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1

Methods for Accrediting Publications to Authors or Countries: Consequences for Evaluation Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses science evaluation studies that seek to determine quantitatively the contribution of different authors, departments, or countries to the whole system, and suggests that different scoring methods can yield totally different rankings. Presents formulas for counting procedures, nontrivial examples of anomalies, and possible solutions.…

Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald; Van Hooydonk, Guido

2000-01-01

2

A systematic evaluation of stroke surveillance studies in low- and middle-income countries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Reliable quantification of the burden of stroke in low- and middle-income (LMI) countries is difficult as population-based surveillance reports are scarce and may vary considerably in methodology. We aimed to evaluate all available primary stroke surveillance studies by applying components of a benchmark protocol (WHO STEPwise approach to stroke surveillance) and quantify the reported burden of stroke in LMI settings. Methods: Electronic databases Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge were searched for population-based surveillance studies. Studies conducted in the LMI countries that reported on incident stroke were included. Data were extracted from each study using a prestructured format. Information on epidemiologic measures including crude and age-adjusted incidence rates, person-years, admission rates, case fatality rates, death certification, autopsy rates, measures of disability, and other study-specific information, in line with WHO STEPS stroke protocol, were recorded. Age-adjusted incidence rate data of stroke were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Results: We identified 7 studies that reported on burden of stroke in 9 LMI countries, including aggregate information from 1,711,372 participants collected over 5,240,923 person-years. The age-adjusted incidence rates across the LMI countries varied widely, with the burden of total first-ever strokes ranging from 41 to 909 events per 100,000 person-years. Conclusions: Systematic evaluation of all available primary surveillance studies, particularly in the context of WHO STEPS guidelines, indicates inadequate adherence to standardized surveillance methodology in LMI countries. Incorporation of standardized approaches is essential to enhance generalizability and estimate stroke burden accurately in these resource-poor settings.

Chowdhury, Rajiv; Felix, Janine F.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Mendis, Shanthi; Tiemeier, Henning; Mant, Jonathan; Franco, Oscar H.

2013-01-01

3

An economic evaluation for prevention of diabetes mellitus in a developing country: a modelling study  

PubMed Central

Background The serious consequences of diabetes mellitus, and the subsequent economic burden, call for urgent preventative action in developing countries. This study explores the clinical and economic outcomes of strategies that could potentially prevent diabetes based on Chinese circumstances. It aims to provide indicators for the long-term allocation of healthcare resources for authorities in developing countries. Methods A representative sample of Chinese adults was used to create a simulated population of 20,000 people aged 25 years and above. The hybrid decision tree Markov model was developed to compare the long-term clinical and economic outcomes of four simulated diabetes prevention strategies with a control group, where no prevention applied. These preventive strategies were the following: (i) one-off screening for undiagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), with lifestyle interventions on diet, (ii) on exercise, (iii) on diet combined exercise (duo-intervention) respectively in those with IGT, and (iv) one-off screening alone. Independent age-specific models were simulated based on diverse incidences of diabetes, mortalities and health utilities. The reported outcomes were the following: the remaining survival years, the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per diabetes or IGT subjects, societal costs per simulated subject and the comparisons between preventions and control over 40 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed based on variations of all assumptions, in addition to the performance and the compliance of screening. Results Compared with the control group, all simulated screening programmes prolonged life expectancy at the initiation ages of 25 and 40 years, postponed the onset of diabetes and increased QALYs at every initiation age. Along with an assumption of six years intervention, prevention programmes were associated with cost-saving compared with the control group, especially in the population aged 25 years. The savings were at least US$2017 per subject, but no statistically significant difference was observed among the intervention strategies within each age groups. The cost savings were reduced when screening was affected by poor performance and noncompliance. Conclusions Developing countries have few effective strategies to manage the prevention of diabetes. One-off screening for undiagnosed diabetes and IGT, with appropriate lifestyle interventions for those with IGT are cost saving in China, especially in young adults.

2013-01-01

4

Evaluation of grid connected rural electrification projects in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Extension of the power grid to rural and remote locations in a country has to be considered after detailed evaluation of technical, economic and social implications. The paper presents the application of conventional economic analytical techniques to evaluate proposed rural distribution systems in an oil-importing developing country environment. The parameters involved in the analyses are described in detail. Case studies are presented from a typical developing country. Revalidation of such evaluations incorporating socio-economic analysis is introduced.

Siyambalapitiya, D.J.T.; Rajapakse, S.T.K. (Ceylon Electricity Board, P.O. Box 540, Colombo (LK)); de Mel, S.J.S.; Fernando, S.I.T.; Perera, B.L.P.P. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Moratuwa, Moratusa (LK))

1991-02-01

5

Library of Congress: Country Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online series of books prepared by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress presently contains studies of 100 countries. Each study has been prepared by a "multidisciplinary team of social scientists" and offers a textbook-like portrayal of the beliefs, values, institutions, geography, politics, and economics of each country. Texts include photographs, tables, glossaries, maps, and bibliographies and are dated to indicate the timeliness of the research. Most volumes were written in a timeframe spanning the late 1980s to the present, with recent volumes marked as "new."

6

Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large carbon emissions reductions in the future, while also meeting key criteria for commercialization and acceptability in developing countries. In addition, this study evaluates the connection between technology identification and the selection of projects that are designed to demonstrate technologies with a propensity for carbon emission reductions (e.g., Global Environmental Facility projects). Although this report applies the methodology to Mexico in a case study format, the methodology is broad based and could be applied to any developing country, as well as to other technologies. The methodology used in this report is composed of four steps: technology screening, technology identification, technology deployment scenarios, and estimates of carbon emissions reductions. The four technologies with the highest ranking in the technology identification process for the on-grid category were geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind, and micro-/mini-hydro. Compressed natural gas (CNG) was the alternative that received the highest ranking for the transportation category.

Corbus, D.; Martinez, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Mark, J.

1994-08-01

7

Evaluating Education Reforms: Four Cases in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This symposium features four studies of education reforms and their impact on enrollment and learning. Three are part of a research project funded by the World Bank's Development Research Group and its Research Support Budget to evaluate innovations in the education systems of selected developing countries. Two of the articles focus on Latin America, where decentralization reforms have been in

Elizabeth M. King; Peter Orazem

1999-01-01

8

Country-of-Origin Effects on Product Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the literature regarding the effect of country of origin on buyer evaluations of products. The issue is important for countries (especially resource-poor, developing countries) that need to increase manufactured exports and for firms that source products in countries different from where sold. Marketing inferences are drawn, and implications for future research are developed.© 1982 JIBS. Journal of

Warren J. Bilkey; Erik Nes

1982-01-01

9

Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries  

PubMed Central

Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less-developed countries, especially those in Asia, there is also a requirement to focus on the development of environmentally friendly practices in wealthier countries.

Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

2010-01-01

10

Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.  

PubMed

Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less-developed countries, especially those in Asia, there is also a requirement to focus on the development of environmentally friendly practices in wealthier countries. PMID:20454670

Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

2010-01-01

11

A Study to Evaluate the Language Development of Post-Institutionalised Children Adopted from Eastern European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined data collected over a period of three years from 48 children adopted from Eastern European orphanages. English language acquisition and present levels of performance were measured by the standardised language assessment, the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL). The participants ranged from 3 to 16 years of age,…

Schoenbrodt, Lisa A.; Carran, Deborah T.; Preis, Janet

2007-01-01

12

Diagnostic evaluation of people with hypertension in low income country: cohort study of "essential" method of risk stratification  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the predictive power of a risk stratification method for people with hypertension based on “essential” procedures (that is, available in economically less developed areas of the world), comparing it in the same population with the results given by the method suggested by the 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension (WHO-ISH) guidelines. Design Prospective cohort study of outcomes according to cardiovascular risk profile at baseline. Setting Primary care in a poor rural area of the Ecuadorian forest. Participants 504 people with hypertension prospectively monitored for a mean of 6.7 (SD 2.3) years. Interventions Essential data included blood pressure, medical history, smoking, age, sex, and diagnosis of diabetes; the WHO-ISH methods additionally included measurement of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and creatinine, urinalysis, and electrocardiography. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular events and total deaths. Results With both methods there was a highly significant association between the level of predicted risk and the incidence of cardiovascular events and of total deaths: up to three quarters of all cardiovascular events and two thirds of all deaths were reported among people classified as at high or very high risk with either method. The predictive discrimination of the essential method is comparable with the WHO-ISH with C statistics (95% confidence interval) of 0.788 (0.721 to 0.855) and 0.744 (0.673 to 0.815), respectively, for cardiovascular events and 0.747 (0.678 to 0.816) and 0.705 (0.632 to 0.778) for total mortality. Conclusions The risk stratification of patients with hypertension with an essential package of variables (that is, available and practicable even in the economically less developed areas of the world) serves at least as well as the more comprehensive method proposed by WHO-ISH.

2008-01-01

13

Luria's Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Nordic Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The publication of Luria's Neuropsychological Investigation (LNI) by Christensen in 1975 introduced Luria's evaluation procedures to worldwide neuropsychology. The LNI demonstrated the benefit of a thorough qualitative analysis of an individual patient's functioning as well as the usefulness of a comprehensive theory of brain functioning. This article reviews the experiences that led to the development of the LNI, discusses its

Anne-Lise Christensen; Carla Caetano

1999-01-01

14

Evaluation of Military Combat Boots from NATO Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of boots from 11 NATO countries was done using the new Boot/Shoe Performance Tester. This measures the boots' ability to resist water penetration. A chemical analysis of the upper leather and insole leather was also performed. All the NATO b...

R. F. Lacerte B. W. Shecter

1982-01-01

15

Antecedents, moderators and dimensions of country-of-origin evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth examination of country-of-origin (COO) perceptions of consumers in a multinational setting. It shows how explanatory factors like demographics, familiarity with a country's products, purchase behaviour and psychological variables jointly work to explain consumers' COO perceptions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a quantitative study using a drop-off and pick-up survey

Sadrudin A. Ahmed; Alain dAstous

2008-01-01

16

Cooperation in nuclear data evaluation among the OECD countries  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 1988, agreement was reached on a collaborative effort between the four nuclear data evaluation projects which exist within the OECD countries. Those projects participating in this effort are the ENDF/B project in the United States, the JENDL project in Japan and the JEF and EFF projects in Western Europe. The cooperation among these projects has been proceeding under the sponsorship of the NEA Committee on Reactor Physics and the NEA Nuclear Data Committee since 1989. The goals and accomplishments of the Working Group on Evaluation Cooperation and the work of its seven ongoing projects are briefly described. 6 refs.

Dunford, C.L. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Kikuchi, Y. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Salvatores, M. (CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France))

1991-01-01

17

Brazil: A Country Study (Fifth Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword; Acknowledgments; Preface; Table A. Selected Acronyms and Abbreviations; Table B. Chronology of Important Events; Country Profile; Introduction; Chapter 1. Historical Setting; Chapter 2. The Society and Its Environment; The Physical Set...

R. A. Hudson

1997-01-01

18

Study Abroad in Third World Countries: Issues and Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on studying abroad in third world countries are presented. Fewer than 5% of Americans who study abroad do so in Third World Countries, although economically and politically the United States and these countries are interdependent. In addition, many employers are seeking individuals with cross-cultural training and sensitivity. The…

Sommer, John G.

19

LOC Federal Research Division: Country Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Research Division (FRD) provides customized research and analytical services on foreign and domestic topics to United States Government and District of Columbia agencies. This Web site "presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world and examines the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors." The online books can be searched or browsed by particular country and include everything from a country profile, history, and physical environment description to economy, government, and national security information. Perhaps the most unique part of the site is an attempt to include only lesser known areas, making the conglomeration a good source of uncommon knowledge.

20

Country material distribution and adolescents' perceived health: multilevel study of adolescents in 27 countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the impact of country material distribution on adolescents' perceptions of health. Design Cross sectional multilevel study. Setting Data were collected from the school based health behaviour in school aged children: WHO cross national study 1997/98, which includes students from 27 European and North American countries. Participants 12?0381 students in year 6, 8, and 10 who were attending school classes on the day of data collection. Main result Adolescents in countries with a high dispersion of family affluence were more likely to have self rated poor health even after controlling for individual family level of affluence and family social resources. Conclusion There are substantial inequalities in subjective health across European and North American countries related to the distribution of family material resources in these countries.

Torsheim, Torbjorn; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will; Samdal, Oddrun

2006-01-01

21

Area Handbook Series: Ethiopia. A Country Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Few African countries have had such a long, varied, and trouble history as Ethiopia. The Ethiopian state originated in the Aksumite kingdom, a trading state that emerged about the first century A.D. The Aksumites perfected a written language; maintained r...

1991-01-01

22

Evaluation of a specific test in cross?country skiing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six Danish male cross?country skiers were studied during the end?of?summer and winter seasons. Their maximal oxygen uptake was measured while running on a treadmill and using a ski ergometer incorporating the double?poling technique. Maximal oxygen uptake during treadmill running and double?poling was correlated with performance, expressed as a ranking score during 10 ski races. The tests were undertaken in September,

Erik Mygind; Benny Larsson; Tom Klausen

1991-01-01

23

A study of course deviations during cross-country soaring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several models are developed for studying the impact of deviations from course during cross country soaring flights. Analyses are performed at the microstrategy and macrostrategy levels. Two types of lift sources are considered: concentrated thermals and thermal streets. The sensitivity of the optimum speed solutions to various model, piloting and performance parameters is evaluated. Guides are presented to provide the pilot with criterions for making in-flight decisions. In general, course deviations are warranted during weak lift conditions, but are less justifiable with moderate to strong lift conditions.

Sliwa, S. M.; Sliwa, D. J.

1979-01-01

24

An Economic Evaluation of the Utility of ERTS Data for Developing Countries. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of ERTS-1 data in 18 developing countries has been reviewed and evaluated. This overall assessment is supported by more detailed economic evaluations in four selected countries: Bolivia, Thailand, Kenya and Botswana. Two quantitative econo...

D. S. Lowe, R. A. Summers, E. J. Greenblat

1974-01-01

25

Review: A critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for HIV prevention in developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential impediment to evidence-based policy development on medical male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention in all countries worldwide is the uncritical acceptance by some of arguments used by opponents of this procedure. Here we evaluate recent opinion-pieces of 13 individuals opposed to MC. We find that these statements misrepresent good studies, selectively cite references, some containing fallacious information, and

Brian J. Morris; Robert C. Bailey; Jeffrey D. Klausner; Arleen Leibowitz; Richard G. Wamai; Jake H. Waskett; Joya Banerjee; Daniel T. Halperin; Laurie Zoloth; Helen A. Weiss; Catherine A. Hankins

2012-01-01

26

A cross-country study of signals of brand quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to examine differences in the signals of brand quality that consumers utilize in and across different countries. The approach is driven by the practical goal of helping international firms understand how they could tailor their marketing mix to target consumers based on the particular signals of brand quality that they use in different countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Jagdish Agrawal; Pamela Grimm; Shyam Kamath; Thomas Foscht

2011-01-01

27

Country report Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level

Rotich K. Henry; Zhao Yongsheng; Dong Jun

28

Methods of Evaluating Child Welfare in Indian Country: An Illustration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The poor quality and quantity of data collected in tribal communities today reflects a lack of true community participation and commitment. This is especially problematic for evaluation studies, in which the needs and desires of the community should be the central focus. This challenge can be met by emphasizing indigenous methods and voice. The…

Fox, Kathleen; Cross, Terry L.; John, Laura; Carter, Patricia; Pavkov, Thomas; Wang, Ching-Tung; Diaz, Javier

2011-01-01

29

Transformative learning through study abroad in low-income countries.  

PubMed

Study abroad in low-income countries is an emerging trend in nursing education, yet student outcomes vary from positive to negative. Study abroad in low-income countries can be transformative because it has the potential to increase student awareness of socioeconomic relations, structural oppression, and human connectedness. The authors discuss 10 strategies to facilitate transformative learning in students who study abroad. PMID:22688874

Foronda, Cynthia; Belknap, Ruth Ann

2012-01-01

30

Quantitative Evaluation of Iranian Radiology Papers and Its Comparison with Selected Countries  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent technological developments in medicine, including modern radiology have promoted the impact of scientific researches on social life. The scientific outputs such as article and patents are products that show the scientists’ attempt to access these achievements. Objectives: In the current study, we evaluate the current situation of Iranian scientists in the field of radiology and compare it with the selected countries in terms of scientific papers. For this purpose, we used scientometric tools to quantitatively assess the scientific papers in the field of radiology. Materials and Methods: Radiology papers were evaluated in the context of medical field audit using retrospective model. We used the related databases of biomedical sciences for extraction of articles related to radiology. In the next step, the situation of radiology scientific products of the country were determined with respect to the under study regional countries. Results: Results of the current study showed a ratio of 0.19% for Iranian papers in PubMed database published in 2009. In addition, in 2009, Iranian papers constituted 0.29% of the Scopus scientific database. The proportion of Iranian papers in the understudy region was 7.6%. Conclusion: To diminish the gap between Iranian scientific radiology papers and other competitor countries in the region and achievement of document 2025 goals, multifold effort of the society of radiology is necessary.

Ghafoori, Mahyar; Emami, Hasan; Sedaghat, Abdolrasoul; Ghiasi, Mohammad; Shakiba, Madjid; Alavi, Manijeh

2014-01-01

31

Africa OR / TA Project II supporting studies in several countries.  

PubMed

During the first 6 months, the Africa OR/TA (Operations Research and Technical Assistance) Project II has helped in generating OR country strategic workplans in various sub-Saharan African countries. Project staff has spent much time collaborating with the Navrongo Health Research Centre (NHRC) in the rural Kassena Nankana district in Ghana in designing the Navrongo Community Health and Family Planning (FP) Project. This area has high fertility and mortality rates. The people hold strong pronatal beliefs. Contraceptive use is low among the mostly unschooled women. If this FP/community health project can effectively deliver FP here, it can be successful elsewhere in Africa. Africa OR/TA Project staff are helping design a FP OR experimental field station. They aim to help the Government of Kenya and USAID Nairobi to lower national fertility levels and the incidence of sexually transmitted HIV in some target groups. The Family Planning Association of Kenya will collaborate with the Project on OR/TA activities which include a national situation analysis study, a study examining the impact of quality of services, and community based distribution (CBD) studies. Project staff would like to see integration of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and FP services. OR activities strengthen the clinic- and community-based portions of the FP program in Tanzania. Staff will help with the evaluation of the effectiveness of the CBD models. The FP program aims to meet the reproductive health needs of men and young adults and to integrate STD/AIDS and FP. Project staff will also help the Botswana Population Assistance Project document and monitor the integration of FP, STD management, and AIDS prevention procedures. PMID:12319038

1994-12-01

32

Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Demographic Policies in EU Countries (2009-2010).  

PubMed

Purpose: This article contains a comparative analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of population policies in European Union (EU) countries, using multivariate analysis. Data and Methods: To study these differences, it is primarily necessary to have the relevant data. The most recent database available was developed by the OECD in 2007 and currently covers OECD countries and most EU Member States. We used multivariate analysis to categorize the indicators into the following groups: (a) economic indicators, (b) indicators reconciling work and family life, and (c) demographic indicators. Results: The results of measuring the degree of coherence of factors reveal that the four most important factors influencing the effectiveness of population policy are (i) the average maternal age at first childbirth, (ii) social protection expenditure, (iii) GDP, and (iv) public spending for benefits. Based on the data from the evaluation of the correlation matrix of variables and data, the classification of countries, according to the values of the coefficients of analysis, appears as follows: the Nordic countries (together with France and the United Kingdom), the Southern European countries and the Northern countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania (by a very slight margin Romania), and Bulgaria, Poland, Slovakia (and, marginally, Malta). Conclusions: The key comparative findings from benchmarking best practices in the context of the European experience are the following: The EU is being demographically transformed as a direct result of an increase in average life expectancy and immigration and a decrease in fertility. Demographic factors are influenced by specific features, in contrast with economic factors which seem be less stable. PMID:24702764

Pierrakos, George; Balourdos, Dionyssis; Soulis, Sotiris; Sarris, Markos; Pateras, John; Skolarikos, Panagiotis; Farfaras, Athanasios

2014-01-01

33

Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

2010-01-01

34

[Studies of psychopathology of homeless individuals in European countries].  

PubMed

Most research on the homeless is coming from the US, where the prevalence of mental disorders concerning this population was pointed out. The surveys for the homeless in European countries focus on the mental state and community care of the homeless very early, since the 1980's. Homelessness is gradually developing in these countries, while in the countries of North America the phenomenon is much older. The prevalence of mental disorders in European countries is higher in the homeless population, with rates of 58% -100% compared with the general population. In countries like Germany, Spain, Holland, France, Switzerland, where the phenomenon of homelessness has been studied, one of the most striking features was the high prevalence of substance abuse disorders, emotional disorders, while small percentages were reported for psychotic disorders. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was very high in Germany, perhaps because it is easily accessible and less expensive than in other countries. Limited use by homeless of relevant health services was also very common in this country. The same observation was also recorded in Spain, France and the Netherlands. High rates in these countries was reported for comorbidity, most often concerning the combination of substance abuse disorder and emotional disorders. Another interesting finding in the European countries is the high prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders and the low prevalence of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. The low prevalence of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder is in contrast with studies from North America according to some authors who compared their samples with samples of homeless people in Los Angeles. The level of abuse of illegal substances was also found high in countries such as England. In Spain affective disorders was reported to be very high among the homeless population. The homeless population faces many complex mental health problems compared with those of the general population. What is a source of concern is that these problems are not adequately faced either by mental health services and rehabilitation programs, or the social services for the homeless. It is recommended that these services have to achieve integration in therapeutic and organizational level, in order to better meet the needs of this complex and heterogeneous population. PMID:23399755

Chondraki, P; Madianos, M; Papadimitriou, G N

2012-01-01

35

Using Strong Evaluation Designs in Developing Countries: Experience and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to extend the discussion of issues currently being debated on the need for more rigorous program evaluation in educational and other sectors of research, to the field of international development evaluation, reviewing the different approaches which can be adopted to rigorous evaluation methodology and their…

Bamberger, Michael; White, Howard

2007-01-01

36

Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

Bui, Minh Q.

2011-01-01

37

Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on economic growth has exploded in the past decade. Hundreds of empirical studies on economic growth across countries have highlighted the correlation between growth and a variety of variables. Determinants of Economic Growth, based on Robert Barro's Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures, delivered at the London School of Economics in February 1996, summarizes this important literature. The book contains three

Robert J. Barro

1999-01-01

38

Preliminary lithostratigraphic correlation study in OAPEC member countries  

SciTech Connect

This book examines a study correlating rock units in the Middle Eastern and North African member countries, based on direct information from the members. It comprises Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic correlation charts for each region and a lexicon giving the definition, age, lithology, and equivalents of each formation.

Lababidi, M.M.; Hamdan, A.N.

1985-01-01

39

Multicriteria Evaluation of National Entrepreneurship In Newly EU Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

When evaluating entrepreneurship at the national level, the influence of small and mediumsized enterprises (SMEs) on the state economic development is analyzed. Also, the impact of significant factors (goods and services competitiveness, innovations, diversification, clusterization, creating social value, etc.) on SMEs working effectiveness (respectively improving the entrepreneurial efficiency) is investigated. When focused on the national economic competitiveness as a general

Algis Zvirblis; Antanas Buracas

2011-01-01

40

Economic evaluations of rotavirus immunization for developing countries: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality for children under 5 years of age, and rotavirus is identified as the main cause of severe diarrhea worldwide. Since 2006, two rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and Rotateq, have been available in the market. These vaccines have proved to have high efficacy in developed countries. Clinical trials are being undertaken in Asia and Africa, and early clinical results found that the vaccine significantly reduces severe diarrhea episodes due to rotavirus (48.3% for Asia and 30.2% for Africa). The WHO recommended that rotavirus immunization be included in all national immunization programs. Based on WHO's recommendations, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization decided to provide financial support for rotavirus immunization in the developing world. In this article, we attempted to ascertain the cost-effectiveness of universal rotavirus immunization in developing countries. After an extensive literature search, we identified and evaluated 15 cost-effectiveness studies conducted in the developing world. The results from these studies showed that rotavirus immunization is a cost-effective strategy and one of the best interventions to prevent rotavirus-related diarrheal disease. However, rotavirus vaccines are expensive and the vaccine price appears to be the most challenging and crucial factor for decision-makers regarding whether to introduce this vaccine into developing countries' immunization schedules. All the studies concluded that rotavirus immunization is cost effective but may not be affordable for the developing world at present. Developing countries will definitely rely on financial support from international organizations to introduce rotavirus vaccination. It is recommended that more research on cost-effective rotavirus immunization with updated data be conducted and new rotavirus vaccine candidates be developed at a cheaper price to speed up the introduction of rotavirus immunization to the developing world. PMID:21806398

Tu, Hong-Anh T; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Kane, Sumit; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Li, Shu Chuen; Postma, Maarten J

2011-07-01

41

Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

Pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean as household insecticides, pet sprays, and where malaria is endemic, impregnated into mosquito-repellent nets. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds have the potential to cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development, as was shown in limited animal studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to pyrethroids to pregnant women residing in 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Pyrethroid exposures were determined by analyzing five pyrethroid metabolites in urine samples from 295 pregnant women: cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA, and 4-F-3-PBA. Pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in Caribbean pregnant women were generally higher in the 10 Caribbean countries than levels reported for Canadian and U.S. women. In Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica participants the geometric mean concentrations of cis-DBCA was significantly higher than in the other nine countries together (p<0.0001 and <0.0012 respectively). For cis- and trans-DCCA, only Antigua & Barbuda women differed significantly from participants of the other nine Caribbean countries (p<0.0001). Urinary 4-F-3-PBA and 3-PBA levels were significantly higher in Antigua & Barbuda (p<0.0028 and p<0.0001 respectively) as well as in Grenada (p<0.0001 and p<0.007 respectively). These results indicate extensive use of pyrethroid compounds such as permethrin and cypermethrin in Caribbean households. In Antigua & Barbuda, the data reveals a greater use of deltamethrin. This study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to utilize this class of pesticides more judiciously given the potentially adverse effects of exposure on fetuses and infants. PMID:24317226

Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kaddar, Nisrin; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

2014-02-01

42

Civic Education across Countries: Twenty-four National Case Studies from the IEA Civic Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume reports the results of the first phase of the Civic Education Study conducted by International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). During 1996 and 1997, researchers in 24 countries collected documentary evidence on the circumstances, contents, and processes of civic education in response to a common set of…

Torney-Purta, Judith; Schwille, John; Amadeo, Jo-Ann

43

Cross-cultural evaluation of the relevance of the HCAHPS survey in five European countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the systematic language translation and cross-cultural evaluation process that assessed the relevance of the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey in five European countries prior to national data collection efforts. Design An approach involving a systematic translation process, expert review by experienced researchers and a review by ‘patient’ experts involving the use of content validity indexing techniques with chance correction. Setting Five European countries where Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian and Polish are spoken. Participants ‘Patient’ experts who had recently experienced a hospitalization in the participating country. Main OutcomeMeasure(s) Content validity indexing with chance correction adjustment providing a quantifiable measure that evaluates the conceptual, contextual, content, semantic and technical equivalence of the instrument in relationship to the patient care experience. Results All translations except two received ‘excellent’ ratings and no significant differences existed between scores for languages spoken in more than one country. Patient raters across all countries expressed different concerns about some of the demographic questions and their relevance for evaluating patient satisfaction. Removing demographic questions from the evaluation produced a significant improvement in the scale-level scores (P= .018). The cross-cultural evaluation process suggested that translations and content of the patient satisfaction survey were relevant across countries and languages. Conclusions The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey is relevant to some European hospital systems and has the potential to produce internationally comparable patient satisfaction scores.

Squires, Allison; Bruyneel, Luk; Aiken, Linda H.; Van den Heede, Koen; Brzostek, Tomasz; Busse, Reinhard; Ensio, Anneli; Schubert, Maria; Zikos, Dimitrios; Sermeus, Walter

2012-01-01

44

Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: Workers' Evaluations in Five Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17…

Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard

2002-01-01

45

Multiple-trait multiple-country genetic evaluation of Holstein bulls for female fertility and milk production traits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of including milk yield data in the international genetic evaluation of female fertility traits to reduce or eliminate a possible bias because of across-country selection for milk yield. Data included two female fertility traits from Great Britain, Italy and the Netherlands, together with milk yield data from the same countries and from the United States, because the genetic trends in other countries may be influenced by selection decisions on bulls in the United States. Potentially, female fertility data had been corrected nationally for within-country selection and management biases for milk yield. Using a multiple-trait multiple across-country evaluation (MT-MACE) for the analysis of female fertility traits with milk yield, across-country selection patterns both for female fertility and milk yield can be considered simultaneously. Four analyses were performed; one single-trait multiple across-country evaluation analysis including only milk yield data, one MT-MACE analysis including only female fertility traits, and one MT-MACE analysis including both female fertility and milk yield traits. An additional MT-MACE analysis was performed including both female fertility and milk yield traits, but excluding the United States. By including milk yield traits to the analysis, female fertility reliabilities increased, but not for all bulls in all the countries by trait combinations. The presence of milk yield traits in the analysis did not considerably change the genetic correlations, genetic trends or bull rankings of female fertility traits. Even though the predicted genetic merits of female fertility traits hardly changed by including milk yield traits to the analysis, the change was not equally distributed to the whole data. The number of bulls in common between the two sets of Top 100 bulls for each trait in the two analyses of female fertility traits, with and without the four milk yield traits and their rank correlations were low, not necessarily because of the absence of the US milk yield data. The joint international genetic evaluation of female fertility traits with milk yield is recommended to make use of information on several female fertility traits from different countries simultaneously, to consider selection decisions for milk yield in the genetic evaluation of female fertility traits for obtaining more accurate estimating breeding values (EBV) and to acquire female fertility EBV for bulls evaluated for milk yield, but not for female fertility. PMID:24840559

Nilforooshan, M A; Jakobsen, J H; Fikse, W F; Berglund, B; Jorjani, H

2014-06-01

46

Penicillin allergy evaluation: experience from a drug allergy clinic in an Arabian Gulf Country, Kuwait  

PubMed Central

Background Hypersensitivity to penicillin has been studied worldwide, but data regarding patterns of sensitization in Arabian Gulf countries are scarce. Objective To describe the patterns of penicillin hypersensitivity during a 6-year study in Kuwait in terms of demographics, type of the culprit drug, in vivo and in vitro allergy testing. Methods One hundred and twenty-four patients referred to the drug allergy clinic for penicillin allergy were fully evaluated by skin prick and intradermal testing. Drug provocation test was done on patients with negative results. Results A total of 124 patients were evaluated for penicillin allergy. Mean age was 37.8 (standard deviation, 12.7) years, range from 8 to 74 years. Thirty-nine male (31.5%) and 85 female patients (68.5%) were included. Diagnosis of penicillin allergy was confirmed in 46 patients (37.1%). Among the 44 confirmed allergic patients by skin evaluation we had 15 (34.1%) positive skin prick test, and 29 (65.9%) positive intradermal testing. Among patients with positive skin testing, 47.7% were positive to major determinant benzylpenicilloyl poly-L-lysine, 20.4% to minor determinant mixture, 50.0% to penicillin G and 40.9% to ampicillin; 13.6% of patients were positive to amoxicillin by skin prick test. One patient had a positive radioallergosorbent test and one had a positive challenge test. Conclusion Penicillin allergy is a common problem with an incidence of about one third in our study subjects.

Rodriguez Bouza, Tito; Arifhodzic, Nermina

2014-01-01

47

Job insecurity and health: A study of 16 European countries  

PubMed Central

Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45–70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity.

Laszlo, Krisztina D.; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Maria S.; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyongyver; Marmot, Michael

2010-01-01

48

Appraisal Method for Evaluating Candidate Countries for International Cooperative Programs in Fossil-Fuel RD and D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization (FFU) has an interest in appraising opportunities for cooperation that exist between the US and other countries, including less developed countries. To accomplish these evaluations, FFU needs a method of appraising ...

H. Hagler R. Buta

1978-01-01

49

Low toxicity regimens in renal transplantation: a country subset analysis of the Symphony study.  

PubMed

Regional transplant practices may affect clinical outcomes within multinational studies. This study evaluated whether the overall results from the Symphony study can be generalized to the participating countries. De novo adult renal transplant recipients (n = 1645) were randomized to receive standard-dose cyclosporine, or daclizumab induction plus low-dose cyclosporine, low-dose tacrolimus,or low-dose sirolimus, all in addition to mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Data for the highest patient-recruiting countries, Spain (n = 275),Germany (n = 316) and Turkey (n = 258), were compared. Patient transplant characteristics were different among the country subsets; only deceased donors in Spain, more expanded criteria donors in Germany, and mainly living donors in Turkey. Efficacy results for the three countries were consistent with that of the overall study - renal function and biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR)rates were superior with low-dose tacrolimus. Turkey had higher mean calculated glomerular filtration rate across all treatment groups (60.6-72.2 ml/min)compared with that of Spain (51.1-57.5 ml/min) and Germany (51.3-62.9 ml/min). Spain and Turkey had lower BPAR rates across the four treatment groups compared with the overall study; Germany had much higher rates(21.0-54.2%). These findings confirm the general applicability of the Symphony study results and highlight the importance of inclusion of patients from different geographic origins in randomized clinical trials. PMID:19891046

Demirbas, Alper; Hugo, Christian; Grinyó, Josep; Frei, Ulrich; Gürkan, Alp; Marcén, Roberto; Bernasconi, Corrado; Ekberg, Henrik

2009-12-01

50

Evaluation of community-based rehabilitation for disabled persons in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all governments and non-governmental organisations in developing countries use a community-based rehabilitation (CBR) approach to work with disabled people. Although disabled people's organisations reject the categorisation of disability in individual terms, ‘medical rehabilitation’ is still regarded as an important but time limited process within rehabilitation. The paper lists measures and methods used in a comprehensive evaluation, and presents a

P. J. Evans; P. Zinkin; G. Chaudury

2001-01-01

51

Music therapy research in Ibero-American countries: an overview focused on assessment and clinical evaluation.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to present an overview of some contemporary ideas concerning the status of music therapy research in Ibero-American countries, with a focus on assessment and clinical evaluation of music therapy clinical practice. PMID:16597778

Sabbatella, Patricia L

2005-12-01

52

The Challenges of Small-Scale Evaluation in a Foreign Country: Reflections on Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a reflection on practice. It begins by briefly describing an evaluation of an externally-funded education programme in Kosovo (a new country in south-east Europe). The programme was managed by Save the Children in Kosovo and aimed to develop and promote models of inclusive education through three strands of activity. The first of…

Saunders, Lesley

2010-01-01

53

A Study Focusing on American Expatriates' Learning in Host Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 70 U.S. expatriate workers found that most learned the culture of their host country through reflective learning. Factors helping their adjustment included previous cross-cultural experience, language competence, long-term relationship with hosts, and information about the host country from both home and host sources. (Contains 29…

Shim, In-Sun; Paprock, Kenneth C.

2002-01-01

54

Evaluation of the Impact of NCI Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention's on Participants from Low- and Middle Income Countries  

PubMed Central

The NCI Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention provides scientists and health care professionals training in principles and practices of cancer prevention and control, and molecular biology and genetics of cancer. Originally intended for U.S. scientists, the Curriculum’s enrollment of international scientists has increased steadily. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the Curriculum’s impact on knowledge, skills and career accomplishments of the international participants from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). International participants from 1998 to 2009 completed questionnaires regarding knowledge, overall experience and accomplishments directly associated with the Curriculum. Almost all respondents agreed the Curriculum enhanced their knowledge and skills, prepared them to contribute to cancer control activities in their home countries and addressed specific needs and achieve research goals. The NCI Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention gives international participants a unique opportunity to enhance their knowledge and effectively contribute to cancer control activities in their home country.

Williams, Makeda J.; Otero, Isabel V.; Harford, Joe B.

2013-01-01

55

A country-wide field evaluation of rapid diagnostic test for meningococcal meningitis.  

PubMed

We comment on a unique country-wide scale field evaluation of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for meningococcal meningitis in Niger. The authors reported the good sensitivity and specificity of the test, and the reliability of results obtained in the field by non-specialized health staff. This finding allows us to consider RDT as a good candidate laboratory tool to be used for the case-based surveillance system, post introduction of the new conjugate A vaccine (MenAfriVac) in the African meningitis belt countries. In addition, RDT is also a potential point of care test to improve the management of meningitis patients. PMID:24627423

Chanteau, Suzanne

2014-04-01

56

Evaluation of the applicability of SWAT in the Nile Basin countries: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plethora of hydrological modeling codes are nowadays available and many applications of these tools have been reported in peer reviewed journal papers. The hypothesis that the model is appropriate for the case study and the purpose of the study is however very often not questioned. We aim here at critically reviewing the use of a widely used hydrological simulation tool, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the context of the modeling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile Basin countries. Up to date, more than 20 peer reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT in this region for a variety of problems, such as erosion modeling, land use modeling, climate change impact modeling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are clustered in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. A number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, the performance, the physical representation of the model parameters, and the representativeness of the hydrological model balance. Here we evaluate the applications of within the Nile basin. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained several losses that might not be justified. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For that reason, it is difficult to give an overall positive evaluation to most of the reported SWAT models. An important gap is the lack of attention that is given to the vegetation and crop processes. None of the papers reported any adaptation to the crop parameters, or any crop related output such as leaf area index, biomass or crop yields. A proper simulation of the land cover is important for obtaining correct evapotranspiration and erosion computations. It is also found that a comparison of SWAT applications on the same or similar case study but by different research teams and/or model versions resulted in very different results. It is therefore recommended to try to find better methods to evaluate the representativeness of the distributed processes and parameters, especially when land use studies are envisaged. The main recommendation is that more details on the model set-up, the parameters and outputs should be provided in the journal papers in order to allow for a more stringent evaluation of these models.

van Griensven, A.; Ndomba, P. M.; Kilonzo, F.

2012-04-01

57

Appraisal method for evaluating candidate countries for international cooperative programs in fossil-fuel RD and D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization (FFU) has an interest in appraising opportunities for cooperation that exist between the US and other countries, including less developed countries. To accomplish these evaluations, FFU needs a method of appraising foreign countries in terms of their resource profiles and RD and D policies and programs. Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA) has developed a

H. Hagler; R. Buta

1978-01-01

58

A Comparison of Model-based and Design-based Impact Evaluations of Interventions in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that non-experimental impact estimators will continue to be needed for evaluations of interventions in developing countries as social experiments, for various reasons, will never be the most preferred approach. In a survey of four studies that empirically compare the performance of experimental and non-experimental impact estimates using data from development interventions, we show that the preferred non-experimental estimators

Henrik Hansen; Ninja Ritter Klejntrup; Ole Winckler Andersen

2011-01-01

59

Applying social, behavioral and evaluation research to developing country HIV prevention programs.  

PubMed

The campaign against HIV/AIDS has been hindered by a disjunction between behavioral research and the design of preventive interventions. A review was conducted of over 400 social, behavioral, and evaluation studies conducted as part of Family Health International's AIDS Control and Prevention Project in 45 countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia in 1992-1997. Program-related research showed a shift from repetitive studies of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) to studies that yielded tangible information on how people change. Extensive use was made of findings from focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and baseline and follow-up KAP surveys to design culturally relevant interventions. Behavioral research evolved over time from a focus on traditional high-risk groups to broader populations such as adolescents and women. Most research continues to be descriptive, conducted in response to urgent program needs (e.g., for baseline data), and focused on individuals rather than social organizations. Valid assessment of the effectiveness of behavior change interventions presents numerous methodological and evaluation problems, including the bias inherent in self-report data, an inability to attribute behavioral changes to specific interventions, and the insensitivity of HIV prevalence as an indicator of short-term behavior change. However, the results of controlled intervention studies attest that prevention had had a substantial impact on HIV knowledge, attitudes toward those infected with HIV, perceptions of individual risk, and sex behavior among target groups. Continued triangulation of the results of a variety of sources and methodologies will reduce systemic bias in the research data. PMID:9792367

MacNeil, J M; Hogle, J

1998-01-01

60

The challenges of small-scale evaluation in a foreign country: reflections on practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a reflection on practice. It begins by briefly describing an evaluation of an externally-funded education programme\\u000a in Kosovo (a new country in south-east Europe). The programme was managed by Save the Children in Kosovo and aimed to develop\\u000a and promote models of inclusive education through three strands of activity. The first of these provided a bi-lingual multicultural

Lesley Saunders

2010-01-01

61

Development of Hydropower: A Case Study in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, global electricity production has more than doubled, and electricity demand is rising rapidly around the world as economic development spreads to emerging economies. Therefore, technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. In addition, small hydropower (SHP) represents an

I. Yüksel

2007-01-01

62

Monetary policy and house prices: a cross-country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines periods of pronounced rises and falls of real house prices since 1970 in eighteen major industrial countries, with particular focus on the lessons for monetary policy. We find that real house prices are pro-cyclical—co-moving with real GDP, consumption, investment, CPI inflation, budget and current account balances, and output gaps. House price booms are typically preceded by a

Alan G. Ahearne; John Ammer; Brian M. Doyle; Linda S. Kole; Robert F. Martin

2005-01-01

63

Monetary Policy and House Prices: A Cross-Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines periods of pronounced rises and falls of real house prices since 1970 in eighteen major industrial countries, with particular focus on the lessons for monetary policy. We find that real house prices are pro-cyclical—comoving with real GDP, consumption, investment, CPI inflation, budget and current account balances, and output gaps. House price booms are typically preceded by a

Alan G. Ahearne; John Ammer; Brian M. Doyle; Linda S. Kole; Robert F. Martin

2005-01-01

64

Water Scarcity and Food Import: A Case Study for Southern Mediterranean Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking six southern Mediterranean countries as a case study, this paper addresses the water-food challenges facing water-scarce countries and the implications for the world food economy. By accounting the volume of virtual water embedded in food imports into the countries concerned, a close relationship between water endowment and food import dependence is elaborated. A projection of the cereal demand suggests

Hong Yang; Alexander J. B. Zehnder

2002-01-01

65

African Braille Production: A Statistical Review and Evaluation of Countries and Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in 52 African countries to determine the extent of braille facilities for the blind, with the aim of choosing a location for a central braille producing facility. To make the selection, the factors of ease of communication (i.e., central location), political stability, and extent of already existing organizations for the…

Mayer, Marc; Cylke, Frank Kurt

66

Evaluation of a Health Setting-Based Stigma Intervention in Five African Countries  

PubMed Central

Abstract The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n?=?134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated.

Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L.

2009-01-01

67

Studies in Somatic Growth, Biological Maturation, Physical Fitness and Activity in Portuguese Speaking Countries: an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study has the following purposes: (1) to present and situate the studies made in the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries and (2) to present some recommendations for future investigations. Seventeen studies are considered and the following conclusions are drawn: (1) almost the totality of the studies present a cross-sectional design; (2) in the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries

DL Freitas

2002-01-01

68

Effect of the Science Learning Environment on Science Achievement: A Comparison of 12 Countries from the IEA Second International Science Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Second International Science Study (SISS) was conducted in 1984, resulting in a vast amount of educational data collected from 23 countries and educational systems. This research study reports on the analyses of 12 of those countries using multilevel modeling, investigating the relationships between the students’ reported perceptions of the science

Deidra J. Young

1995-01-01

69

A critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for HIV prevention in developed countries  

PubMed Central

A potential impediment to evidence-based policy development on medical male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention in all countries worldwide is the uncritical acceptance by some of arguments used by opponents of this procedure. Here we evaluate recent opinion-pieces of 13 individuals opposed to MC. We find that these statements misrepresent good studies, selectively cite references, some containing fallacious information, and draw erroneous conclusions. In marked contrast, the scientific evidence shows MC to be a simple, low-risk procedure with very little or no adverse long-term effect on sexual function, sensitivity, sensation during arousal or overall satisfaction. Unscientific arguments have been recently used to drive ballot measures aimed at banning MC of minors in the USA, eliminate insurance coverage for medical MC for low-income families, and threaten large fines and incarceration for health care providers. Medical MC is a preventative health measure akin to immunisation, given its protective effect against HIV infection, genital cancers and various other conditions. Protection afforded by neonatal MC against a diversity of common medical conditions starts in infancy with urinary tract infections and extends throughout life. Besides protection in adulthood against acquiring HIV, MC also reduces morbidity and mortality from multiple other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital cancers in men and their female sexual partners. It is estimated that over their lifetime one-third of uncircumcised males will suffer at least one foreskin-related medical condition. The scientific evidence indicates that medical MC is safe and effective. Its favourable risk/benefit ratio and cost/benefit support the advantages of medical MC.

Morris, Brian J.; Bailey, Robert C.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Leibowitz, Arleen; Wamai, Richard G.; Waskett, Jake H.; Banerjee, Joya; Halperin, Daniel T.; Zoloth, Laurie; Weiss, Helen A.; Hankins, Catherine A.

2013-01-01

70

Economic burden of torture for a refugee host country: development of a model and presentation of a country case study  

PubMed Central

Background Torture is an important social and political problem worldwide that affects millions of people. Many host countries give victims of torture the status of refugee and take care of them as far as basic needs; health care, professional reinsertion, and education. Little is known about the costs of torture. However, this knowledge could serve as an additional argument for the prevention and social mobilization to fight against torture and to provide a powerful basis of advocacy for rehabilitation programs and judiciary claims. Objectives Development of a model for estimating the economic costs of torture and applying the model to a specific country. Methods The estimation of the possible prevalence of victims of torture was based on a review of the literature. The identification of the socioeconomic factors to be considered was done by analogy with various health problems. The estimation of the loss of the productivity and of the economic burden of disease related to torture was done through the human capital approach and the component technique analysis. Case study The model was applied to the situation in Switzerland of estimated torture victims Switzerland is confronted with. Results When applied to the case study, the direct costs – such as housing, food, and clothing – represent roughly 130 million Swiss francs (CHF) per year; whereas, health care costs amount to 16 million CHF per year, and the costs related to education of young people to 34 million CHF per year. Indirect costs, namely those costs related to the loss of the productivity of direct survivors of torture, have been estimated to one-third of 1 billion CHF per year. This jumps to 10,073,419,200 CHF in the loss of productivity if one would consider 30 years of loss per survivor. Conclusion Our study shows that a rough estimation of the costs related to torture is possible with some prerequisites, such as access to social and economic indicators at the country level.

Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Frey, Conrad; Chastonay, Philippe

2014-01-01

71

Serving Country and Community: A Longitudinal Study of Service in AmeriCorps. Early Findings. April 2007 Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Serving Country and Community: A Longitudinal Study of Service in AmeriCorps is an evaluation to assess the long-term impact of AmeriCorps on participants (referred to as members) civic engagement, education, employment, and life skills. This report prese...

A. Chase A. Hazlett J. Jastrzab J. Valente L. Giordono

2007-01-01

72

A multi-country cluster randomized controlled effectiveness evaluation to accelerate the introduction of Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in developing countries in Asia: rationale and design.  

PubMed

Phase-III vaccine efficacy trials typically employ individually randomized designs intended to ensure that measurements of vaccine protective efficacy reflect only direct vaccine effects. As a result, decisions about introducing newly licensed vaccines into public health programmes often fail to consider the substantially greater protection that may occur when a vaccine is deployed in public health programmes, due to the combination of direct plus indirect vaccine protective effects. Vaccine total protection can be better evaluated with cluster randomized trials. Such a design was considered to generate policy relevant data to accelerate the rationale introduction of the licensed typhoid fever Vi polysaccharide (PS) vaccine in Asia by the Diseases of the Most Impoverished (DOMI) typhoid fever programme. The DOMI's programme multi-country study is one of the largest cluster randomized vaccine trials ever mounted in Asia, which includes approximately 200,000 individuals. Its main objective is to determine the effectiveness of a licensed Vi PS vaccine. The rationale and design of this study are discussed. Preliminary results are presented that determined the final planning of the trial before immunization. Important methodological and practical issues regarding vaccine cluster randomized designs are illustrated. PMID:16359401

Acosta, Camilo J; Galindo, Claudia M; Ali, Mohammad; Elyazeed, Remon Abu; Ochiai, R Leon; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Page, Anne-Laure; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Jin, Yang; Park, Jin Kyung; Lee, Hyejon; Puri, Mahesh K; Ivanoff, Bernard; Agtini, Magdarina D; Soeharno, Rooswanti; Simanjuntak, Cyrus H; Punjabi, Narain H; Canh, Do Gia; Sur, Dipika; Nizami, Qamaruddin; Manna, Byomkesh; Bai-qing, Dong; Anh, Dang Duc; Honghui, Yang; Bhattacharya, Sujit Kumar; Bhutta, Zulfikar; Trach, Dang Duc; Xu, Zhi-Yi; Pang, Tikki; Donner, Allan; Clemens, John D

2005-12-01

73

Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

2010-01-01

74

Perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes associated with adults? recreational walking: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries.  

PubMed

This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults' recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from crime, and proximity to parks were linearly associated with recreational walking, while curvilinear associations were found for residential density, land use mix, and aesthetics. The observed associations were consistent across countries, except for aesthetics. Using data collected from environmentally diverse countries, this study confirmed findings from prior single-country studies. Present findings suggest that similar environmental attributes are associated with recreational walking internationally. PMID:24721737

Sugiyama, Takemi; Cerin, Ester; Owen, Neville; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Conway, Terry L; Van Dyck, Delfien; Schipperijn, Jasper; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S; Mitáš, Josef; Sarmiento, Olga L; Davey, Rachel; Schofield, Grant; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Sallis, James F

2014-07-01

75

Evaluation of oxygen concentrators for use in countries with limited resources.  

PubMed

Seven different models of oxygen concentrators were purchased. The manufacturer's data were evaluated by a ranking method for operation at high temperature and high relative humidity, power consumption, warranty and cost. Measurements were then made of the oxygen concentration produced at maximum operating temperature. All the concentrators were CE marked and claimed compliance with the relevant Standard ISO 8359:1996. Only two models complied with their specification. On examination of the concentrators and the accompanying documents we found that compliance with 61 points listed in ISO 8359 ranged from 85% to 98%. Oxygen concentration was measured with the machines running simultaneously under both high temperature and high humidity. All models delivered low oxygen concentrations at 40 °C and 95% relative humidity. Only two models delivered >82% at 35 °C and 50% relative humidity. Concentrators intended for use in countries with limited resources should be evaluated before they are purchased, by independent experts, using the methods described herein. PMID:23654218

Peel, D; Neighbour, R; Eltringham, R J

2013-07-01

76

Beyond Resistance: Exploring Health Managers' Propensity for Participatory Evaluation in a Developing Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the…

Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois; Farand, Lambert

2012-01-01

77

Catastrophe risk models for evaluating disaster risk reduction investments in developing countries.  

PubMed

Major natural disasters in recent years have had high human and economic costs, and triggered record high postdisaster relief from governments and international donors. Given the current economic situation worldwide, selecting the most effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures is critical. This is especially the case for low- and middle-income countries, which have suffered disproportionally more economic and human losses from disasters. This article discusses a methodology that makes use of advanced probabilistic catastrophe models to estimate benefits of DRR measures. We apply such newly developed models to generate estimates for hurricane risk on residential structures on the island of St. Lucia, and earthquake risk on residential structures in Istanbul, Turkey, as two illustrative case studies. The costs and economic benefits for selected risk reduction measures are estimated taking account of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. We conclude by emphasizing the advantages and challenges of catastrophe model-based cost-benefit analyses for DRR in developing countries. PMID:23237737

Michel-Kerjan, E; Hochrainer-Stigler, S; Kunreuther, H; Linnerooth-Bayer, J; Mechler, R; Muir-Wood, R; Ranger, N; Vaziri, P; Young, M

2013-06-01

78

Genderedness of bar drinking culture and alcohol-related harms: A multi-country study  

PubMed Central

This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in predominantly male bar-drinking countries. Multilevel analysis was used to analyze survey data from 21 countries representing five continents from Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Bar frequency was positively associated with harms overall. Relationships between bar frequency and harms varied across country. Genderedness modified associations between bar frequency and odds of fights, marriage/relationship harms, and work harms. Findings were significant only for men. Contrary to our hypothesis, odds of harms associated with bar drinking increased less rapidly in countries where bar drinking is predominantly male. This suggests predominantly male bar drinking cultures may be protective for males who more frequently drink in bars.

Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

2012-01-01

79

Country Life and the Country School: A Study of the Agencies of Rural Progress and of the Social Relationship of the School to the Country Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in 1912, this book addresses the role of teachers in improving rural farm life. Rural-to-urban migration had resulted in the loss of leadership from rural localities and the decline of agriculture, and country life had lost its prestige both socially and economically. This book suggests that the country school is the key to achieving…

Carney, Mabel

80

Cost Recovery in the Health Care Sector: Selected Country Studies in West Africa,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to examine the allocation of funds for health care, and the current status of health-care cost-recovery policies in the four West African countries of Senegal, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. In each country, extensive study wa...

R. J. Vogel

1988-01-01

81

Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific: Country Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National studies of the progress being made toward the universalization of primary education in 12 Asian countries are reported in this collection. Begun in 1983, the studies were conducted to analyze the stage reached by the participating countries and the problems encountered by them in providing educational opportunities to all children at the…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

82

Quality of life in adult patients with Familial Mediterranean fever living in Germany or Turkey compared to healthy subjects: a study evaluating the effect of disease severity and country of residence.  

PubMed

We assessed quality of life (QOL) and disease activity in patients with Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) of Turkish ancestry living in Germany or Turkey and conducted a correlation with FMF disease activity. 40 FMF patients in Turkey (TR), 40 FMF patients in Germany (G) and 40 healthy controls in Germany (C) were included. QOL was evaluated with the short form of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-BREF). FMF disease activity was examined with the Pras score. Mean age was TR 30.5 ± 10.6, G 35.2 ± 10.2, C 34.6 ± 10.7. Of the 120 participants, 77 were female. FMF patients in TR and G had a significantly decreased QOL physical health domain compared to controls (TR 59.7 ± 18.8, G 60.4 ± 19.4, C 76.5 ± 14.6). Turkish FMF patients had a lower QOL environment domain compared to controls (TR 62.3 ± 17.5, G 69.7 ± 16.5, C 72.3 ± 13.5). In the other QOL domains, no significant differences were found. The differences in QOL were robust to a regression analysis. No significant correlation between QOL and FMF disease activity was found. German FMF patients had longer duration of disease, younger age at onset and longer delay from disease onset to colchicine treatment. A total of 5 of 40 German FMF patients were not taking colchicine (TR:0). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was lowest in TR with significant difference between TR and G as well as G and C (TR 13.2 ± 10.3, G 27.8 ± 19.4, C 16.3 ± 12.8 mm/h). C-reactive protein did not differ between TR and G. FMF has an important impact on QOL physical health domain. No correlation between FMF disease activity and the WHOQOL-BREF could be found. PMID:23274441

Giese, Arnd; Kurucay, Mustafa; Kilic, Levent; Örnek, Ahmet; ?endur, Süleyman Nahit; Lainka, Elke; Henning, Bernhard Ferdinand

2013-07-01

83

The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

84

Pyrolysis system evaluation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

1974-01-01

85

How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

2007-01-01

86

Developing a Web Site for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention in a Middle Income Country: A Pilot Study from Thailand  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Internet has often been used to reach men who have sex with men (MSMs) in developed countries. However, its use has not been as widespread in middle income countries because of a perceived lack of access to the web by residents of these countries. However, over half of the Internet users in the world now live in middle income countries. This article describes the development of web-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention program that can serve as a model for middle income countries. Thai nursing faculty worked with MSMs to create and evaluate a Web site that provided HIV prevention messages directed toward MSMs. The steps for creating the site are described. Forty-one MSMs used the site and provided feedback to the site developers. The group was young (median=19 years), low income (median income was ?170 US$ per month). The users demonstrated that they had access to the Internet and that they could utilize the site. They also reported moderate-to-high levels of satisfaction with site design, content, ease of use, information obtained, and benefits obtained from using the site. A previous article in the Thai language also showed that they reduced risk behaviors. They also made many useful suggestions for improving the content of the site. In conclusion, the study showed that the combination of nurses and MSMs from a middle income country could develop a usable HIV prevention Web site that instructed and changed behavior.

Viseskul, Nongkran; Srikantha, Wimonsiri; Fongkaew, Warunee; Surapagdee, Natthakarn; Grimes, Richard M.

2012-01-01

87

The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries. IEA Studies in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on the impact of private education in developing countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Peru, Romania, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The private education sector is large and innovative in the countries studied and not the domain of the wealthy. Contrary to popular opinion, private education in…

Tooley, James

88

Fundamental Study on Petroleum and Gas Taxation System in Foreign Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status of the harmonization of tax structure in EC and the outlines of petroleum and gas taxation systems in 5 developed European countries were studied and analyzed. The petroleum and gas taxation systems in major Euroean and American countri...

N. Tanaka, Y. Okaya, A. Hashimoto, K. Nishimura, N. Tokiyoshi

1988-01-01

89

Tolerance of suicide, religion and suicide rates: an ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Negative associations between religion and suicide, in individuals and countries, may be mediated by the degree to which suicide is tolerated. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine ecological associations between suicide tolerance, religion and suicide rates in 19 Western countries in 1989}90. Logistic regression was used to study associations between suicide tolerance and strength of religious belief in

J. NEELEMAN; D. HALPERN; D. LEON; G. LEWIS

1997-01-01

90

Market Definition Study of Photovoltaic Power for Remote Villages in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this market definition study is to assess the market potential for the use of photovoltaic power systems for remote villages in developing countries. The approach used was to conduct an in-depth literature search followed by in-country su...

C. Ragsdale P. Quashie

1980-01-01

91

Global competitiveness, consumer choice and ‘country of origin’ effect: an exploratory East–West study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As protectionist sentiments rise in many countries in light of the 2008–2009 financial crisis, it is more important than ever to understand the potential role of homophily on the country of origin (COO) effect in consumer purchases and how it can impact trade and investment. This study examines these attitudes using a sample of 139 university students from different ethnic

Masud Chand; Rosalie L. Tung

2011-01-01

92

Genderedness of Bar Drinking Culture and Alcohol-Related Harms: A Multi-Country Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…

Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

2013-01-01

93

Use of and beliefs about light cigarettes in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined reported use of, and beliefs about, so-called light cigarettes among adult smokers in four countries: Australia (Aus), Canada (Can), the United Kingdom (U.K.) and the United States (U.S.). The method used was parallel telephone surveys among 9,046 smokers across the four countries. The results indicated that more than half of all smokers in each country except the

Ron Borland; Hua-Hie Yong; Bill King; Michael Cummings; Geoffrey T. Fong; Tara Elton-Marshall; David Hammond; Ann McNeill

2004-01-01

94

A Comparative Evaluation of Pisa 2003-2006 Results in Reading Literacy Skills: An Example of Top-Five OECD Countries and Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study it is aimed to describe and evaluate comparatively the reading literacy exam results, the finance of education and schools, and socio-cultural status of parents in Turkey and the top-five OECD countries, Finland, Korea, Canada, Australia, New Zealand respectively, in the light reports and publications by OECD regarding PISA 2003 and…

Aydin, Ayhan; Erdagf, Coskun; Tas, Nuray

2011-01-01

95

Marketing mix standardization: a cross cultural study of four countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study researched the possibility of standardizing the marketing mix by investigating the cross-cultural responses from the United States, Brazil, France and India. The study tested the premise of standardization by determining if respondents perceived specific attributes of a common non-durable consumer product the same or differently. The results indicate the opportunity for dynamic marketing standardization remains limited but applicable

Richard Alan Kustin

2004-01-01

96

Case Study of a Course for Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course designed to provide the necessary academic study prior to students engaging in the practice of irrigation engineering. Rationale for the course, course structure, and special features of the course are included. (JN)

Morice, Peter B.

1985-01-01

97

Multiple Paths to Effective National Evaluation Societies: Evidence from 37 Low- and Middle-Income Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Evaluation Societies (NES) are situated at the intersection between Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) supply and demand. To date, little research has explored NES and their potential for strengthening national M&E. This study addresses this gap, examining perceived NES performance relevant to organizational and policy-oriented goals…

Holvoet, Nathalie; Dewachter, Sara

2013-01-01

98

Country of Contrasts: A Study Guide on Panama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide seeks to provide resources to bring the voices and experiences of Panamanian students into classrooms. This guide includes: (1) "History of a Canal" (in English and Spanish) (Pablo Neruda); (2) "Poems by Cubena"; (3) "Maps of Panama and The Canal Zone"; (4) "Historical Overview: Panama (1501-1992)"; (5) "Molas" (Maria…

Athey, Lois E., Ed.; And Others

99

Guidance In Other Countries: Experimental Text for Comparative Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book has been written as a guide for comparative studies in counselor training curricula and inservice workshops or for professional enrichment of individual guidance workers. It is an experimental textbook. While the subject matter is not designed to be comprehensive or systematic, the information is adequate for those who wish to initiate…

Drapela, Victor J.; And Others

100

Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

101

Violence as a public health problem: An ecological study of 169 countries?  

PubMed Central

Individual level risk factors for violence have been widely studied, but little is known about country-level determinants, particularly in low and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that income inequality, through its detrimental effects on social cohesion, would be related to an increase in violence worldwide, and in low and middle-income countries in particular. We examined country-level associations of violence with socio-economic and health-related factors, using crime statistics from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and indicators from the Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Programme. Using regression models, we measured relationships between country-level factors (age, education, measures of income, health expenditure, and alcohol consumption) and four violent outcomes (including measures of violence-related mortality and morbidity) in up to 169 countries. We stratified our analyses comparing high with low and middle-income countries, and analysed longitudinal data on homicide and income inequality in high-income countries. In low and middle-income countries, income inequality was related to homicide, robbery, and self-reported assault (all p's < 0.05). In high-income countries, urbanicity was significantly associated with official assault (p = 0.002, ? = 0.716) and robbery (p = 0.011, ? = 0.587) rates; income inequality was related to homicide (p = 0.006, ? = 0.670) and self-reported assault (p = 0.020, ? = 0.563), and longitudinally with homicide (p = 0.021). Worldwide, alcohol consumption was associated with self-reported assault rates (p < 0.001, ? = 0.369) suggesting public policy interventions reducing alcohol consumption may contribute to reducing violence rates. Our main finding was that income inequality was related to violence in low and middle-income countries. Public health should advocate for global action to moderate income inequality to reduce the global health burden of violence.

Wolf, Achim; Gray, Ron; Fazel, Seena

2014-01-01

102

Unethical Use of Information Technology: A Two-Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the phenomenon of unethical use of information technology (IT) by developing and testing a model that postulates multiple influencing factors of unethical IT use. Results from two studies of young adult participants in USA and Finland show that unethical IT use is primarily influenced by social (e.g., subjective norms), situational (e.g., moral intensity), and technological (e.g., technological

Sutirtha Chatterjee; Joseph S. Valacich; Suprateek Sarker

2012-01-01

103

Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina) are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Methods Through focus groups discussions we were able to assess the concepts and expectations underlying women's evaluation of concepts and experiences of the care received in antenatal care clinics. 164 women participated in 24 focus groups discussion in all countries. Results Three areas are particularly addressed in this paper: a) concepts about pregnancy and health care, b) experience with health services and health providers, and c) opinions about the modified Antenatal Care (ANC) programme. In all three topics similarities were identified as well as particular opinions related to country specific social and cultural values. In general women have a positive view of the new ANC protocol, particularly regarding the information they receive. However, controversial issues emerged such as the reduction in the number of visits, particularly in Cuba where women are used to have 18 ANC visits in one pregnancy period. Conclusion Recommendations to improve ANC services performance are being proposed. Any country interested in the application of a new ANC protocol should regard the opinion and acceptability of women towards changes.

Nigenda, Gustavo; Langer, Ana; Kuchaisit, Chusri; Romero, Mariana; Rojas, Georgina; Al-Osimy, Muneera; Villar, Jose; Garcia, Jo; Al-Mazrou, Yagob; Ba'aqeel, Hassan; Carroli, Guillermo; Farnot, Ubaldo; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Belizan, Jose; Bergsjo, Per; Bakketeig, Leiv; Lindmark, Gunilla

2003-01-01

104

Assessments of country of origin and brand cues in evaluating a Croatian, western and eastern European food product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic and social changes occurring in the former socialist and communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe point to the need for more intensive consumer-based market research. This paper reports on a study of young Croatian consumers' attitudes towards a foreign and domestic product of a single low-involvement food product category (chocolate). The roles that country of origin (COO)

Durdana Ozretic-Dosen; Vatroslav Skare; Zoran Krupka

2007-01-01

105

Female Presence on Corporate Boards: A Multi-Country Study of Environmental Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of ethics research investigates gender diversity and governance on corporate boards, at individual and firm\\u000a levels, in single country studies. In this study, we explore the environmental context of female representation on corporate\\u000a boards of directors, using data from 43 countries. We suggest that women’s representation on corporate boards may be shaped\\u000a by the larger environment, including

Siri Terjesen; Val Singh

2008-01-01

106

Barriers to Functional and Qualitative Technology Education In Developing Countries: Nigeria as a Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science and Technology have been widely recognized as the most important potent tools for socio-economic development. This paper begins with a brief critical and evaluative review of the status of science and technology education in developing countries in Africa. The conceptual framework and the major features of a functional and qualitative…

Ojo, David A.

107

The International Prevalence Study on Physical Activity: results from 20 countries  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity (PA) is one of the most important factors for improving population health, but no standardised systems exist for international surveillance. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed for international surveillance. The purpose of this study was a comparative international study of population physical activity prevalence across 20 countries. Methods Between 2002–2004, a standardised protocol using IPAQ was used to assess PA participation in 20 countries [total N = 52,746, aged 18–65 years]. The median survey response rate was 61%. Physical activity levels were categorised as "low", "moderate" and "high". Age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented by sex. Results The prevalence of "high PA" varied from 21–63%; in eight countries high PA was reported for over half of the adult population. The prevalence of "low PA" varied from 9% to 43%. Males more frequently reported high PA than females in 17 of 20 countries. The prevalence of low PA ranged from 7–41% among males, and 6–49% among females. Gender differences were noted, especially for younger adults, with males more active than females in most countries. Markedly lower physical activity prevalence (10% difference) with increasing age was noted in 11 of 19 countries for males, but only in three countries for women. The ways populations accumulated PA differed, with some reporting mostly vigorous intensity activities and others mostly walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of international PA surveillance, and showed that IPAQ is an acceptable surveillance instrument, at least within countries. If assessment methods are used consistently over time, trend data will inform countries about the success of their efforts to promote physical activity.

Bauman, Adrian; Bull, Fiona; Chey, Tien; Craig, Cora L; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Sallis, James F; Bowles, Heather R; Hagstromer, Maria; Sjostrom, Michael; Pratt, Michael

2009-01-01

108

The e-health implementation toolkit: qualitative evaluation across four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Implementation researchers have attempted to overcome the research-practice gap in e-health by developing tools that summarize and synthesize research evidence of factors that impede or facilitate implementation of innovation in healthcare settings. The e-Health Implementation Toolkit (e-HIT) is an example of such a tool that was designed within the context of the United Kingdom National Health Service to promote implementation of e-health services. Its utility in international settings is unknown. Methods We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the e-HIT in use across four countries--Finland, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden. Data were generated using a combination of interview approaches (n = 22) to document e-HIT users' experiences of the tool to guide decision making about the selection of e-health pilot services and to monitor their progress over time. Results e-HIT users evaluated the tool positively in terms of its scope to organize and enhance their critical thinking about their implementation work and, importantly, to facilitate discussion between those involved in that work. It was easy to use in either its paper- or web-based format, and its visual elements were positively received. There were some minor criticisms of the e-HIT with some suggestions for content changes and comments about its design as a generic tool (rather than specific to sites and e-health services). However, overall, e-HIT users considered it to be a highly workable tool that they found useful, which they would use again, and which they would recommend to other e-health implementers. Conclusion The use of the e-HIT is feasible and acceptable in a range of international contexts by a range of professionals for a range of different e-health systems.

2011-01-01

109

Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus.

2012-01-01

110

Do countries fail to raise environmental standards? An evaluation of policy options addressing \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is an important prerequisite of sustainable development that countries are able to raise their environmental standards. Environmentalists are concerned, however, that with enhanced international capital mobility the fear of capital loss might induce countries not to raise standards â a phenomenon commonly described as \\

Eric Neumayer

2001-01-01

111

Scientometric indicators for evaluating medical research output of mid-size countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical research output of eleven mid-size countries were compared with the aid of scientometric indicators. Papers published by clinical medicine journals and those of professors working at clinical faculties were used for comparison. The professors proved to be more productive authors than average scientists of the same country, but no particular eminence of the professors could be revealed. A

A. Schubert; S. Zsindely; T. Braun

1985-01-01

112

Problems of Organising and Reporting Internal and External Evaluation in Developing Countries: The Case of Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to develop capacity to link knowledge to economic growth in developing countries, there is an urgent need to make quality the major element of higher education systems. In Iran, a developing country, such a need was felt a decade ago in the academic community. Based on research projects conducted, a model that combines collegial…

Bazargan, Abbas

2007-01-01

113

Concern about family members' drinking and cultural consistency: A Multi-Country GENACIS Study  

PubMed Central

The data analysed come from the GENACIS project (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) and involve population surveys for 18 countries (total N = 34,916) from five WHO Regions: African (Nigeria and Uganda); Americas (Argentina, Costa Rica, Uruguay and United States); European (Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Spain, Sweden, and UK); South-East Asian (India, Sri Lanka); and Western Pacific (Japan). The paper studies gender and country differences in the relationship between social pressure to drink less experienced by individuals, considering seeking help for alcohol problems, and alcohol consumption and problem levels (AUDIT). In most countries for both men and women, informal control was applied most often by the spouse or partner, while reporting such controls from any source seemed more common in low- and middle-income countries. In all countries studied, men reported substantially more social control efforts than women. The hypothesis was not maintained that drinking control and help seeking was more common for heavier drinkers and those with more drinking-related harms. However, there appeared to be a relationship between a country's aggregate level of drinking and the extent to which social control efforts were reported. Higher correlations between drinking and problem levels on the one hand, and spouses' and other family members' concerns on the other, may be suggestive of a cultural consistency in societal responses to drinking and alcohol-related problems.

Olafsdottir, Hildigunnur; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Greenfield, Tom K.; Allamani, Allaman

2009-01-01

114

Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This…

Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

2010-01-01

115

Evaluation and comparison of guidelines for the management of people with type 2 diabetes from eight European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

MethodsThe most recent nationally recognised guidelines for type 2 diabetes from eight European countries (Belgium, England\\/Wales, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden) were compared. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument was used for quality assessment. Details of recommendations for key process and outcome indicators were also extracted. Appraisal and data extraction were conducted independently

M. A. Stone; J. C. Wilkinson; G. Charpentier; N. Clochard; G. Grassi; U. Lindblad; U. A. Müller; J. Nolan; G. E. H. M. Rutten; K. Khunti

2010-01-01

116

A Scientometric Study of General Internal Medicine Domain Among Muslim Countries of Middle East (1991 - 2011)  

PubMed Central

Background The position of General Internal Medicine in the Islamic countries in the Middle East has been investigated in the present study. Material and methods The scientific productions of the countries in the area on Web of science database during 1990-2011 constitute were examined. Results The result of the survey showed that the share of these countries in world scientific productions is very low. Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Iran are the first to third ones in this domain in order. In view of annual growth rate, Kuwait having high growth rate, is the first one. Libya and Syria are the next ones. The scientific poverty line of Islamic countries in the area was surveyed. The result showed that in view of the scientific poverty line, the highest is Kuwait with the population of 0.04 percent of the world. Next to it, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain are the second and third ones. Conclusion The results of this research showed that the share of Islamic countries in the Middle East in scientific production of this medicine domain is very low. It needs to be paid more attention by the countries in the area.

Hodhodinezhad, Niloofar; Zahedi, Razieh; Ashrafi-rizzi, Hassan; Shams, Asadollah

2013-01-01

117

Evaluation of the Seismic Hazard in Venezuela with a revised seismic catalog that seeks for harmonization along the country borders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment is a complex endeavor that relies on the quality of the information that comes from different sources: the seismic catalog, active faults parameters, strain rates, etc. Having this in mind, during the last several months, the FUNVISIS seismic hazard group has been working on a review and update of the local data base that form the basis for a reliable PSHA calculation. In particular, the seismic catalog, which provides the necessary information that allows the evaluation of the critical b-value, which controls how seismic occurrence distributes with magnitude, has received particular attention. The seismic catalog is the result of the effort of several generations of researchers along the years; therefore, the catalog necessarily suffers from the lack of consistency, homogeneity and completeness for all ranges of magnitude over any seismic study area. Merging the FUNVISIS instrumental catalog with the ones obtained from international agencies, we present the work that we have been doing to produce a consistent seismic catalog that covers Venezuela entirely, with seismic events starting from 1910 until 2012, and report the magnitude of completeness for the different periods. Also, we present preliminary results on the Seismic Hazard evaluation that takes into account such instrumental catalog, the historical catalog, updated known fault geometries and its correspondent parameters, and the new seismic sources that have been defined accordingly. Within the spirit of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), all these efforts look for possible bridges with neighboring countries to establish consistent hazard maps across the borders.

Rendon, H.; Alvarado, L.; Paolini, M.; Olbrich, F.; González, J.; Ascanio, W.

2013-05-01

118

Dell Hymes and the New Language Policy Studies: Update from an Underdeveloped Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay updates Dell Hymes's "Report from an Underdeveloped Country" (the USA), positioning our analysis in the New Language Policy Studies. Taking up Hymes's call for comparative, critical studies of language use, we examine three cases, organizing our analysis around Hymes's questions: What "counts" as a language, a language problem, and…

McCarty, Teresa L.; Collins, James; Hopson, Rodney K.

2011-01-01

119

Higher Education and Social Change. Promising Experiments in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the results of a study made by developing country educators for twelve national and international agencies, directed and coordinated by the International Council for Educational Development. Volume 2 contains the reports of 25 case studies of higher education institutions and systems in Africa, Asia, and Latin America: University of…

Thompson, Kenneth W., Ed.; And Others

120

Cost for tuberculosis care in developed countries: which data for an economic evaluation?  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) seems to be eradicated in developed countries. However, current migration flows and increasing use of immunosuppressive and biologic drugs for rheumatic diseases are increasing the risk of latent TB and TB onset for citizens of developed countries. Because little is known about the economic burden of TB in developed countries, we set out to describe the order and dimension of the costs of TB care in developed countries. A review of the literature indicated that the cost for anti-TB therapy is about $2000 US per patient. Costs of drugs associated with standard therapy for active TB [2HRZE/4HR, i.e., 2 months of isoniazid (H), rifampin (R), pyrazinamide (Z), and ethambutol (E), followed by 4 months of HR] are about $600. Standard therapy for latent TB care costs about $80 for 9H and $256 for 4R, respectively. However, these data are very limited because of the horizon of analysis and because data are strongly localized. It can be concluded that in developed countries, available data on TB care costs are insufficient for detailed analysis of the economic burden of TB. PMID:24789005

Trieste, Leopoldo; Turchetti, Giuseppe

2014-05-01

121

Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.  

PubMed

The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care. PMID:20440969

Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

2010-01-01

122

A vaccine cold chain freezing study in PNG highlights technology needs for hot climate countries.  

PubMed

Fourteen data loggers were packed with vaccine vials at the national vaccine store, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and sent to peripheral locations in the health system. The temperatures that the data loggers recorded during their passage along the cold chain indicated that heat damage was unlikely, but that all vials were exposed to freezing temperatures at some time. The commonest place where freezing conditions existed was during transport. The freezing conditions were likely induced by packing the vials too close to the ice packs that were themselves too cold, and with insufficient insulation between them. This situation was rectified and a repeat dispatch of data loggers demonstrated that the system had indeed been rectified. Avoiding freeze damage becomes even more important as the price of freeze-sensitive vaccines increases with the introduction of more multiple-antigen vaccines. This low-cost high-tech method of evaluating the cold chain function is highly recommended for developing and industrialized nations and should be used on a regular basis to check the integrity of the vaccine cold chain. The study highlights the need for technological solutions to avoid vaccine freezing, particularly in hot climate countries. PMID:16968657

Wirkas, Theo; Toikilik, Steven; Miller, Nan; Morgan, Chris; Clements, C John

2007-01-01

123

Macroeconomic Adjustment in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph presents an analytical framework for evaluating stabilization and structural adjustment programs in developing countries. Two case studies, one on Indonesia, the other on the Gambia, illustrate and extend the framework in the context of actu...

S. Devarajan D. Rodrik

1991-01-01

124

Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.  

PubMed

Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors. PMID:24885184

Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

2014-01-01

125

A Study of Students' Understanding of Electricity in Five European Countries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes a study of the understanding of basic electrical concepts shown by 15-17 year-old students in England, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and West Germany, the same objective test having been administered to samples of students in each of these countries. When within-country results were averaged across student groups the between-country differences on many aspects of this subject were quite small. Those electrical principles which yielded significant differences fell into two main groups, one concerned with current, flow of charge and energy, the other with voltage and its relationship to current. The consistency with which these significant differences emerged across a range of problems concerning related principles suggests that these represent real differences between the outcomes of teaching across the five countries but the causes of these differences are not yet clear. Despite the differences that have emerged, the overall impression which the results convey is of substantially the same pattern of learning difficulties across countries and the existence of an almost 'natural' coherence to these learning difficulties within cognitive structure.

Shipstone, David; Rhoneck, C. V.; Jung, W.; Karrqvist, C.; Dupin, J.; Johsua, S.

2006-12-07

126

The Development of Education Systems in Postcolonial Africa: A Study of a Selected Number of African Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study traces educational policy development and implementation in the postcolonial era in eight sub-Saharan African countries. A basic premise is that the education system in any country is a result of interacting forces in the unique historical development of the country. The volume analyzes the forces in terms of their relevance and…

Nieuwenhuis, F. J.

127

Entrepreneurial intent : A twelve-country evaluation of Ajzen's model of planned behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the ability of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to predict entrepreneurial intent in 12 countries representing all ten of the global regional clusters as identified in the GLOBE project. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Ajzen's model was operationalized to address entrepreneurial intent and a questionnaire was developed consisting of previously used scales, as

Robert L. Engle; Nikolay Dimitriadi; Jose V. Gavidia; Christopher Schlaegel; Servane Delanoe; Irene Alvarado; Xiaohong He; Samuel Buame; Birgitta Wolff

2010-01-01

128

Nurses in Advanced Roles: A Description and Evaluation of Experiences in 12 Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries are seeking to improve health care delivery by reviewing the roles of health professionals, including nurses. Developing new and more advanced roles for nurses could improve access to care in the face of a limited or diminishing supply of doctors. It might also contain costs by delegating tasks away from more expensive doctors. This paper reviews the development

Marie-Laure Delamaire; Gaetan Lafortune

2010-01-01

129

Evaluation of Policies Influencing Road Transport Fuel Consumption in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tax and pricing policies used by developing countries to encourage road transport fuel conservation, and thus reduce the amount of money spent on fuel imports, are reviewed in the report. The document presents the data on energy consumption in the tra...

1986-01-01

130

Primary Education in Europe: Evaluation of New Curricula in 10 European Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents information on the primary education systems of the 10 countries that make up the UNESCO subregional network for South and Southeast Europe, which is called Cooperation in Research and Development for Innovation in Education in South and Southeast Europe (CODIESEE). An introductory section discusses: (1) the sociocultural…

Pusci, Lucio, Ed.

131

AGROCHEMICAL HAZARDS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS AND EVALUATION OF SUCH HAZARDS WITH EMPHASIS ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many developing countries are lacking protein in the diets of their population. Aquatic systems are good sources of protein in many areas with fish and shellfish as the main sources. The misuse of agrochemicals can directly or indirectly affect the use and suitability of these pr...

132

The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

133

Medical record information disclosure laws and policies among selected countries; a comparative study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Hospitals have responsibility for responding to legitimate demands for release of health information while protecting the confidentiality of the patient health records. There have always been challenges concerning medical records confidentiality and their disclosure and release type in medical record departments. This study investigated and compared laws and policies of disclosure of health information in Iran and selected countries and tried to identify the differences and the similarities between them. METHODS: This is a descriptive and comparative study. The scope of study included related laws and policies of disclosure of health information in selected countries such as United States, Australia, England, Malaysia and Iran. Data were gathered from systematic internet search, library resources and communication with health information professionals. Data analysis was done using comparative tables and qualitative method. RESULTS: Study results showed that legislative institutions of each country have ordained laws and policies concerning disclosure and release of health information and in turn hospitals developed policies and procedures based on these laws. In Iran, however, there are few laws and policies concerning disclosure of health information in the form of formal letters and bylaws. There are no specific written policies and procedures for disclosure of health information in the hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to develop legitimate and appropriate laws and policies in different levels for information utilization by hospitals, medical universities and others. Meanwhile in all of the selected countries there are ordained limitations for release of health information for protecting health information in regard to patient rights.

Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Tavakoli, Nahid; Nansa, Leila Ghaderi

2010-01-01

134

Study Programmes for Engineers from Developing Countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the background of the study and fellowship programs for graduates from the developing countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. Discusses some experiences with the programs. Includes a brief description of five courses: (1) "Pulp and Paper Technology"; (2) "Marine Civil Engineering"; (3) "Hydropower Development"; (4) "Electric…

Lasson, Axel; Hermansen, John

1989-01-01

135

Examining Students' Affective Commitment toward Country: A Case Study of a Singapore Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine students' affective commitment toward Singapore. Affective commitment refers to the sense of attachment to the nation state. The sample was taken from 286 students in a primary school. In the first section of the paper, we described the design of a Likert-type Affective Commitment to Country questionnaire.…

Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

2011-01-01

136

Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries – Kenyan case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level

Rotich K. Henry; Zhao Yongsheng; Dong Jun

2006-01-01

137

Factors Influencing Teachers' Views of Health and Health Education: A Study in 15 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To analyse teachers' health views in order to obtain general trends in factors influencing health and health education and to fit them into the negative-positive model of health proposed by Downie and collaborators. Method: This large international study involved 15 countries from Western and Eastern Europe, North and Sub-Saharan…

Jourdan, D.; Pironom, J.; Berger, D.; Carvalho, G. S.

2013-01-01

138

Home literacy environments and children's reading performance: a comparative study of 25 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data for 4th graders in primary schools from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), I compare across 25 countries the ways in which home literacy environments influence children's reading performance. Examined are three indicators: early home literacy activities, parental attitudes toward reading, and number of books at home. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression analyses show that

Hyunjoon Park

2008-01-01

139

Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

2009-01-01

140

Sell, give away, or donate: an exploratory study of fashion clothing disposal behaviour in two countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the antecedents to clothing disposal methods in two countries: Scotland and Australia. Increasing volumes of textiles are disposed of in landfill sites to the detriment of the environment. Extant research has identified the influences affecting an increased rate of purchasing and the trend to keep clothing for an ever shorter time. As such, it is imperative to

Constanza Bianchi; Grete Birtwistle

2010-01-01

141

Implementing facility-based kangaroo mother care services: lessons from a multi-country study in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Some countries have undertaken programs that included scaling up kangaroo mother care. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the implementation status of facility-based kangaroo mother care services in four African countries: Malawi, Mali, Rwanda and Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional, mixed-method research design was used. Stakeholders provided background information at national meetings and in individual interviews. Facilities were assessed by means of a standardized tool previously applied in other settings, employing semi-structured key-informant interviews and observations in 39 health care facilities in the four countries. Each facility received a score out of a total of 30 according to six stages of implementation progress. Results Across the four countries 95 per cent of health facilities assessed demonstrated some evidence of kangaroo mother care practice. Institutions that fared better had a longer history of kangaroo mother care implementation or had been developed as centres of excellence or had strong leaders championing the implementation process. Variation existed in the quality of implementation between facilities and across countries. Important factors identified in implementation are: training and orientation; supportive supervision; integrating kangaroo mother care into quality improvement; continuity of care; high-level buy in and support for kangaroo mother care implementation; and client-oriented care. Conclusion The integration of kangaroo mother care into routine newborn care services should be part of all maternal and newborn care initiatives and packages. Engaging ministries of health and other implementing partners from the outset may promote buy in and assist with the mobilization of resources for scaling up kangaroo mother care services. Mechanisms for monitoring these services should be integrated into existing health management information systems.

2014-01-01

142

The practice of obtaining approval from medical research ethics committees: a comparison within 12 European countries for a descriptive study on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across Europe the protection of research subjects with dementia has to meet a variety of national legislation and ethical codes. This research project compared how in different EU countries one single descriptive multinational study on dementia treatment strategies was evaluated by medical ethical committees and how the issues of informed consent and capacity to consent were dealt with. The study

M. G. M. Olde Rikkert; S. Lauque; L. Frolich; B. Vellas; W. J. M. Dekkers

2005-01-01

143

Impacts of strenghtened intellectual property rights regimes on the plant breeding industry in developing countries: a synthesis of five case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, based on a World Bank-commissioned study, describes and evaluates initial experiences with strengthened IPRs (patents, plant breeders' rights systems and trademarks) in developing country agriculture, focusing on five case studies: China, Colombia, India, Kenya and Uganda. The implementation of IPR systems is assessed and the impacts on both private and public sector plant breeding organizations are presented. While

N. P. Louwaars; D. J. F. Eaton; R. Hu; K. Pal; R. Tripp; V. Henson-Apollonio; M. Mendoza; F. Muhhuku; J. Wekundah

2005-01-01

144

Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): Case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Although more than 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries, knowledge of the importance of risk factors is largely derived from developed countries. Therefore, the effect of such factors on risk of coronary heart disease in most regions of the world is unknown. Methods We established a standardised case-control study of

Salim Yusuf; Steven Hawken; S. Ounpuu

2004-01-01

145

Standardised pre-competitive screening of athletes in some European and African countries: the SMILE study.  

PubMed

Most of the available data on the cardiovascular screening of athletes come from Italy, with fewer records being available outside of Italy and for non-Caucasian populations. The goals of the SMILE project (Sport Medicine Intervention to save Lives through ECG) are to evaluate the usefulness of 12-lead ECGs for the detection of cardiac diseases in athletes from three European countries and one African country and to estimate how many second-level examinations are needed subsequent to the initial screening in order to classify athletes with abnormal characteristics. A digital network consisting of Sport Centres and second and third opinion centres was set up in Greece, Germany, France and Algeria. Standard digital data input was carried out through the application of 12-lead ECGs, Bethesda questionnaires and physical examinations. Two hundred ninety-three of the 6,634 consecutive athletes required further evaluation, mostly (88.4 %) as a consequence of abnormal ECGs. After careful evaluation, 237 were determined to be healthy or apparently healthy, while 56 athletes were found to have cardiac disorders and were thus disqualified from active participation in sports. There was a large difference in the prevalence of diseases detected in Europe as compared with Algeria (0.23 and 4.01 %, respectively). Our data confirmed the noteworthy value of 12-lead resting ECGs as compared with other first-level evaluations, especially in athletes with asymptomatic cardiac diseases. Its value seems to have been even higher in Algeria than in the European countries. The establishment of a digital network of Sport Centres for second/third opinions in conjunction with the use of standard digital data input seems to be a valuable means for increasing the effectiveness of screening. PMID:23709052

Deodato, Assanelli; Andrea, Ermolao; François, Carré; Asterios, Deligiannis; Klaus, Mellwig; Mohamed, Tahmi; Mario, Cesana Bruno; Rosella, Levaggi; Paola, Aliverti; Sanjay, Sharma

2014-06-01

146

Is it worth offering a routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy in developing countries? A Thailand case study  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aims to investigate whether laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a cost-effective strategy for managing gallbladder-stone disease compared to the conventional open cholecystectomy(OC) in a Thai setting. Design and Setting Using a societal perspective a cost-utility analysis was employed to measure programme cost and effectiveness of each management strategy. The costs borne by the hospital and patients were collected from Chiang Rai regional hospital while the clinical outcomes were summarised from a published systematic review of international and national literature. Incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) derived from a decision tree model. Results The results reveal that at base-case scenario the incremental cost per QALY of moving from OC to LC is 134,000 Baht under government perspective and 89,000 Baht under a societal perspective. However, the probabilities that LC outweighed OC are not greater than 95% until the ceiling ratio reaches 190,000 and 270,000 Baht per QALY using societal and government perspective respectively. Conclusion The economic evaluation results of management options for gallstone disease in Thailand differ from comparable previous studies conducted in developed countries which indicated that LC was a cost-saving strategy. Differences were due mainly to hospital costs of post operative inpatient care and value of lost working time. The LC option would be considered a cost-effective option for Thailand at a threshold of three times per capita gross domestic product recommended by the committee on the Millennium Development Goals.

Teerawattananon, Yot; Mugford, Miranda

2005-01-01

147

A Critical Evaluation of the Fetal Origins Hypothesis and Its Implications for Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT There is a rapidly increasing epidemic,of type 2 diabetes,in India and other Asian countries. The thrifty genotype,and,the thrifty phenotype,are two,nonexclusive,explanations. People in the Indian subcontinent,have faced undernutrition for many generations, and Indian babies are among the smallest in the world. However, the diabetes epidemic is of recent origin, and diabetes is more common among urban than rural Indians despite

C. S. Yajnik

148

The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study  

PubMed Central

Background Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD), or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban–rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1) To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2) To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3) To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Methods Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents’ occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. Results The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35) with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7), India (33.2), Peru (39.4). Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest good internal consistency. High agreement was observed between this scale and a dichotomized version of the urbanicity scale (Kappa 0.76; Spearman’s rank-correlation coefficient 0.84 (p?countries (p?study demonstrates and validates a robust multidimensional, multi-country urbanicity scale. It is an important step on the path to creating a tool to assess complex processes like urbanization. This scale provides the means to understand which elements of urbanization have the greatest impact on health.

2012-01-01

149

Content Analysis of Primary and Secondary School Textbooks Regarding Malaria Control: A Multi-Country Study  

PubMed Central

Background In tropical settings, malaria education at school is potentially useful, but textbook content related to malaria education has so far received little attention. This study aimed to examine whether school textbooks contain sufficient knowledge and skills to help children in primary and lower secondary schools and their family members to cope with malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a descriptive, cross-country study. We collected textbooks that were used by children in grades one to nine from nine countries endemic for malaria: Laos, Cambodia, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Zambia, Niger, Benin, and Ghana. Two reviewers per country identified descriptions about malaria by seeking the term “malaria” or a local word that corresponds to malaria in languages other than English. The authors categorized the identified descriptions according to the content of the descriptions. Additionally, the authors examined whether the identified contents addressed life skill messages. Of a total of 474 textbooks collected, 35 contained descriptions about malaria. The most commonly included content was transmission mode/vector (77.1%), followed by preventive measures (60.0%), epidemiology (57.1%), cause/agent (54.3%), signs/symptoms (37.1%) and treatment (22.9%). Treatment-related content was not included in any textbooks from four countries and textbooks failed to recommend the use of insecticide-treated bed nets in five countries. Very few textbooks included content that facilitated prompt treatment, protection of risk groups, and use of recommended therapy. Conclusion/Significance Textbooks rarely included knowledge and skills that are crucial to protect schoolchildren and their families from malaria. This study identified the need for improvement to textbook contents regarding malaria.

Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Jun; Yasuoka, Junko; Ayi, Irene; Jayatilleke, Achini C.; Shrestha, Sabina; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Haque, Syed E.; Yi, Siyan

2012-01-01

150

The Incidence of Hip Fracture in Four Asian Countries: The Asian Osteoporosis Study (AOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The Asian Osteoporosis Study (AOS) is the first multicenter study to document and compare the incidence of hip fracture in\\u000a four Asian countries. Hospital discharge data for the year 1997 were obtained for the Hong Kong SAR, Singapore, Malaysia and\\u000a Thailand (Chiang Mai). The number of patients who were 50 years of age and older and who were discharged

E. M. C. Lau; J. K. Lee; P. Suriwongpaisal; S. M. Saw; S. Das De; A. Khir; P. Sambrook

2001-01-01

151

Depressive symptoms among immigrants and ethnic minorities: a population based study in 23 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  European studies about ethnic inequalities in depressive symptoms are scarce, show inconclusive results and are complicated\\u000a by the discussion of what constitute (im)migrant and ethnic minority groups. Moreover, comparisons across countries are hampered\\u000a by a lack of comparable measures of depressive symptoms. This study aims to assess the prevalence and determinants of depressive\\u000a symptoms among immigrants, ethnic minorities and natives

Sarah Missinne; Piet Bracke

152

Experiences of stigma, discrimination, care and support among people living with HIV: A four country study  

PubMed Central

While it is widely agreed that HIV-related stigma may impede access to treatment and support, there is little evidence describing who is most likely to experience different forms of stigma and discrimination and how these affect disclosure and access to care. This study examined experiences of interpersonal discrimination, internalized stigma, and discrimination at health care facilities among HIV-positive adults aged 18 years and older utilizing health facilities in four countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (N=536). Prevalence of interpersonal discrimination across all countries was 34.6%, with women significantly more likely to experience interpersonal discrimination than men. Prevalences of internalized stigma varied across countries, ranging from 9.6% (Malawi) to 45.0% (Burkina Faso). Prevalence of health care discrimination was 10.4% across all countries. In multivariate analyses, we found positive, significant, and independent associations between disclosure and interpersonal discrimination and support group utilization, and positive associations between both internalized stigma and health care discrimination and referral for medications.

Neuman, Melissa; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Cherutich, Peter; Desclaux, Alice; Hardon, Anita; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Namakhoma, Ireen; Wanyenze, Rhoda

2013-01-01

153

TIPs Evaluation Project Prospective Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used an experimental design to examine four different approaches to disseminating Treatment Improvement Protocols to substance abuse professionals. Although results of this ongoing study are not yet available, this article describes the use of triangulation methodology in evaluation studies. (SLD)

Melzer, Becky A.; Hubbard, Susan M.; Huang, Judy Y.

2003-01-01

154

Alcohol consumption and social inequality at the individual and country levels--results from an international study  

PubMed Central

Background: International comparisons of social inequalities in alcohol use have not been extensively investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol consumption in 33 countries. Methods: Data on 101?525 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 33 countries of the GENACIS study were used. Individual SES was measured by highest attained educational level. Alcohol use measures included drinking status and monthly risky single occasion drinking (RSOD). The relationship between individuals’ education and drinking indicators was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step the individual level data and country data were combined and tested in multilevel models. As country level indicators we used the Purchasing Power Parity of the gross national income, the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: For both genders and all countries higher individual SES was positively associated with drinking status. Also higher country level SES was associated with higher proportions of drinkers. Lower SES was associated with RSOD among men. Women of higher SES in low income countries were more often RSO drinkers than women of lower SES. The opposite was true in higher income countries. Conclusion: For the most part, findings regarding SES and drinking in higher income countries were as expected. However, women of higher SES in low and middle income countries appear at higher risk of engaging in RSOD. This finding should be kept in mind when developing new policy and prevention initiatives.

Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard; Bloomfield, Kim

2013-01-01

155

Serological cross-sectional studies on salmonella incidence in eight European countries: no correlation with incidence of reported cases  

PubMed Central

Background Published incidence rates of human salmonella infections are mostly based on numbers of stool culture-confirmed cases reported to public health surveillance. These cases constitute only a small fraction of all cases occurring in the community. The extent of underascertainment is influenced by health care seeking behaviour and sensitivity of surveillance systems, so that reported incidence rates from different countries are not comparable. We performed serological cross-sectional studies to compare infection risks in eight European countries independent of underascertainment. Methods A total of 6,393 sera from adults in Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and The Netherlands were analysed, mostly from existing serum banks collected in the years 2003 to 2008. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG against salmonella lipopolysaccharides were measured by in-house mixed ELISA. We converted antibody concentrations to estimates of infection incidence (‘sero-incidence’) using a Bayesian backcalculation model, based on previously studied antibody decay profiles in persons with culture-confirmed salmonella infections. We compared sero-incidence with incidence of cases reported through routine public health surveillance and with published incidence estimates derived from infection risks in Swedish travellers to those countries. Results Sero-incidence of salmonella infections ranged from 56 (95% credible interval 8–151) infections per 1,000 person-years in Finland to 547 (343–813) in Poland. Depending on country, sero-incidence was approximately 100 to 2,000 times higher than incidence of culture-confirmed cases reported through routine surveillance, with a trend for an inverse correlation. Sero-incidence was significantly correlated with incidence estimated from infection risks in Swedish travellers. Conclusions Sero-incidence estimation is a new method to estimate and compare the incidence of salmonella infections in human populations independent of surveillance artefacts. Our results confirm that comparison of reported incidence between countries can be grossly misleading, even within the European Union. Because sero-incidence includes asymptomatic infections, it is not a direct measure of burden of illness. But, pending further validation of this novel method, it may be a promising and cost-effective way to assess infection risks and to evaluate the effectiveness of salmonella control programmes across countries or over time.

2012-01-01

156

An econometric study of the demand for gasoline in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries  

SciTech Connect

Reliable and accurate estimation of price and income elasticities of demand for gasoline are important ingredients for long-run energy planning and policy formation. The purpose of this study is to develop and estimate a model for gasoline demand for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Oatar, Saufi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The model is capable of producing short-run and long-run price and income elasticities. Since the first oil price hike in 1973, a great deal of attention has been directed toward the demand for gasoline, especially in the industrialized countries. Few studies have been directed toward the demand for gasoline in developing countries. In terms of primary energy consumption, the GCC`s energy needs are met by oil, natural gas, and electricity. Without any doubt, oil is the largest energy source consumed and gasoline is the most important oil product. However, very few studies have been directed toward analyzing GCC energy demand, and yet there has been not attempt to model and estimate GCC gasoline demand. This study attempts to address this gap.

Eltony, M.N.

1994-12-31

157

Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries. PMID:23152194

Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Agueda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

2013-09-01

158

Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

2013-09-01

159

Perspectives on the impact of varicella immunization on herpes zoster. A model-based evaluation from three European countries.  

PubMed

The introduction of mass vaccination against Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV) is being delayed in many European countries because of, among other factors, the possibility of a large increase in Herpes Zoster (HZ) incidence in the first decades after the initiation of vaccination, due to the expected decline of the boosting of Cell Mediated Immunity caused by the reduced varicella circulation. A multi-country model of VZV transmission and reactivation, is used to evaluate the possible impact of varicella vaccination on HZ epidemiology in Italy, Finland and the UK. Despite the large uncertainty surrounding HZ and vaccine-related parameters, surprisingly robust medium-term predictions are provided, indicating that an increase in HZ incidence is likely to occur in countries where the incidence rate is lower in absence of immunization, possibly due to a higher force of boosting (e.g. Finland), whereas increases in HZ incidence might be minor where the force of boosting is milder (e.g. the UK). Moreover, a convergence of HZ post vaccination incidence levels in the examined countries is predicted despite different initial degrees of success of immunization policies. Unlike previous model-based evaluations, our investigation shows that after varicella immunization an increase of HZ incidence is not a certain fact, rather depends on the presence or absence of factors promoting a strong boosting intensity and which might or not be heavily affected by changes in varicella circulation due to mass immunization. These findings might explain the opposed empirical evidences observed about the increases of HZ in sites where mass varicella vaccination is ongoing. PMID:23613740

Poletti, Piero; Melegaro, Alessia; Ajelli, Marco; Del Fava, Emanuele; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Faustini, Luca; Scalia Tomba, Giampaolo; Lopalco, Pierluigi; Rizzo, Caterina; Merler, Stefano; Manfredi, Piero

2013-01-01

160

Perspectives on the Impact of Varicella Immunization on Herpes Zoster. A Model-Based Evaluation from Three European Countries  

PubMed Central

The introduction of mass vaccination against Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV) is being delayed in many European countries because of, among other factors, the possibility of a large increase in Herpes Zoster (HZ) incidence in the first decades after the initiation of vaccination, due to the expected decline of the boosting of Cell Mediated Immunity caused by the reduced varicella circulation. A multi-country model of VZV transmission and reactivation, is used to evaluate the possible impact of varicella vaccination on HZ epidemiology in Italy, Finland and the UK. Despite the large uncertainty surrounding HZ and vaccine-related parameters, surprisingly robust medium-term predictions are provided, indicating that an increase in HZ incidence is likely to occur in countries where the incidence rate is lower in absence of immunization, possibly due to a higher force of boosting (e.g. Finland), whereas increases in HZ incidence might be minor where the force of boosting is milder (e.g. the UK). Moreover, a convergence of HZ post vaccination incidence levels in the examined countries is predicted despite different initial degrees of success of immunization policies. Unlike previous model-based evaluations, our investigation shows that after varicella immunization an increase of HZ incidence is not a certain fact, rather depends on the presence or absence of factors promoting a strong boosting intensity and which might or not be heavily affected by changes in varicella circulation due to mass immunization. These findings might explain the opposed empirical evidences observed about the increases of HZ in sites where mass varicella vaccination is ongoing.

Poletti, Piero; Melegaro, Alessia; Ajelli, Marco; del Fava, Emanuele; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Faustini, Luca; Scalia Tomba, Giampaolo; Lopalco, Pierluigi; Rizzo, Caterina; Merler, Stefano; Manfredi, Piero

2013-01-01

161

An Asia Pacific six-country study on HIV-related discrimination: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a six-country study of institutionalised forms of HIV\\/AIDS-related discrimination in the Asia-Pacific region. Although recognised as a barrier to disease prevention and treatment, very limited data are available on the effects of institutionalised HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Understanding the forms of discrimination within the institutions where they occur is the first step to identifying effective ways of

D. D. Reidpath; B. Brijnath; K. Y. Chan

2005-01-01

162

The Missing Link: Deficits of Country-Level Studies. A Review of 22 Articles Explaining Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explain country differences in an analytical or structural dependent variable, the application of a macro-micro-model containing contextual hypotheses is necessary. Our methodological study examines whether empirical studies apply such a model. We propose that a theoretical base for country differences is well described in multilevel studies,…

Nonnenmacher, Alexandra; Friedrichs, Jurgen

2013-01-01

163

Evaluating health systems strengthening interventions in low-income and middle-income countries: are we asking the right questions?  

PubMed

In recent years, there have been several calls for rigorous health policy and systems research to inform efforts to strengthen health systems (HS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including the use of systems thinking concepts in designing and evaluating HS strengthening interventions. The objectives of this paper are to assess recent evaluations of HS strengthening interventions to examine the extent to which they ask a broader set of questions, and provide an appropriately comprehensive assessment of the effects of these interventions across the health system. A review of evaluations conducted in 2009-10 was performed to answer these questions. Out of 106 evaluations, less than half (43%) asked broad research questions to allow for a comprehensive assessment of the intervention's effects across multiple HS building blocks. Only half of the evaluations referred to a conceptual framework to guide their impact assessment. Overall, 24% and 9% conducted process and context evaluations, respectively, to answer the question of whether the intervention worked as intended, and if so, for whom, and under what circumstances. Almost half of the evaluations considered HS impact on one building block, while most interventions were complex targeting two or more building blocks. None incorporated evaluation designs that took into account the characteristics of complex adaptive systems such as non-linearity of effects or interactions between the HS building blocks. While we do not argue that all evaluations should be comprehensive, there is a need for more comprehensive evaluations of the wider range of the intervention's effects, when appropriate. Our findings suggest that the full range of barriers to more comprehensive evaluations need to be examined and, where appropriate, addressed. Possible barriers may include limited capacity, lack of funding, inadequate time frames, lack of demand from both researchers and research funders, or difficulties in undertaking this type of evaluation. PMID:23014156

Adam, Taghreed; Hsu, Justine; de Savigny, Don; Lavis, John N; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bennett, Sara

2012-10-01

164

A population based study of Helicobacter pylori infection in a European country: the San Marino Study. Relations with gastrointestinal diseases.  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is present worldwide but few large population studies exist on the epidemiology of the infection. A random cross sectional study was performed of H pylori infection in the adult population of San Marino, a European country with high gastric cancer rate, to assess its prevalence and to evaluate its relations with gastrointestinal disease. In 2237 subjects (77% of the initial sample) H pylori IgG antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. A questionnaire including questions about occupation, place of birth, and smoking was given to all subjects. Dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer in the subjects, relatives, and partners as well as use of drug, dental treatment/prostheses, and gastrointestinal endoscopies, were evaluated by multivariate analysis. H pylori prevalence was of 51%, increased with age from 23% (20-29 years) to 68% (> or = 70 years), and was higher among manual workers. H pylori was independently associated with ulcer (OR = 1.63, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.16 to 2.27), H2 antagonists (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.10), and benzodiazepines (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.42), dental prostheses (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.49), gastroscopy in the past five years (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.14), peptic ulcer in siblings (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.12), gastric cancer in father (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.52). The association of seropositivity with history of ulcer, gastric cancer in family, gastroscopy, and H2 antagonists suggests that H pylori is an epidemiological key factor in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases in this area.

Gasbarrini, G; Pretolani, S; Bonvicini, F; Gatto, M R; Tonelli, E; Megraud, F; Mayo, K; Ghironzi, G; Giulianelli, G; Grassi, M

1995-01-01

165

Selecting a learning management system (LMS) in developing countries: instructors' evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning management systems (LMSs) contain hidden costs, unclear user environments, bulky developer and administration manuals, and limitations with regard to interoperability, integration, localization, and bandwidth requirements. Careful evaluation is required in selecting the most appropriate LMS for use, and this is a general problem in web-based education. One possibility is to automate this evaluation process using computer-aided techniques. In this

Nadire Cavus

2011-01-01

166

Stagnant Neonatal Mortality and Persistent Health Inequality in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country’s socioeconomic-related child health inequality. Methodology Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. Findings Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education), regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. Conclusion The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality – that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system – to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country inequalities in child health.

Kraft, Aleli D.; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

2013-01-01

167

Dietary factors and pulmonary function: a cross sectional study in middle aged men from three European countries  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Results of epidemiological studies relating individual dietary factors to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are inconsistent. To evaluate the cross sectional association of dietary factors with pulmonary function, data were collected from middle aged men in three European countries.?METHODS—The data were collected in the 1960s in Finland (n = 1248), Italy (n = 1386), and the Netherlands (n = 691). Dietary intake was estimated using the cross-check dietary history method. Forced expiratory volume (FEV0.75 or FEV1, here called FEV) was measured by spirometry. Associations were adjusted for age, height, smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, and energy intake.?RESULTS—FEV was positively associated with intake of vitamin E in Finland, with intake of fruit in Italy, and with intake of ?-carotene in the Netherlands. In all three countries men with intakes of both fruit and vegetables above the median had a higher FEV than those with a low intake of both foods. The difference in FEV ranged from 110 to 169 ml before and from 53 to 118 ml after energy adjustment. Differences in FEV for intake of three antioxidants (vitamins C and E and ?-carotene) above versus below the median ranged from 61 to 181 ml before and from -35 to 58 ml after energy adjustment. Intake of fish was not associated with FEV.?CONCLUSIONS—In three European countries a high intake of fruit and vegetables was positively associated with pulmonary function. A high intake of all three antioxidants tended to be positively associated with pulmonary function before, but not after, adjustment for energy intake. Associations of individual antioxidants with pulmonary function were not consistent across countries.??

Tabak, C.; Smit, H.; Rasanen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Menotti, A.; Nissinen, A.; Feskens, E.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, D.

1999-01-01

168

Evaluation Research and Policy Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The area of policy studies is explained and comparisons are made with evaluation research. Organizational and individual interaction between these fields would be mutually beneficial. Some of the benefits are discussed. This article and the efforts of the Evaluation Network's Professional Relations Committee should stimulate more organizational…

Nagel, Stuart S.

1985-01-01

169

Nomination for the Highest Publications and Citations: Productivity Study of Academic Psychologist of ASEAN Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was carried out to understand the productivity of academic psychologist in ASEAN countries. This research includes total publication and citation from ASEAN country, universities and researchers from ASEAN countries. Four ASEAN countries were excluded as their total publications and citations were less than 10. Other than total numbers of publication and citation, this research was conducted on the

Cai-Lian Tam; Soon-Li Lee; Kiew-Heong Yap Angeline

2012-01-01

170

Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study  

PubMed Central

Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p?=?0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p?=?0.17). Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to malnutrition.

2012-01-01

171

Field Evaluation of a Coproantigen Detection Test for Fascioliasis Diagnosis and Surveillance in Human Hyperendemic Areas of Andean Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA) was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. Methodology and Findings A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD) and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg) in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg), nor in Huacullani high burden cases (?400 epg), although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg). Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg). Conclusions The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase, early detection of treatment failure or reinfection in post-treated subjects, and usefulness in surveillance programs. However, this technique falls short when evaluating the fluke burden on its own.

Valero, Maria Adela; Periago, Maria Victoria; Perez-Crespo, Ignacio; Angles, Rene; Villegas, Fidel; Aguirre, Carlos; Strauss, Wilma; Espinoza, Jose R.; Herrera, Patricia; Terashima, Angelica; Tamayo, Hugo; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Mas-Coma, Santiago

2012-01-01

172

Evaluation of multiple measures of antiretroviral adherence in the Eastern European country of Georgia  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is little information on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the Eastern European region. This prospective study evaluated multiple measures of adherence and their association with viral suppression among HIV patients in Georgia. Methods A prospective cohort study enrolled 100 consecutive antiretroviral-naïve adult (age ?18 years) patients, who were followed for three months. Adherence was assessed by medication refill and three self-report measures (an AIDS Clinical Trial Group [ACTG] tool for four-day adherence, a visual analogue scale [VAS] and a rating task for 30-day adherence). The VAS represented a line anchored by 0 and 100% corresponding to the percentage of prescribed doses taken. The rating task asked patients to rate their ability to take all medications as prescribed, with responses categorized into six levels of adherence: very poor (0%), poor (20%), fair (40%), good (60%), very good (80%) and excellent (100%). Patients with adherence of ?95% by medication refill, ACTG and VAS, and ?80% by rating task, were defined as adherent. Results Of 100 patients enrolled, eight had missing data and were excluded from analysis. Among the remaining 92 patients, the median age was 39 years, and 70% were men. Major modes of HIV acquisition were injection drug use (IDU; 47.3%) and heterosexual contact (44.1%). The proportions of adherent patients were as follows: 68% by medication refill, 90% by ACTG questionnaire, 38% by VAS and 42% by rating task. On average, four months after commencing ART, 52 (56.5%) patients had a viral load <400 copies/ml and 26 (28.3%) patients had a viral load <50 copies/ml. Of 43 persons with a history of IDU, 22 (51.2%) reached a viral load of <400 copies/ml. In multivariate analysis, only refill adherence was a statistically significant predictor of viral suppression of <400 copies/ml: the risk ratio was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1–2.8). Refill adherence, VAS and rating task were associated with viral suppression of <50 copies/ml. Non-IDUs were twice as likely to achieve viral load <50 copies/ml compared to IDUs. Refill adherence had the largest area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for predicting viral suppression. Conclusions Medication refill adherence was the strongest predictor of viral suppression. IDUs can achieve optimal virologic outcomes, but may require additional adherence support.

Chkhartishvili, Nikoloz; Rukhadze, Nino; Svanidze, Mariam; Sharvadze, Lali; Dehovitz, Jack A; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; McNutt, Louise-Anne; del Rio, Carlos

2014-01-01

173

Understanding and measuring student engagement in school: The results of an international study from 12 countries.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to develop a scale that is appropriate for use internationally to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data of 3,420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th grade) from 12 countries (Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States). The intraclass correlation of the full-scale scores of student engagement between countries revealed that it was appropriate to aggregate the data from the 12 countries for further analyses. Coefficient alphas revealed good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability coefficients were also acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the data fit well to a second-order model with affective, behavioral, and cognitive engagement as the first-order factors and student engagement as the second-order factor. The results support the use of this scale to measure student engagement as a metaconstruct. Furthermore, the significant correlations of the scale with instructional practices, teacher support, peer support, parent support, emotions, academic performance, and school conduct indicated good concurrent validity of the scale. Considerations and implications regarding the international use of this student engagement in school measure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24933218

Lam, Shui-Fong; Jimerson, Shane; Wong, Bernard P H; Kikas, Eve; Shin, Hyeonsook; Veiga, Feliciano H; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Cefai, Carmel; Negovan, Valeria; Stanculescu, Elena; Yang, Hongfei; Liu, Yi; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Nelson, Brett; Zollneritsch, Josef

2014-06-01

174

An exploratory study of the cost-effectiveness of orthodontic care in seven European countries  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the orthodontic treatment of 429 consecutive patients [172 male (40.1 per cent) and 257 female (59.9 per cent)] carried out by 10 orthodontic specialist practitioners in seven European countries [two in the Czech Republic (A and B), two in Germany (A and B), Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, and Netherlands, and two in Slovenia (A and B)]. The median age of the patients at the start of treatment was 13.0 years (minimum 7.3 years maximum 50.3 years). The patients had a range of malocclusions and the majority (97 per cent) were treated with upper and lower fixed appliances. Real exchange rates were calculated using purchasing power parity (PPP) indicators to allow cross-border comparisons of costs. The Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) was used to measure the effectiveness of treatment and cost per ICON point reduction to compare cost-effectiveness of orthodontic treatment between practitioners in different European countries. The median cost per ICON point reduction for all the cases treated was €57.69. The median cost per ICON point reduction varied greatly between practitioners from €21.70 (Lithuania) to €116.62 (Slovenia A). Analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests showed the differences in cost-effectiveness between the practitioners to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). The cost per ICON point reduction is a simple and effective method of comparing cost-effectiveness between orthodontic practitioners in different countries.

Deans, Jamie; Playle, Rebecca; Durning, Peter

2009-01-01

175

Global childhood unintentional injury surveillance in four cities in developing countries: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the frequency and nature of childhood injuries and to explore the risk factors for such injuries in low-income countries by using emergency department (ED) surveillance data. Methods This pilot study represents the initial phase of a multi-country global childhood unintentional injury surveillance (GCUIS) project and was based on a sequential sample of children < 11 years of age of either gender who presented to selected EDs in Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt and Pakistan over a 3–4 month period, which varied for each site, in 2007. Findings Of 1559 injured children across all sites, 1010 (65%) were male; 941 (60%) were aged ? 5 years, 32 (2%) were < 1 year old. Injuries were especially frequent (34%) during the morning hours. They occurred in and around the home in 56% of the cases, outside while children played in 63% and during trips in 11%. Of all the injuries observed, 913 (56%) involved falls; 350 (22%), road traffic injuries; 210 (13%), burns; 66 (4%), poisoning; and 20 (1%), near drowning or drowning. Falls occurred most often from stairs or ladders; road traffic injuries most often involved pedestrians; the majority of burns were from hot liquids; poisonings typically involved medicines, and most drowning occurred in the home. The mean injury severity score was highest for near drowning or drowning (11), followed closely by road traffic injuries (10). There were 6 deaths, of which 2 resulted from drowning, 2 from falls and 2 from road traffic injuries. Conclusion Hospitals in low-income countries bear a substantial burden of childhood injuries, and systematic surveillance is required to identify the epidemiological distribution of such injuries and understand their risk factors. Methodological standardization for surveillance across countries makes it possible to draw international comparisons and identify common issues.

Sugerman, David E; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Razzak, Junaid; El-Sayed, Hesham; Isaza, Andres; Rahman, Fazlur; Peden, Margie

2009-01-01

176

Assessment in Finland: A Scholarly Reflection on One Country's Use of Formative, Summative, and Evaluative Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finland's high test scores have prompted international comparisons of educational policy. This article explores the use of assessment in Finland, particularly the intended use of student assessment and evaluation of schools as described in the National Curriculum. This article explores Finnish educational policy through the lens of formative and…

Hendrickson, Katie A.

2012-01-01

177

Selecting a Learning Management System (LMS) in Developing Countries: Instructors' Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning management systems (LMSs) contain hidden costs, unclear user environments, bulky developer and administration manuals, and limitations with regard to interoperability, integration, localization, and bandwidth requirements. Careful evaluation is required in selecting the most appropriate LMS for use, and this is a general problem in…

Cavus, Nadire

2013-01-01

178

Evaluating large-scale health programmes at a district level in resource-limited countries.  

PubMed

Recent experience in evaluating large-scale global health programmes has highlighted the need to consider contextual differences between sites implementing the same intervention. Traditional randomized controlled trials are ill-suited for this purpose, as they are designed to identify whether an intervention works, not how, when and why it works. In this paper we review several evaluation designs that attempt to account for contextual factors that contribute to intervention effectiveness. Using these designs as a base, we propose a set of principles that may help to capture information on context. Finally, we propose a tool, called a driver diagram, traditionally used in implementation that would allow evaluators to systematically monitor changing dynamics in project implementation and identify contextual variation across sites. We describe an implementation-related example from South Africa to underline the strengths of the tool. If used across multiple sites and multiple projects, the resulting driver diagrams could be pooled together to form a generalized theory for how, when and why a widely-used intervention works. Mechanisms similar to the driver diagram are urgently needed to complement existing evaluations of large-scale implementation efforts. PMID:22084529

Svoronos, Theodore; Mate, Kedar S

2011-11-01

179

Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the reduction in mortality after standard titre measles immunisation in developing countries can be explained simply by the prevention of acute measles and its long term consequences. DESIGN--An analysis of all studies comparing mortality of unimmunised children and children immunised with standard titre measles vaccine in developing countries. STUDIES--10 cohort and two case-control studies from Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Senegal, and Zaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Protective efficacy of standard titre measles immunisation against all cause mortality. Extent to which difference in mortality between immunised and unimmunised children could be explained by prevention of measles disease. RESULTS--Protective efficacy against death after measles immunisation ranged from 30% to 86%. Efficacy was highest in the studies with short follow up and when children were immunised in infancy (range 44-100%). Vaccine efficacy against death was much greater than the proportion of deaths attributed to acute measles disease. In four studies from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Burundi vaccine efficacy against death remained almost unchanged when cases of measles were excluded from the analysis. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and polio vaccinations were not associated with reduction in mortality. CONCLUSION--These observations suggest that standard titre measles vaccine may confer a beneficial effect which is unrelated to the specific protection against measles disease.

Aaby, P.; Samb, B.; Simondon, F.; Seck, A. M.; Knudsen, K.; Whittle, H.

1995-01-01

180

Evaluation of the FTA Carrier Device for Human Papillomavirus Testing in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Liquid-based methods for the collection, transportation, and storage of cervical cells are cumbersome and expensive and involve laborious DNA extraction. An FTA cartridge is a solid carrier device, easier to handle and allowing simple DNA elution for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. HPV-DNA results from cervical specimens collected in PreservCyt medium (Hologic, Inc.) and the indicating FTA elute cartridge were compared in an area where transportation and storage may affect the performance of the test. Cervical cells from 319 young adult women enrolled in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial were collected by a nurse using a Cervex brush (Roberts), which was placed on the FTA cartridge and subsequently rinsed in 20 ml of PreservCyt medium. Two 0.5-ml PreservCyt aliquots were frozen for HPV-PCR testing; the FTA cartridges were kept at room temperature. HPV-DNA detection and typing was performed using SPF10 PCR/DEIA (DNA enzyme immunoassay detection of amplimers)/LiPA25 system. The percent agreement, agreement among positives, and kappas were estimated. Positivity was higher for FTA compared to PreservCyt specimens (54.5% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). For oncogenic types, the overall agreement was 0.92, the agreement between positives was 0.74, and the kappa was 0.79. For individual HPV types, the overall agreement ranged from 0.97 to 1.00. We did not observe reduced cytology adequacy when specimen collection for cytology was preceded by FTA collection for HPV testing. HPV-DNA detection from FTA cartridges is broadly comparable to detection from PC medium. The higher HPV detection observed for FTA-collected specimens should be explored further. FTA cartridges could provide a simpler and more cost-effective method for cervical cell collection, storage, and transportation for HPV-DNA detection in research settings in developing countries.

Cortes, Bernal; Quint, Wim; Kreimer, Aimee R.; Porras, Carolina; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Jimenez, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Struijk, Linda; Hildesheim, Allan; Melchers, Willem

2012-01-01

181

Myocardial infarction in young men. Study of risk factors in nine countries.  

PubMed Central

In order to determine whether the development of myocardial infarction in different countries is associated with different risk factors, 240 male survivors, aged 40 or less, were studied in nine countries. In the seven centres in developed countries (Auckland, Melbourne, Los Angles/Atlanta, Cape Town, Tel Avic, Heidelberg, and Edinburgh) there was a high procedure of risk factors, particularly of hyperlipidaemia and cigarette smoking. The prevalence of hypertension, obesity, hyperglycaemia, and hyperuricaemia varied from centre to centre. Risk factors were less prevalent in Bombay and Singapore: the most common risks operating in Bombay seemed to be cigarette smoking and hyperglycaemia, while in Singpore cigarette smoking was the commonest. The mean age of the whole group was 35.4 years. Serum cholesterol levels of 7.25 mmol/l (280 mg/dl) or more were present in 25 per cent of all patients, serum triglyceride levels of 2.26 mmol/l )l200 mg/dl) or more in 35 per cent. 80 per cent of the patients were smokers, and 15 per cent were either for hypertension before myocardial infarction or had a raised blood pressure after myocardial infarction. Obesity was found in 19 per cent of all patients and serum uric acid levels over 0.5 mmol/l (8.5 mg/dl) in 17 per cent. 10 per cent of all patients were either treated for diabetes mellitus before myocardial infarction or showed an abnormal glucose tolerance after myocardial infarction. This collaborative study may help, by showing differences in the prevalence of risk factors, to indicate to each centre and to national and to international organizations, the direction for their future studies into the causation and prevention of myocardial infarction in young men.

Dolder, M A; Oliver, M F

1975-01-01

182

Myocardial infarction in young men. Study of risk factors in nine countries.  

PubMed

In order to determine whether the development of myocardial infarction in different countries is associated with different risk factors, 240 male survivors, aged 40 or less, were studied in nine countries. In the seven centres in developed countries (Auckland, Melbourne, Los Angles/Atlanta, Cape Town, Tel Avic, Heidelberg, and Edinburgh) there was a high procedure of risk factors, particularly of hyperlipidaemia and cigarette smoking. The prevalence of hypertension, obesity, hyperglycaemia, and hyperuricaemia varied from centre to centre. Risk factors were less prevalent in Bombay and Singapore: the most common risks operating in Bombay seemed to be cigarette smoking and hyperglycaemia, while in Singpore cigarette smoking was the commonest. The mean age of the whole group was 35.4 years. Serum cholesterol levels of 7.25 mmol/l (280 mg/dl) or more were present in 25 per cent of all patients, serum triglyceride levels of 2.26 mmol/l )l200 mg/dl) or more in 35 per cent. 80 per cent of the patients were smokers, and 15 per cent were either for hypertension before myocardial infarction or had a raised blood pressure after myocardial infarction. Obesity was found in 19 per cent of all patients and serum uric acid levels over 0.5 mmol/l (8.5 mg/dl) in 17 per cent. 10 per cent of all patients were either treated for diabetes mellitus before myocardial infarction or showed an abnormal glucose tolerance after myocardial infarction. This collaborative study may help, by showing differences in the prevalence of risk factors, to indicate to each centre and to national and to international organizations, the direction for their future studies into the causation and prevention of myocardial infarction in young men. PMID:1137658

Dolder, M A; Oliver, M F

1975-05-01

183

Students' perceptions and doubts about menstruation in developing countries: a case study from India.  

PubMed

Menstrual education is a vital aspect of adolescent health education. Culture, awareness, and socioeconomic status often exert profound influence on menstrual practices. However, health education programs for young women in developing countries do not often address menstrual hygiene, practices, and disorders. Developing culturally sensitive menstrual health education and hygiene programs for adolescent females has been recommended by professional health organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. These programs cannot be developed without understanding existing myths and perceptions about menstruation in adolescent females of developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study from India was to document existing misconceptions regarding menstruation and perceptions about menarche and various menstrual restrictions that have been understudied. Out of the 612 students invited to participate by asking questions, 381 girls participated by asking specific questions about menstruation (response rate = 62%). The respondents consisted of 84 girls from sixth grade, 117 from seventh grade, and 180 from eighth grade. The questions asked were arranged into the following subthemes: anatomy and physiology, menstrual symptoms, menstrual myths and taboos, health and beauty, menstrual abnormalities, seeking medical advice and home remedies; sanitary pads usage and disposal; diet and lifestyle; and sex education. Results of our study indicate that students had substantial doubts about menstruation and were influenced by societal myths and taboos in relation to menstrual practices. Parents, adolescent care providers, and policy makers in developing countries should advocate for comprehensive sexuality education and resources (e.g., low-cost sanitary pads and school facilities) to promote menstrual health and hygiene promotion. PMID:24618653

Chothe, Vikas; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Seabert, Denise; Asalkar, Mahesh; Rakshe, Sarika; Firke, Arti; Midha, Inuka; Simmons, Robert

2014-05-01

184

Water import and transfer versus desalination in arid regions: GCC countries case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scarcity of water resources and the increasing gaps between demand and available supply in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries is a major challenging issue facing the development sectors. GCC countries have extremely dry climates with rare rainfall, high evaporation rates and limited non-renewable groundwater resources. At present all GCC countries except Oman fall in the critical water scarcity

Mohamed A. Dawoud

2011-01-01

185

Education and Rural Development in the 31 Least Developed Countries. Reports Studies...S.97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report contains information based on the country presentation papers submitted by the 31 countries for the 1981 United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). It is intended as a background document for the Unesco meeting of experts from the LDCs on "needs and priorities in regard to education" to be held at Unesco in 1982.…

Zuberi, Habib

186

Health Manpower Planning: A Comparative Study in Four Countries. Volume 1. Health Manpower References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The health manpower planning experiences of four countries reported here were presented in a traveling seminar held for member countries of the Pan American Health Organization. Focus was on what should be carried out in any country to coordinate the training of health workers with the operation of health services. Following the introduction, the…

Whiteside, Daniel F.; And Others

187

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LAWS AND PROCEDURES PERTAINING TO THE MEDICAL RECORDS RETENTION IN SELECTED COUNTRIES  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The health record serves several purposes and must be retained to meet those purposes. These varied purposes influence how long health records must be kept, or their retention period. Aim: Present study aimed to recognize laws and procedures pertaining to retention of health records in selected countries and provide a proposed guideline for Iran. Methods: This was an applied and descriptive-comparative research on laws and procedures pertaining to retention of medical records in USA, United Kingdom, Australia and Iran that performed in 2011. The data were collected via library sources, websites, and consultation with specialists in and out of the country. The validity of the data was confirmed by experts. Finally, the recommendations were provided for medical record retention in Iran. Results: The study revealed that, there are complete and transparent record retention schedules in selected counties so that retention situation for adults, minors, emergency, outpatients and deaths records is clearly recommended. But in Iran, either there aren’t specific laws and procedures for medical record or they are unspecified. Conclusion: The lack of a complete, transparent and update medical record retention schedule in Iran, lead to confusion for hospitals. Some of hospitals maintain medical records more than of determined retention period and some of them destruct them before expiring of essential retention period. In order to optimize the situation of health records retention in Iran, it is necessary to review, correction and correction and completion of medical records retention schedule on the provided recommendations for kinds of medical record.

Tavakoli, Nahid; Saghaiannejad, Sakineh; Reza Habibi, Mohammad

2012-01-01

188

Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity, particularly in Morocco, will be a crucial first step.

Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

2013-01-01

189

Cessation assistance reported by smokers in 15 countries participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) policy evaluation surveys  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe some of the variability across the world in levels of quit smoking attempts and use of various forms of cessation support. Design Use of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys of smokers, using the 2007 survey wave (or later, where necessary). Settings Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Ireland, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Thailand, UK, Uruguay and USA. Measures Self-report on use of cessation aids and on visits to health professionals and provision of cessation advice during the visits. Findings Prevalence of quit attempts in the last year varied from under 20% to over 50% across countries. Similarly, smokers varied greatly in reporting of visiting health professionals in the last year (< 20% to over 70%), and among those who did, provision of advice to quit also varied greatly. There was also marked variability in the levels and types of help reported. Use of medication was generally more common than use of behavioural support, except where medications are not readily available. Conclusions There is wide variation across countries in rates of attempts to stop smoking and use of assistance with higher overall use of medication than behavioural support. There is also wide variation in the provision of brief advice to stop by health professionals.

Borland, Ron; Li, Lin; Driezen, Pete; Wilson, Nick; Hammond, David; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Mons, Ute; Willemsen, Marc C.; McNeill, Ann; Thrasher, James F.; Cummings, K. Michael

2011-01-01

190

Food composition database harmonization for between-country comparisons of nutrient data in the TEDDY Study  

PubMed Central

The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young Study (TEDDY) aims at examining the associations between islet autoimmunity and various environmental exposures, (e.g. diet) in Finland, Germany, Sweden and the United States (US). In order to produce comparable results from dietary assessments, the national food composition databases (FCDB) must contain mutually comparable food composition data. Systematic comparison (definition, unit of measurement, and method of analysis) of energy, protein, fats, carbohydrates, cholesterol, fiber, 13 vitamins, and 8 minerals was carried out among the FCDB of the four countries. Total fat, cholesterol, vitamin A: retinol equivalents and beta-carotene, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, and zinc are comparable across all four databases. Carbohydrates, fiber, sugars, fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E: alpha-tocopherol, vitamin K, vitamin C, pantothenic acid, niacin, manganese, and copper are comparable or can be converted comparable at least across three of the databases. Vitamin E: alpha-tocopherol equivalents, will be comparable across all databases after Finland and Germany subtract tocotrienols from their values. Nitrogen values were added to the Swedish and US databases. After recalculation of protein from nitrogen (Sweden and US), and subtraction of fiber from the total carbohydrate (Finland) followed by recalculations of energy, these values will be comparable across the countries. Starch and folate are not comparable.

Uusitalo, Ulla; Kronberg-Kippila, Carina; Aronsson, Carin Andren; Schakel, Sally; Schoen, Stefanie; Mattisson, Irene; Reinivuo, Heli; Silvis, Katherine; Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Stevens, Mary; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

2011-01-01

191

Energy planning in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This book provides discussion of analytical methods for energy-sector planning in developing countries. The author addresses such topics as energy balances, the Reference Energy System (RES), approaches to demand forecasting, project evaluation (including capital budgeting), techniques for dealing with uncertainty, financial accounting as applied to the typical parastatal electric utility of a developing country, techniques for pricing studies, scenario analysis, and approaches to the evaluation of macroeconomic impacts of energy-sector decisions. Extensive use is made of case-study material, including examples from Haiti, Tunisia, the Sudan, Jordan, Mauritius, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Liberia.

Meier, P.M.

1986-01-01

192

The IEA Six Subject Survey: An Empirical Study of Education in Twenty-One Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to describe in nontechnical language the objectives, methods and findings of the six subject study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement during the years 1966-1973. The six subjects covered in the study were Science, Reading Comprehension, Literature, English as a…

Walker, David A.

193

Carbon emission tax and its impact on a developing country economy - A case study of India  

SciTech Connect

Global climate change has become one of the most important of recent issues. It is estimated that roughly 60 percent of projected global climate change will be caused directly by the energy sector. Developing nations are the fastest growing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources. The restricted focus of the GHG problem to fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions in particular frightens the developing countries. Most studies on global climate change neglect the impact of proposed measures of carbon tax on the economies of the developing bloc. In this paper we examine the impacts of implementing a carbon emission tax on the economy of India using an input-output model. After discussing the economywide impacts of a carbon emission tax, possible measures for combating global climate change are examined. We also address the usefulness of energy-efficient technology to ameliorate carbon emissions.

Jayadevappa, R.; Chhatre, S.

1995-12-31

194

National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.  

PubMed

Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

2012-03-01

195

Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

1980-01-01

196

Vocational Education in Developing Countries. A Review of Studies and Project Experience. Education Division Documents No. 34.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the position taken in available literature and evaluation reports of multinational and bilateral agencies in regard to vocational education in developing countries. Section 1 provides background on such topics as links between education and development, support of vocational education, diversified secondary education, foreign…

Hultin, Mats

197

Exploring the transition to DRGs in Developing Countries: A case study in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

Objective: With the success of DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) in developing countries, this prospective payment system has been imported into China from the early 21(st) century. However, DRGs has been struggling and has made little progress since (its adoption in) 2004. This study contributes to the debate on how to bridge the pay-for-service (system/scheme) and DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) during the transitional period of payment reform in China. Methods: From 2008 to 2012, sixty regional general hospitals in Shanghai were divided into three groups according to their economic level, and one hospital was picked from each group randomly. After ranking of morbidity, 22130 patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease were chosen as sample. Using multiple linear regression analysis, the inter relationships between the total medical expenses of the inpatients, and age, gender of the inpatients, length of stay, region and economic level of the hospitals were examined. Results: The main findings were (1) Age, LOS and the economic level of treatment location had a statistically significant impact on patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease. However, gender is only a significant factor to patients with coronary heart disease. The results suggested that age, LOS and the economic level of treatment location should be considered in formulating pricing standards for the hypertension patient group. Besides the above mentioned factors, gender should also be considered in formulating pricing standards for the coronary heart disease patient group. (2) Under the premise of limited resources, developing countries should first narrow down to screen for common and frequently occurring diseases, then study the key factors which affect the treatment cost of the diseases. Conclusion: Simplification of the DRGs standard- setting process based on standardized clinical pathways and accurate costing will greatly increase the efficiency of implementing DRGs in the developing world. PMID:24772121

Wang, Zhaoxin; Liu, Rui; Li, Ping; Jiang, Chenghua

2014-03-01

198

Essential facets of competence that enable trust in medical graduates: a ranking study among physician educators in two countries.  

PubMed

One way to operationalize the assessment of trainees in a competency-based context is to determine whether they can be entrusted with critical activities. To determine which facets of competence (FOCs) are most informative for such decisions, we performed a Delphi study among Dutch educators. In the current study, the resulting list of facets of competence was evaluated among experienced Dutch and German clinical educators to determine which facets appear most relevant and to evaluate the agreement among experts in different countries as a support for their external validity. Eight Dutch and eight German experts scored each FOC on a five-point scale for relevance. A rank-order comparison showed that there was almost full agreement about the top 10 FOCs, among which 'Scientific and empirical grounded method of working', 'Knowing and maintaining own personal bounds and possibilities', 'Active professional development', 'Teamwork and collegiality', 'Active listening to patients', and 'Verbal communication with colleagues and supervisors'. We conclude that these facets of competence may be used in a training for educators who need to make entrustment decisions about trainees. PMID:24142879

Wijnen-Meijer, Marjo; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Nillesen, Kirstin; Harendza, Sigrid; Ten Cate, Olle

2013-11-01

199

The Impact of Presumed Consent Legislation on Cadaveric Organ Donation: A Cross Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., Great Britain, and in many other countries, the gap between the demand and the supply of human organs for transplantation is on the rise, despite the efforts of governments and health agencies to promote donor registration. In some countries of continental Europe, however, cadaveric organ procurement is based on the principle of presumed consent. Under presumed consent

Alberto Abadie; Sebastien Gay

2004-01-01

200

The impact of presumed consent legislation on cadaveric organ donation: A cross-country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., Great Britain and in many other countries, the gap between the demand and the supply of human organs for transplantation is on the rise, despite the efforts of governments and health agencies to promote donor registration. In some countries of continental Europe, however, cadaveric organ procurement is based on the principle of presumed consent. Under presumed consent

Alberto Abadie; Sebastien Gay

2006-01-01

201

Lessons Learned from the Advanced Developing Countries. GENESYS Special Studies No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the experience of development in the advanced developing countries in Asia from a gender perspective and draws some lessons for women in development policy in middle income countries in the Asian and Near East regions. The nature of the paper is exploratory, asking many questions on which further research and information are…

Joekes, Susan P.

202

Vocational Education and Training in Europe. A Four-Country Study in Four Employment Sectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an overview of vocational education and training systems in major European countries that is useful to practitioners and planners in further education. The first part provides brief descriptions of the vocational education and training systems in four countries: France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. By way of…

Further Education Unit, London (England).

203

The effect of country of origin on brand equity: an empirical study on generic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of country of origin image on brand equity of branded generic drugs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Brand equity of branded generics is examined through an analytical review. Country of origin image is hypothesised to influence components of brand equity, i.e. brand strength and brand awareness, which in turn influence brand

Shamindra Nath Sanyal; Saroj Kumar Datta

2011-01-01

204

Impact of endometriosis on quality of life and work productivity: a multicenter study across ten countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the impact of endometriosis on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work productivity. Design Multicenter cross-sectional study with prospective recruitment. Setting Sixteen clinical centers in ten countries. Patient(s) A total of 1,418 premenopausal women, aged 18–45 years, without a previous surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, having laparoscopy to investigate symptoms or to be sterilized. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Diagnostic delay, HRQoL, and work productivity. Result(s) There was a delay of 6.7 years, principally in primary care, between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, which was longer in centers where women received predominantly state-funded health care (8.3 vs. 5.5 years). Delay was positively associated with the number of pelvic symptoms (chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia, and heavy periods) and a higher body mass index. Physical HRQoL was significantly reduced in affected women compared with those with similar symptoms and no endometriosis. Each affected woman lost on average 10.8 hours (SD 12.2) of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. Loss of work productivity translated into significant costs per woman/week, from US$4 in Nigeria to US$456 in Italy. Conclusion(s) Endometriosis impairs HRQoL and work productivity across countries and ethnicities, yet women continue to experience diagnostic delays in primary care. A higher index of suspicion is needed to expedite specialist assessment of symptomatic women. Future research should seek to clarify pain mechanisms in relation to endometriosis severity.

Nnoaham, Kelechi E.; Hummelshoj, Lone; Webster, Premila; d'Hooghe, Thomas; Nardone, Fiorenzo de Cicco; Nardone, Carlo de Cicco; Jenkinson, Crispin; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Zondervan, Krina T.

2013-01-01

205

Stroke Outcomes in Malawi, a Country with High Prevalence of HIV: A Prospective Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke contributes significantly to disability and mortality in developing countries yet little is known about the determinants of stroke outcomes in such countries. 12% of Malawian adults have HIV/AIDS. It is not known whether having HIV-infection alters the outcome of stroke. The aim of this study was to document the functional outcome and mortality at 1 year of first-ever acute stroke in Malawi. Also to find out if the baseline variables, including HIV-infection, affect the outcome of stroke. Methods and Findings 147 adult patients with first-ever acute stroke were prospectively followed up for 12 months. Conventional risk factors and HIV-infection were assessed at baseline. Stroke severity was evaluated with modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS) and functional outcome with modified Rankin scale (mRS). Fifty (34%) of patients were HIV-seropositive. 53.4% of patients had a poor outcome (severe disability or death, mRS 4–6) at 1 year. Poor outcome was related to stroke severity and female gender but not to presence of HIV-infection. HIV-seropositive patients were younger and had less often common risk factors for stroke. They suffer more often ischemic stroke than HIV-seronegative patients. Conclusions Mild stroke and male gender were associated with favourable outcome. HIV-infection is common in stroke patients in Malawi but does not worsen the outcome of stroke. However, it may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke for young people, who do not have the common stroke risk factors. Our results are significant, because stroke outcome in HIV-seropositive patients has not been studied before in a setting such as ours, with very limited resources and a high prevalence of HIV.

Heikinheimo, Terttu; Chimbayo, Daniel; Kumwenda, Johnstone J.; Kampondeni, Sam; Allain, Theresa J.

2012-01-01

206

Developing social capital in implementing a complex intervention: a process evaluation of the early implementation of a suicide prevention intervention in four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Variation in the implementation of complex multilevel interventions can impact on their delivery and outcomes. Few suicide prevention interventions, especially multilevel interventions, have included evaluation of both the process of implementation as well as outcomes. Such evaluation is essential for the replication of interventions, for interpreting and understanding outcomes, and for improving implementation science. This paper reports on a process evaluation of the early implementation stage of an optimised suicide prevention programme (OSPI-Europe) implemented in four European countries. Methods The process analysis was conducted within the framework of a realist evaluation methodology, and involved case studies of the process of implementation in four European countries. Datasets include: repeated questionnaires to track progress of implementation including delivery of individual activities and their intensity; serial interviews and focus groups with stakeholder groups; and detailed observations at OSPI implementation team meetings. Results Analysis of local contexts in each of the four countries revealed that the advisory group was a key mechanism that had a substantial impact on the ease of implementation of OSPI interventions, particularly on their ability to recruit to training interventions. However, simply recruiting representatives of key organisations into an advisory group is not sufficient to achieve impact on the delivery of interventions. In order to maximise the potential of high level ‘gatekeepers’, it is necessary to first transform them into OSPI stakeholders. Motivations for OSPI participation as a stakeholder included: personal affinity with the shared goals and target groups within OSPI; the complementary and participatory nature of OSPI that adds value to pre-existing suicide prevention initiatives; and reciprocal reward for participants through access to the extended network capacity that organisations could accrue for themselves and their organisations from participation in OSPI. Conclusions Exploring the role of advisory groups and the meaning of participation for these participants revealed some key areas for best practice in implementation: careful planning of the composition of the advisory group to access target groups; the importance of establishing common goals; the importance of acknowledging and complementing existing experience and activity; and facilitating an equivalence of benefit from network participation.

2013-01-01

207

Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…

Eid, Ashraf

2012-01-01

208

Value orientations and studying in school–leisure conflict: A study with samples from five countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between students' value orientations and experiences of motivational interference during studying following conflicts between learning and leisure activities were investigated in a self-report study. Overall, 1075 adolescents, mostly from Catholic schools, in Bosnia–Herzegovina (n=203), India (n=200), Paraguay (n=96), Spain (n=442), and the US (n=134), participated. The samples varied substantially in terms of modern and postmodern value orientations, experience

Manfred Hofer; Sebastian Schmid; Stefan Fries; Ilija Zivkovic; Franziska Dietz

2009-01-01

209

Enteropathogens in acute diarrhea: a general practice-based study in a Nordic country.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of infectious diarrhea influences the microbiological investigation of the disease, and is best elucidated through prospective studies. We undertook such a study in a Nordic country. Patients of all age groups who had acute diarrhea were recruited prospectively from general practice clinics in Iceland. They completed a questionnaire and provided stool samples for the detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Of the 464 recruited patients, 211 (45%) had 224 infections. The most common pathogens were calici- and rotaviruses (23% and 18% of 224 infections, respectively), Campylobacter jejuni (17%), Cryptosporidium species (12%), and Salmonella serotypes (10%). Other agents found were Giardia lamblia, astro- and adenoviruses, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Viral pathogens were associated with vomiting, illness for ?7 days, and younger age groups, while bacterial pathogens were associated with fever, rectal pain, and local or foreign travel, and parasitic pathogens with illness for >7 days. Detection rates for viral infections in the elderly and for Cryptosporidium species were higher than expected. Our study indicates the existence of regional differences in pathogen prevalence that should be taken into account when implementing guidelines for stool testing in patients with acute diarrheal disease. PMID:22057365

Hilmarsdóttir, I; Baldvinsdóttir, G E; Harðardóttir, H; Briem, H; Sigurðsson, S I

2012-07-01

210

Hungary: Reform of Social Policy and Expenditures. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the overall social policy system of Hungary and proposes reforms aimed at strengthening its role as a defense against poverty, raising the quality and equity of social programs, ensuring financial sustainability of the system, and restoring incentives (in particular relating to demand and supply for labor) suitable to a market…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

211

Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD): a protocol for process evaluation in cluster randomized controlled trials in five European countries  

PubMed Central

Background In the ‘Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD)’ project, five tailored implementation programs to improve healthcare delivery in different chronic conditions have been developed. These programs will be evaluated in distinct cluster-randomized controlled trials. This protocol describes the process evaluation across these trials, which aims to identify determinants of change in chronic illness care, to examine the validity of the tailoring methods that were applied, and to analyze the association of implementation activities and the effectiveness of the program. Methods A multilevel approach was used to develop five tailored implementation interventions. In order to guide the process evaluation in five distinct trials, the study protocols for the cluster randomized trials and the related process evaluations were developed simultaneously and iteratively. Results The process evaluation comprises three main components: a structured survey with health professionals in the trials, semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of this study population, and standardized documentation of organizational practice characteristics. Norway will only conduct the qualitative part of the analysis because the survey and documentation of practice characteristics are considered to be not feasible. The evaluation is guided by ‘logic models’ of the implementation programs: frameworks that specify the linkages between the strategies used, the determinants addressed by tailoring, and the anticipated outcomes. Standardization of measures across trials is sought to facilitate analysis of aggregated data from the trials. Conclusions This process evaluation will need to find a balance between standardization of methods across trials and the tailoring of measures to the specificities of each trial.

2014-01-01

212

Mortality in East Asian countries in the pre-war period: a quasi-experimental study on healthy immigrant effects.  

PubMed

Life tables of East Asian countries in the prewar period (1926-30) provide a rare quasi-experimental study on immigration. Age and sex-specific mortality of four East Asian countries/regions namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Kwanton province of China in the prewar period (1926-30) were drawn from life tables and vital statistics of that time. Mortality curves of these countries/regions were compared to illustrate healthy immigrant effects and racial disposition. Expatriate Japanese men of working age (20-35) had a slightly lower age-specific mortality than indigenous Japanese, suggesting a healthy migrant effect. Also, "humps" in the mortality curves around twenty years of age due to tuberculosis were observed in expatriate Japanese in all three foreign countries/ regions but not in local residents. Mild healthy immigrant effects were observed in expatriate Japanese men of working age. Susceptibility to tuberculosis was attributable to racial disposition rather than to environmental factors. PMID:19533883

Okamoto, Etsuji

2008-10-01

213

Quality evaluation of human serum albumin prepared by heat denaturation in Iran: an experience for developing countries.  

PubMed

Blood and plasma are unique resources and access to these products save life. In this study, albumin demand and surplus plasma makes it possible to use local experiences in plasma industry for preparation of albumin so plasma was heated after stabilization; afterward denatured proteins were precipitated and separated by continuous centrifuge system. The supernatant contained albumin was filtrated, diafiltrated, ultrafiltrated, formulated and pasteurized. Albumin preparation in pilot scale with heat denaturation was performed for the first time in Iran. This method using surplus plasma is recommended for all countries that have no access to plasma fractionation industry. Therefore with more attention it has potential for use in the production of safe plasma derived products and thereby it can be used as a safe product in clinic. PMID:24525282

Khorsand Mohammad Pour, Hashem; Banazadeh, Soudabeh; Aghaie, Afsaneh

2014-04-01

214

Solid waste characterization, quantification and management practices in developing countries. a case study: Nablus district - Palestine.  

PubMed

Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most challenging issues faced by developing countries that suffer from serious pollution problems caused by the generation of large waste quantities. This paper presents the case study of SWM in the Nablus district - Palestine. Surveys for household residents' and SWM program operators, field investigations, on-site waste measurements and characterizations were conducted. Per capita waste generation rates varied between different localities although trends were similar. Overall, the majority of waste was organic (65.1% by weight), suggesting a strong resource recovery potential in terms of animal feed or compost. Recyclable waste (plastic, paper and card) made up 16.7% by weight the waste composition suggesting an incentive to introduce source separation. Household attitudes complemented the waste characterization study, revealing the main problems faced. SWM operators quoted on the current status, highlighting problems with disposing in unsanitary landfills, ineffective solid waste fees system, increasing solid waste quantities and lacking equipment and experienced personnel. To enhance sustainable SWM, public awareness, funding, expertise, equipment and facilities and other provisions currently lacking or inappropriate must be provided. PMID:20116162

Al-Khatib, Issam A; Monou, Maria; Abu Zahra, Abdul Salam F; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Kassinos, Despo

2010-05-01

215

Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

2010-01-01

216

Factors associated with self-rated health status in university students: a cross-sectional study in three European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Self-rated health status (SRHS) is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to

Rafael T Mikolajczyk; Patrick Brzoska; Claudia Maier; Veronika Ottova; Sabine Meier; Urszula Dudziak; Snezhana Ilieva; Walid El Ansari

2008-01-01

217

Market Definition Study of Photovoltaic Power for Remote Villages in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barrier...

C. Ragsdale P. Quashie

1980-01-01

218

Anemia management and outcomes from 12 countries in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (DOPPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Anemia is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods:Data collected from nationally representative samples of HD patients (n = 11,041) in 2002 to 2003 were used to describe current anemia management for long-term HD patients at 309 dialysis units in 12 countries. Analyses of associations and outcomes were adjusted for demographics, 15 comorbid classes, laboratory values, country, and facility clustering. Results:For

Ronald L Pisoni; Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham; Eric W Young; Tadao Akizawa; Yasushi Asano; Francesco Locatelli; Juergen Bommer; Jose Miguel Cruz; Peter G Kerr; David C Mendelssohn; Philip J Held; Friedrich K Port

2004-01-01

219

Study of the variability and evolution of Orobanche cumana populations infesting sunflower in different European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitic plant Orobanche cumana Wallr. has become a limiting factor for sunflower crops in infested countries. Over the past few years the progression of\\u000a this parasitic plant, its introduction into new countries, and the development of new and more virulent races have all been\\u000a observed. Consequently, the survey and understanding of broomrape population evolution is now crucial for the

G. Gagne; P. Roeckel-Drevet; B. Grezes-Besset; P. Shindrova; P. Ivanov; C. Grand-Ravel; F. Vear; D. Tourvieille de Labrouhe; G. Charmet; P. Nicolas

1998-01-01

220

Psychosocial correlates of substance use in adolescence: A cross-national study in six European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine the psychosocial correlates of substance use among adolescents in six European countries. Design: Cross-sectional school population survey (ESPAD) based on standardized methodological procedures. Setting: High schools in six European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Slovenia and UK. Participants: Representative samples of a total sample of 16,445 high school students whose 16th birthday fell in the year of

Anna Kokkevi; Clive Richardson; Silvia Florescu; Marina Kuzman; Eva Stergar

2007-01-01

221

Philippines: Environment and natural resource management study. World Bank country study  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the most significant issues of natural-resource management in the Philippines. These include the disappearence or degradation of forests; erosion and changes in hydrological regimes; the conversion of mangrove swamps to fishponds; degradation of coral reefs; and depletion of nearshore fisheries through overfishing and destructive techniques. The issues addressed concern the extent and rate of degradation of these resource stocks, the impact thereof on the national economy, and the scope for ameliorative measures through policy responses, management changes, and investments. The Government is responsible for management of public resources, which include over half of the land area of the Philippines as well as the coastal waters. Historically, public management has been less than optimal, as evidenced by an unsustainable rate of deforestation and the recent stagnation or decline in extractive fisheries.

Not Available

1989-01-01

222

A Multicentre Study of Shigella Diarrhoea in Six Asian Countries: Disease Burden, Clinical Manifestations, and Microbiology  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of shigellosis is greatest in resource-poor countries. Although this diarrheal disease has been thought to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of 1,000,000 deaths globally per year, little recent data are available to guide intervention strategies in Asia. We conducted a prospective, population-based study in six Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the current disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology of shigellosis in Asia. Methods and Findings Over 600,000 persons of all ages residing in Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand were included in the surveillance. Shigella was isolated from 2,927 (5%) of 56,958 diarrhoea episodes detected between 2000 and 2004. The overall incidence of treated shigellosis was 2.1 episodes per 1,000 residents per year in all ages and 13.2/1,000/y in children under 60 months old. Shigellosis incidence increased after age 40 years. S. flexneri was the most frequently isolated Shigella species (1,976/2,927 [68%]) in all sites except in Thailand, where S. sonnei was most frequently detected (124/146 [85%]). S. flexneri serotypes were highly heterogeneous in their distribution from site to site, and even from year to year. PCR detected ipaH, the gene encoding invasion plasmid antigen H in 33% of a sample of culture-negative stool specimens. The majority of S. flexneri isolates in each site were resistant to amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. Ciprofloxacin-resistant S. flexneri isolates were identified in China (18/305 [6%]), Pakistan (8/242 [3%]), and Vietnam (5/282 [2%]). Conclusions Shigella appears to be more ubiquitous in Asian impoverished populations than previously thought, and antibiotic-resistant strains of different species and serotypes have emerged. Focusing on prevention of shigellosis could exert an immediate benefit first by substantially reducing the overall diarrhoea burden in the region and second by preventing the spread of panresistant Shigella strains. The heterogeneous distribution of Shigella species and serotypes suggest that multivalent or cross-protective Shigella vaccines will be needed to prevent shigellosis in Asia.

von Seidlein, Lorenz; Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Lee, Hyejon; Wang, XuanYi; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Canh, Do Gia; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Agtini, Magdarina D; Hossain, Anowar; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Mason, Carl; Sethabutr, Ornthipa; Talukder, Kaisar; Nair, G. B; Deen, Jacqueline L; Kotloff, Karen; Clemens, John

2006-01-01

223

Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

2003-01-01

224

Iron-Fortified Drinking Water Studies for the Prevention of Children's Anemia in Developing Countries.  

PubMed

Anemia and iron deficiency should receive special attention considering their high prevalence and serious consequences. For prevention, globally it is recommended to increase dietary iron intake, iron fortification of industrialized foods, and medical iron supplementation. Food fortification for the prevention of iron deficiency in developing countries should consider carriers locally available and consumed daily, requiring limited infrastructure and technology. Drinking water is the iron carrier we have been working for years for the prevention of iron deficiency and anemia in small children in Brazil. It was shown that studies with iron-fortified drinking water were proved to be effective on children's anemia prevention. Water is found everywhere, consumed daily by everyone may be easily fortified with simple technology, is low priced and was effective on the prevention of children's anemia. Fortification of drinking water with iron was locally implemented with the direct participation of the government and community. Government authorities, health personnel and population were part of the project and responsible for its community implementation. The mayor/municipality permitted and supported the proposal to supply it to children at their day-care centers. To keep the children drinking water iron fortified supply an officially authorized legislation was also approved. PMID:21826263

Dutra-de-Oliveira, Jose E; Marchini, J Sergio; Lamounier, Joel; Almeida, Carlos A N

2011-01-01

225

Incorporating geology and geomorphology in land management decisions in developing countries: A case study in Southern Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast and uncontrolled expansion of industries, agriculture and settlements in developing countries implies a definite need to develop strategies for effective land management. For this reason we carried out a case study in southern Costa Rica within an area of high vulnerability for landslides and seismic hazards aiming at the development of a GIS-based system for the analysis of the physical environment that is of practical use for land management decisions in developing regions with limited financial, technical and data resources. Our concept is based upon the assessment of five so-called geofactors, reflecting the most important aspects for land management planning: (1) Lithology/Petrophysics, (2) Geomorphology, (3) Hydrogeology, (4) Slope Stability and (5) Seismic Hazards. In order to take as much advantage as possible of the limited existing base data, and efficient tools for data collection, evaluation of data quality and data analysis were developed. Second-degree normalization of all database attributes guarantees extensive data query and access possibilities. The application of geofactor terrain analysis for land management is discussed on the basis of a land use plan for the town of Rio Claro located in the NE of the study area.

Andreas, Mende; Allan, Astorga

2007-06-01

226

Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external radiation with a total follow-up of 5.2 million person years. Main outcome measurements Estimates of excess relative risks per sievert (Sv) of radiation dose for mortality from cancers other than leukaemia and from leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the main causes of death considered by radiation protection authorities. Results The excess relative risk for cancers other than leukaemia was 0.97 per Sv, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.97. Analyses of causes of death related or unrelated to smoking indicate that, although confounding by smoking may be present, it is unlikely to explain all of this increased risk. The excess relative risk for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 1.93 per Sv (< 0 to 8.47). On the basis of these estimates, 1-2% of deaths from cancer among workers in this cohort may be attributable to radiation. Conclusions These estimates, from the largest study of nuclear workers ever conducted, are higher than, but statistically compatible with, the risk estimates used for current radiation protection standards. The results suggest that there is a small excess risk of cancer, even at the low doses and dose rates typically received by nuclear workers in this study.

Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Solano, J Bernar; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Sacristan, A Diez; Eklof, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

2005-01-01

227

Barriers of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development and Implementation in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Knowledge products such as clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are vitally required for evidence-based medicine (EBM). Although the EBM, to some extent, has been attended during recent years, no result has achieved thus far. The current qualitative study is to identify the barriers to establishing development system and implementation of CPGs in Iran. Methods: Twelve semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of health policy and decision makers, the experts of development and or adaptation of CPGs, and the experts of EBM education and development. In addition, 11 policy-makers, decision-makers, and managers of the health system participated in a focus group discussion. The analysis of the study data was undertaken by thematic framework approach. Result: Six themes emerged in order of their frequency include practice environment, evidence-based health care system, individual professional, politician and political context, innovation (CPG) and patients. Most of the indications in the treatment environment focused on such sub-themes as regulations and rules, economical factors, organizational context, and social context. While the barriers related to the conditions of treatment environment, service provider and the features of innovation and patients had been identified before in other studies, very little attention has been paid to the evidence-based health care system and politician and political context Conclusion: The lack of an evidence-based healthcare system and a political macro support are mentioned as the key barriers in Iran as a developing country. The establishment of a system of development and implementation of CPGs as the evidence-based practice tools will not be possible, unless the barriers are removed.

Baradaran-Seyed, Zahra; Nedjat, Sima; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza

2013-01-01

228

Entropy Correlation Distance Method Applied to Study Correlations between the Gross Domestic Product of Rich Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Theil index is much used in economy and finance; it looks like the\\u000aShannon entropy, but pertains to event values rather than to their\\u000aprobabilities. Any time series can be remapped through the Theil index.\\u000aCorrelation coefficients can be evaluated between the new time series, thereby\\u000aallowing to study their mutual statistical distance, - to be contrasted to the

Marcel Ausloos; Janusz Miskiewicz

2010-01-01

229

Systemic antibiotic prescribing to paediatric outpatients in 5 European countries: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the utilisation of antibiotics in children and adolescents across 5 European countries based on the same drug utilisation measures and age groups. Special attention was given to age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups, since comparison in this regard between countries is lacking so far. Methods Outpatient paediatric prescriptions of systemic antibiotics during the years 2005-2008 were analysed using health care databases from the UK, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy and Germany. Annual antibiotic prescription rates per 1,000 person years were estimated for each database and stratified by age (?4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-18 years). Age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups were calculated for 2008. Results With 957 prescriptions per 1000 person years, the highest annual prescription rate in the year 2008 was found in the Italian region Emilia Romagna followed by Germany (561), the UK (555), Denmark (481) and the Netherlands (294). Seasonal peaks during winter months were most pronounced in countries with high utilisation. Age-group-specific use varied substantially between countries with regard to total prescribing and distributions of antibiotic subgroups. However, prescription rates were highest among children in the age group ?4 years in all countries, predominantly due to high use of broad spectrum penicillins. Conclusions Strong increases of antibiotic prescriptions in winter months in high utilising countries most likely result from frequent antibiotic treatment of mostly viral infections. This and strong variations of overall and age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups across countries, suggests that antibiotics are inappropriately used to a large extent.

2014-01-01

230

Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG's emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries that are signatories of the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change assistance that will allow ...

1996-01-01

231

Economic Aspects of Agricultural Development in Africa. A Selective Annotated Reading List of Reports and Studies Concerning 40 African Countries During the Period 1960 - 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some 1394 research studies from various African countries are annotated in this bibliography, which is divided into 37 country sections with a separate section (Africa General) for studies dealing with the continent as a whole, with geographical regions, or with groups of countries. The publications listed and summarized were published primarily…

Neville-Rolfe, Edmund, Comp.

232

Development and Evaluation of Hydrolytic\\/Acedogenic First Stage Anaerobic Reactor for Treating Municipal Solid Waste in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is a viable technology for Sri Lanka. Thus, this paper presents the research findings that were conducted on anaerobic digestion technology to treat Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The aim of this study was to evaluate the hydrolytic\\/acidogenic first stage reactor having a volume of 1000L, which was developed through series of continuous experiments. It was fabricated with stainless

K. P. K. Jayakody; S. N. M. Menikpura; B. F. A. Basnayake; R. Weerasekara

233

Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina) are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the

Gustavo Nigenda; Ana Langer; Chusri Kuchaisit; Mariana Romero; Georgina Rojas; Muneera Al-Osimy; José Villar; Jo Garcia; Yagob Al-Mazrou; Hassan Ba'aqeel; Guillermo Carroli; Ubaldo Farnot; Pisake Lumbiganon; José Belizán; Per Bergsjo; Leiv Bakketeig; Gunilla Lindmark

2003-01-01

234

A Critical Analysis of Healthcare Waste Management in Developed and Developing Countries: Case Studies from India and England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of healthcare waste is of great importance due to its potential environmental hazards and public health risks. This paper is concerned with comparing practices for the management of healthcare waste using two case study countries, from the 'developed' and the 'developing' world, namely India and England. The study employed a range of methods, including literature reviews, audits and

Vijaya Kumar Goddu; Kavita Duvvuri; Vidya Kaumudini Bakki

235

Success in electronic commerce implementation : A cross-country study of small and medium-sized enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of electronic commerce (EC) implementation success for small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and to present outcomes of a comparative study between two countries to reflect the differences in the adoption strategies and explore reasons behind such variations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Preliminary studies were conducted in both Australia and Singapore

Sandy Chong

2008-01-01

236

Deepening Learning and Inspiring Rigor: Bridging Academic and Experiential Learning Using a Host Country Approach to a Study Tour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American students are increasingly incorporating study in a foreign country into their college educations, but many participate in short-term programs that limit their engagement with any more than the superficial aspects of the host culture. This article describes a short-term study abroad course for American students to Japan in which the…

Long, Susan Orpett; Akande, Yemi Susan; Purdy, R. W.; Nakano, Keiko

2010-01-01

237

Directory of country environmental studies, 1993. An annotated bibliography of environmental and natural resource profiles and assessments  

SciTech Connect

The 1993 edition of the Directory provides detailed citations and abstracts for 357 major natural resource and environmental studies (257 of which were added since the 1990 edition) covering 129 developing countries and 12 regional groupings. Most of the studies (93%) were prepared between 1987 and 1992. Included are 66 national reports prepared for the U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Thirty-three countries, including Algeria, Bhutan, Cuba, Republic of Korea, Laos, Namibia, South Africa, Suriname, Taiwan, and Venezuela, are new to this edition of the directory, which focuses on reports that link quantitative assessment of a country's natural resources to economic development and the maintenance of ecosystems, with particular emphasis on natural resource management strategies and action plans.

Tunstall, D.B.; van der Wansem, M.

1992-11-01

238

Implementation of Large-Scale Science Curricula: A Study in Seven European Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Salters Chemistry courses, context-led curricula for 13-16 and 17-18 year old students, first developed by the Science Education Group at the University of York in the UK, have now been translated and/or adapted in seven other European countries. This paper describes and discusses the different reasons for taking up the courses, the ways in which the courses were adapted, the difficulties faced and how the difficulties were usually overcome. The adaptors also suggest ways in which this work will develop in their countries.

Pilling, G. M.; Waddington, D. J.

2005-12-01

239

Digital Radiology to Improve the Quality of Care in Countries with Limited Resources: A Feasibility Study from Angola  

PubMed Central

Objective Sub-standard quality in X-ray image acquisition and interpretation is common in low-resource countries, and can ultimately result in higher patient morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at evaluating; 1) feasibility of implementing a digital X-ray device in a second level hospital in Angola; 2) quality of digital X-ray images, when digital radiology was in the hands of local technicians; 3) feasibility of digital teleradiology and its potential impact on case management. Methods We developed and tested at the Hospital Divina Providencia (HDP) in Luanda, Angola, a digital X-ray device and a telemedicine network to acquire and print digital X-ray images and send them as DICOM files for remote consultation. Results 20,564 digital X-ray images were made at HDP from November 2010 to December 2012, with no major technical problems and no need for on-site supervision. Digital radiology largely improved the number of X-ray images of good and very good quality (100% of images with digital radiology, compared to 15% of screen-film images, p<0.0001). Teleradiology using digital images was used in 7.6% of paediatric cases, and provided, in these cases, an important contribution to case management. Conclusions The implementation of a digital X-ray device is feasible in low resource settings with significant improvement in quality of X-ray images compared to standard screen film radiology.

Zennaro, Floriana; Oliveira Gomes, Joaquim Antonio; Casalino, Armando; Lonardi, Magda; Starc, Meta; Paoletti, Pierpaolo; Gobbo, Daniele; Giusto, Chiara; Not, Tarcisio; Lazzerini, Marzia

2013-01-01

240

Knowledge translation: a case study on pneumonia research and clinical guidelines in a low- income country  

PubMed Central

Background The process and effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported. In Cambodia, a low-income country (LIC), an intervention aiming to provide evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia to health authorities was developed to help update pediatric and adult national clinical guidelines. Through a case study, we assessed the effectiveness of this KT intervention, with the goal of identifying the barriers to KT and suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. Methods An extensive search for all relevant sources of data documenting the processes of updating adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines was done. Documents included among others, reports, meeting minutes, and email correspondences. The study was conducted in successive phases: an appraisal of the content of both adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines; an appraisal of the quality of guidelines by independent experts, using the AGREE-II instrument; a description and modeling of the KT process within the guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools 2.2; and the listing of the barriers and facilitators to KT we identified during the study. Results The first appraisal showed that the integration of the KT key messages in pediatric and adult guidelines varied with a better efficiency in the pediatric guidelines. The overall AGREE-II quality assessments scored 37% and 44% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Scores were lowest for the domains of ‘rigor of development’ and ‘editorial independence.’ The UML analysis highlighted that time frames and constraints of the involved stakeholders greatly differed and that there were several missed opportunities to translate on evidence into the adult pneumonia guideline. Seventeen facilitating factors and 18 potential barriers to KT were identified. Main barriers were related to the absence of a clear mandate from the Ministry of Health for the researchers and to a lack of synchronization between knowledge production and policy-making. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stakeholders, both researchers and policy makers planning to update clinical guidelines in LIC may need methodological support to overcome the expected barriers.

2014-01-01

241

Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study  

PubMed Central

Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27?957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100?000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100?000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research.

Haglund, Bengt; Hogberg, Ulf; Essen, Birgitta

2013-01-01

242

Study design considerations for assessing the health of fish populations impacted by agriculture in developing countries: a Sri Lankan case study.  

PubMed

Studies on the use of indigenous or endemic fish species for the assessment of agricultural impacts on fish populations are lacking in tropical South and Southeast Asia. This paper describes the steps involved in developing an agricultural impacts assessment program focused on river health, using recent studies on wild fish in Sri Lanka. The assessment methodology includes the selection of fish species for monitoring, and development of a strategy for sample timing, sample size requirements, and selection of appropriate reference site(s). Preliminary fish sampling data from several tributaries of the Uma-oya and the Amban-ganga (Knuckles streams) from the Mahaweli River basin were evaluated and temporal patterns of gonadal recruitment were investigated for three common species: Garra ceylonensis, Devario malabaricus, and Rasbora daniconius. The data on reproductive development were statistically incorporated to evaluate appropriate sample timing and sample size requirements. For this study, we proposed a cluster gradient design with a range of assessment endpoints and suitable statistical methods; an alternate assessment in different agricultural catchments would facilitate verification. The review and preliminary data support provide a template for study design considerations for agricultural impact assessments in South and SE Asian countries. PMID:21769414

Sumith, Jayakody A; Munkittrick, Kelly R

2011-08-01

243

[Methods for the evaluation of a health intervention in developing countries: the case in the Arsi region, Ethiopia].  

PubMed

Since 1989 an evaluation study of the impact of a Primary Health Care (PHC) program is being carried out in Arsi region, Ethiopia. The principal aim of the study is to estimate the mortality rates in those villages mainly involved in PHC activities. A sample of 80 villages will be recruited to allow significant differences in mortality of 20 per thousand between less treated and best treated villages. Considering the absence of routine demographic data, a population census and demographic surveillance of the recruited villages have been carried out. All the activities related to the study are considered together with the principal logistic and methodologic problems. PMID:1755587

Mele, A; Materia, E; Rosmini, F; Stazi, M A; Pasquini, P

1991-01-01

244

The Digital Balance between Industrialised and Developing Countries: Futures Studies for Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of researching the digital balance between industrialised and developing countries was to discover how information and communication technology (ICT), content and e-services developed in Finland will work on the African continent, and vice versa. Globalisation and the associated new international division of labour and well-being…

Hietanen, Olli

2006-01-01

245

Argentina: Reallocating Resources for the Improvement of Education. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The socioeconomic problems that arose in Argentina during the 1980s hurt the country's education system--one that historically has been among the most advanced in the region. Resources became scarcer, and the government's expenditures for education fell below regional and other international standards. This report proposes four policies to stop…

Kugler, Bernardo

246

Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

247

Quality, cost and utilization of health services in developing countries. A longitudinal study in Zaïre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developing countries, particularly in Africa, have recently introduced payment schemes based on the selling of essential drugs. This is one of the main elements of the Bamako Initiative according to which the income generated would ensure a reliable supply of drugs and would improve other aspects of the quality of the services offered. Thus, quality improvements would compensate for

Slim Haddad; Pierre Fournier

1995-01-01

248

The Role of Individualism/Collectivism in Critical Classroom Encounters: A Four Country Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internationalization raises the issue of whether, and to what extent, the inherent culture of a country may have particular influence on the nature of service interactions, and on education (i.e., student-professor interactions) specifically. Thus the service encounter in the classroom becomes a subject of increasing importance and interest with…

Frankel, Robert; Swanson, Scott R.; Sagan, Mariusz

2005-01-01

249

Consumer Movements in Newly Industrialized Countries: Taiwan as a Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the evolution of a consumer society in the newly industrialized countries of Asia, especially Taiwan. Looks at Taiwan's growing consumer presence , emerging consumer policy framework, and evolving family and social structure as well as consumer movement efforts and the impact of international organizations. (Contains 52 references.) (JOW)

McGregor, Sue L. T.

2000-01-01

250

Impact of College Rankings on Institutional Decision Making: Four Country Case Studies. Issue Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ranking of higher education institutions is a growing phenomenon around the globe, with ranking systems in place in more than 40 countries and the emergence of international ranking systems that compare institutions across national lines. With this proliferation of rankings come questions about the goals, uses, and outcomes of these systems.…

Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2009

2009-01-01

251

Student Engagement in Two Countries: A Comparative Study Using National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare college and university student engagement in two countries with different responses to global forces, Canada and the United States (US), a series of hierarchical linear regression (HLM) models were developed to analyse data from the 2006 administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Overall, students in the U.S. are more engaged, particularly in areas of active

C. B. KANDIKO

252

Student Engagement in Two Countries: A Comparative Study Using NSSE Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare college and university student engagement in two countries with different responses to global forces, Canada and the U.S., a series of hierarchical linear regression (HLM) models were developed to analyze data from the 2006 administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement. Overall, students in the U.S. are more engaged, particularly in areas of active and collaborative learning

C. B. Kandiko

253

Lessons from the Pacific programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: a case study of 5 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is an important Neglected Tropical Disease, being a major cause of disability worldwide. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to eliminate LF as a public health problem by the year 2020, primarily through repeated Mass Drug Administration (MDA). The Pacific region programme commenced in 1999. By June 2007, five of the eleven countries classified

Clare Huppatz; Corinne Capuano; Kevin Palmer; Paul M Kelly; David N Durrheim

2009-01-01

254

Antimalarial Drug Quality in the Most Severely Malarious Parts of Africa – A Six Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of antimalarial drugs were procured from private pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas in the major cities of six African countries, situated in the part of that continent and the world that is most highly endemic for malaria. Semi- quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and dissolution testing were used to measure active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards.

Roger Bate; Philip Coticelli; Richard Tren; Amir Attaran

2008-01-01

255

Child Rights. The Convention: Child Rights and UNICEF Experience at the Country Level. Innocenti Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most revolutionary element of UNICEF's approach to the implementation of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child is the integration of the principles of the Convention into individual countries' programs for children. The convention has impacted UNICEF by broadening it's framework for analyzing the situation of children. This…

Madinger, Edward; And Others

256

Total hydrocarbon analyzer evaluation study  

SciTech Connect

Measuring and controlling organic emissions from incineration processes has become a major environmental concern in recent years. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed a regulation for sewage sludge incinerators under section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act that will require all sludge incinerators to monitor total hydrocarbon emissions (THCs) on a continuous basis. Such a requirement would be part of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits and site-specific THC limits would be established for facilities based on a risk assessment of organic emissions. Before EPA can finalize the proposed requirement, THC monitoring must be successfully conducted in a plant environment and the system required by any final regulation must be kept in operation so that facilities can comply with their permits. The Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) in St. Paul, Minn., and Rosemount Analytical Division in La Habre, Calif., entered into a joint agreement with EPA to demonstrate a hot' THC monitoring system to detect THCs in stack gases. The objectives of the study are to determine the feasibility of THC monitoring of sludge incinerator emissions; evaluate the long term reliability, cost of operation, and consistency of a continuous THC monitoring system in an incinerator environment; and determine the correlation of THC stack concentration to incinerator and scrubber operating conditions, carbon monoxide concentration, and specific VOC emissions.

Shamat, N. (EMA Services, Inc., St. Paul, MN (United States)); Crumpler, E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)); Roddan, A. (Rosemount Analytical Division, La Habra, CA (United States))

1991-10-01

257

Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. The Case of the Humanities and Social Science. Country Study: Sweden.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment, particularly in the humanities and social sciences, looks at employment for social science and humanities graduates in Sweden. Following an introduction in section 1, section 2 offers a short description of the evolution of humanities and social sciences in Swedish…

Andersson, Dan; And Others

258

Item Format as a Factor Affecting the Relative Standing of Countries in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were examined to determine the extent to which the rank ordering of countries based on pupil test performance was consistent across three different item formats: multiple-choice, short-answer, and extended-response. Findings from the analysis are used to make the case that…

O'Leary, Michael

259

The Regional Resources and Tourism Development in Developing Countries a Case Study of Salt and Karak, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the initial field surveys to understand the conditions of tourism development and its perspectives of contribution towards regional development in developing countries. The case studies of Salt and Karak cities in Jordan are focused, where some international aid projects are under implementation. It is believed some clues for sustainable tourism development for the regional development, which may

Nami Tanaka; Kazunari Tanaka; Yamaguchi Keiko; Tamagawa Eri

2006-01-01

260

Incorporating geology and geomorphology in land management decisions in developing countries: A case study in Southern Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast and uncontrolled expansion of industries, agriculture and settlements in developing countries implies a definite need to develop strategies for effective land management. For this reason we carried out a case study in southern Costa Rica within an area of high vulnerability for landslides and seismic hazards aiming at the development of a GIS-based system for the analysis of

Mende Andreas; Astorga Allan

2007-01-01

261

Cultural and leadership predictors of corporate social responsibility values of top management: a GLOBE study of 15 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines cultural and leadership variables associated with corporate social responsibility values that managers apply to their decision-making. In this longitudinal study, we analyze data from 561 firms located in 15 countries on five continents to illustrate how the cultural dimensions of institutional collectivism and power distance predict social responsibility values on the part of top management team members.

David A Waldman; Mary Sully de Luque; Nathan Washburn; Robert J House; Bolanle Adetoun; Angel Barrasa; Mariya Bobina; Muzaffer Bodur; Yi-Jung Chen; Sukhendu Debbarma; Peter Dorfman; Rosemary R Dzuvichu; Idil Evcimen; Pingping Fu; Mikhail Grachev; Roberto Gonzalez Duarte; Vipin Gupta; Deanne N Den Hartog; Annebel H B de Hoogh; Jon Howell; Kuen-Yung Jone; Hayat Kabasakal; Edvard Konrad; P L Koopman; Rainhart Lang; Cheng-Chen Lin; Jun Liu; Boris Martinez; Almarie E Munley; Nancy Papalexandris; T K Peng; Leonel Prieto; Narda Quigley; James Rajasekar; Francisco Gil Rodríguez; Johannes Steyrer; Betania Tanure; Henk Thierry; V M Thomas; Peter T van den Berg; Celeste P M Wilderom

2006-01-01

262

TransFatty Acids in French Fries, Soups, and Snacks from 14 European Countries: The TRANSFAIR Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the TRANSFAIR study, foods contributing to 95% of total fat intake were collected in 14 European countries. In addition to edible fats, dairy, meat, and bakery products some specific food items with relatively high amounts oftransfatty acids were found. French fried potatoes, both those from fast-food restaurants and those from the supermarkets (including potato chips), contained mostly between 12

A. Aro; E. Amaral; H. Kesteloot; A. Rimestad; M. Thamm; G. van Poppel

1998-01-01

263

Country made scare gun vs. air gun—A comparative study of terminal ballistics using gelatine blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Country made scare gun also called as bandook in the vernacular language designed with an intention of scaring away the menacing animals is not only unique and effective but also potentially lethal and has found wide spread usage in the rural parts of India. Here an attempt has been made to study the characteristic features such as physical dimensions, mechanism

Vinay R. Hallikeri; Hareesh S. Gouda; Shivanand A. Kadagoudar

264

Leading Asian countries' HRD practices in the IT industry: a comparative study of South Korea and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare IT firms in two leading Asian countries in the IT industry, South Korea and India, to suggest how to leverage their human resource development (HRD) practices for continued growth. The IT industry in South Korea and India has shown fast growth and notable profits in a short time, but managing their human

Yonjoo Cho; Gary N. McLean

2009-01-01

265

Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. The Case of the Humanities and Social Sciences. Country Study: Austria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in the humanities and social sciences, looks at employment prospects for social science and humanities graduates in Austria. Organized in three main sections the first reviews past problems in humanities and social science education. In particular the…

Pechar, Hans; And Others

266

Training, Recruitment and Utilization of Teachers in Primary and Secondary Education. Country Case Studies: Denmark, Italy, Luxembourg.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of studies on the training, recruitment, and utilization of teachers in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This document deals with Denmark, Italy, and Luxembourg. The section on Denmark (217 pages) has chapters on the Danish educational system; the Folkeskole, the Gymnasium, and…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

267

Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.  

PubMed

Municipal wastewater treatment results to the production of large quantities of sewage sludge, which requires proper and environmentally accepted management before final disposal. In European Union, sludge management remains an open and challenging issue for the Member States as the relative European legislation is fragmentary and quite old, while the published data concerning sludge treatment and disposal in different European countries are often incomplete and inhomogeneous. The main objective of the current study was to outline the current situation and discuss future perspectives for sludge treatment and disposal in EU countries. According to the results, specific sludge production is differentiated significantly between European countries, ranging from 0.1 kg per population equivalent (p.e.) and year (Malta) to 30.8 kg per p.e. and year (Austria). More stringent legislations comparing to European Directive 86/278/EC have been adopted for sludge disposal in soil by several European countries, setting lower limit values for heavy metals as well as limit values for pathogens and organic micropollutants. A great variety of sludge treatment technologies are used in EU countries, while differences are observed between Member States. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion seems to be the most popular stabilization methods, applying in 24 and 20 countries, respectively. Mechanical sludge dewatering is preferred comparing to the use of drying beds, while thermal drying is mainly applied in EU-15 countries (old Member States) and especially in Germany, Italy, France and UK. Regarding sludge final disposal, sludge reuse (including direct agricultural application and composting) seems to be the predominant choice for sludge management in EU-15 (53% of produced sludge), following by incineration (21% of produced sludge). On the other hand, the most common disposal method in EU-12 countries (new Member States that joined EU after 2004) is still landfilling. Due to the obligations set by Directive 91/271/EC, a temporary increase of sludge amounts that are disposed in landfills is expected during the following years in EU-12 countries. Beside the above, sludge reuse in land and sludge incineration seem to be the main practices further adopted in EU-27 (all Member States) up to 2020. The reinforcement of these disposal practices will probably result to adoption of advanced sludge treatment technologies in order to achieve higher pathogens removal, odors control and removal of toxic compounds and ensure human health and environmental protection. PMID:22336390

Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

2012-06-01

268

Country-specific dietary patterns and associations with socioeconomic status in European children: the IDEFICS study.  

PubMed

Background/objectives:Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary patterns with an additive SES indicator.Subjects/Methods:Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES.Results:Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing gastronomic and cultural differences in Europe. The 'processed' pattern was significantly inversely associated with the SES additive indicator in all countries except Sweden, whereas the 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with SES in the Belgian, Estonian, German and Hungarian regions, but was not significant in the Italian, Spanish and Swedish regions.Conclusions:A 'processed' pattern and a 'healthy' pattern were found in most of the participating countries in the IDEFICS study, with comparable food item profiles. The results showed a strong inverse association of SES with the 'processed' pattern, suggesting that children of parents with lower SES may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. Therefore, special focus should be given to parents and their children from lower SES levels when developing healthy eating promotion strategies. PMID:24824009

Fernández-Alvira, J M; Bammann, K; Pala, V; Krogh, V; Barba, G; Eiben, G; Hebestreit, A; Veidebaum, T; Reisch, L; Tornaritis, M; Kovacs, E; Huybrechts, I; Moreno, L A

2014-07-01

269

Improving antimicrobial use among health workers in first-level facilities: results from the multi-country evaluation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) case management training on the use of antimicrobial drugs among health-care workers treating young children at first-level facilities. Antimicrobial drugs are an essential child-survival intervention. Ensuring that children younger than five who need these drugs receive them promptly and correctly can save their lives. Prescribing these drugs only when necessary and ensuring that those who receive them complete the full course can slow the development of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Data collected through observation-based surveys in randomly selected first-level health facilities in Brazil, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania were statistically analysed. The surveys were carried out as part of the multi-country evaluation of IMCI effectiveness, cost and impact (MCE). FINDINGS: Results from three MCE sites show that children receiving care from health workers trained in IMCI are significantly more likely to receive correct prescriptions for antimicrobial drugs than those receiving care from workers not trained in IMCI.They are also more likely to receive the first dose of the drug before leaving the health facility, to have their caregiver advised how to administer the drug, and to have caregivers who are able to describe correctly how to give the drug at home as they leave the health facility. CONCLUSIONS: IMCI case management training is an effective intervention to improve the rational use of antimicrobial drugs for sick children visiting first-level health facilities in low-income and middle-income countries.

Gouws, Eleanor; Bryce, Jennifer; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Amaral, Joao; Pariyo, George; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Fontaine, Olivier

2004-01-01

270

Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination  

PubMed Central

Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP). Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9%) and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major challenge in the future will be prevention and management of imported malaria infections from neighbouring Indian states. Bhutan plans to implement screening at border points to prevent importation of malaria and to targeted prevention and surveillance efforts towards at-risk Bhutanese and migrant workers in construction sites.

2012-01-01

271

Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.  

PubMed

Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates increased mortality rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, thermal stress, and increased frequency of infectious vector borne diseases in the region between 2070 and 2099. PMID:19190352

Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

2008-12-01

272

Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming - A Case Study of the Gulf Countries  

PubMed Central

Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC. The preliminary assessment indicates increased mortality rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, thermal stress, and increased frequency of infectious vector borne diseases in the region between 2070 and 2099.

Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

2008-01-01

273

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu (Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry)

1992-08-01

274

Role of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing risk of developing gestational hypertensive disorders: a meta-analysis of studies from developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension in pregnancy stand alone or with proteinuria is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world. Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that an inverse relationship exists between calcium intake and development of hypertension in pregnancy though the effect varies based on baseline calcium intake and pre-existing risk factors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate preventive effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on gestational hypertensive disorders and related maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries. Methods A literature search was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional databases. Data were extracted into a standardized excel sheet. Identified studies were graded based on strengths and limitations of studies. All the included studies were from developing countries. Meta-analyses were generated where data were available from more than one study for an outcome. Primary outcomes were maternal mortality, eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, and severe preeclampsia. Neonatal outcomes like neonatal mortality, preterm birth, small for gestational age and low birth weight were also evaluated. We followed standardized guidelines of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) to generate estimates of effectiveness of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries, for inclusion in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Results Data from 10 randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Pooled analysis showed that calcium supplementation during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction of 45% in risk of gestational hypertension [Relative risk (RR) 0.55; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.85] and 59% in the risk of pre-eclampsia [RR 0.41; 95 % CI 0.24-0.69] in developing countries. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy was also associated with a significant reduction in neonatal mortality [RR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.56-0.88] and risk of pre-term birth [RR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.78-0.99]. Recommendations for LiST for reduction in maternal mortality were based on risk reduction in gestational hypertensive related severe morbidity/mortality [RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.70-0.91] and that for neonatal mortality were based on risk reduction in all-cause neonatal mortality [RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.56-0.88]. Conclusion Calcium supplementation during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in risk of gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia neonatal mortality and pre-term birth in developing countries.

2011-01-01

275

Solid Waste Management In Developing Countries — A Case Study Of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Proper management of solid wastes continues to be a serious problem world wide and especially in the economically developing\\u000a countries. Growing population, rising standards of living and life-style, industrialization, and production and consumption\\u000a of new products are acting in concert to generate increasingly greater quantities of solid wastes, and this in turn is creating\\u000a serious problems of their management and

Günay Kocasoy

276

Designing and Implementing Hospital Management Information Systems in Developing Countries: Case Studies from Tanzania - Zanzibar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Research and development ,projects have shown ,the need for strengthening hospital management ,information systems (HMIS) [1][2], but this has proven a difficult task, especially in developing countries [3][4][5]. The hospitals in Zanzibar have experienced problems in collecting and managing,health care data due to fragmented structures and lack of standardisation. This paper analyses an on-going ,participatory design effort involving computer

Faraja T. Igira; Ola H. Titlestad; Juma H. Lungo; Asha Makungu; Maryam Masoud Khamis; Yahya Sheikh; Masoud Mahundi; Mwana Juma Ngeni; Omar Suleiman; Jørn Braa

277

Text and Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

cigarette packages in four countries. Methods: Quasi-experimental design. Telephone surveys were conducted with representative cohorts of adult smokers (n14,975): Canada (n3687), United States (n4273), UK (n3634), and Australia (n3381). Surveys were conducted between 2002 and 2005, before and at three time points following implementation of new package warnings in the UK. Results: At Wave 1, Canadian smokers reported the highest

David Hammond; Geoffrey T. Fong; Ron Borland; K. Michael Cummings; Ann McNeill; Pete Driezen

278

Antimalarial Drug Quality in the Most Severely Malarious Parts of Africa - A Six Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of antimalarial drugs were procured from private pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas in the major cities of six African countries, situated in the part of that continent and the world that is most highly endemic for malaria. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and dissolution testing were used to measure active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards. 35%

Roger Bate; Philip Coticelli; Richard Tren; Amir Attaran; Philip Awadalla

2008-01-01

279

Social Studies. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of 11 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 3-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

280

Effects of Italian Smoking Regulation on Rates of Hospital Admission for Acute Coronary Events: A Country-Wide Study  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have reported a reduction in acute coronary events (ACEs) in the general population after the enforcement of smoking regulations, although there is uncertainty concerning the magnitude of the effect of such interventions. We conducted a country-wide evaluation of the health effects of the introduction of a smoking ban in public places, using data on hospital admissions for ACEs from the Italian population after the implementation of a national smoking regulation in January 2005. Methods and Findings Rates of admission for ACEs in the 20 Italian regions from January 2002 to November 2006 were analysed using mixed-effect regression models that allowed for long-term trends and seasonality. Standard methods for interrupted time-series were adopted to assess the immediate and gradual effects of the smoking ban. Effect modification by age was investigated, with the assumption that exposure to passive smoking in public places would be greater among young people. In total, 936,519 hospital admissions for ACEs occurred in the Italian population during the study period. A 4% reduction in hospital admissions for ACEs among persons aged less than 70 years was evident after the introduction of the ban (Rate Ratio [RR], 0.96; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.95–0.98). No effect was found among persons aged at least 70 years (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.99–1.02). Effect modification by age was further suggested by analyses using narrower age categories. Conclusions Smoke-free policies can constitute a simple and inexpensive intervention for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and thus should be included in prevention programmes.

Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Gasparrini, Antonio; Vizzini, Loredana; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo

2011-01-01

281

Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient?=?0.231 at lag?=??1 week). Conclusions School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data.

Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

2013-01-01

282

Self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among people with a mental illness in six countries: Pan European stigma study.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study including 796 individuals with a psychiatric disorder was conducted in Croatia, Israel, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and Sweden in 2010 aiming to assess correlates of self-stigma. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) was used to measure self-stigma, whereas the Boston University Empowerment Scale was used to measure the self-efficacy/self-esteem (SESE) and sense of power/powerlessness (PP). Perceived discrimination and devaluation was measured with the Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination (PDD) Scale. Thirty three percent of participants had moderate-to-high ISMI scores. In multivariable-adjusted analysis, significant 'predictors' of high ISMI scores were: age-group of 50-59 years, current employment, lower social contacts, and minimal-to-low SESE and PP scores. Remarkably, no significant association between ISMI and PDD was evident. Furthermore, there was evidence of a significant interaction between SESE and country. Study participants might not be representative to all individuals with mental disorders in countries included in this survey. Our findings indicate that people with psychiatric diseases suffer both self-stigma and perceived discrimination and devaluation. This is one of the very few reports highlighting country differences and diagnosis disparities of self-stigma among individuals with mental illnesses. Between-country differences should be considered and carefully addressed in the process of policy formulation and interventional programs against stigma. PMID:23998361

Krajewski, Christin; Burazeri, Genc; Brand, Helmut

2013-12-30

283

Public satisfaction as a measure of health system performance: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Measurement of health system performance increasingly includes the views of healthcare users, yet little research has focussed on general population satisfaction with health systems. This study is the first to examine public satisfaction with health systems in the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data were derived from two related studies conducted in 2001 and 2010 in nine fSU countries, using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of health system satisfaction in each country was compared for 2001 and 2010. Patterns of satisfaction were further examined by comparing satisfaction with the health system and other parts of the public sector, and the views of health care users and non-users. Potential determinants of population satisfaction were explored using logistic regression. For all countries combined, the level of satisfaction with health systems increased from 19.4% in 2001 to 40.6% in 2010, but varied considerably by country. Changes in satisfaction with the health system were similar to changes with the public sector, and non-users of healthcare were slightly more likely to report satisfaction than users. Characteristics associated with higher satisfaction include younger age, lower education, higher economic status, rural residency, better health status, and higher levels of political trust. Our results suggest that satisfaction can provide useful insight into public opinion on health system performance, particularly when used in conjunction with other subjective measures of satisfaction with government performance. PMID:23545269

Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Mills, Anne; Richardson, Erica; McKee, Martin

2013-09-01

284

A Follow-Up Study on Teacher Evaluation in China: Historical Analysis and Latest Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study follows up on previous investigations of the ongoing curriculum reform in China and its repercussions (actual and potential) on the effectiveness of the teacher evaluation process there (Liu & Teddlie, 2004, 2005). With the full implementation of the new curriculum reform throughout the country, teacher evaluation is becoming…

Liu, Shujie; Teddlie, Charles

2005-01-01

285

Student Loans in Developing Countries: An Evaluation of the Colombian Performance. Bank Staff Working Paper No. 182.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The student loan program run by the Instituto Colombiano de Credito Educativo y Estudios Tecnicos en el Exterior (ICETEX) has three main objectives: to increase the country's supply of highly skilled manpower, to achieve more equality of educational opportunity, and to provide a meaningful source of finance for higher education. An analysis of…

Jallade, Jean-Pierre

286

Primary Irritation Evaluation Program Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eleven candidate repellents were evaluated on New Zealand White rabbits for their potential to cause skin and eye irritation. This was used as a basis for making the following recommendations concerning their use on humans. There are no restrictions for t...

S. Rowe

1969-01-01

287

Environmental health and development in a developing country: Rwanda, a case study.  

PubMed

This article reports the author's field investigation into the effects of economic development on environmental health in Rwanda. It was hypothesized that the placement of environmentally hazardous industry would not be given meaningful consideration in the course of the introduction of advanced technolgies. Rwanda is a poor, overpopulated country with a subsistence economy whose development has been largely stimulated by international aid projects. Site visits to industrial and agricultural processing facilities revealed significant perticide exposure, lack of respiratory protection from mineral dusts, respiratory symptoms from organic dusts, and sources of heavy metal contamination. The Rwanda experience suggests that 2 major economic activities are most likely to have a major environmental impact in developing countries: exploitation of natural resources and agricultural commercialization. Mining activity, for example, has produced both chronic diseases such as silicosis and general environmental degradation such as runoff to surface water sources. The use of agricultural petrochemicals is likely to produce acute and chronic poisoning among peasant farmers with little access to adequate health care. Even the smallest industrial installation can have widespread impact if the proper infrastructure for waste treatment is not established. In addition, the technology required to test for environmental contamination is beyond the scope of Third World economies. Hazardous environmental exposures may have amplified or additive effects in the presence of compromised baseline health and sanitary conditions and inadequate health care facilities. It is concluded that Rwanda represents an example of the failure of economic developers to consider the far-reaching effects of changes in the work environment, introduction of new agricultural techniques, alteration of the rural-urban equilibrium, and degradation of the air, water, and soil quality. There is a need to adapt models of environmental protection in industrialized developed countries to developing economies. PMID:6470135

Blanc, P

1984-06-01

288

Computer literacy among first year medical students in a developing country: A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of computer assisted learning (CAL) has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. Methods The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190) were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Results Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%), 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3%) owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%). Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%), self learning (63.0%) or by peer learning (49.2%). The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%), entertainment (95.0%), web browsing (80.1%) and preparing presentations (76.8%). Majority of the students (75.7%) expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty. Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6). There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p < 0.001). In the linear regression analysis, formal computer training was the strongest predictor of computer literacy (? = 13.034), followed by using internet facility, being from Western province, using computers for Web browsing and computer programming, computer ownership and doing IT (Information Technology) as a subject in GCE (A/L) examination. Conclusion Sri Lankan medical undergraduates had a low-intermediate level of computer literacy. There is a need to improve computer literacy, by increasing computer training in schools, or by introducing computer training in the initial stages of the undergraduate programme. These two options require improvement in infrastructure and other resources.

2012-01-01

289

Hazard Evaluation Division, Standard Evaluation Procedure: Teratology Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Standard Evaluation Procedure for the Teratology Studies is a guidance document primarily intended for Agency reviewers and the regulated industry who evaluate toxicologic effects data specified in 40 CFR Part 158.124. The SEP is also intended to prov...

L. D. Chitlik Q. Q. Bui G. J. Burin S. C. Dapson

1985-01-01

290

The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regret may be a key variable in understanding the experience of smokers, the vast majority of whom continue to smoke while desiring to quit. We present data from the baseline wave (October-December 2002) of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of a cohort of over 8,000 adult smokers across four countries—Canada, the United States, the

Geoffrey T. Fong; David Hammond; Fritz L. Laux; Mark P. Zanna; K. Michael Cummings; Ron Borland; Hana Ross

2004-01-01

291

Randomised trials relevant to mental health conducted in low and middle-income countries: protocol for a survey of studies published in 1991, 1995 and 2000 and assessment of their relevance  

PubMed Central

Background A substantial proportion of the psychiatric burden of disease falls on the world's poorest nations. Despite this, relatively little is known about the quality and content of clinical research undertaken in these countries, or the relevance of the interventions evaluated and specifically that of randomised trials. This project aims to survey the content, quality and accessibility of a sample of trials relevant to mental health conducted within low and middle-income countries; to compare these with studies conducted in high-income countries; and to assess their relevance for the needs of low and middle-income countries. Methods An extensive search for all trials, or possible trials, published in 1991, 1995 and 2000 with participants in low and middle-income countries has already been conducted. Studies evaluating prevention or treatment of a mental health problem within these three years will be identified and further searches conducted to assess completeness of the initial search. Data on study quality and characteristics will be extracted from each report. Accessibility will be estimated based on whether each citation is available on MEDLINE. Trials relevant to schizophrenia will be compared with a random sample of schizophrenia trials from high-income countries in the same years. Topics covered by the trials will be compared with the estimated burden of disease. Conclusion Trials and systematic reviews of trials are the gold standard of evaluation of care and increasingly provide the basis for recommendations to clinicians, to providers of care and to policy makers. Results from this study will present the first assessment of the scope, quality and accessibility of mental health trials in low and middle-income countries.

Syed Sheriff, Rebecca J; Jayaram, Mahesh; Tharyan, Prathap; Duley, Lelia; Adams, Clive E

2006-01-01

292

Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

2013-06-01

293

Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.  

PubMed

Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries. PMID:21791145

Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia

2012-03-01

294

International Evaluation Studies of Second Step, a Primary Prevention Programme: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second Step is a social-emotional, skill-based, violence-prevention programme, which has been adapted for several European countries. The various versions of the programme (for kindergarten/preschool, elementary school, middle school) have been evaluated in a series of research studies. The outcomes and study designs of these studies are reported…

Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred

2013-01-01

295

Parent country nationals or local nationals for executive positions in foreign affiliates: An empirical study of Japanese affiliates in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how the host country experience of Japanese multinational corporations (MNCs) affects their staffing policies\\u000a for executive manager positions at foreign affiliates. Hypotheses on executive staffing policies for foreign affiliates are\\u000a tested using survey data collected from 103 Japanese affiliates in Korea. Findings show that the level of global integration\\u000a and the degree of centralization of decision-making positively

Naoki Ando; Dong Kee Rhee; Namgyoo Kenny Park

2008-01-01

296

Bibliometric study on food science and technology: Scientific production in Iberian-American countries (1991-2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a bibliometric analysis of the scientific production in the food science and technology (FST) field for\\u000a the period 1991-2000, in Iberian-America (IA). Eight selected IA countries contributed 97.6% of the IA production and accounted\\u000a for a 6.6% of the world production. The most frequent document type is journal article published in English. Retrieved records\\u000a display characteristical authorship

P. H. Alfaraz; Amalia Mirta Calviño

2004-01-01

297

Gastrointestinal tolerance of a new infant milk formula in healthy babies: an international study conducted in 17 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that the gastrointestinal tolerance of a new infant formula equals or exceeds the tolerance of other milk-based infant formulas and compared the tolerance of this new formula with that of human milk.METHODS: This prospective, phase IV, open-label study was conducted in 17 countries. Healthy, full-term infants, 28 to 98 d old, were enrolled on their

Pedro A Alarcon; Randall L Tressler; Anthony Mulvaney; Wayne Lam; Gail M Comer

2002-01-01

298

Earthquake Loss Assessment for the Evaluation of the Sovereign Risk and Financial Sustainability of Countries and Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently earthquakes have struck cities both from developing as well as developed countries, revealing significant knowledge gaps and the need to improve the quality of input data and of the assumptions of the risk models. The quake and tsunami in Japan (2011) and the disasters due to earthquakes in Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), New Zealand (2011) and Spain (2011), only to mention some unexpected impacts in different regions, have left several concerns regarding hazard assessment as well as regarding the associated uncertainties to the estimation of the future losses. Understanding probable losses and reconstruction costs due to earthquakes creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to cope with sovereign risk, including allocating the sustained budgetary resources necessary to reduce those potential damages and safeguard development. Therefore the use of robust risk models is a need to assess the future economic impacts, the country's fiscal responsibilities and the contingent liabilities for governments and to formulate, justify and implement risk reduction measures and optimal financial strategies of risk retention and transfer. Special attention should be paid to the understanding of risk metrics such as the Loss Exceedance Curve (empiric and analytical) and the Expected Annual Loss in the context of conjoint and cascading hazards.

Cardona, O. D.

2013-05-01

299

Frailty and Fracture, Disability, and Falls: A Multiple Country Study from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test whether women age ? 55 years with increasing evidence of a frailty phenotype would have greater risk of fractures, disability, and recurrent falls, compared with women who were not frail, across geographic areas (Australia, Europe, and North America) and age groups. Design Multinational, longitudinal, observational cohort study. Setting The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Participants Women (n=48,636) age ? 55 years enrolled at sites in Australia, Europe, and North America. Measurements Components of frailty (slowness/weakness, poor endurance/exhaustion, physical activity, and unintentional weight loss) at baseline and report of fracture, disability, and recurrent falls at 1 year of follow-up were investigated. Women also reported health and demographic characteristics at baseline. Results Among those age < 75 years, women from the United States were more likely to be prefrail and frail than women from Australia/Canada, and Europe. The distribution of frailty was similar by region for women age ? 75 years. Odds ratios from multivariable models for frailty versus non frailty were 1.23 (95% CI = 1.07–1.42) for fracture, 2.29 (95% CI = 2.09–2.51) for disability, and 1.68 (95% CI = 1.54–1.83) for recurrent falls. The associations for pre-frailty versus non frailty were weaker but still indicated statistically significant increased risk for each outcome. Overall, associations between frailty status and each outcome were similar across age and geographic region. Conclusion Increased evidence of a frailty phenotype is associated with increased risk for fracture, disability, and falls among women age ? 55 years in 10 countries, with similar patterns across age and geographic region.

Tom, Sarah E.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Anderson, Frederick A.; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gehlbach, Stephen H.; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Roux, Christian; Silverman, Stuart; Wyman, Allison; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

2012-01-01

300

Developing an Appropriate Digital Hearing Aid for Low-Resource Countries: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the development process and discusses the key findings which resulted from our multidisciplinary research team's effort to develop an alternative digital hearing suitable for low-resource countries such as Thailand. A cost-effective, fully programmable digital hearing aid, with its specifications benchmarking against WHO's recommendations, was systematically designed, engineered, and tested. Clinically it had undergone a full clinical trial that employed the outcome measurement protocol adopted from the APHAB, the first time implemented in Thai language. Results indicated that using the hearing aid improves user's satisfaction in terms of ease of communication, background noises, and reverberation, with clear benefit after 3 and 6?months, confirming its efficacy. In terms of engineering, the hearing aid also proved to be robust, passing all the designated tests. As the technology has successfully been transferred to a local company for the production phase, we also discuss other challenges that may arise before the device can be introduced into the market.

Israsena, P.; Isaradisaikul, S.; Noymai, A.; Boonyanukul, S.; Hemakom, A.; Chinnarat, C.; Navacharoen, N.; Lekagul, S.

2013-01-01

301

Developing an appropriate digital hearing aid for low-resource countries: a case study.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the development process and discusses the key findings which resulted from our multidisciplinary research team's effort to develop an alternative digital hearing suitable for low-resource countries such as Thailand. A cost-effective, fully programmable digital hearing aid, with its specifications benchmarking against WHO's recommendations, was systematically designed, engineered, and tested. Clinically it had undergone a full clinical trial that employed the outcome measurement protocol adopted from the APHAB, the first time implemented in Thai language. Results indicated that using the hearing aid improves user's satisfaction in terms of ease of communication, background noises, and reverberation, with clear benefit after 3 and 6 months, confirming its efficacy. In terms of engineering, the hearing aid also proved to be robust, passing all the designated tests. As the technology has successfully been transferred to a local company for the production phase, we also discuss other challenges that may arise before the device can be introduced into the market. PMID:23818826

Israsena, P; Isaradisaikul, S; Noymai, A; Boonyanukul, S; Hemakom, A; Chinnarat, C; Navacharoen, N; Lekagul, S

2013-01-01

302

The Critical Role of Supervision in Retaining Staff in Obstetric Services: A Three Country Study  

PubMed Central

Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 commits us to reducing maternal mortality rates by three quarters and MDG 4 commits us to reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In order to reach these goals, greater access to basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as well as comprehensive EmOC which includes safe Caesarean section, is needed.. The limited capacity of health systems to meet demand for obstetric services has led several countries to utilize mid-level cadres as a substitute to more extensively trained and more internationally mobile healthcare workers. Although this does provide greater capacity for service delivery, concern about the performance and motivation of these workers is emerging. We propose that poor leadership characterized by inadequate and unstructured supervision underlies much of the dissatisfaction and turnover that has been shown to exist amongst these mid-level healthcare workers and indeed health workers more generally. To investigate this, we conducted a large-scale survey of 1,561 mid-level cadre healthcare workers (health workers trained for shorter periods to perform specific tasks e.g. clinical officers) delivering obstetric care in Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. Participants indicated the primary supervision method used in their facility and we assessed their job satisfaction and intentions to leave their current workplace. In all three countries we found robust evidence indicating that a formal supervision process predicted high levels of job satisfaction and low intentions to leave. We find no evidence that facility level factors modify the link between supervisory methods and key outcomes. We interpret this evidence as strongly supporting the need to strengthen leadership and implement a framework and mechanism for systematic supportive supervision. This will promote better job satisfaction and improve the retention and performance of obstetric care workers, something which has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in the countdown to 2015.

McAuliffe, Eilish; Daly, Michael; Kamwendo, Francis; Masanja, Honorati; Sidat, Mohsin; de Pinho, Helen

2013-01-01

303

Smoking in movies and adolescent smoking: cross-cultural study in six European countries  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate whether the association between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking among youth is independent of cultural context. Method Cross-sectional survey of 16 551 pupils recruited in Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD=1.18) and an equal gender distribution. School-based surveys were conducted between November 2009 and June 2010. Using previously validated methods, exposure to movie smoking was estimated from the 250 top-grossing movies of each country (years 2004–2009) and related to ever smoking. Results Overall, 29% of the sample had tried smoking. The sample quartile (Q) of movie smoking exposure was significantly associated with the prevalence of ever smoking: 14% of adolescents in Q1 had tried smoking, 21% in Q2, 29% in Q3 and 36% in Q4. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, television screen time, number of movies seen, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents and siblings), the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking in the entire sample were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for adolescents in Q2, 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) for Q3 and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) for Q4 compared with Q1. The adjusted relationship between ever smoking and higher movie smoking exposure levels was significant in all countries with a non-linear association in Italy and Poland. Conclusions The link between smoking in movies and adolescent smoking is robust and transcends different cultural contexts. Limiting young people's exposure to movie smoking could have important public health implications.

Morgenstern, Matthis; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Karlsdottir, Solveig; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

2013-01-01

304

Psychological Stress and Hospitalization for Childhood Asthma-a Nationwide Cohort Study in Two Nordic Countries  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposures to psychological stress in early life may contribute to the development or exacerbation of asthma. We undertook a cohort study based on data from several population-based registers in Denmark and Sweden to examine whether bereavement in childhood led to increased asthma hospitalization. Methods All singleton children born in Denmark during 1977-2008 and in Sweden during 1973-2006 were included in the study (N=5,202,576). The children were followed from birth to the date of first asthma hospitalization, emigration, death, their 18th birthday, or the end of study (31 December 2007 in Sweden and 31 December 2008 in Denmark), whichever came first. All the children were assigned to the non-bereaved group until they lost a close relative (mother, father or a sibling), from when they were included in the bereaved group. We evaluated the hazard ratio (HR) of first hospitalization for asthma in bereaved children using Cox proportional hazards regression models, compared to those who were in the non-bereaved group. We also did a sub-analysis on the association between bereavement and first asthma medication. Results A total of 147,829 children were hospitalized for asthma. The overall adjusted HR of asthma hospitalization in bereaved children was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.16), compared to non-bereaved children. The risk of asthma hospitalization was increased in those who lost a close relative at age of 14-17 years (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.23-1.92), but not in younger age groups. The association between bereavement and asthma hospitalization did not change over time since bereavement. In the sub-analysis in singleton live births during 1996-2008 recorded in the DMBR, bereavement was associated with a lower use of asthma medication (HR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.95). Conclusions Our data suggests that psychological stress following bereavement in late adolescence is associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalization or lowers the threshold for asthma hospitalization.

Liu, Xiaoqin; Olsen, J?rn; Agerbo, Esben; Yuan, Wei; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong

2013-01-01

305

Integrated circuit tester evaluation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary AIMD test requirements for a small, inexpensive, commercially available, digital IC tester could be met by only one tester. This was the Automatic Fault Isolation Tester (AFIT) model 2050 manufactured by Testline Co. Many other testers were available that had the basic testing capability but were outside the price constraints or that were edge board testers. Bed-of-nails testers were not considered for AIMD use. The AFIT was submitted for technical and User Evaluations and demonstrated that it could detect faulty IC's on PC boards not coated with a conformal moisture-proofing compound. This fault detection ability was demonstrated for both the in-circuit and out-of-circuit modes of operation.

Stevens, P.

1980-03-01

306

SEASAT SAR performance evaluation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor was evaluated using data processed by the MDA digital processor. Two particular aspects are considered the location accuracy of image data, and the calibration of the measured backscatter amplitude of a set of corner reflectors. The image location accuracy was assessed by selecting identifiable targets in several scenes, converting their image location to UTM coordinates, and comparing the results to map sheets. The error standard deviation is measured to be approximately 30 meters. The amplitude was calibrated by measuring the responses of the Goldstone corner reflector array and comparing the results to theoretical values. A linear regression of the measured against theoretical values results in a slope of 0.954 with a correlation coefficient of 0.970.

1982-01-01

307

Tropical forests: a call for action. Part 1: the plan. Part 2: case studies. Part 3: country investment profiles  

SciTech Connect

The World Resources Institute (WRI), in cooperation with multi- and bi-lateral organizations, has launched a major initiative to conserve forests in the humid and semiarid/arid areas of developing countries. The 3-part WRI report is a call to political action on this subject. Part 1 describes the high costs exacted by deforestation, but asserts that the process can be arrested and reversed by a partnership of governments, local participants, and development-assistance agencies. Proposals are presented for a 5-year action plan in farm, community, and arid-zone forestry. Parts 2 and 3 include case studies of the successful projects listed in Part 1 and 5-year investment profiles of 56 developing countries affected by deforestation.

Not Available

1985-10-01

308

Relations between Adolescents' Self-Evaluations, Time Perspectives, Motivation for School and Their Achievement in Different Countries and at Different Ages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study focused on the relations between the self-efficacy, social self-concept, time perspectives, school investment and academic achievement of students in four different European countries and in different adolescence periods. A total of 1623 students completed questionnaires. The relations between the concepts proved not to be…

Peetsma, Thea; Hascher, Tina; van der Veen, Ineke; Roede, Ewoud

2005-01-01

309

Translating research into policy and practice in developing countries: a case study of magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia  

PubMed Central

Background The evidence base for improving reproductive health continues to grow. However, concerns remain that the translation of this evidence into appropriate policies is partial and slow. Little is known about the factors affecting the use of evidence by policy makers and clinicians, particularly in developing countries. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that might affect the translation of randomised controlled trial (RCT) findings into policies and practice in developing countries. Methods The recent publication of an important RCT on the use of magnesium sulphate to treat pre-eclampsia provided an opportunity to explore how research findings might be translated into policy. A range of research methods, including a survey, group interview and observations with RCT collaborators and a survey of WHO drug information officers, regulatory officials and obstetricians in 12 countries, were undertaken to identify barriers and facilitators to knowledge translation. Results It proved difficult to obtain reliable data regarding the availability and use of commonly used drugs in many countries. The perceived barriers to implementing RCT findings regarding the use of magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia include drug licensing and availability; inadequate and poorly implemented clinical guidelines; and lack of political support for policy change. However, there were significant regional and national differences in the importance of specific barriers. Conclusion The policy changes needed to ensure widespread availability and use of magnesium sulphate are variable and complex. Difficulties in obtaining information on availability and use are combined with the wide range of barriers across settings, including a lack of support from policy makers. This makes it difficult to envisage any single intervention strategy that might be used to promote the uptake of research findings on magnesium sulphate into policy across the study settings. The publication of important trials may therefore not have the impacts on health care that researchers hope for.

Aaserud, Morten; Lewin, Simon; Innvaer, Simon; Paulsen, Elizabeth J; Dahlgren, Astrid T; Trommald, Mari; Duley, Lelia; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Oxman, Andrew D

2005-01-01

310

An Ecological Study of the Determinants of Differences in 2009 Pandemic Influenza Mortality Rates between Countries in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 mortality rates varied widely from one country to another. Our aim was to identify potential socioeconomic determinants of pandemic mortality and explain between-country variation. Methodology Based on data from a total of 30 European countries, we applied random-effects Poisson regression models to study the relationship between pandemic mortality rates (May 2009 to May 2010) and a set of representative environmental, health care-associated, economic and demographic country-level parameters. The study was completed by June 2010. Principal Findings Most regression approaches indicated a consistent, statistically significant inverse association between pandemic influenza-related mortality and per capita government expenditure on health. The findings were similar in univariable [coefficient: –0.00028, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): –0.00046, –0.00010, p?=?0.002] and multivariable analyses (including all covariates, coefficient: –0.00107, 95% CI: –0.00196, –0.00018, p?=?0.018). The estimate was barely insignificant when the multivariable model included only significant covariates from the univariate step (coefficient: –0.00046, 95% CI: –0.00095, 0.00003, p?=?0.063). Conclusions Our findings imply a significant inverse association between public spending on health and pandemic influenza mortality. In an attempt to interpret the estimated coefficient (–0.00028) for the per capita government expenditure on health, we observed that a rise of 100 international dollars was associated with a reduction in the pandemic influenza mortality rate by approximately 2.8%. However, further work needs to be done to unravel the mechanisms by which reduced government spending on health may have affected the 2009 pandemic influenza mortality.

Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Bagos, Pantelis; Lytras, Theodoros; Bonovas, Stefanos

2011-01-01

311

Cross?Country Skiing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to study the adaptation to speed in the temporal patterns of the movement cycle and determine any differences in velocity, cycle rate and cycle length at the maximum speed level in the different classical style and freestyle cross?country skiing techniques. Eight skilled male cross?country skiers were filmed with a digital video camera in the sagittal plane while

Johnny Nilsson; Per Tveit; Olav Eikrehagen

2004-01-01

312

Optical Fiber Image Evaluation Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Photographic studies of the imaging properties of multiple fibers were conducted utilizing a point target array. Photographic negatives of the target and image arrays are scanned with a microdensitometer, reducing the images to digital data. The digital d...

J. E. Desautels A. C. Williams L. E. Sahr

1970-01-01

313

Constraints to healthcare waste treatment in low-income countries - a case study from Somaliland.  

PubMed

In low-income countries, healthcare waste is mixed with the municipal waste stream and rarely receives special attention. This paper presents the lessons learned from a pilot project targeted to improve healthcare waste management in Hargeisa (Somaliland). The interventions were carried out in three of the main hospitals in the city. Consideration was also given to improve the overall situation regarding the management of healthcare waste. Three De Montfort incinerators were built and training was provided to operators, waste workers and healthcare personnel. Although the incinerators were constructed in accordance with the required standards, major constraints were identified in the operational phase: irregular de-ashing procedures, misuse of safety equipment, and ineffective separation of healthcare waste were seen in this phase. The paper concludes that in other small hospitals in the developing world, such as those in Hargeisa, on-site incineration by use of low-cost, small-scale incinerators could be successfully applied as an interim solution, provided that an agreed and acceptable plan of operation and maintenance is in place and responsibilities for the management of the facility are clearly identified. Moreover, when replicating this experience in other settings even greater importance should be given to the technical capacity building of operators and pressure should be exercised on local administrations in order to control and supervise the whole management system. PMID:22128091

Di Bella, Veronica; Ali, Mansoor; Vaccari, Mentore

2012-06-01

314

Education and risk for acute myocardial infarction in 52 high, middle and low-income countries: INTERHEART case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the effect of education and other measures of socioeconomic status (SES) on risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients and controls from countries with diverse economic circumstances (high, middle, and low income countries).Design:Case-control study.Setting:52 countries from all inhabited regions of the world.Participants:12242 cases and 14622 controls.Main outcome measures:First non-fatal AMI.Results:SES was measured using education, family income, possessions

A Rosengren; S V Subramanian; S Islam; C K Chow; A Avezum; K Kazmi; K Sliwa; M Zubaid; S Rangarajan; S Yusuf

2009-01-01

315

The influence of the country-of-origin image, product knowledge and product involvement on consumer purchase decisions: an empirical study of insurance and catering services in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The main purpose of this study is to explore the influence of the country-of-origin image, product knowledge and product involvement on consumer purchase decision. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Taiwan, China and the USA were the three countries selected for research into the country-of-origin, insurance and catering services. Structured questionnaires and convenience sampling were used. Samples were collected from consumers in

Long-Yi Lin; Chun-Shuo Chen

2006-01-01

316

Dying from cancer in developed and developing countries: lessons from two qualitative interview studies of patients and their carers  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the experiences of illness and needs and use of services in two groups of patients with incurable cancer, one in a developed country and the other in a developing country. Design Scotland: longitudinal study with qualitative interviews. Kenya: cross sectional study with qualitative interviews. Settings Lothian region, Scotland, and Meru District, Kenya. Participants Scotland: 20 patients with inoperable lung cancer and their carers. Kenya: 24 patients with common advanced cancers and their main informal carers. Main outcome measures Descriptions of experiences, needs, and available services. Results 67 interviews were conducted in Scotland and 46 in Kenya. The emotional pain of facing death was the prime concern of Scottish patients and their carers, while physical pain and financial worries dominated the lives of Kenyan patients and their carers. In Scotland, free health and social services (including financial assistance) were available, but sometimes underused. In Kenya, analgesia, essential equipment, suitable food, and assistance in care were often inaccessible and unaffordable, resulting in considerable unmet physical needs. Kenyan patients thought that their psychological, social, and spiritual needs were met by their families, local community, and religious groups. Some Scottish patients thought that such non-physical needs went unmet. Conclusions In patients living in developed and developing countries there are differences not only in resources available for patients dying from cancer but also in their lived experience of illness. The expression of needs and how they are met in different cultural contexts can inform local assessment of needs and provide insights for initiatives in holistic cancer care. What is already known on this topic?Cancer treatment is a priority and is well developed in the United KingdomThere is an increasing burden on inadequately funded health services in developing countriesWhat this study addsThe experience of dying from cancer in Scotland contrasts starkly with that experienced in KenyaInequalities in provision of palliative care persist between developed and developing countriesDespite the availability of resources in the United Kingdom, people still have major areas of unmet needsConsideration of patients' experiences and provision of care in contrasting cultural settings can highlight gaps in frameworks of cancer care

Murray, Scott A; Grant, Elizabeth; Grant, Angus; Kendall, Marilyn

2003-01-01

317

Health interventions for the metal working industry: which is the most cost-effective? A study from a developing country.  

PubMed

This study ranked the cost-effectiveness of health interventions in the metal working industry in a developing country. Data were based on 82 034 workers of the Northern region of Mexico. Effectiveness was measured through 'healthy life years' (HeaLYs) gained. Costs were estimated per worker according to type and appropriate inputs from selected health interventions. 'Hand' was the anatomical region that yielded the most gain of HeaLYs and amputation was the injury that yielded the most gain of HeaLYs. The most effective health intervention corresponded to training, followed by medical care, education, helmets, safety shoes, lumbar supports, safety goggles, gloves and safety aprons. In dollar terms, education presented the best cost-effectiveness ratio (US$637) and safety aprons presented the worst cost-effectiveness ratio (US$1 147 770). Training proved to be a very expensive intervention, but presented the best effectiveness outcome and the second best cost-effectiveness ratio (US$2084). Cost-effectiveness analyses in developing countries are critical. Corporations might not have the same funds and technology as those in developed countries or multinational companies. PMID:12063358

Salinas, A M; Villarreal, E; Nuñez, G M; Garza, M E; Briones, H; Navarro, O

2002-05-01

318

Reproductive and hormonal risk profile according to language acculturation and country of residence in the ella binational breast cancer study.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: We compared the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Methods: To compare the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent, taking into account level of education, we analyzed data on 581 Mexican and 620 Mexican American (MA) women with a history of invasive breast cancer from the Ella Binational Breast Cancer Study. An eight-item language-based acculturation measure was used to classify MA women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test associations between language acculturation, country of residence, and reproductive and hormonal risk factors. Results: After adjustment for age and education, compared to women residing in Mexico, English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have an earlier age at menarche (<12 years; odds ratio [OR]=2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-3.34), less likely to have a late age at first birth (?30 years; OR=0.49; 95% CI, 0.25-0.97), and less likely to ever breastfeed (OR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.21). Conclusions: Differences in reproductive and hormonal risk profile according to language acculturation and country of residence are evident; some of these were explained by education. Results support continued efforts to educate Mexican and MA women on screening and early detection of breast cancer along with promotion of modifiable factors, such as breastfeeding. PMID:24475760

Nodora, Jesse N; Gallo, Linda; Cooper, Renee; Wertheim, Betsy C; Natarajan, Loki; Thompson, Patricia A; Komenaka, Ian K; Brewster, Abenaa; Bondy, Melissa; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Meza-Montenegro, María Mercedes; Gutierrez-Millan, Luis Enrique; Martínez, María Elena

2014-06-01

319

Evaluating the Madrasa Preschool Programme in East Africa: A Quasi-Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of preschool experience (two types of preschool: Madrasa and non-Madrasa) on the cognitive development of children in East Africa. In the three countries studied (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania/Zanzibar) preschool education is burgeoning and government standards are being set. This quasi experimental evaluation used…

Mwaura, Peter A. M.; Sylva, Kathy; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

2008-01-01

320

Evaluating the Madrasa preschool programme in East Africa: a quasi?experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of preschool experience (two types of preschool: Madrasa and non?Madrasa) on the cognitive development of children in East Africa. In the three countries studied (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania\\/Zanzibar) preschool education is burgeoning and government standards are being set. This quasi experimental evaluation used four subscales (block building, verbal comprehension, early number concept, picture similarities) adapted

Peter A. M. Mwaura; Kathy Sylva

2008-01-01

321

Serving Country and Community: A Longitudinal Study of Service in AmeriCorps. Early Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an evaluation to assess the long-term impact of AmeriCorps on participants (referred to as members) civic engagement, education, employment, and life skills. This report presents early findings on the impacts of AmeriCorps on members attitud...

2004-01-01

322

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Fearnside, P.M. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia)

1992-08-01

323

Changing mobility patterns and road mortality among pre-license teens in a late licensing country: an epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background Whereas the safety of teens in early licensing countries has been extensively studied, little is known about the safety of pre-license teens in late licensing countries, where these teens also may be at risk. This risk exists because of the combination of a) increasing use of travel modes with a high injury risk, such as bicycles and mopeds, b) inexperience, and c) teens’ developmental stage, known to be associated with risk taking and novelty seeking, especially among males. To explore the magnitude and nature of pre-license road risk, this study analysed epidemiological data from the Netherlands, and hypothesized that in this late licensing country, ‘independent travel’ and the use of riskier modes of transport increase among pre-license teens 10 to 17 years of age, resulting in higher fatality rates, with ‘experience’ and ‘gender’ as risk modifying factors. Method National travel and fatality data of pre-license adolescents in the Netherlands were analysed by traffic role (cyclist, pedestrian, car passenger and moped rider), and compared to a younger age group (0–9 years) and an older age group (18+ years). Results The study of travel data showed that teens migrate from being car occupants to being users of riskier modes of transport, specifically bicycles and mopeds. This migration resulted in a strong rise in road fatalities, illustrating the importance of mobility patterns for understanding changes in road fatalities in this age group. The data further suggested a protective role of early cycle experience for young adolescent cyclists, particularly for young males. But further study into the underlying mechanism is needed to confirm this relationship. Moped risk was extremely high, especially among young males, and even higher than that of young male car drivers. Conclusions The study confirmed the importance of changes in mobility patterns for understanding the rising road mortality when youngsters enter into their teens. The focus on fatalities has led to an underestimation of the magnitude of the problem because of the physical resilience of young adolescents that leads to high survival rates but probably also to long term disabilities. In addition, to explore the generalizability of these results, international comparisons among and between early and late licensing countries are necessary, especially in relation to moped riding as an alternative for car driving.

2013-01-01

324

Immigrant and non-immigrant women's experiences of maternity care: a systematic and comparative review of studies in five countries  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding immigrant women’s experiences of maternity care is critical if receiving country care systems are to respond appropriately to increasing global migration. This systematic review aimed to compare what we know about immigrant and non-immigrant women’s experiences of maternity care. Methods Medline, CINAHL, Health Star, Embase and PsychInfo were searched for the period 1989–2012. First, we retrieved population-based studies of women’s experiences of maternity care (n?=?12). For countries with identified population studies, studies focused specifically on immigrant women’s experiences of care were also retrieved (n?=?22). For all included studies, we extracted available data on experiences of care and undertook a descriptive comparison. Results What immigrant and non-immigrant women want from maternity care proved similar: safe, high quality, attentive and individualised care, with adequate information and support. Immigrant women were less positive about their care than non-immigrant women. Communication problems and lack of familiarity with care systems impacted negatively on immigrant women’s experiences, as did perceptions of discrimination and care which was not kind or respectful. Conclusion Few differences were found in what immigrant and non-immigrant women want from maternity care. The challenge for health systems is to address the barriers immigrant women face by improving communication, increasing women’s understanding of care provision and reducing discrimination.

2014-01-01

325

Biological and social feasibility of Sesbania fallow practice in small holder agricultural farms in developing countries: a Zambian case study.  

PubMed

Many small holder farmers in developing countries face problems of declining soil fertility and crop yields and insufficient money to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers. The Sesbania fallow system, an agroforestry technology, seems to hold a key to these problems. Based on field studies in eastern Zambia, this paper reports that fallow system has the potential to improve and sustain soil productivity in the small holder farms. However, the paper also reports that the ability for subsistence farmers to adopt the Sesbania fallow system is affected by gender differences in resource allocation to productive resources and institutional, cultural, and social structural settings in which farmers exist and make decisions. PMID:11083909

Opio, C

2001-01-01

326

The critical path of women affected by family violence in Latin America: case studies from 10 countries.  

PubMed

This research examined the critical path followed by women from 10 Latin American countries who suffer family violence. It identified the personal and social processes women experience as a result of their help-seeking actions and the kinds of responses found at local services. The study used an action-oriented qualitative methodology with a standard research protocol that was translated and adapted for the various ethnic groups. The results provided community actors with an understanding of the barriers women face in overcoming the obstacles, humiliation, and inadequate responses they encounter along their critical paths. PMID:16135691

Sagot, Montserrat

2005-10-01

327

Is obesity at individual and national level associated with lower age at menarche? Evidence from 34 countries in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeA unique standardised international data set from adolescent girls in 34 countries in Europe and North America participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC) is used to investigate the contribution of Body Mass Index at individual and country level to cross-national differences in age at menarche.

Candace Currie; Naman Ahluwalia; Emmanuelle Godeau; Saoirse Nic Gabhainn; Pernille Due; Dorothy B. Currie

328

The Study of Problems of Library Legislation in the Course of Training Library Personnel in Library Educational Institutions in the USSR and other Socialist Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Library studies in institutions of higher learning in socialist countries regularly include studies of library legislation. The topic is integrated into course syllabuses and textbooks, and is discussed in detail in such courses as 'Organization and Manag...

K. I. Abramov

1979-01-01

329

CAUSES OF COMMUNITY STILLBIRTHS AND EARLY NEONATAL DEATHS IN LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES USING VERBAL AUTOPSY: AN INTERNATIONAL, MULTICENTER STUDY  

PubMed Central

Objective Six million stillbirths (SB) and early neonatal deaths (END) occur annually worldwide, mostly in rural settings distant from health facilities. We used verbal autopsy (VA), to understand causes of non-hospital, community-based SB and END from four low-income countries. Study Design This prospective observational study utilized the train-the-trainer method. VA interviewers conducted standardized interviews; in each country data were reviewed by two local physicians who assigned an underlying causes of deaths (COD). Result There were 252 perinatal deaths (118 END; 134 SB) studied from pooled data. Almost half (45%) the END occurred on postnatal day 1, 19%on the second day and 16% the third day. Major early neonatal COD were infections (49%), birth asphyxia (26%), prematurity (17%) and congenital malformations (3%). Major causes of SB were infection (37%), prolonged labor (11%), antepartum hemorrhage (10%), preterm delivery (7%), cord complications (6%) and accidents (5%). Conclusion Many of these SB and END were from easily preventable causes. Over 80% of END occurred during the first 3 days of postnatal life, and >90% were due to infection, birth asphyxia and prematurity. The causes of SB were more varied, and maternal infections were the most common cause. Increased attention should be targeting at interventions that reduce maternal and neonatal infections and prevent END, particularly during the first 3 days of life.

Engmann, C; Garces, A; Jehan, I; Ditekemena, J; Phiri, M; Mazariegos, M; Chomba, E; Pasha, O; Tshefu, A; McClure, E M; Thorsten, V; Chakraborty, H; Goldenberg, R L; Bose, C; Carlo, W A; Wright, L L

2014-01-01

330

Ionizing Radiation and Risk of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in the 15-Country Study of Nuclear Industry Workers  

PubMed Central

In contrast to other types of leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has long been regarded as non-radiogenic, i.e. not caused by ionizing radiation. However, the justification for this view has been challenged. We therefore report on the relationship between CLL mortality and external ionizing radiation dose within the 15-country nuclear workers cohort study. The analyses included, in seven countries with CLL deaths, a total of 295,963 workers with more than 4.5 million person-years of follow-up and an average cumulative bone marrow dose of 15 mSv; there were 65 CLL deaths in this cohort. The relative risk (RR) at an occupational dose of 100 mSv compared to 0 mSv was 0.84 (95% CI 0.39, 1.48) under the assumption of a 10-year exposure lag. Analyses of longer lag periods showed little variation in the RR, but they included very small numbers of cases with relatively high doses. In conclusion, the largest nuclear workers cohort study to date finds little evidence for an association between low doses of external ionizing radiation and CLL mortality. This study had little power due to low doses, short follow-up periods, and uncertainties in CLL ascertainment from death certificates; an extended follow-up of the cohorts is merited and would ideally include incident cancer cases.

Vrijheid, Martine; Cardis, Elisabeth; Ashmore, Patrick; Auvinen, Anssi; Gilbert, Ethel; Habib, Rima R.; Malker, Hans; Muirhead, Colin R.; Richardson, David B.; Rogel, Agnes; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary; Tardy, Helene; Telle-Lamberton, Maylis

2014-01-01

331

Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. Design Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Participants 109?118 men and 254?870 women, mainly aged 37-70. Main outcome measures Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men with about 24 g alcohol, one for women with about 12 g alcohol) and the estimated total annual number of cases of alcohol attributable cancer. Results If we assume causality, among men and women, 10% (95% confidence interval 7 to 13%) and 3% (1 to 5%) of the incidence of total cancer was attributable to former and current alcohol consumption in the selected European countries. For selected cancers the figures were 44% (31 to 56%) and 25% (5 to 46%) for upper aerodigestive tract, 33% (11 to 54%) and 18% (?3 to 38%) for liver, 17% (10 to 25%) and 4% (?1 to 10%) for colorectal cancer for men and women, respectively, and 5.0% (2 to 8%) for female breast cancer. A substantial part of the alcohol attributable fraction in 2008 was associated with alcohol consumption higher than the recommended upper limit: 33?037 of 178?578 alcohol related cancer cases in men and 17?470 of 397?043 alcohol related cases in women. Conclusions In western Europe, an important proportion of cases of cancer can be attributable to alcohol consumption, especially consumption higher than the recommended upper limits. These data support current political efforts to reduce or to abstain from alcohol consumption to reduce the incidence of cancer.

2011-01-01

332

Paediatric Pharmacovigilance: Use of Pharmacovigilance Data Mining Algorithms for Signal Detection in a Safety Dataset of a Paediatric Clinical Study Conducted in Seven African Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmacovigilance programmes monitor and help ensuring the safe use of medicines which is critical to the success of public health programmes. The commonest method used for discovering previously unknown safety risks is spontaneous notifications. In this study we examine the use of data mining algorithms to identify signals from adverse events reported in a phase IIIb/IV clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of several Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in African children. Methods We used paediatric safety data from a multi-site, multi-country clinical study conducted in seven African countries (Burkina Faso, Gabon, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, and Mozambique). Each site compared three out of four ACTs, namely amodiaquine-artesunate (ASAQ), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPQ), artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or chlorproguanil/dapsone and artesunate (CD+A). We examine two pharmacovigilance signal detection methods, namely proportional reporting ratio and Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network on the clinical safety dataset. Results Among the 4,116 children (6–59 months old) enrolled and followed up for 28 days post treatment, a total of 6,238 adverse events were reported resulting into 346 drug-event combinations. Nine signals were generated both by proportional reporting ratio and Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network. A review of the manufacturer package leaflets, an online Multi-Drug Symptom/Interaction Checker (DoubleCheckMD) and further by therapeutic area experts reduced the number of signals to five. The ranking of some drug-adverse reaction pairs on the basis of their signal index differed between the two methods. Conclusions Our two data mining methods were equally able to generate suspected signals using the pooled safety data from a phase IIIb/IV clinical trial. This analysis demonstrated the possibility of utilising clinical studies safety data for key pharmacovigilance activities like signal detection and evaluation. This approach can be applied to complement the spontaneous reporting systems which are limited by under reporting.

Kajungu, Dan K.; Erhart, Annette; Talisuna, Ambrose Otau; Bassat, Quique; Karema, Corine; Nabasumba, Carolyn; Nambozi, Michael; Tinto, Halidou; Kremsner, Peter; Meremikwu, Martin; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Speybroeck, Niko

2014-01-01

333

Teacher Education Matters: A Study of Middle School Mathematics Teacher Preparation in Six Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a major international teacher education research project--the Mathematics Teaching in the 21st Century Study (MT21)--this book investigates the pre-service preparation of middle school mathematics teachers in the United States, South Korea, Taiwan, Germany, Bulgaria, and Mexico. The study was funded by the National Science Foundation and…

Schmidt, William H.; Blomeke, Sigrid; Tatto, Maria Teresa

2011-01-01

334

Population Growth and Economic Development: Lessons from Selected Asian Countries. Policy Development Studies, Number 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major findings of a research project on the relationship between population growth and economic development are summarized in this monograph. The study compares recent demographic and economic trends in Japan, Korea, Thailand, and Indonesia to worldwide experience as described by an econometric model of population and development. The study

Mason, Andrew; And Others

335

Mobile Phone Use in a Developing Country: A Malaysian Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factors that influence consumer satisfaction with mobile telephone use in Malaysia. The validity of the study's constructs, criterion, and content was confirmed. Construct validity was verified through the factor analysis with a total variance of 73.72 percent explained by all six independent factors. Content validity was…

Yeow, Paul H. P.; Yen Yuen, Yee; Connolly, Regina

2008-01-01

336

Rethinking Indicators of Microbial Drinking Water Quality for Health Studies in Tropical Developing Countries: Case Study in Northern Coastal Ecuador  

PubMed Central

To address the problem of the health impacts of unsafe drinking water, methods are needed to assess microbiologic contamination in water. However, indicators of water quality have provided mixed results. We evaluate five assays (three for Escherichia coli and one each for enterococci and somatic coliphage) of microbial contamination in villages in rural Ecuador that rely mostly on untreated drinking water. Only membrane filtration for E. coli using mI agar detected a significant association with household diarrheal disease outcome (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–1.65 in household containers and odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–1.37) in source samples. Our analysis and other published research points to the need for further consideration of study design factors, such as sample size and variability in measurements, when using indicator organisms, especially when relating water quality exposure to health outcomes. Although indicator organisms are used extensively in health studies, we argue that their use requires a full understanding of their purposes and limitations.

Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

2012-01-01

337

Rethinking indicators of microbial drinking water quality for health studies in tropical developing countries: case study in northern coastal Ecuador.  

PubMed

To address the problem of the health impacts of unsafe drinking water, methods are needed to assess microbiologic contamination in water. However, indicators of water quality have provided mixed results. We evaluate five assays (three for Escherichia coli and one each for enterococci and somatic coliphage) of microbial contamination in villages in rural Ecuador that rely mostly on untreated drinking water. Only membrane filtration for E. coli using mI agar detected a significant association with household diarrheal disease outcome (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.65 in household containers and odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.37) in source samples. Our analysis and other published research points to the need for further consideration of study design factors, such as sample size and variability in measurements, when using indicator organisms, especially when relating water quality exposure to health outcomes. Although indicator organisms are used extensively in health studies, we argue that their use requires a full understanding of their purposes and limitations. PMID:22403326

Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

2012-03-01

338

Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this evidence has shown complexity with regard to setting, conflict-phase, gender, and age. These complex findings raise the need of a detailed evaluation of the specific factors which influence size and direction of intervention effects. Individual patient data meta-analysis is a specific type of meta-analysis that allows the collection of exact information at an individual patient level, and to examine whether intervention and socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support may act as moderators and mediators of intervention effect. The aim of the present study is to carry out an individual patient data meta-analysis using data from all available randomized controlled trials (either published or unpublished) comparing psychosocial intervention with waiting list or no intervention arms in children exposed to traumatic events living in low- and middle-income countries. Methods/Design All randomized trials comparing selective preventive psychosocial intervention versus waiting list or no treatment conditions in children (0–18 years) living in low- and middle-income countries will be included. Studies will be identified in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. There will be no restrictions on publication type, status, language, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be psychological symptoms (post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (coping methods, social support, self-esteem), and function impairment. Discussion We are expecting that some variables, like socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support will act as moderators/mediators of intervention effect. The investigation of the role of these factors on the intervention effects will help in the appropriate selection, development, implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based programs in low- and middle-income countries. Trial registration This protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (registration number: CRD42013006960).

2014-01-01

339

Occupational cancer in developed countries  

PubMed Central

Abstract Studies of occupational exposures have made major contributions to our understanding of human carcinogenesis. About one third of the factors identified as definite or probable human carcinogens were first investigated in the workplace and these exposures exact a considerable toll on working populations. There are many additional workplace exposures that are suspect carcinogens that require further evaluation to ensure a safe work environment. Information from occupational investigations is also relevant to the general population because many occupational exposures can be found outside the workplace. Much of our understanding about occupational cancer has been obtained from studies largely composed of white men in developed countries. The movement of industry from developed to developing countries underscores the need for future investigations to include more diverse populations.

2011-01-01

340

LED Fluorescence Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in resource-limited settings relies on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy. LED fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM) has many potential advantages over ZN smear microscopy, but requires evaluation in the field. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity/specificity of LED-FM for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB and whether its performance varies with the timing of specimen collection. Methods and Findings Adults with cough ?2 wk were enrolled consecutively in Ethiopia, Nepal, Nigeria, and Yemen. Sputum specimens were examined by ZN smear microscopy and LED-FM and compared with culture as the reference standard. Specimens were collected using a spot-morning-spot (SMS) or spot-spot-morning (SSM) scheme to explore whether the collection of the first two smears at the health care facility (i.e., “on the spot”) the first day of consultation followed by a morning sample the next day (SSM) would identify similar numbers of smear-positive patients as smears collected via the SMS scheme (i.e., one on-the-spot-smear the first day, followed by a morning specimen collected at home and a second on-the-spot sample the second day). In total, 529 (21.6%) culture-positive and 1,826 (74.6%) culture-negative patients were enrolled, of which 1,156 (49%) submitted SSM specimens and 1,199 (51%) submitted SMS specimens. Single LED-FM smears had higher sensitivity but lower specificity than single ZN smears. Using two LED-FM or two ZN smears per patient was 72.8% (385/529, 95% CI 68.8%–76.5%) and 65.8% (348/529, 95% CI 61.6%–69.8%) sensitive (p<0.001) and 90.9% (1,660/1,826, 95% CI 89.5%–92.2%) and 98% (1,790/1,826, 95% CI 97.3%–98.6%) specific (p<0.001). Using three LED-FM or three ZN smears per patient was 77% (408/529, 95% CI 73.3%–80.6%) and 70.5% (373/529, 95% CI 66.4%–74.4%, p<0.001) sensitive and 88.1% (95% CI 86.5%–89.6%) and 96.5% (95% CI 96.8%–98.2%, p<0.001) specific. The sensitivity/specificity of ZN smear microscopy and LED-FM did not vary between SMS and SSM. Conclusions LED-FM had higher sensitivity but, in this study, lower specificity than ZN smear microscopy for diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Performance was independent of the scheme used for collecting specimens. The introduction of LED-FM needs to be accompanied by appropriate training, quality management, and monitoring of performance in the field. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN53339491 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Cuevas, Luis Eduardo; Al-Sonboli, Najla; Lawson, Lovett; Yassin, Mohammed Ahmed; Arbide, Isabel; Al-Aghbari, Nasher; Bahadur Sherchand, Jeevan; Al-Absi, Amin; Emenyonu, Emmanuel Nnamdi; Merid, Yared; Okobi, Mosis Ifenyi; Onuoha, Juliana Olubunmi; Aschalew, Melkamsew; Aseffa, Abraham; Harper, Greg; Anderson de Cuevas, Rachel Mary; Theobald, Sally Jane; Nathanson, Carl-Michael; Joly, Jean; Faragher, Brian; Squire, Stephen Bertel; Ramsay, Andrew

2011-01-01

341

Preventing renal and cardiovascular risk by renal function assessment: insights from a cross-sectional study in low-income countries and the USA  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prevalence of microalbuminuria and kidney dysfunction in low-income countries and in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study of screening programmes in five countries. Setting Screening programmes in Nepal, Bolivia, the USA (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008) Bangladesh and Georgia. Participants General population in Nepal (n=20?811), Bolivia (n=3436) and in the USA (n=4299) and high-risk subjects in Bangladesh (n=1518) and Georgia (n=1549). Primary and secondary outcome measures Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60ml/min/1.73?m2 and microalbuminuria (defined as urinary albumin creatinine ratio values of 30–300?mg/g) were the main outcome measures. The cardiovascular (CV) risk was also evaluated on the basis of demographic, clinical and blood data. Results The prevalence of eGFR<60ml/min/1.73?m2 was 19%, 3.2% and 7% in Nepal, Bolivia and the USA, respectively. In Nepal, 7% of subjects were microalbuminuric compared to 8.6% in the USA. The prevalence of participants with predicted 10-year CV disease (CVD) risk ?10% was 16.9%, 9.4% and 17% in Nepal, Bolivia and in the USA, respectively. In Bangladesh and Georgia, subjects with eGFR<60?ml/min/1.73?m2 were 8.6% and 4.9%, whereas those with microalbuminuria were 45.4% and 56.5%, respectively. Predicted 10-year CVD risk ?10% was 25.4% and 25% in Bangladesh and Georgia, respectively. Conclusions Renal abnormalities are common among low-income countries and in the USA. Prevention programmes, particularly focused on those with renal abnormalities, should be established worldwide to prevent CVD and progression to end-stage renal disease.

Cravedi, Paolo; Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Bravo, Rodolfo Flores; Islam, Nazmul; Tchokhonelidze, Irma; Ghimire, Madhav; Pahari, Bishnu; Thapa, Sanjeev; Basnet, Anil; Tataradze, Avtandil; Tinatin, Davitaia; Beglarishvili, Lela; Fwu, Chyng-Wen; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Eggers, Paul; Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Carminati, Sergio; Perna, Annalisa; Chianca, Antonietta; Couser, William G; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Perico, Norberto

2012-01-01

342

Psychosocial work environment and intention to leave the nursing profession: a cross-national prospective study of eight countries.  

PubMed

Many countries throughout the world are facing a serious nursing shortage, and retention of nurses also is a challenge. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive contribution of a broad spectrum of psychosocial work factors, including job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and alternative employment opportunity, to the probability of intention to leave the nursing profession. A total of 7,990 registered female nurses working in hospitals in eight countries (Germany, Italy, France, The Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, Slovakia, and China) were included in the one-year prospective study. A standardized questionnaire on job strain, effort-reward imbalance, employment opportunity, and intention to leave the nursing profession was used in the survey. Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to analyze the data. Results showed that an imbalance between high effort and low reward (in particular, poor promotion prospects) and good employment opportunity at baseline were independently associated with a new intention to leave the nursing profession at follow-up. However, job strain appeared to have relatively less explanatory power. Findings suggest that interventions to improve the psychosocial work environment, especially the reciprocity experienced between effort and reward, may be effective in improving retention of nurses and tackling the international nursing shortage. PMID:24066419

Li, Jian; Shang, Li; Galatsch, Michael; Siegrist, Johannes; Miüller, Bernd Hans; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

2013-01-01

343

Laryngeal Mask Airway for neonatal resuscitation in a developing country: evaluation of an educational intervention. Neonatal LMA: an educational intervention in DRC  

PubMed Central

Background Studies carried out in developing countries have indicated that training courses in newborn resuscitation are efficacious in teaching local birth attendants how to properly utilize simple resuscitation devices. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and expertise gained by physicians and midwifes who participated in a Neonatal Resuscitation Course and workshop organized in a Third World Country on the use of Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA). Methods A 28-item questionnaire, derived from the standard test contained in the American Heart Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Manual, was administered to 21 physicians and 7 midwifes before and after a course, which included a practical, hands-on workshop focusing on LMA positioning and bag-ventilation in a neonatal manikin. Results The knowledge gained by the physicians was superior to that demonstrated by the midwifes. The physicians, in fact, demonstrated a significant improvement with respect to their pre-course knowledge. Both the physicians and the midwives showed a good level of expertise in manipulating the manipulating the manikin during the practical trial session. The midwifes and physicians almost unanimously manifested a high degree of approval of neonatal resuscitation by LMA, as they defined it a sustainable and cost-effective method requiring minimal expertise. Conclusions Further studies are warranted to test the advantages and limits of the neonatal LMA training courses in developing countries.

2010-01-01

344

Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic deforestation in tropical countries is responsible for a significant part of global carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. To plan efficient climate change mitigation programs (such as REDD+, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), reliable forecasts of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are necessary. Although population density has been recognized as a key factor in tropical deforestation, current methods of prediction do not allow the population explosion that is occurring in many tropical developing countries to be taken into account. Here, we propose an innovative approach using novel computational and statistical tools, including R/GRASS scripts and the new phcfM R package, to model the intensity and location of deforestation including the effect of population density. We used the model to forecast anthropogenic deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions in five large study areas in the humid and spiny-dry forests of Madagascar. Using our approach, we were able to demonstrate that the current rapid population growth in Madagascar (+3.39% per year) will significantly increase the intensity of deforestation by 2030 (up to +1.17% per year in densely populated areas). We estimated the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the loss of aboveground biomass to be of 2.24 and 0.26 tons per hectare and per year in the humid and spiny-dry forest, respectively. Our models showed better predictive ability than previous deforestation models (the figure of merit ranged from 10 to 23). We recommend this approach to reduce the uncertainty associated with deforestation forecasts. We also underline the risk of an increase in the speed of deforestation in the short term in tropical developing countries undergoing rapid population expansion. PMID:23789079

Vieilledent, Ghislain; Grinand, Clovis; Vaudry, Romuald

2013-06-01

345

Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic deforestation in tropical countries is responsible for a significant part of global carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. To plan efficient climate change mitigation programs (such as REDD+, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), reliable forecasts of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are necessary. Although population density has been recognized as a key factor in tropical deforestation, current methods of prediction do not allow the population explosion that is occurring in many tropical developing countries to be taken into account. Here, we propose an innovative approach using novel computational and statistical tools, including R/GRASS scripts and the new phcfM R package, to model the intensity and location of deforestation including the effect of population density. We used the model to forecast anthropogenic deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions in five large study areas in the humid and spiny-dry forests of Madagascar. Using our approach, we were able to demonstrate that the current rapid population growth in Madagascar (+3.39% per year) will significantly increase the intensity of deforestation by 2030 (up to +1.17% per year in densely populated areas). We estimated the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the loss of aboveground biomass to be of 2.24 and 0.26 tons per hectare and per year in the humid and spiny-dry forest, respectively. Our models showed better predictive ability than previous deforestation models (the figure of merit ranged from 10 to 23). We recommend this approach to reduce the uncertainty associated with deforestation forecasts. We also underline the risk of an increase in the speed of deforestation in the short term in tropical developing countries undergoing rapid population expansion.

Vieilledent, Ghislain; Grinand, Clovis; Vaudry, Romuald

2013-01-01

346

Antimony Availability--Market Economy Countries. A Minerals Availability Appraisal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines studied the potential availability of primary antimony (Sb) from demonstrated resources in 21 mines and deposits in market economy countries (MEC's). Twelve of these properties were evaluated as producers and nine as non-producers. The...

C. M. Palencia C. P. Mishra

1986-01-01

347

Education for All: Policy Lessons from High-Achieving Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws upon case studies of countries that universalized primary education early in their development process and rapidly increased secondary enrollments thereafter. Examines the common elements of social and education policy among these high achievers, and also evaluates the policy lessons for other developing countries from the experience of…

Mehrotra, Santosh

1998-01-01

348

FACTORS INFLUENCING ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN CARIBBEAN AND LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption is considered an important social activity but a major health risk in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC). Alcohol consumption net benefits are doubtful and the factors influencing alcohol consumption in the LAC countries are not well documented. In this study, we use secondary data and Ordinary Least Squares Regression models to evaluate the factors influencing alcohol consumption

Carel Ligeon; Philip Gregorowicz; Curtis M. Jolly

2007-01-01

349

Ethics and Animal Welfare Evaluations in South East Asian Zoos: A Case Study of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern for zoo animals is palpable throughout society in many countries in South East Asia. It is important to understand problems of animal welfare in order for zoos to make significant improvement in maintaining high standards. With a case study of 3 zoos in Thailand, this article presents results for the first time on how ethics and wel- fare evaluations

Govindasamy Agoramoorthy; Bernard Harrison

2002-01-01

350

Quantitative assessment of the benefits of specific information technologies applied to clinical studies in developing countries.  

PubMed

Clinical studies and trials require accessibility of large amounts of high-quality information in a timely manner, often daily. The integrated application of information technologies can greatly improve quality control as well as facilitate compliance with established standards such as Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). We have customized and implemented a number of information technologies, such as personal data assistants (PDAs), geographic information system (GIS), and barcode and fingerprint scanning, to streamline a pediatric dengue cohort study in Managua, Nicaragua. Quantitative data was obtained to assess the actual contribution of each technology in relation to processing time, accuracy, real-time access to data, savings in consumable materials, and time to proficiency in training sessions. In addition to specific advantages, these information technologies benefited not only the study itself but numerous routine clinical and laboratory processes in the health center and laboratories of the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health. PMID:18256435

Avilés, William; Ortega, Oscar; Kuan, Guillermina; Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva

2008-02-01

351

Does the State Expand Schooling? A Study Based on Five Nordic Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twentieth-century data on the numbers of students completing university matriculation examinations in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden were used to study the expansion of secondary academic education. The long-term regularity in the expansion and the differential growth curve for the two sexes suggest that the state was not…

Jonasson, Jon Torfi

2003-01-01

352

Migration as a form of workforce attrition: a nine-country study of pharmacists  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence to inform policy development on the reasons why health professionals migrate. Few studies have sought to empirically determine factors influencing the intention to migrate and none have explored the relationship between factors. This paper reports on the first international attempt to investigate the migration intentions of pharmacy students and identify migration factors and

Tana Wuliji; Sarah Carter; Ian Bates

2009-01-01

353

National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

2012-01-01

354

Forecasting Generation of Urban Solid Waste in Developing Countries—A Case Study in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a study of the composition of urban solid waste (USW) and of socioeconomic variables in Morelia, Mexico, generation rates were estimated. In addition, the generation of residential solid waste (RSW) and nonresidential solid waste (NRSW) was forecasted by means of a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. For residential sources, the independent variables analyzed were monthly wages, persons per

Otoniel Buenrostro; Gerardo Bocco; Javier Vence

2001-01-01

355

Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

2013-01-01

356

Strategic Capabilities and Radical Innovation: An Empirical Study in Three Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines strategic capabilities as drivers of the development and launch of radical innovations. We construct a theoretical framework relating five strategic capabilities (marketing, market linking, technology, information technology, and management-related capabilities) to radical innovation. From this framework, we derive hypotheses concerning a division's propensity to engage in radical innovation. Using empirical data derived from a research study of

C. Anthony Di Benedetto; Wayne S. DeSarbo; Michael Song

2008-01-01

357

Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

Onianwa, P. C.

1993-01-01

358

Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

2005-01-01

359

Missed Opportunities: The IEA's Study of Civic Education and Civic Education in Post-Communist Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that the opportunity in Phase I of the IEA's Civic Education Study to include the new democracies' experiences of citizenship education have not been sufficiently exploited. "Borrowing" citizenship education from abroad and citizenship education for "civil society" have been chosen as examples of problems in the new democracies…

Buk-Berge, Elisabeth

2006-01-01

360

Development Education and Engineering: A Framework for Incorporating Reality of Developing Countries into Engineering Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To show the key points of a development education program for engineering studies fitted within the framework of the human development paradigm. Design/methodology/approach: The bases of the concept of technology for human development are presented, and the relationship with development education analysed. Special attention is dedicated…

Perez-Foguet, A.; Oliete-Josa, S.; Saz-Carranza, A.

2005-01-01

361

Education Policy Formation in Africa: A Comparative Study of Five Countries. Technical Paper No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains a set of five case studies and two analytical overview chapters that lay the foundation for a deeper understanding of the process of educational policy formation in Africa. Reflecting developments until late 1992, the cases include Botswana, Tanzania, Uganda, Mali, and Senegal. The articles describe and analyze current…

Evans, David R., Ed.

362

Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

363

A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

364

Correlates of physical activity in adolescence: a study from a developing country  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity is important for adolescent health. The current study aimed to explore factors that predict physical activity among adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of physical activity among a sample of adolescents in Tabriz, Iran. Information on physical activity was collected using a modified version of the Adolescent Physical Activity and Recall Questionnaire (APARQ). In addition, a self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, perceived family support, and self-efficacy. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between physical activity and independent variables including gender and psychosocial predictors. Results In all, 402 students were studied. The mean age of adolescents was 12.93 (SD=0.49) years; 51.5% were female. The mean time of moderate and vigorous physical activity for all adolescents was 44.64 (SD=23.24) Metabolic Equivalent (MET) min per day. This figure for female adolescents was 38.77 (SD=19.94) MET min per day and for males it was 50.87 (SD=24.88) (P<0.001). The results obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that female gender (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.46–4.57, P=0.001) and poor family support (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.03–1.20, P=0.038) were the most significant contributing factors to low level physical activity in adolescents. Other variables studied did not show any significant results. Conclusion The findings from the current study indicated that female adolescents were at risk of lower level of physical activity. In addition, it was found that the lack of family support represented an increased risk for low-level physical activity. It seems that family support should be an integrated part of any health education/promotion programs for improving physical activity among young adolescents in general and for female adolescents in particular.

Shokrvash, Behjat; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rahimi, Abbas; Djazayeri, Abolgasem; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud

2013-01-01

365

Interacting psychosocial and environmental correlates of leisure-time physical activity: A three-country study.  

PubMed

Objective: The main study objective was to examine the moderating effects of perceived enjoyment, barriers/benefits, perceived social support and self-efficacy, on the associations of perceived environmental attributes with walking for recreation and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and whether these potential moderating effects differed by gender and study site. Methods: Data from three observational studies in the United States (Seattle and Baltimore), Australia (Adelaide), and Belgium (Ghent) were pooled. In total, 6014 adults (20-65 years, 55.7% women) were recruited in high-/low-walkable and high-/low-income neighborhoods. All participants completed the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, a validated questionnaire on psychosocial attributes, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. General additive mixed models were conducted in R. Results: Enjoyment of physical activity, perceived barriers to physical activity, perceived benefits of physical activity, social support from family and friends, and self-efficacy for physical activity moderated the relationships of specific perceived environmental characteristics with walking for recreation and/or leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Overall, moderating effects were in the same direction: environmental perceptions were positively associated with leisure-time activity, but associations were strongest in adults with less positive scores on psychosocial attributes. The findings were fairly consistent across gender and study sites. Conclusions: The present study findings are promising, as it seems that those who might benefit most from environmental interventions to promote physical activity, may mainly be adults at risk of being insufficiently active or those difficult to reach through individual health promotion programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24245836

Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Kerr, Jacqueline; Cardon, Greet; Sallis, James F

2014-07-01

366

A Four-Country Study of the Associations Between Bribery and Unethical Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to extend prior research testing the premise that small deviations from ethical behavior lead\\u000a to even larger deviations from ethical behavior. This study examines the association between a person’s willingness to bribe\\u000a a police officer to avoid being issued a speeding ticket with their views on inappropriate behavior of corporate executives.\\u000a Our sample of

Richard A. Bernardi; Michael B. Witek; Michael R. Melton

2009-01-01

367

Assessment of Pediatric asthma drug use in three European countries; a TEDDY study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma drugs are amongst the most frequently used drugs in childhood, but international comparisons on type and indication\\u000a of use are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe asthma drug use in children with and without asthma in the Netherlands\\u000a (NL), Italy (IT), and the United Kingdom (UK). We conducted a retrospective analysis of outpatient medical records of

Elif Fatma Sen; Katia M. C. Verhamme; Antje Neubert; Yingfen Hsia; Macey Murray; Mariagrazia Felisi; Carlo Giaquinto; Geert W. ‘t Jong; Gino Picelli; Eugenio Baraldi; Alfredo Nicolosi; Adriana Ceci; Ian C. Wong; Miriam C. J. M. Sturkenboom

2011-01-01

368

How much is a 'pea-sized amount'? A study of dentifrice dosing by parents in three countries.  

PubMed

To provide optimal fluoride effectiveness against caries while minimising risk of negative effects from excessive ingestion from toothbrushing, the fluoride dose delivered at each occasion is critical. This is particularly important for young children, so using a 'pea-sized amount' is generally recommended. However, there appears little guidance regarding what this means in practice, although it has been indicated to be 0.25 g. This study investigated, using conventional toothpastes and toothbrushes in Germany, the USA and the UK, how much toothpaste parents dispense for their 3- to 6 year-old children, and their interpretation of a 'pea-sized' amount of toothpaste. When asked to dispense the amount they would normally for their child, the majority of parents dosed substantially more than 0.25 g; in Germany, all parents over-dispensed. The amount dispensed varied widely: those parents at the 75th centile dispensed approximately twice the amount dispensed by those at the 25th centile, irrespective of country. When asked to dispense a pea-sized amount, the mean amount dosed decreased significantly in all countries. In the USA, electric toothbrush users dispensed about 0.1 g more than manual toothbrush users. While over-dispensing of fluoride toothpaste remains a cause for concern, it may be argued that the general recommendation to use a pea-sized amount of toothpaste generally works well in practice to balance the conflicting demands of risk and benefit from toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste in young children. PMID:24283281

Creeth, Jonathan; Bosma, Mary Lynn; Govier, Katherine

2013-12-01

369

Working and hypertension: gaps in employment not associated with increased risk in 13 European countries, a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence to suggest unemployment has a role in the development and incidence of cardiovascular disease. This study explores the contribution of breaks in employment to the development of hypertension, a key risk factor for coronary heart disease. Methods We use data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe to estimate the association between gaps in employment of 6 months or more (‘Not Working’, NW) and the incidence of hypertension in 9,985 individuals aged 50 or over across 13 European countries. Life history information including transitions in and out of employment was used to create a panel dataset where each visit represented one year of life between age 30 and incident hypertension or censoring (whichever came first). Pooled logistic models estimated the odds of hypertension according to the experience of not working, controlling for age at interview, age at each visit, gender, childhood socio-economic position, and country. Results We consistently found no association between NW and hypertension, irrespective of the metrics used in defining the exposure or model specification. Conclusion There is the possibility of bias contributing to the null findings. However, given the relatively consistent evidence for an association between unemployment and cardiovascular outcomes in the literature, our results suggest there may be mechanisms - outside of hypertension – that have a comparatively greater contribution to this association.

2014-01-01

370

All Nations Depend on the Global Knowledge Pool - Analysis of Country of Origin of Studies Used for Health Technology Assessments in Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Health Technology Assessments (HTAs) are used to inform decision-making and their usefulness depends on the quality and relevance of research and specific studies for health-policy decisions. Little is known about the country of origin of studies used for HTAs. Objective To investigate which countries have made the largest contributions to inform health policy decisions through studies included in HTAs in Germany. Methods The country of origin was extracted from all studies included in HTAs of the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care, (IQWiG), published from 2/2006 to 9/2010. Studies were ranked according to the total number of studies per country, adjusted for population size, gross domestic product (GDP), and total health expenditure. Results 1087 studies were included in 54 HTA reports. Studies were assigned to 45 countries. Most of the studies (27%) originated from the United States (USA), 18% were multinational, followed by 7% from the United Kingdom (UK) and 5% from Germany. Nordic countries led the ranking when adjusting for population size/million (ranks 1-3,6,9/45 countries), GDP/billion US$ (1,2,5,9,14/45), or health expenditure/billion US$ (1,3,5,12,13/45). The relative contribution of the UK was stable in the analyses when adjusted for population size (7/45), GDP (7/45), and health expenditure (9/45), whereas the USA (13, 18, and 30/45) and Germany (17, 19, and 21/45) dropped in the ranking. Conclusions More than half of the studies relevant for evidence-informed decision-making in Germany originated from the USA, followed by multinational research and the UK. Only 5% of the studies originated from Germany. According to our findings, there appears to be some discrepancy between the use of globally generated evidence and the contribution to the knowledge pool by individual countries.

Herrmann, Kirsten H.; Wolff, Robert; Scheibler, Fueloep; Waffenschmidt, Siw; Hemkens, Lars G.; Sauerland, Stefan; Antes, Gerd

2013-01-01

371

Using ergonomics checkpoints to support a participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country (IDC)--a case study.  

PubMed

To achieve ergonomics awareness in 3 subsidiary companies, an intervention team was formed. The aims of this study were to implement basic ergonomics through a participatory ergonomics intervention process that can support a continuous learning process and lead to an improvement in health and safety as well as in the work systems in the organization. The findings of this study (i.e., method, continuous learning and integration) were key to making the participatory ergonomics intervention successful. Furthermore, 4 issues of the ergonomics checkpoints (i.e., work schedules, work tasks, healthy work organization and learning) for assessing the work system were found suitable for both changing work schedules and for improving the work system. This paper describes the result of this project and also the experiences gained and the conclusions reached from using the International Labour Office's ergonomics checkpoints in the industries of industrially developing country. PMID:19744374

Helali, Faramarz

2009-01-01

372

Are teenage pregnancies at high risk? A comparison study in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this study was to compare obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage and non-teenage pregnancies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed retrospective data of 15,498 pregnant patients who delivered from March 2008 to April 2009 in Jawaharlal Institute\\u000a of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, a referral tertiary care and teaching hospital in Pondicherry, South India.\\u000a Girls aged ? 19 years were compared with pregnancy outcomes

Haritha Sagili; N. Pramya; Karthiga Prabhu; Mariano Mascarenhas; P. Reddi Rani

373

Salivary cortisol determination in patients from the Basque Country with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Stress and anxiety are controversial factors involved in the complex pathogenesis of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS). The determination of salivary cortisol is a useful, simple and safe test to detect states of high stress or anxiety. The aim of this study is to check for changes in salivary cortisol levels in patients with RAS during periods of active disease. Study design: A measurement of cortisol employing Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was carried out in samples of unstimulated saliva from 20 patients with active lesions of RAS and 10 healthy individuals used as controls. Results: Increased levels of salivary cortisol were detected in 3 cases, all of them within the group of patients with RAS. In none of the control group patients the level of salivary cortisol was increased. The mean level of salivary cortisol was 0.64 mg / dl (range 0.2 to 1.62) for patients with RAS and 0.57 mg / dl (range 0.25 to 1.09) for controls. Conclusion: Salivary cortisol levels are not statistically higher in patients with active lesions of RAS. Key words:Recurrent aphthous stomatitis, cortisol, oral ulcers, canker sores, salivary cortisol.

Martinez-Conde-Llamosas, Rafael; Lopez-Vicente, Jose; Uribarri-Etxebarria, Agurne; Aguirre-Urizar, Jose M.

2013-01-01

374

Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Urban Health Research in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

The neighborhood has been used as a sampling unit for exploring variations in health outcomes. In a variety of studies census tracts or ZIP codes have been used as proxies for neighborhoods because the boundaries are pre-defined units for which other data are readily available. However these spatial units can be arbitrary and do not account for social-cultural behaviors and identities that are significant to residents. In this study for the city of Accra, Ghana, our goal was to create a neighborhood map that represented the boundaries generally agreed upon by the residents of the city using the smallest available census unit, the enumeration area (EA), as the base unit. This neighborhood map was then used as the basis for mapping spatial variations in health within the city. The first step in demarcating the boundaries was to identify features that limit a person's movement including the major roads, drainage features, and railroad tracks that people use to partially define their neighborhood boundaries. Once an initial set of boundaries were established, they were iteratively modified by walking the neighborhoods, talking to residents, public officials, and others. The resulting neighborhood map consolidated 1,723 EAs into 108 neighborhoods covering the entire Accra metropolitan area. Results indicated that the team achieved 71 percent accuracy in mapping neighborhoods when the neighborhood keyed to the survey EA was compared with the response given by the interviewees in the 2008-2009 Women's Health Survey of Accra when asked which neighborhood they lived in. PMID:23690870

Engstrom, Ryan; Ofiesh, Caetlin; Rain, David; Jewell, Henry; Weeks, John

2013-01-01

375

Complementary feeding patterns in a developing country: a cross-sectional study across Lebanon.  

PubMed

This first, large-scale study on complementary feeding in Lebanon analysed the timing and types of food introduced to infants according to mothers' demographic and socioeconomic and infants' characteristics. A cross-sectional survey over 10 months found that the majority of infants were introduced to solid foods at or after 4 months of age. A large number of infants were given liquids other than breast or formula milk earlier. Women in employment outside the home were almost twice as likely to introduce solid foods before age 4 months. The most common starting food was cereals. More than half the children consumed starchy foods and fruits every day, but not meats and fish. PMID:20799572

Batal, M; Boulghourjian, C; Akik, C

2010-02-01

376

Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Urban Health Research in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

The neighborhood has been used as a sampling unit for exploring variations in health outcomes. In a variety of studies census tracts or ZIP codes have been used as proxies for neighborhoods because the boundaries are pre-defined units for which other data are readily available. However these spatial units can be arbitrary and do not account for social-cultural behaviors and identities that are significant to residents. In this study for the city of Accra, Ghana, our goal was to create a neighborhood map that represented the boundaries generally agreed upon by the residents of the city using the smallest available census unit, the enumeration area (EA), as the base unit. This neighborhood map was then used as the basis for mapping spatial variations in health within the city. The first step in demarcating the boundaries was to identify features that limit a person’s movement including the major roads, drainage features, and railroad tracks that people use to partially define their neighborhood boundaries. Once an initial set of boundaries were established, they were iteratively modified by walking the neighborhoods, talking to residents, public officials, and others. The resulting neighborhood map consolidated 1,723 EAs into 108 neighborhoods covering the entire Accra metropolitan area. Results indicated that the team achieved 71 percent accuracy in mapping neighborhoods when the neighborhood keyed to the survey EA was compared with the response given by the interviewees in the 2008–2009 Women’s Health Survey of Accra when asked which neighborhood they lived in.

Ofiesh, Caetlin; Rain, David; Jewell, Henry; Weeks, John

2013-01-01

377

Parental Death during Childhood and Adult Cardiovascular Risk in a Developing Country: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background In observational studies from western countries childhood emotional adversity is usually associated with adult cardiovascular disease. These findings are open to contextual biases making evidence from other settings valuable. We examined the association of a potential marker of childhood emotional adversity with cardiovascular disease risk factors in a developing country. Methods We used multivariable regression in cross-sectional analysis of older (?50 years) men (n?=?7,885) and women (n?=?20,886) from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2003–8) to examine the adjusted association of early life (<18 years) parental death (none, one or two deaths) with blood pressure, fasting glucose, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and white blood cell count (WBC). We used seated height and delayed 10-word recall to assess content validity of parental death as a measure of childhood emotional adversity. We also examined whether associations varied by sex. Results Early life parental death was associated with shorter age- and sex-adjusted seated height. It was also associated with lower 10-word recall score adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic position, leg length and lifestyle. Similarly, adjusted early life parental death was not associated with blood pressure, fasting glucose, LDL-cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol but was associated with lower BMI (?0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?0.62 to ?0.19 for 2 compared with no early life parental deaths) and triglycerides. Associations varied by sex for WHR and WBC. Among men only, early life parental death was associated with lower WHR (?0.008, 95% CI ?0.015 to ?0.001) and WBC (?0.35 109/L, 95% CI ?0.56 to ?0.13). Conclusions In a non-western population from a developing country, childhood emotional adversity was negatively associated with some cardiovascular risk factors, particularly among men. Our study suggests that some of the observed associations in western populations may be socially rather than biologically based or may be population specific.

Schooling, C. Mary; Jiang, ChaoQiang; Lam, Tai Hing; Zhang, WeiSen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M.

2011-01-01

378

Mortality after Parental Death in Childhood: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Bereavement by spousal death and child death in adulthood has been shown to lead to an increased risk of mortality. Maternal death in infancy or parental death in early childhood may have an impact on mortality but evidence has been limited to short-term or selected causes of death. Little is known about long-term or cause-specific mortality after parental death in childhood. Methods and Findings This cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1968 to 2008 (n?=?2,789,807) and in Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n?=?3,380,301), and a random sample of 89.3% of all born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n?=?1,131,905). A total of 189,094 persons were included in the exposed cohort when they lost a parent before 18 years old. Log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratio (MRR). Parental death was associated with a 50% increased all-cause mortality (MRR?=?1.50, 95% CI 1.43–1.58). The risks were increased for most specific cause groups and the highest MRRs were observed when the cause of child death and the cause of parental death were in the same category. Parental unnatural death was associated with a higher mortality risk (MRR?=?1.84, 95% CI 1.71–2.00) than parental natural death (MRR?=?1.33, 95% CI 1.24–1.41). The magnitude of the associations varied according to type of death and age at bereavement over different follow-up periods. The main limitation of the study is the lack of data on post-bereavement information on the quality of the parent-child relationship, lifestyles, and common physical environment. Conclusions Parental death in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased all-cause mortality into early adulthood. Since an increased mortality reflects both genetic susceptibility and long-term impacts of parental death on health and social well-being, our findings have implications in clinical responses and public health strategies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Obel, Carsten; Olsen, J?rn

2014-01-01

379

Oasis Connections: Results from an Evaluation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a community-based basic computer and Internet training program designed for older adults, provide recommendations for program refinement, and gather preliminary information on program sustainability. Design and Methods: The program was developed by the OASIS Institute, a nonprofit…

Czaja, Sara J.; Lee, Chin Chin; Branham, Janice; Remis, Peggy

2012-01-01

380

Compendium of JTPA and Related Evaluation Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes the findings of currently available evaluation studies of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) and other related reports and data. Data from 26 studies conducted between 1980 and 1986 are presented under the following subject headings: the state role (monitoring and oversight, policy interpretation and leadership,…

Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

381

TARRANT COUNTY EVALUATION STUDY { FINAL REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study described in this report is one component of a larger ef- fort to evaluate the efiectiveness of a regional syndromic surveillance reporting network in North Central Texas that is currently housed in the o-ces of the Tarrant County Public Health Department (Fort Worth, Texas). In the cur- rent study, we aimed to assess the ability of the surveillance

DAVID BUCKERIDGE; AMAN VERMA; DAVID SIEGRIST

382

European citizens' use of E-health services: A study of seven countries  

PubMed Central

Background European citizens are increasingly being offered Internet health services. This study investigated patterns of health-related Internet use, its consequences, and citizens' expectations about their doctors' provision of e-health services. Methods Representative samples were obtained from the general populations in Norway, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Poland, Portugal and Latvia. The total sample consisted of 7934 respondents. Interviews were conducted by telephone. Results 44 % of the total sample, 71 % of the Internet users, had used the Internet for health purposes. Factors that positively affected the use of Internet for health purposes were youth, higher education, white-collar or no paid job, visits to the GP during the past year, long-term illness or disabilities, and a subjective assessment of one's own health as good. Women were the most active health users among those who were online. One in four of the respondents used the Internet to prepare for or follow up doctors' appointments. Feeling reassured after using the Internet for health purposes was twice as common as experiencing anxieties. When choosing a new doctor, more than a third of the sample rated the provision of e-health services as important. Conclusion The users of Internet health services differ from the general population when it comes to health and demographic variables. The most common way to use the Internet in health matters is to read information, second comes using the net to decide whether to see a doctor and to prepare for and follow up on doctors' appointments. Hence, health-related use of the Internet does affect patients' use of other health services, but it would appear to supplement rather than to replace other health services.

Andreassen, Hege K; Bujnowska-Fedak, Maria M; Chronaki, Catherine E; Dumitru, Roxana C; Pudule, Iveta; Santana, Silvina; Voss, Henning; Wynn, Rolf

2007-01-01

383

Epilepsy surgery series: a study of 502 consecutive patients from a developing country.  

PubMed

Purpose. To review the postoperative seizure outcomes of patients that underwent surgery for epilepsy at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSHRC). Methods. A descriptive retrospective study for 502 patients operated on for medically intractable epilepsy between 1998 and 2012. The surgical outcome was measured using the ILAE criteria. Results. The epilepsy surgery outcome for temporal lobe epilepsy surgery (ILAE classes 1, 2, and 3) at 12, 36, and 60 months is 79.6%, 74.2%, and 67%, respectively. The favorable 12- and 36-month outcomes for frontal lobe epilepsy surgery are 62% and 52%, respectively. For both parietal and occipital epilepsy lobe surgeries the 12- and 36-month outcomes are 67%. For multilobar epilepsy surgery, the 12- and 36-month outcomes are 65% and 50%, respectively. The 12- and 36-month outcomes for functional hemispherectomy epilepsy surgery are 64.2% and 63%, respectively. According to histopathology diagnosis, mesiotemporal sclerosis (MTS) and benign CNS tumors had the best favorable outcome after surgery at 1 year (77.27% and 84.3%, resp.,) and 3 years (76% and 75%, resp.,). The least favorable seizure-free outcome after 3 years occurred in cases with dual pathology (66.6%). Thirty-four epilepsy patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans were surgically treated. The first- and third-year epilepsy surgery outcome of 17 temporal lobe surgeries were (53%) and (47%) seizure-free, respectively. The first- and third-year epilepsy surgery outcomes of 15 extratemporal epilepsy surgeries were (47%) and (33%) seizure-free. Conclusion. The best outcomes are achieved with temporal epilepsy surgery, mesial temporal sclerosis, and benign CNS tumor. The worst outcomes are from multilobar surgery, dual pathology, and normal MRI. PMID:24627805

Alsemari, Abdulaziz; Al-Otaibi, Faisal; Baz, Salah; Althubaiti, Ibrahim; Aldhalaan, Hisham; Macdonald, David; Abalkhail, Tareq; Fiol, Miguel E; Alyamani, Suad; Chedrawi, Aziza; Leblanc, Frank; Parrent, Andrew; Maclean, Donald; Girvin, John

2014-01-01

384

Community mental health centres initiated by the South-Eastern Europe Stability Pact: evaluation in seven countries.  

PubMed

Eight community mental health care centres (initiated by the South-Eastern Europe Stability Pact) in Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro and Romania were evaluated. Characteristics of patients, patient reported outcomes and patient views of care were assessed in 305 psychiatric patients. Patient characteristics varied across centres, with most patients having long term psychotic disorders. Treatment satisfaction and therapeutic relationships were rated favourably. Subjective quality of life mean scores were rather low, with higher satisfaction with health and dissatisfaction with the financial and employment situation. Being unemployed was the only factor associated with poor quality of life and lower treatment satisfaction. Most developing centres target patients with persistent psychotic disorders. Care appears highly valued by the patients. The findings encourage establishing more centres in the region and call for employment schemes for people with mental illnesses. PMID:21617994

Priebe, Stefan; Matanov, Aleksandra; Demi, Neli; Blagovcanin Simic, Joka; Jovanovic, Sandra; Gajic, Milena; Radonic, Elizabeta; Bajraktarov, Stojan; Boderscova, Larisa; Konatar, Monika; Nica, Raluca; Muijen, Matthijs

2012-06-01

385

A Comparison of Model-Based and Design-Based Impact Evaluations of Interventions in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a long-standing debate as to whether nonexperimental estimators of causal effects of social programs can overcome selection bias. Most existing reviews either are inconclusive or point to significant selection biases in nonexperimental studies. However, many of the reviews, the so-called "between-studies," do not make direct…

Hansen, Henrik; Klejnstrup, Ninja Ritter; Andersen, Ole Winckler

2013-01-01

386

Environmental impacts evaluation of electricity grid mix systems in four selected countries using a life cycle assessment point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life cycle inventory (LCI) data of electric power generation plays a vital role on LCIs of industrial products. However, there are no formal life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in Indonesia so far due to limited of LCA expertise and lack of sufficient databases relevant to domestic conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study is, firstly, to introduce a life

Anugerah Widiyanto; Seizo Kato; Naoki Maruyama; Akira Nishimura; Sate Sampattagul

2003-01-01

387

Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends.

2013-01-01

388

Country made scare gun vs. air gun--a comparative study of terminal ballistics using gelatine blocks.  

PubMed

Country made scare gun also called as bandook in the vernacular language designed with an intention of scaring away the menacing animals is not only unique and effective but also potentially lethal and has found wide spread usage in the rural parts of India. Here an attempt has been made to study the characteristic features such as physical dimensions, mechanism of action of this weapon and to compare its penetrating ability with that of air gun, whose potential lethality is a well-documented fact, using the ballistic gelatine blocks at various ranges. It is hoped that keeping the existence of such firearms in mind by the forensic experts might help to solve the unexplained and bizarre firearm injuries encountered in day to day practice. PMID:21839595

Hallikeri, Vinay R; Gouda, Hareesh S; Kadagoudar, Shivanand A

2012-01-10

389

A method for estimating vaccine-preventable pediatric influenza pneumonia hospitalizations in developing countries: Thailand as a case study.  

PubMed

The burden of influenza in children is increasingly appreciated; some middle-income countries are considering support for influenza vaccine programs. To support decision-making, methods to estimate the potential impact of proposed programs are needed. Using Thailand as a case-study, we present a model that uses surveillance data, published vaccine effectiveness estimates, and vaccination coverage assumptions to estimate the impact of influenza vaccination on pediatric influenza pneumonia hospitalizations. Approximately 56,000 influenza pneumonia hospitalizations occur annually among children aged <18 years in Thailand; 23,700 (41%) may be vaccine-preventable. Vaccination of 85% of Thai children aged 7 months-4 years might prevent 30% of all pediatric influenza pneumonia hospitalizations in Thailand. PMID:21496470

Dawood, Fatimah S; Fry, Alicia M; Muangchana, Charung; Sanasuttipun, Wiwan; Baggett, Henry C; Chunsuttiwat, Supamit; Maloney, Susan A; Simmerman, James Mark

2011-06-10

390

Evaluation of the WHO helminth eggs criteria using a QMRA approach for the safe reuse of wastewater and sludge in developing countries.  

PubMed

An analysis of the actual WHO recommendations to develop standards for the safe reuse of wastewater, excreta or sludge in agriculture using a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is presented. The proposed values are defined using a risk-based model for Ascaris lumbricoides infection to assess the human risks associated with exposure to this pathogen from crops irrigated with polluted water, or from crops grown in biosolid-enriched soil. From the results it becomes evident that, with regard to helminth eggs, the WHO guidelines for wastewater reuse in agriculture seem more stringent than are needed in developing countries, while for the reuse of sludge they appear to be the opposite. Although more information is needed to confirm this conclusion, which was derived from a single piece of research, at the very least a more cautious approach is recommended when evaluating excreta or sludge for agricultural purposes in developing countries. Additionally, this work shows that the application of some barriers, other than wastewater and sludge treatment as suggested by WHO, can play an important role in controlling risks. PMID:21508556

Navarro, I; Jiménez, B

2011-01-01

391

Exposure of Pregnant Women to Indoor Air Pollution: A Study from nine low and middle income countries  

PubMed Central

Objective We studied exposure to solid fuel smoke and second-hand tobacco smoke among pregnant women in south Asia, Africa and Latin America. Design Prospective cross-sectional survey. Setting Antenatal clinics in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Uruguay, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, India and Pakistan. Sample A total of 7961 pregnant women in ten sites in nine countries were interviewed between October 2004 and September 2005. Methods A standardized questionnaire on exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) and to secondhand smoke was administered to pregnant women during antenatal care. Main Outcome Measures Exposure to IAP and second-hand tobacco smoke. Results South Asian pregnant women commonly reported use of wood (49.1%–89.7%), crop residue and animal dung for cooking and heating fuel. African pregnant women reported higher use of charcoal (85.4%–93.5%). Latin American pregnant women had greater use of petroleum gas. Among south Asian women, solid fuel use and cooking on an open flame inside the home were common. There was a significant association between solid fuel use and allowing smoking within the home at the Asian sites and in Zambia (p<0.05). Conclusions Pregnant women from low/middle income countries were commonly exposed to IAP secondary to use of solid fuels. Among these populations, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke was also common. This combination of exposures likely increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes among the most vulnerable women. Our study highlights the importance of further research on the combined impact of IAP and second-hand tobacco smoke exposures on adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes.

Kadir, Muhammad Masood; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Garces, Ana L.; Moore, Janet; Onyamboko, Marie; Kaseba, Christine; Althabe, Fernando; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Freire, Salvio; Parida, Sailajanandan; Saleem, Sarah; Wright, Linda L.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2014-01-01

392

Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.  

PubMed

An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. PMID:24656422

Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

2014-05-01

393

Country News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes information shared at an international seminar on teacher training, the management of population education, and adolescent education. Proposes an evaluative research activity to assess the achievements of these experiences. Indicates that experimental schools have reported positive outcomes for the program. Describes efforts in several…

Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1988

1988-01-01

394

Attributes of quality programs in universities in developing countries: Case studies of two private universities in Ecuador and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study sought to identify the key attributes of high-quality programs with an eye toward helping developing countries such as Ecuador advance program quality. The dissertation is divided into five chapters: (1) introduction to high-quality programs; (2) literature review of attributes of high-quality programs; (3) grounded theory method (including interviews with 60 individuals) used to identify program attributes that enhance student learning; (4) findings; and (5) conclusions and recommendations. Following are the five clusters and thirteen attributes of high-quality programs that I identified: Cluster One: Highly Qualified Participants: (1) Highly Qualified Faculty, and (2) Highly Qualified Students; Cluster Two: Learning-Centered Cultures: (3) Shared Program Direction Focused on Learning, (4) Real-World Learning Experiences, (5) Reading-Centered Culture, and (6) Supportive and Risk-Taking Environment; Cluster Three: Interactive Teaching and Learning: (7) Integrative learning: Theory with Practice, Self with Subject, and (8) Exclusive Tutoring and Mentoring; Cluster Four: Connected Program Requirements: (9) Planned Breadth and Depth Course Work, and (10) Tangible Products; and Cluster Five: Adequate Resources: (11) Support for Students, (12) Support for Faculty, and (13) Support for Campus Infrastructure. The study was guided by Haworth and Conrad's (1997) "Engagement Theory of High-Quality Programs." Eleven of the attributes of high-quality programs are closely connected to Haworth and Conrad's theory and the other two attributes---real-world learning experiences and a reading-centered culture---make the signature theoretical contributions of the study. Real-world learning experiences encourage the active involvement of stakeholders in designing curricula with real-world learning experiences. The second attribute---a reading-centered culture---has never before been identified in the literature. There are four key differences between Haworth and Conrad's theory and the theory developed in this study. This study identified four attributes that are highly important in Ecuador and, possibly, other developing countries: highly-qualified faculty, highly-qualified students, reading-centered cultures, and real-world learning experiences. If Latin American universities implement the recommendations proposed in the study, particularly Ecuadorian universities, there is a foundation for envisioning a better future for Ecuadorian universities.

Uriguen, Monica I.

395

Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Eastern Europe. A Tempus Study. Issue 04  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

2011-01-01

396

Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

2011-01-01

397

A MODIFIED VERSION OF SIX SIGMA DMAIC TO ADDRESS OBSTACLES WITHIN THE GCC COUNTRIES: a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its inception, Six Sigma has been helping organizations in improving their bottom line by decreasing costs through minimizing variations. Though its implementation is widespread in North America and Western Europe, it still has a modest presence in GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) countries. The increased competition in today’s markets and the GCC countries’ long term plans of sustainability are putting

Pr Shadi ABOUZEID; Pr Susan ZEIDAN

398

Supporting Technology Use in Schools with a Public-Private Partnership: A Collective Case Study of Five Asian Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing and emerging countries are challenged to transform their educational system and schools in order to prepare their students for the twenty-first century. Although information and communication technology (ICT) has often been used as one of the key catalysts in the transformation process, many of these countries continue to face the…

Lim, Cher Ping; Wong, Philip; Quah, Vincent

2007-01-01

399

Money windfalls and oil-exporting developing countries: a comparative study of Algeria, Ecuador, trinidad and Tobago, and Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis analyzes how the oil windfalls of the 1970s have affected the growth path and the sectoral composition of output and trade of the oil rich developing countries. The policy makers of the four subject countries have adopted different development strategies so that their economies can achieve sustained increases in per capita income and a higher level of economic

Avin

1986-01-01

400

Needs for care among patients with schizophrenia in six European countries: a one-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background This article compares needs for care among patients with schizophrenia across six European countries and examines how this relates to the diversity of psychiatric systems in Europe. Methods A one-year prospective cohort study was set up. Inclusion criteria for patients were: a clinical lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10 (F20) diagnostic criteria for research, age between 18 and 65 years and at least one contact with mental health services in 1993. The patients were assessed for their clinical diagnosis and symptoms using the SCAN interview (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry) and the interventions proposed to them were recorded through the systematic use of the NFCAS (Needs For Care Assessment Schedule). Results 438 patients were included and 391 were followed up. The mean age was 38 years, the mean age at onset was 22 years, and 59% were out-patients, 24% in day care and 15% hospitalized. The populations in the different centres were significantly different for almost all the variables: sociodemographic, clinical and social, and the problems identified remained relatively stable over the year. Comparisons highlighted cultural differences concerning the interventions that were proposed. Centres in Italy, Spain and Portugal proposed many interventions even though they were relatively deprived in terms of resources, and the tendency seems to be the reverse for the Northern European countries. On average, one in four patients suffered from needs that were not adequately met by the mental health service in their region. These needs (on average 6 per patient) varied from psychotic symptoms to managing their own affairs. The number of interventions was not correlated to the need status. The availability of community-based treatment, rehabilitation and residential care seems to predict smaller proportions of patients with unmet needs. Conclusion There appeared to be a systematic relationship between the availability of community-based mental health care and the need status of schizophrenic patients: the fewer out-patient and rehabilitation services available, the more unmet needs there were.

2006-01-01

401

The predictive utility of micro indicators of concern about smoking: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country study.  

PubMed

This study explored the association between six "micro indicators" of concern about smoking (1. stubbing out cigarettes before finishing; 2. forgoing cigarettes due to packet warning labels; thinking about... 3. the harms to oneself of smoking; 4. the harms to others of one's smoking; 5. the bad conduct of tobacco companies; and 6. money spent on cigarettes) and cessation outcomes (making quit attempts, and achieving at least six months of sustained abstinence) among adult smokers from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Participants were 12,049 individuals from five survey waves of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (interviewed between 2002 and 2006, and followed-up approximately one year later). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analysis was used, enabling us to control for within-participant correlations due to possible multiple responses by the same individual over different survey waves. The frequency of micro indicators predicted making quit attempts, with premature stubbing out, forgoing, and thinking about the harms to oneself of smoking being particularly strong predictors. An interaction effect with expressed intention to quit was observed, such that stubbing out and thinking about the harms on oneself predicted quit attempts more strongly among smokers with no expressed plans to quit. In contrast, there was a negative association between some micro indicators and sustained abstinence, with more frequent stubbing out, forgoing, and thinking about money spent on cigarettes associated with a reduced likelihood of subsequently achieving sustained abstinence. In countries with long-established tobacco control programs, micro indicators index both high motivation by smokers to do something about their smoking at least partly independent of espoused intention and, especially those indicators not part of a direct pathway to quitting, reduced capacity to quit successfully. PMID:24813549

Partos, Timea R; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F; Li, Lin; Yong, Hua-Hie; O'Connor, Richard J; Siahpush, Mohammad

2014-08-01

402

Unreported births and deaths, a severe obstacle for improved neonatal survival in low-income countries; a population based study  

PubMed Central

Background In order to improve child survival there is a need to target neonatal mortality. In this pursuit, valid local and national statistics on child health are essential. We analyze to what extent births and neonatal deaths are unreported in a low-income country and discuss the consequences at local and international levels for efforts to save newborn lives. Methods Information on all births and neonatal deaths in Quang Ninh province in Northern Vietnam in 2005 was ascertained by systematic inventory through group interviews with key informants, questionnaires and examination of health facility records. Health care staff at 187 Community Health Centers (CHC) and 18 hospitals, in addition to 1372 Village Health Workers (VHW), were included in the study. Results were compared with the official reports of the Provincial Health Bureau. Results The neonatal mortality rate (NMR) was 16/1000 (284 neonatal deaths/17 519 births), as compared to the official rate of 4.2/1000. The NMR varied between 44/1000 and 10/1000 in the different districts of the province. The under-reporting was mainly attributable to a dysfunctional reporting system and the fact that families, not the health system, were made responsible to register births and deaths. This under-reporting has severe consequences at local, national and international levels. At a local level, it results in a lack of awareness of the magnitude and differentials in NMR, leading to an indifference towards the problem. At a national and international level the perceived low mortality rate is manifested in a lack of investments in perinatal health programs. Conclusion This example of a faulty health information system is reportedly not unique in low and middle income countries where needs for neonatal health reforms are greatest. Improving reporting systems on births and neonatal deaths is a matter of human rights and a prerequisite for reducing neonatal mortality in order to reach the fourth millennium goal.

Malqvist, Mats; Eriksson, Leif; Nga, Nguyen Thu; Fagerland, Linn Irene; Hoa, Dinh Phuong; Wallin, Lars; Ewald, Uwe; Persson, Lars-Ake

2008-01-01

403

THE STUDY ABOUT THE EVALUATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL LAND IMPROVEMENT PLANS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE MUTUAL RELATION AMONG THE AREAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the result of the Comprehensive National Land Improvement Plans in Japan from the point of view of the mutual relation among the areas, using the data which is gotten from the inter-regional input-output table. In the research, it considers the idea of the connection among the areas which the Plans have regarded as important. It classifies connection relation into three kinds of the connection of the one's own local, to the other area, to the foreign countries. While comparing country-by-country, it evaluates saying the getting of certain good results by the uniting policy in the country which the Plans showed.

Takamatsu, Toru

404

Accelerated Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Multi-Institutional Prospective Study of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia Among Eight Asian Countries  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A multi-institutional prospective single-arm study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Between 1999 and 2002, 120 patients (64 with Stage IIB and 56 with Stage IIIB) with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated RT. External beam RT consisted of 30 Gy to the whole pelvis, 1.5 Gy/fraction twice daily, followed by 20 Gy of pelvic RT with central shielding at a dose of 2-Gy fractions daily. A small bowel displacement device was used with the patient in the prone position. In addition to central shielding RT, intracavitary brachytherapy was started. Acute and late morbidities were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: The median overall treatment time was 35 days. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 4.7 years. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate for all patients was 84% and 70%, respectively. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate was 78% and 69% for tumors {>=}6 cm in diameter, respectively. No treatment-related death occurred. Grade 3-4 late toxicities of the small intestine, large intestine, and bladder were observed in 1, 1, and 2 patients, respectively. The 5-year actuarial rate of Grade 3-4 late toxicity at any site was 5%. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that accelerated hyperfractionated RT achieved sufficient pelvic control and survival without increasing severe toxicity. This treatment could be feasible in those Asian countries where chemoradiotherapy is not available.

Ohno, Tatsuya [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: t_ohno@nirs.go.jp; Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] (and others)

2008-04-01

405

Superintendent Evaluation: What AASA's Study Discovered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of a snapshot study of the superintendency conducted by the American Association of School Administrators (AASA). The findings revealed that superintendents were evaluated highly by their boards, but the number of leaders who received the highest ratings have declined during the past six years. The report, which…

Glass, Thomas E.

2007-01-01

406

Individualized Study Program. Interim Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of an evaluation of the Individualized Study Program (ISP), a 2-year pilot program at the Learning Skills Center (LSC) of the University of California, Davis, are presented. The program target group were disadvantaged students who had not met the university's entrance requirements. The ISP, which is designed to improve retention of…

Tom, Alice K.

407

Methane Conversion Process Evaluations: Screening Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this screening study is to select three methane to liquid hydrocarbon processes and to define the design bases to be used for a more detailed design and cost evaluation. Emphasis is placed on direct conversion processes (avoiding the use ...

1988-01-01

408

The Challenge of Studying Evaluation Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses why evaluation has a field has not studied its own theory systematically and examines the tensions between the often-cited claim of K. Lewin that there is noting as practical as a good theory and the response of M. Fullan that there is nothing as theoretical as good practice. (Author/SLD)

King, Jean A.

2003-01-01

409

Genetic counseling for patients and families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in a developing Asian country: an observational descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic counseling (GC) and genetic testing are vital risk management strategies in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC)\\u000a syndromes. Hitherto, cancer genetic testing amongst Asians has been described only in developed and high-income Asian countries.\\u000a We studied the uptake and acceptance of GC and genetic testing services to Asian BRCA carriers in a middle-income country.\\u000a A total of 363 patients

Sook-Yee Yoon; Meow-Keong Thong; Nur Aishah Mohd Taib; Cheng-Har Yip; Soo-Hwang Teo

2011-01-01

410

Migration and maternity: insights of context, health policy, and research evidence on experiences and outcomes from a three country preliminary study across Germany, Canada, and the United kingdom.  

PubMed

A group from Germany, Canada, and the United Kingdom undertook country-specific scoping reviews and stakeholder consultations before joining to holistically compare migration and maternity in all three countries. We examined four interlinking dimensions to understand how international migrant/minority maternal health might be improved upon using transnational research: (a) wider sociopolitical context, (b) health policy arena, (c) constellation, outcomes, and experiences of maternity services, and (d) existing research contexts. There was clear evidence that the constellation and delivery of services may undermine good experiences and outcomes. Interventions to improve access and quality of care remain small scale, short term, and lacking in rigorous evaluation. PMID:23631670

Higginbottom, Gina; Reime, Birgit; Bharj, Kuldip; Chowbey, Punita; Ertan, Kubilay; Foster-Boucher, Caroline; Friedrich, Jule; Gerrish, Kate; Kentenich, Heribert; Mumtaz, Zubia; O'Brien, Beverley; Salway, Sarah

2013-01-01

411

Complementing Neurophysiology Education for Developing Countries via Cost-Effective Virtual Labs: Case Studies and Classroom Scenarios.  

PubMed

Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. PMID:24693260

Diwakar, Shyam; Parasuram, Harilal; Medini, Chaitanya; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema; Wiertelak, Eric; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Achuthan, Krishnashree; Nair, Bipin

2014-01-01

412

Patient evaluation. Laboratory and imaging studies.  

PubMed

The evaluation of urolithiases, in terms of calculus detection and evaluation of the morphology and function of the kidneys, continues to be refined with advances in imaging technology. The most significant recent advance is use of helical or spiral CT scan for the accurate delineation of renal and ureteral calculi in the acute setting. This may provide an accurate, rapid, and cost-effective method of patient evaluation. The alternative approach is to use plain abdominal radiography to detect renal or ureteral calculi. Noncontrast-enhanced helical or spiral CT scanning has its greatest impact in patients with negative abdominal radiographs or in those patients with suspected urinary colic in whom renal but not ureteral calculi are seen. A supplemental intravenous urogram can be used, as appropriate, to evaluate renal function and degree of obstruction on both the involved and uninvolved side. Combined abdominal radiography and sonography may be used for calculus detection and demonstration of obstruction. Sonography is an operator-dependent technique requiring expertise, experience, and adequate imaging equipment for satisfactory results. Physiologic study of renal blood flow and urinary dynamics using Doppler techniques are possible, though considered to be in the realm of clinical investigation at this time. Sonography has a valuable role in the serial evaluation of chronic stone formers with a history of recurrent urinary infections related to obstruction or reflux. Radiography, fluoroscopy, and sonography are the imaging, methods used in ESWL treatment in preprocedure and postprocedure. PMID:9048855

Begun, F P; Foley, W D; Peterson, A; White, B

1997-02-01

413

A Critical Evaluation of the Fetal Origins Hypothesis and Its Implications for Developing Countries Early Life Origins of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes in India and Other Asian Countries1  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a rapidly increasing epidemic of type 2 diabetes in India and other Asian countries. The thrifty genotype and the thrifty phenotype are two nonexclusive explanations. People in the Indian subcontinent have faced undernutrition for many generations, and Indian babies are among the smallest in the world. However, the diabetes epidemic is of recent origin, and diabetes is more

C. S. Yajnik

414

National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction Among 13 year Old Boys and Girls: A Multilevel Study in 35 Countries.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO collaborative Study (N = 58,352 across 35 countries) were analysed using multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses for outcome measures life satisfaction score and binary high/low life satisfaction. National income and income inequality were associated with aggregated life satisfaction score and prevalence of high life satisfaction. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction existed even after adjustment for family structure. This relationship was curvilinear and varied cross-nationally. Socioeconomic inequalities were greatest in poor countries and in countries with unequal income distribution. GDP (PPP US$) and Gini did not explain between country variance in socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. The existence of, and variation in, within-country socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent life satisfaction highlights the importance of identifying and addressing mediating factors during this life stage. PMID:21980216

Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A; Schnohr, Christina W; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace

2011-11-01

415

A comparative study of the culture of thinness and nutrition transition in university females in four countries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the nutrition transition in four countries with respect to body dissatisfaction and eating styles. The target population for this study was college students in China (n=207), Japan (n=865), Jordan (n=322), and the United States (n=432). A cross-sectional survey was used to assess eating styles, disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, body esteem and dissatisfaction, and media influence. Results indicated that the Chinese sample was in an earlier stage of the nutrition transition, followed by Japan, Jordan, and the US. Interestingly, Jordanian and Chinese students exhibited the lowest level of body dissatisfaction. However, Jordanian students exhibited high levels of restrained eating similar to those seen in the Japanese and American students. The Japanese sample demonstrated a complex relationship between the culture of thinness, body dissatisfaction and eating styles. However the US sample reflected the expected levels of body dissatisfaction, high levels of restrained eating, emotional eating, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:21393117

Madanat, Hala N; Lindsay, Ryan; Hawks, Steven R; Ding, Ding

2011-01-01

416

Genotype by Environment Interactions in Cognitive Ability: A Survey of 14 Studies from 4 Countries covering 4 Age Groups  

PubMed Central

A large part of the variation in cognitive ability is known to be due to genetic factors. Researchers have tried to identify modifiers that influence the heritability of cognitive ability, indicating a genotype by environment interaction (GxE). To date, such modifiers include measured variables like income and socioeconomic status. The present paper focuses on GxE in cognitive ability where the environmental variable is an unmeasured environmental factor that is uncorrelated in family members. We examined this type of GxE in the GHCA-database (Haworth et al., 2009), which comprises data of 14 different cognition studies from 4 different countries including participants of different ages. Results indicate that for younger participants (4–13 years), the strength of E decreases across the additive genetic factor A, but that this effect reverts for older participants (17–34 years). However, a clear and general conclusion about the presence of a genuine GxE is hampered by differences between the individual studies with respect to environmental and genetic influences on cognitive ability.

Molenaar, Dylan; van der Sluis, Sophie; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Hewitt, John K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Plomin, Robert; Wright, Margie J.; Dolan, Conor V.

2014-01-01

417

Self-stigma, empowerment and perceived discrimination among people with schizophrenia in 14 European countries: the GAMIAN-Europe study.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in examining self-stigma as a barrier to recovery from schizophrenia. To date, no studies have examined mental health service user's experiences of self-stigma throughout Europe. This study describes the level of self-stigma, stigma resistance, empowerment and perceived discrimination reported by mental health service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder across 14 European countries. Data were collected from 1229 people using a postal survey from members of mental health non-governmental organisations. Almost half (41.7%) reported moderate or high levels of self-stigma, 49.2% moderate or high stigma resistance, 49.7% moderate or high empowerment and 69.4% moderate or high perceived discrimination. In a reduced multivariate model 42% of the variance in self-stigma scores was predicted by levels of empowerment, perceived discrimination and social contact. These results suggest that self-stigma appears to be common and sometimes severe among people with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders in Europe. PMID:20347271

Brohan, Elaine; Elgie, Rodney; Sartorius, Norman; Thornicroft, Graham

2010-09-01

418

Study of procedures for integrating economic and environmental impact data from irrigation projects in tropical developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Integrated Economic Environmental Projects Analysis (IEEPA) is presented as a procedure for incorporating environmental impacts into project feasibility studies. This study documents the need for considering environmental elements in the analysis of Large-Scale River Basin Development Projects (LSRBDPs). Environmental impacts are associated with changes in ecological processes during development (nutrient cycling, population density, water availability, and disease patterns). Traditional project analysis methodologies have failed to examine negative environmental impacts. These methods separate economic and environmental factors, and consequently, cannot deal with the interrelated problems caused by LSRBDPs. Researchers are allowed through IEEPA to provide a more realistic estimate of the costs associated with development projects in developing countries. The success of IEEPA is attributed to the inclusion of environmental impacts in all phases of project design and implementation of a project. An analysis of a dam and irrigation project in the Senegal River Basin was done to demonstrate the process. The inclusion of environmental impacts showed that the intensive irrigation would not be self-supporting and that an alternative project enhancing existing farming practices would cost less and cause fewer environmental impacts.

Caupp, C.L.

1986-01-01

419

Calf-Level Factors Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia - A Multi-Country Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP), a high fatality condition causing haemorrhages in calves aged less than 4 weeks, was first reported in 2007 in Germany and subsequently observed at low incidence in other European countries and New Zealand. A multi-country matched case-control study was conducted in 2011 to identify calf-level risk factors for BNP. 405 BNP cases were recruited from 330 farms in Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands by laboratory confirmation of farmer-reported cases. Up to four calves of similar age from the same farm were selected as controls (1154 calves). Risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. Multivariable modelling using conditional logistic regression indicated that PregSure®BVD (PregSure, Pfizer Animal Health) vaccination of the dam was strongly associated with BNP cases (adjusted matched Odds Ratio - amOR 17.8 first lactation dams; 95% confidence interval – ci 2.4, 134.4; p?=?0.005), and second or more lactation PregSure-vaccinated dams were more likely to have a case than first lactation vaccinated dams (amOR 2.2 second lactation; ci 1.1, 4.3; p?=?0.024; amOR 5.3 third or more lactation; ci 2.9, 9.8; p?=?<0.001). Feedi