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1

A systematic evaluation of stroke surveillance studies in low- and middle-income countries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Reliable quantification of the burden of stroke in low- and middle-income (LMI) countries is difficult as population-based surveillance reports are scarce and may vary considerably in methodology. We aimed to evaluate all available primary stroke surveillance studies by applying components of a benchmark protocol (WHO STEPwise approach to stroke surveillance) and quantify the reported burden of stroke in LMI settings. Methods: Electronic databases Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge were searched for population-based surveillance studies. Studies conducted in the LMI countries that reported on incident stroke were included. Data were extracted from each study using a prestructured format. Information on epidemiologic measures including crude and age-adjusted incidence rates, person-years, admission rates, case fatality rates, death certification, autopsy rates, measures of disability, and other study-specific information, in line with WHO STEPS stroke protocol, were recorded. Age-adjusted incidence rate data of stroke were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Results: We identified 7 studies that reported on burden of stroke in 9 LMI countries, including aggregate information from 1,711,372 participants collected over 5,240,923 person-years. The age-adjusted incidence rates across the LMI countries varied widely, with the burden of total first-ever strokes ranging from 41 to 909 events per 100,000 person-years. Conclusions: Systematic evaluation of all available primary surveillance studies, particularly in the context of WHO STEPS guidelines, indicates inadequate adherence to standardized surveillance methodology in LMI countries. Incorporation of standardized approaches is essential to enhance generalizability and estimate stroke burden accurately in these resource-poor settings. PMID:23400318

Chowdhury, Rajiv; Felix, Janine F.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Mendis, Shanthi; Tiemeier, Henning; Mant, Jonathan; Franco, Oscar H.

2013-01-01

2

An economic evaluation for prevention of diabetes mellitus in a developing country: a modelling study  

PubMed Central

Background The serious consequences of diabetes mellitus, and the subsequent economic burden, call for urgent preventative action in developing countries. This study explores the clinical and economic outcomes of strategies that could potentially prevent diabetes based on Chinese circumstances. It aims to provide indicators for the long-term allocation of healthcare resources for authorities in developing countries. Methods A representative sample of Chinese adults was used to create a simulated population of 20,000 people aged 25 years and above. The hybrid decision tree Markov model was developed to compare the long-term clinical and economic outcomes of four simulated diabetes prevention strategies with a control group, where no prevention applied. These preventive strategies were the following: (i) one-off screening for undiagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), with lifestyle interventions on diet, (ii) on exercise, (iii) on diet combined exercise (duo-intervention) respectively in those with IGT, and (iv) one-off screening alone. Independent age-specific models were simulated based on diverse incidences of diabetes, mortalities and health utilities. The reported outcomes were the following: the remaining survival years, the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per diabetes or IGT subjects, societal costs per simulated subject and the comparisons between preventions and control over 40 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed based on variations of all assumptions, in addition to the performance and the compliance of screening. Results Compared with the control group, all simulated screening programmes prolonged life expectancy at the initiation ages of 25 and 40 years, postponed the onset of diabetes and increased QALYs at every initiation age. Along with an assumption of six years intervention, prevention programmes were associated with cost-saving compared with the control group, especially in the population aged 25 years. The savings were at least US$2017 per subject, but no statistically significant difference was observed among the intervention strategies within each age groups. The cost savings were reduced when screening was affected by poor performance and noncompliance. Conclusions Developing countries have few effective strategies to manage the prevention of diabetes. One-off screening for undiagnosed diabetes and IGT, with appropriate lifestyle interventions for those with IGT are cost saving in China, especially in young adults. PMID:23919839

2013-01-01

3

Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.  

PubMed

Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less-developed countries, especially those in Asia, there is also a requirement to focus on the development of environmentally friendly practices in wealthier countries. PMID:20454670

Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

2010-01-01

4

Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

Chang, Chung-chien Karen

2010-01-01

5

Multi-Country Evaluation of Affective Experience: Validation of an Abbreviated Version of the Day Reconstruction Method in Seven Countries  

PubMed Central

Background The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) was developed to assess affective states as measures of experienced well-being. The present study aimed to validate an abbreviated version of the DRM in a representative sample of the population in seven countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, and Spain), and to examine whether there are country differences in affect and in the relationships among the activities based on the similarity of the affect associated with each of them. Methods Interviews were conducted with 47,222 non-institutionalized adults from seven countries, using an abbreviated version of the DRM. A cluster analysis was carried out to classify activities on the basis of the similarity of the associated affect. In each country, the factorial structure of the affect adjectives was tested through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Internal consistency and construct validity were also assessed. Moreover, the differences in affect across countries and the diurnal cycles of affect were evaluated. Results The DRM showed adequate psychometric properties regarding reliability and construct validity in all countries. Respondents from Ghana and South Africa reported more positive net affect whereas Indian respondents reported less positive net affect. Most of the countries showed a similar diurnal variation of affect, which tended to improve throughout the day. Conclusions The results show that this abbreviated version of the DRM is a useful tool for multi-country evaluation of experienced well-being. PMID:23626697

Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Miret, Marta; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Haro, Josep Maria; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

2013-01-01

6

THE COUNTRY OF ORIGIN EFFECT IN NEWLY EMERGING EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES: A MACEDONIAN CONSUMER STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study researched the influence of the interaction of country of origin, brand name, and price level effect in the retail designer jeans market in Macedonia. A country of origin by brand name design was used to test the effects of brand name and country or origin on buying intentions. Buyers are more likely to view designer jeans associated with

Darrell Goudge

7

Bulgaria country study address climate change mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The Bulgaria Country Study to address climate change is a research project that incorporates three major elements: inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), assessment of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, and mitigation analysis. The mitigation analysis is the central part of the study. Based on the assumptions of the socioeconomic development of the country up to the year 2020, it allows identification of policies and measures that may lead to the stabilization of GHG emissions, as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Bulgaria signed the FCCC in 1992, ratified it in 1995, and is now undertaking measures related to its implementation. At present Bulgaria is in the process of transition from a centrally planned economy to a market driven economy. This process is characterized by basic economic structural changes, freeing of prices (with only energy prices still controlled by the government), a drastic drop in GDP by 27% in 1992 compared to 1988, and reduction of energy consumption by 44% in 1992 compared to 1988. The analysis of the mitigation measures and their impact on the future development of economy and on the energy sector is a very complicated task. This paper will focus on the choice of methodology, some basic assumptions, and results of the study to date. 9 refs., 13 figs.

Simeonova, K. [ENERGOPROEKT, Sofia (Bulgaria)

1996-09-01

8

LOC Federal Research Division: Country Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Research Division (FRD) provides customized research and analytical services on foreign and domestic topics to United States Government and District of Columbia agencies. This Web site "presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world and examines the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors." The online books can be searched or browsed by particular country and include everything from a country profile, history, and physical environment description to economy, government, and national security information. Perhaps the most unique part of the site is an attempt to include only lesser known areas, making the conglomeration a good source of uncommon knowledge.

9

[Food and population: study of three countries].  

PubMed

In 1985, despite a nearly 25% worldwide surplus of cereals, more than 700 million poor people had insufficient food and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or related causes. 16% of the developing world's population is undernourished. Rapid population growth is a major reason for the world's hunger. Large families exhaust the resources of many urban couples and rural couples with little land. Closely spaced pregnancies deplete the nutritional resources of the mother and lead to low birth weight babies and inadequate lactation. Population growth in already densely populated countries reduces the land available for each family, inevitably contributing to poverty and rural malnutrition. Unemployment and underemployment reach alarming proportions in the city, where the combination of high fertility rates and migration from the countryside have produced growth twice that of the world population as a whole. Few developing countries have been able to generate sufficient investment to create new jobs for all seeking them. Unstable governments attempt to pacify urban unrest by subsidizing food prices and concentrating social and economic investments in the cities, causing further deterioration in rural conditions. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits, although not all are suffering. India, Kenya, and Mexico are 3 countries that have had some success in balancing population growth and food production, but each still has undernourished population sectors because of economic policies that fail to provide sufficient help to their poor and because of implacable population growth. Ending malnutrition in the 3 countries will require reducing the cost of food for households and increasing their incomes, but both objectives are made more difficult by rapid population growth. As a result of the green revolution and other factors, food production in India has tripled since 1950, but population has almost doubled in the same years. With rapid population growth, per capita agricultural productivity increased much more slowly than production. Kenya has enjoyed impressive economic growth since independence, but its rate of population growth of 4.2%/year, the highest in the world, has meant that per capita income increases have been modest. Average nutritional status has declined in Kenya since 1968. The rate of population growth in Mexico has declined to 2.3-2.6%/year in 1986 from the 3.5% of 1974, but population growth will be rapid for decades to come because of the young age structure. Agricultural production has increased but has not kept pace with population growth. Kenya, India, and Mexico have the human and natural resources to make further economic gains in the coming decades. The difficulty of feeding their populations adequately will increase to the extent that they fail to curb their rapid population increase. PMID:12157691

1988-12-01

10

[Nutrition and population: study of three countries].  

PubMed

The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion, deforestation, and flooding are becoming serious problems. Kenya's population of 21 million is growing at a rate of 4.2% annually, the fastest in the world. Despite impressive growth in the 2 decades after independence, per capita income has not increased as much with the population doubling in approximately 17 years. The poorest 20% of the population share 2.6% of household income, and per capita calorie consumption has dropped to 88% of the requirement from 98% in 1965. Mexico's population of 82 million is growing at a rate of 2.6% annually, down from 3.5% in 1974 when a serious family planning program was begun. Despite an average per capita calorie consumption 126% of the requirement, rural poverty and poor income distribution mean that hunger is widespread. Most peasants growing their own food depend on poor soil and uncertain rainfall. Progress in largescale agriculture has slowed considerably since 1940-65. PMID:12157690

1988-12-01

11

Region Country University/Institution Beijing Foreign Studies University  

E-print Network

of Intercultural Studies Asia Europe North America USA UK China Korea France Germany #12;Region Country University of Oxford Faculty of Letters / Graduate School of Humanities Asia China Korea #12;Region Country University Kong Korea Nazarene University Gonju National University Pusan National University Austria Johannes

Banbara, Mutsunori

12

Evaluation of Immigrant Tuberculosis Screening in Industrialized Countries  

PubMed Central

In industrialized countries, tuberculosis (TB) cases are concentrated among immigrants and driven by reactivation of imported latent TB infection (LTBI). We examined mechanisms used to screen immigrants for TB and LTBI by sending an anonymous, 18-point questionnaire to 31 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Twenty-nine (93.5%) of 31 responded; 25 (86.2%) screened immigrants for active TB. Fewer countries (16/29, 55.2%) screened for LTBI. Marked variations were observed in targeted populations for age (range <5 years of age to all age groups) and TB incidence in countries of origin of immigrants (>20 cases/100,000 population to >500 cases/100,000). LTBI screening was conducted in 11/16 countries by using the tuberculin skin test. Six countries used interferon-? release assays, primarily to confirm positive tuberculin skin test results. Industrialized countries performed LTBI screening infrequently and policies varied widely. There is an urgent need to define the cost-effectiveness of LTBI screening strategies for immigrants. PMID:22931959

Pareek, Manish; Baussano, Iacopo; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Dye, Christopher

2012-01-01

13

Developing the evaluation framework of technology foresight program: lesson learned from European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foresight activities are valued in many countries since 1990s due to their long term strategic planning. These governments consequently allocate most resources in these foresight activities. As a result, the paper mainly develops the evaluation framework of technology foresight program, by integrating the concepts of evaluation and logic framework with the experience of foresight evaluation from developed countries, for instance

S. S. Li; M. H. Kang; L. C. Lee

2009-01-01

14

Africa OR / TA Project II supporting studies in several countries.  

PubMed

During the first 6 months, the Africa OR/TA (Operations Research and Technical Assistance) Project II has helped in generating OR country strategic workplans in various sub-Saharan African countries. Project staff has spent much time collaborating with the Navrongo Health Research Centre (NHRC) in the rural Kassena Nankana district in Ghana in designing the Navrongo Community Health and Family Planning (FP) Project. This area has high fertility and mortality rates. The people hold strong pronatal beliefs. Contraceptive use is low among the mostly unschooled women. If this FP/community health project can effectively deliver FP here, it can be successful elsewhere in Africa. Africa OR/TA Project staff are helping design a FP OR experimental field station. They aim to help the Government of Kenya and USAID Nairobi to lower national fertility levels and the incidence of sexually transmitted HIV in some target groups. The Family Planning Association of Kenya will collaborate with the Project on OR/TA activities which include a national situation analysis study, a study examining the impact of quality of services, and community based distribution (CBD) studies. Project staff would like to see integration of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and FP services. OR activities strengthen the clinic- and community-based portions of the FP program in Tanzania. Staff will help with the evaluation of the effectiveness of the CBD models. The FP program aims to meet the reproductive health needs of men and young adults and to integrate STD/AIDS and FP. Project staff will also help the Botswana Population Assistance Project document and monitor the integration of FP, STD management, and AIDS prevention procedures. PMID:12319038

1994-12-01

15

Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

2010-01-01

16

The Process of Choosing a Management Career: Evaluation of Gender and Contextual Dynamics in a Comparative Study of Six Countries--Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, UK and the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this article is to identify the reasons MBA students have for their career choices, and to explore the contextual and gender-related aspects of career choice and development, based on a comparative study carried out with participants in six countries, i.e. Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, the UK and the USA. The paper…

Tanova, Cem; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Inal, Gozde

2008-01-01

17

Drug use in children: cohort study in three European countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence of “recurrent/chronic” use (three or more prescriptions a year) and “non-recurrent” or “acute” use (less than three prescriptions a year) within each therapeutic class. Descriptions of the top five most commonly used drugs evaluated for off label status within each anatomical class. Results Three levels of drug use could be distinguished in the study population: high (>10/100 children per year), moderate (1-10/100 children per year), and low (<1/100 children per year). For all age categories, anti-infective, dermatological, and respiratory drugs were in the high use group, whereas cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs were always in the low use group. Emollients, topical steroids, and asthma drugs had the highest prevalence of recurrent use, but relative use of low prevalence drugs was more often recurrent than acute. In the top five highest prevalence drugs topical inhaled and systemic steroids, oral contraceptives, and topical or systemic antifungal drugs were most commonly used off label. Conclusion This overview of outpatient paediatric prescription patterns in a large European population could provide information to prioritise paediatric therapeutic research needs. PMID:19029175

2008-01-01

18

Photovoltaic evaluation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

19

Evaluating new vaccines for developing countries. Efficacy or effectiveness?  

PubMed

Despite the profusion of promising new vaccines against illnesses prevalent in developing countries, uncertainties about the balance between costs and benefits of new vaccines have retarded their use in public health practice. Conventional prelicensure trials of vaccine protection exacerbate these uncertainties by focusing on measurement of vaccine efficacy--the performance of a vaccine under idealized conditions. Vaccine effectiveness trials provide a more pragmatic perspective by addressing the performance of a vaccine under the ordinary conditions of a public health program, by capturing direct as well as indirect effects of vaccination, and by comprehensively addressing outcomes of public health concern. The use of effectiveness trials should enable more rational triaging of new vaccines for developing countries and may accelerate the introduction of new vaccines into public health practice by resolving speculative debates about practical costs and benefits. PMID:8569019

Clemens, J; Brenner, R; Rao, M; Tafari, N; Lowe, C

1996-02-01

20

Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries

Matricano, Diego

2014-01-01

21

Educational Evaluation in Scandinavian Countries: Converging or Diverging Practices?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current educational evaluation is institutionalized as an element in national educational policy in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. This article analyses how higher education and primary and lower secondary education have adopted and institutionalized educational evaluation. The analysis shows similarities and differences in organizing and practicing…

Hansen, Hanne Foss

2009-01-01

22

Preliminary lithostratigraphic correlation study in OAPEC member countries  

SciTech Connect

This book examines a study correlating rock units in the Middle Eastern and North African member countries, based on direct information from the members. It comprises Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic correlation charts for each region and a lexicon giving the definition, age, lithology, and equivalents of each formation.

Lababidi, M.M.; Hamdan, A.N.

1985-01-01

23

HEALTH IN FRAGILE STATES COUNTRY CASE STUDY: NORTHERN UGANDA  

E-print Network

HEALTH IN FRAGILE STATES COUNTRY CASE STUDY: NORTHERN UGANDA JUNE 2006 This publication of the BASICS project by Elizabeth Rowley, Robin Altaras, and Kirk Huff. #12;#12;HEALTH IN FRAGILE STATES Government. #12;Recommended Citation Rowley, Elizabeth, Robin Altaras and Kirk Huff. 2006. Health in Fragile

Scharfstein, Daniel

24

Inbreeding Depression and IQ in a Study of 72 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this ecological study, a robust negative correlation of r = - 0.62 (P less than 0.01) is reported between national IQs and consanguinity as measured by the log10 transformed percentage of consanguineous marriages for 72 countries. This correlation is reduced in magnitude, when IQ is controlled for GDP per capita (r = - 0.41, P less than 0.01);…

Woodley, Michael A.

2009-01-01

25

Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

Pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean as household insecticides, pet sprays, and where malaria is endemic, impregnated into mosquito-repellent nets. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds have the potential to cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development, as was shown in limited animal studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to pyrethroids to pregnant women residing in 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Pyrethroid exposures were determined by analyzing five pyrethroid metabolites in urine samples from 295 pregnant women: cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA, and 4-F-3-PBA. Pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in Caribbean pregnant women were generally higher in the 10 Caribbean countries than levels reported for Canadian and U.S. women. In Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica participants the geometric mean concentrations of cis-DBCA was significantly higher than in the other nine countries together (p<0.0001 and <0.0012 respectively). For cis- and trans-DCCA, only Antigua & Barbuda women differed significantly from participants of the other nine Caribbean countries (p<0.0001). Urinary 4-F-3-PBA and 3-PBA levels were significantly higher in Antigua & Barbuda (p<0.0028 and p<0.0001 respectively) as well as in Grenada (p<0.0001 and p<0.007 respectively). These results indicate extensive use of pyrethroid compounds such as permethrin and cypermethrin in Caribbean households. In Antigua & Barbuda, the data reveals a greater use of deltamethrin. This study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to utilize this class of pesticides more judiciously given the potentially adverse effects of exposure on fetuses and infants. PMID:24317226

Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kaddar, Nisrin; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

2014-02-01

26

Civic Education across Countries: Twenty-four National Case Studies from the IEA Civic Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume reports the results of the first phase of the Civic Education Study conducted by International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). During 1996 and 1997, researchers in 24 countries collected documentary evidence on the circumstances, contents, and processes of civic education in response to a common set of…

Torney-Purta, Judith; Schwille, John; Amadeo, Jo-Ann

27

How Can We Assess and Evaluate the Competitive Advantage of a Country's Human Resource Development System?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country's human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The…

Oh, Hunseok; Ryu, Hyue-Hyun; Choi, Myungweon

2013-01-01

28

Genetic evaluation of bulls and cows with single- and multiple-country test-day models.  

PubMed

First-lactation milk yield test-day records on cows from Australia, Canada, Italy, and New Zealand were analyzed by single- and multiple-country random regression models. Models included fixed effects of herd-test day and breed composition-age at calving-season of calving by days in milk, and random regressions with Legendre polynomials of order four for animal genetic and permanent environmental effects. Milk yields in different countries were defined as genetically different traits for the purpose of multiple-trait model. Estimated breeding values of bulls and cows from single- and multiple-trait models were compared within and across countries for two traits: total milk yield in lactation and lactation persistency, defined as the linear coefficient of animal genetic curve. Correlations between single- and multiple-trait evaluations within country for total yield were higher than 0.95 for bulls and close to 1 for cows. Correlations for lactation persistency were lower than respective correlations for total yield. Between country correlations for lactation yield ranged from 0.93 to 0.96, indicating different ranking of bulls on different country scales under multiple-trait model. Lactation persistency had in general lower between-country correlations, with the highest values for Canada-Italy and Australia-New Zealand pairs, for both single- and multiple-country models. Although multiple-country random regression test-day model was computationally feasible for four countries, the same would not be true for routine international genetic evaluation in the near future. PMID:12146495

Jamrozik, J; Schaeffer, L R; Weigel, K A

2002-06-01

29

Penicillin allergy evaluation: experience from a drug allergy clinic in an Arabian Gulf Country, Kuwait  

PubMed Central

Background Hypersensitivity to penicillin has been studied worldwide, but data regarding patterns of sensitization in Arabian Gulf countries are scarce. Objective To describe the patterns of penicillin hypersensitivity during a 6-year study in Kuwait in terms of demographics, type of the culprit drug, in vivo and in vitro allergy testing. Methods One hundred and twenty-four patients referred to the drug allergy clinic for penicillin allergy were fully evaluated by skin prick and intradermal testing. Drug provocation test was done on patients with negative results. Results A total of 124 patients were evaluated for penicillin allergy. Mean age was 37.8 (standard deviation, 12.7) years, range from 8 to 74 years. Thirty-nine male (31.5%) and 85 female patients (68.5%) were included. Diagnosis of penicillin allergy was confirmed in 46 patients (37.1%). Among the 44 confirmed allergic patients by skin evaluation we had 15 (34.1%) positive skin prick test, and 29 (65.9%) positive intradermal testing. Among patients with positive skin testing, 47.7% were positive to major determinant benzylpenicilloyl poly-L-lysine, 20.4% to minor determinant mixture, 50.0% to penicillin G and 40.9% to ampicillin; 13.6% of patients were positive to amoxicillin by skin prick test. One patient had a positive radioallergosorbent test and one had a positive challenge test. Conclusion Penicillin allergy is a common problem with an incidence of about one third in our study subjects. PMID:24809016

Rodriguez Bouza, Tito; Arifhodzic, Nermina

2014-01-01

30

The Czech government scholarship programme for students from developing countries--evaluation findings and policy reflections.  

PubMed

In Czech Republic there is a long tradition of providing tertiary scholarships to students from developing countries. The government scholarship programme started in the 1950s already as a part of the Czechoslovak technical assistance to countries in the South. Even though the programme left tens of thousands of graduates all over the world, the recent programme evaluation has revealed that it is characterised by a relatively poor performance. This article brings forward the main outcomes of the programme evaluation, highlights the policy recommendations and summarises policy reflections that occurred following the evaluation. The programme evaluation was done under unfavourable circumstances and could be accordingly defined as 'shoestring evaluation'. The restrictions and their influence on evaluation outcomes are discussed in article, too. PMID:24380834

N?me?ková, Tereza; Krylová, Petra; Horký -Hluchá?, Ond?ej; Hejkrlík, Ji?í; Jílkova, Klementína

2014-04-01

31

Economic evaluations of non-communicable disease interventions in developing countries: a critical review of the evidence base  

PubMed Central

Background Demographic projections suggest a major increase in non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality over the next two decades in developing countries. In a climate of scarce resources, policy-makers need to know which interventions represent value for money. The prohibitive cost of performing multiple economic evaluations has generated interest in transferring the results of studies from one setting to another. This paper aims to bridge the gap in the current literature by critically evaluating the available published data on economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Methods We identified and reviewed the methodological quality of 32 economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Developing countries were defined according to the World Bank classification for low- and lower middle-income countries. We defined NCDs as the 12 categories listed in the 1993 World Bank report Investing in Health. English language literature was searched for the period January 1984 and January 2003 inclusive in Medline, Science Citation Index, HealthStar, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and Embase using medical subheading terms and free text searches. We then assessed the quality of studies according to a set of pre-defined technical criteria. Results We found that the quality of studies was poor and resource allocation decisions made by local and global policy-makers on the basis of this evidence could be misleading. Furthermore we have identified some clear gaps in the literature, particularly around injuries and strategies for tackling the consequences of the emerging tobacco epidemic. Conclusion In the face of poor evidence the role of so-called generalised cost-effectiveness analyses has an important role to play in aiding public health decision-making at the global level. Further research is needed to investigates the causes of variation among cost, effects and cost-effectiveness data within and between settings. Such analyses still need to take a broad view, present data in a transparent manner and take account of local constraints. PMID:16584546

Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Walker, Damian; Fox-Rushby, Julia

2006-01-01

32

Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation.  

PubMed

Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

2014-01-01

33

Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

2014-01-01

34

Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

2011-01-01

35

Nurse Migration from a Source Country Perspective: Philippine Country Case Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe nurse migration patterns in the Philippines and their benefits and costs. Principal Findings The Philippines is a job-scarce environment and, even for those with jobs in the health care sector, poor working conditions often motivate nurses to seek employment overseas. The country has also become dependent on labor migration to ease the tight domestic labor market. National opinion has generally focused on the improved quality of life for individual migrants and their families, and on the benefits of remittances to the nation. However, a shortage of highly skilled nurses and the massive retraining of physicians to become nurses elsewhere has created severe problems for the Filipino health system, including the closure of many hospitals. As a result, policy makers are debating the need for new policies to manage migration such that benefits are also returned to the educational institutions and hospitals that are producing the emigrant nurses. Conclusions and Recommendations There is new interest in the Philippines in identifying ways to mitigate the costs to the health system of nurse emigration. Many of the policy options being debated involve collaboration with those countries recruiting Filipino nurses. Bilateral agreements are essential for managing migration in such a way that both sending and receiving countries derive benefit from the exchange. PMID:17489922

Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn E; Galvez-Tan, Jaime; Icamina, Kriselle; Javier, Lara

2007-01-01

36

A Systematic Survey Instrument Translation Process for Multi-Country, Comparative Health Workforce Studies  

PubMed Central

Background As health services research (HSR) expands across the globe, researchers will adopt health services and health worker evaluation instruments developed in one country for use in another. This paper explores the cross-cultural methodological challenges involved in translating HSR in the language and context of different health systems. Objectives To describe the pre-data collection systematic translation process used in a twelve country, eleven language nursing workforce survey. Design & Settings We illustrate the potential advantages of Content Validity Indexing (CVI) techniques to validate a nursing workforce survey developed for RN4CAST, a twelve country (Belgium, England, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland), eleven language (with modifications for regional dialects, including Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Spanish, and Swedish), comparative nursing workforce study in Europe. Participants Expert review panels comprised of practicing nurses from twelve European countries who evaluated cross-cultural relevance, including translation, of a nursing workforce survey instrument developed by experts in the field. Methods The method described in this paper used Content Validity Indexing (CVI) techniques with chance correction and provides researchers with a systematic approach for standardizing language translation processes while simultaneously evaluating the cross-cultural applicability of a survey instrument in the new context. Results The cross-cultural evaluation process produced CVI scores for the instrument ranging from .61 to .95. The process successfully identified potentially problematic survey items and errors with translation. Conclusions The translation approach described here may help researchers reduce threats to data validity and improve instrument reliability in multinational health services research studies involving comparisons across health systems and language translation. PMID:22445444

Squires, Allison; Aiken, Linda H.; van den Heede, Koen; Sermeus, Walter; Bruyneel, Luk; Lindqvist, Rikard; Schoonoven, Lisette; Stromseng, Ingeborg; Busse, Reinhard; Brozstek, Tomas; Ensio, Anneli; Moreno-Casbas, Mayte; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Schubert, Maria; Zikos, Dimitris

2012-01-01

37

Evaluation of the applicability of SWAT in the Nile Basin countries: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plethora of hydrological modeling codes are nowadays available and many applications of these tools have been reported in peer reviewed journal papers. The hypothesis that the model is appropriate for the case study and the purpose of the study is however very often not questioned. We aim here at critically reviewing the use of a widely used hydrological simulation tool, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the context of the modeling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile Basin countries. Up to date, more than 20 peer reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT in this region for a variety of problems, such as erosion modeling, land use modeling, climate change impact modeling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are clustered in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. A number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, the performance, the physical representation of the model parameters, and the representativeness of the hydrological model balance. Here we evaluate the applications of within the Nile basin. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained several losses that might not be justified. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For that reason, it is difficult to give an overall positive evaluation to most of the reported SWAT models. An important gap is the lack of attention that is given to the vegetation and crop processes. None of the papers reported any adaptation to the crop parameters, or any crop related output such as leaf area index, biomass or crop yields. A proper simulation of the land cover is important for obtaining correct evapotranspiration and erosion computations. It is also found that a comparison of SWAT applications on the same or similar case study but by different research teams and/or model versions resulted in very different results. It is therefore recommended to try to find better methods to evaluate the representativeness of the distributed processes and parameters, especially when land use studies are envisaged. The main recommendation is that more details on the model set-up, the parameters and outputs should be provided in the journal papers in order to allow for a more stringent evaluation of these models.

van Griensven, A.; Ndomba, P. M.; Kilonzo, F.

2012-04-01

38

A Study Focusing on American Expatriates' Learning in Host Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 70 U.S. expatriate workers found that most learned the culture of their host country through reflective learning. Factors helping their adjustment included previous cross-cultural experience, language competence, long-term relationship with hosts, and information about the host country from both home and host sources. (Contains 29…

Shim, In-Sun; Paprock, Kenneth C.

2002-01-01

39

Economic gradients in early child neurodevelopment: A multi-country study  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the importance of household wealth for child neurodevelopment very early in life including during infancy. Previous studies have focused on specific developmental domains instead of more holistic multi-domain measures of neurodevelopment and on economic effects for the “average” child instead of evaluating the heterogeneity in economic gradients by different levels of developmental ability. Furthermore, not much is known about whether economic gradients in early child neurodevelopment are country-specific or generalizable between populations. We evaluate wealth gradients in child neurodevelopment, an important predictor of future health and human capital, between ages 3 and 24 months in four South American countries. We also assess the heterogeneity in these gradients at different locations of the neurodevelopment distribution using quantile regression. Employing a unique dataset of 2032 children with neurodevelopment measures obtained by physicians in 2005–2006, we find a large positive wealth gradient in neurodevelopment in Brazil. The wealth gradient is larger for children at higher neurodevelopment rankings, suggesting that wealth is associated with child development inequalities in the form of a wider gap between low and high achievers on neurodevelopment in Brazil. This result highlights the need to target poverty in Brazil as a key factor in health and human capital disparities earlier in life rather than later as early developmental deficits will be carried forward and possibly multiplied later in life. More importantly, small or insignificant wealth gradients are generally found in the other countries. These results suggest that wealth gradients in child neurodevelopment are country-specific and vary with population demographic, health, and socioeconomic characteristics. Therefore, findings from previous studies based on specific populations may not be generalizable to other countries. Furthermore, wealth gradients in child neurodevelopment appear to be dynamic rather than fixed and sensitive to population characteristics that modify their intensity. PMID:23273409

Wehby, George L.; McCarthy, Ann Marie

2013-01-01

40

Therapeutic research in low-income countries: studying trial communities.  

PubMed

Social scientists undertaking studies of transnational medical research in developing countries focus on 'trial communities': networks of funders, institutions, researchers, clinical staff, fieldworkers and study participants. They relate these to the political economy that brings powerful research resources to poor settings. Whereas bioethicists tend to consider universal ethical requirements, social scientists examine how ethics are practiced in given situations in the light of the concerns and interests held by different parties involved in medical research. In conditions of poverty, high morbidity and weak public health services, research subjects are heavily induced by the prospect of high quality medical care and other benefits that researchers seem to offer. Studies of medical research undertaken by well-established internationally funded institutions in Africa show that parents are keen to have their children 'join' projects at these organisations. They assess benefits and risks less in terms of specific research projects and more in terms of their overall trust in the care these institutions are known to have provided previously for others in the community. Bioethics should widen its scope beyond concern with protecting individual subjects from the risks of specific research projects. It should recognise that clinical and research functions are indistinguishable for many participants, who want information on results of clinical investigations and sustained support for improving the health of their children. PMID:24748638

Whyte, Susan Reynolds

2014-11-01

41

Remote Sensing for developing countries A case study of Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite remote sensing provides a means of providing knowledge and inventory of natural resources in developing countries. This theme is examined in relation to Tunisia, and general conclusions drawn.

A. Hamzat

1986-01-01

42

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions' levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.); Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

43

Patterns of Long Term Care in 29 European countries: evidence from an exploratory study  

PubMed Central

Background The challenges posed by the rapidly ageing population, and the increased preponderance of disabled people in this group, coupled with the rising level of public expenditure required to service the complex organization of long term care (LTC) delivery are causing increased pressure on LTC systems in Europe. A pan-European survey was carried out to evaluate whether patterns of LTC can be identified across Europe and what are the trends of the countries along them. Methods An ecological study was conducted on the 27 EU Member States plus Norway and Iceland, referring to the period 2003-2007. Several variables related to organizational features, elderly needs and expenditure were drawn from OECD Health Data and the Eurostat Statistics database and combined using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Results Two global Principal Components were taken into consideration given that their expressed total variance was greater than 60%. They were interpreted according to the higher (more than 0.5) positive or negative correlation coefficients between them and the original variables; thus patterns of LTC were identified. High alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs characterizes Nordic and Western European countries, the former also having a higher level of formal care than the latter. Mediterranean as well as Central and South Eastern European countries show lower alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs, coupled with a level of provision of formal care that is around or slightly above the average European level. In the dynamic comparison, linear, stable or unclear trends were shown for the studied countries. Conclusions The analysis carried out is an explorative and descriptive study, which is an attempt to reveal patterns and trends of LTC in Europe, allowing comparisons between countries. It also stimulates further researches with lower aggregated data useful to gain meaningful policy-making evidence. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/124 PMID:22098693

2011-01-01

44

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 1, Summary: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions` levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.; Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

45

Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities. PMID:25310227

Jani?, Snežana Radisavljevi?; Jurak, Gregor; Milanovi?, Ivana; Lazarevi?, Dušanka; Kova?, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

2014-10-01

46

Strengthening Primary Health Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Generating Evidence Through Evaluation.  

PubMed

Since the publication of the World Health Report 2008, there has been renewed interest in the potential of primary health care (PHC) to deliver global health policy agendas. The WHO Western Pacific Regional Strategy 2010 states that health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be strengthened using PHC values as core principles. This review article explores the development of an evidence-based approach for assessing the effectiveness of PHC programs and interventions in LMICs. A realist review method was used to investigate whether there is any internationally consistent approach to evaluating PHC. Studies from LMICs using an explicit methodology or framework for measuring PHC effectiveness were collated. Databases of published articles were searched, and a review of gray literature was undertaken to identify relevant reports. The review found no consistent approach for assessing the effectiveness of PHC interventions in LMICs. An innovative approach used in China, which developed a set of core community health facility indicators based on stakeholder input, does show some potential for use in other LMIC contexts. PMID:24097939

Rule, John; Ngo, Duc Anh; Oanh, Tran Thi Mai; Asante, Augustine; Doyle, Jennifer; Roberts, Graham; Taylor, Richard

2013-10-01

47

Neurophysiological evidence for the country-of-origin effect: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Consumers often rely on observable cues that hint at the hidden quality of a product. The aim of this study was to investigate brain activities associated with the country-of-origin (COO) effect and consumer evaluation of a product design. Electroencephalogram recordings were used to observe event-related brain potentials associated with the COO effect and design evaluation. We found that the frontocentral N90 and parieto-occipital P220 amplitudes are involved in forming preference to design, whereas the COO effect is processed in the centroparietal P500 amplitude. We also found a significant interaction effect between COO and design preference with regard to reaction times. Specifically, participants tended to spend more time making a preference decision when they did not like the product design made in a country with a favorable COO. These results imply that the two cognitive processes, evaluation of COO and formation of design preference, are activated independently at an early stage. It also suggests that these two processes interact with each other toward the end of the decision phase. Together, the results of this study provide neuropsychological evidence supporting a significant role of COO in the formation of design preference. Future studies are required to further delve into other neurophysiological activities associated with the COO effect. PMID:24518230

Min, Byoung-Kyong; Cho, Kwangsu; Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Erin

2014-03-01

48

Home Start Evaluation Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of eight Home Start programs are given as the third section of an evaluation study. Communities involved are Binghamton, New York; Franklin, North Carolina; Cleveland, Ohio; Harrogate, Tennessee; Houston, Texas; Weslaco, Texas; Millville, Utah; Parkersburg, West Virginia. Although each study varies in format, each describes in detail…

High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI.

49

Home Start Evaluation Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of seven Home Start programs are given as the third section of an evaluation study. Communities involved are Huntsville, Alabama; Fairbanks, Alaska; Fort Defiance, Arizona; Dardanelle, Arkansas; Wichita, Kansas; Gloucester, Massachusetts; and Reno, Nevada. Although each study varies in format, each describes in detail the degree and…

High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI.

50

An Evaluation of European Countries’ Health Systems through Distance Based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The issue of evaluating the efficiency of health systems has been elaborated upon frequently. Since “health” is a multi-faceted concept, many variables of different measurement units must be included in its analysis; consequently, this presents a great obstacle for researchers to overcome. Materials and Methods: A novel statistical approach for evaluating the efficiency of organizational units is here proposed, which can also be easily applied to the health sector. For these purposes, the health status of the 27 countries belonging to the European Union has been examined by employing a statistical Ivanovic-Jeremic Distance Based Analysis (DBA) on various health indicators. Results: The subsequent outcome of the Distance Based Analysis has shown that Cyprus and Ireland have a most efficient health system sectors. Greece also has exceptional indicators of health service, yet health on the individual level is not comparable. Limitations: Since it synthesizes many variables into an efficiency score, a DBA can be easily applied to other regions/countries. However, the choice of input and output variables can be considered to be potential limitations since a different choice of variables may cause different efficiency scores for the countries selected. Conclusions: A DBA approach contributes significantly to the efficiency in the field of research measurement. This analysis can be additionally performed alongside DEA and SFA methods, as a new measure of efficiency. PMID:23935275

Jeremic, V; Bulajic, M; Martic, M; Markovic, A; Savic, G; Jeremic, D; Radojicic, Z

2012-01-01

51

Across-country test-day model evaluations for Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey.  

PubMed

Three random regression models were developed for routine genetic evaluation of Danish, Finnish, and Swedish dairy cattle. Data included over 169 million test-day records with milk, protein, and fat yield observations from over 8.7 million dairy cows of all breeds. Variance component analyses showed significant differences in estimates between Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey, but only small to moderate differences within a breed across countries. The obtained variance component estimates were used to build, for each breed, their own set of covariance functions. The covariance functions describe the animal effects on milk, protein, and fat yields of the first 3 lactations as 9 different traits, assuming the same heritabilities and a genetic correlation of unity across countries. Only 15, 27, and 7 eigenfunctions with the largest eigenvalues were used to describe additive genetic animal effects and nonhereditary animal effects across lactations and within later lactations, respectively. These reduced-rank covariance functions explained 99.0 to 99.9% of the original variances but reduced the number of animal equations to be solved by 44%. Moderate rank reduction for nonhereditary animal effects and use of one-third-smaller measurement error correlations than obtained from variance component estimation made the models more robust against extreme observations. Estimation of the genetic levels of the countries' subpopulations within a breed was found sensitive to the way the breed effects were modeled, especially for the genetically heterogeneous Nordic Red Cattle. Means to ensure that only additive genetic effects entered the estimated breeding values were to describe the crossbreeding effects by fixed and random cofactors and the calving age effect by an age × breed proportion interaction, and to model phantom parent groups as random effects. To ensure that genetic variances were the same across the 3 countries in breeding value estimation, as suggested by the variance component estimates, the applied multiplicative heterogeneous variance adjustment method had to be tailored using country-specific reference measurement error variances. Results showed the feasibility of across-country genetic evaluation of cows and sires based on original test-day phenotypes. Nevertheless, applying a thorough model validation procedure is essential throughout the model building process to obtain reliable breeding values. PMID:25434332

Lidauer, Martin H; Pösö, Jukka; Pedersen, Jørn; Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Per; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Nielsen, Ulrik S; Eriksson, Jan-Åke; Johansson, Kjell; Pitkänen, Timo; Strandén, Ismo; Aamand, Gert P

2015-02-01

52

Chronic Conditions and Sleep Problems among Adults Aged 50 years or over in Nine Countries: A Multi-Country Study  

PubMed Central

Background Data on the association between chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems in low- or middle-income countries is scarce, and global comparisons of these associations with high-income countries have not been conducted. Methods Data on 42116 individuals 50 years and older from nationally-representative samples of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (Finland, Poland, Spain) and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa) conducted between 2011–2012 and 2007–2010 respectively were analyzed. Results The association between nine chronic conditions (angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke) and self-reported severe/extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days was estimated by logistic regression with multiple variables. The age-adjusted prevalence of sleep problems ranged from 2.8% (China) to 17.0% (Poland). After adjustment for confounders, angina (OR 1.75–2.78), arthritis (OR 1.39–2.46), and depression (OR 1.75–5.12) were significantly associated with sleep problems in the majority or all of the countries. Sleep problems were also significantly associated with: asthma in Finland, Spain, and India; chronic lung disease in Poland, Spain, Ghana, and South Africa; diabetes in India; and stroke in China, Ghana, and India. A linear dose-dependent relationship between the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems was observed in all countries. Compared to no chronic conditions, the OR (95%CI) for 1,2,3, and?4 chronic conditions was 1.41 (1.09–1.82), 2.55 (1.99–3.27), 3.22 (2.52–4.11), and 7.62 (5.88–9.87) respectively in the overall sample. Conclusions Identifying co-existing sleep problems among patients with chronic conditions and treating them simultaneously may lead to better treatment outcome. Clinicians should be aware of the high risk for sleep problems among patients with multimorbidity. Future studies are needed to elucidate the best treatment options for comorbid sleep problems especially in developing country settings. PMID:25478876

Koyanagi, Ai; Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Leonardi, Matilde; Koskinen, Seppo; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

2014-01-01

53

Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Methods PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded) were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey), all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. Results The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p < 0.001) than the other three Middle Eastern countries (25,643 and 49,110). The Arab countries also scored less when the data were normalized to population, gross domestic product (GDP), and GDP/capita. The publications from the Arab countries also have a significantly lower (p < 0.001) citation frequency. Conclusion The Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries. PMID:19374747

2009-01-01

54

Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

2010-01-01

55

Evaluating Recall Bias in a Case-Crossover Design Estimating Risk of Injury Related to Alcohol: Data from Six Countries  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Aims Prior work suggests recall bias may be a threat to the validity of relative risk estimation of injury due to alcohol consumption, when the case-crossover method is used based on drinking during the same 6-hour period the week prior to injury as the control period. This work explores the issue of alcohol recall bias used in the case-crossover design. Design and Methods Data were collected on injury patients from emergency room studies across six countries (the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, and Canada), conducted in 2009–11, each with n ?500 except Canada (n=249). Recall bias was evaluated comparing drinking during two control periods: the same 6-hour period the day before vs. the week before injury. Results A greater likelihood of drinking yesterday compared to last week was seen using data from the Dominican Republic, while lower likelihood of drinking yesterday was found in Guatemala and Nicaragua. When the data from all six countries were combined, no differential drinking between the two control periods was observed. Discussion and Conclusions These findings are in contrast to earlier studies showing a downward recall bias of drinking, and suggest it may be premature to dismiss the last week case-crossover method as a valid approach to estimating risk of injury related to drinking. However, the heterogeneity across countries suggests there may be some unexplained measurement error beyond random sampling error. PMID:23574580

Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason C.; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Borges, Guilherme; Monteiro, Maristela; Vallance, Kate

2013-01-01

56

Economic burden of torture for a refugee host country: development of a model and presentation of a country case study  

PubMed Central

Background Torture is an important social and political problem worldwide that affects millions of people. Many host countries give victims of torture the status of refugee and take care of them as far as basic needs; health care, professional reinsertion, and education. Little is known about the costs of torture. However, this knowledge could serve as an additional argument for the prevention and social mobilization to fight against torture and to provide a powerful basis of advocacy for rehabilitation programs and judiciary claims. Objectives Development of a model for estimating the economic costs of torture and applying the model to a specific country. Methods The estimation of the possible prevalence of victims of torture was based on a review of the literature. The identification of the socioeconomic factors to be considered was done by analogy with various health problems. The estimation of the loss of the productivity and of the economic burden of disease related to torture was done through the human capital approach and the component technique analysis. Case study The model was applied to the situation in Switzerland of estimated torture victims Switzerland is confronted with. Results When applied to the case study, the direct costs – such as housing, food, and clothing – represent roughly 130 million Swiss francs (CHF) per year; whereas, health care costs amount to 16 million CHF per year, and the costs related to education of young people to 34 million CHF per year. Indirect costs, namely those costs related to the loss of the productivity of direct survivors of torture, have been estimated to one-third of 1 billion CHF per year. This jumps to 10,073,419,200 CHF in the loss of productivity if one would consider 30 years of loss per survivor. Conclusion Our study shows that a rough estimation of the costs related to torture is possible with some prerequisites, such as access to social and economic indicators at the country level. PMID:24729721

Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Frey, Conrad; Chastonay, Philippe

2014-01-01

57

Perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes associated with adults? recreational walking: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries.  

PubMed

This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults' recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from crime, and proximity to parks were linearly associated with recreational walking, while curvilinear associations were found for residential density, land use mix, and aesthetics. The observed associations were consistent across countries, except for aesthetics. Using data collected from environmentally diverse countries, this study confirmed findings from prior single-country studies. Present findings suggest that similar environmental attributes are associated with recreational walking internationally. PMID:24721737

Sugiyama, Takemi; Cerin, Ester; Owen, Neville; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Conway, Terry L; Van Dyck, Delfien; Schipperijn, Jasper; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S; Mitáš, Josef; Sarmiento, Olga L; Davey, Rachel; Schofield, Grant; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Sallis, James F

2014-07-01

58

Beyond Resistance: Exploring Health Managers' Propensity for Participatory Evaluation in a Developing Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the…

Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois; Farand, Lambert

2012-01-01

59

Pyrolysis system evaluation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

1974-01-01

60

Peaceful Uses Bona Fides: Criteria for Evaluation and Case Studies  

SciTech Connect

This study applies a set of indicators to assess the peaceful nature of a state’s nuclear program. Evaluation of a country’s nuclear program relative to these indicators can help the international community to take appropriate actions to ensure that the growth of the global nuclear energy industry proceeds peacefully and to minimize nuclear proliferation risks.

Ajemian, Chris K.; Hazel, Mike; Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.; Morris, Fred A.; Seward, Amy M.; Peterson, Danielle J.; Smith, Brian W.

2007-06-06

61

Country Life and the Country School: A Study of the Agencies of Rural Progress and of the Social Relationship of the School to the Country Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in 1912, this book addresses the role of teachers in improving rural farm life. Rural-to-urban migration had resulted in the loss of leadership from rural localities and the decline of agriculture, and country life had lost its prestige both socially and economically. This book suggests that the country school is the key to achieving…

Carney, Mabel

62

Lot quality survey: an appealing method for rapid evaluation of vaccine coverage in developing countries – experience in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background Vaccine-preventable diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and in developing countries in particular. Information on coverage and reasons for non-vaccination is vital to enhance overall vaccination activities. Of the several survey techniques available for investigating vaccination coverage in a given setting, the Lot Quality Technique (LQT) remains appealing and could be used in developing countries by local health personnel of district or rural health authorities to evaluate their performance in vaccination and many other health-related programs. This study aimed to evaluate vaccination coverage using LQT in a selected semi-urban setting in Turkey. Methods A LQT-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kecioren District on a representative sample of residents aged 12–23 months in order to evaluate coverage for routine childhood vaccines, to identify health units with coverage below 75%, and to investigate reasons for non-vaccination. Results Based on self-reports, coverage for BCG, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT-3), oral polio-3, hepatitis-3, and measles vaccines ranged between 94–99%. Coverage for measles was below 75% in five lots. The relatively high educational and socioeconomic status of parents in the study group alone could not minimize the "considerable" risk of vaccine-preventable diseases in the District and dictates a continuity of efforts for improving vaccination rates, with special emphasis on measles. We believe that administrative methods should be backed up by household surveys to strengthen vaccination monitoring and that families should be trained and motivated to have their children fully vaccinated according to the recommended schedule and in a timely manner. Conclusion This study identified vaccine coverage for seven routine vaccines completed before the age of 24 months as well as the areas requiring special attention in vaccination services. The LQT, years after its introduction to health-related research, remains an appealing technique for rapid evaluation of the extent of a variety of local health concerns in developing countries, in rural areas in particular, and is very efficient in determining performance of individual subunits in a given service area. Training of local health personnel on use of the LQT could expedite response to local health problems and could even motivate them in conducting their own surveys tailored to their professional interests. PMID:18631382

Cakir, Banu; Uner, Sarp; Temel, Fehminaz; Akin, Levent

2008-01-01

63

Helicobacter pylori infection: a seroepidemiological study in Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Spain.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. To evaluate the prevalence of this infection in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain) we studied the presence of antibodies against Helicobacter pylori (HPAb) using a second-generation EIA (Cobas Core). The study was performed on two groups of subjects: a middle-class group, 2-78 years-old (n = 1335) and a group of slum dwellers, 2-15 years-old (n = 89). In the middle-class group the prevalence of HPAb in children under 6 was 3.1% (3/96); the prevalence was significantly greater in older compared to younger age groups, reaching 84.3% (102/121) in adults 50-59 years. The geometric mean of the titer in seropositive subjects was also greater in older age groups. By logistic regression analysis the prevalence of HPAb was associated with age, educational level and geographic origin but not with sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, or use of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs. The prevalence of HPAb was much higher in the slum-dwelling group 2-15 years-old (55.5% of children 2-5 years-old). The results indicate that H. pylori infection was more common in adult people from our geographic region than in those from other developed countries and show that socioeconomically deprived children constitute at present a group at high risk of acquiring infection in our region. PMID:9476826

Cilla, G; Pérez-Trallero, E; García-Bengoechea, M; Marimón, J M; Arenas, J I

1997-12-01

64

A Comparative Evaluation of Pisa 2003-2006 Results in Reading Literacy Skills: An Example of Top-Five OECD Countries and Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study it is aimed to describe and evaluate comparatively the reading literacy exam results, the finance of education and schools, and socio-cultural status of parents in Turkey and the top-five OECD countries, Finland, Korea, Canada, Australia, New Zealand respectively, in the light reports and publications by OECD regarding PISA 2003 and…

Aydin, Ayhan; Erdagf, Coskun; Tas, Nuray

2011-01-01

65

The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

66

ICT Driven Knowledge Management in Developing Countries: A Case Study in a Chinese Organisation  

E-print Network

ICT Driven Knowledge Management in Developing Countries: A Case Study in a Chinese Organisation Jin and frameworks might not yield expected results in developing countries. It is necessary to help organisations organisations 1 Introduction Increasingly organisations are keen to adopt knowledge management (KM) strategies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Causality between financial development and economic growth: a case study on selected middle eastern countries  

E-print Network

CAUSALITY BETWEEN FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: A CASE STUDY ON SELECTED MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES A Thesis by MASSA W. ALRAYES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2005 Major Subject: Economics CAUSALITY BETWEEN FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: A CASE STUDY ON SELECTED MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES A...

Alrayes, Massa Waddah

2005-08-29

68

Case Study of a Course for Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course designed to provide the necessary academic study prior to students engaging in the practice of irrigation engineering. Rationale for the course, course structure, and special features of the course are included. (JN)

Morice, Peter B.

1985-01-01

69

Country-of-Origin Effects on Consumers’ Evaluations of Automobiles: Perspectives from a Developing Nation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyzes the influence of country of origin and the critical function country of origin plays in consumers’ automobile purchase decisions. Primary data were collected through a survey from a sample of 940 users of cars across Saudi Arabia. Results suggest that country of origin has a significant impact on Saudi consumers in the automobile industry. The findings of

M. Sadiq Sohail; Osman Gokhan Sahin

2010-01-01

70

HIV vulnerability of men who have sex with men in developing countries: Horizons studies, 2001-2008.  

PubMed

While male-to-male sexual behavior has been recognized as a primary risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), research targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) in less-developed countries has been limited due to high levels of stigma and discrimination. In response, the Population Council's Horizons Program began implementing research activities in Africa and South America beginning in 2001, with the objectives of gathering information on MSM sexual risk behaviors, evaluating HIV-prevention programs, and informing HIV policy makers. The results of this nearly decade-long program are presented in this article as a summary of the Horizons MSM studies in Africa (Senegal and Kenya) and Latin America (Brazil and Paraguay), and include research methodologies, study findings, and interventions evaluated. We also discuss future directions and approaches for HIV research among MSM in developing countries. PMID:20297760

Geibel, Scott; Tun, Waimar; Tapsoba, Placide; Kellerman, Scott

2010-01-01

71

Violence as a public health problem: an ecological study of 169 countries.  

PubMed

Individual level risk factors for violence have been widely studied, but little is known about country-level determinants, particularly in low and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that income inequality, through its detrimental effects on social cohesion, would be related to an increase in violence worldwide, and in low and middle-income countries in particular. We examined country-level associations of violence with socio-economic and health-related factors, using crime statistics from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and indicators from the Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Programme. Using regression models, we measured relationships between country-level factors (age, education, measures of income, health expenditure, and alcohol consumption) and four violent outcomes (including measures of violence-related mortality and morbidity) in up to 169 countries. We stratified our analyses comparing high with low and middle-income countries, and analysed longitudinal data on homicide and income inequality in high-income countries. In low and middle-income countries, income inequality was related to homicide, robbery, and self-reported assault (all p's < 0.05). In high-income countries, urbanicity was significantly associated with official assault (p = 0.002, ? = 0.716) and robbery (p = 0.011, ? = 0.587) rates; income inequality was related to homicide (p = 0.006, ? = 0.670) and self-reported assault (p = 0.020, ? = 0.563), and longitudinally with homicide (p = 0.021). Worldwide, alcohol consumption was associated with self-reported assault rates (p < 0.001, ? = 0.369) suggesting public policy interventions reducing alcohol consumption may contribute to reducing violence rates. Our main finding was that income inequality was related to violence in low and middle-income countries. Public health should advocate for global action to moderate income inequality to reduce the global health burden of violence. PMID:24581081

Wolf, Achim; Gray, Ron; Fazel, Seena

2014-03-01

72

Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

73

Development based climate change adaptation and mitigation—conceptual issues and lessons learned in studies in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the conceptual basis for linking development policies and climate change adaptation and mitigation and\\u000a suggests an analytical approach that can be applied to studies in developing countries. The approach is centred on a broad\\u000a set of policy evaluation criteria that merge traditional economic and sectoral goals and broader social issues related to\\u000a health and income distribution. The

Kirsten Halsnæs; Jan Verhagen

2007-01-01

74

Evaluation of hsp65 Nested PCR-Restriction Analysis (PRA) for Diagnosing Tuberculosis in a High Burden Country  

PubMed Central

Current study evaluated the hsp65 Nested PCR Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA) to detect and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly in clinical samples for a rapid and specific diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA was applied directly to 218 clinical samples obtained from 127 patients suspected of TB or another mycobacterial infection from July 2009 to July 2010. The hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA showed 100% sensitivity and 95.0 and 93.1% specificity in comparison with culture and microscopy (acid fast bacillus smear), respectively. hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA was shown to be a fast and reliable assay for diagnosing TB, which may contribute towards a fast diagnosis that could help the selection of appropriate chemotherapeutic and early epidemiological management of the cases which are of paramount importance in a high TB burden country. PMID:24260739

Macente, Sara; Fujimura Leite, Clarice Queico; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Machado, Luzia Neri Cosmo; Marcondes, Nadir Rodrigues; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Hirata, Rosário Dominguez Crespo

2013-01-01

75

Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, DeLone and McLean's updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for…

Raspopovic, Miroslava; Jankulovic, Aleksandar; Runic, Jovana; Lucic, Vanja

2014-01-01

76

Evaluation of a Grace-Based Combined Geopotential Model over the Baltic Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, many geodetic and engineering applications require that the two essential components of the vertical positioning - the height and the corresponding reference surface (geoid), are determined precisely. The recent advancements of satellite technology have resolved the long-wavelength component of the global geoid with an accuracy of a few cm. The tracking data of the GRACE twin-satellites are the basis for the new combined geopotential model EIGEN-GL04c. This contribution assesses the quality of this model through comparisons with an earlier geopotential model (EGM96) of the Baltic countries. The method of spherical harmonic expansions is used in numerical investigations. The results of evaluation revealed significant discrepancies between the long wavelength contributions of the models, which may reach several decimetres in terms of the geoidal heights. There are also some notable improvements of numerical statistics (assessed by the GPS-levelling data) in the target area when utilizing the new EIGEN-GL04c, instead of using the EGM96. A decimetre level accuracy can be obtained for the EIGEN-GL04c derived geoid model, provided that any datum inconsistencies have been eliminated. This creates necessary preconditions to further improve the geoid models on the regional scale.

Ellmann, Artu; Jürgenson, Harli

2008-06-01

77

Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus. PMID:22583562

2012-01-01

78

Problems of Organising and Reporting Internal and External Evaluation in Developing Countries: The Case of Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to develop capacity to link knowledge to economic growth in developing countries, there is an urgent need to make quality the major element of higher education systems. In Iran, a developing country, such a need was felt a decade ago in the academic community. Based on research projects conducted, a model that combines collegial…

Bazargan, Abbas

2007-01-01

79

Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports teaching practices in mathematics in seven countries from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 video study. A detailed description of the methods in the mathematics portion of the study is presented in an accompanying technical report from an international perspective. Contexts of the lessons, the…

Hiebert, James; Gallimore, Ronald; Garnier, Helen; Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Jacobs, Jennifer; Chui, Angel Miu-Ying; Wearne, Diana; Smith, Margaret; Kersting, Nicole; Manaster, Alfred; Tseng, Ellen; Etterbeek, Wallace; Manaster, Carl; Gonzales, Patrick; Stigler, James

80

A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high schools offering the Ontario curriculum under the auspice of the Ontario Ministry of Education. All teachers completed the Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised (Jerabeck, Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised, 2001) online. The study found that international teachers had a statistically lower level of burnout than teachers working in their country of origin.

Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

2009-01-01

81

The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry: study of errors in dosimetry.  

PubMed

To provide direct estimates of cancer risk after low-dose protracted exposure to ionizing radiation, a large-scale epidemiological study of nuclear industry workers was conducted in 15 countries. As part of this study, identification and quantification of errors in historical recorded doses was conducted based on a review of dosimetric practices and technologies in participating facilities. The main sources of errors on doses from "high-energy" photons (100-3000 keV) were identified as the response of dosimeters in workplace exposure conditions and historical calibration practices. Errors related to dosimetry technology and radiation fields were quantified to derive period- and facility-specific estimates of bias and uncertainties in recorded doses. This was based on (1) an evaluation of predominant workplace radiation from measurement studies and dosimetry expert assessment and (2) an estimation of the energy and geometry response of dosimeters used historically in study facilities. Coefficients were derived to convert recorded doses to H(p) (10) and organ dose, taking into account different aspects of the calibration procedures. A parametric, lognormal error structure model was developed to describe errors in doses as a function of facility and time period. Doses from other radiation types, particularly neutrons and radionuclide intake, could not be adequately reconstructed in the framework of the 15-Country Study. Workers with substantial doses from these radiation types were therefore identified and excluded from analyses. Doses from "lower-energy" photons (<100 keV) and from "higher-energy" photons (>3 MeV) were estimated to be small. PMID:17388692

Thierry-Chef, I; Marshall, M; Fix, J J; Bermann, F; Gilbert, E S; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Murray, W; Pearce, M S; Utterback, D; Bernar, K; Deboodt, P; Eklof, M; Griciene, B; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Lee, M-C; Moser, M; Pernicka, F; Cardis, E

2007-04-01

82

Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on international trends in suicide and to identify sex/age groups and countries most affected. Design Time trend analysis comparing the actual number of suicides in 2009 with the number that would be expected based on trends before the crisis (2000-07). Setting Suicide data from 54 countries; for 53 data were available in the World Health Organization mortality database and for one (the United States) data came the CDC online database. Population People aged 15 or above. Main outcome measures Suicide rate and number of excess suicides in 2009. Results There were an estimated 4884 (95% confidence interval 3907 to 5860) excess suicides in 2009 compared with the number expected based on previous trends (2000-07). The increases in suicide mainly occurred in men in the 27 European and 18 American countries; the suicide rates were 4.2% (3.4% to 5.1%) and 6.4% (5.4% to 7.5%) higher, respectively, in 2009 than expected if earlier trends had continued. For women, there was no change in European countries and the increase in the Americas was smaller than in men (2.3%). Rises in European men were highest in those aged 15-24 (11.7%), while in American countries men aged 45-64 showed the largest increase (5.2%). Rises in national suicide rates in men seemed to be associated with the magnitude of increases in unemployment, particularly in countries with low levels of unemployment before the crisis (Spearman’s rs=0.48). Conclusions After the 2008 economic crisis, rates of suicide increased in the European and American countries studied, particularly in men and in countries with higher levels of job loss. PMID:24046155

2013-01-01

83

Evaluation of the Seismic Hazard in Venezuela with a revised seismic catalog that seeks for harmonization along the country borders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment is a complex endeavor that relies on the quality of the information that comes from different sources: the seismic catalog, active faults parameters, strain rates, etc. Having this in mind, during the last several months, the FUNVISIS seismic hazard group has been working on a review and update of the local data base that form the basis for a reliable PSHA calculation. In particular, the seismic catalog, which provides the necessary information that allows the evaluation of the critical b-value, which controls how seismic occurrence distributes with magnitude, has received particular attention. The seismic catalog is the result of the effort of several generations of researchers along the years; therefore, the catalog necessarily suffers from the lack of consistency, homogeneity and completeness for all ranges of magnitude over any seismic study area. Merging the FUNVISIS instrumental catalog with the ones obtained from international agencies, we present the work that we have been doing to produce a consistent seismic catalog that covers Venezuela entirely, with seismic events starting from 1910 until 2012, and report the magnitude of completeness for the different periods. Also, we present preliminary results on the Seismic Hazard evaluation that takes into account such instrumental catalog, the historical catalog, updated known fault geometries and its correspondent parameters, and the new seismic sources that have been defined accordingly. Within the spirit of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), all these efforts look for possible bridges with neighboring countries to establish consistent hazard maps across the borders.

Rendon, H.; Alvarado, L.; Paolini, M.; Olbrich, F.; González, J.; Ascanio, W.

2013-05-01

84

Dell Hymes and the New Language Policy Studies: Update from an Underdeveloped Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay updates Dell Hymes's "Report from an Underdeveloped Country" (the USA), positioning our analysis in the New Language Policy Studies. Taking up Hymes's call for comparative, critical studies of language use, we examine three cases, organizing our analysis around Hymes's questions: What "counts" as a language, a language problem, and…

McCarty, Teresa L.; Collins, James; Hopson, Rodney K.

2011-01-01

85

Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. Recent Developments in Continuing Professional Education. Country Study: Yugoslavia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in continuing professional education, contains two papers on recent developments in Yugoslavia. The first presents the findings of a study of continuing professional education at Belgrade University in Serbia and at Titograd University in Montenegro.…

Savicevic, Dusan; Jovanovic, Goran

86

A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high…

Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

2009-01-01

87

Exposure of nonsmoking women to environmental tobacco smoke: a 10-country collaborative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation and interpretability of epidemiologic studies of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) depend largely on the validity of self-reported exposure. To investigate to what extent questionnaires can indicate exposure levels to ETS, an international study was conducted in 13 centers located in 10 countries, and 1,369 nonsmoking women were interviewed. The present paper describes the results of the analysis of

Elio Riboli; Susan Preston-Martin; Rodolfo Saracci; Nancy J. Haley; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Heiko Becher; J. David Burch; Elizabeth T. H. Fontham; Yu-Tang Gao; Surinder K. Jindal; Linda C. Koo; Loïc Marchand; Nereo Segnan; Hiroyuki Shimizu; Giorgio Stanta; Anna H. Wu-Williams; Witold Zatonski

1990-01-01

88

PHS 810-644: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease: Country Studies  

E-print Network

1 PHS 810-644: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease: Country Studies Course and those participating in the Certificate in Global Health. Upper-level undergraduate students may also plan to participate in a PHS 645 Global Health Field Study or other credit-based field experiences

Sheridan, Jennifer

89

Evaluation of invalid vaccine doses in 31 countries of the WHO African Region.  

PubMed

We examined (a) the fraction of and extent to which vaccinations were administered earlier than recommended (age-invalid) or with too short intervals between vaccine doses (interval-invalid) in countries of the World Health Organisation (WHO) African Region and (b) individual- and community-level factors associated with invalid vaccinations using multilevel techniques. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in the last 10 years in 31 countries were used. Information about childhood vaccinations was based on vaccination records (n=134,442). Invalid vaccinations (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis [DTP1, DTP3] and measles-containing vaccine (MCV)) were defined using the WHO criteria. The median percentages of invalid DTP1, DTP3 and MCV vaccinations across all countries were 12.1% (interquartile range, 9.4-15.2%), 5.7% (5.0-7.6%), and 15.5% (10.0-18.1%), respectively. Of the invalid DTP1 vaccinations, 7.4% and 5.5% were administered at child's age of less than one and two weeks, respectively. In 12 countries, the proportion of invalid DTP3 vaccinations administered with an interval of less than two weeks before the preceding dose varied between 30% and 50%. In 13 countries, the proportion of MCV doses administered at child's age of less than six months varied between 20% and 45%. Community-level variables explained part of the variation in invalid vaccinations. Invalid vaccinations are common in African countries. Timing of childhood vaccinations should be improved to ensure an optimal protection against vaccine-preventable infections and to avoid unnecessary wastage in these economically deprived countries. PMID:25523526

Akmatov, Manas K; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Pessler, Frank; Guzman, Carlos A; Krause, Gérard; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

2015-02-11

90

Theory-driven process evaluation of a complementary feeding trial in four countries.  

PubMed

We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square tests to examine differences between treatment groups. We administered exit interviews to 219 caregivers and 45 intervention staff to explore why caregivers may or may not have performed suggested infant feeding behaviors. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between caregiver scores and infant linear growth velocity. As message recall increased, irrespective of treatment group, linear growth velocity increased when controlling for other factors (P < 0.05), emphasizing the importance of study messages. Our detailed process evaluation revealed few differences between treatment groups, giving us confidence that the main trial's lack of effect to reverse the progression of stunting cannot be explained by differences between groups or inconsistencies in protocol implementation. These findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting limited impact on stunting of interventions initiated during the period of complementary feeding in impoverished environments. The early onset and steady progression support the provision of earlier and comprehensive interventions. PMID:24399265

Newman, Jamie E; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Michael Hambidge, K; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A; Bose, Carl L; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F

2014-04-01

91

The practice of obtaining approval from medical research ethics committees: a comparison within 12 European countries for a descriptive study on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across Europe the protection of research subjects with dementia has to meet a variety of national legislation and ethical codes. This research project compared how in different EU countries one single descriptive multinational study on dementia treatment strategies was evaluated by medical ethical committees and how the issues of informed consent and capacity to consent were dealt with. The study

M. G. M. Olde Rikkert; S. Lauque; L. Frolich; B. Vellas; W. J. M. Dekkers

2005-01-01

92

Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.  

PubMed

Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Filho, Alberto Pellegrini; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

2014-10-15

93

A Study of Students' Understanding of Electricity in Five European Countries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes a study of the understanding of basic electrical concepts shown by 15-17 year-old students in England, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and West Germany, the same objective test having been administered to samples of students in each of these countries. When within-country results were averaged across student groups the between-country differences on many aspects of this subject were quite small. Those electrical principles which yielded significant differences fell into two main groups, one concerned with current, flow of charge and energy, the other with voltage and its relationship to current. The consistency with which these significant differences emerged across a range of problems concerning related principles suggests that these represent real differences between the outcomes of teaching across the five countries but the causes of these differences are not yet clear. Despite the differences that have emerged, the overall impression which the results convey is of substantially the same pattern of learning difficulties across countries and the existence of an almost 'natural' coherence to these learning difficulties within cognitive structure.

Shipstone, David; Rhoneck, C. V.; Jung, W.; Karrqvist, C.; Dupin, J.; Johsua, S.

2006-12-07

94

Education Data Quality in the Third World: A Five Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings from a study of the confidence expressed by ministry-level decision makers in five developing countries (i.e., Somalia, Botswana, Liberia, Yemen, and Nepal) about the quality of the national-level education data available to them and reasons for the perceived 16-40 percent error rate. (DMM)

Chapman, David W.

1991-01-01

95

International Education: A Directory of Resource Materials on Comparative Education and Study in Another Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This selective, annotated bibliography presents reference materials concerning international education in its broadest aspects. It is intended for all those interested in study, teaching, or work in a country other than their own. Part I, Description and Comparison of Education Systems of the World, organized by world, region, and nation, cites…

von Klemperer, Lily

96

The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

97

A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

Hien, P. D.

2010-01-01

98

Religion and fertility ideals, intentions and behaviour: a comparative study of European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

European demographers rarely study religion as a determinant of contemporary demographic behaviour. One reason could be the secularisation observed in European countries, implying that the effect of religiosity has been diminishing. This paper aims to show that religion can have an important impact on ideals, intentions and behaviour related to fertility. First we discuss recent trends in religiosity. We base

Caroline Berghammer; Dimiter Philipov

2007-01-01

99

Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

2009-01-01

100

Family Structure and Children’s Living Conditions. A Comparative Study of 24 Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses large-scale cross-national data from 24 countries to describe the living conditions of children residing with\\u000a a single mother as compared with children who live with two original parents. Three central areas are studied: children’s\\u000a social support, health, and material resources. The data are derived from the international WHO study Health Behaviour in\\u000a School-aged Children (HBSC) of 2001\\/02.

Sara Brolin Låftman

2010-01-01

101

P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

102

AGROCHEMICAL HAZARDS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS AND EVALUATION OF SUCH HAZARDS WITH EMPHASIS ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many developing countries are lacking protein in the diets of their population. Aquatic systems are good sources of protein in many areas with fish and shellfish as the main sources. The misuse of agrochemicals can directly or indirectly affect the use and suitability of these pr...

103

Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): Case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Although more than 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries, knowledge of the importance of risk factors is largely derived from developed countries. Therefore, the effect of such factors on risk of coronary heart disease in most regions of the world is unknown. Methods We established a standardised case-control study of

Salim Yusuf; Steven Hawken; S. Ounpuu

2004-01-01

104

Measuring socioeconomic status in multicountry studies: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study  

PubMed Central

Background There is no standardized approach to comparing socioeconomic status (SES) across multiple sites in epidemiological studies. This is particularly problematic when cross-country comparisons are of interest. We sought to develop a simple measure of SES that would perform well across diverse, resource-limited settings. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 800 children aged 24 to 60 months across eight resource-limited settings. Parents were asked to respond to a household SES questionnaire, and the height of each child was measured. A statistical analysis was done in two phases. First, the best approach for selecting and weighting household assets as a proxy for wealth was identified. We compared four approaches to measuring wealth: maternal education, principal components analysis, Multidimensional Poverty Index, and a novel variable selection approach based on the use of random forests. Second, the selected wealth measure was combined with other relevant variables to form a more complete measure of household SES. We used child height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) as the outcome of interest. Results Mean age of study children was 41 months, 52% were boys, and 42% were stunted. Using cross-validation, we found that random forests yielded the lowest prediction error when selecting assets as a measure of household wealth. The final SES index included access to improved water and sanitation, eight selected assets, maternal education, and household income (the WAMI index). A 25% difference in the WAMI index was positively associated with a difference of 0.38 standard deviations in HAZ (95% CI 0.22 to 0.55). Conclusions Statistical learning methods such as random forests provide an alternative to principal components analysis in the development of SES scores. Results from this multicountry study demonstrate the validity of a simplified SES index. With further validation, this simplified index may provide a standard approach for SES adjustment across resource-limited settings. PMID:24656134

2014-01-01

105

Tuberculosis care: an evaluability study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the tuberculosis control program (TCP) is evaluable and to examine the feasibility of building an evaluation model in apriority municipality for the control of tuberculosis. METHOD: this evaluability study was conducted in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. For data collection, documental analysis and interviews with key informants were performed. For indicator validation, the nominal group technique was adopted. RESULTS: the details of TCP were described, and both the logical model and the classification framework for indicators were developed and agreed up on, with the goal of characterizing the structural elements of the program, defining the structure and process indicators, and formulating the evaluation questions. CONCLUSION: TCP is evaluable. Based on logical operational analysis, it was possible to evaluate the adequacy of the program goals for the control of tuberculosis. Therefore, the performance of a summative evaluation is recommended, with a focus on the analysis of the effects of tuberculosis control interventions on decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:25493675

Coelho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Cláudia Santos; Brito, Ewerton Willian Gomes; Negrão, Oswaldo Gomes Corrêa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa

2014-01-01

106

First aid guidelines for psychosis in Asian countries: A Delphi consensus study  

PubMed Central

Background Guidelines for how a member of the public should give first aid to a person who is becoming psychotic have been developed for English-speaking countries. However, these guidelines may not be appropriate for use in other cultures. A study was therefore carried out to examine whether it was possible to achieve consensus on guidelines that could apply in a range of Asian countries. Methods A Delphi consensus study was carried out with a panel of 28 Asian mental health clinicians drawn from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. The panel was given a 211 item questionnaire about possible first aid actions and asked to rate whether they thought these should be included in guidelines. Panel members were invited to propose additional items. Results After three Delphi rounds, there were 128 items that were rated as "essential" or "important" by 80% or more of the panel members. These items covered: recognition of psychosis, encouraging and assisting the person to seek help, how to interact with the person, responding to acute psychosis, responding to aggression, and what to do if the person refuses to get professional help. Conclusion Despite the diversity of the countries involved, there was consensus on a core set of first aid items that were considered as suitable for assisting a psychotic person. Future work is needed to develop guidelines for specific countries. PMID:18291042

Jorm, Anthony F; Minas, Harry; Langlands, Robyn L; Kelly, Claire M

2008-01-01

107

Cigarette Smoking, Coronary Heart Disease and All-Causes Mortality in the Seven Countries Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When the Seven Countries Study started in 1958 the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer was already known\\u000a (1,2). The 1962 data of the Framingham and Albany studies showed that cigarette smoking was also an important risk factor for\\u000a CHD (3). At that time, high prevalence rates of cigarette smoking (75-90%) were observed in middle-aged men in Great Britain

Daan Kromhout

108

The Incidence of Hip Fracture in Four Asian Countries: The Asian Osteoporosis Study (AOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The Asian Osteoporosis Study (AOS) is the first multicenter study to document and compare the incidence of hip fracture in\\u000a four Asian countries. Hospital discharge data for the year 1997 were obtained for the Hong Kong SAR, Singapore, Malaysia and\\u000a Thailand (Chiang Mai). The number of patients who were 50 years of age and older and who were discharged

E. M. C. Lau; J. K. Lee; P. Suriwongpaisal; S. M. Saw; S. Das De; A. Khir; P. Sambrook

2001-01-01

109

A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout\\u000a level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated\\u000a in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high schools offering the Ontario\\u000a curriculum under

Mary Ann Coulter; Paul C. Abney

2009-01-01

110

Cost of dengue cases in eight countries in the Americas and Asia: a prospective study.  

PubMed

Despite the growing worldwide burden of dengue fever, the global economic impact of dengue illness is poorly documented. Using a common protocol, we present the first multicountry estimates of the direct and indirect costs of dengue cases in eight American and Asian countries. We conducted prospective studies of the cost of dengue in five countries in the Americas (Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, and Venezuela) and three countries in Asia (Cambodia, Malaysia, and Thailand). All studies followed the same core protocol with interviews and medical record reviews. The study populations were patients treated in ambulatory and hospital settings with a clinical diagnosis of dengue. Most studies were performed in 2005. Costs are in 2005 international dollars (I$). We studied 1,695 patients (48% pediatric and 52% adult); none died. The average illness lasted 11.9 days for ambulatory patients and 11.0 days for hospitalized patients. Among hospitalized patients, students lost 5.6 days of school, whereas those working lost 9.9 work days per average dengue episode. Overall mean costs were I$514 and I$1,394 for an ambulatory and hospitalized case, respectively. With an annual average of 574,000 cases reported, the aggregate annual economic cost of dengue for the eight study countries is at least I$587 million. Preliminary adjustment for under-reporting could raise this total to $1.8 billion, and incorporating costs of dengue surveillance and vector control would raise the amount further. Dengue imposes substantial costs on both the health sector and the overall economy. PMID:19407136

Suaya, Jose A; Shepard, Donald S; Siqueira, João B; Martelli, Celina T; Lum, Lucy C S; Tan, Lian Huat; Kongsin, Sukhontha; Jiamton, Sukhum; Garrido, Fàtima; Montoya, Romeo; Armien, Blas; Huy, Rekol; Castillo, Leticia; Caram, Mariana; Sah, Binod K; Sughayyar, Rana; Tyo, Karen R; Halstead, Scott B

2009-05-01

111

Yield estimation using SPOT-VEGETATION products: A case study of wheat in European countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the period 1999-2009 ten-day SPOT-VEGETATION products of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) at 1 km spatial resolution were used in order to estimate and forecast the wheat yield over Europe. The products were used together with official wheat yield statistics to fine-tune a statistical model for each NUTS2 region, based on the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) method. This method has been chosen to construct the model in the presence of many correlated predictor variables (10-day values of remote sensing indicators) and a limited number of wheat yield observations. The model was run in two different modalities: the "monitoring mode", which allows for an overall yield assessment at the end of the growing season, and the "forecasting mode", which provides early and timely yield estimates when the growing season is on-going. Performances of yield estimation at the regional and national level were evaluated using a cross-validation technique against yield statistics and the estimations were compared with those of a reference crop growth model. Models based on either NDVI or FAPAR normalized indicators achieved similar results with a minimal advantage of the model based on the FAPAR product. Best modelling results were obtained for the countries in Central Europe (Poland, North-Eastern Germany) and also Great Britain. By contrast, poor model performances characterize countries as follows: Sweden, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, Romania and Hungary. Country level yield estimates using the PLSR model in the monitoring mode, and those of a reference crop growth model that do not make use of remote sensing information showed comparable accuracies. The largest estimation errors were observed in Portugal, Spain and Finland for both approaches. This convergence may indicate poor reliability of the official yield statistics in these countries.

Kowalik, Wanda; Dabrowska-Zielinska, Katarzyna; Meroni, Michele; Raczka, Teresa Urszula; de Wit, Allard

2014-10-01

112

An econometric study of the demand for gasoline in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries  

SciTech Connect

Reliable and accurate estimation of price and income elasticities of demand for gasoline are important ingredients for long-run energy planning and policy formation. The purpose of this study is to develop and estimate a model for gasoline demand for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Oatar, Saufi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The model is capable of producing short-run and long-run price and income elasticities. Since the first oil price hike in 1973, a great deal of attention has been directed toward the demand for gasoline, especially in the industrialized countries. Few studies have been directed toward the demand for gasoline in developing countries. In terms of primary energy consumption, the GCC`s energy needs are met by oil, natural gas, and electricity. Without any doubt, oil is the largest energy source consumed and gasoline is the most important oil product. However, very few studies have been directed toward analyzing GCC energy demand, and yet there has been not attempt to model and estimate GCC gasoline demand. This study attempts to address this gap.

Eltony, M.N.

1994-12-31

113

Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

2013-09-01

114

Evaluation of Fluorotype MTB for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in clinical specimens from a low-incidence country  

PubMed Central

Background With Fluorotype MTB (FT MTB, HAIN Lifesciences, Germany) a new semi-automated assay for detection of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in clinical specimens has been introduced. In a prospective study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of FT MTB in a routine diagnostic setting in a low-incidence country. Methods A total of 1039 respiratory specimens received for routine mycobacteriology diagnostics were analysed by FT MTB. Results were compared to those of culture, microscopy and clinical diagnosis. 61 specimens were excluded from further analysis due to bacterial contamination of cultures. Results FT MTB detected 52 of 59 TB specimens (45 culture-positive with MTBC, 7 with clinical diagnosis of TB). With 902 of 912 non-TB specimens (884 culture-negative, 18 with growth of non-tuberculous mycobacteria) FT MTB was negative; discrepant positive FT MTB results were found with 10 specimens. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 88.1%, 98.9%, 83.8% and 99.2%. Sensitivity rates for smear-positive and smear-negative TB specimens were 100% and 56.3%, respectively. Seven of 978 samples (0.7%) yielded invalid FT MTB results. Conclusions FT MTB is a new accurate, half automated assay for rapidly diagnosing TB and suitable for larger series of samples. Performance characteristics were found to be similar to those of other commercial NAATs. Its sensitivity in paucibacillary, smear-negative specimens and its utility for TB diagnostics in high-incidence settings needs to be addressed in further studies. PMID:24498967

2014-01-01

115

The Missing Link: Deficits of Country-Level Studies. A Review of 22 Articles Explaining Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explain country differences in an analytical or structural dependent variable, the application of a macro-micro-model containing contextual hypotheses is necessary. Our methodological study examines whether empirical studies apply such a model. We propose that a theoretical base for country differences is well described in multilevel studies,…

Nonnenmacher, Alexandra; Friedrichs, Jurgen

2013-01-01

116

What have studies of non-industrialized countries told us about the cause of allergic disease?  

PubMed

The increase in allergic diseases that was observed in countries that had experienced rapid economic growth since the mid-20th century initiated a search for environmental exposures that may explain these phenomena that continues to the present day. Societies that are in the earlier stages of the process of industrialization provide an opportunity to compare the initial stages of economic development and the lifestyle changes that may accompany this, with other communities whose way of life may not have changed appreciably for centuries. These studies have consistently demonstrated higher levels of allergic disease in the relatively affluent populations compared with those who maintain a more traditional lifestyle. Environmental changes that have emerged from these studies that may modify the risk of allergic disease include microbial exposures including parasite infection, pollution, diet and obesity. In addition, food and drug allergies represent a neglected area of research in these countries that may be causing a relatively high burden of disease. PMID:24807225

Fogarty, A W

2015-01-01

117

Association between Obesity and Selected Morbidities: A Study of BRICS Countries  

PubMed Central

Objective Over the past few decades, obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic diseases and disability. There is little evidence on obesity related co-morbidities in BRICS countries. The first objective is to examine the factors associated with overweight and obesity in four of the five BRICS countries (China, India, Russia and South Africa). The second is to examine the linkage of obesity with selected morbidities. Methods We used data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in China, India, Russia and South Africa during 2007–10. The morbidities included in the analysis are Hypertension, Diabetes, Angina, Stroke, Arthritis and Depression. Findings The prevalence of obesity was highest in South Africa (35%) followed by Russia (22%), China (5%) and India (3%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in females as compared to males in all the countries. While the wealth quintile was associated with overweight in India and China, engaging in work requiring physical activity was associated with obesity in China and South Africa. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with Hypertension and Diabetes in all the four countries. Obesity was also positively associated with Arthritis and Angina in China, Russia and South Africa. In comparison, overweight/obesity was not associated with Stroke and Depression in any of the four countries. Conclusion Obesity was statistically associated with Hypertension, Angina, Diabetes and Arthritis in China, Russia and South Africa. In India, obesity was associated only with Hypertension and Diabetes. PMID:24718033

Shukla, Ankita; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Singh, Abhishek

2014-01-01

118

BABCOCK INSTITUTE DISCUSSION PAPER THE DAIRY SECTOR OF CHINA: A COUNTRY STUDY  

E-print Network

-265-4169. #12;COnTenTS exeCUTIve SUMMAry 1 InTrODUCTIOn 3 ChInA'S GeOGrAphy 4 ChInA'S eCOnOMy 5 Overview 5BABCOCK INSTITUTE DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 2011-2 THE DAIRY SECTOR OF CHINA: A COUNTRY STUDY William D economic Growth 7 Demographics 8 Inflation 9 exchange rates 10 ease of Doing Business in China 10 ChInA

Bohnhoff, David

119

A CROSS-COUNTRY STUDY OF ELECTRONIC BUSINESS ADOPTION USING THE TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION-ENVIRONMENT FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we developed a conceptual model for electronic business (e-business or EB) adoption incorporating six adoption facilitators and inhibitors, based on the technology-organization-environment framework. Survey data from 3,100 businesses and 7,500 consumers in eight European countries were used to test the model. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis to assess the reliability and validity of constructs. To examine whether

Kevin Zhu; Kenneth L. Kraemer; Sean Xu

120

Stagnant Neonatal Mortality and Persistent Health Inequality in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country’s socioeconomic-related child health inequality. Methodology Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. Findings Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education), regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. Conclusion The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality – that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system – to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country inequalities in child health. PMID:23308278

Kraft, Aleli D.; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

2013-01-01

121

Epidemiology of stillbirth in low-middle income countries: A Global Network Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine population-based stillbirth rates and to determine whether the timing and maturity of the stillbirths suggest a high proportion of potentially preventable deaths. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Communities in six low-income countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Zambia, Guatemala, India, and Pakistan) and one site in a mid-income country (Argentina). Population Pregnant women residing in the study communities. Methods Over a five-year period, in selected catchment areas, using multiple methodologies, trained study staff obtained pregnancy outcomes on each delivery in their area. Main outcome measures Pregnancy outcome, stillbirth characteristics. Results Outcomes of 195 400 deliveries were included. Stillbirth rates ranged from 32 per 1 000 in Pakistan to 8 per 1 000 births in Argentina. Three-fourths (76%) of stillbirth off-spring were not macerated, 63% were ?37 weeks and 48% weighed 2 500g or more. Across all sites, women with no education, of high and low parity, of older age, and without access to antenatal care were at significantly greater risk for stillbirth (p<0.001). Compared to those delivered by a physician, women delivered by nurses and traditional birth attendants had a lower risk of stillbirth. Conclusions In these low-middle income countries, most stillbirth offspring were not macerated, were reported as ?37 weeks’ gestation, and almost half weighed at least 2 500g. With access to better medical care, especially in the intrapartum period, many of these stillbirths could likely be prevented. PMID:21916854

McCLURE, ELIZABETH M.; PASHA, OMRANA; GOUDAR, SHIVAPRASAD S.; CHOMBA, ELWYN; GARCES, ANA; TSHEFU, ANTOINETTE; ALTHABE, FERNANDO; ESAMAI, FABIAN; PATEL, ARCHANA; WRIGHT, LINDA L.; MOORE, JANET; KODKANY, BHALCHANDRA S.; BELIZAN, JOSE M.; SALEEM, SARAH; DERMAN, RICHARD J.; CARLO, WALDEMAR A.; HAMBIDGE, K. MICHAEL; BUEKENS, PIERRE; LIECHTY, EDWARD A.; BOSE, CARL; KOSO-THOMAS, MARION; JOBE, ALAN H.; GOLDENBERG, ROBERT L.

2012-01-01

122

Field Evaluation of a Coproantigen Detection Test for Fascioliasis Diagnosis and Surveillance in Human Hyperendemic Areas of Andean Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA) was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. Methodology and Findings A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD) and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg) in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg), nor in Huacullani high burden cases (?400 epg), although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg). Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg). Conclusions The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase, early detection of treatment failure or reinfection in post-treated subjects, and usefulness in surveillance programs. However, this technique falls short when evaluating the fluke burden on its own. PMID:23029575

Valero, María Adela; Periago, María Victoria; Pérez-Crespo, Ignacio; Angles, René; Villegas, Fidel; Aguirre, Carlos; Strauss, Wilma; Espinoza, José R.; Herrera, Patricia; Terashima, Angelica; Tamayo, Hugo; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Mas-Coma, Santiago

2012-01-01

123

Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.  

PubMed

Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries. PMID:24973053

Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

2014-12-01

124

Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study  

PubMed Central

Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p?=?0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p?=?0.17). Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to malnutrition. PMID:23237098

2012-01-01

125

Systematic sports medical prophylactic evaluations in the countries of the former USSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPeriodic health evaluations for athletes are widely discussed in the sports medical literature, and are intended to screen for underlying cardiovascular disease, identify sports injury risk factors and posture disturbances, as well as exercise induced physiological conditions.ObjectiveTo review the systematic the athletes' periodic health evaluations in the territories of the former USSR.ParticipantsSelected sports medicine outpatient centres (SMC) and sports medicine

P Mustafins; A Landyr; I Schybria; J Istomina; T Gurevich

2011-01-01

126

Understanding and measuring student engagement in school: the results of an international study from 12 countries.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to develop a scale that is appropriate for use internationally to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data of 3,420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th grade) from 12 countries (Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States). The intraclass correlation of the full-scale scores of student engagement between countries revealed that it was appropriate to aggregate the data from the 12 countries for further analyses. Coefficient alphas revealed good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability coefficients were also acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the data fit well to a second-order model with affective, behavioral, and cognitive engagement as the first-order factors and student engagement as the second-order factor. The results support the use of this scale to measure student engagement as a metaconstruct. Furthermore, the significant correlations of the scale with instructional practices, teacher support, peer support, parent support, emotions, academic performance, and school conduct indicated good concurrent validity of the scale. Considerations and implications regarding the international use of this student engagement in school measure are discussed. PMID:24933218

Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Wong, Bernard P H; Kikas, Eve; Shin, Hyeonsook; Veiga, Feliciano H; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Cefai, Carmel; Negovan, Valeria; Stanculescu, Elena; Yang, Hongfei; Liu, Yi; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Nelson, Brett; Zollneritsch, Josef

2014-06-01

127

BIQSFP-12-CEA-Study-Evaluation-Template  

Cancer.gov

BIQSFP ‘12 (Biomarker, Imaging, & Quality of Life Studies Funding Program) COST- EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS (CEA) Study Evaluation Template BIQSFP ‘12 CEA Study Evaluation Template 3/11,3/12 STUDY EVALUATION TEMPLATE Cost-Effectiveness

128

Global childhood unintentional injury surveillance in four cities in developing countries: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the frequency and nature of childhood injuries and to explore the risk factors for such injuries in low-income countries by using emergency department (ED) surveillance data. Methods This pilot study represents the initial phase of a multi-country global childhood unintentional injury surveillance (GCUIS) project and was based on a sequential sample of children < 11 years of age of either gender who presented to selected EDs in Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt and Pakistan over a 3–4 month period, which varied for each site, in 2007. Findings Of 1559 injured children across all sites, 1010 (65%) were male; 941 (60%) were aged ? 5 years, 32 (2%) were < 1 year old. Injuries were especially frequent (34%) during the morning hours. They occurred in and around the home in 56% of the cases, outside while children played in 63% and during trips in 11%. Of all the injuries observed, 913 (56%) involved falls; 350 (22%), road traffic injuries; 210 (13%), burns; 66 (4%), poisoning; and 20 (1%), near drowning or drowning. Falls occurred most often from stairs or ladders; road traffic injuries most often involved pedestrians; the majority of burns were from hot liquids; poisonings typically involved medicines, and most drowning occurred in the home. The mean injury severity score was highest for near drowning or drowning (11), followed closely by road traffic injuries (10). There were 6 deaths, of which 2 resulted from drowning, 2 from falls and 2 from road traffic injuries. Conclusion Hospitals in low-income countries bear a substantial burden of childhood injuries, and systematic surveillance is required to identify the epidemiological distribution of such injuries and understand their risk factors. Methodological standardization for surveillance across countries makes it possible to draw international comparisons and identify common issues. PMID:19551252

Sugerman, David E; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Razzak, Junaid; El-Sayed, Hesham; Isaza, Andres; Rahman, Fazlur; Peden, Margie

2009-01-01

129

Industrial laser welding evaluation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High power laser welding was evaluated for fabricating space vehicle boosters. This evaluation was made for 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. aluminum (2219) and 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. D6AC steel. The Avco HPL 10 kW industrial laser was used to perform the evaluation. The objective has been achieved through the completion of the following technical tasks: (1) parameter study to optimize welding and material parameters; (2) preparation of welded panels for MSFC evaluation; and (3) demonstration of the repeatability of laser welding equipment. In addition, the design concept for a laser welding system capable of welding large space vehicle boosters has been developed.

Hella, R.; Locke, E.; Ream, S.

1974-01-01

130

Detecting and Responding to a Dengue Outbreak: Evaluation of Existing Strategies in Country Outbreak Response Planning  

PubMed Central

Background. Dengue outbreaks are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Evidence-based epidemic preparedness and effective response are now a matter of urgency. Therefore, we have analysed national and municipal dengue outbreak response plans. Methods. Thirteen country plans from Asia, Latin America and Australia, and one international plan were obtained from the World Health Organization. The information was transferred to a data analysis matrix where information was extracted according to predefined and emerging themes and analysed for scope, inconsistencies, omissions, and usefulness. Findings. Outbreak response planning currently has a considerable number of flaws. Outbreak governance was weak with a lack of clarity of stakeholder roles. Late timing of responses due to poor surveillance, a lack of combining routine data with additional alerts, and lack of triggers for initiating the response weakened the functionality of plans. Frequently an outbreak was not defined, and early response mechanisms based on alert signals were neglected. There was a distinct lack of consideration of contextual influences which can affect how an outbreak detection and response is managed. Conclusion. A model contingency plan for dengue outbreak prediction, detection, and response may help national disease control authorities to develop their own more detailed and functional context specific plans. PMID:24222774

Kroeger, Axel; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; O'Dempsey, Tim

2013-01-01

131

Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95% level of confidence: 37% variance explained on the environmental sustainability performance composite indicator out of 73%, 55% (of 55%) on the waste and pollution subindex, 20% (of 70%) on the sustainable energy subindex, 5% (of 100%) on the sustainable cities subindex, and 55% (of 81%) on the GHG indicator. Energy prices are relevant to Canadian policy; increasing prices could substantially improve Canada's performance. Policy makers should increase energy prices through a carbon pricing strategy that is congruent with the ecological fiscal reform advanced by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Keywords: sustainable development; composite indices; environmental policy; environmental governance; energy prices; Canada.

Calbick, Kenneth S.

132

Process evaluation of a community-based program for prevention and control of non-communicable disease in a developing country: The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of mortality in Iran. A six-year, comprehensive, integrated community-based demonstration study entitled Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) conducted in Iran, and it started in 2000. Evaluation and monitoring are integrated parts of this quasi-experimental trial, and consists of process, as well as short and long-term impact evaluations. This paper presents the design of the "process evaluation" for IHHP, and the results pertaining to some interventional strategies that were implemented in workplaces Methods The process evaluation addresses the internal validity of IHHP by ascertaining the degree to which the program was implemented as intended. The IHHP process evaluation is a triangulated study conducted for all interventions at their respective venues. All interventional activities are monitored to determine why and how some are successful and sustainable, to identify mechanisms as well as barriers and facilitators of implementation. Results The results suggest that factory workers and managers are satisfied with the interventions. In the current study, success was mainly shaped by the organizational readiness and timing of the implementation. Integrating most of activities of the project to the existing ongoing activities of public health officers in worksites is suggested to be the most effective means of implementation of the health promoting activities in workplaces. Conclusion The results of our experience may help other developing countries to plan for similar interventions. PMID:19216762

Rabiei, Katayoun; Kelishadi, Roya; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Kamal; Bahonar, Ahmad; Boshtam, Maryam; Zare, Karim; Sadeghi, Shahryar

2009-01-01

133

Selecting a Learning Management System (LMS) in Developing Countries: Instructors' Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning management systems (LMSs) contain hidden costs, unclear user environments, bulky developer and administration manuals, and limitations with regard to interoperability, integration, localization, and bandwidth requirements. Careful evaluation is required in selecting the most appropriate LMS for use, and this is a general problem in…

Cavus, Nadire

2013-01-01

134

Assessment in Finland: A Scholarly Reflection on One Country's Use of Formative, Summative, and Evaluative Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finland's high test scores have prompted international comparisons of educational policy. This article explores the use of assessment in Finland, particularly the intended use of student assessment and evaluation of schools as described in the National Curriculum. This article explores Finnish educational policy through the lens of formative and…

Hendrickson, Katie A.

2012-01-01

135

Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

2014-08-01

136

Evaluation of the FTA carrier device for human papillomavirus testing in developing countries.  

PubMed

Liquid-based methods for the collection, transportation, and storage of cervical cells are cumbersome and expensive and involve laborious DNA extraction. An FTA cartridge is a solid carrier device, easier to handle and allowing simple DNA elution for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. HPV-DNA results from cervical specimens collected in PreservCyt medium (Hologic, Inc.) and the indicating FTA elute cartridge were compared in an area where transportation and storage may affect the performance of the test. Cervical cells from 319 young adult women enrolled in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial were collected by a nurse using a Cervex brush (Roberts), which was placed on the FTA cartridge and subsequently rinsed in 20 ml of PreservCyt medium. Two 0.5-ml PreservCyt aliquots were frozen for HPV-PCR testing; the FTA cartridges were kept at room temperature. HPV-DNA detection and typing was performed using SPF(10) PCR/DEIA (DNA enzyme immunoassay detection of amplimers)/LiPA(25) system. The percent agreement, agreement among positives, and kappas were estimated. Positivity was higher for FTA compared to PreservCyt specimens (54.5% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). For oncogenic types, the overall agreement was 0.92, the agreement between positives was 0.74, and the kappa was 0.79. For individual HPV types, the overall agreement ranged from 0.97 to 1.00. We did not observe reduced cytology adequacy when specimen collection for cytology was preceded by FTA collection for HPV testing. HPV-DNA detection from FTA cartridges is broadly comparable to detection from PC medium. The higher HPV detection observed for FTA-collected specimens should be explored further. FTA cartridges could provide a simpler and more cost-effective method for cervical cell collection, storage, and transportation for HPV-DNA detection in research settings in developing countries. PMID:22993174

Gonzalez, Paula; Cortes, Bernal; Quint, Wim; Kreimer, Aimée R; Porras, Carolina; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Jimenez, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Struijk, Linda; Hildesheim, Allan; Melchers, Willem

2012-12-01

137

Measuring the Social Rate of Return to R&D in the Energy Industry: A Study of the OECD Countries  

E-print Network

1 Measuring the Social Rate of Return to R&D in the Energy Industry: A Study of the OECD Countries and development in the energy industry using a similar approach to Jones and Williams (1998). Our model tries and significant rate of return that varies for each country. Keywords: social rate of return to R&D, energy, R

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

138

A review of international and UK-based ethical guidelines for researchers conducting nontherapeutic genetic studies in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initiation and implementation of nontherapeutic genetic research projects, sponsored by developed countries and conducted in developing countries, requires careful consideration and awareness of procedures that ensure ethical research. This article reviews, and discusses controversies surrounding, the ethical principles established internationally and recommended by institutions in the UK for designing and implementing nontherapeutic genetic research studies. Before project commencement, the researcher

Shormila Roy Choudhury; Leslie A Knapp

2006-01-01

139

Sustainable Agricultural and Watershed Management in Developing Countries - An India Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of sustainable agricultural and watershed management is to enhance agricultural productivity while protecting and preserving our environment and natural resources. The vast majority of information on sustainable watershed management practices is primarily derived from studies in developed nations with very few inputs from developing nations. Through a USDA-funded project, the University of Delaware (UD) initiated a collaboration with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) located in Hyderabad, India to study sustainable agricultural management practices in developing countries and their impacts on the environment, crop productivity, and socioeconomic conditions of the watershed community. As a part of this project, ICRISAT provided us with a vast amount of data on sustainable agricultural practices and their impacts on runoff, soil and water quality, crop yields, nutrient management and socioeconomic conditions. Conservation practices that were implemented included check dams, groundwater recharge wells, intercropping, nutrient management, integrated pest management and a suite of other practices. Using this information, students and faculty at UD developed teaching modules that were used for education and enrichment of existing UD courses and are also being used for the development of a stand-alone online course. The students and faculty visited India in July 2010 to get a first-hand experience of the conditions in the agricultural watersheds and the impacts of sustainable management practices. The project was a tremendous learning experience for US students and faculty and highlighted the challenges people face in developing countries and how that affects every aspect of their lives. Such challenges include environmental, agricultural, technological, economic, and transportation. Although we experience many of the same challenges, developing countries do not have the technology or economic infrastructure in place to effectively manage these challenges. This presentation highlights: (a) the agricultural and environmental challenges facing developing countries like India; (b) the types of best management practices (BMPs) employed; (c) the impacts of the BMPs in the study watersheds; (d) the development of the online course and (e) the lessons and experiences of the students and faculty from their study visit to India.

Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.

2011-12-01

140

Issues of Sustainable Redevelopment of City Core: A Study of Developed and Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inner city core has undergone maximum misuse and transformation in the absence of building bye laws and regulation, resulting in decay and dilapidated buildings. These city core areas have been places of life, vitality, wealth, power, enlightenment and culture. However these inner city areas have become marginalized in the process of urban growth and has problems related to decay, dwindling economic conditions and dilapidation leading to migration of the population to better and modern areas. This study intends to investigate the impacts of redevelopment within the core area of developed and developing countries, involving environmental, technical, socioeconomic and legal issues that may influence the attainment of sustainable targets for city core redevelopment.

Munoth, N.; Jain, R. K.; Raheja, G.; Brar, T. S.

2013-05-01

141

Students' perceptions and doubts about menstruation in developing countries: a case study from India.  

PubMed

Menstrual education is a vital aspect of adolescent health education. Culture, awareness, and socioeconomic status often exert profound influence on menstrual practices. However, health education programs for young women in developing countries do not often address menstrual hygiene, practices, and disorders. Developing culturally sensitive menstrual health education and hygiene programs for adolescent females has been recommended by professional health organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. These programs cannot be developed without understanding existing myths and perceptions about menstruation in adolescent females of developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study from India was to document existing misconceptions regarding menstruation and perceptions about menarche and various menstrual restrictions that have been understudied. Out of the 612 students invited to participate by asking questions, 381 girls participated by asking specific questions about menstruation (response rate = 62%). The respondents consisted of 84 girls from sixth grade, 117 from seventh grade, and 180 from eighth grade. The questions asked were arranged into the following subthemes: anatomy and physiology, menstrual symptoms, menstrual myths and taboos, health and beauty, menstrual abnormalities, seeking medical advice and home remedies; sanitary pads usage and disposal; diet and lifestyle; and sex education. Results of our study indicate that students had substantial doubts about menstruation and were influenced by societal myths and taboos in relation to menstrual practices. Parents, adolescent care providers, and policy makers in developing countries should advocate for comprehensive sexuality education and resources (e.g., low-cost sanitary pads and school facilities) to promote menstrual health and hygiene promotion. PMID:24618653

Chothe, Vikas; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Seabert, Denise; Asalkar, Mahesh; Rakshe, Sarika; Firke, Arti; Midha, Inuka; Simmons, Robert

2014-05-01

142

How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the Medical Course in Portugal and African Portuguese Speaking Countries  

PubMed Central

Background A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. Methods The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. Results The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p < 0.001) and Professional Behavior (p = 0.043). Conclusions The reliability of the instrument in Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some weaknesses. PMID:21612609

2011-01-01

143

Differences in resource use and costs of dementia care between European countries: Baseline data from the ictus study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  This study aimed to estimate the costs of formal and informal care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, to compare care costs\\u000a across European countries and identify potential differences in cost patterns between countries and regions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  The ICTUS study is a prospective, naturalistic observational study conducted in specialised memory clinics in 12 European\\u000a countries. In total, 1385 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's

Anders Gustavsson; L. Jonsson; T. Rapp; E. Reynish; P. J. Ousset; S. Andrieu; C. Cantet; B. Winblad; B. Vellas; A. Wimo

2010-01-01

144

Human Capital, Social Capital and Innovation: A Multi-Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of two forms of capital, i.e. human capital and social capital, on innovation at the country level. We use secondary data from the World Development Report on a country’s overall human development to test for a relationship between human capital and innovation. We also use previous conceptualisations of social capital as comprising trust, associational activity, and

Mourad Dakhli; Dirk De Clercq

2003-01-01

145

Evaluating the Experience of GAPS—A Methodology for Improving Quality of Mass Immunization Campaigns in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

The existence of pockets of under-vaccinated persons has allowed outbreaks of disease in countries that have achieved high levels of vaccination coverage. A field-based methodology—GAPS (Geographic Assessment of Planning and Services)—was developed to predict, in advance of an immunization campaign, the sites of which are most likely to have a pocket of unvaccinated persons and then use this information to improve planning, supervision, and evaluation of the campaign. At this time, there have been two applications of GAPS (Nepal and Ethiopia). The purpose of this paper was to evaluate these two applications of GAPS and make recommendations regarding its future use. Structured, expert interviews were conducted with at least three campaign organizers to evaluate each application of GAPS using purposive sampling. An evaluation of an individual campaign was considered positive when at least two of the three campaign organizers considered GAPS to be useful and worthwhile. The three campaign organizers interviewed following the GAPS application in Ethiopia responded that GAPS was useful and worth the effort. In Nepal, all four campaign organizers responded that GAPS was useful and worth the effort. Some suggestions for improvement were also identified. Although this evaluation was limited in the number of applications evaluated, GAPS appears to have promise as a practical method to help improve the quality of mass immunization campaigns. And even if no pockets of unvaccinated persons are found, the method may serve as a rapid quality-check of administrative estimates of coverage. Further applications in different settings are needed to confirm these findings or under what circumstances GAPS might best be used. GAPS may also be considered for improving other types of health campaigns, such as distribution of insecticide-treated bednets, vitamin A capsules, and deworming medications. PMID:19902805

Burnham, Gilbert; Winch, Peter J.

2009-01-01

146

Improving energy data collection and analysis in developing countries: a comparative study in Uganda, Liberia, and Sudan  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the resources (funds, analytic equipment and trained personnel) available for collecting and analyzing data in energy planning agencies and organizations in three African countries: Uganda, Liberia, and Sudan. It examines the quality of national energy assessments and energy supply/demand statements conducted in each of these countries. The objectives of this study were: (a) to make recommendations regarding specific training needs in the three countries included in the analysis; and (b) to make observations about planning activities and data collection and analysis problems in these countries that might have application in other countries involved in energy data collection and analysis activities. The methodology consisted of conducting structured interviews with host government personnel in ministries/agencies who participate in energy planning activities in each country, as well as with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) staff members associated with energy planning projects in these countries. Data quality was analyzed and the findings identified a number of analytic and institutional problems common to the countries examined. It delineated criteria that contributed to the success or failure of planning activities.

Burchfield, S.A.

1986-01-01

147

Energy planning in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This book provides discussion of analytical methods for energy-sector planning in developing countries. The author addresses such topics as energy balances, the Reference Energy System (RES), approaches to demand forecasting, project evaluation (including capital budgeting), techniques for dealing with uncertainty, financial accounting as applied to the typical parastatal electric utility of a developing country, techniques for pricing studies, scenario analysis, and approaches to the evaluation of macroeconomic impacts of energy-sector decisions. Extensive use is made of case-study material, including examples from Haiti, Tunisia, the Sudan, Jordan, Mauritius, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Liberia.

Meier, P.M.

1986-01-01

148

Who Uses Smoking Cessation Apps? A Feasibility Study Across Three Countries via Smartphones  

PubMed Central

Background Smartphone use is growing worldwide. While hundreds of smoking cessation apps are currently available in the app stores, there is no information about who uses them. Smartphones also offer potential as a research tool, but this has not previously been explored. Objective This study aims to measure and compare the uptake of a smoking cessation app over one year in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also assesses the feasibility of conducting research via an app, describing respondents’ characteristics (demographics, smoking status, and other health related app use), and examining differences across countries. Methods This is a cross-sectional exploratory study of adults 18 years and older, passively recruited over one year in 2012, who downloaded this study app (Quit Advisor) via the two largest app stores (Apple and Android). Results The total number of app downloads after one year was 1751, 72.98% (1278/1751) of them were Apple operation system users. Of these 1751 participants, 47.68% (835/1751) were from the United States, 29.18% (511/1751) were from the United Kingdom, and 16.68% (292/1751) were from Australia. There were 602 participants, 36.75% (602/1638) that completed a questionnaire within the app. Of these 602 participants, 58.8% (354/602) were female and the mean age was 32 years. There were no significant differences between countries in terms of age, operation system used, number of quitting attempts, and language spoken at home. However, there were significant differences between countries in terms of gender and stage of change. There were 77.2% (465/602) of the respondents that were ready to quit in the next 30 days and the majority of these had never sought professional help (eg, “Quitline”). More than half had downloaded smoking cessation apps in the past and of these, three-quarters had made quitting attempts (lasted at least 24 hours) using an app before. Respondents who had attempted to quit three times or more in the previous year were more likely to have tried smoking cessation apps (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1-5.2). There were 50.2% (302/602) of the respondents that had used other health related apps before. Of these, 89.4% (270/302) were using health related apps at least once a week, but 77.5% (234/302) never checked the credibility of the health app publishers before downloading. Conclusions A smartphone app was able to reach smokers across three countries that were not seeking professional help, but were ready to quit within the next 30 days. Respondents were relatively young and almost demographically similar across all three countries. They also frequently used other health related apps, mostly without checking the credibility of their publishers. PMID:25098439

McGeechan, Kevin; Trevena, Lyndal

2014-01-01

149

Global Inequality in Eye Health: Country-Level Analysis From the Global Burden of Disease Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed global inequality in eye health by using data on the global burden of disease measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods. We estimated the burden of eye disease by calculating the sum of DALYs (from the Global Burden of Disease study, 2004 update) due to trachoma, vitamin A deficiency, glaucoma, cataract, refractive errors, and macular degeneration. We assessed the geographic distribution of eye disease in relation to economic status and etiology by calculating the Gini coefficient, the Theil index, and the Atkinson index. Results. The global burden of eye disease was estimated at 61.4 million DALYs worldwide (4.0% of total DALYs). Vitamin A deficiency and trachoma were distributed more unevenly than were noncommunicable eye diseases, regardless of economic status. For noncommunicable eye diseases, the major contributor was refractive errors, regardless of economic status. The most uneven distribution was observed for cataract (high-income countries) and refractive errors (middle- and low-income countries). Conclusions. Creating new eye health service for refractive errors and reducing the unacceptable eye health disparity in refractive errors should be the highest priorities for international public health services in eye care and eye health. PMID:20634443

Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Murakami, Akira

2010-01-01

150

The IEA Six Subject Survey: An Empirical Study of Education in Twenty-One Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to describe in nontechnical language the objectives, methods and findings of the six subject study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement during the years 1966-1973. The six subjects covered in the study were Science, Reading Comprehension, Literature, English as a…

Walker, David A.

151

Abstract--A methodology to evaluate the installation of new electricity metering technologies in a developing country is  

E-print Network

1 Abstract-- A methodology to evaluate the installation of new electricity metering technologies to encourage users to reduce their energy consumption. This paper proposes a methodology to study the impact

Dixon, Juan

152

Trade Potential of Agricultural Products Case Study of Iran and OIC Members Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islamic countries with attending in Islamic Conference Organization(OIC) , reach to active economic integration that can affect world economy and the parameters of national economy and the international relation between other countries.It can solve economic problems at international or regional scales as well in a less scale than the world issue.As far as major Islamic members countries are developing and

Hossein Karimi

153

A descriptive study of commonly used postoperative approaches to pediatric stoma care in a developing country.  

PubMed

Construction of an enterostomy is a common procedure in pediatric surgery. However, caring for the child with a stoma is challenging for parents in developing countries. Modern devices such as colostomy bags and accessories are expensive and not readily available. The purpose of this study was to describe methods of effluent collection and peristomal skin protection used by the mothers of colostomy patients. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted between January and December 2011 during the first three postoperative outpatient clinic visits among mothers of children who had a colostomy constructed in the authors' hospital. The mothers of 44 children (27 males, 17 females, median age 3.3 months, range 2 days to 11 years) consented to participate. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the records, and mothers were interviewed and asked to describe their preferred methods of colostomy effluent collection and peristomal skin protection. The stomas also were inspected at each clinic visit. Anorectal malformations were the most common indication for a colostomy (32, 72.73%), followed by Hirschsprung's disease (11, 25%). Forty-two (42) patients had a divided sigmoid colostomy (95.45%); two patients had a right loop transverse colostomy (4.55%). Nine mothers alternated between two different collection methods. The diaper collection method was described most frequently (22 out of 53; 41.51%), followed by wraparound waistbands (19; 35.85%) and improvised colostomy bags (12; 22.64%). Peristomal skin excoriations were commonly seen within the first 3 weeks postsurgery and had mostly disappeared by the week 6 postoperative visit. Petrolatum jelly was the most commonly used barrier ointment. These locally available, acceptable, and affordable collection methods may be useful for children in other developing countries. PMID:24334363

Anyanwu, Lofty-John C; Mohammad, Aminu; Oyebanji, Tunde

2013-12-01

154

Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

1980-01-01

155

Upper stage technology evaluation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

1972-01-01

156

Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…

Eid, Ashraf

2012-01-01

157

Value Orientations and Studying in School-Leisure Conflict: A Study with Samples from Five Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relations between students' value orientations and experiences of motivational interference during studying following conflicts between learning and leisure activities were investigated in a self-report study. Overall, 1075 adolescents, mostly from Catholic schools, in Bosnia-Herzegovina (n = 203), India (n = 200), Paraguay (n = 96), Spain (n…

Hofer, Manfred; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan; Zivkovic, Ilija; Dietz, Franziska

2009-01-01

158

Hungary: Reform of Social Policy and Expenditures. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the overall social policy system of Hungary and proposes reforms aimed at strengthening its role as a defense against poverty, raising the quality and equity of social programs, ensuring financial sustainability of the system, and restoring incentives (in particular relating to demand and supply for labor) suitable to a market…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

159

Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies (‘Green’), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation (‘White’), biotechnologies in aquaculture (‘Blue’) and biotechnologies for healthcare (‘Red’). An

Robert Black; Fabio Fava; Niccolo Mattei; Vincent Robert; Susan Seal; Valerie Verdier

160

Lessons Learned from the Advanced Developing Countries. GENESYS Special Studies No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the experience of development in the advanced developing countries in Asia from a gender perspective and draws some lessons for women in development policy in middle income countries in the Asian and Near East regions. The nature of the paper is exploratory, asking many questions on which further research and information are…

Joekes, Susan P.

161

Two deterministic and three stochastic modifications of Stokes's formula: a case study for the Baltic countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In regional gravimetric geoid determination, it is customary to use the modified Stokes formula that combines local terrestrial data with a global geopotential model. This study compares two deterministic and three stochastic modification methods for computing a regional geoid over the Baltic countries. The final selection of the best modification method is made by means of two accuracy estimates: the expected global mean square error of the geoid estimator, and the statistics of the post-fit residuals between the computed geoid models and precise GPS-levelling data. Numerical results show that the modification methods tested do not provide substantially different results, although the stochastic approaches appear formally better in the selected study area. The 2.8 5.3 cm (RMS) post-fit residuals to the GPS-levelling points indicate the suitability of the new geoid model for many practical applications. Moreover, the numerical comparisons reveal a one-dimensional offset between the regional vertical datum and the geoid models based upon the new GRACE-only geopotential model GGM01s. This gives an impression of a greater reliability of the new model compared to the earlier, EGM96-based and somewhat tilted regional geoid models for the same study area.

Ellmann, A.

2005-06-01

162

Assessing emergency medical care in low income countries: A pilot study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Emergency Medical Care is an important component of health care system. Unfortunately it is however, ignored in many low income countries. We assessed the availability and quality of facility-based emergency medical care in the government health care system at district level in a low income country – Pakistan. Methods We did a quantitative pilot study of a convenience sample of 22 rural and 20 urban health facilities in 2 districts – Faisalabad and Peshawar – in Pakistan. The study consisted of three separate cross-sectional assessments of selected community leaders, health care providers, and health care facilities. Three data collection instruments were created with input from existing models for facility assessment such as those used by the Joint Commission of Accreditation of Hospitals and the National Center for Health Statistics in USA and the Medical Research Council in Pakistan. Results The majority of respondents 43/44(98%), in community survey were not satisfied with the emergency care provided. Most participants 36/44(82%) mentioned that they will not call an ambulance in health related emergency because it does not function properly in the government system. The expenses on emergency care for the last experience were reported to be less than 5,000 Pakistani Rupees (equivalent to US$ 83) for 19/29(66%) respondents. Most health care providers 43/44(98%) were of the opinion that their facilities were inadequately equipped to treat emergencies. The majority of facilities 31/42(74%) had no budget allocated for emergency care. A review of medications and equipment available showed that many critical supplies needed in an emergency were not found in these facilities. Conclusion Assessment of emergency care should be part of health systems analysis in Pakistan. Multiple deficiencies in emergency care at the district level in Pakistan were noted in our study. Priority should be given to make emergency care responsive to needs in Pakistan. Specific efforts should be directed to equip emergency care at district facilities and to organize an ambulance network. PMID:18598353

Razzak, Junaid A; Hyder, Adnan A; Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mubashir; Khan, Uzma R

2008-01-01

163

Quality evaluation of human serum albumin prepared by heat denaturation in Iran: an experience for developing countries.  

PubMed

Blood and plasma are unique resources and access to these products save life. In this study, albumin demand and surplus plasma makes it possible to use local experiences in plasma industry for preparation of albumin so plasma was heated after stabilization; afterward denatured proteins were precipitated and separated by continuous centrifuge system. The supernatant contained albumin was filtrated, diafiltrated, ultrafiltrated, formulated and pasteurized. Albumin preparation in pilot scale with heat denaturation was performed for the first time in Iran. This method using surplus plasma is recommended for all countries that have no access to plasma fractionation industry. Therefore with more attention it has potential for use in the production of safe plasma derived products and thereby it can be used as a safe product in clinic. PMID:24525282

Khorsand Mohammad Pour, Hashem; Banazadeh, Soudabeh; Aghaie, Afsaneh

2014-04-01

164

Contradictions and conflict: A meta-ethnographic study of migrant women’s experiences of breastfeeding in a new country  

PubMed Central

Background Studies report mixed findings about rates of both exclusive and partial breastfeeding amongst women who are migrants or refugees in high income countries. It is important to understand the beliefs and experiences that impact on migrant and refugee women’s infant feeding decisions in order to appropriately support women to breastfeed in a new country. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a meta-ethnographic study that explored migrant and refugee women’s experiences and practices related to breastfeeding in a new country. Methods CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library with Full Text databases were searched for the period January 2000 to May 2012. Out of 2355 papers retrieved 11 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was undertaken using the analytic strategies and theme synthesis techniques of reciprocal translation and refutational investigation. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Results Eight qualitative studies and three studies reporting both qualitative and quantitative data were included and one overarching theme emerged: ‘Breastfeeding in a new country: facing contradictions and conflict’. This theme comprised four sub-themes ‘Mother’s milk is best’; ‘Contradictions and conflict in breastfeeding practices’; ‘Producing breast milk requires energy and good health’; and ‘The dominant role of female relatives’. Migrant women who valued, but did not have access to, traditional postpartum practices, were more likely to cease breastfeeding. Women reported a clash between their individual beliefs and practices and the dominant practices in the new country, and also a tension with family members either in the country of origin or in the new country. Conclusion Migrant women experience tensions in their breastfeeding experience and require support from professionals who can sensitively address their individual needs. Strategies to engage grandmothers in educational opportunities may offer a novel approach to breastfeeding support. PMID:23270315

2012-01-01

165

Philippines: Environment and natural resource management study. World Bank country study  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the most significant issues of natural-resource management in the Philippines. These include the disappearence or degradation of forests; erosion and changes in hydrological regimes; the conversion of mangrove swamps to fishponds; degradation of coral reefs; and depletion of nearshore fisheries through overfishing and destructive techniques. The issues addressed concern the extent and rate of degradation of these resource stocks, the impact thereof on the national economy, and the scope for ameliorative measures through policy responses, management changes, and investments. The Government is responsible for management of public resources, which include over half of the land area of the Philippines as well as the coastal waters. Historically, public management has been less than optimal, as evidenced by an unsustainable rate of deforestation and the recent stagnation or decline in extractive fisheries.

Not Available

1989-01-01

166

Tenements : dwellings for the urban poor. Comparative study illustrating 28 cases in developing countries  

E-print Network

Tenements are significant systems that provide habitation to the poor in most of the urban areas of the developing countries. Yet, tenements are practically ignored if not prohibited by the public sector and consequently ...

Aliman, Isam Mohammad

1981-01-01

167

Risk factors for dementia in the epidemiological study of Munguialde County (Basque Country-Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Prevalence of degenerative dementias and dementias associated with cerebrovascular disease is increasing. Dementia is one\\u000a of the most significant public health problem. In recent years, the role of vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes\\u000a mellitus and hypercholesterolemia) and depression has been evaluated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The incidence of dementia and risk factors has not been fully investigated in Spain. The aim of this study

Manuel Fernández Martínez; Jessica Castro Flores; Susana Pérez de las Heras; Aitziber Mandaluniz Lekumberri; María Gordejuela Menocal; Juan José Zarranz Imirizaldu

2008-01-01

168

Preterm birth time trends in Europe: a study of 19 countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate time trends in preterm birth in Europe by multiplicity, gestational age, and onset of delivery. Design Analysis of aggregate data from routine sources. Setting Nineteen European countries. Population Live births in 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008. Methods Annual risk ratios of preterm birth in each country were estimated with year as a continuous variable for all births and by subgroup using log-binomial regression models. Main outcome measures Overall preterm birth rate and rate by multiplicity, gestational age group, and spontaneous versus non-spontaneous (induced or prelabour caesarean section) onset of labour. Results Preterm birth rates rose in most countries, but the magnitude of these increases varied. Rises in the multiple birth rate as well as in the preterm birth rate for multiple births contributed to increases in the overall preterm birth rate. About half of countries experienced no change or decreases in the rates of singleton preterm birth. Where preterm birth rates rose, increases were no more prominent at 35–36 weeks of gestation than at 32–34 weeks of gestation. Variable trends were observed for spontaneous and non-spontaneous preterm births in the 13 countries with mode of onset data; increases were not solely attributed to non-spontaneous preterm births. Conclusions There was a wide variation in preterm birth trends in European countries. Many countries maintained or reduced rates of singleton preterm birth over the past 15 years, challenging a widespread belief that rising rates are the norm. Understanding these cross-country differences could inform strategies for the prevention of preterm birth. PMID:23700966

Zeitlin, J; Szamotulska, K; Drewniak, N; Mohangoo, AD; Chalmers, J; Sakkeus, L; Irgens, L; Gatt, M; Gissler, M; Blondel, B

2013-01-01

169

Anemia management and outcomes from 12 countries in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (DOPPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Anemia is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods:Data collected from nationally representative samples of HD patients (n = 11,041) in 2002 to 2003 were used to describe current anemia management for long-term HD patients at 309 dialysis units in 12 countries. Analyses of associations and outcomes were adjusted for demographics, 15 comorbid classes, laboratory values, country, and facility clustering. Results:For

Ronald L Pisoni; Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham; Eric W Young; Tadao Akizawa; Yasushi Asano; Francesco Locatelli; Juergen Bommer; Jose Miguel Cruz; Peter G Kerr; David C Mendelssohn; Philip J Held; Friedrich K Port

2004-01-01

170

Knowledge and communication needs assessment of community health workers in a developing country: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary health care is a set of health services that can meet the needs of the developing world. Community health workers act as a bridge between health system and community in providing this care. Appropriate knowledge and communication skills of the workers are key to their confidence and elementary for the success of the system. We conducted this study to document the perceptions of these workers on their knowledge and communication needs, image building through mass media and mechanisms for continued education. Methods Focus group discussions were held with health workers and their supervisors belonging to all the four provinces of the country and the Azad Jammu & Kashmir region. Self-response questionnaires were also used to obtain information on questions regarding their continued education. Results About four fifths of the respondents described their communication skills as moderately sufficient and wanted improvement. Knowledge on emerging health issues was insufficient and the respondents showed willingness to participate in their continued education. Media campaigns were successful in building the image of health workers as a credible source of health information. Conclusion A continued process should be ensured to provide opportunities to health workers to update their knowledge, sharpen communication skills and bring credibility to their persona as health educators. PMID:19622172

Haq, Zaeem; Hafeez, Assad

2009-01-01

171

Iron-Fortified Drinking Water Studies for the Prevention of Children's Anemia in Developing Countries.  

PubMed

Anemia and iron deficiency should receive special attention considering their high prevalence and serious consequences. For prevention, globally it is recommended to increase dietary iron intake, iron fortification of industrialized foods, and medical iron supplementation. Food fortification for the prevention of iron deficiency in developing countries should consider carriers locally available and consumed daily, requiring limited infrastructure and technology. Drinking water is the iron carrier we have been working for years for the prevention of iron deficiency and anemia in small children in Brazil. It was shown that studies with iron-fortified drinking water were proved to be effective on children's anemia prevention. Water is found everywhere, consumed daily by everyone may be easily fortified with simple technology, is low priced and was effective on the prevention of children's anemia. Fortification of drinking water with iron was locally implemented with the direct participation of the government and community. Government authorities, health personnel and population were part of the project and responsible for its community implementation. The mayor/municipality permitted and supported the proposal to supply it to children at their day-care centers. To keep the children drinking water iron fortified supply an officially authorized legislation was also approved. PMID:21826263

Dutra-de-Oliveira, Jose E; Marchini, J Sergio; Lamounier, Joel; Almeida, Carlos A N

2011-01-01

172

Energy balance in cross-country skiers: a study using doubly labeled water.  

PubMed

Energy intake covering energy expenditure is essential for performance as well as for health aspects in endurance athletes. This study was performed to determine the energy needs for elite cross country skiers during a week of training and to demonstrate whether energy balance could be maintained. Energy intake was calculated from weighed dietary records and doubly labeled water was used to simultaneously measure energy turnover. Average daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 20.4 MJ.d-1 in the females and from 25.7 to 36.0 MJ.d-1 in the males. This correlated well with the data for average daily energy turnover (r = 0.96; P = 0.0001) that ranged from 15.1 to 20.2 MJ.d-1 and from 25.4 to 34.9 MJ.d-1, in females and males, respectively. The mean difference being 0.1 (+/- 1.9) MJ.d-1. The close match between energy intake and energy expenditure has not previously been shown in athletes at these high levels of energy turnover. However, if energy intake over separate 24-h periods was compared with corresponding data for training, no significant relationship was found. This indicates that the athletes were not in energy balance during shorter periods. Furthermore, the validity of theoretical calculations of energy turnover, in highly trained subjects, derived from multiples of estimated BMR, is questioned. PMID:8052113

Sjödin, A M; Andersson, A B; Högberg, J M; Westerterp, K R

1994-06-01

173

Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.

Henry, Rotich K. [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Zhao Yongsheng [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)]. E-mail: zhaoyongsheng@jlu.edu.cn; Dong Jun [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)

2006-07-01

174

Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries--Kenyan case study.  

PubMed

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored. PMID:16006111

Henry, Rotich K; Yongsheng, Zhao; Jun, Dong

2006-01-01

175

Frequency of infectious diseases in immigrants in a Western European country: a population-based study.  

PubMed

The aim of this population-based study was to assess the incidence rates of infectious diseases in native- (Italian) and foreign-born (immigrants) populations in a North Italy area, in 2006-2010. Crude, age-specific incidence rates (IRs) and age-standardised rate ratios (SRRs) between foreign- and native-born subjects and their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were estimated. A total of 32,554 cases of infectious diseases were found (9.9 % in foreign-born subjects). The highest SRRs between foreign- and nativeborn subjects were found for tuberculosis (SRR = 27.1; 95 % CI 21.3-34.3), malaria (SRR = 21.1; 14.6-30.4), scabies (SRR = 8.5; 7.6-9.4), AIDS (SRR = 2.5; 1.8-3.4) and viral hepatitis B (SRR = 3.3; 2.1-5.2). The highest IR was found for AIDS in people from the Americas (IR = 4.57; 95 % CI 2.2-8.4), for malaria and tuberculosis in people from Africa (IR = 13.89; 11.6-16.5 and IR = 11.87; 9.8-14.3 respectively). Therefore immigrants are at a higher risk of acquiring some common infectious diseases compared to the native population in Western European countries. PMID:23979713

Limina, Rosa Maria; Baitelli, Guglielmino; Marcantoni, Claudio; Covolo, Loredana; Festa, Andrea; Speziani, Fabrizio; Vassallo, Francesco; Scarcella, Carmelo; Donato, Francesco

2015-02-01

176

Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external radiation with a total follow-up of 5.2 million person years. Main outcome measurements Estimates of excess relative risks per sievert (Sv) of radiation dose for mortality from cancers other than leukaemia and from leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the main causes of death considered by radiation protection authorities. Results The excess relative risk for cancers other than leukaemia was 0.97 per Sv, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.97. Analyses of causes of death related or unrelated to smoking indicate that, although confounding by smoking may be present, it is unlikely to explain all of this increased risk. The excess relative risk for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 1.93 per Sv (< 0 to 8.47). On the basis of these estimates, 1-2% of deaths from cancer among workers in this cohort may be attributable to radiation. Conclusions These estimates, from the largest study of nuclear workers ever conducted, are higher than, but statistically compatible with, the risk estimates used for current radiation protection standards. The results suggest that there is a small excess risk of cancer, even at the low doses and dose rates typically received by nuclear workers in this study. PMID:15987704

Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Solano, J Bernar; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Sacristan, A Diez; Eklof, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

2005-01-01

177

Success in electronic commerce implementation : A cross-country study of small and medium-sized enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of electronic commerce (EC) implementation success for small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and to present outcomes of a comparative study between two countries to reflect the differences in the adoption strategies and explore reasons behind such variations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Preliminary studies were conducted in both Australia and Singapore

Sandy Chong

2008-01-01

178

Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. The Case of the Humanities and Social Sciences. Country Study: Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in the humanities and social sciences, looks at employment prospects for social science and humanities graduates in Australia. An opening section describes government studies and initiatives and changes in the Australian higher education system since…

Williams, Bruce

179

Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether flavonoid intake explains differences in mortality rates from chronic diseases between populations. DESIGN: Cross-cultural correlation study. SETTING\\/PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen cohorts of the Seven Countries Study in whom flavonoid intake at baseline around 1960 was estimated by flavonoid analysis of equivalent food composites that represented the average diet in the cohorts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from coronary heart disease,

M. G. L. Hertog; D. Kromhout; C. Aravanis; H. Blackburn; R. Buzina; F. Fidanza; S. Giampaoli; A. Jansen; A. Menotti; S. I. Nedeljkovic; M. Pekkarinen; B. S. Simic; H. Toshima; E. J. M. Feskens; P. C. H. Hollman; M. B. Katan

1995-01-01

180

Deepening Learning and Inspiring Rigor: Bridging Academic and Experiential Learning Using a Host Country Approach to a Study Tour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American students are increasingly incorporating study in a foreign country into their college educations, but many participate in short-term programs that limit their engagement with any more than the superficial aspects of the host culture. This article describes a short-term study abroad course for American students to Japan in which the…

Long, Susan Orpett; Akande, Yemi Susan; Purdy, R. W.; Nakano, Keiko

2010-01-01

181

Students' Peer Interactions within a Cohort and in Host Countries during a Short-Term Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative case study, we explored students' peer interactions within their cohort and in the host countries during a short-term study abroad. Framed by Bronfenbrenner's (1993) ecological systems theory, findings revealed that students spent considerable energy reflecting on interactions with peers. The students considered…

Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Aragones, Aileen

2013-01-01

182

Systemic antibiotic prescribing to paediatric outpatients in 5 European countries: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the utilisation of antibiotics in children and adolescents across 5 European countries based on the same drug utilisation measures and age groups. Special attention was given to age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups, since comparison in this regard between countries is lacking so far. Methods Outpatient paediatric prescriptions of systemic antibiotics during the years 2005-2008 were analysed using health care databases from the UK, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy and Germany. Annual antibiotic prescription rates per 1,000 person years were estimated for each database and stratified by age (?4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-18 years). Age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups were calculated for 2008. Results With 957 prescriptions per 1000 person years, the highest annual prescription rate in the year 2008 was found in the Italian region Emilia Romagna followed by Germany (561), the UK (555), Denmark (481) and the Netherlands (294). Seasonal peaks during winter months were most pronounced in countries with high utilisation. Age-group-specific use varied substantially between countries with regard to total prescribing and distributions of antibiotic subgroups. However, prescription rates were highest among children in the age group ?4 years in all countries, predominantly due to high use of broad spectrum penicillins. Conclusions Strong increases of antibiotic prescriptions in winter months in high utilising countries most likely result from frequent antibiotic treatment of mostly viral infections. This and strong variations of overall and age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups across countries, suggests that antibiotics are inappropriately used to a large extent. PMID:24997585

2014-01-01

183

Long-Term Impact of War on Healthcare Costs: An Eight-Country Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposure to war can negatively affect health and may impact on healthcare costs. Estimating these costs and identifying their predictors is important for appropriate service planning. We aimed to measure use of health services in an adult population who had experienced war in the former-Yugoslavia on average 8 years previously, and to identify characteristics associated with the use and costs of healthcare. Method War-affected community samples in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, and Serbia were recruited through a random walk technique. Refugees in Germany, Italy and the UK were contacted through registers, organisations and networking. Current service use was measured for the previous three months and combined with unit costs for each country for the year 2006/7. A two-part approach was used, to identify predictors of service use with a multiple logistic regression model and predictors of cost with a generalised linear regression model. Results 3,313 participants were interviewed in Balkan countries and 854 refugees in Western European countries. In the Balkan countries, traumatic events and mental health status were related to greater service use while in Western countries these associations were not found. Participants in Balkan countries with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had costs that were 63% higher (p?=?0.005) than those without PTSD. Distress experienced during the most traumatic war event was associated with higher costs (p?=?0.013). In Western European countries costs were 76% higher if non-PTSD anxiety disorders were present (0.027) and 63% higher for mood disorders (p?=?0.006). Conclusions War experiences and their effects on mental health are associated with increased health care costs even many years later, especially for those who stayed in the area of conflict. Focussing on the mental health impact of war is important for many reasons including those of an economic nature. PMID:22238627

Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; McCrone, Paul; Bogic, Marija; Ajdukovic, Dean; Franciskovic, Tanja; Colombini, Niccolò; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Morina, Nexhmedin; Popovski, Mihajlo; Schützwohl, Matthias; Priebe, Stefan

2012-01-01

184

Total hydrocarbon analyzer evaluation study  

SciTech Connect

Measuring and controlling organic emissions from incineration processes has become a major environmental concern in recent years. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed a regulation for sewage sludge incinerators under section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act that will require all sludge incinerators to monitor total hydrocarbon emissions (THCs) on a continuous basis. Such a requirement would be part of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits and site-specific THC limits would be established for facilities based on a risk assessment of organic emissions. Before EPA can finalize the proposed requirement, THC monitoring must be successfully conducted in a plant environment and the system required by any final regulation must be kept in operation so that facilities can comply with their permits. The Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) in St. Paul, Minn., and Rosemount Analytical Division in La Habre, Calif., entered into a joint agreement with EPA to demonstrate a hot' THC monitoring system to detect THCs in stack gases. The objectives of the study are to determine the feasibility of THC monitoring of sludge incinerator emissions; evaluate the long term reliability, cost of operation, and consistency of a continuous THC monitoring system in an incinerator environment; and determine the correlation of THC stack concentration to incinerator and scrubber operating conditions, carbon monoxide concentration, and specific VOC emissions.

Shamat, N. (EMA Services, Inc., St. Paul, MN (United States)); Crumpler, E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)); Roddan, A. (Rosemount Analytical Division, La Habra, CA (United States))

1991-10-01

185

Evaluation systems for clinical governance development: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Lack of scientific and confirmed researches and expert knowledge about evaluation systems for clinical governance development in Iran have made studies on different evaluation systems for clinical governance development a necessity. These studies must provide applied strategies to design criteria of implementing clinical governance for hospital's accreditation. This is a descriptive and comparative study on development of clinical governance models all over the world. Data have been gathered by reviewing related articles. Models have been studied in comprehensive review method. The evaluated models of clinical governance development were Australian, NHS, SPOCK and OPTIGOV. The final aspects extracted from these models were Responsiveness, Policies and Strategies, Organizational Structure, Allocating Resources, Education and Occupational Development, Performance Evaluation, External Evaluation, Patient Oriented Approach, Risk Management, Personnel's Participation, Information Technology, Human Resources, Research and Development, Evidence Based Medicine, Clinical Audit, Health Technology Assessment and Quality. These results are applicable for completing the present criteria which evaluating clinical governance application and provide practical framework to evaluate country's hospital on the basis of clinical governance elements. PMID:25149884

Hooshmand, Elaheh; Tourani, Sogand; Ravaghi, Hamid; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

2014-01-01

186

Digital Radiology to Improve the Quality of Care in Countries with Limited Resources: A Feasibility Study from Angola  

PubMed Central

Objective Sub-standard quality in X-ray image acquisition and interpretation is common in low-resource countries, and can ultimately result in higher patient morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at evaluating; 1) feasibility of implementing a digital X-ray device in a second level hospital in Angola; 2) quality of digital X-ray images, when digital radiology was in the hands of local technicians; 3) feasibility of digital teleradiology and its potential impact on case management. Methods We developed and tested at the Hospital Divina Providencia (HDP) in Luanda, Angola, a digital X-ray device and a telemedicine network to acquire and print digital X-ray images and send them as DICOM files for remote consultation. Results 20,564 digital X-ray images were made at HDP from November 2010 to December 2012, with no major technical problems and no need for on-site supervision. Digital radiology largely improved the number of X-ray images of good and very good quality (100% of images with digital radiology, compared to 15% of screen-film images, p<0.0001). Teleradiology using digital images was used in 7.6% of paediatric cases, and provided, in these cases, an important contribution to case management. Conclusions The implementation of a digital X-ray device is feasible in low resource settings with significant improvement in quality of X-ray images compared to standard screen film radiology. PMID:24086301

Zennaro, Floriana; Oliveira Gomes, Joaquim António; Casalino, Armando; Lonardi, Magda; Starc, Meta; Paoletti, Pierpaolo; Gobbo, Daniele; Giusto, Chiara; Not, Tarcisio; Lazzerini, Marzia

2013-01-01

187

Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study  

PubMed Central

Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27?957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100?000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100?000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

2013-01-01

188

Knowledge translation: a case study on pneumonia research and clinical guidelines in a low- income country  

PubMed Central

Background The process and effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported. In Cambodia, a low-income country (LIC), an intervention aiming to provide evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia to health authorities was developed to help update pediatric and adult national clinical guidelines. Through a case study, we assessed the effectiveness of this KT intervention, with the goal of identifying the barriers to KT and suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. Methods An extensive search for all relevant sources of data documenting the processes of updating adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines was done. Documents included among others, reports, meeting minutes, and email correspondences. The study was conducted in successive phases: an appraisal of the content of both adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines; an appraisal of the quality of guidelines by independent experts, using the AGREE-II instrument; a description and modeling of the KT process within the guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools 2.2; and the listing of the barriers and facilitators to KT we identified during the study. Results The first appraisal showed that the integration of the KT key messages in pediatric and adult guidelines varied with a better efficiency in the pediatric guidelines. The overall AGREE-II quality assessments scored 37% and 44% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Scores were lowest for the domains of ‘rigor of development’ and ‘editorial independence.’ The UML analysis highlighted that time frames and constraints of the involved stakeholders greatly differed and that there were several missed opportunities to translate on evidence into the adult pneumonia guideline. Seventeen facilitating factors and 18 potential barriers to KT were identified. Main barriers were related to the absence of a clear mandate from the Ministry of Health for the researchers and to a lack of synchronization between knowledge production and policy-making. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stakeholders, both researchers and policy makers planning to update clinical guidelines in LIC may need methodological support to overcome the expected barriers. PMID:24969242

2014-01-01

189

Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs) between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated. PMID:22280469

2012-01-01

190

Influenza surveillance in the Pacific Island countries and territories during the 2009 pandemic: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Historically, Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) have been more severely affected by influenza pandemics than any other part of the world. We herein describe the emergence and epidemiologic characteristics of pandemic influenza H1N1 in PICTs from 2009 to 2010. Methods The World Health Organization gathered reports of influenza-like-illness and laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases from all 23 Pacific island countries and territories, from April 2009 through August 2010. Data were gathered through weekly email reports from Pacific island countries and territories and through email or telephone follow-up. Results Pacific island countries and territories started detecting pandemic H1N1 cases in June 2009, firstly in French Polynesia, with the last new detection occurring in August 2009 in Tuvalu. Nineteen Pacific island countries and territories reported 1,972 confirmed cases, peaking in August 2009. No confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases were identified in Niue, Pitcairn and Tokelau; the latter instituted strict maritime quarantine. Influenza-like-illness surveillance showed trends similar to surveillance of confirmed cases. Seven Pacific island countries and territories reported 21 deaths of confirmed pandemic H1N1. Case-patients died of acute respiratory distress syndrome or multi-organ failure, or both. The most reported pre-existing conditions were obesity, lung disease, heart disease, and pregnancy. Pacific island countries and territories instituted a variety of mitigation measures, including arrival health screening. Multiple partners facilitated influenza preparedness planning and outbreak response. Conclusions Pandemic influenza spread rapidly throughout the Pacific despite enormous distances and relative isolation. Tokelau and Pitcairn may be the only jurisdictions to have remained pandemic-free. Despite being well-prepared, Pacific island countries and territories experienced significant morbidity and mortality, consistent with other indigenous and low-resource settings. For the first time, regional influenza-like-illness surveillance was conducted in the Pacific, allowing health authorities to monitor the pandemic’s spread and severity in real-time. Future regional outbreak responses will likely benefit from the lessons learned during this outbreak. PMID:23289407

2013-01-01

191

Development and human resources in the Islamic world: a study of selected countries.  

PubMed

"The present paper attempts to provide an analytical profile of development and human resources in [12] selected [Islamic] countries." The countries--Bangladesh, Somalia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey, Malaysia, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates--vary in income levels from low to high and in population size from 1 million to 159 million. Using data from the World Bank and the Population Council, comparisons are made on the basis of mortality and fertility levels, family size, income, urbanization, labor force size and growth, education, nutrition, and health. Governmental policy changes and future directions are discussed. PMID:12315536

Duza, M B

1987-01-01

192

Reflection on Four Multisite Evaluation Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do the findings of four National Science Foundation evaluation case studies suggest to an evaluation scholar who was not part of the research team that created them? This chapter carefully reviews the cases and summarizes their comparative findings. The four Beyond Use case studies add to the literature on levels of evaluation use, with the…

Brandon, Paul R.

2011-01-01

193

Consumer’s purchasing intention for lamb meat affected by country of origin, feeding system and meat price: A conjoint study in Spain, France and United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food selection and consumption can be affected by different intrinsic and extrinsic cues. In this study, the effect of three extrinsic cues (country of origin, price and feeding system) on consumer’s purchasing decisions making process for lamb meat in three European countries: Spain, France and United Kingdom was investigated, as well as the relative importance of each cue. Four countries

C. Realini; F. Montossi; C. Sañudo; M. M. Campo; M. A. Oliver; G. R. Nute; L. Guerrero

2011-01-01

194

NORTHERN OHIO AEROSOL STUDY: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

195

Climate policies : what if emerging country baseline were not so optimistic? a case study related to India  

E-print Network

1 of 14 Climate policies : what if emerging country baseline were not so optimistic? ­ a case study-mail address: mathy@centre-cired.fr (S. Mathy) Keywords India, domestic policies and measures, climate policies, long term scenarios, international negotiations, power sector, climate regime, policies and measures

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

A Study of Third Graders' Attitudes toward People from Other Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

United States society is becoming increasingly diverse in the 21st century. Even in rural areas, the population is becoming less Caucasian and African American, and more Hispanic and Asian. U.S. citizens also have much more contact with people from other countries through industry and trade. Considering these factors and the U.S. ideal of…

Roberts, Laura Anne

197

Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

198

Educational Attainment and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Cross-Country Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…

Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati

2008-01-01

199

Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

2011-01-01

200

Methodology for a multi-country study of soil erosion management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the theoretical framework used in interpreting data on runoff and soil loss from field experiments to yield information on soil erodibility. This theory has been employed in the form of computer programs in the field experiments in various tropical countries and Australia which have collaborated in the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Project 8551 entitled “The

C. A. Ciesiolka; K. J. Coughlan; C. W. Rose; M. C. Escalante; G. Mohd. Hashim; E. P. Paningbatan; S. Sombatpanit

1995-01-01

201

Determinants of Underemployment of Young Adults: A Multi-Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the international Work Socialization of Youth project (1988-90) were analyzed for office technology workers and machine operators in six European countries. Organizational and societal factors had greater influence on part-time/temporary employment than did job search strategies, gender, or age. (SK)

Ruiz-Quintanilla, S. Antonio; Claes, Rita

1996-01-01

202

Exploring evidence-policy linkages in health research plans: a case study from six countries.  

PubMed

The complex evidence-policy interface in low and middle income country settings is receiving increasing attention. Future Health Systems (FHS): Innovations for Equity, is a research consortium conducting health systems explorations in six Asian and African countries: Bangladesh, India, China, Afghanistan, Uganda, and Nigeria. The cross-country research consortium provides a unique opportunity to explore the research-policy interface. Three key activities were undertaken during the initial phase of this five-year project. First, key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages in health system research were developed by FHS researchers through workshops and electronic communications. Four key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages are postulated: development context; research characteristics; decision-making processes; and stakeholder engagement. Second, these four considerations were applied to research proposals in each of the six countries to highlight features in the research plans that potentially strengthen the research-policy interface and opportunities for improvement. Finally, the utility of the approach for setting research priorities in health policy and systems research was reflected upon. These three activities yielded interesting findings. First, developmental consideration with four dimensions - poverty, vulnerabilities, capabilities, and health shocks - provides an entry point in examining research-policy interfaces in the six settings. Second, research plans focused upon on the ground realities in specific countries strengthens the interface. Third, focusing on research prioritized by decision-makers, within a politicized health arena, enhances chances of research influencing action. Lastly, early and continued engagement of multiple stakeholders, from local to national levels, is conducive to enhanced communication at the interface. The approach described has four main utilities: first, systematic analyses of research proposals using key considerations ensure such issues are incorporated into research proposals; second, the exact meaning, significance, and inter-relatedness of these considerations can be explored within the research itself; third, cross-country learning can be enhanced; and finally, translation of evidence into action may be facilitated. Health systems research proposals in low and middle income countries should include reflection on transferring research findings into policy. Such deliberations may be informed by employing the four key considerations suggested in this paper in analyzing research proposals. PMID:18331651

Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Hyder, Adnan A; Bloom, Gerald; Sundaram, Sandhya; Bhuiya, Abbas; Zhenzhong, Zhang; Kanjilal, Barun; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Pariyo, George; Peters, David H

2008-01-01

203

Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.  

PubMed

Municipal wastewater treatment results to the production of large quantities of sewage sludge, which requires proper and environmentally accepted management before final disposal. In European Union, sludge management remains an open and challenging issue for the Member States as the relative European legislation is fragmentary and quite old, while the published data concerning sludge treatment and disposal in different European countries are often incomplete and inhomogeneous. The main objective of the current study was to outline the current situation and discuss future perspectives for sludge treatment and disposal in EU countries. According to the results, specific sludge production is differentiated significantly between European countries, ranging from 0.1 kg per population equivalent (p.e.) and year (Malta) to 30.8 kg per p.e. and year (Austria). More stringent legislations comparing to European Directive 86/278/EC have been adopted for sludge disposal in soil by several European countries, setting lower limit values for heavy metals as well as limit values for pathogens and organic micropollutants. A great variety of sludge treatment technologies are used in EU countries, while differences are observed between Member States. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion seems to be the most popular stabilization methods, applying in 24 and 20 countries, respectively. Mechanical sludge dewatering is preferred comparing to the use of drying beds, while thermal drying is mainly applied in EU-15 countries (old Member States) and especially in Germany, Italy, France and UK. Regarding sludge final disposal, sludge reuse (including direct agricultural application and composting) seems to be the predominant choice for sludge management in EU-15 (53% of produced sludge), following by incineration (21% of produced sludge). On the other hand, the most common disposal method in EU-12 countries (new Member States that joined EU after 2004) is still landfilling. Due to the obligations set by Directive 91/271/EC, a temporary increase of sludge amounts that are disposed in landfills is expected during the following years in EU-12 countries. Beside the above, sludge reuse in land and sludge incineration seem to be the main practices further adopted in EU-27 (all Member States) up to 2020. The reinforcement of these disposal practices will probably result to adoption of advanced sludge treatment technologies in order to achieve higher pathogens removal, odors control and removal of toxic compounds and ensure human health and environmental protection. PMID:22336390

Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

2012-06-01

204

Multi-Country Evaluation of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Commercially-Available NS1 ELISA Assays for Dengue Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Background Early diagnosis of dengue can assist patient triage and management and prevent unnecessary treatments and interventions. Commercially available assays that detect the dengue virus protein NS1 in the plasma/serum of patients offers the possibility of early and rapid diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings The sensitivity and specificity of the Pan-E Dengue Early ELISA and the Platelia™ Dengue NS1 Ag assays were compared against a reference diagnosis in 1385 patients in 6 countries in Asia and the Americas. Platelia was more sensitive (66%) than Pan-E (52%) in confirmed dengue cases. Sensitivity varied by geographic region, with both assays generally being more sensitive in patients from SE Asia than the Americas. Both kits were more sensitive for specimens collected within the first few days of illness onset relative to later time points. Pan-E and Platelia were both 100% specific in febrile patients without evidence of acute dengue. In patients with other confirmed diagnoses and healthy blood donors, Platelia was more specific (100%) than Pan-E (90%). For Platelia, when either the NS1 test or the IgM test on the acute sample was positive, the sensitivity versus the reference result was 82% in samples collected in the first four days of fever. NS1 sensitivity was not associated to disease severity (DF or DHF) in the Platelia test, whereas a trend for higher sensitivity in DHF cases was seen in the Pan-E test (however combined with lower overall sensitivity). Conclusions/Significance Collectively, this multi-country study suggests that the best performing NS1 assay (Platelia) had moderate sensitivity (median 64%, range 34–76%) and high specificity (100%) for the diagnosis of dengue. The poor sensitivity of the evaluated assays in some geographical regions suggests further assessments are needed. The combination of NS1 and IgM detection in samples collected in the first few days of fever increased the overall dengue diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:20824173

Guzman, Maria G.; Jaenisch, Thomas; Gaczkowski, Roger; Ty Hang, Vo Thi; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Kroeger, Axel; Vazquez, Susana; Ruiz, Didye; Martinez, Eric; Mercado, Juan C.; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Dimano, Efren; Leano, Prisca Susan A.; Yoksan, Sutee; Villegas, Elci; Benduzu, Herminia; Villalobos, Iris; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P.

2010-01-01

205

Summary of an eleven-country study of socio-legal measures to combat drug abuse and related crime.  

PubMed

In a comparative study of a group of experimental and control subjects in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Japan, Jordan, Italy, Malaysia, Singapore and the United States of America (State of New York), and of the results of independent studies conducted in Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, a rather close association was found to exist between drug abuse, criminal behaviour and social attitudes to such problems. Both drug abuse and the socio-legal systems varied greatly in the countries involved. No correlation was found between the level of foreseen or actual harshness of the socio-legal system and the level of seriousness of drug abuse and its associated criminality, but there was a significant correlation between knowledge of the law and the efficacy of the socio-legal system. In each country informal control systems, such as the family, church, school, neighbourhood and work environment, were active. Approximately one half of the subjects that were interviewed from countries with the most punitive socio-legal systems perceived informal controls as harsh and punitive while in the other countries such controls were generally perceived as positive. The study encouraged the review, testing and implementation of alternative measures to penal sanctions, particularly with a view to creating a genuine therapeutic approach to correcting the deviant behaviour of drug abusers. PMID:6570650

Asuni, T; Bruno, F

1984-01-01

206

International Evaluation Studies of Second Step, a Primary Prevention Programme: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second Step is a social-emotional, skill-based, violence-prevention programme, which has been adapted for several European countries. The various versions of the programme (for kindergarten/preschool, elementary school, middle school) have been evaluated in a series of research studies. The outcomes and study designs of these studies are reported…

Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred

2013-01-01

207

A preliminary study of a cloud-computing model for chronic illness self-care support in an underdeveloped country  

PubMed Central

Background Although interactive voice response (IVR) calls can be an effective tool for chronic disease management, many regions of the world lack the infrastructure to provide these services. Objective This study evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of an IVR program using a cloud-computing model to improve diabetes management in Honduras. Methods A single group, pre-post study was conducted between June and August 2010. The telecommunications infrastructure was maintained on a U.S. server, and calls were directed to patients’ cell phones using VoIP. Eighty-five diabetes patients in Honduras received weekly IVR disease management calls for six weeks, with automated follow-up emails to clinicians, and voicemail reports to family caregivers. Patients completed interviews at enrollment and a six week follow-up. Other measures included patients’ glycemic control (A1c) and data from the IVR calling system. Results 55% of participants completed the majority of their IVR calls and 33% completed 80% or more. Higher baseline blood pressures, greater diabetes burden, greater distance from the clinic, and better adherence were related to higher call completion rates. Nearly all participants (98%) reported that because of the program, they improved in aspects of diabetes management such as glycemic control (56%) or foot care (89%). Mean A1c’s decreased from 10.0% at baseline to 8.9% at follow-up (p<.01). Most participants (92%) said that if the service were available in their clinic they would use it again. Conclusions Cloud computing is a feasible strategy for providing IVR services globally. IVR self-care support may improve self-care and glycemic control for patients in under-developed countries. PMID:21565655

Piette, John D.; Mendoza-Avelares, Milton O.; Ganser, Martha; Mohamed, Muhima; Marinec, Nicolle; Krishnan, Sheila

2013-01-01

208

Internal fixation of femoral shaft fractures in children by intramedullary Kirschner wires (a prospective study): its significance for developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate internal fixation by intramedullary Kirschner wires as a surgical technique in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children by a prospective study. Methods 17 femoral shaft fractures at various levels in 16 children aged 2–15 years were treated by closed intramedullary Kirschner wiring under image intensifier control between May 2000 and October 2003. No external splint was used. Results Fracture union was achieved in 6–14 weeks. Non-weight bearing crutch walking was started 2–3 days after surgery. Full weight bearing started 6–14 weeks. Average operative time was 40 min (range 20–72 min). Wires were removed after 8–22 weeks. There were no infections, no limb length disparity. One child had pin track ulceration. A big child of 14 years had angulation of the fracture. Conclusion Intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in children by stainless steel Kirschner wires is an effective method, which compares well with other studies. It is a simple procedure, which can be easily reproduced. Blood loss is minimal, and the operative time short. There is no need pre-bend the wires in a C or S curve. Stainless steel Kirschner wires are cheap, universally available, and can be manufactured locally. The cost of Image intensifiers is affordable in most of the cities of the developing countries. The hospital does not have to maintain a costly inventory. Provides early mobility, return to home and, school. Gives a predictable clinical pathway and reduces occupancy of hospital beds. The technique was successfully applied for internal fixation of other diaphyseal fractures in children and some selected diaphyseal fractures in adults. Based on my experience and a review of the literature, I recommend this technique as a modality for treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children aged 2 to 14 years. PMID:15796775

Chitgopkar, Shashank D

2005-01-01

209

Cued Speech: An Evaluative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To evaluate the effects of Cued Speech (visual symbols) as a supplement to speechreading, cued and non-cued sentences and phrases were presented in a live situation at normal and at slow rates to 12 hearing-impaired subjects (7-to 11-years-old). (Author/LS)

Ling, Daniel; Clarke, Bryan R.

1975-01-01

210

Country Briefings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economist has placed online a very useful reference collection of country profiles, which contain background information, forecasts and statistics, market updates, new headlines, articles from the newspaper, and links to more information. These profiles may prove helpful to a variety of users and can be browsed by country. Updates are listed at the bottom of the page.

211

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu (Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry)

1992-08-01

212

Effect of culture on acceptance of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries: case study of Jordan and Syria.  

PubMed

We investigated issues that affect the use and adoption of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries, taking the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic as case studies. Our study is based on interviews with key stakeholders (including doctors, technicians, engineers, and decision makers) and questionnaires administered to key stakeholders (including patients), ensuring opinion was gained from people from a full range of backgrounds and roles in the healthcare system. We found doctor and patient resistance was a major issue preventing the adoption of telemedicine in both countries, followed by poor infrastructure, lack of funding, and lack of information technology training. Our research identifies that culture is a greater issue than technical matters for the adoption of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries. Based on our preliminary results we developed a guideline framework for each country that might be applied to telemedicine projects at the pre-implementation phase. The proposed guideline framework was validated through a return visit to the stakeholders and seeking further opinion. PMID:23540280

Alajlani, Mohannad; Clarke, Malcolm

2013-04-01

213

The importance of social product attributes in consumer purchasing decisions: A multi-country comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role that social attributes—environmental and labour conditions—play in product choice across a range of developed and emerging economies. We use a multi-attribute design to force consumers to not only trade-off social attributes with tangible attributes but also make trade-offs with other intangible attributes, namely brand and country of origin. Our results show that: (1) social attributes

Pat Auger; Timothy M. Devinney; Jordan J. Louviere; Paul F. Burke

2010-01-01

214

A longitudinal exploratory study of changing perceptions toward an iconic brand in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the changing perceptions of an iconic American product, namely Levi Jeans, in a rapidly developing country, namely Costa Rica, over a 20-year period from 1988 to 2008. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Changing perceptions were measured with regard to product attributes (e.g. relative advantage, compatibility, trialability, observability, and risk), and experience-related attributes (e.g.

Madhavan Parthasarathy; MaryLee Stansifer; Rajeev Kumra

2010-01-01

215

Transpeople, Transprejudice and Pathologization: A Seven-Country Factor Analytic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight hundred and forty one undergraduate students in seven countries (China, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, United Kingdom and United States) completed a questionnaire examining perceptions of transwomen (on a transacceptance–transprejudice continuum). The aim was to identify factors underlying transacceptance-transprejudice, and relationships among them. Five factors were identified (MENTAL-ILLNESS, DENIAL-WOMEN, SOCIAL-REJECTION, PEER-REJECTION, SEXUAL-DEVIANCE). MENTAL-ILLNESS (the belief that transwomen were mentally ill)

Sam Winter; Pornthip Chalungsooth; Yik Koon Teh; Nongnuch Rojanalert; Kulthida Maneerat; Ying Wuen Wong; Anne Beaumont; Loretta Man Wah Ho; Francis “Chuck” Gomez; Raymond Aquino Macapagal

2009-01-01

216

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

1992-08-01

217

No association between gender inequality and peak HIV prevalence in developing countries - an ecological study.  

PubMed

The prevalence of both gender inequality and HIV prevalence vary considerably both within all developing countries and within those in sub-Saharan Africa. We test the hypothesis that the extent of gender inequality is associated with national peak HIV prevalence. Linear regression was used to test the association between national peak HIV prevalence and three markers of gender equality - the gender-related development index (GDI), the gender empowerment measure (GEM), and the gender inequality index (GII). No evidence was found of a positive relationship between gender inequality and HIV prevalence, either in the analyses of all developing countries or those limited to Africa. In the bivariate analyses limited to Africa, there was a positive association between the two measures of gender "equality" and peak HIV prevalence (GDI: coefficient 28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.1-46.8; GEM: coefficient 54.8, 95% CI 20.5-89.1). There was also a negative association between the marker of gender "inequality" and peak HIV prevalence (GII: coefficient -66.9, 95% CI -112.8 to -21.0). These associations all disappeared on multivariate analyses. We could not find any evidence to support the hypothesis that variations in the extent of gender inequality explain variations in HIV prevalence in developing countries. PMID:25279690

Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien

2015-02-01

218

Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) status of Asian countries and its implementation in non-clinical safety studies in pharmaceutical drug development.  

PubMed

Non-clinical animal studies to assess the safety of compounds under development have to comply with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has established the Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) system in OECD member countries for the mutual acceptance of non-clinical safety study data. Since 1997 non-OECD-member countries have also been able to participate in the MAD system, if the country meets the level of standardized compliance with OECD GLP. Thus, several Asian non-OECD countries are trying to develop their GLP standards in order to become official members of the MAD system. Pharmaceutical companies face significant expense in the drug-development process, including the cost of non-clinical safety studies; in response, companies in Asian countries are seeking to establish GLP facilities to provide cost-effective services for drug development. To assess the quality and cost of GLP performance in Asian countries, in this study we approached GLP facilities in a number of Asian countries to obtain price and quality information on a 'virtual compound' to be assessed in non-clinical safety studies. Also, the development status of GLP in Asian countries in terms of policy and infrastructure was analyzed. We found that, among Asian countries, India and Singapore may be candidates for participation in te MAD system in terms of their compliance with GLP, language, and costs. These findings will be beneficial to pharmaceutical companies planning GLP studies in Asian countries. PMID:19797857

Sasaki, Madoka; Hinotsu, Shiro; Kawakami, Koji

2009-10-01

219

Computer literacy among first year medical students in a developing country: A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of computer assisted learning (CAL) has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. Methods The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190) were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Results Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%), 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3%) owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%). Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%), self learning (63.0%) or by peer learning (49.2%). The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%), entertainment (95.0%), web browsing (80.1%) and preparing presentations (76.8%). Majority of the students (75.7%) expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty. Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6). There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p < 0.001). In the linear regression analysis, formal computer training was the strongest predictor of computer literacy (? = 13.034), followed by using internet facility, being from Western province, using computers for Web browsing and computer programming, computer ownership and doing IT (Information Technology) as a subject in GCE (A/L) examination. Conclusion Sri Lankan medical undergraduates had a low-intermediate level of computer literacy. There is a need to improve computer literacy, by increasing computer training in schools, or by introducing computer training in the initial stages of the undergraduate programme. These two options require improvement in infrastructure and other resources. PMID:22980096

2012-01-01

220

P.C.A.P. Project Profiles and General Profilles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program-Evaluation Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-eight projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were initiated in 1977 and funded through the Disadvantaged Schools Program; the program was renamed the Country Area Program and made a permanent School Commission program in 1982. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report…

Saide, Tom, Ed.

221

Evaluation of Non-Medical Costs Associated with Visual Impairment in Four European Countries: France, Italy, Germany and the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Visual impairment is a severe disability that puts a heavy burden on individuals, families and society. In developed countries, the two major diseases leading to irreversible visual impairment are glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. Their prevalence will increase dramatically with population aging. The economic consequences of visual impairment are considerable, but have rarely been documented, apart from some `top-down'

Antoine Lafuma; Antoine Brezin; Stefania Lopatriello; Klaus Hieke; Julia Hutchinson; Viviane Mimaud; Gilles Berdeaux

2006-01-01

222

Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.  

PubMed

Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour tester cette hypothèse, 832 étudiants collégiaux issus de six ethnies/nationalités différentes (la France, l'Allemagne, l'Autriche, la Suisse romande et allemande, la Belgique française et néerlandaise, les Pays-Bas) ont complété un questionnaire sur les taux de sympathie et de similitude. Les résultats ont indiqué que les différences en taille en combinaison avec la similitude linguistique avec une autre nation représentent une menace pour l'identité de la nation ou du groupe ethnique plus petit. Les différences en taille en combinaison avec la similitude linguistique étaient associées, d'une part, avec des asymétries dans la sympathie mutuelle et, d'autre part, avec des perceptions asymétriques de similitude avec l'autre nation. Les conclusions de cette étude sont en accord avec les résultats des études antérieures et soutiennent l'importance du langage pour l'identité d'une nation. De plus, les résultats appuient l'utilité de la théorie de l'identité sociale pour comprendre les relations intergroupes et internationales. Naciones vecinas con similitudes lingüísticas pero que difieren en tamaño son frecuentemente asimétricas respecto de sus relaciones actitudinales una respecto de la otra. Los cuidadanos de naciones pequeñas tienden a ver a naciones más grandes como menos simpáticas y parecidas que viceversa. Nosotros hipotetizamos que la reacción de las naciones más pequeñas es la consequencia de una identidad amenazada debido a su menor tamaño combinada con una similitud muy grande relacionada con una parte vital de su identidad: es decir el lenguaje. Para probar esta hipótesis 832 alumnos de la escuela secundaria de seis diferentes grupos étnicos/nacionales (Francia, Alemania, Austria, regiones en Suiza en las que se habla francés y alemán, regiones en Bélgica en las que se habla francés y holandés así como los Países Bajos) completaron un cuestionario sobre gustos y similitudes. Los resultados mostraron - en alto grado - que las diferencias en el tamaño en combinación con las similitudes lingüísticas con otra

van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

2010-02-01

223

An Exploration of Parents' Perceptions and Beliefs About Changes Following Participation in a Family Skill Training Program: a Qualitative Study in a Developing Country.  

PubMed

Family skill training programs have been recognized as effective strategies for preventing substance use. However, they have been evaluated mainly in high-income countries. Families in developing countries also face difficulties; therefore, it is important to explore the fit of existing programs in this context. The present study explores parents' perceptions and beliefs about changes following participation in the Strengthening Families Program 10-14, which was implemented in Panama by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Thirty parents who had taken part in the program between 2010 and 2011 were interviewed. Thematic analysis was conducted taking a participant-driven inductive stand. An exploration of parents' narratives suggested that, after the program, they observed changes in themselves as parents, in their children, in the interaction between the two of them, and in their functioning as a couple. Perceived changes centered on communication, limits, obedience, relationship roles, emotional regulation, and social development. For example, parents reported being able to control their emotions in a healthier manner, reducing the use of shouting and setting limits in a more effective way. All these factors have been recognized in previous research as strategies for preventing substance use. It is important to assess participants' perceptions of programs brought from elsewhere before dissemination efforts can take place. Parents interviewed for this study appeared to hold positive views about this program. This methodology is discussed as a means of evaluating evidence-based interventions in different cultural settings. PMID:25387790

Mejia, Anilena; Ulph, Fiona; Calam, Rachel

2014-11-12

224

SEASAT SAR performance evaluation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor was evaluated using data processed by the MDA digital processor. Two particular aspects are considered the location accuracy of image data, and the calibration of the measured backscatter amplitude of a set of corner reflectors. The image location accuracy was assessed by selecting identifiable targets in several scenes, converting their image location to UTM coordinates, and comparing the results to map sheets. The error standard deviation is measured to be approximately 30 meters. The amplitude was calibrated by measuring the responses of the Goldstone corner reflector array and comparing the results to theoretical values. A linear regression of the measured against theoretical values results in a slope of 0.954 with a correlation coefficient of 0.970.

1982-01-01

225

Evaluating the Madrasa Preschool Programme in East Africa: A Quasi-Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of preschool experience (two types of preschool: Madrasa and non-Madrasa) on the cognitive development of children in East Africa. In the three countries studied (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania/Zanzibar) preschool education is burgeoning and government standards are being set. This quasi experimental evaluation used…

Mwaura, Peter A. M.; Sylva, Kathy; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

2008-01-01

226

Experimental study and evaluation of radioprotective drugs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental study evaluates radioprotective drugs administered before exposure either orally or intravenously. Specifically studied are the sources of radiation, choice of radiation dose, choice of animals, administration of drugs, the toxicity of protective agents and types of protective drug.

Smith, D. E.; Thomson, J. F.

1968-01-01

227

A review of international and UK-based ethical guidelines for researchers conducting nontherapeutic genetic studies in developing countries.  

PubMed

Initiation and implementation of nontherapeutic genetic research projects, sponsored by developed countries and conducted in developing countries, requires careful consideration and awareness of procedures that ensure ethical research. This article reviews, and discusses controversies surrounding, the ethical principles established internationally and recommended by institutions in the UK for designing and implementing nontherapeutic genetic research studies. Before project commencement, the researcher should submit proposals to appropriate ethics committees and, wherever possible, seek guidance from experienced researchers. The researcher must also be aware of his/her responsibilities when conducting research with human participants. Responsibilities include respecting autonomy, privacy and confidentiality of participants, respecting social and cultural differences, providing appropriate information to participants, obtaining informed consent and offering appropriate compensation for participation. Finally, researchers involved in human genetics studies must also consider specific issues and public concerns when collecting biological samples. This includes using anonymised samples, considering future use of samples and ensuring confidentiality of results. PMID:16175190

Roy Choudhury, Shormila; Knapp, Leslie A

2006-01-01

228

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

1992-08-01

229

Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

2013-06-01

230

Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal level for viable compost production. This paper presents a multidisciplinary analysis of factors influencing the success and failure of the composting initiative of KIWODET, a community based organization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The results show that despite the ready availability and good compostability of the waste stream, not all fractions of municipal organic wastes qualify as feedstock. Negative consumer attitude hindered the acceptance of compost produced from residential wastes. KIWODET did manage to successfully implement a composting operation for commercial organic wastes. Their additional waste collection and sorting activities also contributed to an increased feedstock control as well as the integration of informal waste collecting activities. When KIWODET was forced to suspend its composting activities because of land use issues, their diversified waste sector activities proved crucial in reducing the negative financial impact on their overall performance. This paper emphasizes that successful composting initiatives can arise from local capacity in developing countries. However, the lack of municipal integration and support leaves such technically viable initiatives strongly vulnerable to external factors. PMID:21558081

Oberlin, Aisa S; Szántó, Gábor L

2011-10-01

231

Work stress and health in Western European and post-communist countries: an East–West comparison study  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence that psychosocial factors at work influence the risk of poor health in Western societies, but little is known about the effect of work stress in the former communist countries. The aim of this paper is to compare the association of work stress with self-rated health in Western European and post-communist countries. Methods Data from four epidemiological studies were used: the HAPIEE study (Poland, Russia and the Czech Republic), the Hungarian Epidemiological Panel (Hungary), the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (Germany) and the Whitehall II study (UK). The overall sample consisted of 18 494 male and female workers aged 35–65 years. Results High effort-reward imbalance at work was associated with poor self-rated health. The adjusted odds ratios for the highest versus lowest quartile of the effort-reward ratio were 3.8 (95% CI 1.9 to 7.7) in Hungary, 3.6 (95% CI 2.3 to 5.7) in the Czech Republic, 2.5 (95% CI 1.5 to 4.1) in the UK, 2.3 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.5) in Germany, 1.5 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.1) in Poland and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.8) in Russia. The differences in odds ratios between countries were statistically significant (p<0.05). A similar pattern was observed for the effect of overcommitment on poor health. Conclusion The association of effort-reward imbalance at work and of a high degree of work-related overcommitment with poor self-rated health was seen in all countries, but the size of the effects differed considerably. It does not appear that the effects in Eastern Europe are systematically stronger than in the West. PMID:19692735

Salavecz, G; Chandola, T; Pikhart, H; Dragano, N; Siegrist, J; Jöckel, K-H; Erbel, R; Pajak, A; Malyutina, S; Kubinova, R; Marmot, M; Bobak, M; Kopp, M

2014-01-01

232

Palliative Care Service Use in Four European Countries: A Cross-National Retrospective Study via Representative Networks of General Practitioners  

PubMed Central

Background Due to a rising number of deaths from cancer and other chronic diseases a growing number of people experience complex symptoms and require palliative care towards the end of life. However, population-based data on the number of people receiving palliative care in Europe are scarce. The objective of this study is to examine, in four European countries, the number of people receiving palliative care in the last three months of life and the factors associated with receiving palliative care. Methods Cross-national retrospective study. Over two years (2009–2010), GPs belonging to representative epidemiological surveillance networks in Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, and Spain registered weekly all deaths of patients (?18 years) in their practices and the care they received in the last three months of life using a standardized form. Sudden deaths were excluded. Results We studied 4,466 deaths. GPs perceived to have delivered palliative care to 50% of patients in Belgium, 55% in Italy, 62% in the Netherlands, and 65% in Spain (p<.001). Palliative care specialists attended to 29% of patients in the Netherlands, 39% in Italy, 45% in Spain, and 47% in Belgium (p<.001). Specialist palliative care lasted a median (inter-quartile range) of 15 (23) days in Belgium to 30 (70) days in Italy (p<.001). Cancer patients were more likely than non-cancer patients to receive palliative care in all countries as were younger patients in Italy and Spain with regard to specialist palliative care. Conclusions Although palliative care is established in the countries studied, there are considerable differences in its provision. Two potentially underserved groups emerge non-cancer patients in all countries and older people in Italy and Spain. Future research should examine how differences in palliative care use relate to both patient characteristics and existing national health care policies. PMID:24386381

Pivodic, Lara; Pardon, Koen; Van den Block, Lieve; Van Casteren, Viviane; Miccinesi, Guido; Donker, Gé A.; Alonso, Tomás Vega; Alonso, José Lozano; Aprile, Pierangelo Lora; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Deliens, Luc

2013-01-01

233

Parent country nationals or local nationals for executive positions in foreign affiliates: An empirical study of Japanese affiliates in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how the host country experience of Japanese multinational corporations (MNCs) affects their staffing policies\\u000a for executive manager positions at foreign affiliates. Hypotheses on executive staffing policies for foreign affiliates are\\u000a tested using survey data collected from 103 Japanese affiliates in Korea. Findings show that the level of global integration\\u000a and the degree of centralization of decision-making positively

Naoki Ando; Dong Kee Rhee; Namgyoo Kenny Park

2008-01-01

234

Earthquake Loss Assessment for the Evaluation of the Sovereign Risk and Financial Sustainability of Countries and Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently earthquakes have struck cities both from developing as well as developed countries, revealing significant knowledge gaps and the need to improve the quality of input data and of the assumptions of the risk models. The quake and tsunami in Japan (2011) and the disasters due to earthquakes in Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), New Zealand (2011) and Spain (2011), only to mention some unexpected impacts in different regions, have left several concerns regarding hazard assessment as well as regarding the associated uncertainties to the estimation of the future losses. Understanding probable losses and reconstruction costs due to earthquakes creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to cope with sovereign risk, including allocating the sustained budgetary resources necessary to reduce those potential damages and safeguard development. Therefore the use of robust risk models is a need to assess the future economic impacts, the country's fiscal responsibilities and the contingent liabilities for governments and to formulate, justify and implement risk reduction measures and optimal financial strategies of risk retention and transfer. Special attention should be paid to the understanding of risk metrics such as the Loss Exceedance Curve (empiric and analytical) and the Expected Annual Loss in the context of conjoint and cascading hazards.

Cardona, O. D.

2013-05-01

235

Clinical Applications of Evaluation Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of followup investigations exploring the impact of methadone maintenance treatment, methadone detoxification treatment, therapeutic communities, and outpatient drug-free treatment for the drug abuser was conducted. Limitations of these modalities were revealed in the followup studies. Implications for treatment and policy include: (1)…

Brown, Barry S.

236

Psychological Stress and Hospitalization for Childhood Asthma-a Nationwide Cohort Study in Two Nordic Countries  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposures to psychological stress in early life may contribute to the development or exacerbation of asthma. We undertook a cohort study based on data from several population-based registers in Denmark and Sweden to examine whether bereavement in childhood led to increased asthma hospitalization. Methods All singleton children born in Denmark during 1977-2008 and in Sweden during 1973-2006 were included in the study (N=5,202,576). The children were followed from birth to the date of first asthma hospitalization, emigration, death, their 18th birthday, or the end of study (31 December 2007 in Sweden and 31 December 2008 in Denmark), whichever came first. All the children were assigned to the non-bereaved group until they lost a close relative (mother, father or a sibling), from when they were included in the bereaved group. We evaluated the hazard ratio (HR) of first hospitalization for asthma in bereaved children using Cox proportional hazards regression models, compared to those who were in the non-bereaved group. We also did a sub-analysis on the association between bereavement and first asthma medication. Results A total of 147,829 children were hospitalized for asthma. The overall adjusted HR of asthma hospitalization in bereaved children was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.16), compared to non-bereaved children. The risk of asthma hospitalization was increased in those who lost a close relative at age of 14-17 years (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.23-1.92), but not in younger age groups. The association between bereavement and asthma hospitalization did not change over time since bereavement. In the sub-analysis in singleton live births during 1996-2008 recorded in the DMBR, bereavement was associated with a lower use of asthma medication (HR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.95). Conclusions Our data suggests that psychological stress following bereavement in late adolescence is associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalization or lowers the threshold for asthma hospitalization. PMID:24205324

Liu, Xiaoqin; Olsen, Jørn; Agerbo, Esben; Yuan, Wei; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong

2013-01-01

237

Developing an Appropriate Digital Hearing Aid for Low-Resource Countries: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the development process and discusses the key findings which resulted from our multidisciplinary research team's effort to develop an alternative digital hearing suitable for low-resource countries such as Thailand. A cost-effective, fully programmable digital hearing aid, with its specifications benchmarking against WHO's recommendations, was systematically designed, engineered, and tested. Clinically it had undergone a full clinical trial that employed the outcome measurement protocol adopted from the APHAB, the first time implemented in Thai language. Results indicated that using the hearing aid improves user's satisfaction in terms of ease of communication, background noises, and reverberation, with clear benefit after 3 and 6?months, confirming its efficacy. In terms of engineering, the hearing aid also proved to be robust, passing all the designated tests. As the technology has successfully been transferred to a local company for the production phase, we also discuss other challenges that may arise before the device can be introduced into the market. PMID:23818826

Israsena, P.; Isaradisaikul, S.; Noymai, A.; Boonyanukul, S.; Hemakom, A.; Chinnarat, C.; Navacharoen, N.; Lekagul, S.

2013-01-01

238

Antimalarial Drug Quality in the Most Severely Malarious Parts of Africa – A Six Country Study  

PubMed Central

A range of antimalarial drugs were procured from private pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas in the major cities of six African countries, situated in the part of that continent and the world that is most highly endemic for malaria. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and dissolution testing were used to measure active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards. 35% of all samples tested failed either or both tests, and were substandard. Further, 33% of treatments collected were artemisinin monotherapies, most of which (78%) were manufactured in disobservance of an appeal by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to withdraw these clinically inappropriate medicines from the market. The high persistence of substandard drugs and clinically inappropriate artemisinin monotherapies in the private sector risks patient safety and, through drug resistance, places the future of malaria treatment at risk globally. PMID:18461128

Bate, Roger; Coticelli, Philip; Tren, Richard; Attaran, Amir

2008-01-01

239

The Critical Role of Supervision in Retaining Staff in Obstetric Services: A Three Country Study  

PubMed Central

Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 commits us to reducing maternal mortality rates by three quarters and MDG 4 commits us to reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In order to reach these goals, greater access to basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as well as comprehensive EmOC which includes safe Caesarean section, is needed.. The limited capacity of health systems to meet demand for obstetric services has led several countries to utilize mid-level cadres as a substitute to more extensively trained and more internationally mobile healthcare workers. Although this does provide greater capacity for service delivery, concern about the performance and motivation of these workers is emerging. We propose that poor leadership characterized by inadequate and unstructured supervision underlies much of the dissatisfaction and turnover that has been shown to exist amongst these mid-level healthcare workers and indeed health workers more generally. To investigate this, we conducted a large-scale survey of 1,561 mid-level cadre healthcare workers (health workers trained for shorter periods to perform specific tasks e.g. clinical officers) delivering obstetric care in Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. Participants indicated the primary supervision method used in their facility and we assessed their job satisfaction and intentions to leave their current workplace. In all three countries we found robust evidence indicating that a formal supervision process predicted high levels of job satisfaction and low intentions to leave. We find no evidence that facility level factors modify the link between supervisory methods and key outcomes. We interpret this evidence as strongly supporting the need to strengthen leadership and implement a framework and mechanism for systematic supportive supervision. This will promote better job satisfaction and improve the retention and performance of obstetric care workers, something which has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in the countdown to 2015. PMID:23555581

McAuliffe, Eilish; Daly, Michael; Kamwendo, Francis; Masanja, Honorati; Sidat, Mohsin; de Pinho, Helen

2013-01-01

240

Tropical forests: a call for action. Part 1: the plan. Part 2: case studies. Part 3: country investment profiles  

SciTech Connect

The World Resources Institute (WRI), in cooperation with multi- and bi-lateral organizations, has launched a major initiative to conserve forests in the humid and semiarid/arid areas of developing countries. The 3-part WRI report is a call to political action on this subject. Part 1 describes the high costs exacted by deforestation, but asserts that the process can be arrested and reversed by a partnership of governments, local participants, and development-assistance agencies. Proposals are presented for a 5-year action plan in farm, community, and arid-zone forestry. Parts 2 and 3 include case studies of the successful projects listed in Part 1 and 5-year investment profiles of 56 developing countries affected by deforestation.

Not Available

1985-10-01

241

An Ecological Study of the Determinants of Differences in 2009 Pandemic Influenza Mortality Rates between Countries in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 mortality rates varied widely from one country to another. Our aim was to identify potential socioeconomic determinants of pandemic mortality and explain between-country variation. Methodology Based on data from a total of 30 European countries, we applied random-effects Poisson regression models to study the relationship between pandemic mortality rates (May 2009 to May 2010) and a set of representative environmental, health care-associated, economic and demographic country-level parameters. The study was completed by June 2010. Principal Findings Most regression approaches indicated a consistent, statistically significant inverse association between pandemic influenza-related mortality and per capita government expenditure on health. The findings were similar in univariable [coefficient: –0.00028, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): –0.00046, –0.00010, p?=?0.002] and multivariable analyses (including all covariates, coefficient: –0.00107, 95% CI: –0.00196, –0.00018, p?=?0.018). The estimate was barely insignificant when the multivariable model included only significant covariates from the univariate step (coefficient: –0.00046, 95% CI: –0.00095, 0.00003, p?=?0.063). Conclusions Our findings imply a significant inverse association between public spending on health and pandemic influenza mortality. In an attempt to interpret the estimated coefficient (–0.00028) for the per capita government expenditure on health, we observed that a rise of 100 international dollars was associated with a reduction in the pandemic influenza mortality rate by approximately 2.8%. However, further work needs to be done to unravel the mechanisms by which reduced government spending on health may have affected the 2009 pandemic influenza mortality. PMID:21589928

Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Bagos, Pantelis; Lytras, Theodoros; Bonovas, Stefanos

2011-01-01

242

Translating research into policy and practice in developing countries: a case study of magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia  

PubMed Central

Background The evidence base for improving reproductive health continues to grow. However, concerns remain that the translation of this evidence into appropriate policies is partial and slow. Little is known about the factors affecting the use of evidence by policy makers and clinicians, particularly in developing countries. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that might affect the translation of randomised controlled trial (RCT) findings into policies and practice in developing countries. Methods The recent publication of an important RCT on the use of magnesium sulphate to treat pre-eclampsia provided an opportunity to explore how research findings might be translated into policy. A range of research methods, including a survey, group interview and observations with RCT collaborators and a survey of WHO drug information officers, regulatory officials and obstetricians in 12 countries, were undertaken to identify barriers and facilitators to knowledge translation. Results It proved difficult to obtain reliable data regarding the availability and use of commonly used drugs in many countries. The perceived barriers to implementing RCT findings regarding the use of magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia include drug licensing and availability; inadequate and poorly implemented clinical guidelines; and lack of political support for policy change. However, there were significant regional and national differences in the importance of specific barriers. Conclusion The policy changes needed to ensure widespread availability and use of magnesium sulphate are variable and complex. Difficulties in obtaining information on availability and use are combined with the wide range of barriers across settings, including a lack of support from policy makers. This makes it difficult to envisage any single intervention strategy that might be used to promote the uptake of research findings on magnesium sulphate into policy across the study settings. The publication of important trials may therefore not have the impacts on health care that researchers hope for. PMID:16262902

Aaserud, Morten; Lewin, Simon; Innvaer, Simon; Paulsen, Elizabeth J; Dahlgren, Astrid T; Trommald, Mari; Duley, Lelia; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Oxman, Andrew D

2005-01-01

243

Peer Evaluation: An Interview Study of Teachers Evaluating Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Salt Lake City School District (SLCSD) teacher evaluation system, which includes peer review and assistance for deficient teachers, was instituted in 1975. The Performance Assistance program provides for strong, experienced teachers (peer reviewers) to work with teachers identified by their principals as deficient. This study addresses the…

Benzley, Janet; And Others

244

Cross?Country Skiing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to study the adaptation to speed in the temporal patterns of the movement cycle and determine any differences in velocity, cycle rate and cycle length at the maximum speed level in the different classical style and freestyle cross?country skiing techniques. Eight skilled male cross?country skiers were filmed with a digital video camera in the sagittal plane while

Johnny Nilsson; Per Tveit; Olav Eikrehagen

2004-01-01

245

Teacher Evaluation: A Study of Effective Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary survey of 32 school districts identified as having highly developed teacher evaluation systems was followed by the selection of 4 case study districts (Salt Lake City, Utah; Lake Washington, Washington; Greenwich, Connecticut; and Toledo, Ohio) representing diverse teacher evaluation processes and organizational environments. Common…

Wise, Arthur E.; And Others

246

Violence and non-violence-related injuries and alcohol in women from developed and developing countries: a multi-site emergency room study.  

PubMed

This study sought to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the occurrence of injuries in women attending the emergency room (ER) from developing and developed countries. The sample consisted of ER data from women in 15 countries that were collected as part of two multi-site studies using similar methodologies: the Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project (ERCAAP), and World Health Organization Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injuries (WHO Study). Women ranged in age from 18 to 98years. Those from developed countries had higher levels of education (43% completed high-school) than women from developing countries (37%). Over half of the women from developing countries reported they had not consumed alcohol in the last 12months (abstentious), while 2% reported drinking every day. In addition, current drinking women from developing countries reported more binge drinking episodes (33% reported 5 to 11 drinks and 15% reported 12 or more drinks on an occasion) compared to those from developed countries (28% and 11%, respectively). Violence-related injury was more prevalent in developing countries (18%) compared to developed countries (9%). An association between injury and the frequency of alcohol consumption in the last 12months was observed in both developing and developed countries. Although women from developing countries who suffered violence-related injuries were more likely to demonstrate alcohol abstinence or have lower rates of daily alcohol consumption, these women drank in a more dangerous way, and violence-related injuries were more likely to occur in these women than in those living in developed countries. PMID:25452073

da Silva, Rosiane Lopes; Diehl, Alessandra; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Figlie, Neliana B

2015-02-01

247

Evaluation of rapid response team implementation in medical emergencies: A gallant evidence based medicine initiative in developing countries for serious adverse events  

PubMed Central

Background: Rapid response team (RRT) has been implemented in developed countries with the aim of early recognition and response to critical care triggers for the better patient outcome. However, the data concerning their efficacy is hardly available until date from Indian subcontinent. Aims: To evaluate the impact of RRT implementation on patient outcome during medical emergencies. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study of RRT records of in-bed patients of super specialty academic teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: RRT record forms during the first half of the year from January 2012 to June 2012 were included for all inpatients and out-patients irrespective of their age, gender and diseases profile after their inclusion in the system. Outcomes such as patient stayed in the room, patient transfer to intensive care unit (ICU), patient discharge and generation of code blue event, mortality and length of stay in hospital/ICU were measured. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis was performed with the help of statistical software STATA 9.0 and R 2.13.2 (StataCorp LP, Lakeway Drive College Station, Texas, USA). Results: Analysis of 41 RRT calls showed decreased code blue calls by 2.44% and decrease in mortality by 4.88%. Average length of stay in ICU and hospital post RRT assistance for patients was 2.55 and 6.95 days respectively. Conversely percentage of patients requiring a higher level of care was more (75.61%) than those who stayed in their rooms/wards (24.39%). Conclusion: Implementation of RRT in this hospital was associated with reduced code blue events and its attendant mortality outside the ICU settings. However, more number of patient requiring higher levels of care delineates the need for a larger evidence based medicine study. PMID:24741490

Rashid, Mohammed Fayyaz; Imran, Mohammed; Javeri, Yash; Rajani, Monika; Samad, Shadab; Singh, Omender

2014-01-01

248

Correlates of Functional Outcome among Stroke Survivors in a Developing Country-A Prospective Community-based Study from India.  

PubMed

Stroke survivors (SS) are rising with higher incidence of stroke in developing countries. In addition to physical impairment, other factors such as cognition, social interaction, and depression determine the functional outcome after stroke. Considering the paucity of data from developing countries, we planned to determine the change in various functional parameters among SS. This community-based prospective study was carried out in Kolkata, India among 283 SS between 2006 and 2010. Functional outcome was assessed at baseline and at 3 annual follow-up visits using validated tools. A stepwise regression analysis was performed with demographic and stroke-related covariates against various measures of functional outcome. Result showed that mean Barthel Index score at baseline was 76.4 ± 30.8. Bengali version of mental status examination and Geriatric Depression Scale scores trended down over time with a negative regression coefficient of -.2061 (standard error [SE], .0937) and -.4488 (SE, .2145). Other outcomes did not change. Female gender, depression, and cognitive dysfunction had an unfavorable impact, whereas education correlated positively. In conclusions female gender and neuropsychiatric disturbances showed poor functional outcome compared with education, which correlates with better outcome. This information will be helpful for patients in developing countries for planning stroke rehabilitation. PMID:25238928

Ghosal, Malay Kumar; Burman, Prabir; Singh, Vineeta; Das, Sujata; Paul, Neelanjana; Ray, Biman Kanti; Hazra, Avijit; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Basu, Arindam; Chaudhuri, Arijit; Das, Shyamal Kumar

2014-01-01

249

Health interventions for the metal working industry: which is the most cost-effective? A study from a developing country.  

PubMed

This study ranked the cost-effectiveness of health interventions in the metal working industry in a developing country. Data were based on 82 034 workers of the Northern region of Mexico. Effectiveness was measured through 'healthy life years' (HeaLYs) gained. Costs were estimated per worker according to type and appropriate inputs from selected health interventions. 'Hand' was the anatomical region that yielded the most gain of HeaLYs and amputation was the injury that yielded the most gain of HeaLYs. The most effective health intervention corresponded to training, followed by medical care, education, helmets, safety shoes, lumbar supports, safety goggles, gloves and safety aprons. In dollar terms, education presented the best cost-effectiveness ratio (US$637) and safety aprons presented the worst cost-effectiveness ratio (US$1 147 770). Training proved to be a very expensive intervention, but presented the best effectiveness outcome and the second best cost-effectiveness ratio (US$2084). Cost-effectiveness analyses in developing countries are critical. Corporations might not have the same funds and technology as those in developed countries or multinational companies. PMID:12063358

Salinas, A M; Villarreal, E; Nuñez, G M; Garza, M E; Briones, H; Navarro, O

2002-05-01

250

Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females) from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity. PMID:24348144

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Lalla, Osama; Ali, Essa Y. A.; Kalam, Faiza; Benhamed, Mofida M.; Saghir, Sabri; Halahleh, Ismail; Djoudi, Zahra; Chirane, Manel

2013-01-01

251

Risk of disordered eating attitudes among adolescents in seven Arab countries by gender and obesity: a cross-cultural study.  

PubMed

The objectives were to discover the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes (EAs) among adolescent males and females, and the association of obesity with EA in seven Arab countries. A multistage stratified sampling technique was used to select secondary students aged 15-18 years from cities in Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria and Sharijah Emirate (United Arab Emirates). The total sample was 4698 (2240 males and 2458 females). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to measure those at risk of disordered EA. Obesity was calculated according to the International Obesity Taskforce criteria. Participants were grouped into two categories, non-obese and obese (overweight and obese). The risk of disordered EA was twice as high among females as in males in Jordan, Libya, Palestine and Syria. Kuwaiti adolescents (males and females) showed higher prevalence of disordered EA than their counterparts in other countries. The risk of disordered EA among obese adolescents was two to three times higher than that of non-obese adolescents, in both genders. Excepting Kuwaiti females and Palestinian males. The association of obesity with disordered EA was statistically significant. This study highlighted the magnitude of the risk of disordered eating attitudes among both male and female adolescents in Arab countries and identified the need for programmes to prevent and control these disorders in the Arab region. PMID:23092757

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Lalla, Osama; Ali, Essa Y A; Kalam, Faiza; Benhamed, Mofida M; Saghir, Sabri; Halahleh, Ismail; Djoudi, Zahra; Chirane, Manel

2013-01-01

252

Constraints to healthcare waste treatment in low-income countries - a case study from Somaliland.  

PubMed

In low-income countries, healthcare waste is mixed with the municipal waste stream and rarely receives special attention. This paper presents the lessons learned from a pilot project targeted to improve healthcare waste management in Hargeisa (Somaliland). The interventions were carried out in three of the main hospitals in the city. Consideration was also given to improve the overall situation regarding the management of healthcare waste. Three De Montfort incinerators were built and training was provided to operators, waste workers and healthcare personnel. Although the incinerators were constructed in accordance with the required standards, major constraints were identified in the operational phase: irregular de-ashing procedures, misuse of safety equipment, and ineffective separation of healthcare waste were seen in this phase. The paper concludes that in other small hospitals in the developing world, such as those in Hargeisa, on-site incineration by use of low-cost, small-scale incinerators could be successfully applied as an interim solution, provided that an agreed and acceptable plan of operation and maintenance is in place and responsibilities for the management of the facility are clearly identified. Moreover, when replicating this experience in other settings even greater importance should be given to the technical capacity building of operators and pressure should be exercised on local administrations in order to control and supervise the whole management system. PMID:22128091

Di Bella, Veronica; Ali, Mansoor; Vaccari, Mentore

2012-06-01

253

Sustainability of composting as an alternative waste management option for developing countries: a case study of the City of Tshwane.  

PubMed

Excessive MSW production is a growing management problem for cities in developing countries, such as South Africa. This study addresses these challenges with particular focus on the City of Tshwane. A major problem in Tshwane is that all the MSW generated in the city, including garden waste, is currently being landfilled. A waste stream analysis of Tshwane reveals the largest fraction of MSW is organic and biodegradable, and therefore suitable for compost production. The study proposes that Tshwane will have to address composting the biodegradable fraction of the MSW stream. This study attempts to understand the economics of composting practices in Tshwane, whether composting in Tshwane is financially viable. A comparative study, applying the dome aeration technology on a conventional static windrow, was conducted with the objective of investigating and proposing alternative improved composting technologies for green waste. Although the study focused on Tshwane, it can be argued that the findings could be implemented in any other South African municipality, and even implemented in other emerging countries. PMID:20937620

Snyman, Jacques; Vorster, Kobus

2011-11-01

254

Immigrant Integration policies and perceived Group Threat: A Multilevel Study of 27 Western and Eastern European Countries.  

PubMed

Although immigrant integration policies have long been hypothesized to be associated with majority members' anti-immigrant sentiments, systematic empirical research exploring this relationship is largely absent. To address this gap in the literature, the present research takes a cross-national perspective. Drawing from theory and research on group conflict and intergroup norms, we conduct two studies to examine whether preexisting integration policies that are more permissive promote or impede majority group members' subsequent negative attitudes regarding immigrants. For several Western and Eastern European countries, we link country-level information on immigrant integration policies from 2006 with individual-level survey data from the Eurobarometer 71.3 collected in 2009 (Study 1) and from the fourth wave of the European Value Study collected between 2008 and 2009 (Study 2). For both studies, the results from multilevel regression models demonstrate that immigrant integration policies that are more permissive are associated with decreased perceptions of group threat from immigrants. These findings suggest that immigrant integration policies are of key importance in improving majority members' attitudes regarding immigrants, which is widely considered desirable in modern immigrant-receiving societies. PMID:23521987

Schlueter, Elmar; Meuleman, Bart; Davidov, Eldad

2013-05-01

255

Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia: results from the CEPHEUS study in Arabian Gulf countries.  

PubMed

The Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS) survey evaluated the attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals among patients on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) guideline. The survey was conducted in 6 Arabian Gulf countries. Patients aged ?18 years on LLDs for at least ?3 months (stable medication for ?6 weeks) were recruited. Fasting blood samples were collected at a single visit. In this survey, 5276 (58.2% male) patients were included in the final analysis. The LDL-C goal was attained in 91.1% of low-risk, 52.7% of high-risk, and 32.0% in very-high-risk categories. Goal attainment was directly related to female gender, age<40 years, history of diabetes, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The results of this survey highlight the suboptimal management of hypercholesterolemia across Arabian Gulf countries. PMID:24301426

Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al Tamimi, Omer; Al Herz, Shorook; Al Anazi, Faisal; Al Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Alkhadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel Razak; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Al Jassim, Obaid; Al Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad Omar Ahmed S; Alawadhi, Mahmoud; Amin, Haitham; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Shehab, Abdullah

2014-11-01

256

The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Self-Rated Health: Study of 29 Countries Using European Social Surveys (2002–2008)  

PubMed Central

Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES) and self-rated health (SRH) varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008), in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion. PMID:23439514

Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Rodero-Cosano, Maria Luisa; Motrico, Emma; Salinas-Perez, Jose A.; Garcia-Alonso, Carlos; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

2013-01-01

257

Large construction projects in developing countries: a case study from Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various studies have been undertaken into the factors affecting delays, cost overruns, quality, safety, and productivity, etc. and other problems in specific types of projects, these studies seldom discuss common and general problems of construction projects. Thus, comprehensive studies on these problems are essential. Since the problems are rather contextual, the studies need to focus on a specific geographical

Nguyen Duy Long; Stephen Ogunlana; Truong Quang; Ka Chi Lam

2004-01-01

258

Psychological distress among patients of an orthopaedic outpatient clinic: a study from a low-income country  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is common among general trauma patients and is associated with a poor outcome. We evaluated the relationship of psychological distress to physical injury, musculoskeletal complaints, and social factors in a low-income country. Methods We administered the Self-Rating Questionnaire (SRQ), the Oslo social support questionnaire, and the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ). Results An SRQ score of 9 or more, which indicates probable depressive disorder, occurred in 45.6% of men and 76.1% of women. A high SRQ score was associated with female sex, little or no education, low income and little social support. Even after these were controlled for there was a significantly higher SRQ score in patients with arthritis, backache/prolapsed disc, major fracture and other bone pathology. Conclusions Depressive disorder appears to be very common in orthopaedic outpatients in Pakistan; both social circumstances and nature of bone pathology are associated with such depression. PMID:20205898

2010-01-01

259

Community Health Workers and Health Care Delivery: Evaluation of a Women's Reproductive Health Care Project in a Developing Country  

PubMed Central

Background As part of the mid-term evaluation of a Women's Health Care Project, a study was conducted to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to interview Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA). Information was collected on MWRA knowledge regarding danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, postnatal periods, and MNH care seeking behavior. After comparing MNH service utilization, the two areas were compared using a logistic regression model, to identify the association of different factors with the intervention after controlling for socio-demographic, economic factors and distance of the MWRA residence to a health care facility. Results The demographic characteristics of women in the two areas were similar, although socioeconomic status as indicated by level of education and better household amenities, was higher in the intervention area. Consequently, on univariate analysis, utilization of MNH services: antenatal care, TT vaccination, institutional delivery and use of modern contraceptives were higher in the intervention than control area. Nonetheless, multivariable analysis controlling for confounders such as socioeconomic status revealed that utilization of antenatal care services at health centers and TT vaccination during pregnancy are significantly associated with the intervention. Conclusions Our findings suggest positive changes in health care seeking behavior of women and families with respect to MNH. Some aspects of care still require attention, such as knowledge about danger signs and neonatal care, especially umbilical cord care. Despite overall success achieved so far in response to the Millennium Development Goals, over the past two decades decreases in maternal mortality are far from the 2015 target. This report identifies some of the key factors to improving MNH and serves as an interim measure of a national and global challenge that remains a work in progress. PMID:24086541

Wajid, Abdul; White, Franklin; Karim, Mehtab S.

2013-01-01

260

Project identification and evaluation techniques for transportation infrastructure : assessing their role in metropolitan areas of developing countries  

E-print Network

Project identification and evaluation of transportation infrastructure play a vital role in shaping and sustaining the forms of cities all over the world. These cities differ substantially in character and urban form and ...

Kumar, Vimal, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

261

State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009/2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 03  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to describe and map the current state of play of the Bologna Process in the nine countries of the Southern Mediterranean participating in the Tempus programme. For the last twenty years, the Tempus programme has supported the modernisation of higher education systems in countries neighbouring the EU by financing…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

2010-01-01

262

Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this evidence has shown complexity with regard to setting, conflict-phase, gender, and age. These complex findings raise the need of a detailed evaluation of the specific factors which influence size and direction of intervention effects. Individual patient data meta-analysis is a specific type of meta-analysis that allows the collection of exact information at an individual patient level, and to examine whether intervention and socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support may act as moderators and mediators of intervention effect. The aim of the present study is to carry out an individual patient data meta-analysis using data from all available randomized controlled trials (either published or unpublished) comparing psychosocial intervention with waiting list or no intervention arms in children exposed to traumatic events living in low- and middle-income countries. Methods/Design All randomized trials comparing selective preventive psychosocial intervention versus waiting list or no treatment conditions in children (0–18 years) living in low- and middle-income countries will be included. Studies will be identified in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. There will be no restrictions on publication type, status, language, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be psychological symptoms (post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (coping methods, social support, self-esteem), and function impairment. Discussion We are expecting that some variables, like socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support will act as moderators/mediators of intervention effect. The investigation of the role of these factors on the intervention effects will help in the appropriate selection, development, implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based programs in low- and middle-income countries. Trial registration This protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (registration number: CRD42013006960). PMID:24721115

2014-01-01

263

CAUSES OF COMMUNITY STILLBIRTHS AND EARLY NEONATAL DEATHS IN LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES USING VERBAL AUTOPSY: AN INTERNATIONAL, MULTICENTER STUDY  

PubMed Central

Objective Six million stillbirths (SB) and early neonatal deaths (END) occur annually worldwide, mostly in rural settings distant from health facilities. We used verbal autopsy (VA), to understand causes of non-hospital, community-based SB and END from four low-income countries. Study Design This prospective observational study utilized the train-the-trainer method. VA interviewers conducted standardized interviews; in each country data were reviewed by two local physicians who assigned an underlying causes of deaths (COD). Result There were 252 perinatal deaths (118 END; 134 SB) studied from pooled data. Almost half (45%) the END occurred on postnatal day 1, 19%on the second day and 16% the third day. Major early neonatal COD were infections (49%), birth asphyxia (26%), prematurity (17%) and congenital malformations (3%). Major causes of SB were infection (37%), prolonged labor (11%), antepartum hemorrhage (10%), preterm delivery (7%), cord complications (6%) and accidents (5%). Conclusion Many of these SB and END were from easily preventable causes. Over 80% of END occurred during the first 3 days of postnatal life, and >90% were due to infection, birth asphyxia and prematurity. The causes of SB were more varied, and maternal infections were the most common cause. Increased attention should be targeting at interventions that reduce maternal and neonatal infections and prevent END, particularly during the first 3 days of life. PMID:22076413

Engmann, C; Garces, A; Jehan, I; Ditekemena, J; Phiri, M; Mazariegos, M; Chomba, E; Pasha, O; Tshefu, A; McClure, E M; Thorsten, V; Chakraborty, H; Goldenberg, R L; Bose, C; Carlo, W A; Wright, L L

2014-01-01

264

Occupational cancer in developed countries  

PubMed Central

Abstract Studies of occupational exposures have made major contributions to our understanding of human carcinogenesis. About one third of the factors identified as definite or probable human carcinogens were first investigated in the workplace and these exposures exact a considerable toll on working populations. There are many additional workplace exposures that are suspect carcinogens that require further evaluation to ensure a safe work environment. Information from occupational investigations is also relevant to the general population because many occupational exposures can be found outside the workplace. Much of our understanding about occupational cancer has been obtained from studies largely composed of white men in developed countries. The movement of industry from developed to developing countries underscores the need for future investigations to include more diverse populations. PMID:21489219

2011-01-01

265

End-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis: a study from a tertiary care center in a developing country.  

PubMed

The exact number of patients with chronic renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in developing world is not known. Unlike the developed world, most developing countries lack renal registries. This study was initiated to know demographic and clinical data of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients presenting to maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) at a government funded tertiary care centre in a developing country. A prospective analysis of all new ESRD patients attending to hemodialysis at our centre from 2004 to 2007 had been done. There were 237 new hemodialysis patients during a three-year period. Males were 153 and females were 84, with the mean age 44.92 years. Diabetes mellitus (31.22%) was the most common cause of ESRD. Only 29.95% of patients had education on renal replacement therapy. 65.40% patients had emergency hemodialysis. Internal jugular catheter was the most common form of vascular access at initiation of hemodialysis. Arteriovenous fistula was secured in 29.95% of patients at presentation. Catheter-related infection appeared in 13.55% of patients on catheter. The most common infection in dialysis patients was urinary tract infection (37.14%). Renal transplantation was opted by 9.7% patients and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in 20.25% and 103 (43.45%) were lost to follow up. The rest (8.86%) continued on MHD. There were 42 (17.72%) deaths over a three-year period. The present study provided the information of the practice of hemodialysis, its population characteristics and outcomes from a developing country. PMID:21518245

Swarnalatha, Gudithi; Ram, Rapur; Prasad, Neela; Dakshinamurty, Kaligotla Venkata

2011-07-01

266

Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. Design Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Participants 109?118 men and 254?870 women, mainly aged 37-70. Main outcome measures Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men with about 24 g alcohol, one for women with about 12 g alcohol) and the estimated total annual number of cases of alcohol attributable cancer. Results If we assume causality, among men and women, 10% (95% confidence interval 7 to 13%) and 3% (1 to 5%) of the incidence of total cancer was attributable to former and current alcohol consumption in the selected European countries. For selected cancers the figures were 44% (31 to 56%) and 25% (5 to 46%) for upper aerodigestive tract, 33% (11 to 54%) and 18% (?3 to 38%) for liver, 17% (10 to 25%) and 4% (?1 to 10%) for colorectal cancer for men and women, respectively, and 5.0% (2 to 8%) for female breast cancer. A substantial part of the alcohol attributable fraction in 2008 was associated with alcohol consumption higher than the recommended upper limit: 33?037 of 178?578 alcohol related cancer cases in men and 17?470 of 397?043 alcohol related cases in women. Conclusions In western Europe, an important proportion of cases of cancer can be attributable to alcohol consumption, especially consumption higher than the recommended upper limits. These data support current political efforts to reduce or to abstain from alcohol consumption to reduce the incidence of cancer. PMID:21474525

2011-01-01

267

Rethinking Indicators of Microbial Drinking Water Quality for Health Studies in Tropical Developing Countries: Case Study in Northern Coastal Ecuador  

PubMed Central

To address the problem of the health impacts of unsafe drinking water, methods are needed to assess microbiologic contamination in water. However, indicators of water quality have provided mixed results. We evaluate five assays (three for Escherichia coli and one each for enterococci and somatic coliphage) of microbial contamination in villages in rural Ecuador that rely mostly on untreated drinking water. Only membrane filtration for E. coli using mI agar detected a significant association with household diarrheal disease outcome (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–1.65 in household containers and odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–1.37) in source samples. Our analysis and other published research points to the need for further consideration of study design factors, such as sample size and variability in measurements, when using indicator organisms, especially when relating water quality exposure to health outcomes. Although indicator organisms are used extensively in health studies, we argue that their use requires a full understanding of their purposes and limitations. PMID:22403326

Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

2012-01-01

268

Career Study Center: A Formative Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluative study was made for the staff and students at Career Study Center (CSC) to provide them with information for the program's future development. Staff, students, and parents were randomly selected and interviewed and the results summarized. Students feel CSC is significantly different and better than previously attended schools; there…

Center for New Schools, Inc., Chicago, IL.

269

Organic Supply Chain Collaboration: A Case Study in Eight EU Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at contributing to a better understanding of the linkage between supply chain performance and possible performance improvement with respect to food quality and safety. Therefore, the article addresses the question whether the level of collaborative planning and close supply chain relationships could help improve the quality and safety of organic supply chains. The study was conducted as

S. Naspetti; N. Lampkin; P. Nicolas; M. Stolze; R. Zanoli

2011-01-01

270

Teacher Education Matters: A Study of Middle School Mathematics Teacher Preparation in Six Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a major international teacher education research project--the Mathematics Teaching in the 21st Century Study (MT21)--this book investigates the pre-service preparation of middle school mathematics teachers in the United States, South Korea, Taiwan, Germany, Bulgaria, and Mexico. The study was funded by the National Science Foundation and…

Schmidt, William H.; Blomeke, Sigrid; Tatto, Maria Teresa

2011-01-01

271

Waiver, Release and Hold Harmless Agreement For Purdue University Students Intending to Study in Country Under Travel Warning  

E-print Network

___________________ and any Travel Alert regarding Country of Travel. I am aware that the State Department may issue acknowledge that participating in this program and travel to stated Country of Travel involves certain risks in Country Under Travel Warning I herby acknowledge that I have read the U.S. Department of State Travel

Ginzel, Matthew

272

State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries (2009-2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 02  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the beginning of the 2000s, the Bologna Process has expanded from the European Union towards the neighbouring countries and the Bologna Declaration has by now been signed by 47 countries. In addition, an increasing number of countries have shown their interest in the process by implementing most of its recommendations and tools on a…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

2010-01-01

273

LED Fluorescence Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in resource-limited settings relies on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy. LED fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM) has many potential advantages over ZN smear microscopy, but requires evaluation in the field. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity/specificity of LED-FM for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB and whether its performance varies with the timing of specimen collection. Methods and Findings Adults with cough ?2 wk were enrolled consecutively in Ethiopia, Nepal, Nigeria, and Yemen. Sputum specimens were examined by ZN smear microscopy and LED-FM and compared with culture as the reference standard. Specimens were collected using a spot-morning-spot (SMS) or spot-spot-morning (SSM) scheme to explore whether the collection of the first two smears at the health care facility (i.e., “on the spot”) the first day of consultation followed by a morning sample the next day (SSM) would identify similar numbers of smear-positive patients as smears collected via the SMS scheme (i.e., one on-the-spot-smear the first day, followed by a morning specimen collected at home and a second on-the-spot sample the second day). In total, 529 (21.6%) culture-positive and 1,826 (74.6%) culture-negative patients were enrolled, of which 1,156 (49%) submitted SSM specimens and 1,199 (51%) submitted SMS specimens. Single LED-FM smears had higher sensitivity but lower specificity than single ZN smears. Using two LED-FM or two ZN smears per patient was 72.8% (385/529, 95% CI 68.8%–76.5%) and 65.8% (348/529, 95% CI 61.6%–69.8%) sensitive (p<0.001) and 90.9% (1,660/1,826, 95% CI 89.5%–92.2%) and 98% (1,790/1,826, 95% CI 97.3%–98.6%) specific (p<0.001). Using three LED-FM or three ZN smears per patient was 77% (408/529, 95% CI 73.3%–80.6%) and 70.5% (373/529, 95% CI 66.4%–74.4%, p<0.001) sensitive and 88.1% (95% CI 86.5%–89.6%) and 96.5% (95% CI 96.8%–98.2%, p<0.001) specific. The sensitivity/specificity of ZN smear microscopy and LED-FM did not vary between SMS and SSM. Conclusions LED-FM had higher sensitivity but, in this study, lower specificity than ZN smear microscopy for diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Performance was independent of the scheme used for collecting specimens. The introduction of LED-FM needs to be accompanied by appropriate training, quality management, and monitoring of performance in the field. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN53339491 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21765809

Cuevas, Luis Eduardo; Al-Sonboli, Najla; Lawson, Lovett; Yassin, Mohammed Ahmed; Arbide, Isabel; Al-Aghbari, Nasher; Bahadur Sherchand, Jeevan; Al-Absi, Amin; Emenyonu, Emmanuel Nnamdi; Merid, Yared; Okobi, Mosis Ifenyi; Onuoha, Juliana Olubunmi; Aschalew, Melkamsew; Aseffa, Abraham; Harper, Greg; Anderson de Cuevas, Rachel Mary; Theobald, Sally Jane; Nathanson, Carl-Michael; Joly, Jean; Faragher, Brian; Squire, Stephen Bertel; Ramsay, Andrew

2011-01-01

274

PRE-RELEASE EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR SILVELEAF WHITEFLY WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OTHER COUNTRIES CONSIDERING RELEASE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A retrospective evaluation of the biological control program for Bemisia tabaci biotype B in the USA was conducted. The use of climate matching to direct foreign exploration led to the discovery of B. tabaci parasitoids from diverse climates, which proved useful in selecting species which would est...

275

The relationship between maternal depression and smoking cessation during pregnancy-a cross-sectional study of pregnant women from 15 European countries.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy. However, differences in study design and methodology challenge study comparability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and continuing smoking among pregnant European women while adjusting for maternal characteristics. This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data on depression status, smoking habits, maternal socio-demographic characteristics, and life-style factors were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Associations were estimated with logistic regression. Of 4,295 women included, 1,481 (34.5 %) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 391 (26.4 %) continued smoking during pregnancy whereof 127 (32.5 %) were depressed. The association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy were uniform across the European countries (OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.50-2.71), with about twice the prevalence of continuing smoking among the depressed. There was a strong relationship between continuing smoking in pregnancy and low education level (OR 4.46, 95 % CI 2.72-7.32), which coincided with risky pregnancy behavior such as failure to attend pregnancy/birth preparation courses (OR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.19-2.72) and follow recommended use of folic acid (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.23-2.65). Women who perceived the risk for the fetus of continued smoking during pregnancy as higher were the least likely to continue smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.68-0.77). This underlines the clustering of risk in some pregnant women, and the results should guide antenatal care of depressed women struggling to quit smoking during pregnancy. PMID:25352316

Smedberg, Janne; Lupattelli, Angela; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Øverland, Simon; Nordeng, Hedvig

2015-02-01

276

Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic deforestation in tropical countries is responsible for a significant part of global carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. To plan efficient climate change mitigation programs (such as REDD+, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), reliable forecasts of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are necessary. Although population density has been recognized as a key factor in tropical deforestation, current methods of prediction do not allow the population explosion that is occurring in many tropical developing countries to be taken into account. Here, we propose an innovative approach using novel computational and statistical tools, including R/GRASS scripts and the new phcfM R package, to model the intensity and location of deforestation including the effect of population density. We used the model to forecast anthropogenic deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions in five large study areas in the humid and spiny-dry forests of Madagascar. Using our approach, we were able to demonstrate that the current rapid population growth in Madagascar (+3.39% per year) will significantly increase the intensity of deforestation by 2030 (up to +1.17% per year in densely populated areas). We estimated the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the loss of aboveground biomass to be of 2.24 and 0.26 tons per hectare and per year in the humid and spiny-dry forest, respectively. Our models showed better predictive ability than previous deforestation models (the figure of merit ranged from 10 to 23). We recommend this approach to reduce the uncertainty associated with deforestation forecasts. We also underline the risk of an increase in the speed of deforestation in the short term in tropical developing countries undergoing rapid population expansion. PMID:23789079

Vieilledent, Ghislain; Grinand, Clovis; Vaudry, Romuald

2013-01-01

277

Country Cures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

London's Natural History Museum presents Country Cures, an "interactive project to gather information about the sometimes familiar, often surprising, use of plants in traditional medicine." Readers are highly encouraged to participate in this on-going project by contributing their own herbal remedies, which are listed by plant under The Exhibition and by ailment under Your Cures. All contributions featured in this website appear to be from residents of the U.K. and the Republic of Ireland, but there is nothing to suggest that others may not participate (especially as dandelions, yarrow, comfrey, and other plants in the exhibit are common in North American folk remedies).

278

Viral hemorrhagic fever cases in the country of Georgia: Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance Study results.  

PubMed

Minimal information is available on the incidence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus and hantavirus infections in Georgia. From 2008 to 2011, 537 patients with fever ? 38°C for ? 48 hours without a diagnosis were enrolled into a sentinel surveillance study to investigate the incidence of nine pathogens, including CCHF virus and hantavirus. Of 14 patients with a hemorrhagic fever syndrome, 3 patients tested positive for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Two of the patients enrolled in the study had acute renal failure. These 2 of 537 enrolled patients were the only patients in the study positive for hantavirus IgM antibodies. These results suggest that CCHF virus and hantavirus are contributing causes of acute febrile syndromes of infectious origin in Georgia. These findings support introduction of critical diagnostic approaches and confirm the need for additional surveillance in Georgia. PMID:24891463

Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Clark, Danielle V; Bautista, Christian T; Abdel Fadeel, Moustafa; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J; Wölfel, Silke; Wölfel, Roman; Rivard, Robert G

2014-08-01

279

Quantitative assessment of the benefits of specific information technologies applied to clinical studies in developing countries.  

PubMed

Clinical studies and trials require accessibility of large amounts of high-quality information in a timely manner, often daily. The integrated application of information technologies can greatly improve quality control as well as facilitate compliance with established standards such as Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). We have customized and implemented a number of information technologies, such as personal data assistants (PDAs), geographic information system (GIS), and barcode and fingerprint scanning, to streamline a pediatric dengue cohort study in Managua, Nicaragua. Quantitative data was obtained to assess the actual contribution of each technology in relation to processing time, accuracy, real-time access to data, savings in consumable materials, and time to proficiency in training sessions. In addition to specific advantages, these information technologies benefited not only the study itself but numerous routine clinical and laboratory processes in the health center and laboratories of the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health. PMID:18256435

Avilés, William; Ortega, Oscar; Kuan, Guillermina; Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva

2008-02-01

280

Development Education and Engineering: A Framework for Incorporating Reality of Developing Countries into Engineering Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To show the key points of a development education program for engineering studies fitted within the framework of the human development paradigm. Design/methodology/approach: The bases of the concept of technology for human development are presented, and the relationship with development education analysed. Special attention is dedicated…

Perez-Foguet, A.; Oliete-Josa, S.; Saz-Carranza, A.

2005-01-01

281

Education Policy Formation in Africa: A Comparative Study of Five Countries. Technical Paper No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains a set of five case studies and two analytical overview chapters that lay the foundation for a deeper understanding of the process of educational policy formation in Africa. Reflecting developments until late 1992, the cases include Botswana, Tanzania, Uganda, Mali, and Senegal. The articles describe and analyze current…

Evans, David R., Ed.

282

Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

2005-01-01

283

Quantitative Assessment of the Benefits of Specific Information Technologies Applied to Clinical Studies in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical studies and trials require accessibility of large amounts of high-quality information in a timely manner, often daily. The integrated application of information technologies can greatly improve quality control as well as facilitate compliance with established standards such as Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). We have customized and implemented a number of information technologies, such as

William Avilés; Oscar Ortega; Guillermina Kuan; Josefina Coloma; Eva Harris

2008-01-01

284

Does the State Expand Schooling? A Study Based on Five Nordic Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twentieth-century data on the numbers of students completing university matriculation examinations in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden were used to study the expansion of secondary academic education. The long-term regularity in the expansion and the differential growth curve for the two sexes suggest that the state was not…

Jonasson, Jon Torfi

2003-01-01

285

Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

2013-01-01

286

Values--A Study of Teacher and Student Perceptions in Four Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed to assess and compare the values prevalent among the students and teachers of Universities in Bangladesh, Japan, USA and Germany. The sample consisted of 480 students and 236 teachers. The sample included 120 undergraduate students from Japan; 120 undergraduate students from Bangladesh; 120 undergraduate students from USA, and 120…

Mahmud, Shamsul H.; Warchal, Judith R.; Masuchi, Ayumi; Ahmed, Rafiq; Schoelmerich, Axel

2009-01-01

287

Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

288

Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

Onianwa, P. C.

1993-01-01

289

Factors affecting the technical efficiency of health systems: A case study of Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries (2004–10)  

PubMed Central

Background: Improving efficiency of health sector is of particular importance in all countries. To reach this end, it is paramount to measure the efficiency. On the other hand, there are many factors that affect the efficiency of health systems. This study aimed to measure the Technical Efficiency (TE) of health systems in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries during 2004–10 and to determine the factors affecting their TE. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical and panel study. The required data were gathered using library and field studies, available statistics and international websites through completing data collection forms. In this study, the TE of health systems in 10 ECO countries was measured using their available data and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) through two approaches. The first approach used GDP per capita, education and smoking as its inputs and life expectancy and infant mortality rates as the outputs. The second approach, also, used the health expenditures per capita, the number of physicians per thousand people, and the number of hospital beds per thousand people as its inputs and life expectancy and under-5 mortality rates as the outputs. Then, the factors affecting the TE of health systems were determined using the panel data logit model. Excel 2010, Win4Deap 1.1.2 and Stata 11.0 were used to analyze the collected data. Results: According to the first approach, the mean TE of health systems was 0.497 and based on the second one it was 0.563. Turkey and Turkmenistan had, respectively, the highest and lowest mean of efficiency. Also, the results of panel data logit model showed that only GDP per capita and health expenditures per capita had significant relationships with the TE of health systems. Conclusion: In order to maximize the TE of health systems, health policy-makers should pay special attention to the proper use of healthcare resources according to the people’s needs, the appropriate management of the health system resources, allocating adequate budgets to the health sector, establishing an appropriate referral system to provide better public access to health services according to their income and needs, among many others. PMID:25114944

Ravangard, Ramin; Hatam, Nahid; Teimourizad, Abedin; Jafari, Abdosaleh

2014-01-01

290

Epilepsy surgery in developing countries.  

PubMed

Epilepsy surgery (ES) is a well-accepted treatment for medically intractable epilepsy patients in developed countries, but it is highly technology dependent. Such technology is not usually available in developing countries. For presurgical evaluation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram recording while videotaping the patient have been important. High technology equipment will, in conjunction with MRI, identify approximately 70% of ES candidates. Introducing ES into developing countries will require determining the candidates that are appropriate for the existing medical infrastructure. This article reviews ES and its possible introduction into conditions existing in developing countries. The authors address (a) the types of patients to be considered for resective ES (some patients require a fairly standard series of noninvasive studies: others will require extensive invasive studies), (b) ways to determine which patients might be appropriate for the existing situation (unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy detected with MRI, epilepsy with a circumscribed MRI lesion, hemispheric lesions, circumscribed MRI detected neuronal migration, and development disorders), (c) surgical procedures (local resection, functional hemispherectomy, multiple subpial transections, corpus callosotomy, and implantation of a vagal nerve stimulator), (d) special considerations for introducing ES into developing countries (medical infrastructure, technology, seizure monitoring systems, selective intracarotid/carotid Amytal testing, and surgical equipment), and (e) the limitations, realistic expectations, personnel requirements, and educational function for selected professionals. Delivery of the technology and expertise to perform ES in developing regions of the world is a realizable project, but it would be limited by available technology and existing medical infrastructure. It should be possible in most areas to train local personnel and thereby leave a lasting legacy. PMID:10963478

Williamson, P D; Jobst, B C

2000-01-01

291

Risk stratification for venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients in a developing country: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous Thrombo-Embolism (VTE) is a serious complication in hospitalized patients but can be preventable. This prospective\\u000a study addresses risk factors assessment and the use of heparin in this population. About 2,496 non pediatric patients were\\u000a admitted to Jordan University Hospital between June 12, 2007 and July 19, 2007. A random sample of 624 patients consisting\\u000a of every fourth admission was

Abdallah Awidi; Nathir Obeidat; Ahmad Magablah; Nazzal Bsoul

2009-01-01

292

Post-diphtheritic neuropathy: a clinical study in paediatric intensive care unit of a developing country.  

PubMed

A retrospective study was done on 48 consecutive patients with clinical diagnosis of post-diphtheritic neuropathy admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit of tertiary care hospital in North India between January 2008 and December 2010 to study the clinical profile of post-diphtheritic neuropathy in children. The case records were reviewed and information regarding personal details, clinical features, recovery parameters and outcome was recorded using a predesigned proforma. Median age was 4.25 years. All cases were unimmunized. Median latency period was 15 days. Of the children, 52% had palatal palsy whereas 48% had limb weakness initially. Median duration of progression of weakness was five days. Limb muscle weakness was present in 94%. Respiratory muscles were involved in 85.4% cases and 60.4% required mechanical ventilation, while 14.6% had fatal outcome and 10.4% had hypoxic neurological injury. Boys were affected more. Median duration of latency was shorter; muscle weakness, progression and recovery were faster as compared with observational studies in adults. PMID:23146909

Kanwal, Sandeep Kumar; Yadav, Dinesh; Chhapola, Viswas; Kumar, Virendra

2012-10-01

293

Quality of Private and Public Ambulatory Health Care in Low and Middle Income Countries: Systematic Review of Comparative Studies  

PubMed Central

Background In developing countries, the private sector provides a substantial proportion of primary health care to low income groups for communicable and non-communicable diseases. These providers are therefore central to improving health outcomes. We need to know how their services compare to those of the public sector to inform policy options. Methods and Findings We summarised reliable research comparing the quality of formal private versus public ambulatory health care in low and middle income countries. We selected studies against inclusion criteria following a comprehensive search, yielding 80 studies. We compared quality under standard categories, converted values to a linear 100% scale, calculated differences between providers within studies, and summarised median values of the differences across studies. As the results for for-profit and not-for-profit providers were similar, we combined them. Overall, median values indicated that many services, irrespective of whether public or private, scored low on infrastructure, clinical competence, and practice. Overall, the private sector performed better in relation to drug supply, responsiveness, and effort. No difference between provider groups was detected for patient satisfaction or competence. Synthesis of qualitative components indicates the private sector is more client centred. Conclusions Although data are limited, quality in both provider groups seems poor, with the private sector performing better in drug availability and aspects of delivery of care, including responsiveness and effort, and possibly being more client orientated. Strategies seeking to influence quality in both groups are needed to improve care delivery and outcomes for the poor, including managing the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21532746

Berendes, Sima; Heywood, Peter; Oliver, Sandy; Garner, Paul

2011-01-01

294

A review of potable water accessibility and sustainability issues in developing countries - case study of Uganda.  

PubMed

Abstract Providing sources of sustainable and quality potable water in Uganda is a significant public health issue. This project aimed at identifying and prioritizing possible actions on how sustainable high quality potable water in Uganda's water supply systems could be achieved. In that respect, a review of both the current water supply systems and government programs on drinking water in Uganda was completed. Aspects of quantity, quality, treatment methods, infrastructure, storage and distribution of water for different water systems were evaluated and compared with the existing water supply systems in the U.S., Latin America and the Caribbean, for purposes of generating feasible recommendations and opportunities for improvement. Uganda utilizes surface water, groundwater, and rainwater sources for consumption. Surface water covers 15.4% of the land area and serves both urban and rural populations. Lake Victoria contributes about 85% of the total fresh surface water. Potable water quality is negatively affected by the following factors: disposal of sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, and surface run-offs during heavy rains. The total renewable groundwater resources in Uganda are estimated to be 29 million m3/year with about 20,000 boreholes, 3000 shallow-wells and 200,000 springs, serving more than 80% of the rural and slum communities. Mean annual rainfall in Uganda ranges from 500 mm to 2500 mm. Groundwater and rainwater quality is mainly affected by poor sanitation and unhygienic practices. There are significant regional variations in the accessibility of potable water, with the Northeastern region having the least amount of potable water from all sources. Uganda still lags behind in potable water resource development. Priorities should be placed mainly on measures available for improvement of groundwater and rainwater resource utilization, protection of watersheds, health education, improved water treatment methods and distribution in rural areas, and pollution control and monitoring. Implementing these changes can promote potable water accessibility especially to the poor populations living in rural and urban slum areas because they comprise the majority (80%) of Uganda's population. PMID:24918455

Nayebare, Shedrack R; Wilson, Lloyd R; Carpenter, David O; Dziewulski, David M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-01-01

295

Physicians' views of periodic abstinence methods: a study in four countries.  

PubMed

A study of the knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions of physicians regarding periodic abstinence (PA) methods was undertaken in Mauritius, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Most respondents considered PA to be useful, although even the PA providers prescribed mainly non-PA methods. Detailed knowledge of PA methods was not evident, but most physicians were willing to initiate general discussion about PA with patients. Physicians favored methods perceived as "scientific" and "modern," which primarily prevent pregnancy and secondarily avoid other health risks. When carefully presented as "scientific" and "modern," methods presented to medical audiences may find acceptance and be more likely to result in referral. PMID:3176094

Snowden, R; Kennedy, K I; Leon, F; Orense, V C; Perera, H W; Phillips, R; Askew, I; Flynn, A; Severy, L J

1988-01-01

296

Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Urban Health Research in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

The neighborhood has been used as a sampling unit for exploring variations in health outcomes. In a variety of studies census tracts or ZIP codes have been used as proxies for neighborhoods because the boundaries are pre-defined units for which other data are readily available. However these spatial units can be arbitrary and do not account for social-cultural behaviors and identities that are significant to residents. In this study for the city of Accra, Ghana, our goal was to create a neighborhood map that represented the boundaries generally agreed upon by the residents of the city using the smallest available census unit, the enumeration area (EA), as the base unit. This neighborhood map was then used as the basis for mapping spatial variations in health within the city. The first step in demarcating the boundaries was to identify features that limit a person's movement including the major roads, drainage features, and railroad tracks that people use to partially define their neighborhood boundaries. Once an initial set of boundaries were established, they were iteratively modified by walking the neighborhoods, talking to residents, public officials, and others. The resulting neighborhood map consolidated 1,723 EAs into 108 neighborhoods covering the entire Accra metropolitan area. Results indicated that the team achieved 71 percent accuracy in mapping neighborhoods when the neighborhood keyed to the survey EA was compared with the response given by the interviewees in the 2008-2009 Women's Health Survey of Accra when asked which neighborhood they lived in. PMID:23690870

Engstrom, Ryan; Ofiesh, Caetlin; Rain, David; Jewell, Henry; Weeks, John

2013-01-01

297

Incidence, seasonality and serotypes of rotavirus in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country), Spain. A 14-year study.  

PubMed Central

Over a 14-year period (1984-97) the presence of rotavirus in stool samples from children under 15 years with acute gastroenteritis was studied by enzymoimmunoanalysis. Serotyping (G1-G4) was performed using monoclonal antibodies. A total of 17,348 children under 15 were investigated. Rotavirus was detected in 3637 (21.0%) specimens, 74.6% of which were from children younger than 2 years old. G1 and G4 were the most frequent serotypes. In 1991-7, the minimum incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children under 4 years of age was 21.7 cases/1000 children/year. By the age of 5 years, at least 1 out of 11.3 children and probably 1 out of every 5-6 children in this area had experienced an episode of rotavirus gastroenteritis that required medical care. In the 1984-90 period a clear seasonality was not observed but in the second period of the study (1991-7), seasonality was marked, with peak activity in winter. PMID:11218217

Cilla, G.; Pérez-Trallero, E.; López-Lopategui, M. C.; Gilsetas, A.; Gomáriz, M.

2000-01-01

298

A complex breastfeeding promotion and support intervention in a developing country: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding has countless benefits to mothers, children and community at large, especially in developing countries. Studies from Lebanon report disappointingly low breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Evidence reveals that antenatal breastfeeding education, professional lactation support, and peer lay support are individually effective at increasing breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, particularly in low-income settings. Given the complex nature of the breastfeeding ecosystem and its barriers in Lebanon, we hypothesize that a complex breastfeeding support intervention, which is centered on the three components mentioned above, would significantly increase breastfeeding rates. Methods/Design A multi-center randomized controlled trial. Study population: 443 healthy pregnant women in their first trimester will be randomized to control or intervention group. Intervention: A “prenatal/postnatal” professional and peer breastfeeding support package continuing till 6 months postpartum, guided by the Social Network and Social Support Theory. Control group will receive standard prenatal and postnatal care. Mothers will be followed up from early pregnancy till five years after delivery. Outcome measures: Total and exclusive breastfeeding rates, quality of life at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum, maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes at 6 months postpartum, maternal exclusive breastfeeding rates of future infants up to five years from baseline, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses of the intervention. Statistical analysis: Descriptive and regression analysis will be conducted under the intention to treat basis using the most recent version of SPSS. Discussion Exclusive breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health measure that has a significant impact on infant morbidity and mortality. In a country with limited healthcare resources like Lebanon, developing an effective breastfeeding promotion and support intervention that is easily replicated across various settings becomes a priority. If positive, the results of this study would provide a generalizable model to bolster breastfeeding promotion efforts and contribute to improved child health in Lebanon and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17875591 PMID:24428951

2014-01-01

299

Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Urban Health Research in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

The neighborhood has been used as a sampling unit for exploring variations in health outcomes. In a variety of studies census tracts or ZIP codes have been used as proxies for neighborhoods because the boundaries are pre-defined units for which other data are readily available. However these spatial units can be arbitrary and do not account for social-cultural behaviors and identities that are significant to residents. In this study for the city of Accra, Ghana, our goal was to create a neighborhood map that represented the boundaries generally agreed upon by the residents of the city using the smallest available census unit, the enumeration area (EA), as the base unit. This neighborhood map was then used as the basis for mapping spatial variations in health within the city. The first step in demarcating the boundaries was to identify features that limit a person’s movement including the major roads, drainage features, and railroad tracks that people use to partially define their neighborhood boundaries. Once an initial set of boundaries were established, they were iteratively modified by walking the neighborhoods, talking to residents, public officials, and others. The resulting neighborhood map consolidated 1,723 EAs into 108 neighborhoods covering the entire Accra metropolitan area. Results indicated that the team achieved 71 percent accuracy in mapping neighborhoods when the neighborhood keyed to the survey EA was compared with the response given by the interviewees in the 2008–2009 Women’s Health Survey of Accra when asked which neighborhood they lived in. PMID:23690870

Ofiesh, Caetlin; Rain, David; Jewell, Henry; Weeks, John

2013-01-01

300

Mortality after Parental Death in Childhood: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Bereavement by spousal death and child death in adulthood has been shown to lead to an increased risk of mortality. Maternal death in infancy or parental death in early childhood may have an impact on mortality but evidence has been limited to short-term or selected causes of death. Little is known about long-term or cause-specific mortality after parental death in childhood. Methods and Findings This cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1968 to 2008 (n?=?2,789,807) and in Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n?=?3,380,301), and a random sample of 89.3% of all born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n?=?1,131,905). A total of 189,094 persons were included in the exposed cohort when they lost a parent before 18 years old. Log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratio (MRR). Parental death was associated with a 50% increased all-cause mortality (MRR?=?1.50, 95% CI 1.43–1.58). The risks were increased for most specific cause groups and the highest MRRs were observed when the cause of child death and the cause of parental death were in the same category. Parental unnatural death was associated with a higher mortality risk (MRR?=?1.84, 95% CI 1.71–2.00) than parental natural death (MRR?=?1.33, 95% CI 1.24–1.41). The magnitude of the associations varied according to type of death and age at bereavement over different follow-up periods. The main limitation of the study is the lack of data on post-bereavement information on the quality of the parent-child relationship, lifestyles, and common physical environment. Conclusions Parental death in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased all-cause mortality into early adulthood. Since an increased mortality reflects both genetic susceptibility and long-term impacts of parental death on health and social well-being, our findings have implications in clinical responses and public health strategies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25051501

Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Obel, Carsten; Olsen, Jørn

2014-01-01

301

Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving health outcomes in these communities. If developed at sufficient scale and intensity, sex work organisations could play a critical role in reducing the present harms caused by criminalisation and stigma. PMID:23889941

2013-01-01

302

Improving energy data collection and analysis in developing countries: a comparative study in Aganda, Liberia, and Sudan  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the resources available for collecting/analyzing data in energy-planning agencies and organizations in Uganda, Liberia, and Sudan. It examines the quality of the national energy assessments and energy supply/demand balance statements conducted, and makes recommendations on training needs, energy planning activities, and data collection/analysis problems. Interviews were conducted with host government and A.I.D. personnel involved in energy-planning activities and projects. Data quality was analyzed using a standardized rating sheet based on recommendations of the U.N. Statistical Commission. The findings identified a number of analytic and institutional problems common to all three countries, and delineated criteria which lead to the success or failure of energy-planning activities.

Burchfield, S.A.

1986-06-01

303

Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180

2013-01-01

304

Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.  

PubMed

An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. PMID:24656422

Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

2014-05-01

305

Accelerated Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Multi-Institutional Prospective Study of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia Among Eight Asian Countries  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A multi-institutional prospective single-arm study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Between 1999 and 2002, 120 patients (64 with Stage IIB and 56 with Stage IIIB) with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated RT. External beam RT consisted of 30 Gy to the whole pelvis, 1.5 Gy/fraction twice daily, followed by 20 Gy of pelvic RT with central shielding at a dose of 2-Gy fractions daily. A small bowel displacement device was used with the patient in the prone position. In addition to central shielding RT, intracavitary brachytherapy was started. Acute and late morbidities were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: The median overall treatment time was 35 days. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 4.7 years. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate for all patients was 84% and 70%, respectively. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate was 78% and 69% for tumors {>=}6 cm in diameter, respectively. No treatment-related death occurred. Grade 3-4 late toxicities of the small intestine, large intestine, and bladder were observed in 1, 1, and 2 patients, respectively. The 5-year actuarial rate of Grade 3-4 late toxicity at any site was 5%. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that accelerated hyperfractionated RT achieved sufficient pelvic control and survival without increasing severe toxicity. This treatment could be feasible in those Asian countries where chemoradiotherapy is not available.

Ohno, Tatsuya [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: t_ohno@nirs.go.jp; Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] (and others)

2008-04-01

306

Evidence Acquisition and Evaluation for Evidence Summit on Population-Level Behavior Change to Enhance Child Survival and Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries  

PubMed Central

Recognizing the need for evidence to inform public health officials and health care workers in the U.S. government and low- and middle-income country governments on efficient, effective behavior change policies, strategies, and programs for child health and development, the U.S. government convened the Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. This article summarizes the background and methods for the acquisition and evaluation of the evidence used to the achieve the goals of the summit that is reviewed in other articles in this special issue of the Journal of Health Communication. The process began by identifying focal questions intended to inform the U.S. and low- and middle-income governments about behavior change interventions that accelerate reductions in under-5 mortality and optimize healthy and protective child development to 5 years of age. Experts were selected representing the research and program communities, academia, relevant nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies and assembled into evidence review teams. This was followed by the systematic gathering of relevant peer-reviewed literature that would inform the focal questions. Members of the evidence review teams were invited to add relevant articles not identified in the initial literature review to complete the bibliographies. Details of the search processes and methods used for screening and quality reviews are described. The evidence review teams were asked to comply with a specific evaluation framework for recommendations on practice and policy on the basis of both expert opinion and the quality of the data reviewed. PMID:25207446

Balster, Robert L.; Levy, Stephanie; Stammer, Emily

2014-01-01

307

Evaluation of Color and Color Infrared Photography from the Goldfield Mining District, Esmerelda and Nye Countries, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of geological features characteristic of the Goldfield epithermal ore deposits is considered and which of them can be identified from color and color infrared aerial photography. The Goldfield mining district in the western part of the Basin and Range Province is the area of study, located in desert terrain of relatively low relief.

Ashley, R. P.

1970-01-01

308

Evaluation of pyrosequencing for detecting extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among clinical isolates from four high-burden countries.  

PubMed

Reliable molecular diagnostics, which detect specific mutations associated with drug resistance, are promising technologies for the rapid identification and monitoring of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Pyrosequencing (PSQ) has the ability to detect mutations associated with first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, with the additional advantage of being rapidly adaptable for the identification of new mutations. The aim of this project was to evaluate the performance of PSQ in predicting phenotypic drug resistance in multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) clinical isolates from India, South Africa, Moldova, and the Philippines. A total of 187 archived isolates were run through a PSQ assay in order to identify M. tuberculosis (via the IS6110 marker), and to detect mutations associated with M/XDR-TB within small stretches of nucleotides in selected loci. The molecular targets included katG, the inhA promoter and the ahpC-oxyR intergenic region for isoniazid (INH) resistance; the rpoB core region for rifampin (RIF) resistance; gyrA for fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance; and rrs for amikacin (AMK), capreomycin (CAP), and kanamycin (KAN) resistance. PSQ data were compared to phenotypic mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing results for performance analysis. The PSQ assay illustrated good sensitivity for the detection of resistance to INH (94%), RIF (96%), FQ (93%), AMK (84%), CAP (88%), and KAN (68%). The specificities of the assay were 96% for INH, 100% for RIF, FQ, AMK, and KAN, and 97% for CAP. PSQ is a highly efficient diagnostic tool that reveals specific nucleotide changes associated with resistance to the first- and second-line anti-TB drug medications. This methodology has the potential to be linked to mutation-specific clinical interpretation algorithms for rapid treatment decisions. PMID:25367911

Ajbani, Kanchan; Lin, Shou-Yean Grace; Rodrigues, Camilla; Nguyen, Duylinh; Arroyo, Francine; Kaping, Janice; Jackson, Lynn; Garfein, Richard S; Catanzaro, Donald; Eisenach, Kathleen; Victor, Thomas C; Crudu, Valeru; Gler, Maria Tarcela; Ismail, Nazir; Desmond, Edward; Catanzaro, Antonino; Rodwell, Timothy C

2015-01-01

309

Human Resources for Cancer Control in Uttar Pradesh, India: A Case Study for Low and Middle Income Countries  

PubMed Central

For addressing the growing burden of cancer in low and middle income countries, an important first step is to estimate the human resources required for cancer control in a country, province, or city. However, few guidelines are available to decision makers in that regard. Here, we propose a methodology for estimating the human and other resources needed in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India as a case study. Information about the population of UP and its cities was obtained from http://citypopulation.de/. The number of new cancer cases annually for the commonest cancers was estimated from GLOBOCAN 20081. For estimating the human resources needed, the following assumptions were made: newly diagnosed cancer patients need pathology for diagnosis and for treatment surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The percentage of patients requiring each of those modalities, their average lengths of stay as in-patients, and number of in-patient oncology beds were estimated. The resources already available in UP were determined by a telephone survey and by searching the websites of radiation therapy centers and medical colleges. Twenty-four radiation oncologists at 24 cancer centers in 10 cities responded to the survey. As detailed in this manuscript, an enormous shortage of human resources for cancer control exists in UP. Human resources are the key to diagnosing cancers early and treating them appropriately. Addressing the shortage will not be easy but we hope that the methodology described here can guide decision makers and form a framework for discussion among the various stakeholders. This methodology is readily adaptable to local practices and data. PMID:25237650

Daphtary, Maithili; Agrawal, Sushma; Vikram, Bhadrasain

2014-01-01

310

Migration and maternity: insights of context, health policy, and research evidence on experiences and outcomes from a three country preliminary study across Germany, Canada, and the United kingdom.  

PubMed

A group from Germany, Canada, and the United Kingdom undertook country-specific scoping reviews and stakeholder consultations before joining to holistically compare migration and maternity in all three countries. We examined four interlinking dimensions to understand how international migrant/minority maternal health might be improved upon using transnational research: (a) wider sociopolitical context, (b) health policy arena, (c) constellation, outcomes, and experiences of maternity services, and (d) existing research contexts. There was clear evidence that the constellation and delivery of services may undermine good experiences and outcomes. Interventions to improve access and quality of care remain small scale, short term, and lacking in rigorous evaluation. PMID:23631670

Higginbottom, Gina; Reime, Birgit; Bharj, Kuldip; Chowbey, Punita; Ertan, Kubilay; Foster-Boucher, Caroline; Friedrich, Jule; Gerrish, Kate; Kentenich, Heribert; Mumtaz, Zubia; O'Brien, Beverley; Salway, Sarah

2013-01-01

311

Scaling up specialist training in developing countries: lessons learned from the first 12?years of regional postgraduate training in Fiji – a case study  

PubMed Central

Background In 1997, regional specialist training was established in Fiji, consisting of one-year Postgraduate Diplomas followed by three-year master’s degree programs in anesthesia, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics and surgery. The evolution of these programs during the first 12?years is presented. Case description A case study utilizing mixed methods was carried out, including a prospective collection of enrolment and employment data, supplemented by semi-structured interviews. Between 1997 and 2009, 207 doctors (113 from Fiji and 94 from 13 other countries or territories in the Pacific) trained to at least the Postgraduate Diploma level. For Fiji graduates, 29.2% migrated permanently to developed countries, compared to only 8.5% for regional graduates (P <0.001). Early years of the program were characterized by large intakes and enthusiasm, but also uncertainty. Many resignations took place following a coup d’etat in 2000. By 2005, interviews suggested a dynamic of political instability initially leading to resignations, leading to even heavier workloads, compounded by academic studies that seemed unlikely to lead to career benefit. This was associated with loss of hope and downward spirals of further resignations. After 2006, however, Master’s graduates generally returned from overseas placements, had variable success in career progression, and were able to engage in limited private practice. Enrolments and retention stabilized and increased. Discussion and evaluation Over time, all specialties have had years when the viability and future of the programs were in question, but all have recovered to varying degrees, and the programs continue to evolve and strengthen. Prospective clarification of expected career outcomes for graduates, establishment of career pathways for diploma-only graduates, and balancing desires for academic excellence with workloads that trainees were able to bear may have lessened ongoing losses of trainees and graduates. Conclusions Despite early losses of trainees, the establishment of regional postgraduate training in Fiji is having an increasingly positive impact on the specialist workforce in the Pacific. With forethought, many of the difficulties we encountered may have been avoidable. Our experiences may help others who are establishing or expanding postgraduate training in developing countries to optimize the benefit of postgraduate training on their national and regional workforces. PMID:23270525

2012-01-01

312

Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

2011-01-01

313

Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Eastern Europe. A Tempus Study. Issue 04  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

2011-01-01

314

Sustainability of energy sources in nordic countries-case study based on comprehensive analysis of different renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bringing sustainability in overall energy sphere can ensure a strong pathway for the existing economic growth of Nordic countries. Globally, Renewable Energy sources are taken into consideration to formulate a solid energy framework for envisioned carbon emission free world. This paper will convey some ideas on the technical and environomical viabilities of available renewable energy sources in Nordic countries. It

Raza Ali Zaidi

2011-01-01

315

The economic impact of subsidy phase out in oil exporting developing countries: a case study of Algeria, Iran and Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the crucial issues of energy markets in oil exporting developing countries is the high level of subsidies on petroleum products and the low efficiency in energy use. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of a subsidy phase out policy on the energy sector and oil revenues in three countries: Algeria, Iran and Nigeria. By

F Birol; AV Aleagha; R Ferroukhi

1995-01-01

316

State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

2012-01-01

317

Complementing Neurophysiology Education for Developing Countries via Cost-Effective Virtual Labs: Case Studies and Classroom Scenarios  

PubMed Central

Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. PMID:24693260

Diwakar, Shyam; Parasuram, Harilal; Medini, Chaitanya; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema; Wiertelak, Eric; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Achuthan, Krishnashree; Nair, Bipin

2014-01-01

318

Complementing Neurophysiology Education for Developing Countries via Cost-Effective Virtual Labs: Case Studies and Classroom Scenarios.  

PubMed

Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. PMID:24693260

Diwakar, Shyam; Parasuram, Harilal; Medini, Chaitanya; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema; Wiertelak, Eric; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Achuthan, Krishnashree; Nair, Bipin

2014-01-01

319

Paediatric Pharmacovigilance: Use of Pharmacovigilance Data Mining Algorithms for Signal Detection in a Safety Dataset of a Paediatric Clinical Study Conducted in Seven African Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmacovigilance programmes monitor and help ensuring the safe use of medicines which is critical to the success of public health programmes. The commonest method used for discovering previously unknown safety risks is spontaneous notifications. In this study we examine the use of data mining algorithms to identify signals from adverse events reported in a phase IIIb/IV clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of several Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in African children. Methods We used paediatric safety data from a multi-site, multi-country clinical study conducted in seven African countries (Burkina Faso, Gabon, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, and Mozambique). Each site compared three out of four ACTs, namely amodiaquine-artesunate (ASAQ), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPQ), artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or chlorproguanil/dapsone and artesunate (CD+A). We examine two pharmacovigilance signal detection methods, namely proportional reporting ratio and Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network on the clinical safety dataset. Results Among the 4,116 children (6–59 months old) enrolled and followed up for 28 days post treatment, a total of 6,238 adverse events were reported resulting into 346 drug-event combinations. Nine signals were generated both by proportional reporting ratio and Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network. A review of the manufacturer package leaflets, an online Multi-Drug Symptom/Interaction Checker (DoubleCheckMD) and further by therapeutic area experts reduced the number of signals to five. The ranking of some drug-adverse reaction pairs on the basis of their signal index differed between the two methods. Conclusions Our two data mining methods were equally able to generate suspected signals using the pooled safety data from a phase IIIb/IV clinical trial. This analysis demonstrated the possibility of utilising clinical studies safety data for key pharmacovigilance activities like signal detection and evaluation. This approach can be applied to complement the spontaneous reporting systems which are limited by under reporting. PMID:24787710

Kajungu, Dan K.; Erhart, Annette; Talisuna, Ambrose Otau; Bassat, Quique; Karema, Corine; Nabasumba, Carolyn; Nambozi, Michael; Tinto, Halidou; Kremsner, Peter; Meremikwu, Martin; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Speybroeck, Niko

2014-01-01

320

Danish Technical Country Denmark  

E-print Network

DENMARK- Danish Technical University Country Denmark Institution Name Danish Technical University-Guide/Studying-at-DTU/Academic-calendar Important Dates for Exchange Students St.Bededag (Danish National Day): May 1st Ascension Day: May 14th are taught in English, and the programmes are also open for Danish students. #12;Exchange studies: BEng Level

Liley, David

321

Comparison of Early Childhood Education (Preschool Education) in Turkey and OECD Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, it was aimed to evaluate how the difference the early childhood education in Turkey and OECD countries. The outstanding point evaluated by the teachers about the difference between the education in Turkey and that in OECD countries and the conditions needing to be improved was the compare of age groups benefiting from the services…

Ozgan, Habib

2010-01-01

322

Maternal nutritional risk factors for small for gestational age babies in a developed country: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To assess the effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on the risk of delivering a baby who is small for gestational age (SGA). Methods: Case-control study of 844 cases (SGA) and 870 controls (appropriate size for gestational age (AGA)). Only term (37+ completed weeks of gestation) infants were included. Retrospective food frequency questionnaires were completed at birth on the diet at the time of conception and in the last month of pregnancy. Results: At the time of conception, mothers of AGA infants ate significantly more servings of carbohydrate rich food and fruit, and were more likely to have taken folate and vitamin supplements than mothers of SGA infants. There was some evidence that mothers of AGA infants also ate more servings of dairy products, meat, and fish (0.05 < p < 0.1). However, after adjustment for maternal ethnicity, smoking, height, weight, hypertension, and occupation, fish intake (p  =  0.04), carbohydrate-rich foods (p  =  0.04), and folate supplementation (p  =  0.02) were associated with a reduced risk of SGA. In the last month of pregnancy, only iron supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (p  =  0.05) after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions: This study suggests that small variations in maternal diets within the normal range during pregnancy in developed countries are associated with differences in birth weight. PMID:15321964

Mitchell, E; Robinson, E; Clark, P; Becroft, D; Glavish, N; Pattison, N; Pryor, J; Thompson, J; Wild, C

2004-01-01

323

Calf-Level Factors Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia – A Multi-Country Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP), a high fatality condition causing haemorrhages in calves aged less than 4 weeks, was first reported in 2007 in Germany and subsequently observed at low incidence in other European countries and New Zealand. A multi-country matched case-control study was conducted in 2011 to identify calf-level risk factors for BNP. 405 BNP cases were recruited from 330 farms in Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands by laboratory confirmation of farmer-reported cases. Up to four calves of similar age from the same farm were selected as controls (1154 calves). Risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. Multivariable modelling using conditional logistic regression indicated that PregSure®BVD (PregSure, Pfizer Animal Health) vaccination of the dam was strongly associated with BNP cases (adjusted matched Odds Ratio - amOR 17.8 first lactation dams; 95% confidence interval – ci 2.4, 134.4; p?=?0.005), and second or more lactation PregSure-vaccinated dams were more likely to have a case than first lactation vaccinated dams (amOR 2.2 second lactation; ci 1.1, 4.3; p?=?0.024; amOR 5.3 third or more lactation; ci 2.9, 9.8; p?=?<0.001). Feeding colostrum from other cows was strongly associated with BNP if the dam was not PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 30.5; ci 2.1, 440.5; p?=?0.012), but the effect was less if the dam was PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 2.1; ci 1.1, 4.0; p?=?0.024). Feeding exclusively dam’s milk was a higher risk than other types of milk (amOR 3.4; ci 1.6, 7.5; p?=?0.002). The population attributable fractions were 0.84 (ci 0.68, 0.92) for PregSure vaccination, 0.13 (ci 0.06, 0.19) for feeding other cows’ colostrum, and 0.15 (ci 0.08, 0.22) for feeding dam’s milk. No other calf-level factors were identified, suggesting that there are other important factors that are outside the scope of this study, such as genetics, which explain why BNP develops in some PregSure-colostrum-exposed calves but not in others. PMID:24312485

Jones, Bryony A.; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Henning, Joerg; Stoll, Alexander; Nielen, Mirjam; Van Schaik, Gerdien; Smolenaars, Anja; Schouten, Matthijs; den Uijl, Ingrid; Fourichon, Christine; Guatteo, Raphael; Madouasse, Aurélien; Nusinovici, Simon; Deprez, Piet; De Vliegher, Sarne; Laureyns, Jozef; Booth, Richard; Cardwell, Jackie M.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

2013-01-01

324

A comprehensive approach to the formulation of capital projects in developing countries : finance and implementation. Case study, Edendale, Kwazulu (housing)  

E-print Network

This Thesis deals with capital project formulation in developing countries. The objective is to provide guidelines for the formulation of housing development projects, their implementation structures and financial plans ...

Davis, Trevor Paul

1983-01-01

325

Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies  

SciTech Connect

This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

1996-07-01

326

HIV Spending as a Share of Total Health Expenditure: An Analysis of Regional Variation in a Multi-Country Study  

PubMed Central

Background HIV has devastated numerous countries in sub-Saharan Africa and is a dominant health force in many other parts of the world. Its undeniable importance is reflected in the establishment of Millennium Development Goal No. 6. Unprecedented amounts of funding have been committed and disbursed over the past two decades. Many have argued that this enormous influx of funding has been detrimental to building stronger health systems in recipient countries. This paper examines the funding share for HIV measured against the total funding for health. Methodology/Principal Findings A descriptive analysis of HIV and health expenditures in 2007 from 65 countries was conducted. Comparable data from individual countries was used by applying a consistent definition for HIV expenditures and total health expenditures from NHAs to align them with National AIDS Assessment Reports. In 2007, the total public and international expenditure in LMICs for HIV was 1.6 percent of the total spending on health, while the share in SSA was 19.4 percent. HIV prevalence was six-fold higher in SSA than the next highest region and it is the only region whose share of HIV spending exceeded the burden of HIV DALYs. Conclusions/Significance The share of HIV spending across the 65 countries was quite moderate considering that the estimated share of deaths attributable to HIV stood at 3.8 percent and DALYs at 4.4 percent. Several high spending countries are using a large share of their total health spending for HIV health, but these countries are the exception rather than representative of the average SSA country. There is wide variation between regions, but the burden of disease also varies significantly. The percentage of HIV spending is a useful indicator for better understanding health care resources and their allocation patterns. PMID:20885986

Amico, Peter; Aran, Christian; Avila, Carlos

2010-01-01

327

Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries  

PubMed Central

Purpose Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). Main Challenges Identified The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Conclusion Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries. PMID:23292003

Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E.; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

2013-01-01

328

Baseline status of paediatric oncology in ten low-income or mid-income countries receiving My Child Matters support: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Childhood cancer survival remains dismal in low-income [A4] countries, but initiatives for treating paediatric cancer have substantially improved care in some of these countries. The My Child Matters programme was launched to fund projects for controlling paediatric cancer in low-income and mid-income countries. We aimed to assess the baseline status of paediatric cancer in ten countries that were receiving support (Bangladesh, Egypt, Honduras, Morocco, Philippines, Senegal, Tanzania, Ukraine, Venezuela, and Vietnam). [A5] Methods Qualitative face-to-face interviews with clinicians, hospital managers, health officials, and others were done by a multidisciplinary public-health research company. Estimates of paediatric cancer from population-based data were used to project the number of current and future patients for comparison with survey-based data. 5-year survival was postulated on the basis of interviews with health-care professionals. Field survey data were statistically compared with demographic, health, and socioeconomic data from global health organisations. The main outcome was to assess baseline status of paediatric cancer in the countries. [A6] Findings The baseline status of paediatric oncology varied substantially between the countries. The number of patients reportedly receiving medical care (obtained from survey data [A7]) differed markedly from the number predicted by population-based incidence data. Postulated 5-year survival was directly proportional to several demographic, economic, and health indicators, and most substantially, annual government healthcare expenditure per capita [ADD DATA] [A8]. Interpretation Management of paediatric cancer and access to care are poor or deficient (ie, nonexistent, unavailable, or inconsistent access for most children with cancer [A48]) in seven of the ten countries studied, and accurate baseline data on incidence and outcome are very sparse [A10]. Alliances between public, private, and international agencies can rapidly improve the outcome of children with cancer in these countries. PMID:18672210

Ribeiro, Raul C; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Magrath, Ian; Lemerle, Jean; Eden, Tim; Forget, Caty; Mortara, Isabel; Tabah-Fisch, Isabelle; Divino, Jose Julio; Miklavec, Thomas; Howard, Scott; Cavalli, Franco

2013-01-01

329

Maternal health and pregnancy outcomes among women of refugee background from African countries: a retrospective, observational study in Australia.  

PubMed

BackgroundWomen of refugee background from Africa are reported to have a greater risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to women born in resettlement countries. However, there is currently little insight into whether adverse pregnancy outcomes are more common among migrant women of refugee background, compared to women who have migrated for non-humanitarian reasons. To inform whether women of refugee background require additional services in pregnancy compared to non-refugee migrant women from similar world regions we aimed to describe and compare maternal health, pregnancy care attendance and pregnancy outcomes among migrant women from Africa with or without a refugee background.MethodsRetrospective, observational study of singleton births at a single, metropolitan, maternity service in Australia 2002¿2011, to women born in humanitarian source countries (HSC) and non-HSC from North Africa (n¿=¿1361), Middle and East Africa (n¿=¿706) and West Africa (n¿=¿106).ResultsCompared to non-HSC groups, age¿<¿20 years (0¿1.4% vs 2.3-13.3%), living in relatively socio-economically disadvantaged geographic areas (26.2-37.3% vs 52.9-77.8%) and interpreter need (0¿23.9% vs 9.7-51.5%) were generally more common in the HSC groups. Compared to non-HSC groups, female genital mutilation (0.3-3.3% vs 5.1-13.8%), vitamin D insufficiency (8.7-21.5% vs 23.3-32.0%), syphilis (0¿0.3% vs 1.2-7.5%) and hepatitis B (0¿1.1% vs 1.2-18%) were also generally more common among the HSC groups. Unplanned birth before arrival at the hospital (3.6%) was particularly high in the North African HSC group. HSC-birth was associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio¿=¿3.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.8-7.1) among women from Middle and East Africa, after adjusting for maternal age, parity, body mass index and relative socio-economic disadvantage of area of residence. The West African HSC group had the highest stillbirth incidence (4.4%).ConclusionsMigrant women of refugee background from different African regions appear to be at greater risk of specific adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to migrant women without a refugee background. Awareness of differing risks and health needs would assist provision of appropriate pregnancy care to improve the health of African women and their babies. PMID:25427757

Gibson-Helm, Melanie; Teede, Helena; Block, Andrew; Knight, Michelle; East, Christine; Wallace, Euan M; Boyle, Jacqueline

2014-11-27

330

Public views on principles for health care priority setting: Findings of a European cross-country study using Q methodology.  

PubMed

Resources available to the health care sector are finite and typically insufficient to fulfil all the demands for health care in the population. Decisions must be made about which treatments to provide. Relatively little is known about the views of the general public regarding the principles that should guide such decisions. We present the findings of a Q methodology study designed to elicit the shared views in the general public across ten countries regarding the appropriate principles for prioritising health care resources. In 2010, 294 respondents rank ordered a set of cards and the results of these were subject to by-person factor analysis to identify common patterns in sorting. Five distinct viewpoints were identified, (I) "Egalitarianism, entitlement and equality of access"; (II) "Severity and the magnitude of health gains"; (III) "Fair innings, young people and maximising health benefits"; (IV) "The intrinsic value of life and healthy living"; (V) "Quality of life is more important than simply staying alive". Given the plurality of views on the principles for health care priority setting, no single equity principle can be used to underpin health care priority setting. Hence, the process of decision making becomes more important, in which, arguably, these multiple perspectives in society should be somehow reflected. PMID:25550076

van Exel, Job; Baker, Rachel; Mason, Helen; Donaldson, Cam; Brouwer, Werner

2015-02-01

331

The impact of supportive nursing care on the needs of men with prostate cancer: a study across seven European countries  

PubMed Central

Background: Prostate cancer is for many men a chronic disease with a long life expectancy after treatment. The impact of prostate cancer therapy on men has been well defined, however, explanation of the consequences of cancer treatment has not been modelled against the wider variables of long-term health-care provision. The aim of this study was to explore the parameters of unmet supportive care needs in men with prostate cancer in relation to the experience of nursing care. Methods: A survey was conducted among a volunteer sample of 1001 men with prostate cancer living in seven European countries. Results: At the time of the survey, 81% of the men had some unmet supportive care needs including psychological, sexual and health system and information needs. Logistic regression indicated that lack of post-treatment nursing care significantly predicted unmet need. Critically, men's contact with nurses and/or receipt of advice and support from nurses, for several different aspects of nursing care significantly had an impact on men's outcomes. Conclusion: Unmet need is related not only to disease and treatment factors but is also associated with the supportive care men received. Imperative to improving men's treatment outcomes is to also consider the access to nursing and the components of supportive care provided, especially after therapy. PMID:24064968

Cockle-Hearne, J; Charnay-Sonnek, F; Denis, L; Fairbanks, H E; Kelly, D; Kav, S; Leonard, K; van Muilekom, E; Fernandez-Ortega, P; Jensen, B T; Faithfull, S

2013-01-01

332

Paratransit and urban public transport policy in low- and medium-income countries: a case study of Istanbul, Turkey  

SciTech Connect

This study uses multiple data collection and research methods including in depth interviews, 271 surveys of shared taxi and minibus operators, participant observation, secondary sources, and the literature on public transport from low, medium, and high-income countries. Extensive use is also made of a survey administered in Istanbul in 1976 to 1935 paratransit operators. Primary findings are that private buses are more efficient than public buses on a cost per passenger-km basis, and that private minibuses are as efficient as public buses. In terms of energy efficiency, minibuses are almost as efficient as public and private buses using actual-occupancy levels. Large shared taxis are twice as cost and energy efficient as cars, and small shared taxis 50% more efficient. In terms of investment cost per seat, large shared taxis have the lowest cost followed by smaller shared taxis, minibuses, and buses. Considering actual occupancy levels, minibuses are only slightly less effective in terms of congestion than buses, and large and small shared taxis are twice as effective as cars. It is also shown that minibuses and shared taxis have better service quality than buses because of higher frequencies and speeds, and because they provide a much higher probability of getting a seat than buses. Analysis of regulation and policy suggests that there are many unintended cost of public-transport regulations.

Feibel, C.E.

1987-01-01

333

Anti-dieting advice from teammates: a pilot study of the experience of female collegiate cross country runners.  

PubMed

Disordered eating behaviors and restrictive dieting can have negative health consequences for female athletes. Teammates can play an important role in primary and secondary prevention of these unhealthy eating practices through verbal and non-verbal communication about what behaviors are normative and desirable. The present study tested two tested hypotheses related to the way anti-dieting advice from teammates is distributed: (a) that there are significant between-team differences in the level of anti-dieting advice received, and (b) that the frequency of anti-dieting advice from teammates is positively associated with the severity of an individual's eating disorder symptomatology and negatively associated with their body mass index (BMI). Participants were female members (n = 89) of six U.S. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's cross country teams. Findings revealed significant between-team differences in the frequency of anti-dieting advice, controlling for team levels of disordered eating. Eating pathology and BMI were positively associated with anti-dieting advice received. Implications for the design of interventions to encourage effective within-team communication for promoting teammate health are discussed. PMID:25298295

Kroshus, Emily; Kubzansky, Laura; Goldman, Roberta; Austin, S Bryn

2015-01-01

334

Educational Intervention among Barbers to Improve Their Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS: A Pilot Study from a South Asian Country.  

PubMed

One of the Millennium Development Goals is to combat HIV, the burden of which continues to increase in developing countries, like Pakistan. The prevalence is high among the high-risk population, and the use of unsterilized surgical instruments, traditional straight razors, and blades adds to the spread of this disease. This study assesses the effect of an educational intervention on the knowledge of 70 barbers practising in a suburban community in Pakistan regarding HIV and its symptoms and transmission. At baseline, only 10% of the barbers reported that they had ever heard about HIV compared to 49% after the intervention. Similarly, 4% and 6% of them had good knowledge at baseline about symptoms and transmission of the disease, increasing to 39% and 43% respectively, after the intervention (p<0.001). The results of this educational intervention warrant consideration of activation of mass campaigns to increase public awareness about bloodborne diseases and to educate personnel who might harm the persons in their communities by unsafe practices. PMID:25395901

Kumar Krishanani, Mukesh; Ali, Faridah Amir; Khuwaja Late, Ali Khan; Qidwai, Waris; Ali, Badar Sabir

2014-09-01

335

Incidence and risk factors of aplastic anemia in Latin American countries: the LATIN case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Associations between aplastic anemia and numerous drugs, pesticides and chemicals have been reported. However, at least 50% of the etiology of aplastic anemia remains unexplained. Design and Methods This was a case-control, multicenter, multinational study, designed to identify risk factors for agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The cases were patients with diagnosis of aplastic anemia confirmed through biopsy or bone marrow aspiration, selected through an active search of clinical laboratories, hematology clinics and medical records. The controls did not have either aplastic anemia or chronic diseases. A total of 224 patients with aplastic anemia were included in the study, each case was paired with four controls, according to sex, age group, and hospital where the case was first seen. Information was collected on demographic data, medical history, laboratory tests, medications, and other potential risk factors prior to diagnosis. Results The incidence of aplastic anemia was 1.6 cases per million per year. Higher rates of benzene exposure (?30 exposures per year) were associated with a greater risk of aplastic anemia (odds ratio, OR: 4.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.82–9.82). Individuals exposed to chloramphenicol in the previous year had an adjusted OR for aplastic anemia of 8.7 (CI: 0.87–87.93) and those exposed to azithromycin had an adjusted OR of 11.02 (CI 1.14–108.02). Conclusions The incidence of aplastic anemia in Latin America countries is low. Although the research study centers had a high coverage of health services, the underreporting of cases of aplastic anemia in selected regions can be discussed. Frequent exposure to benzene-based products increases the risk for aplastic anemia. Few associations with specific drugs were found, and it is likely that some of these were due to chance alone. PMID:19734415

Maluf, Eliane; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Júnior, Álvaro Avezum; Eluf-Neto, José; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Lorand-Metze, Irene G.; Goldenberg, Daniel; Santana, Cézar Leite; de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Daniela; da Motta Passos, Leny Nascimento; Rosenfeld, Luis Gastão Mange; Pitta, Marimilia; Loggetto, Sandra; Feitosa Ribeiro, Andreza A.; Velloso, Elvira Deolinda; Kondo, Andrea Tiemi; de Miranda Coelho, Erika Oliveira; Pintão, Maria Carolina Tostes; de Souza, Hélio Moraes; Borbolla, José Rafael; Pasquini, Ricardo

2009-01-01

336

Heart failure programmes in countries with a primary care-based health care system. Are additional trials necessary? Design of the DEAL-HF study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several randomised studies of heart failure (HF) management programmes in the United States, Australia and Europe have shown a considerable reduction in hospitalisation rates for HF. In this article, a comprehensive review of these studies will be provided and their applicability to countries, with a primary care-based healthcare system, will be discussed. In addition, the design of the Deventer-

Pieta W. F. Bruggink-Andrede; Dirk J. A. Lok; Jan H. Cornel; Dirk J. van Veldhuisen; Arno W. Hoes

337

Clinical influences on antibiotic prescribing decisions for lower respiratory tract infection: a nine country qualitative study of variation in care  

PubMed Central

Objectives There is variation in antibiotic prescribing for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in primary care that does not benefit patients. This study aims to investigate clinicians' accounts of clinical influences on antibiotic prescribing decisions for LRTI to better understand variation and identify opportunities for improvement. Design Multi country qualitative interview study. Semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions and a patient scenario. Data were subjected to five-stage analytic framework approach (familiarisation, developing a thematic framework from the interview questions and emerging themes, indexing, charting and mapping to search for interpretations), with interviewers commenting on preliminary reports. Setting Primary care. Participants 80 primary care clinicians randomly selected from primary care research networks based in nine European cities. Results Clinicians reported four main individual clinical factors that guided their antibiotic prescribing decision: auscultation, fever, discoloured sputum and breathlessness. These were considered alongside a general impression of the patient derived from building a picture of the illness course, using intuition and familiarity with the patient. Comorbidity and older age were considered main risk factors for poor outcomes. Clinical factors were similar across networks, apart from C reactive protein near patient testing in Tromsø. Clinicians developed ways to handle diagnostic and management uncertainty through their own clinical routines. Conclusions Clinicians emphasised the importance of auscultation, fever, discoloured sputum and breathlessness, general impression of the illness course, familiarity with the patient, comorbidity, and age in informing their antibiotic prescribing decisions for LRTI. As some of these factors may be overemphasised given the evolving evidence base, greater standardisation of assessment and integration of findings may help reduce unhelpful variation in management. Non-clinical influences will also need to be addressed. PMID:22619265

Hood, Kerenza; Cooper, Lucy; Coenen, Samuel; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Melbye, Hasse; Krawczyk, Jaroslaw; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Jakobsen, Kristin; Worby, Patricia; Goossens, Herman; Butler, Christopher C

2012-01-01

338

Work disability remains a major problem in rheumatoid arthritis in the 2000s: data from 32 countries in the QUEST-RA Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Work disability is a major consequence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), associated not only with traditional disease activity variables, but also more significantly with demographic, functional, occupational, and societal variables. Recent reports suggest that the use of biologic agents offers potential for reduced work disability rates, but the conclusions are based on surrogate disease activity measures derived from studies primarily from Western countries. Methods The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) multinational database of 8,039 patients in 86 sites in 32 countries, 16 with high gross domestic product (GDP) (>24K US dollars (USD) per capita) and 16 low-GDP countries (<11K USD), was analyzed for work and disability status at onset and over the course of RA and clinical status of patients who continued working or had stopped working in high-GDP versus low-GDP countries according to all RA Core Data Set measures. Associations of work disability status with RA Core Data Set variables and indices were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analyses. Results At the time of first symptoms, 86% of men (range 57%-100% among countries) and 64% (19%-87%) of women <65 years were working. More than one third (37%) of these patients reported subsequent work disability because of RA. Among 1,756 patients whose symptoms had begun during the 2000s, the probabilities of continuing to work were 80% (95% confidence interval (CI) 78%-82%) at 2 years and 68% (95% CI 65%-71%) at 5 years, with similar patterns in high-GDP and low-GDP countries. Patients who continued working versus stopped working had significantly better clinical status for all clinical status measures and patient self-report scores, with similar patterns in high-GDP and low-GDP countries. However, patients who had stopped working in high-GDP countries had better clinical status than patients who continued working in low-GDP countries. The most significant identifier of work disability in all subgroups was Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) functional disability score. Conclusions Work disability rates remain high among people with RA during this millennium. In low-GDP countries, people remain working with high levels of disability and disease activity. Cultural and economic differences between societies affect work disability as an outcome measure for RA. PMID:20226018

2010-01-01

339

Learning from developing countries in strengthening health systems: an evaluation of personal and professional impact among global health volunteers at Addis Ababa University¿s Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (Ethiopia).  

PubMed

BackgroundThe positive impact of global health activities by volunteers from the United States in low-and middle-income countries has been recognized. Most existing global health partnerships evaluate what knowledge, ideas, and activities the US institution transferred to the low- or middle-income country. However, what this fails to capture are what kinds of change happen to US-based partners due to engagement in global health partnerships, both at the individual and institutional levels. ¿Reverse innovation¿ is the term that is used in global health literature to describe this type of impact. The objectives of this study were to identify what kinds of impact global partnerships have on health volunteers from developed countries, advance this emerging body of knowledge, and improve understanding of methods and indicators for assessing reverse innovation.MethodsThe study population consisted of 80 US, Canada, and South Africa-based health care professionals who volunteered at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia. Surveys were web-based and included multiple choice and open-ended questions to assess global health competencies. The data were analyzed using IBRM SPSS® version 21 for quantitative analysis; the open-ended responses were coded using constant comparative analysis to identify themes.ResultsOf the 80 volunteers, 63 responded (79 percent response rate). Fifty-two percent of the respondents were male, and over 60 percent were 40 years of age and older. Eighty-three percent reported they accomplished their trip objectives, 95 percent would participate in future activities and 96 percent would recommend participation to other colleagues. Eighty-nine percent reported personal impact and 73 percent reported change on their professional development. Previous global health experience, multiple prior trips, and the desire for career advancement were associated with positive impact on professional development.ConclusionProfessionally and personally meaningful learning happens often during global health outreach. Understanding this impact has important policy, economic, and programmatic implications. With the aid of improved monitoring and evaluation frameworks, the simple act of attempting to measure ¿reverse innovation¿ may represent a shift in how global health partnerships are perceived, drawing attention to the two-way learning and benefits that occur and improving effectiveness in global health partnership spending. PMID:25190076

Busse, Heidi; Aboneh, Ephrem A; Tefera, Girma

2014-09-01

340

Respondent-Driven Sampling for an Adolescent Health Study in Vulnerable Urban Settings: A Multi-Country Study.  

PubMed

The global adolescent population is larger than ever before and is rapidly urbanizing. Global surveillance systems to monitor youth health typically use household- and school-based recruitment methods. These systems risk not reaching the most marginalized youth made vulnerable by conditions of migration, civil conflict, and other forms of individual and structural vulnerability. We describe the methodology of the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments survey, which used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit male and female youth aged 15-19 years and living in economically distressed urban settings in Baltimore, MD; Johannesburg, South Africa; Ibadan, Nigeria; New Delhi, India; and Shanghai, China (migrant youth only) for a cross-sectional study. We describe a shared recruitment and survey administration protocol across the five sites, present recruitment parameters, and illustrate challenges and necessary adaptations for use of RDS with youth in disadvantaged urban settings. We describe the reach of RDS into populations of youth who may be missed by traditional household- and school-based sampling. Across all sites, an estimated 9.6% were unstably housed; among those enrolled in school, absenteeism was pervasive with 29% having missed over 6 days of school in the past month. Overall findings confirm the feasibility, efficiency, and utility of RDS in quickly reaching diverse samples of youth, including those both in and out of school and those unstably housed, and provide direction for optimizing RDS methods with this population. In our rapidly urbanizing global landscape with an unprecedented youth population, RDS may serve as a valuable tool in complementing existing household- and school-based methods for health-related surveillance that can guide policy. PMID:25454005

Decker, Michele R; Marshall, Beth Dail; Emerson, Mark; Kalamar, Amanda; Covarrubias, Laura; Astone, Nan; Wang, Ziliang; Gao, Ersheng; Mashimbye, Lawrence; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Acharya, Rajib; Olumide, Adesola; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Blum, Robert W; Sonenstein, Freya L

2014-12-01

341

Understanding Private Sector Antimalarial Distribution Chains: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Methods Study in Six Malaria-Endemic Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Private for-profit outlets are important treatment sources for malaria in most endemic countries. However, these outlets constitute only the last link in a chain of businesses that includes manufacturers, importers and wholesalers, all of which influence the availability, price and quality of antimalarials patients can access. We present evidence on the composition, characteristics and operation of these distribution chains and of the businesses that comprise them in six endemic countries (Benin, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia). Methods and Findings We conducted nationally representative surveys of antimalarial wholesalers during 2009–2010 using an innovative sampling approach that captured registered and unregistered distribution channels, complemented by in-depth interviews with a range of stakeholders. Antimalarial distribution chains were pyramidal in shape, with antimalarials passing through a maximum of 4–6 steps between manufacturer and retailer; however, most likely pass through 2–3 steps. Less efficacious non-artemisinin therapies (e.g. chloroquine) dominated weekly sales volumes among African wholesalers, while volumes for more efficacious artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) were many times smaller. ACT sales predominated only in Cambodia. In all countries, consumer demand was the principal consideration when selecting products to stock. Selling prices and reputation were key considerations regarding supplier choice. Business practices varied across countries, with large differences in the proportions of wholesalers offering credit and delivery services to customers, and the types of distribution models adopted by businesses. Regulatory compliance also varied across countries, particularly with respect to licensing. The proportion of wholesalers possessing any up-to-date licence from national regulators was lowest in Benin and Nigeria, where vendors in traditional markets are important antimalarial supply sources. Conclusions The structure and characteristics of antimalarial distribution chains vary across countries; therefore, understanding the wholesalers that comprise them should inform efforts aiming to improve access to quality treatment through the private sector. PMID:24699934

Palafox, Benjamin; Patouillard, Edith; Tougher, Sarah; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rueda, Sergio Torres; Kiefer, Sabine; O’Connell, Kathryn A.; Zinsou, Cyprien; Phok, Sochea; Akulayi, Louis; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Chavasse, Desmond

2014-01-01

342

The impact of no-fault compensation on health care expenditures: An empirical study of OECD countries.  

PubMed

Around the world, governments are faced with spiralling health care expenditures. This raises the need for further insight in the determinants of these expenditures. Existing literature focuses primarily on income, ageing, health care financing and supply variables. This paper includes medical malpractice system characteristics as determinants of health spending in OECD countries. Estimates from our regression models suggest that no-fault schemes for medical injuries with decoupling of deterrence and compensation reduce health expenditures per capita by 0.11%. Furthermore, countries that introduced a no-fault system without decoupling of deterrence and compensation are found to have higher (+0.06%) health care spending. PMID:25301244

Vandersteegen, Tom; Marneffe, Wim; Cleemput, Irina; Vereeck, Lode

2014-09-28

343

Characteristics of women who continue smoking during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Some women continue smoking during pregnancy despite the extensive information available on the dangers smoking poses to their fetus. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and determinants of smoking before and during pregnancy and the extent of smoking during pregnancy from a European perspective in relation to maternal sociodemographic characteristics, health literacy, morbidity, and pregnancy-related factors. Methods This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Results Of 8344 women included, 2944 (35.3%) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 771 (26.2%) continued smoking during pregnancy, 88 (11.4%) of whom smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day. There was a wide variation among the 15 European countries in smoking rates before and during pregnancy, ranging from 25.0% (Sweden) to 50.0% (Croatia) before and 4.2% (Iceland) to 18.9% (Croatia) during pregnancy. Women who lived in Eastern Europe, without a spouse/partner, with a low education level and unplanned pregnancy, who did not take folic acid, and consumed alcohol during pregnancy were the most likely to smoke before pregnancy. Women who lived in Eastern or Western Europe, without a spouse/partner, with a low education level and health literacy, being a housewife, having previous children and unplanned pregnancy, and who did not take folic acid were the most likely to continue smoking during pregnancy. Women who smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy were the most likely to be living in Eastern Europe and to have a low education level. Conclusion Women with fewer resources living in Western or Eastern Europe are more likely not only to smoke before pregnancy but also to continue smoking during pregnancy. These high-risk women are characterized as living alone, having high school or less as highest education level, having low health literacy, being a housewife, having previous children, having unplanned pregnancy, and no use of folic acid. Our findings indicated that focus on smoking cessation is important in antenatal care in Europe as many women smoke before pregnancy, and still continue to do so in pregnancy. PMID:24964728

2014-01-01

344

National health policy-makers’ views on the clarity and utility of Countdown to 2015 country profiles and reports: findings from two exploratory qualitative studies  

PubMed Central

Background The use of sets of indicators to assess progress has become commonplace in the global health arena. Exploratory research has suggested that indicators used for global monitoring purposes can play a role in national policy-making, however, the mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly understood. This article reports findings from two qualitative studies that aimed to explore national policy-makers’ interpretation and use of indicators from country profiles and reports developed by Countdown to 2015. Methods An initial study aimed at exploring comprehension of Countdown data was conducted at the 2010 joint Women Deliver/Countdown conference. A second study was conducted at the 64th World Health Assembly in 2011, specifically targeting national policy-makers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 29 and 22 participants, respectively, at each event. Participants were asked about their understanding of specific graphs and indicators used or proposed for use in Countdown country profiles, and their perception of how such data can inform national policy-making. Responses were categorised using a framework analysis. Results Respondents in both studies acknowledged the importance of the profiles for tracking progress on key health indicators in and across countries, noting that they could be used to highlight changes in coverage, possible directions for future policy, for lobbying finance ministers to increase resources for health, and to stimulate competition between neighbouring or socioeconomically similar countries. However, some respondents raised questions about discrepancies between global estimates and data produced by national governments, and some struggled to understand the profile graphs shown in the absence of explanatory text. Some respondents reported that use of Countdown data in national policy-making was constrained by limited awareness of the initiative, insufficient detail in the country profiles to inform policy, and the absence of indicators felt to be more appropriate to their own country contexts. Conclusions The two studies emphasise the need for country consultations to ensure that national policy-makers understand how to interpret and use tools like the Countdown profile for planning purposes. They make clear the value of qualitative research for refining tools used to promote accountability, and the need for country level Countdown-like processes. PMID:25128385

2014-01-01

345

Pupil Evaluation in Science. Report of a Study Group Meeting (Penang, Malaysia, January 9-18, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education specialists from Asian and Pacific countries convened to explore issues related to the evaluation of pupil science learning. This document contains a synthesis of the discussions and findings of the meeting. Summaries of the study group's deliberations are provided in four sections. Chapter 1 describes the participating…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

346

Perception and use of massive open online courses among medical students in a developing country: multicentre cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the prevalence of awareness and use of massive open online courses (MOOCs) among medical undergraduates in Egypt as a developing country, as well as identifying the limitations and satisfaction of using these courses. Design A multicentre, cross-sectional study using a web-based, pilot-tested and self-administered questionnaire. Settings Ten out of 19 randomly selected medical schools in Egypt. Participants 2700 undergraduate medical students were randomly selected, with an equal allocation of participants in each university and each study year. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome measures were the percentages of students who knew about MOOCs, students who enrolled and students who obtained a certificate. Secondary outcome measures included the limitations and satisfaction of using MOOCs through five-point Likert scale questions. Results Of 2527 eligible students, 2106 completed the questionnaire (response rate 83.3%). Of these students, 456 (21.7%) knew the term MOOCs or websites providing these courses. Out of the latter, 136 (29.8%) students had enrolled in at least one course, but only 25 (18.4%) had completed courses earning certificates. Clinical year students showed significantly higher rates of knowledge (p=0.009) and enrolment (p<0.001) than academic year students. The primary reasons for the failure of completion of courses included lack of time (105; 77.2%) and slow Internet speed (73; 53.7%). Regarding the 25 students who completed courses, 21 (84%) were satisfied with the overall experience. However, there was less satisfaction regarding student–instructor (8; 32%) and student–student (5; 20%) interactions. Conclusions About one-fifth of Egyptian medical undergraduates have heard about MOOCs with only about 6.5% actively enrolled in courses. Students who actively participated showed a positive attitude towards the experience, but better time-management skills and faster Internet connection speeds are required. Further studies are needed to survey the enrolled students for a better understanding of their experience. PMID:25564149

Aboshady, Omar A; Radwan, Ahmed E; Eltaweel, Asmaa R; Azzam, Ahmed; Aboelnaga, Amr A; Hashem, Heba A; Darwish, Salma Y; Salah, Rehab; Kotb, Omar N; Afifi, Ahmed M; Noaman, Aya M; Salem, Dalal S; Hassouna, Ahmed

2015-01-01

347

Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4) should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa) diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern of demand for MgSO4 in Zambia should enable policy makers and stakeholders to develop and implement appropriate interventions to improve the availability and use of MgSO4. PMID:21162717

2010-01-01

348

Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM) over the last five years. All key in–country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions), and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre–agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This qualitative study is a valuable contribution in understanding the ‘hows’ of iCCM implementation with key insights for improved feasibility and acceptability. Main findings show how community support to iCCM and community health workers is necessary for sustained health benefits coupled with a focus on strengthening and ‘enabling’ the public health system. The participatory study design and methodologies used enabled the scope of the research enquiry to effectively capture various stakeholder perspectives. PMID:25520794

Strachan, Clare; Wharton–Smith, Alexandra; Sinyangwe, Chomba; Mubiru, Denis; Ssekitooleko, James; Meier, Joslyn; Gbanya, Miatta; Tibenderana, James K.; Counihan, Helen

2014-01-01

349

Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up.  

PubMed

Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM) over the last five years. All key in-country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions), and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre-agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This qualitative study is a valuable contribution in understanding the 'hows' of iCCM implementation with key insights for improved feasibility and acceptability. Main findings show how community support to iCCM and community health workers is necessary for sustained health benefits coupled with a focus on strengthening and 'enabling' the public health system. The participatory study design and methodologies used enabled the scope of the research enquiry to effectively capture various stakeholder perspectives. PMID:25520794

Strachan, Clare; Wharton-Smith, Alexandra; Sinyangwe, Chomba; Mubiru, Denis; Ssekitooleko, James; Meier, Joslyn; Gbanya, Miatta; Tibenderana, James K; Counihan, Helen

2014-12-01

350

Quality of Agricultural Products and Protection of the Environment: Training, Knowledge Dissemination and Certification. Synthesis Report of a Study in Five European Countries. CEDEFOP Reference Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines existing European environmental education and agricultural practices friendly to the environment. Focus is on studies conducted in five countries Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain--that aimed to define new knowledge qualifications related to environmental issues in producing alternative agricultural products…

Papadaki-Klavdianou, A.; Menkisoglou-Spiroudi, O.; Tsakiridou, E.

351

Daily Hassles and Coping Dispositions as Predictors of Psychological Adjustment: A Comparative Study of Young Unaccompanied Refugees and Youth in the Resettlement Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined daily hassles and coping dispositions in relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms among resettled unaccompanied refugees and other youth in the resettlement country. A total of 223 unaccompanied refugees ("M" = 20 years) was compared with 609 ethnic minority and 427 majority youth in Norway. Unaccompanied…

Seglem, Karoline B.; Oppedal, Brit; Roysamb, Espen

2014-01-01

352

Foreign direct investment strategies: Least-developed countries and foreign firms. A case study of Sudan and Chevron Oil  

SciTech Connect

The least-developed countries (LDCS) are politically underdeveloped. They often have autocratic authoritarian regimes that give less than appropriate attention to their societies' development. Being vulnerable and fairly unstable, such regimes are more occupied with their own survival than with developing pragmatic plans that cater to supplying their nations with missing economic resources needed through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Internal and external pressures on LDCS with such primitive political structures have greatly confused their leaderships and have resulted in the lack of institutionalization in these countries. Foreign firms normally choose to serve world markets through direct operations rather than exporting or licensing because the former maximize their gains more than the two other alternatives. This is why benefits to host countries may not match a host country's expectations when it allows FDI penetration. It is the contention of this research that Sudan failed to formulate a right policy towards FDI, and came short of maximizing its scarce resource returns. On the other hand, Chevron Oil, with a global overall profit-maximization strategy, succeeded in running its subsidiary in Sudan in accordance with its global outlook.

Tom, B.M.

1988-01-01

353

Functional Illiteracy and Literacy Provision in Developed Countries: The Case of the Federal Republic of Germany. UIE Case Studies 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was not until the end of the 1970s that public debate on the problem of functional illiteracy among adults began in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Even afterward, Germans were reluctant to admit that illiteracy was a problem in their country. Literacy education efforts began at the local level, and the first national conference on adult…

Fuchs-Bruninghoff, Elisabeth; And Others

354

Restoring Fiscal Discipline for Poverty Reduction in Peru: A Public Expenditure Review. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since his inauguration in July 2001, Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo has proposed to take actions in the areas of macroeconomic stabilization; reopening of country's access to international financial markets; budget modernization and state decentralization; social policy; revamping of the armed forces, police, and internal security services;…

Lopez-Calix, Jose; Melo, Alberto

355

Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Southern Mediterranean. A Tempus Study. Issue 07  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attached descriptions of higher education systems in the Tempus partner countries provide a tool for those who are either planning or already carrying out projects within Tempus. This document forms part of a series of four publications which have been produced for each of the regions covered by Tempus. The descriptions have been drafted by…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

2011-01-01

356

Information Technology Facilitates Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Developing Countries: An Observational Study of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Health information technology offers a powerful tool to monitor the performance of a healthcare system. Advances in computer technology and capacity combined with lower start-up costs will allow developing countries to achieve greater impact when they initiate electronic health information systems. We focused on the integrated health information system that was established in Taiwan in conjunction with the launch

Ya-Chen Tina. Shih; I-Wen Pan; Yi-Wen Tsai

2009-01-01

357

On the similarity of country endowments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the production side of the Heckscher–Ohlin model empirically. The evidence we present suggests that the endowments of countries around the world are too dissimilar for all countries to be able to produce the same set of goods. In contrast, the endowments of the rich OECD countries are sufficiently similar, so that these countries do not have to specialize

Peter Debaere; Ufuk Demiroglu

2003-01-01

358

Evaluation research in occupational health services: general principles and a systematic review of empirical studies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To study the nature and extent of evaluation research in occupational health services (OHSs). METHODS: Literature review of evaluation research in OHSs. On the basis of a conceptual model of OHS evaluation, empirical studies are categorised into aspects of input, process, output, outcome, and OHS core activities. RESULTS: Many methods to evaluate OHSs or OHS activities exist, depending on the objective and object of evaluation. The amount of empirical studies on evaluation of OHSs or OHS activities that met the non-restrictive inclusion criteria, was remarkably limited. Most of the 52 studies were more descriptive than evaluative. The methodological quality of most studies was not high. A differentiated picture of the evidence of effectiveness of OHSs arises. Occupational health consultations and occupational rehabilitation are hardly studied despite much time spent on the consultation by occupational physicians in most countries. The lack of effectiveness and efficiency of the pre-employment examination should lead to its abandonment as a means of selection of personnel by OHSs. Periodic health monitoring or surveillance, and education on occupational health hazards can be carried out with reasonable process quality. Identification and evaluation of occupational health hazards by a workplace survey can be done with a high output quality, which, however, does not guarantee a favourable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Although rigorous study designs are not always applicable or feasible in daily practice, much more effort should be directed at the scientific evaluation of OHSs and OHS instruments. To develop evidence-based occupational health care the quality of evaluation studies should be improved. In particular, process and outcome of consultation and rehabilitation activities of occupational physicians need to be studied more.   PMID:10474531

Hulshof, C. T.; Verbeek, J. H.; van Dijk, F. J.; van der Weide, W. E.; Braam, I. T.

1999-01-01

359

Country Analysis Briefs  

EIA Publications

An ongoing compilation of country energy profiles. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries that are important to world energy markets, including members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers, major energy transit countries, major energy consumers, and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers.

2028-01-01

360

A+ Country Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A fantastic resource for students, teachers, tourists, and anyone else interested in the globe, A+ Country Reports offers a wealth of information on all of the countries of the world. Like the CIA's World Factbook (last mentioned in the September 28, 2001 Scout Report ), A+ Country Reports presents up-to-date information on population, geography, economy, history, and politics. Aside from that, however, the site presents a lively array of extras that don't figure in the CIA's matter of fact dossiers, things such as audio clips of national anthems and links to current weather reports. As the site itself boasts, through a list of quotes from current reviews, A+ Country Reports is particularly appealing to teachers and younger students, and it's obvious why it's appealing, given its attention to the kinds of details kids demand -- bright graphics, large fonts, and Flash-automated features among them. For those interested in sharing what they have learned or already know, there is also a discussion area and links to sites for further study.

1997-01-01

361

Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Study Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress: Study Reports" describes the special studies that comprised the design of the evaluation. In the Final Report, the authors presented a practical discussion of the evaluation studies to its primary, intended audience, namely policymakers. On this accompanying CD, readers will find…

Buckendahl, Chad W.; Davis, Susan L.; Plake, Barbara S.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Zenisky, April L.; Wells, Craig S.

2009-01-01

362

A nine country study of the burden of non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemic events on diabetes management and daily function  

PubMed Central

Aims The purpose of this study was to explore the burden and impact of non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemic events (NSNHEs) on diabetes management, patient functioning and well-being in order to better understand the role that NSNHEs play in caring for persons with diabetes and facilitate optimal diabetes treatment management strategies. Methods A 20-min survey assessing the impact of NSNHEs was administered to patients with self-reported diabetes age 18 or older via the Internet in nine countries (USA, UK, Germany, Canada, France, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands and Sweden) who experienced an NSNHE in the last month. Questions captured reasons for and length of the event, and impacts on diabetes management, daily function, sleep and well-being. Results A total of 20 212 persons with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were screened of which 2108 respondents were eligible. Respondents initiated, on average, an additional 3.6 glucose monitoring tests, and did not resume usual functioning for an average of 3.4 hours after the NSNHE. Of the respondents using insulin, 15.8% decreased their insulin dose over an average of 3.6 days. NSNHEs also impacted sleep, with 10.4% not returning to sleep that night. Next day functioning was affected with 60.3% (n = 1273) feeling the need to take a nap and/or rest (with 65.5% of those actually taking a nap/rest) and 40.2% (n = 848) wanting to go to bed earlier than usual. A total of 21.4% were restricted in their driving the next day. These events also resulted in decreased well-being with 39.6% of respondents feeling ‘emotional low’ the following day. Conclusions NSNHEs have serious consequences for patients. Greater attention to patient and physician education regarding the burden of NSNHEs and incorporation of corrective actions in treatment plans is needed to facilitate patients reaching optimal glycaemic control. PMID:23350726

Brod, M; Wolden, M; Christensen, T; Bushnell, D M

2013-01-01

363

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China  

SciTech Connect

As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA; Deying, Xu [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry

1992-08-01

364

Integrated studies for automobile wastes management in developing countries; in the concept of environmentally friendly mechanic village  

Microsoft Academic Search

More cities in developing countries now consider mechanic village (MV) as superior to the city wide auto-workshop practice\\u000a following the increasing influx of used or waste automobile from industrialized nations. This is because of the numerous advantages\\u000a of the mechanic village concept as a capacity building, and in poverty alleviation. Nevertheless, mechanic villages are poorly\\u000a developed with no waste management

Michael Amamechi Nwachukwu; Huan Feng; Kennedy Achilike

2011-01-01

365

Contextual leadership : A study of Lebanese executives working in Lebanon, the GCC countries, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of context and culture on leadership and decision-making styles of Lebanese-born executives working in the USA, the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, and Lebanon. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 76 successful Lebanese executives were interviewed in three regions of the world. Comparisons among the three groups are made

Farid A. Muna

2011-01-01

366

Can weather index drought insurance benefit to Least Developed Countries' farmers? A case study on Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a detailed agricultural and climate dataset over Burkina-Faso and very simple assumptions regarding the form of an insurance contract, we investigate the potential feasibility and interest for farmers of a weather-index insurance system in this country. To do so, we explore the results of more than 3.000 simulated contracts applied to 30 districts, 21 years (1984-2004) and 5

Alexis Berg; Philippe Quirion; Benjamin Sultan

367

The role of behavioural factors in explaining socio-economic differences in adolescent health: A multilevel study in 33 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to describe and explain socio-economic differences in health have mainly focused on adults. Little is known about the mechanisms of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and health in adolescence including inconsistent findings between SES and health among young people. Data were derived from representative samples of 13 and 15-year-old students in 33 European and North American countries (n=97,721)

Matthias Richter; Michael Erhart; Carine A. Vereecken; Alessio Zambon; William Boyce; Saoirse Nic Gabhainn

2009-01-01

368

Policy, Practice, and Readiness to Teach Primary and Secondary Mathematics in 17 Countries: Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M 2008) was a comparative study of primary and secondary mathematics teacher education. It examined how different countries prepared teachers to teach mathematics in primary and lower-secondary schools.\\u000aTEDS-M paid particular attention to links between teacher education policies, practices, and outcomes. TEDS-M asked several key research questions:\\u000a•\\u0009What is the

Tatto Teresa M AProf; Schwille Jack; Senk Sharon; Ingvarson Lawrence C; Peck Ray; Rowley Glenn

2012-01-01

369

Relationship between country of origin, brand experience and brand equity: The moderating effect of automobile country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization made branding competition rise that caused the country of assembly (COA)\\/country of design (COD)\\/country of parts (COP) linked to customers closely in global market. Prior studies have adopted the “relationship” to enhance the understanding of the relationship between consumers and brands. The purpose of the paper is to test the relationship between country of assembly\\/country of design\\/country of parts,

Lily Shui-Lien Chen; Yi-Jing Wu; Wei-Chun Chen

2011-01-01

370

Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?  

PubMed

Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and developing countries. PMID:22709651

Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

2012-01-01

371

A multi-country study of the “intrapartum stillbirth and early neonatal death indicator” in hospitals in low-resource settings  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the feasibility of introducing a simple indicator of quality of obstetric and neonatal care and to determine the proportion of potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in hospitals in low-income countries. Methods Between September 1, 2011, and February 29, 2012, data were collected from women who had a term pregnancy and were admitted to the labor ward of 1 of 6 hospitals in 4 low-income countries. Fetal heart tones on admission were monitored, and demographic and birth data were recorded. Results Data were obtained for 3555 women and 3593 neonates (including twins). The doptone was used on 97% of women admitted. The overall perinatal mortality rate was 34 deaths per 1000 deliveries. Of the perinatal deaths, 40%–45% occurred in the hospital and were potentially preventable by better hospital care. Conclusion The results demonstrated that it is possible to accurately determine fetal viability on admission via a doptone. Implementation of doptone use, coupled with a concise data record, might form the basis of a low-cost and sustainable program to monitor and evaluate efforts to improve quality of care and ultimately might to help to reduce the in-hospital component of perinatal mortality in low-income countries. PMID:23796259

Goldenberg, Robert L.; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Kodkany, Bhala; Wembodinga, Gilbert; Pasha, Omrana; Esamai, Fabian; Tshefu, Antoinette; Patel, Archana; Mabaye, Hillary; Goudar, Shivaparasad; Saleem, Sarah; Waikar, Manjushri; Langer, Ana; Bose, Carl L.; Rubens, Craig E.; Wright, Linda L.; Moore, Janet; Blanc, Ann

2013-01-01

372

Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society solar energy pilot study. First follow-up report, October 1979, pilot country: United States; co-pilot countries: Denmark and France. CCMS report No. 110  

SciTech Connect

During 1973 to 1978, over twenty nations participated in the NATO/CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study, whose objective was to promote and accelerate the use of solar heating and cooling of buildings. The activities in this information exchange included (1) the regular reporting of national solar heating and cooling programs, (2) the development of a format for reporting the performance of solar heating and cooling systems, (3) the exchange of system performance reports, (4) the establishment of two specialized working groups for solar-assisted low energy dwellings and passive solar applications. At the conclusion of the pilot study in 1978, the participants formulated recommendations for continued action at the international level, as well as for action at the national level. This report describes the progress made in implementing those recommendations. In addition to detailing the steps taken to continue collaboration in various efforts initiated within the Solar Energy Pilot Study, the report contains papers on the 1979 status of the solar heating and cooling programs in seventeen CCMS countries.

None

1980-01-01

373

Integrated studies for automobile wastes management in developing countries; in the concept of environmentally friendly mechanic village.  

PubMed

More cities in developing countries now consider mechanic village (MV) as superior to the city wide auto-workshop practice following the increasing influx of used or waste automobile from industrialized nations. This is because of the numerous advantages of the mechanic village concept as a capacity building, and in poverty alleviation. Nevertheless, mechanic villages are poorly developed with no waste management plan. They are now identified with severe to excessive heavy metal soil pollution, causing ecological and public health hazards. This paper has a wider explanation of what it takes for a mechanic village to be environmentally friendly based on spectroscopic analysis and physical measurements conducted in three MVs. Heavy metal concentrations (mg kg(?-1)) above background levels in the upper 100 cm soil profiles of the Okigwe, the Orji, and the Nekede MVs in the Imo River basin collectively range 748-70,606 for Fe; 99-1,090 for Pb; 186-600 for Mn; 102-1,001 for Cu; 8-23 for Cd; 4-27 for Cr; and 3-10 for Ni. The most abundant metals of environmental concerns are Pb, Mn, and Cu, in the order of Pb > Mn > Cu. Three-phase storm water treatment, emission testing, minimum safe farming distance (350 m), extended producer responsibility for disposal or recycling of used motor oil, phyto-remediation using local plants, groundwater monitoring wells, and continuous education of mechanics are recommended. Exporters of waste automobiles to developing countries and the United Nations may assist developing countries in establishing environmentally friendly MVs. PMID:20878465

Nwachukwu, Michael Amamechi; Feng, Huan; Achilike, Kennedy

2011-07-01

374

National Economic Development and Disparities in Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study of Data from 38 Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Increases in body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of overweight in low- and middle income countries (LMICs) are often ascribed to changes in global trade patterns or increases in national income. These changes are likely to affect populations within LMICs differently based on their place of residence or socioeconomic status (SES). Objective Using nationally representative survey data from 38 countries and national economic indicators from the World Bank and other international organizations, we estimated ecological and multilevel models to assess the association between national levels of gross domestic product (GDP), foreign direct investment (FDI), and mean tariffs and BMI. Design We used linear regression to estimate the ecological association between average annual change in economic indicators and BMI, and multilevel linear or ordered multinomial models to estimate associations between national economic indicators and individual BMI or over- and underweight. We also included cross-level interaction terms to highlight differences in the association of BMI with national economic indicators by type of residence or socioeconomic status (SES). Results There was a positive but non-significant association of GDP and mean BMI. This positive association of GDP and BMI was greater among rural residents and the poor. There were no significant ecological associations between measures of trade openness and mean BMI, but FDI was positively associated with BMI among the poorest respondents and in rural areas and tariff levels were negatively associated with BMI among poor and rural respondents. Conclusion Measures of national income and trade openness have different associations with the BMI across populations within developing countries. These divergent findings underscore the complexity of the effects of development on health and the importance of considering how the health effects of “globalizing” economic and cultural trends are modified by individual-level wealth and residence. PMID:24919199

Neuman, Melissa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven; Subramanian, SV.

2014-01-01

375

Are doctors and nurses associated with coverage of essential health services in developing countries? A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There is broad policy consensus that a shortage of doctors and nurses is a key constraint to increasing utilization of essential health services important for achieving the health Millennium Development Goals. However there is limited research on the quantitative links between health workers and service coverage rates. We examined the relationship between doctor and nurse concentrations and utilization rates of five essential health services in developing countries. Methods We performed cross-national analyses of low- and middle-income countries by means of ordinary least squares regression with coverage rates of antenatal care, attended delivery, caesarean section, measles immunization, tuberculosis case diagnosis and care for acute respiratory infection as outcomes. Doctor, nurse and aggregate health worker (sum of doctors and nurses) concentrations were the main explanatory variables. Results Nurses were associated with utilization of skilled birth attendants (P = 0.02) and doctors were associated with measles immunization rates (P = 0.01) in separate adjusted analyses. Aggregate health workers were associated with the utilization of skilled birth attendants (P < 0.01) and measles immunization (P < 0.01). Doctors, nurses and aggregate health workers were not associated with the remaining four services. Conclusion A range of health system and population-level factors aside from health workers influences coverage of health services in developing countries. However, it is also plausible that health workers who are neither doctors nor nurses, such as clinical officers and community health workers, may be providing a substantial proportion of health services. The human resources for health research agenda should be expanded beyond doctors and nurses. PMID:19335911

Kruk, Margaret E; Prescott, Marta R; de Pinho, Helen; Galea, Sandro

2009-01-01

376

Deepening our understanding of quality improvement in Europe (DUQuE): overview of a study of hospital quality management in seven countries  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Objective This paper provides an overview of the DUQuE (Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe) project, the first study across multiple countries of the European Union (EU) to assess relationships between quality management and patient outcomes at EU level. The paper describes the conceptual framework and methods applied, highlighting the novel features of this study. Design DUQuE was designed as a multi-level cross-sectional study with data collection at hospital, pathway, professional and patient level in eight countries. Setting and Participants We aimed to collect data for the assessment of hospital-wide constructs from up to 30 randomly selected hospitals in each country, and additional data at pathway and patient level in 12 of these 30. Main outcome measures A comprehensive conceptual framework was developed to account for the multiple levels that influence hospital performance and patient outcomes. We assessed hospital-specific constructs (organizational culture and professional involvement), clinical pathway constructs (the organization of care processes for acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hip fracture and deliveries), patient-specific processes and outcomes (clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience) and external constructs that could modify hospital quality (external assessment and perceived external pressure). Results Data was gathered from 188 hospitals in 7 participating countries. The overall participation and response rate were between 75% and 100% for the assessed measures. Conclusions This is the first study assessing relation between quality management and patient outcomes at EU level. The study involved a large number of respondents and achieved high response rates. This work will serve to develop guidance in how to assess quality management and makes recommendations on the best ways to improve quality in healthcare for hospital stakeholders, payers, researchers, and policy makers throughout the EU. PMID:24671120

Secanell, Mariona; Groene, Oliver; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Lopez, Maria Andrée; Kutryba, Basia; Pfaff, Holger; Klazinga, Niek; Wagner, Cordula; Kristensen, Solvejg; Bartels, Paul Daniel; Garel, Pascal; Bruneau, Charles; Escoval, Ana; França, Margarida; Mora, Nuria; Suñol, Rosa; Klazinga, N; Kringos, DS; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Bottaro, S; Garel, P; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Lívio, A; Eiras, M; Franca, M; Leite, I; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; Chow, A; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, CA; Wang, A; Thompson, A

2014-01-01

377

Evaluating the UK Breast Screening Programme: Study design and practicalities  

Cancer.gov

Evaluating the UK Breast Screening Programme Study design and practicalities Louise Johns, Sue Moss, Tony Swerdlow Department of Health Cancer Screening Evaluation Unit Section of Epidemiology Background • UK breast screening programme started in 1987

378

Do More Knowledgeable Adolescents Have More Rationally Based Civic Attitudes? Analysis of 38 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the concept of "rational civic attitudes" and its link to knowledge, using data on eighth-grade students from 38 countries in the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement International Civic and Citizenship Education Study to examine these questions: (1) Are country-averages on self-reported…

Lauglo, Jon

2013-01-01

379

Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: an ecologic analysis of 118 developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Both religious practices and male circumcision (MC) have been associated with HIV and other sexually-transmitted infectious diseases. Most studies have been limited in size and have not adequately controlled for religion, so these relationships remain unclear. METHODS: We evaluated relationships between MC prevalence, Muslim and Christian religion, and 7 infectious diseases using country-specific data among 118 developing countries. We

Paul K Drain; Daniel T Halperin; James P Hughes; Jeffrey D Klausner; Robert C Bailey

2006-01-01

380

Patterns of Frailty in Older Adults: Comparing Results from Higher and Lower Income Countries Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE)  

PubMed Central

We use the method of deficit accumulation to describe prevalent and incident levels of frailty in community-dwelling older persons and compare prevalence rates in higher income countries in Europe, to prevalence rates in six lower income countries. Two multi-country data collection efforts, SHARE and SAGE, provide nationally representative samples of adults aged 50 years and older. Forty items were used to construct the frailty index in each data set. Our study shows that the level of frailty was distributed along the socioeconomic gradient in both higher and lower income countries such that those individuals with less education and income were more likely to be frail. Frailty increased with age and women were more likely to be frail in most countries. Across samples we find that the level of frailty was higher in the higher income countries than in the lower income countries. PMID:24204581

Harttgen, Kenneth; Kowal, Paul; Strulik, Holger; Chatterji, Somnath; Vollmer, Sebastian

2013-01-01

381

Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens and indicator bacteria in pigs in different European countries from year 2002 – 2004: the ARBAO-II study  

PubMed Central

Background The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003–05. The aim of this project was to establish a program for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic and indicator bacteria from food animals using validated and harmonised methodologies. In this report the first data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria causing infections in pigs are reported. Methods Susceptibility data from 17,642 isolates of pathogens and indicator bacteria including Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis and Escherichia coli isolated from pigs were collected from fifteen European countries in 2002–2004. Results Data for A. pleuropneumoniae from infected pigs were submitted from five countries. Most of the isolates from Denmark were susceptible to all drugs tested with the exceptions of a low frequency of resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim – sulphonamide. Data for S. suis were obtained from six countries. In general, a high level of resistance to tetracycline (48.0 – 92.0%) and erythromycin (29.1 – 75.0%) was observed in all countries whereas the level of resistance to ciprofloxacin and penicillin differed between the reporting countries. Isolates from England (and Wales), France and The Netherlands were all susceptible to penicillin. In contrast the proportion of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin ranged from 12.6 to 79.0% (2004) and to penicillin from 8.1 – 13.0% (2004) in Poland and Portugal. Data for E. coli from infected and healthy pigs were obtained from eleven countries. The data reveal a high level of resistance to tetracyclines, streptomycin and ampicillin among infected pigs whereas in healthy pigs the frequency of resistance was lower. Conclusion Bacterial resistance to some antimicrobials was frequent with different levels of resistance being observed to several antimicrobial agents in different countries. The occurrence of resistance varied distinctly between isolates from healthy and diseased pigs, with the isolates from healthy pigs generally showing a lower level of resistance than those from diseased pigs. The study suggests that the choice of antimicrobials used for the treatment of diseased animals should preferably be based on knowledge of the local pattern of resistance. PMID:18554407

Hendriksen, Rene S; Mevius, Dik J; Schroeter, Andreas; Teale, Christopher; Jouy, Eric; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Utinane, Andra; Amado, Alice; Moreno, Miguel; Greko, Christina; Stärk, Katharina DC; Berghold, Christian; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Sunde, Marianne; Aarestrup, Frank M

2008-01-01

382

GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

Zelenovi? Vasiljevi?, Tamara; Srdjevi?, Zorica; Baj?eti?, Ratko; Vojinovi? Miloradov, Mirjana

2012-02-01

383

Money windfalls and oil-exporting developing countries: a comparative study of Algeria, Ecuador, trinidad and Tobago, and Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

This thesis analyzes how the oil windfalls of the 1970s have affected the growth path and the sectoral composition of output and trade of the oil rich developing countries. The policy makers of the four subject countries have adopted different development strategies so that their economies can achieve sustained increases in per capita income and a higher level of economic development after the resource is depleted. The analysis is concerned with the consequences of these policies. The neoclassical models used in the literature to analyze the effects of a resource boom predict the following consequences among others: (1) increase in the prices of nontraded goods, which include construction and services; (2) appreciation of the real exchange rate, which is defined as the ratio of the price of nontraded goods to the price of traded goods, and (3) fall in the output and employment of the traditional traded goods sector, not including the resource or booming sector. The consequences are known as the Dutch Disease in reference to a decline in Dutch manufacturing in the 1960s brought about by natural gas discoveries. To test the hypotheses of the trade and development models, national accounts data are used in order to measure the changes in the composition of production and trade in the 1970s and early 1980s.

Avin, R.M.

1986-01-01

384

Productivity in medical education research: an examination of countries of origin.  

PubMed

BackgroundProductivity and countries of origin of publications within the field of medical education research have not been explored. Using bibliometric techniques we conducted an analysis of studies evaluating medical education interventions, examining the country where research originated as well as networks of authors within countries identified as `most productive¿.MethodsPubMed was used to search for evaluative studies of medical education. We then examined relative productivity of countries with >100 publications in our sample (number of publications / number of medical schools in country). Author networks from the top 2 countries with the highest relative productivity were constructed.Results6874 publications from 18,883 different authors were included. The countries with the highest relative publication productivity were Canada (37.1), Netherlands (28.3), New Zealand (27), the UK (23), and the U.S.A (17.1). Author collaboration networks differed in both numbers of authors and intensity of collaborations in the countries with highest relative productivity.ConclusionsIn terms of the number of publications of evaluative studies in medical education, Canadawas the country with the highest relative productivity. Author networks allow for the identification of ongoing and potential new collaborations amongst authors. PMID:25404502

Doja, Asif; Horsley, Tanya; Sampson, Margaret

2014-11-18

385

eldis Country Profiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new briefing service from eldis (Electronic Development and Environment Information System) (originally reviewed in the October 9, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) offers access to a large amount of informative material on individual countries. The heart of this material will be multiple documents providing sectoral profiles of Agriculture, Environment, Economics, Gender, Politics, Education, and Health. Please note, however, that the site is still very much under development, and only profiles of the agricultural sector are currently available. Other resources include links to current news, maps, statistics, CIA and IMF country profiles, industrial and trade profiles, and human rights records. At present, the Country Profiles section only contains the nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Until the new profiles are completed, users may still access older eldis resource collections for North America, Europe, and the Middle East and North Africa from this site. When completed, this site will be a powerful one-stop tool for researchers and professionals in development studies and political science.

386

Perinatal care in six eastern Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

In December, 1981, the Government of the Netherlands conducted evaluation studies of perinatal health care in the 6 Caribbean countries of Antigua, the Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincnet. In recent years, the governments of the 6 countries expressed their concerns about the need to improve perinatal health care and about the limited funds, health facilities, and health manpower available for meeting this need. Data for the studies were collected during visits to the 6 countries and consisted of availble vital statistics and hospital records collected by local physicians and chief nurses. Since 70%-95% of the deliveries in these countries occurred in hospitals, hospital data were used to assess the level of perinatal mortality. Perinatal death rates for the 6 countries ranged from 29/1000 live births to 38/1000 live births. When stillbirths and neonatal death rates were examined separately, there was considerable variation between countries. Stillbirth rates ranged from 23.4-13.6/1000 live births and neonatal death rates ranged from 9.9-22.5/1000 live births. These differences probably reflected classification problems rather than actual differences. Although there was considerable variation in per capita income levels in the 6 countries (US$380-US$2620) these differences did not appear to be associated with differences in perinatal death rates. Average birth weights for the 6 countries ranged from 3000 gm to 3150 gm, and the average for all 6 countries combined was 3100 gm. The incidence of low birth weights (2500 gm or less) ranged from 5.9% in Dominica to 11% in Barbados. The major causes of perinatal death were complications resulting from anoxia or hypoxia, prematurity complications, and neonatal infections. Infants who survive these conditions frequently develop handicaps. Average breastfeeding duration ranged from 1 month in the Bahamas to 7 months in St. Vincent. Bottle feeding is common and generally begins early. Mistaken beliefs about the nutritional inadequacies of breast milk as well as the promotion of formulas contribute toward the relatively low rate and short duration of breastfeeding in these countries. Specific recommendations for improving perinatal health care in each of the 6 countries were provided. Recommendations relevant to most of the countries were 1) to improve the level of health knowledge among the general public, 2) to provide additional training for all health personnel working in the perinatal health care field, 3) to upgrade and improve the maintenance of basic equipment for resuscitating newborns, 4) to promote the early detection and improve the management of jaundice, 5) to distribute free supplies of anti-D-globulin for treating Rh-negative mothers, 6) to develop linkages between perinatal health care facilities and postpartum health care facilities to ensure continuity of care for each infant, 7) to develop a system for detecting and managing high risk pregnancies and infants at high risk, 8) to promote funding for tropical perinatology, and 9) to develop a perinatal technology appropriate to conditions in these countries. PMID:4027454

Boersma, E R

1985-01-01

387

Risk Factors for Mortality from Acute Lower Respiratory Infections (ALRI) in Children under Five Years of Age in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate risk factors for death from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children in low- and middle-income countries. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Study selection Observational studies reporting on risk factors for death from ALRI in children below five years in low- and middle income countries. Data sources Medline, Embase, Global Health Library, Lilacs, and Web of Science to January 2014 Risk of bias assessment Quality In Prognosis Studies tool with minor adaptations to assess the risk of bias; funnel plots and Egger's test to evaluate publication bias. Results Out of 10655 papers retrieved, 77 studies from 39 countries (198359 children) met the inclusion criteria. Host and disease characteristics more strongly associated with ALRI mortality were: diagnosis of very severe pneumonia as per WHO definition (odds ratio 9.42, 95% confidence interval 6.37?13.92); age below two months (5.22, 1.70?16.03); diagnosis of Pneumocystis Carinii (4.79, 2.67 ? 8.61), chronic underlying diseases (4.76, 3.27? 6.93); HIV/AIDS (4.68, 3.72?5.90); and severe malnutrition (OR 4.27, 3.47?5.25). Socio-economic and environmental factors significantly associated with increased odds of death from ALRI were: young maternal age (1.84, 1.03?3.31); low maternal education (1.43, 1.13?1.82); low socio-economic status (1.62, 1.32?2.00); second-hand smoke exposure (1.52, 1.20 to 1.93); indoor air pollution (3.02, 2.11?4.31). Immunisation (0.46, 0.36?0.58) and good antenatal practices (0.50, 0.31?0.81) were associated with decreased odds of death. Conclusions Host and disease characteristics as well as socio-economic and environmental determinants affect the risk of death from ALRI in children. Together with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, interventions to modify underlying risk factors such as poverty, lack of female education, and poor environmental conditions, should be considered among the strategies to reduce ALRI mortality in children in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:25635911

Sonego, Michela; Pellegrin, Maria Chiara; Becker, Genevieve; Lazzerini, Marzia

2015-01-01

388

AN EVALUATION STUDY OF EPA METHOD 8  

EPA Science Inventory

Techniques used in EPA Method 8, the source test method for acid mist and sulfur dioxide emissions from sulfuric acid plants, have been evaluated. Evidence is shown that trace amounts of peroxides in isopropyl alcohol result in the conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate and caus...

389

Case Study No. 7: Evaluating the Principal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following principles apply to evaluation of principals: helping the principal gain deeper satisfaction from his contribution to learning; and the assessment of student progress provides the information which will help him realize the significance of his contribution. (Author/CB)

Beall, Lewis L.

1972-01-01

390

Information technology facilitates cost-effectiveness analysis in developing countries: an observational study of breast cancer chemotherapy in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Health information technology offers a powerful tool to monitor the performance of a healthcare system. Advances in computer technology and capacity combined with lower start-up costs will allow developing countries to achieve greater impact when they initiate electronic health information systems. We focused on the integrated health information system that was established in Taiwan in conjunction with the launch of the National Health Insurance (NHI) programme. We used data from that health information system to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of chemotherapy use among breast cancer patients. We then used this analysis to discuss what policy makers can learn from this type of analysis. We identified a cohort of patients in the NHI Research Database who had been diagnosed with breast cancer in 2001 and had received chemotherapy following surgical removal of the tumour. We followed these patients for 3 years and conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis from the payer's perspective. Using the net benefit regression approach, we compared the cost effectiveness of the two most commonly prescribed first-line chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of breast cancer in 2001 in Taiwan. The dependent variable of the regression model was the individual-level net benefit, and the independent variables included a binary variable indicating the choice of chemotherapy regimen, the patients' age, co-morbidity, type of surgery, geographic region and type of treatment facility. We employed both frequentist and Bayesian approaches in our net benefit regression analyses. In the Bayesian analysis, we applied non-informative priors to all parameters in the base-case analyses. We then explored the use of informative priors in the sensitivity analysis, using cost-effectiveness data published in the literature to form the prior distributions for the relevant parameters. Over 60% of surgically treated breast cancer patients received either CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil) or CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, fluorouracil). A comparison of patient characteristics indicated that patients in the CEF group tended to be younger (47.8 vs 49.1 years; p = 0.016), and were significantly more likely to have undergone a mastectomy (84% vs 76%; p < 0.001) and to have been treated in a teaching hospital (26% vs 13%; p < 0.001). We also observed significant variations in geographic region of the location of facilities between treatment groups. On average, CEF was not cost effective in the treatment of patients with breast cancer in Taiwan, although analyses stratified by geographic region suggested a wide variation across regions. At a societal willingness to pay (WTP) of new Taiwanese dollar ($NT)1 500 000 ($US80 000), the probability that CEF was more cost effective than CMF was 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0% and 3.9% for the Taipei metropolitan area, and the north, middle and the combined south and east region, respectively; the probability became 0.6%, 0.0%, 1.3% and 54.5%, respectively, at a WTP of $NT5 000 000 ($US270 000). After co-variate adjustments, the probabilities were 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively at a WTP of $NT1 500 000, and were 0.0%, 0.0%, 1.4% and 34.7% at $NT5 000 000. Sensitivity analyses showed that CEF potentially could have been more cost effective than CMF within a reasonable range of societal WTP (i.e. $NT1 000 000-3 000 000 or $US55 000-160 000) had the optimal dosage level for CEF been established for breast cancer patients in Taiwan. A population-based, fully integrated electronic health information system provides useful data to assess the cost effectiveness of competing treatments and interventions in current practice. This research may potentially inform policy makers of modifications that can be instituted to improve the cost effectiveness of a new therapy. However, findings from this study need to be interpreted with caution because the study provided information only on the short-term cost effectiveness (i.e. 3 years) of CEF compared with CMF. It is possible that a future analysis will reach a diffe

Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Pan, I-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Wen

2009-01-01

391

Potential transferability of economic evaluations of programs encouraging physical activity in children and adolescents across different countries-a systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

Physical inactivity is an increasing problem. Owing to limited financial resources, one method of getting information on the cost-effectiveness of different types of prevention programs is to examine existing programs and their results. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the transferability of cost-effectiveness results of physical activity programs for children and adolescents to other contexts. Based on a systematic review of the literature, the transferability of the studies found was assessed using a sub-checklist of the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED). Thirteen studies of different physical activity interventions were found and analyzed. The results for transferability ranged from "low" to "very high". A number of different factors influence a program's cost-effectiveness (i.e., discount rate, time horizon, etc.). Therefore, transparency with regard to these factors is one fundamental element in the transferability of the results. A major point of criticism is that transferability is often limited because of lack of transparency. This paper is the first to provide both an overview and an assessment of transferability of economic evaluations of existing programs encouraging physical activity in children and adolescents. This allows decision makers to gain an impression on whether the findings are transferable to their decision contexts, which may lead to time and cost savings. PMID:25321876

Korber, Katharina

2014-01-01

392

Potential Transferability of Economic Evaluations of Programs Encouraging Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents across Different Countries—A Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Physical inactivity is an increasing problem. Owing to limited financial resources, one method of getting information on the cost-effectiveness of different types of prevention programs is to examine existing programs and their results. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the transferability of cost-effectiveness results of physical activity programs for children and adolescents to other contexts. Based on a systematic review of the literature, the transferability of the studies found was assessed using a sub-checklist of the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED). Thirteen studies of different physical activity interventions were found and analyzed. The results for transferability ranged from “low” to “very high”. A number of different factors influence a program’s cost-effectiveness (i.e., discount rate, time horizon, etc.). Therefore, transparency with regard to these factors is one fundamental element in the transferability of the results. A major point of criticism is that transferability is often limited because of lack of transparency. This paper is the first to provide both an overview and an assessment of transferability of economic evaluations of existing programs encouraging physical activity in children and adolescents. This allows decision makers to gain an impression on whether the findings are transferable to their decision contexts, which may lead to time and cost savings. PMID:25321876

Korber, Katharina

2014-01-01

393

The effects of country of origin and corporate reputation on initial trust : An experimental evaluation of the perception of Polish consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the simultaneous effects of country of origin (COO) and corporate reputation on initial trust in a transition economy, and to compare these effects across two service industries. The model broadens COO research by incorporating initial trust as a key driver of success in the context of services internationalization. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Manuel Michaelis; David M. Woisetschläger; Christof Backhaus; Dieter Ahlert

2008-01-01

394

GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia.  

PubMed

The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land. PMID:22134738

Zelenovi? Vasiljevi?, Tamara; Srdjevi?, Zorica; Baj?eti?, Ratko; Vojinovi? Miloradov, Mirjana

2012-02-01

395

Estimating the welfare loss to households from natural disasters in developing countries: a contingent valuation study of flooding in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Natural disasters have severe impacts on the health and well-being of affected households. However, we find evidence that official damage cost assessments for floods and other natural disasters in Vietnam, where households have little or no insurance, clearly underestimate the total economic damage costs of these events as they do not include the welfare loss from mortality, morbidity and well-being experienced by the households affected by the floods. This should send a message to the local communities and national authorities that higher investments in flood alleviation, reduction and adaptive measures can be justified since the social benefits of these measures in terms of avoided damage costs are higher than previously thought. Methods We pioneer the use of the contingent valuation (CV) approach of willingness-to-contribute (WTC) labour to a flood prevention program, as a measure of the welfare loss experienced by household due to a flooding event. In a face-to-face household survey of 706 households in the Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam, we applied this approach together with reported direct physical damage in order to shed light of the welfare loss experienced by the households. We asked about households’ WTC labour and multiplied their WTC person-days of labour by an estimate for their opportunity cost of time in order to estimate the welfare loss to households from the 2007 floods. Results The results showed that this contingent valuation (CV) approach of asking about willingness-to-pay in-kind avoided the main problems associated with applying CV in developing countries. Conclusion Thus, the CV approach of WTC labour instead of money is promising in terms of capturing the total welfare loss of natural disasters, and promising in terms of further application in other developing countries and for other types of natural disasters. PMID:22761603

Navrud, Ståle; Tuan, Tran Huu; Tinh, Bui Duc

2012-01-01

396

A Self-Evaluation of the Developmental Studies Programs: Report on Phase One of the Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the prevailing atmosphere of concern for basic skills development, Houston Community College System (HCCS) faculty and administration perceived the need for a self-evaluation of HCCS's developmental studies programs. The purposes of the resulting study are: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of the institution's developmental studies programs by…

Houston Community Coll. System, TX.

397

Migrant's access to immunization in Mediterranean Countries.  

PubMed

Countries bordering the Mediterranean are part of a major migration system. The aim of this study is to assess the main access barriers to immunization of mobile populations in the region and propose an action based framework to decrease health access inequalities. A survey on formal and informal barriers to immunization among mobile communities was conducted among public health officials formally appointed as focal points of the EpiSouth Network by 26 Mediterranean countries. Twenty-two completed the questionnaire. Thirteen countries reported at least one vaccine preventable disease (VPD) outbreak occurring among mobile populations since 2006 even though their legal entitlement to immunization is mostly equivalent to the general population's. Informal barriers, particularly lack of information and lack of trust in authorities, and disaggregation of data collection are the major issues still to be addressed. Mediterranean countries need to fill the gap in immunization coverage among pockets of susceptible individuals in order to prevent VPD outbreaks. Having for the most part ensured free entitlement, introducing more migrant friendly approaches, increasing information availability among mobile communities, building trust in public health services and disaggregating data collection to monitor and evaluate service performance among mobile groups are key aspects to address in the region. PMID:22385905

Riccardo, Flavia; Dente, Maria Grazia; Kojouharova, Mira; Fabiani, Massimo; Alfonsi, Valeria; Kurchatova, Anna; Vladimirova, Nadezhda; Declich, Silvia

2012-04-01

398

Research Governance and the Role of Evaluation: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a comparative study of the United Kingdom and Spain, this article addresses the effect of different research governance structures on the functioning and uses of research evaluation. It distinguishes three main evaluation uses: distributive, improvement, and controlling. Research evaluation in the United Kingdom plays important…

Molas-Gallart, Jordi

2012-01-01

399

Evaluation Authority and Financial Control: A Study of State Mandates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the significance of viewing the authority to evaluate as an indicator of the exercise of financial control. Financial control in this investigation focuses exclusively on state financial legislation. Evaluation authority in this investigation focuses exclusively on evaluation components of such legislation. (BW)

Johnson, Gary R.; Glasman, Naftaly S.

1983-01-01

400

The study on performance evaluation based on AHP-fuzzy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to effectively overcome some uncertainty problems in current performance evaluation and improve the accuracy and effectiveness of performance evaluation, this paper made an effective combination with fuzzy mathematics and analytic hierarchy process and studied the construction of the model of multiple synthetic evaluation based on fuzzy mathematics in detail. At the same time, the paper discussed the authentication

Na Han; Xiang-Jun Ji

2009-01-01