3) being international problems that require a pooling of efforts in the way they feel their fight for more economic justice does. The insistence of the wealthy countries on linking the economic problems of the poor to high rates of population growth and in general the way in which developing countries perceive themselves to be manipulated by developed countries has resulted in a determination by the poorer nations to maintain a separation between the areas of population and development, and to avoid discussing the former at a world meeting devoted to the latter. PMID:12179858

Gallagher, C F

1979-01-01

362

The Role of ICT in Enhancing Education in Developing Countries: Findings from an Evaluation of The Intel Teach Essentials Course in India, Turkey, and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings from case studies of the introduction of the Intel® Teach Essentials Course—a professional development program focused on integrating information and communication technologies (ICT) into project-based learning—into six schools in Chile, India, and Turkey. We describe four common dimensions of change in learning environments that emerged across the countries: changes in teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes; changes

Daniel Light

2009-01-01

363

A cross-national study of the pattern of modernization in the developing countries, 1965-75  

E-print Network

COUNTRIES? 1965 AND 1973 (IN U. S. $) Countries 1965" GNP Rank 1 973+? GNP Rank Venezuela Argentina Greece Uraguay Chile Spain Libya Jamaica Panama Mexico Lebanon Costa Rica Portugal Peru Nicaragua Guatemala Malaysia Ghana Colombia..., are now cate- gorized as developed countries in the World Banks' "World Table 1976. " Among them are Spain, Greece, Venezuela, Portugal and Argentina. 29 TABLE 2. LABOR DIVERSITY INDEX, 1960/65 AND 1970/75 Countries Argentina Spain Chile Venezuela...

Choi, Kwok-on Frankie

1979-01-01

364

The relationship between maternal depression and smoking cessation during pregnancy--a cross-sectional study of pregnant women from 15 European countries.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy. However, differences in study design and methodology challenge study comparability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and continuing smoking among pregnant European women while adjusting for maternal characteristics. This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data on depression status, smoking habits, maternal socio-demographic characteristics, and life-style factors were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Associations were estimated with logistic regression. Of 4,295 women included, 1,481 (34.5 %) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 391 (26.4 %) continued smoking during pregnancy whereof 127 (32.5 %) were depressed. The association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy were uniform across the European countries (OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.50-2.71), with about twice the prevalence of continuing smoking among the depressed. There was a strong relationship between continuing smoking in pregnancy and low education level (OR 4.46, 95 % CI 2.72-7.32), which coincided with risky pregnancy behavior such as failure to attend pregnancy/birth preparation courses (OR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.19-2.72) and follow recommended use of folic acid (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.23-2.65). Women who perceived the risk for the fetus of continued smoking during pregnancy as higher were the least likely to continue smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.68-0.77). This underlines the clustering of risk in some pregnant women, and the results should guide antenatal care of depressed women struggling to quit smoking during pregnancy. PMID:25352316

Smedberg, Janne; Lupattelli, Angela; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Øverland, Simon; Nordeng, Hedvig

2015-02-01

365

Creating Child-Friendly Environments: Case Studies on Children's Participation in Three European Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses literature on children's community participation and analyzes case studies on children's involvement in neighborhood improvement in Finland, Switzerland, and France. Case-study findings indicate that the creation of child-friendly environments with young people requires a shift toward more ecological and socially supportive settings with…

Horelli, Liisa

1998-01-01

366

Organic Supply Chain Collaboration: A Case Study in Eight EU Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at contributing to a better understanding of the linkage between supply chain performance and possible performance improvement with respect to food quality and safety. Therefore, the article addresses the question whether the level of collaborative planning and close supply chain relationships could help improve the quality and safety of organic supply chains. The study was conducted as

S. Naspetti; N. Lampkin; P. Nicolas; M. Stolze; R. Zanoli

2011-01-01

367

System dynamics approach to immunization healthcare issues in developing countries: a case study of Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article critically examines the challenges associated with demand for immunization, including the interplay of political, social, economic and technological forces that influence the level of immunization coverage. The article suggests a framework to capture the complex and dynamic nature of the immunization process and tests its effectiveness using a case study of Ugandan healthcare provision. Field study research methods

Agnes S. Rwashana; Ddembe W. Williams; Stella Neema

2009-01-01

368

PRE-RELEASE EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR SILVELEAF WHITEFLY WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OTHER COUNTRIES CONSIDERING RELEASE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A retrospective evaluation of the biological control program for Bemisia tabaci biotype B in the USA was conducted. The use of climate matching to direct foreign exploration led to the discovery of B. tabaci parasitoids from diverse climates, which proved useful in selecting species which would est...

369

Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic deforestation in tropical countries is responsible for a significant part of global carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. To plan efficient climate change mitigation programs (such as REDD+, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), reliable forecasts of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are necessary. Although population density has been recognized as a key factor in tropical deforestation, current methods of prediction do not allow the population explosion that is occurring in many tropical developing countries to be taken into account. Here, we propose an innovative approach using novel computational and statistical tools, including R/GRASS scripts and the new phcfM R package, to model the intensity and location of deforestation including the effect of population density. We used the model to forecast anthropogenic deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions in five large study areas in the humid and spiny-dry forests of Madagascar. Using our approach, we were able to demonstrate that the current rapid population growth in Madagascar (+3.39% per year) will significantly increase the intensity of deforestation by 2030 (up to +1.17% per year in densely populated areas). We estimated the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the loss of aboveground biomass to be of 2.24 and 0.26 tons per hectare and per year in the humid and spiny-dry forest, respectively. Our models showed better predictive ability than previous deforestation models (the figure of merit ranged from 10 to 23). We recommend this approach to reduce the uncertainty associated with deforestation forecasts. We also underline the risk of an increase in the speed of deforestation in the short term in tropical developing countries undergoing rapid population expansion. PMID:23789079

Vieilledent, Ghislain; Grinand, Clovis; Vaudry, Romuald

2013-01-01

370

Application of the contingent valuation method in a developing country: a case study of the Yusufeli dam in northeast Turkey.  

PubMed

Hydroelectric power plants and dams often play an important role in developing countries in terms of their contribution to economy. In accordance with the energy policies of Turkish Republic, Yusufeli Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant in Northeastern Turkey have been initiated. In this study, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was conducted in Yusufeli Village to determine the environmental costs of the Yusufeli Project. The purpose is to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) of Yusufeli Village residents for restoration of the environmental impacts of the dam project and also to investigate the underlying economic, psychological, and social motivations for WTP. WTP was calculated as US$761 per person which can further be used in the cost-benefit analysis. The results from the study suggest that application of the CVM in rural and urban areas located in the same region can show differences. PMID:20595759

Alp, Emre; Yeti?, Ulkü

2010-01-01

371

Corporate governance and capital structure in developing countries: a case study of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the influence of firm-level corporate governance on the capital structure pattern of non-financial listed firms, using a case study of Bangladesh. The agency theory suggests that better corporate governance will reduce agency costs and improve investor confidence, which in turn will enhance the ability of a firm to gain access to equity finance, reducing dependence on debt

Faizul Haque; Thankom Gopinath Arun; Colin Kirkpatrick

2011-01-01

372

Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

Onianwa, P. C.

1993-01-01

373

Secondary Level Teachers: Supply and Demand in Ghana. Country Study No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of 15 studies of the supply of secondary level teachers in English-speaking Africa. Following an introduction which examines the economic and social development of Ghana, there are four main sections: 1) Probable Growth of Secondary School and Teacher Training College Enrollments Through 1975"; 2) "The Supply of Teachers for Secondary…

Hanson, John W.

374

Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

2013-01-01

375

Response rates in international mail surveys: Results of a 22-country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers embarking on their first international mail survey find very little guidance in the present academic literature. In 1988, two articles were published in the fall issue of the Journal of International Business Studies that claimed that: “at the moment the crossnational researcher has very little evidence upon which to base his judgments about [mail] survey design” [Jobber and Saunders

Anne-Wil Harzing

1997-01-01

376

Gasoline consumption and leukemia mortality and morbidity in 19 European countries: an ecological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely recognized that exposure to benzene is a risk factor for leukemia; however, much remains to be clarified about the possible long-term health effects of exposures to low concentrations of benzene. With this in mind an ecological study was carried out in which both gasoline consumption data and data on leukemia mortality and incidence were collected for 19

J. J. M. Slangen; G. M. H. Swaen

1995-01-01

377

Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

378

National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

2012-01-01

379

Development Education and Engineering: A Framework for Incorporating Reality of Developing Countries into Engineering Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To show the key points of a development education program for engineering studies fitted within the framework of the human development paradigm. Design/methodology/approach: The bases of the concept of technology for human development are presented, and the relationship with development education analysed. Special attention is dedicated…

Perez-Foguet, A.; Oliete-Josa, S.; Saz-Carranza, A.

2005-01-01

380

Values--A Study of Teacher and Student Perceptions in Four Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed to assess and compare the values prevalent among the students and teachers of Universities in Bangladesh, Japan, USA and Germany. The sample consisted of 480 students and 236 teachers. The sample included 120 undergraduate students from Japan; 120 undergraduate students from Bangladesh; 120 undergraduate students from USA, and 120…

Mahmud, Shamsul H.; Warchal, Judith R.; Masuchi, Ayumi; Ahmed, Rafiq; Schoelmerich, Axel

2009-01-01

381

Strategic Capabilities and Radical Innovation: An Empirical Study in Three Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines strategic capabilities as drivers of the development and launch of radical innovations. We construct a theoretical framework relating five strategic capabilities (marketing, market linking, technology, information technology, and management-related capabilities) to radical innovation. From this framework, we derive hypotheses concerning a division's propensity to engage in radical innovation. Using empirical data derived from a research study of

C. Anthony Di Benedetto; Wayne S. DeSarbo; Michael Song

2008-01-01

382

Academic Achievement, School Quality and Family Background: Study in Seven Latin American Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational production can be studied by correlating levels of academic achievement with three independent variables: student's family background, student's mental ability, and school quality. To examine family background and school quality, information was gathered from schools in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru.…

Sanguinetty, Jorge A.

383

Missed Opportunities: The IEA's Study of Civic Education and Civic Education in Post-Communist Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that the opportunity in Phase I of the IEA's Civic Education Study to include the new democracies' experiences of citizenship education have not been sufficiently exploited. "Borrowing" citizenship education from abroad and citizenship education for "civil society" have been chosen as examples of problems in the new democracies…

Buk-Berge, Elisabeth

2006-01-01

384

Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study  

E-print Network

with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation...

Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Veglia, Fabrizio; Airoldi, Luisa; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Lund, Eiliv; Agudo, Antonio; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Cirera, Lluis; Quiros, Jose R; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Forsberg, Bertil; Day, Nicholas E; Key, Timothy J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Saracci, Rodolfo; Riboli, Elio

2007-02-15

385

Dissemination of Multiple Drug Resistance Genes by Class 1 Integrons in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Four Countries: a Comparative Study ?  

PubMed Central

A comparative genetic analysis of 42 clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, resistant to two or more antibiotics belonging to the broad-spectrum ?-lactam group, sourced from Sydney, Australia, and three South American countries is presented. The study focuses on the genetic contexts of class 1 integrons, mobilizable genetic elements best known for their role in the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative pathogens. It was found that the class 1 integrons in this cohort were located in a number of different genetic contexts with clear regional differences. In Sydney, IS26-associated Tn21-like transposons on IncL/M plasmids contribute greatly to the dispersal of integron-associated multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) loci. In contrast, in the South American countries, Tn1696-like transposons on an IncA/C plasmid(s) appeared to be disseminating a characteristic MDR region. A range of mobile genetic elements is clearly being recruited by clinically important mobile class 1 integrons, and these elements appear to be becoming more common with time. This in turn is driving the evolution of complex and laterally mobile MDR units and may further complicate antibiotic therapy. PMID:21518841

Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Ingold, Ana; Vanegas, Natasha; Martínez, Elena; Merlino, John; Merkier, Andrea Karina; Castro, Mercedes; González Rocha, Gerardo; Borthagaray, Graciela; Centrón, Daniela; Bello Toledo, Helia; Márquez, Carolina M.; Stokes, H. W.

2011-01-01

386

Working and hypertension: gaps in employment not associated with increased risk in 13 European countries, a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence to suggest unemployment has a role in the development and incidence of cardiovascular disease. This study explores the contribution of breaks in employment to the development of hypertension, a key risk factor for coronary heart disease. Methods We use data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe to estimate the association between gaps in employment of 6 months or more (‘Not Working’, NW) and the incidence of hypertension in 9,985 individuals aged 50 or over across 13 European countries. Life history information including transitions in and out of employment was used to create a panel dataset where each visit represented one year of life between age 30 and incident hypertension or censoring (whichever came first). Pooled logistic models estimated the odds of hypertension according to the experience of not working, controlling for age at interview, age at each visit, gender, childhood socio-economic position, and country. Results We consistently found no association between NW and hypertension, irrespective of the metrics used in defining the exposure or model specification. Conclusion There is the possibility of bias contributing to the null findings. However, given the relatively consistent evidence for an association between unemployment and cardiovascular outcomes in the literature, our results suggest there may be mechanisms - outside of hypertension – that have a comparatively greater contribution to this association. PMID:24885853

2014-01-01

387

Quality of Private and Public Ambulatory Health Care in Low and Middle Income Countries: Systematic Review of Comparative Studies  

PubMed Central

Background In developing countries, the private sector provides a substantial proportion of primary health care to low income groups for communicable and non-communicable diseases. These providers are therefore central to improving health outcomes. We need to know how their services compare to those of the public sector to inform policy options. Methods and Findings We summarised reliable research comparing the quality of formal private versus public ambulatory health care in low and middle income countries. We selected studies against inclusion criteria following a comprehensive search, yielding 80 studies. We compared quality under standard categories, converted values to a linear 100% scale, calculated differences between providers within studies, and summarised median values of the differences across studies. As the results for for-profit and not-for-profit providers were similar, we combined them. Overall, median values indicated that many services, irrespective of whether public or private, scored low on infrastructure, clinical competence, and practice. Overall, the private sector performed better in relation to drug supply, responsiveness, and effort. No difference between provider groups was detected for patient satisfaction or competence. Synthesis of qualitative components indicates the private sector is more client centred. Conclusions Although data are limited, quality in both provider groups seems poor, with the private sector performing better in drug availability and aspects of delivery of care, including responsiveness and effort, and possibly being more client orientated. Strategies seeking to influence quality in both groups are needed to improve care delivery and outcomes for the poor, including managing the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21532746

Berendes, Sima; Heywood, Peter; Oliver, Sandy; Garner, Paul

2011-01-01

388

Women, Drug Dependency and Consequences: A Study from a Developing Country  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Addiction in women can expose them to malnutrition, high blood pressure, cancer, and some other dangerous diseases like hepatitis, AIDS, or other sexual transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to assess illegal sexual relations in three groups of women. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that was done on 236 girls and young women aged 16–25 years in 2012 in three groups: vulnerable women who have substance dependency (crimes that had made women incarcerated were considered as vulnerability in this study), invulnerable women who have substance dependency (substance dependent women without a history of incarceration), and a control group (women with no history of substance dependency or being in prison). Results. 43.8% of vulnerable women who have substance dependency had extramarital sexual relations; this percentage was 55.8% in invulnerable women who have substance dependency and 1.4% in the control group. Crystal and methamphetamine abuse was higher in addicts who had extramarital sexual relations and alcohol abuse was correlated with unsafe sexual intercourse (r = 0.36, P = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in extramarital sexual relation based on marital status (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Poverty, drug dependency, divorce, and alcohol consumption make women prone to other high risk behaviors that need more attention. PMID:25802797

Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh; Erfanian, Majidreza; Alipourtabrizi, Arash; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid

2015-01-01

389

Women, drug dependency and consequences: a study from a developing country.  

PubMed

Introduction. Addiction in women can expose them to malnutrition, high blood pressure, cancer, and some other dangerous diseases like hepatitis, AIDS, or other sexual transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to assess illegal sexual relations in three groups of women. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that was done on 236 girls and young women aged 16-25 years in 2012 in three groups: vulnerable women who have substance dependency (crimes that had made women incarcerated were considered as vulnerability in this study), invulnerable women who have substance dependency (substance dependent women without a history of incarceration), and a control group (women with no history of substance dependency or being in prison). Results. 43.8% of vulnerable women who have substance dependency had extramarital sexual relations; this percentage was 55.8% in invulnerable women who have substance dependency and 1.4% in the control group. Crystal and methamphetamine abuse was higher in addicts who had extramarital sexual relations and alcohol abuse was correlated with unsafe sexual intercourse (r = 0.36, P = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in extramarital sexual relation based on marital status (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Poverty, drug dependency, divorce, and alcohol consumption make women prone to other high risk behaviors that need more attention. PMID:25802797

Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh; Erfanian, Majidreza; Alipourtabrizi, Arash; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid

2015-01-01

390

A review of potable water accessibility and sustainability issues in developing countries - case study of Uganda.  

PubMed

Providing sources of sustainable and quality potable water in Uganda is a significant public health issue. This project aimed at identifying and prioritizing possible actions on how sustainable high quality potable water in Uganda's water supply systems could be achieved. In that respect, a review of both the current water supply systems and government programs on drinking water in Uganda was completed. Aspects of quantity, quality, treatment methods, infrastructure, storage and distribution of water for different water systems were evaluated and compared with the existing water supply systems in the U.S., Latin America and the Caribbean, for purposes of generating feasible recommendations and opportunities for improvement. Uganda utilizes surface water, groundwater, and rainwater sources for consumption. Surface water covers 15.4% of the land area and serves both urban and rural populations. Lake Victoria contributes about 85% of the total fresh surface water. Potable water quality is negatively affected by the following factors: disposal of sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, and surface run-offs during heavy rains. The total renewable groundwater resources in Uganda are estimated to be 29 million m3/year with about 20,000 boreholes, 3000 shallow-wells and 200,000 springs, serving more than 80% of the rural and slum communities. Mean annual rainfall in Uganda ranges from 500 mm to 2500 mm. Groundwater and rainwater quality is mainly affected by poor sanitation and unhygienic practices. There are significant regional variations in the accessibility of potable water, with the Northeastern region having the least amount of potable water from all sources. Uganda still lags behind in potable water resource development. Priorities should be placed mainly on measures available for improvement of groundwater and rainwater resource utilization, protection of watersheds, health education, improved water treatment methods and distribution in rural areas, and pollution control and monitoring. Implementing these changes can promote potable water accessibility especially to the poor populations living in rural and urban slum areas because they comprise the majority (80%) of Uganda's population. PMID:24918455

Nayebare, Shedrack R; Wilson, Lloyd R; Carpenter, David O; Dziewulski, David M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-01-01

391

Country Cures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

London's Natural History Museum presents Country Cures, an "interactive project to gather information about the sometimes familiar, often surprising, use of plants in traditional medicine." Readers are highly encouraged to participate in this on-going project by contributing their own herbal remedies, which are listed by plant under The Exhibition and by ailment under Your Cures. All contributions featured in this website appear to be from residents of the U.K. and the Republic of Ireland, but there is nothing to suggest that others may not participate (especially as dandelions, yarrow, comfrey, and other plants in the exhibit are common in North American folk remedies).

392

Parental Death during Childhood and Adult Cardiovascular Risk in a Developing Country: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background In observational studies from western countries childhood emotional adversity is usually associated with adult cardiovascular disease. These findings are open to contextual biases making evidence from other settings valuable. We examined the association of a potential marker of childhood emotional adversity with cardiovascular disease risk factors in a developing country. Methods We used multivariable regression in cross-sectional analysis of older (?50 years) men (n?=?7,885) and women (n?=?20,886) from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2003–8) to examine the adjusted association of early life (<18 years) parental death (none, one or two deaths) with blood pressure, fasting glucose, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and white blood cell count (WBC). We used seated height and delayed 10-word recall to assess content validity of parental death as a measure of childhood emotional adversity. We also examined whether associations varied by sex. Results Early life parental death was associated with shorter age- and sex-adjusted seated height. It was also associated with lower 10-word recall score adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic position, leg length and lifestyle. Similarly, adjusted early life parental death was not associated with blood pressure, fasting glucose, LDL-cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol but was associated with lower BMI (?0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?0.62 to ?0.19 for 2 compared with no early life parental deaths) and triglycerides. Associations varied by sex for WHR and WBC. Among men only, early life parental death was associated with lower WHR (?0.008, 95% CI ?0.015 to ?0.001) and WBC (?0.35 109/L, 95% CI ?0.56 to ?0.13). Conclusions In a non-western population from a developing country, childhood emotional adversity was negatively associated with some cardiovascular risk factors, particularly among men. Our study suggests that some of the observed associations in western populations may be socially rather than biologically based or may be population specific. PMID:21603607

Schooling, C. Mary; Jiang, ChaoQiang; Lam, Tai Hing; Zhang, WeiSen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M.

2011-01-01

393

Helping working Equidae and their owners in developing countries: monitoring and evaluation of evidence-based interventions.  

PubMed

There are an estimated 112 million Equidae (horses, donkeys, mules) in the developing world, providing essential resources for their owners' livelihoods and well-being. The impoverished situation of their owners and the often harsh conditions in which they work mean that the animals' welfare is a cause for concern. A number of equine non-governmental organisations (NGOs) operate within working equid communities providing veterinary care, education and training programmes aimed at improving equine welfare. However, there is little published information available that describes monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of such interventions using objective outcome-based indicators and where baseline data are available. The aim of this paper is to summarise the peer-reviewed reports of M&E in this sector and identify the key issues which need to be addressed in ensuring that such evaluations provide useful information on the work of these organisations. A rigorous evidence base for designing future interventions will provide an opportunity for enhancing the effectiveness of working equid NGO operations. Increased availability of M&E reports in the peer-reviewed literature will enable NGOs to learn from one another and disseminate to a wider audience information on the role of working Equidae and the issues they face. PMID:24269105

Upjohn, Melissa M; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Verheyen, Kristien L P

2014-02-01

394

IMMIGRATION VERSUS OUTSOURCING: A DEVELOPING COUNTRY¡¯S VIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comparative study between temporary immigration policy and product outsourcing process, from the low-income developing country¡¯s point of view, which is supply side constrained by the availability of skilled labour. A two-country general equilibrium model establishes an inverse relationship between temporary immigration quota and product outsourcing. Though temporary immigration quota enhances world welfare and the developed country

SIMONTINI DAS; AJITAVA RAYCHAUDHURI; SAIKAT SINHA ROY

2012-01-01

395

Salivary cortisol determination in patients from the Basque Country with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Stress and anxiety are controversial factors involved in the complex pathogenesis of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS). The determination of salivary cortisol is a useful, simple and safe test to detect states of high stress or anxiety. The aim of this study is to check for changes in salivary cortisol levels in patients with RAS during periods of active disease. Study design: A measurement of cortisol employing Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was carried out in samples of unstimulated saliva from 20 patients with active lesions of RAS and 10 healthy individuals used as controls. Results: Increased levels of salivary cortisol were detected in 3 cases, all of them within the group of patients with RAS. In none of the control group patients the level of salivary cortisol was increased. The mean level of salivary cortisol was 0.64 mg / dl (range 0.2 to 1.62) for patients with RAS and 0.57 mg / dl (range 0.25 to 1.09) for controls. Conclusion: Salivary cortisol levels are not statistically higher in patients with active lesions of RAS. Key words:Recurrent aphthous stomatitis, cortisol, oral ulcers, canker sores, salivary cortisol. PMID:23385495

Martínez-Conde-Llamosas, Rafael; López-Vicente, José; Uribarri-Etxebarria, Agurne; Aguirre-Urizar, José M.

2013-01-01

396

Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Urban Health Research in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

The neighborhood has been used as a sampling unit for exploring variations in health outcomes. In a variety of studies census tracts or ZIP codes have been used as proxies for neighborhoods because the boundaries are pre-defined units for which other data are readily available. However these spatial units can be arbitrary and do not account for social-cultural behaviors and identities that are significant to residents. In this study for the city of Accra, Ghana, our goal was to create a neighborhood map that represented the boundaries generally agreed upon by the residents of the city using the smallest available census unit, the enumeration area (EA), as the base unit. This neighborhood map was then used as the basis for mapping spatial variations in health within the city. The first step in demarcating the boundaries was to identify features that limit a person's movement including the major roads, drainage features, and railroad tracks that people use to partially define their neighborhood boundaries. Once an initial set of boundaries were established, they were iteratively modified by walking the neighborhoods, talking to residents, public officials, and others. The resulting neighborhood map consolidated 1,723 EAs into 108 neighborhoods covering the entire Accra metropolitan area. Results indicated that the team achieved 71 percent accuracy in mapping neighborhoods when the neighborhood keyed to the survey EA was compared with the response given by the interviewees in the 2008-2009 Women's Health Survey of Accra when asked which neighborhood they lived in. PMID:23690870

Engstrom, Ryan; Ofiesh, Caetlin; Rain, David; Jewell, Henry; Weeks, John

2013-01-01

397

Indulging our gendered selves? Sex segregation by field of study in 44 countries.  

PubMed

Data from 44 societies are used to explore sex segregation by field of study. Contrary to accounts linking socioeconomic modernization to a "degendering" of public-sphere institutions, sex typing of curricular fields is stronger in more economically developed contexts. The authors argue that two cultural forces combine in advanced industrial societies to create a new sort of sex segregation regime. The first is gender-essentialist ideology, which has proven to be extremely resilient even in the most liberal-egalitarian of contexts; the second is self-expressive value systems, which create opportunities and incentives for the expression of "gendered selves." Multivariate analyses suggest that structural features of postindustrial labor markets and modern educational systems support the cultivation, realization, and display of gender-specific curricular affinities. PMID:19824299

Charles, Maria; Bradley, Karen

2009-01-01

398

A Comparison of Model-Based and Design-Based Impact Evaluations of Interventions in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a long-standing debate as to whether nonexperimental estimators of causal effects of social programs can overcome selection bias. Most existing reviews either are inconclusive or point to significant selection biases in nonexperimental studies. However, many of the reviews, the so-called "between-studies," do not make direct…

Hansen, Henrik; Klejnstrup, Ninja Ritter; Andersen, Ole Winckler

2013-01-01

399

Prediction of adaptation difficulties by country of origin, cumulate psychosocial stressors and attitude toward integrating: A Swedish study of first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China  

PubMed Central

Background: Different types of accumulated stress have been found to have negative consequences for immigrants’ capacity to adapt to the new environment. It remains unclear which factors have the greatest influence. Aims: The study investigated whether immigrants’ experience of great difficulty in adapting to a new country could best be explained by (1) country of origin, (2) exposure to accumulated stressors before arrival or (3) after arrival in the new country and/or (4) reserved attitude toward integrating into the new society. Methods: The 119 first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China, living in Malmö, Sweden, were interviewed in a standardized manner. Results: Experiencing great difficulty in adapting to Sweden was independent of length of residence, but significantly related to all four influences, studied one at a time. Country of origin was also related to stressors and attitude. When the effects of the other influences were mutually controlled for, only exposure to accumulated stressors in Sweden (and especially experiencing discrimination/xenophobia/racism) accounted for great adaptation difficulty. Stressors in Sweden had a greater effect if the immigrant had been exposed to stressors earlier. Conclusions: Immigrants’ long-term experiences of great difficulty in adapting to a new country were explained primarily by exposure to accumulated stressors while moving to and living in the new country, rather than by their backgrounds or attitudes toward integrating. This suggests promoting strategies to avoid discrimination and other stressors in the host country. PMID:24927925

Zolkowska, Krystyna; McNeil, Thomas F

2015-01-01

400

Mortality after Parental Death in Childhood: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Bereavement by spousal death and child death in adulthood has been shown to lead to an increased risk of mortality. Maternal death in infancy or parental death in early childhood may have an impact on mortality but evidence has been limited to short-term or selected causes of death. Little is known about long-term or cause-specific mortality after parental death in childhood. Methods and Findings This cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1968 to 2008 (n?=?2,789,807) and in Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n?=?3,380,301), and a random sample of 89.3% of all born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n?=?1,131,905). A total of 189,094 persons were included in the exposed cohort when they lost a parent before 18 years old. Log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratio (MRR). Parental death was associated with a 50% increased all-cause mortality (MRR?=?1.50, 95% CI 1.43–1.58). The risks were increased for most specific cause groups and the highest MRRs were observed when the cause of child death and the cause of parental death were in the same category. Parental unnatural death was associated with a higher mortality risk (MRR?=?1.84, 95% CI 1.71–2.00) than parental natural death (MRR?=?1.33, 95% CI 1.24–1.41). The magnitude of the associations varied according to type of death and age at bereavement over different follow-up periods. The main limitation of the study is the lack of data on post-bereavement information on the quality of the parent-child relationship, lifestyles, and common physical environment. Conclusions Parental death in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased all-cause mortality into early adulthood. Since an increased mortality reflects both genetic susceptibility and long-term impacts of parental death on health and social well-being, our findings have implications in clinical responses and public health strategies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25051501

Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Obel, Carsten; Olsen, Jørn

2014-01-01

401

Equality and quality in education. A comparative study of 19 countries.  

PubMed

This contribution assesses the performance of national education systems along two important dimensions: The degree to which they help individuals develop capabilities necessary for their successful social integration (educational quality) and the degree to which they confer equal opportunities for social advancement (educational equality). It advances a new conceptualization to measure quality and equality in education and then uses it to study the relationship between institutional differentiation and these outcomes. It relies on data on final educational credentials and literacy among adults that circumvent some of the under-appreciated conceptual challenges entailed in the widespread analysis of international student assessment data. The analyses reveal a positive relationship between educational quality and equality and show that education systems with a lower degree of institutional differentiation not only provide more educational equality but are also marked by higher levels of educational quality. While the latter association is partly driven by other institutional and macro-structural factors, I demonstrate that the higher levels of educational equality in less differentiated education systems do not entail an often-assumed trade-off for lower quality. PMID:25769872

Pfeffer, Fabian T

2015-05-01

402

Products and Prejudice: Measuring Country-of-Origin Bias in U.S. Wine Imports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should exporters worry about country-of-origin bias? Although the pervasiveness of country-level product advertising suggests that they do, lack of data has limited the empirical study of subjective bias toward products from a specific country. Using data from the U.S. wine industry, including numerical blind tasting evaluations, this paper directly computes the impact of country-of-origin bias upon wine import prices. A

Eileen L. Brooks

2003-01-01

403

Using private demand studies to calculate socially optimal vaccine subsidies in developing countries.  

PubMed

Although it is well known that vaccines against many infectious diseases confer positive economic externalities via indirect protection, analysts have typically ignored possible herd protection effects in policy analyses of vaccination programs. Despite a growing literature on the economic theory of vaccine externalities and several innovative mathematical modeling approaches, there have been almost no empirical applications. The first objective of the paper is to develop a transparent, accessible economic framework for assessing the private and social economic benefits of vaccination. We also describe how stated preference studies (for example, contingent valuation and choice modeling) can be useful sources of economic data for this analytic framework. We demonstrate socially optimal policies using a graphical approach, starting with a standard textbook depiction of Pigouvian subsidies applied to herd protection from vaccination programs. We also describe nonstandard depictions that highlight some counterintuitive implications of herd protection that we feel are not commonly understood in the applied policy literature. We illustrate the approach using economic and epidemiological data from two neighborhoods in Kolkata, India. We use recently published epidemiological data on the indirect effects of cholera vaccination in Matlab, Bangladesh (Ali et al., 2005) for fitting a simple mathematical model of how protection changes with vaccine coverage. We use new data on costs and private demand for cholera vaccines in Kolkata, India, and approximate the optimal Pigouvian subsidy. We find that if the optimal subsidy is unknown, selling vaccines at full marginal cost may, under some circumstances, be a preferable second-best option to providing them for free. PMID:19090047

Cook, Joseph; Jeuland, Marc; Maskery, Brian; Lauria, Donald; Sur, Dipika; Clemens, John; Whittington, Dale

2009-01-01

404

Weekly pattern of stroke onset in an Asian country: a nationwide population-based study.  

PubMed

This study used a nationwide population-based dataset to explore the variation among the days of week of stroke onset within population subgroups defined by age, sex, and stroke type. We used ambulatory care data from the 2002 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, focusing on 42,779 emergency room (ER) visits for stroke that year. All analyses were stratified by sex, age (<60 and > or =60 yrs), and type of stroke. Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) was performed to investigate the relationship between daily number of stroke events and holidays and days of the week after adjusting for the effects of seasonality and trends. One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in stroke ER admissions according to day of week according to age <60 (p<0.01), age > or =60 (p<0.001), male (p<0.001), female (p<0.001), ischemic stroke (IS) (p<0.001), and unspecified stroke (UNSP) (p<0.001). However, the analysis by type-subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage-did not show significant relationships between daily emergency room stroke admissions, holidays, or day of the week. The ARIMA regression analyses also showed that Mondays had the highest rate of emergency room admissions for stroke regardless of sex, age, or IS and UNSP types of stroke, after adjusting for seasonality and trends. We conclude that stroke occurs more frequently on Mondays than on the other days of the week, which might be associated with short-term changes in lifestyle or due to the sudden return of stress on the first working day of the week, and on holidays. PMID:18780204

Lin, Herng-Ching; Lin, Shiyng-Yu; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Choy, Cheuk-Sing

2008-09-01

405

Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving health outcomes in these communities. If developed at sufficient scale and intensity, sex work organisations could play a critical role in reducing the present harms caused by criminalisation and stigma. PMID:23889941

2013-01-01

406

["Running amok"--content analytic study of 196 news presentations from industrialized countries].  

PubMed

We performed a content analysis study based on 196 reports in the German press published during the last decade on acts of violence designated as "going berserk" or "running amok (amuck)" and meeting defined criteria. With less than one person per one million men per year running berserk or amok, this is a very rare act of violence, albeit a very dangerous one involving 1.3 deaths and 1.7 injuries per case. Offenders differ from the normal population in regards to the small percentage of women (5%) and high unemployment (40%), and from other violent offenders in that they are normally occupationally well-qualified. Severe psychiatric disorders are overrepresented. A total of 108 cases were classified according to specific syndromes either by specialists or experts on the spot, or on the basis of a description of the signs and symptoms. Of the syndrome-related acts, the most dangerous offences were committed by 10 delusionally ill and 2 psychopathic individuals. 30 less dangerous offenders suffered from paranoid-hallucinatory syndromes. 28 crimes committed in a state of intoxication and 11 "crimes of passion" were the least dangerous. Another 25 persons with an extensive incidence of suicide in the family, without any apparent pre-existing psychiatric disorder, may have gone berserk in the course of a depressive syndrome. Although psychotically ill individuals tend to overreact more often following a minimal slight, under delusions or with no apparent reason at all, on the whole the causes for both the psychotic and other offenders are of a serious nature. Object loss and private disputes on the one hand and social conflicts on the other were of approximately equal significance. The relationship between the offender and his victim is more essential for the course of the occurrence than motives or the type of the psychopathological syndrome. If only family members are attacked, the offenders have usually been inconspicuous, elderly individuals, two thirds of whom can not be allocated to a given syndrome and may be depressive. They kill deliberately and on-target, do not merely injure their victims--hardly ever, in fact--and then commit suicide practically without exception. If strangers are the target of violence, the crimes are generally committed by younger, passive-aggressive, psychopathic, paranoid or intoxicated offenders. They kill only about half of their victims, but injure many, also causing a great deal of damage. They rarely commit suicide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8112706

Adler, L; Lehmann, K; Räder, K; Schünemann, K F

1993-12-01

407

Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180

2013-01-01

408

Accelerated Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Multi-Institutional Prospective Study of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia Among Eight Asian Countries  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A multi-institutional prospective single-arm study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Between 1999 and 2002, 120 patients (64 with Stage IIB and 56 with Stage IIIB) with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated RT. External beam RT consisted of 30 Gy to the whole pelvis, 1.5 Gy/fraction twice daily, followed by 20 Gy of pelvic RT with central shielding at a dose of 2-Gy fractions daily. A small bowel displacement device was used with the patient in the prone position. In addition to central shielding RT, intracavitary brachytherapy was started. Acute and late morbidities were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: The median overall treatment time was 35 days. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 4.7 years. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate for all patients was 84% and 70%, respectively. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate was 78% and 69% for tumors {>=}6 cm in diameter, respectively. No treatment-related death occurred. Grade 3-4 late toxicities of the small intestine, large intestine, and bladder were observed in 1, 1, and 2 patients, respectively. The 5-year actuarial rate of Grade 3-4 late toxicity at any site was 5%. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that accelerated hyperfractionated RT achieved sufficient pelvic control and survival without increasing severe toxicity. This treatment could be feasible in those Asian countries where chemoradiotherapy is not available.

Ohno, Tatsuya [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: t_ohno@nirs.go.jp; Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] (and others)

2008-04-01

409

Global air monitoring study: a multi-country comparison of levels of indoor air pollution in different workplaces. Results from Romania, May 2006.  

PubMed

Second hand smoking is still a great challenge in every country. Every tobacco transnational companies try to destroy all the evidence of the consequences of this kind of exposure. Now in many countries there are surveillance studies looking for evidence. One of this study (organized in 20 countries) is this one where Romania was counterpart. We tested with the TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor the level of exposure in 41 pubs, restaurants and bars and the results demonstrate that there are high level of particles coming from active smoking. In the same time the authors are making a comparison of different levels form other countries where this kind of monitor was used. PMID:17494269

Mihal?an, Florin; Munteanu, Ioana; Higbee, Cheryl; Travers, Mark; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Dresler, Carolyn

2006-01-01

410

Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System . A cross-country field study in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LITERACY AND ACCESS TO THE WRITTEN CULTURE BY YOUTH AND ADULTS EXCLUDED FROM THE SCHOOL SYSTEM - The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself was carried out in a particular region, the findings have implications for a wider international audience.

Torres, Rosa-Maria

2008-11-01

411

Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies  

SciTech Connect

This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

1996-07-01

412

Evaluation of Color and Color Infrared Photography from the Goldfield Mining District, Esmerelda and Nye Countries, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of geological features characteristic of the Goldfield epithermal ore deposits is considered and which of them can be identified from color and color infrared aerial photography. The Goldfield mining district in the western part of the Basin and Range Province is the area of study, located in desert terrain of relatively low relief.

Ashley, R. P.

1970-01-01

413

Evaluation of pyrosequencing for detecting extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among clinical isolates from four high-burden countries.  

PubMed

Reliable molecular diagnostics, which detect specific mutations associated with drug resistance, are promising technologies for the rapid identification and monitoring of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Pyrosequencing (PSQ) has the ability to detect mutations associated with first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, with the additional advantage of being rapidly adaptable for the identification of new mutations. The aim of this project was to evaluate the performance of PSQ in predicting phenotypic drug resistance in multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) clinical isolates from India, South Africa, Moldova, and the Philippines. A total of 187 archived isolates were run through a PSQ assay in order to identify M. tuberculosis (via the IS6110 marker), and to detect mutations associated with M/XDR-TB within small stretches of nucleotides in selected loci. The molecular targets included katG, the inhA promoter and the ahpC-oxyR intergenic region for isoniazid (INH) resistance; the rpoB core region for rifampin (RIF) resistance; gyrA for fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance; and rrs for amikacin (AMK), capreomycin (CAP), and kanamycin (KAN) resistance. PSQ data were compared to phenotypic mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing results for performance analysis. The PSQ assay illustrated good sensitivity for the detection of resistance to INH (94%), RIF (96%), FQ (93%), AMK (84%), CAP (88%), and KAN (68%). The specificities of the assay were 96% for INH, 100% for RIF, FQ, AMK, and KAN, and 97% for CAP. PSQ is a highly efficient diagnostic tool that reveals specific nucleotide changes associated with resistance to the first- and second-line anti-TB drug medications. This methodology has the potential to be linked to mutation-specific clinical interpretation algorithms for rapid treatment decisions. PMID:25367911

Ajbani, Kanchan; Lin, Shou-Yean Grace; Rodrigues, Camilla; Nguyen, Duylinh; Arroyo, Francine; Kaping, Janice; Jackson, Lynn; Garfein, Richard S; Catanzaro, Donald; Eisenach, Kathleen; Victor, Thomas C; Crudu, Valeru; Gler, Maria Tarcela; Ismail, Nazir; Desmond, Edward; Catanzaro, Antonino; Rodwell, Timothy C

2015-01-01

414

Evaluation of biological stability and corrosion potential in drinking water distribution systems: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), microbial regrowth, disinfection by-products (DBPs), and pipe corrosion\\u000a in drinking water distribution systems are among those major safe drinking water issues in many countries. The water distribution\\u000a system of Cheng-Ching Lake Water Treatment Plant (CCLWTP) was selected in this study to evaluate the: (1) fate and transport\\u000a of AOC, DBPs [e.g., trihalomethanes (THMs),

C. C. Chien; C. M. Kao; C. W. Chen; C. D. Dong; H. Y. Chien

2009-01-01

415

Cultural values and effective executional techniques in advertising : A cross-country and product category study of urban young adults in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine likeable executional techniques in advertising across five Asian countries and their impact on purchase intentions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 1,000 urban young adults in five Asian countries (HK, China, Indonesia, Thailand and India) were telephone interviewed on their thoughts about the TV advertisement\\/s that they liked, product that was

Kim-Shyan Fam; Reinhard Grohs

2007-01-01

416

The predictive utility of micro indicators of concern about smoking: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country study.  

PubMed

This study explored the association between six "micro indicators" of concern about smoking (1. stubbing out cigarettes before finishing; 2. forgoing cigarettes due to packet warning labels; thinking about... 3. the harms to oneself of smoking; 4. the harms to others of one's smoking; 5. the bad conduct of tobacco companies; and 6. money spent on cigarettes) and cessation outcomes (making quit attempts, and achieving at least six months of sustained abstinence) among adult smokers from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Participants were 12,049 individuals from five survey waves of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (interviewed between 2002 and 2006, and followed-up approximately one year later). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analysis was used, enabling us to control for within-participant correlations due to possible multiple responses by the same individual over different survey waves. The frequency of micro indicators predicted making quit attempts, with premature stubbing out, forgoing, and thinking about the harms to oneself of smoking being particularly strong predictors. An interaction effect with expressed intention to quit was observed, such that stubbing out and thinking about the harms on oneself predicted quit attempts more strongly among smokers with no expressed plans to quit. In contrast, there was a negative association between some micro indicators and sustained abstinence, with more frequent stubbing out, forgoing, and thinking about money spent on cigarettes associated with a reduced likelihood of subsequently achieving sustained abstinence. In countries with long-established tobacco control programs, micro indicators index both high motivation by smokers to do something about their smoking at least partly independent of espoused intention and, especially those indicators not part of a direct pathway to quitting, reduced capacity to quit successfully. PMID:24813549

Partos, Timea R; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F; Li, Lin; Yong, Hua-Hie; O'Connor, Richard J; Siahpush, Mohammad

2014-08-01

417

Human Resources for Cancer Control in Uttar Pradesh, India: A Case Study for Low and Middle Income Countries  

PubMed Central

For addressing the growing burden of cancer in low and middle income countries, an important first step is to estimate the human resources required for cancer control in a country, province, or city. However, few guidelines are available to decision makers in that regard. Here, we propose a methodology for estimating the human and other resources needed in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India as a case study. Information about the population of UP and its cities was obtained from http://citypopulation.de/. The number of new cancer cases annually for the commonest cancers was estimated from GLOBOCAN 20081. For estimating the human resources needed, the following assumptions were made: newly diagnosed cancer patients need pathology for diagnosis and for treatment surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The percentage of patients requiring each of those modalities, their average lengths of stay as in-patients, and number of in-patient oncology beds were estimated. The resources already available in UP were determined by a telephone survey and by searching the websites of radiation therapy centers and medical colleges. Twenty-four radiation oncologists at 24 cancer centers in 10 cities responded to the survey. As detailed in this manuscript, an enormous shortage of human resources for cancer control exists in UP. Human resources are the key to diagnosing cancers early and treating them appropriately. Addressing the shortage will not be easy but we hope that the methodology described here can guide decision makers and form a framework for discussion among the various stakeholders. This methodology is readily adaptable to local practices and data. PMID:25237650

Daphtary, Maithili; Agrawal, Sushma; Vikram, Bhadrasain

2014-01-01

418

A Multi-Country Economic Evaluation of Low-Dose Aspirin in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is standard care in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The use of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention is not yet fully established, although meta-analyses and US and European guidelines support its use in people at increased risk of CVD. The primary objective of this study was to assess the economic consequences of

Mark Lamotte; Lieven Annemans; Thomas Evers; Maria Kubin

2006-01-01

419

Impact of services liberalization on industry productivity, exports and development : six empirical studies in the transition countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Services as a share of gross domestic product and in foreign direct investment flows have increased in importance both globally and in the transition countries of Europe and Central Asia. So has the need for both academics and policymakers to understand the impacts of services liberalization in the transition countries. For this reason, the World Bank Institute, under a grant

David Tarr

2012-01-01

420

State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

2012-01-01

421

The Evolution of Developmental Gaps between Rich and Poor Countries, 1955-65: A Methodological Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The taxonomic distance from an "ideal country" is used as a composite index of relative development levels of 50 countries; measuring economic, mass media, and high-level manpower potentials, and showing acceleration of rate of increases, and underlying shifts in rank positions in years 1955, 1960, and 1965. (Author/ND)

Gostkowski, Zygmunt

1975-01-01

422

Statistics of Education in Developing Countries. An Introduction to Their Collection and Presentation. Statistical Reports and Studies-13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document attempts to state in simple terms what is necessary as a minimum to ensure the adequate provision of educational statistics in developing countries. It has been developed for the use of Ministries of Education and other interested departments in developing countries to help them develop the basic set of statistics necessary for…

Kendall, W. L.

423

Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Eastern Europe. A Tempus Study. Issue 04  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

2011-01-01

424

Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

2011-01-01

425

Complementing Neurophysiology Education for Developing Countries via Cost-Effective Virtual Labs: Case Studies and Classroom Scenarios  

PubMed Central

Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. PMID:24693260

Diwakar, Shyam; Parasuram, Harilal; Medini, Chaitanya; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema; Wiertelak, Eric; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Achuthan, Krishnashree; Nair, Bipin

2014-01-01

426

Participatory studies for agro-ecosystem evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participatory research has emerged as a powerful tool to identify agro-ecosystem indicators in developing countries. Indigenous knowledge, thus generated complements scientific information to the benefit of all stakeholders. This paper demonstrates the value of participating with farmers and hunters to identify indicators at a local level and how these supplement scientific information. Three examples are provided to demonstrate different degrees

H. C Goma; K Rahim; G Nangendo; J Riley; A Stein

2001-01-01

427

Country News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes information shared at an international seminar on teacher training, the management of population education, and adolescent education. Proposes an evaluative research activity to assess the achievements of these experiences. Indicates that experimental schools have reported positive outcomes for the program. Describes efforts in several…

Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1988

1988-01-01