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1

Systematic review of studies evaluating the broader economic impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries  

PubMed Central

Background Most health economic evaluations of childhood vaccination only capture the health and short-term economic benefits. Measuring broader, long-term effects of vaccination on productivity and externalities could provide a more complete picture of the value of vaccines. Method MEDLINE, EconLit and NHS-EED databases were searched for articles published between January 1990 and July 2011, which captured broader economic benefits of vaccines in low and middle income countries. Studies were included if they captured at least one of the following categories on broader economic impact: outcome-related productivity gains, behaviour-related productivity gains, ecological externalities, equity gains, financial sustainability gains or macroeconomic benefits. Results Twenty-six relevant studies were found, including observational studies, economic models and contingent valuation studies. Of the identified broader impacts, outcome-related productivity gains and ecological externalities were most commonly accounted for. No studies captured behaviour-related productivity gains or macroeconomic effects. There was some evidence to show that vaccinated children 8–14 years of age benefit from increased cognitive ability. Productivity loss due to morbidity and mortality was generally measured using the human capital approach. When included, herd immunity effects were functions of coverage rates or based on reduction in disease outcomes. External effects of vaccines were observed in terms of equitable health outcomes and contribution towards synergistic and financially sustainable healthcare programs. Conclusion Despite substantial variation in the methods of measurement and outcomes used, the inclusion of broader economic impact was found to improve the attractiveness of vaccination. Further research is needed on how different tools and techniques can be used in combination to capture the broader impact of vaccination in a way that is consistent with other health economic evaluations. In addition, more country level evidence is needed from low and middle income countries to justify future investments in vaccines and immunization programs. Finally, the proposed broader economic impact framework may contribute towards better communication of the economic arguments surrounding vaccine uptake, leading to investments in immunization by stakeholders outside of the traditional health care sector such as ministries of finance and national treasuries. PMID:23072714

2012-01-01

2

Pilot Study to Evaluate Hearing Aid Service Delivery Model and Measure Benefit Using Self-Report Outcome Measures Using Community Hearing Workers in a Developing Country  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss is a major handicap in developing countries with paucity of trained audiologists and limited resources. In this pilot study trained community health workers were used to provide comprehensive hearing aid services in the community. One hundred and eleven patients were fitted with semi-digital hearing aid and were evaluated over a period of six months. They were assessed using self-report outcome measure APHAB. Results show that trained CHWs are effective in detecting disabling hearing loss and in providing HAs. APHAB can identify and pick up significant improvements in communication in daily activities and provides a realistic expectation of the benefits of a hearing aid. The model of using trained CHWs to provide rehabilitative services in audiology along with self-report outcome measures can be replicated in other developing countries. PMID:23724277

Emerson, Lingamdenne Paul; Job, Anand; Abraham, Vinod

2013-01-01

3

A Study to Evaluate the Language Development of Post-Institutionalised Children Adopted from Eastern European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined data collected over a period of three years from 48 children adopted from Eastern European orphanages. English language acquisition and present levels of performance were measured by the standardised language assessment, the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL). The participants ranged from 3 to 16 years of age,…

Schoenbrodt, Lisa A.; Carran, Deborah T.; Preis, Janet

2007-01-01

4

Diagnostic evaluation of people with hypertension in low income country: cohort study of "essential" method of risk stratification  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the predictive power of a risk stratification method for people with hypertension based on “essential” procedures (that is, available in economically less developed areas of the world), comparing it in the same population with the results given by the method suggested by the 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension (WHO-ISH) guidelines. Design Prospective cohort study of outcomes according to cardiovascular risk profile at baseline. Setting Primary care in a poor rural area of the Ecuadorian forest. Participants 504 people with hypertension prospectively monitored for a mean of 6.7 (SD 2.3) years. Interventions Essential data included blood pressure, medical history, smoking, age, sex, and diagnosis of diabetes; the WHO-ISH methods additionally included measurement of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and creatinine, urinalysis, and electrocardiography. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular events and total deaths. Results With both methods there was a highly significant association between the level of predicted risk and the incidence of cardiovascular events and of total deaths: up to three quarters of all cardiovascular events and two thirds of all deaths were reported among people classified as at high or very high risk with either method. The predictive discrimination of the essential method is comparable with the WHO-ISH with C statistics (95% confidence interval) of 0.788 (0.721 to 0.855) and 0.744 (0.673 to 0.815), respectively, for cardiovascular events and 0.747 (0.678 to 0.816) and 0.705 (0.632 to 0.778) for total mortality. Conclusions The risk stratification of patients with hypertension with an essential package of variables (that is, available and practicable even in the economically less developed areas of the world) serves at least as well as the more comprehensive method proposed by WHO-ISH. PMID:18805835

2008-01-01

5

Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River and its tributaries were not transformed upstream our sample points (Lavie et al., 2013, under press). Finally, we studied an urban drinking waters network, in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, one of the least developed countries, with chronic political crises. The nearly 6 million inhabitants of this settlement suffer many cuts and bad pressure at tap. Furthermore, Nile's waters that feed the network are summarily treated and then quite turbid, especially in summer during Nile's floods. This situation obliges the population to store and to decant water, transforming it into clear ones (Lavie and Hamza, 2013, under press). The results of our studies demonstrate that, generally, we can observe a correlation between increasing turbidity and bacteriology, and decreasing oximetry. This assumption is disproven in many cases: (1) the stagnant waters of Khartoum and (2) the clarified Mendoza River waters. Finally, (3) the seasonal anthropogenic uses of soil and waters in the Doubegue and Tunuyán Rivers have more impact on the bacteriological quality than the natural seasonality of the suspended solids because soil erosion has increased.

Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

2013-04-01

6

Multi-Country Evaluation of Affective Experience: Validation of an Abbreviated Version of the Day Reconstruction Method in Seven Countries  

PubMed Central

Background The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) was developed to assess affective states as measures of experienced well-being. The present study aimed to validate an abbreviated version of the DRM in a representative sample of the population in seven countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, and Spain), and to examine whether there are country differences in affect and in the relationships among the activities based on the similarity of the affect associated with each of them. Methods Interviews were conducted with 47,222 non-institutionalized adults from seven countries, using an abbreviated version of the DRM. A cluster analysis was carried out to classify activities on the basis of the similarity of the associated affect. In each country, the factorial structure of the affect adjectives was tested through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Internal consistency and construct validity were also assessed. Moreover, the differences in affect across countries and the diurnal cycles of affect were evaluated. Results The DRM showed adequate psychometric properties regarding reliability and construct validity in all countries. Respondents from Ghana and South Africa reported more positive net affect whereas Indian respondents reported less positive net affect. Most of the countries showed a similar diurnal variation of affect, which tended to improve throughout the day. Conclusions The results show that this abbreviated version of the DRM is a useful tool for multi-country evaluation of experienced well-being. PMID:23626697

Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Miret, Marta; Caballero, Francisco Felix; Olaya, Beatriz; Haro, Josep Maria; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

2013-01-01

7

How Do Other Countries Evaluate Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the primary role of teachers in affecting student achievement, U.S. policy makers and reformers have increasingly focused on monitoring and evaluating teacher effectiveness by emphasizing the links to student learning outcomes. Large-scale international assessments are frequently used as base examples to justify reform. But, relatively…

Williams, James H.; Engel, Laura C.

2012-01-01

8

Evaluating the (your country here) olympic medal count.  

PubMed

An Olympic Games is a measurable test of a nation´s sporting power. Medal counts are the object of intense scrutiny after every Olympiad. Most countries celebrate any medal with national glee, since 60% of competing countries will win none. In 2012, 10% of the competing countries won 75% of all medals. Despite this concentration among a few countries, more countries are winning more medals now than 20 years ago, thanks in part to athlete-support and -development programs arising around the globe. Small strong sporting countries like Norway are typified by fairly large variation in medal results from Olympiad to Olympiad and a high concentration of results in a few sports. These are important factors to consider when evaluating national performance and interpreting the medal count. Medal conversion, podium placements relative to top 8 placements, may provide a measure of the competitiveness of athlete-support programs in this international zero sum game where the cost of winning Olympic gold keeps rising whether measured in dollars or human capital.  PMID:23428493

Seiler, Stephen

2013-03-01

9

LOC Federal Research Division: Country Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Research Division (FRD) provides customized research and analytical services on foreign and domestic topics to United States Government and District of Columbia agencies. This Web site "presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world and examines the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors." The online books can be searched or browsed by particular country and include everything from a country profile, history, and physical environment description to economy, government, and national security information. Perhaps the most unique part of the site is an attempt to include only lesser known areas, making the conglomeration a good source of uncommon knowledge.

10

Evaluation as Arbitration: External Evaluation of a Multilateral Development Project in a Third World Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation as a political arbitration entity is discussed in the case of a multilateral literacy development project in the fourth year of operation in a Third World country. An external evaluation team was invited to evaluate the project when conflict appeared between the funding agency (A) and the technical agency (B) over a project-related…

Bhola, H. S.

11

Country material distribution and adolescents' perceived health: multilevel study of adolescents in 27 countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the impact of country material distribution on adolescents' perceptions of health. Design Cross sectional multilevel study. Setting Data were collected from the school based health behaviour in school aged children: WHO cross national study 1997/98, which includes students from 27 European and North American countries. Participants 12?0381 students in year 6, 8, and 10 who were attending school classes on the day of data collection. Main result Adolescents in countries with a high dispersion of family affluence were more likely to have self rated poor health even after controlling for individual family level of affluence and family social resources. Conclusion There are substantial inequalities in subjective health across European and North American countries related to the distribution of family material resources in these countries. PMID:16415267

Torsheim, Torbjorn; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will; Samdal, Oddrun

2006-01-01

12

The correlates of corruption Evidence from cross-country studies  

E-print Network

can explain the cross-country pattern of income per capita today BUT are not themselves determinantsThe correlates of corruption Evidence from cross-country studies Dr Toke S Aidt Faculty corruption #12;The correlates of corruption ­Limited cross-country data. ­Many potential correlates (at least

Sussex, University of

13

A study of course deviations during cross-country soaring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several models are developed for studying the impact of deviations from course during cross country soaring flights. Analyses are performed at the microstrategy and macrostrategy levels. Two types of lift sources are considered: concentrated thermals and thermal streets. The sensitivity of the optimum speed solutions to various model, piloting and performance parameters is evaluated. Guides are presented to provide the pilot with criterions for making in-flight decisions. In general, course deviations are warranted during weak lift conditions, but are less justifiable with moderate to strong lift conditions.

Sliwa, S. M.; Sliwa, D. J.

1979-01-01

14

[Food and population: study of three countries].  

PubMed

In 1985, despite a nearly 25% worldwide surplus of cereals, more than 700 million poor people had insufficient food and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or related causes. 16% of the developing world's population is undernourished. Rapid population growth is a major reason for the world's hunger. Large families exhaust the resources of many urban couples and rural couples with little land. Closely spaced pregnancies deplete the nutritional resources of the mother and lead to low birth weight babies and inadequate lactation. Population growth in already densely populated countries reduces the land available for each family, inevitably contributing to poverty and rural malnutrition. Unemployment and underemployment reach alarming proportions in the city, where the combination of high fertility rates and migration from the countryside have produced growth twice that of the world population as a whole. Few developing countries have been able to generate sufficient investment to create new jobs for all seeking them. Unstable governments attempt to pacify urban unrest by subsidizing food prices and concentrating social and economic investments in the cities, causing further deterioration in rural conditions. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits, although not all are suffering. India, Kenya, and Mexico are 3 countries that have had some success in balancing population growth and food production, but each still has undernourished population sectors because of economic policies that fail to provide sufficient help to their poor and because of implacable population growth. Ending malnutrition in the 3 countries will require reducing the cost of food for households and increasing their incomes, but both objectives are made more difficult by rapid population growth. As a result of the green revolution and other factors, food production in India has tripled since 1950, but population has almost doubled in the same years. With rapid population growth, per capita agricultural productivity increased much more slowly than production. Kenya has enjoyed impressive economic growth since independence, but its rate of population growth of 4.2%/year, the highest in the world, has meant that per capita income increases have been modest. Average nutritional status has declined in Kenya since 1968. The rate of population growth in Mexico has declined to 2.3-2.6%/year in 1986 from the 3.5% of 1974, but population growth will be rapid for decades to come because of the young age structure. Agricultural production has increased but has not kept pace with population growth. Kenya, India, and Mexico have the human and natural resources to make further economic gains in the coming decades. The difficulty of feeding their populations adequately will increase to the extent that they fail to curb their rapid population increase. PMID:12157691

1988-12-01

15

A Multicultural Study of Stereotyping in English-Speaking Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citizens of 9 different English-speaking countries (N = 619) evaluated the average, or typical, citizen of 5 English-speaking countries (Great Britain, Canada, Nigeria, United States, Australia) on 9 pairs of bipolar adjectives. Participants were drawn from Australia, Botswana, Canada, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, the United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. There were statistically significant similarities in the rankings of the 5

Francis T. McAndrew; Adebowale Akande; Ruth Bridgstock; Linda Mealey; Stephen C. Gordon; Joanna E. Scheib; Bolanle E. Akande-adetoun; Funmi Odewale; Asefon Morakinyo; Patricia Nyahete; Geradine Mubvakure

2000-01-01

16

Country of Origin as a Stereotype: Effects of Consumer Expertise and Attribute Strength on Product Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research identifies consumer expertise and the type of attribute information as moderating the effects of country of origin on product evaluations. When attribute information was unambiguous, experts based their evaluations on attribute strength, whereas novices relied on country of origin. When attribute information was ambiguous, both experts and novices used country of origin in evaluations. Also, experts and novices

Durairaj Maheswaran

1994-01-01

17

[Nutrition and population: study of three countries].  

PubMed

The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion, deforestation, and flooding are becoming serious problems. Kenya's population of 21 million is growing at a rate of 4.2% annually, the fastest in the world. Despite impressive growth in the 2 decades after independence, per capita income has not increased as much with the population doubling in approximately 17 years. The poorest 20% of the population share 2.6% of household income, and per capita calorie consumption has dropped to 88% of the requirement from 98% in 1965. Mexico's population of 82 million is growing at a rate of 2.6% annually, down from 3.5% in 1974 when a serious family planning program was begun. Despite an average per capita calorie consumption 126% of the requirement, rural poverty and poor income distribution mean that hunger is widespread. Most peasants growing their own food depend on poor soil and uncertain rainfall. Progress in largescale agriculture has slowed considerably since 1940-65. PMID:12157690

1988-12-01

18

Review: A critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for HIV prevention in developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential impediment to evidence-based policy development on medical male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention in all countries worldwide is the uncritical acceptance by some of arguments used by opponents of this procedure. Here we evaluate recent opinion-pieces of 13 individuals opposed to MC. We find that these statements misrepresent good studies, selectively cite references, some containing fallacious information, and

Brian J. Morris; Robert C. Bailey; Jeffrey D. Klausner; Arleen Leibowitz; Richard G. Wamai; Jake H. Waskett; Joya Banerjee; Daniel T. Halperin; Laurie Zoloth; Helen A. Weiss; Catherine A. Hankins

2012-01-01

19

Evaluating the impact of European Union Cohesion policy in less-developed countries and regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bradley J. (2006) Evaluating the impact of European Union Cohesion policy in less-developed countries and regions, Regional Studies40, 189–199. The expansion of Structural Funds since the late 1980s presented European Commission and domestic policy-makers with design and impact evaluation challenges. Such policies moved beyond demand-side stimulation, and were aimed at the promotion of real convergence, mainly through productivity-enhancing, supply-side mechanisms.

John Bradley

2006-01-01

20

Quantitative Evaluation of Iranian Radiology Papers and Its Comparison with Selected Countries  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent technological developments in medicine, including modern radiology have promoted the impact of scientific researches on social life. The scientific outputs such as article and patents are products that show the scientists’ attempt to access these achievements. Objectives: In the current study, we evaluate the current situation of Iranian scientists in the field of radiology and compare it with the selected countries in terms of scientific papers. For this purpose, we used scientometric tools to quantitatively assess the scientific papers in the field of radiology. Materials and Methods: Radiology papers were evaluated in the context of medical field audit using retrospective model. We used the related databases of biomedical sciences for extraction of articles related to radiology. In the next step, the situation of radiology scientific products of the country were determined with respect to the under study regional countries. Results: Results of the current study showed a ratio of 0.19% for Iranian papers in PubMed database published in 2009. In addition, in 2009, Iranian papers constituted 0.29% of the Scopus scientific database. The proportion of Iranian papers in the understudy region was 7.6%. Conclusion: To diminish the gap between Iranian scientific radiology papers and other competitor countries in the region and achievement of document 2025 goals, multifold effort of the society of radiology is necessary. PMID:24693301

Ghafoori, Mahyar; Emami, Hasan; Sedaghat, Abdolrasoul; Ghiasi, Mohammad; Shakiba, Madjid; Alavi, Manijeh

2014-01-01

21

The Process of Choosing a Management Career: Evaluation of Gender and Contextual Dynamics in a Comparative Study of Six Countries--Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, UK and the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this article is to identify the reasons MBA students have for their career choices, and to explore the contextual and gender-related aspects of career choice and development, based on a comparative study carried out with participants in six countries, i.e. Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, the UK and the USA. The paper…

Tanova, Cem; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Inal, Gozde

2008-01-01

22

Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

2010-01-01

23

Drug use in children: cohort study in three European countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence of “recurrent/chronic” use (three or more prescriptions a year) and “non-recurrent” or “acute” use (less than three prescriptions a year) within each therapeutic class. Descriptions of the top five most commonly used drugs evaluated for off label status within each anatomical class. Results Three levels of drug use could be distinguished in the study population: high (>10/100 children per year), moderate (1-10/100 children per year), and low (<1/100 children per year). For all age categories, anti-infective, dermatological, and respiratory drugs were in the high use group, whereas cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs were always in the low use group. Emollients, topical steroids, and asthma drugs had the highest prevalence of recurrent use, but relative use of low prevalence drugs was more often recurrent than acute. In the top five highest prevalence drugs topical inhaled and systemic steroids, oral contraceptives, and topical or systemic antifungal drugs were most commonly used off label. Conclusion This overview of outpatient paediatric prescription patterns in a large European population could provide information to prioritise paediatric therapeutic research needs. PMID:19029175

2008-01-01

24

Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries

Matricano, Diego

2014-01-01

25

Software practices in five ASEAN countries: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of published studies on software development in Southeast Asia, which is fast becoming an IT outsourcing haven. This paper presents exploratory survey and case study results on software practices of some software firms in five ASEAN countries (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), and provides directions for further research on software practices in the ASEAN\\/Southeast Asian

Raymund Sison; Stanislaw Jarzabek; Ow Siew Hock; Wanchai Rivepiboon; Nguyen Nam Hai

2006-01-01

26

Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

Saito, Eisuke

2012-01-01

27

Humanitarian action in developing countries: who evaluates who?  

PubMed

Humanitarian NGOs and intergovernmental organisations are usually assessed by their funders, not their beneficiaries. In most cases, their evaluation relies on interviews with "professionals", neglects field surveys, does not use opinion polls and seldom tries to assess the socioeconomic impact of relief. Moreover, it is commissioned by stakeholders at the risk of being judge and party. Such a system brings several conflicts of interest: (1) it needs to be approved by those who are evaluated and so does not deal with "bad eggs" that refuse to be investigated; (2) it produces biased analysis, does not name names and passes over fundamental issues; (3) it is very formal and technocratic, if not meaningless; (4) it does not help to learn from past mistakes. Hence this article proposes a framework to develop third party evaluations. It is suggested that, to be really independent, evaluation should neither be paid or commissioned by stakeholders, i.e. NGOs and institutional funders. To facilitate learning, its methodology and its results must also be available to the general public. To be accepted by those who are evaluated, finally, it should highlight the difficulties, explain the political context, acknowledge its subjectivity, recognize its limits, focus on processes more than results and develop qualitative analysis out of quantitative indicators. PMID:21168212

Pérouse de Montclos, Marc-Antoine

2012-02-01

28

Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

Pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean as household insecticides, pet sprays, and where malaria is endemic, impregnated into mosquito-repellent nets. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds have the potential to cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development, as was shown in limited animal studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to pyrethroids to pregnant women residing in 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Pyrethroid exposures were determined by analyzing five pyrethroid metabolites in urine samples from 295 pregnant women: cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA, and 4-F-3-PBA. Pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in Caribbean pregnant women were generally higher in the 10 Caribbean countries than levels reported for Canadian and U.S. women. In Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica participants the geometric mean concentrations of cis-DBCA was significantly higher than in the other nine countries together (p<0.0001 and <0.0012 respectively). For cis- and trans-DCCA, only Antigua & Barbuda women differed significantly from participants of the other nine Caribbean countries (p<0.0001). Urinary 4-F-3-PBA and 3-PBA levels were significantly higher in Antigua & Barbuda (p<0.0028 and p<0.0001 respectively) as well as in Grenada (p<0.0001 and p<0.007 respectively). These results indicate extensive use of pyrethroid compounds such as permethrin and cypermethrin in Caribbean households. In Antigua & Barbuda, the data reveals a greater use of deltamethrin. This study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to utilize this class of pesticides more judiciously given the potentially adverse effects of exposure on fetuses and infants. PMID:24317226

Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kaddar, Nisrin; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

2014-02-01

29

School Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current academic and policy literatures concerning school evaluation in primary and secondary education within the OECD countries. First, it provides a typology of the existing systems of school evaluation across the OECD. It encompasses the diverse criteria and instruments commonly used to carry out schools evaluation, as well as the players involved in the design and

Violaine Faubert

2009-01-01

30

Civic Education across Countries: Twenty-four National Case Studies from the IEA Civic Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume reports the results of the first phase of the Civic Education Study conducted by International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). During 1996 and 1997, researchers in 24 countries collected documentary evidence on the circumstances, contents, and processes of civic education in response to a common set of…

Torney-Purta, Judith; Schwille, John; Amadeo, Jo-Ann

31

A population based study of Helicobacter pylori infection in a European country: the San Marino Study. Relations with gastrointestinal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori is present worldwide but few large population studies exist on the epidemiology of the infection. A random cross sectional study was performed of H pylori infection in the adult population of San Marino, a European country with high gastric cancer rate, to assess its prevalence and to evaluate its relations with gastrointestinal disease. In 2237 subjects (77% of

G Gasbarrini; S Pretolani; F Bonvicini; M R Gatto; E Tonelli; F Mégraud; K Mayo; G Ghironzi; G Giulianelli; M Grassi

1995-01-01

32

How Can We Assess and Evaluate the Competitive Advantage of a Country's Human Resource Development System?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country's human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The…

Oh, Hunseok; Ryu, Hyue-Hyun; Choi, Myungweon

2013-01-01

33

Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the different cost components (vector control; surveillance; information, education and communication; direct medical and indirect costs), as percentage of total costs, differed across the respective countries. Resources used for dengue disease control and treatment were country specific. Conclusions The evidence so far collected further confirms the methodological challenges in this field: 1) to define technically dengue outbreaks (what do we measure?) and 2) to measure accurately the costs in prospective field studies (how do we measure?). Currently, consensus on the technical definition of an outbreak is sought through the International Research Consortium on Dengue Risk Assessment, Management and Surveillance (IDAMS). Best practice guidelines should be further developed, also to improve the quality and comparability of cost study findings. Modelling the costs of dengue outbreaks and validating these models through field studies should guide further research. PMID:24195519

2013-01-01

34

Penicillin allergy evaluation: experience from a drug allergy clinic in an Arabian Gulf Country, Kuwait  

PubMed Central

Background Hypersensitivity to penicillin has been studied worldwide, but data regarding patterns of sensitization in Arabian Gulf countries are scarce. Objective To describe the patterns of penicillin hypersensitivity during a 6-year study in Kuwait in terms of demographics, type of the culprit drug, in vivo and in vitro allergy testing. Methods One hundred and twenty-four patients referred to the drug allergy clinic for penicillin allergy were fully evaluated by skin prick and intradermal testing. Drug provocation test was done on patients with negative results. Results A total of 124 patients were evaluated for penicillin allergy. Mean age was 37.8 (standard deviation, 12.7) years, range from 8 to 74 years. Thirty-nine male (31.5%) and 85 female patients (68.5%) were included. Diagnosis of penicillin allergy was confirmed in 46 patients (37.1%). Among the 44 confirmed allergic patients by skin evaluation we had 15 (34.1%) positive skin prick test, and 29 (65.9%) positive intradermal testing. Among patients with positive skin testing, 47.7% were positive to major determinant benzylpenicilloyl poly-L-lysine, 20.4% to minor determinant mixture, 50.0% to penicillin G and 40.9% to ampicillin; 13.6% of patients were positive to amoxicillin by skin prick test. One patient had a positive radioallergosorbent test and one had a positive challenge test. Conclusion Penicillin allergy is a common problem with an incidence of about one third in our study subjects. PMID:24809016

Rodriguez Bouza, Tito; Arifhodzic, Nermina

2014-01-01

35

Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

2011-01-01

36

A systematic review of economic evaluations of interventions to tackle cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries  

PubMed Central

Background Low-and middle-income countries are facing both a mounting burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as severe resource constraints that keep them from emulating some of the extensive strategies pursued in high-income countries. There is thus an urgency to identify and implement those interventions that help reap the biggest reductions of the CVD burden, given low resource levels. What are the interventions to combat CVDs that represent good "value for money" in low-and middle-income countries? This study reviews the evidence-base on economic evaluations of interventions located in those countries. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of journal articles published until 2009, based on a comprehensive key-word based search in generic and specialized electronic databases, accompanied by manual searches of expert databases. The search strategy consisted of freetext and MeSH terms related to economic evaluation and cardiovascular disease. Two independent reviewers verified fulfillment of inclusion criteria and extracted study characteristics. Results Thirty-three studies met the selection criteria. We find a growing research interest, in particular in most recent years, if from a very low baseline. Most interventions fall under the category primary prevention, as opposed to case management or secondary prevention. Across the spectrum of interventions, pharmaceutical strategies have been the predominant focus, and, taken at face value, these show significant positive economic evidence, specifically when compared to the counterfactual of no interventions. Only a few studies consider non-clinical interventions, at population level. Almost half of the studies have modelled the intervention effectiveness based on existing risk-factor information and effectiveness evidence from high-income countries. Conclusion The cost-effectiveness evidence on CVD interventions in developing countries is growing, but remains scarce, and is biased towards pharmaceutical interventions. While the burden of cardiovascular disease is growing in these countries, future research should put greater emphasis on non-clinical interventions than has hitherto been the case. Significant differences in outcome measures and methodologies prohibit a direct ranking of the interventions by their degree of cost-effectiveness. Considerable caution should be exercised when transferring effectiveness estimates from developed countries for the purpose of modelling cost-effectiveness in developing countries. New local CVD risk factor and intervention follow-up studies are needed. Some pharmaceutical strategies appear cost-effective while clarifications are needed on the diagnostic approach in single high-risk factor vs. absolute risk targeting, the role of patient compliance, and the potential public health consequences of large-scale medicalization. PMID:22214510

2012-01-01

37

A Strategy for the Evaluation of Activities to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation strategy in which a set of process indicators is applied to programs to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries is presented. The four-stage strategy is illustrated for three interventions: (1) providing safe abortion services; (2) increasing knowledge of obstetric complications; and (3) improving medical care quality. (SLD)

Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

1994-01-01

38

The Challenges of Small-Scale Evaluation in a Foreign Country: Reflections on Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a reflection on practice. It begins by briefly describing an evaluation of an externally-funded education programme in Kosovo (a new country in south-east Europe). The programme was managed by Save the Children in Kosovo and aimed to develop and promote models of inclusive education through three strands of activity. The first of…

Saunders, Lesley

2010-01-01

39

The Mobile Classroom in Central Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of the Mobile Classroom Project, which provided complementary and supplementary educational experiences not available through the Primary Correspondence Schools (PCS) for 58 isolated country children in Central Queensland during 1978 and 1979, used personal observations; comments from parents, home supervisors, and key educators…

Briody, P. M.

40

Patients beyond borders: A study of medical tourists in four countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study assesses the experiences of medical travelers seeking out of country health care in four destination countries: India, China, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates. It aims to identify the source countries of medical travelers, to understand their reasons for seeking out-of-country care, the type of services they obtained, and their level of satisfaction with the experience. Cost,

Mohd Jamal Alsharif; Ronald Labonté; Zuxun Lu

2010-01-01

41

Corporate governance and national culture: a multi-country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that corporate governance structures differ significantly across countries. Using agency theory and institutional theory, it examines how ownership structure and national culture influence the size and leadership structure of the corporate boards of multinational firms based in industrial countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The hypotheses are tested with data on 399 multinational

Jiatao Li; J. Richard Harrison

2008-01-01

42

Evaluation of the applicability of SWAT in the Nile Basin countries: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plethora of hydrological modeling codes are nowadays available and many applications of these tools have been reported in peer reviewed journal papers. The hypothesis that the model is appropriate for the case study and the purpose of the study is however very often not questioned. We aim here at critically reviewing the use of a widely used hydrological simulation tool, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the context of the modeling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile Basin countries. Up to date, more than 20 peer reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT in this region for a variety of problems, such as erosion modeling, land use modeling, climate change impact modeling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are clustered in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. A number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, the performance, the physical representation of the model parameters, and the representativeness of the hydrological model balance. Here we evaluate the applications of within the Nile basin. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained several losses that might not be justified. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For that reason, it is difficult to give an overall positive evaluation to most of the reported SWAT models. An important gap is the lack of attention that is given to the vegetation and crop processes. None of the papers reported any adaptation to the crop parameters, or any crop related output such as leaf area index, biomass or crop yields. A proper simulation of the land cover is important for obtaining correct evapotranspiration and erosion computations. It is also found that a comparison of SWAT applications on the same or similar case study but by different research teams and/or model versions resulted in very different results. It is therefore recommended to try to find better methods to evaluate the representativeness of the distributed processes and parameters, especially when land use studies are envisaged. The main recommendation is that more details on the model set-up, the parameters and outputs should be provided in the journal papers in order to allow for a more stringent evaluation of these models.

van Griensven, A.; Ndomba, P. M.; Kilonzo, F.

2012-04-01

43

Therapeutic research in low-income countries: studying trial communities.  

PubMed

Social scientists undertaking studies of transnational medical research in developing countries focus on 'trial communities': networks of funders, institutions, researchers, clinical staff, fieldworkers and study participants. They relate these to the political economy that brings powerful research resources to poor settings. Whereas bioethicists tend to consider universal ethical requirements, social scientists examine how ethics are practiced in given situations in the light of the concerns and interests held by different parties involved in medical research. In conditions of poverty, high morbidity and weak public health services, research subjects are heavily induced by the prospect of high quality medical care and other benefits that researchers seem to offer. Studies of medical research undertaken by well-established internationally funded institutions in Africa show that parents are keen to have their children 'join' projects at these organisations. They assess benefits and risks less in terms of specific research projects and more in terms of their overall trust in the care these institutions are known to have provided previously for others in the community. Bioethics should widen its scope beyond concern with protecting individual subjects from the risks of specific research projects. It should recognise that clinical and research functions are indistinguishable for many participants, who want information on results of clinical investigations and sustained support for improving the health of their children. PMID:24748638

Whyte, Susan Reynolds

2014-11-01

44

A Systematic Survey Instrument Translation Process for Multi-Country, Comparative Health Workforce Studies  

PubMed Central

Background As health services research (HSR) expands across the globe, researchers will adopt health services and health worker evaluation instruments developed in one country for use in another. This paper explores the cross-cultural methodological challenges involved in translating HSR in the language and context of different health systems. Objectives To describe the pre-data collection systematic translation process used in a twelve country, eleven language nursing workforce survey. Design & Settings We illustrate the potential advantages of Content Validity Indexing (CVI) techniques to validate a nursing workforce survey developed for RN4CAST, a twelve country (Belgium, England, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland), eleven language (with modifications for regional dialects, including Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Spanish, and Swedish), comparative nursing workforce study in Europe. Participants Expert review panels comprised of practicing nurses from twelve European countries who evaluated cross-cultural relevance, including translation, of a nursing workforce survey instrument developed by experts in the field. Methods The method described in this paper used Content Validity Indexing (CVI) techniques with chance correction and provides researchers with a systematic approach for standardizing language translation processes while simultaneously evaluating the cross-cultural applicability of a survey instrument in the new context. Results The cross-cultural evaluation process produced CVI scores for the instrument ranging from .61 to .95. The process successfully identified potentially problematic survey items and errors with translation. Conclusions The translation approach described here may help researchers reduce threats to data validity and improve instrument reliability in multinational health services research studies involving comparisons across health systems and language translation. PMID:22445444

Squires, Allison; Aiken, Linda H.; van den Heede, Koen; Sermeus, Walter; Bruyneel, Luk; Lindqvist, Rikard; Schoonoven, Lisette; Stromseng, Ingeborg; Busse, Reinhard; Brozstek, Tomas; Ensio, Anneli; Moreno-Casbas, Mayte; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Schubert, Maria; Zikos, Dimitris

2012-01-01

45

Economic gradients in early child neurodevelopment: A multi-country study  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the importance of household wealth for child neurodevelopment very early in life including during infancy. Previous studies have focused on specific developmental domains instead of more holistic multi-domain measures of neurodevelopment and on economic effects for the “average” child instead of evaluating the heterogeneity in economic gradients by different levels of developmental ability. Furthermore, not much is known about whether economic gradients in early child neurodevelopment are country-specific or generalizable between populations. We evaluate wealth gradients in child neurodevelopment, an important predictor of future health and human capital, between ages 3 and 24 months in four South American countries. We also assess the heterogeneity in these gradients at different locations of the neurodevelopment distribution using quantile regression. Employing a unique dataset of 2032 children with neurodevelopment measures obtained by physicians in 2005–2006, we find a large positive wealth gradient in neurodevelopment in Brazil. The wealth gradient is larger for children at higher neurodevelopment rankings, suggesting that wealth is associated with child development inequalities in the form of a wider gap between low and high achievers on neurodevelopment in Brazil. This result highlights the need to target poverty in Brazil as a key factor in health and human capital disparities earlier in life rather than later as early developmental deficits will be carried forward and possibly multiplied later in life. More importantly, small or insignificant wealth gradients are generally found in the other countries. These results suggest that wealth gradients in child neurodevelopment are country-specific and vary with population demographic, health, and socioeconomic characteristics. Therefore, findings from previous studies based on specific populations may not be generalizable to other countries. Furthermore, wealth gradients in child neurodevelopment appear to be dynamic rather than fixed and sensitive to population characteristics that modify their intensity. PMID:23273409

Wehby, George L.; McCarthy, Ann Marie

2013-01-01

46

PRODUCT EVALUATION AND PURCHASE INTENTION: IMPACT OF COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN AND EXPERIENCE IN LIVING IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an experiment that compares the perceptions of product quality and purchase intentions of foreign versus home products by Chinese consumers who have had experience living in a western society compared to those living in China. The results indicate experience does affect purchase likelihood for home versus foreign products. Chinese, generally, find country of parts

WONG CHUI YIM; ROMANA GARMA

47

The challenges of small-scale evaluation in a foreign country: reflections on practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a reflection on practice. It begins by briefly describing an evaluation of an externally-funded education programme\\u000a in Kosovo (a new country in south-east Europe). The programme was managed by Save the Children in Kosovo and aimed to develop\\u000a and promote models of inclusive education through three strands of activity. The first of these provided a bi-lingual multicultural

Lesley Saunders

2010-01-01

48

Patterns of Long Term Care in 29 European countries: evidence from an exploratory study  

PubMed Central

Background The challenges posed by the rapidly ageing population, and the increased preponderance of disabled people in this group, coupled with the rising level of public expenditure required to service the complex organization of long term care (LTC) delivery are causing increased pressure on LTC systems in Europe. A pan-European survey was carried out to evaluate whether patterns of LTC can be identified across Europe and what are the trends of the countries along them. Methods An ecological study was conducted on the 27 EU Member States plus Norway and Iceland, referring to the period 2003-2007. Several variables related to organizational features, elderly needs and expenditure were drawn from OECD Health Data and the Eurostat Statistics database and combined using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Results Two global Principal Components were taken into consideration given that their expressed total variance was greater than 60%. They were interpreted according to the higher (more than 0.5) positive or negative correlation coefficients between them and the original variables; thus patterns of LTC were identified. High alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs characterizes Nordic and Western European countries, the former also having a higher level of formal care than the latter. Mediterranean as well as Central and South Eastern European countries show lower alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs, coupled with a level of provision of formal care that is around or slightly above the average European level. In the dynamic comparison, linear, stable or unclear trends were shown for the studied countries. Conclusions The analysis carried out is an explorative and descriptive study, which is an attempt to reveal patterns and trends of LTC in Europe, allowing comparisons between countries. It also stimulates further researches with lower aggregated data useful to gain meaningful policy-making evidence. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/124 PMID:22098693

2011-01-01

49

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 1, Summary: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions` levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.; Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

50

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions' levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.); Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

51

Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western balkan countries: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Summary.-The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities. PMID:25310227

Jani?, Snežana Radisavljevi?; Jurak, Gregor; Milanovi?, Ivana; Lazarevi?, Dušanka; Kova?, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

2014-10-01

52

Neurophysiological evidence for the country-of-origin effect: an event-related potential study  

PubMed Central

Consumers often rely on observable cues that hint at the hidden quality of a product. The aim of this study was to investigate brain activities associated with the country-of-origin (COO) effect and consumer evaluation of a product design. Electroencephalogram recordings were used to observe event-related brain potentials associated with the COO effect and design evaluation. We found that the frontocentral N90 and parieto-occipital P220 amplitudes are involved in forming preference to design, whereas the COO effect is processed in the centroparietal P500 amplitude. We also found a significant interaction effect between COO and design preference with regard to reaction times. Specifically, participants tended to spend more time making a preference decision when they did not like the product design made in a country with a favorable COO. These results imply that the two cognitive processes, evaluation of COO and formation of design preference, are activated independently at an early stage. It also suggests that these two processes interact with each other toward the end of the decision phase. Together, the results of this study provide neuropsychological evidence supporting a significant role of COO in the formation of design preference. Future studies are required to further delve into other neurophysiological activities associated with the COO effect. PMID:24518230

Cho, Kwangsu; Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Erin

2014-01-01

53

Quality Assurance and Evaluation (QAE) in Scotland: Promoting Self-Evaluation within and beyond the Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at policy for quality assurance and evaluation in Scotland, its history and more recent developments, and in particular, at the emphasis on school self-evaluation. It examines the history of the concept, its constituent elements and the role of the Inspectorate in establishing it. Further, the article discusses the Scottish…

Croxford, Linda; Grek, Sotiria; Shaik, Farah Jeelani

2009-01-01

54

A Queer Country? A case study of the politics of gay\\/lesbian belonging in an Australian country town  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper examines the complex politics of gay\\/lesbian belonging through a case study of Daylesford, Victoria, an Australian country town. It contributes to two research bodies: gay\\/lesbian rural geographies and the politics of belonging. Daylesford hosts ChillOut, Australia's largest rural gay\\/lesbian festival, which provides a telling context for investigating gay\\/lesbian belonging in rural Australia. We use qualitative data from

Andrew Gorman-Murray; Gordon Waitt; Chris Gibson

2008-01-01

55

Evaluation of a Health Setting-Based Stigma Intervention in Five African Countries  

PubMed Central

Abstract The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n?=?134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated. PMID:20025515

Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L.

2009-01-01

56

Child Prostitution in 12 Countries: An Exploratory Study of Tuyen N. Huynh, McNair Scholar  

E-print Network

, and age population structure. Thailand has the highest rate of child prostitution among the 12 countries135 Child Prostitution in 12 Countries: An Exploratory Study of Predictors Tuyen N. Huynh, Mc variables of child prostitution in 12 countries. These variables include literacy rates for women aged 15

Omiecinski, Curtis

57

Laboratory Diagnostic Challenges in Case/Control Studies of Diarrhea in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Case/control studies of acute infectious diarrhea require accurate and dependable laboratory tests to detect pathogens in samples from both symptomatic patients and healthy control subjects. The methods used to detect these pathogens have usually been evaluated on patient samples only, and their performance on samples from control subjects is mostly unknown. Because many pathogens occur at a high overall frequency in developing countries and thus may be present in a notable proportion of control subjects as well as patients, the relative ability of a diagnostic test to detect these pathogens in diarrheic and normal stools can have a profound effect on the interpretation of case/control data. PMID:23169943

Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Levine, Myron M.

2012-01-01

58

Pyrolysis system evaluation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

1974-01-01

59

A critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for HIV prevention in developed countries  

PubMed Central

A potential impediment to evidence-based policy development on medical male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention in all countries worldwide is the uncritical acceptance by some of arguments used by opponents of this procedure. Here we evaluate recent opinion-pieces of 13 individuals opposed to MC. We find that these statements misrepresent good studies, selectively cite references, some containing fallacious information, and draw erroneous conclusions. In marked contrast, the scientific evidence shows MC to be a simple, low-risk procedure with very little or no adverse long-term effect on sexual function, sensitivity, sensation during arousal or overall satisfaction. Unscientific arguments have been recently used to drive ballot measures aimed at banning MC of minors in the USA, eliminate insurance coverage for medical MC for low-income families, and threaten large fines and incarceration for health care providers. Medical MC is a preventative health measure akin to immunisation, given its protective effect against HIV infection, genital cancers and various other conditions. Protection afforded by neonatal MC against a diversity of common medical conditions starts in infancy with urinary tract infections and extends throughout life. Besides protection in adulthood against acquiring HIV, MC also reduces morbidity and mortality from multiple other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital cancers in men and their female sexual partners. It is estimated that over their lifetime one-third of uncircumcised males will suffer at least one foreskin-related medical condition. The scientific evidence indicates that medical MC is safe and effective. Its favourable risk/benefit ratio and cost/benefit support the advantages of medical MC. PMID:22452415

Morris, Brian J.; Bailey, Robert C.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Leibowitz, Arleen; Wamai, Richard G.; Waskett, Jake H.; Banerjee, Joya; Halperin, Daniel T.; Zoloth, Laurie; Weiss, Helen A.; Hankins, Catherine A.

2013-01-01

60

Studies in Somatic Growth, Biological Maturation, Physical Fitness and Activity in Portuguese Speaking Countries: an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study has the following purposes: (1) to present and situate the studies made in the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries and (2) to present some recommendations for future investigations. Seventeen studies are considered and the following conclusions are drawn: (1) almost the totality of the studies present a cross-sectional design; (2) in the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries

DL Freitas

2002-01-01

61

A multi-country cluster randomized controlled effectiveness evaluation to accelerate the introduction of Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in developing countries in Asia: rationale and design.  

PubMed

Phase-III vaccine efficacy trials typically employ individually randomized designs intended to ensure that measurements of vaccine protective efficacy reflect only direct vaccine effects. As a result, decisions about introducing newly licensed vaccines into public health programmes often fail to consider the substantially greater protection that may occur when a vaccine is deployed in public health programmes, due to the combination of direct plus indirect vaccine protective effects. Vaccine total protection can be better evaluated with cluster randomized trials. Such a design was considered to generate policy relevant data to accelerate the rationale introduction of the licensed typhoid fever Vi polysaccharide (PS) vaccine in Asia by the Diseases of the Most Impoverished (DOMI) typhoid fever programme. The DOMI's programme multi-country study is one of the largest cluster randomized vaccine trials ever mounted in Asia, which includes approximately 200,000 individuals. Its main objective is to determine the effectiveness of a licensed Vi PS vaccine. The rationale and design of this study are discussed. Preliminary results are presented that determined the final planning of the trial before immunization. Important methodological and practical issues regarding vaccine cluster randomized designs are illustrated. PMID:16359401

Acosta, Camilo J; Galindo, Claudia M; Ali, Mohammad; Elyazeed, Remon Abu; Ochiai, R Leon; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Page, Anne-Laure; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Jin, Yang; Park, Jin Kyung; Lee, Hyejon; Puri, Mahesh K; Ivanoff, Bernard; Agtini, Magdarina D; Soeharno, Rooswanti; Simanjuntak, Cyrus H; Punjabi, Narain H; Canh, Do Gia; Sur, Dipika; Nizami, Qamaruddin; Manna, Byomkesh; Bai-qing, Dong; Anh, Dang Duc; Honghui, Yang; Bhattacharya, Sujit Kumar; Bhutta, Zulfikar; Trach, Dang Duc; Xu, Zhi-Yi; Pang, Tikki; Donner, Allan; Clemens, John D

2005-12-01

62

Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

2010-01-01

63

BABCOCK INSTITUTE DISCUSSION PAPER THE DAIRY SECTOR OF CHINA: A COUNTRY STUDY  

E-print Network

BABCOCK INSTITUTE DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 2011-2 THE DAIRY SECTOR OF CHINA: A COUNTRY STUDY William D: A COUnTry STUDy William D. Dobson, Fengxia Dong, and Edward V. Jesse1 exeCUTIve SUMMAry China has emerged of Wisconsin Extension Cooperative Extension Division. Funding for this study was provided by USDA NIFA Special

Bohnhoff, David

64

Genderedness of bar drinking culture and alcohol-related harms: A multi-country study  

PubMed Central

This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in predominantly male bar-drinking countries. Multilevel analysis was used to analyze survey data from 21 countries representing five continents from Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Bar frequency was positively associated with harms overall. Relationships between bar frequency and harms varied across country. Genderedness modified associations between bar frequency and odds of fights, marriage/relationship harms, and work harms. Findings were significant only for men. Contrary to our hypothesis, odds of harms associated with bar drinking increased less rapidly in countries where bar drinking is predominantly male. This suggests predominantly male bar drinking cultures may be protective for males who more frequently drink in bars. PMID:23710158

Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

2012-01-01

65

International Case Studies of Psychosocial Ripple Effects of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public is increasingly concerned about risks associated with food. Food-borne diseases can easily mobilize public concerns and create strong emotional, behavioral, and political reactions with significant negative economic and psychosocial outcomes. This was observed in various countries globally experiencing the presence of prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). This study highlights case-study material from various countries for key psychosocial

L. Lemyre; P. Boutette; N. Karyakina; M. P. L. Markon; I. Brazeau; D. Krewski

2009-01-01

66

Study in the Netherlands: Small Countries Have To Be Smarter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes opportunities for higher education study in the Netherlands along with information, addresses, and practical tips for foreign students who are considering taking a course or earning a degree at a Dutch institution of higher education. Six sections cover: (1) the investment of study abroad, (2) background on contemporary…

Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education, The Hague.

67

Multiple Paths to Effective National Evaluation Societies: Evidence from 37 Low- and Middle-Income Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Evaluation Societies (NES) are situated at the intersection between Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) supply and demand. To date, little research has explored NES and their potential for strengthening national M&E. This study addresses this gap, examining perceived NES performance relevant to organizational and policy-oriented goals…

Holvoet, Nathalie; Dewachter, Sara

2013-01-01

68

The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries. IEA Studies in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on the impact of private education in developing countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Peru, Romania, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The private education sector is large and innovative in the countries studied and not the domain of the wealthy. Contrary to popular opinion, private education in…

Tooley, James

69

Cost of Dengue Cases in Eight Countries in the Americas and Asia: A Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing worldwide burden of dengue fever, the global economic impact of dengue illness is poorly documented. Using a common protocol, we present the first multicountry estimates of the direct and indirect costs of dengue cases in eight American and Asian countries. We conducted prospective studies of the cost of dengue in five countries in the Americas (Brazil, El

Jose A. Suaya; Donald S. Shepard; João B. Siqueira; Celina T. Martelli; Lucy C. S. Lum; Lian Huat Tan; Sukhontha Kongsin; Sukhum Jiamton; Fàtima Garrido; Romeo Montoya; Blas Armien; Rekol Huy; Leticia Castillo; Mariana Caram; Binod K. Sah; Rana Sughayyar; Karen R. Tyo; Scott B. Halstead

2009-01-01

70

ICT Driven Knowledge Management in Developing Countries: A Case Study in a Chinese Organisation  

E-print Network

ICT Driven Knowledge Management in Developing Countries: A Case Study in a Chinese Organisation Jin.shaikh@coventry.ac.uk Abstract. Current research of knowledge management (KM) is mostly based on experience in developed developing countries context than just China. Keywords: Knowledge Management, ICT adoption, Chinese

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

Tolerance of suicide, religion and suicide rates: an ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Negative associations between religion and suicide, in individuals and countries, may be mediated by the degree to which suicide is tolerated. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine ecological associations between suicide tolerance, religion and suicide rates in 19 Western countries in 1989}90. Logistic regression was used to study associations between suicide tolerance and strength of religious belief in

J. NEELEMAN; D. HALPERN; D. LEON; G. LEWIS

1997-01-01

72

Case Study of a Course for Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course designed to provide the necessary academic study prior to students engaging in the practice of irrigation engineering. Rationale for the course, course structure, and special features of the course are included. (JN)

Morice, Peter B.

1985-01-01

73

Culture and entrepreneurial orientation: a multi-country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has been proven as an essential attribute of high performing firms, and the role of culture\\u000a has been highlighted for generating robust EO. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of culture by identifying\\u000a differences among the selected nations in terms of EO dimensions. This is an empirical study based on the data collected

Sang M. Lee; Seong-bae Lim; Raghuvar D. Pathak

2011-01-01

74

Country of Contrasts: A Study Guide on Panama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide seeks to provide resources to bring the voices and experiences of Panamanian students into classrooms. This guide includes: (1) "History of a Canal" (in English and Spanish) (Pablo Neruda); (2) "Poems by Cubena"; (3) "Maps of Panama and The Canal Zone"; (4) "Historical Overview: Panama (1501-1992)"; (5) "Molas" (Maria…

Athey, Lois E., Ed.; And Others

75

Formative evaluation in educational radio and television: a fundamental need in developing countries.  

PubMed

Formative evaluation, as applied to radio and television programs, refers to a broad range of systematic investigations caluclated to produce guidelines leading to the program form, content, and manner of presentation that will most effectively accomplish the defined program purposes. A classification of formative evaluation activities shows the range of concern and indicate the purposes and functions that formative research can be used to serve. Areas include: context analysis, needs assessment, problems analysis, audience characteristics, delivery system constraints, communication content and strategies, input and feedback systems, and utilization factors. Some guidelines for formative evaluation activities are as follows: set research priorities; work from a broad base, establish commitment to a research approach, be ready to reshape the project schedule, allow for pilot testing, recognize importance of question designs, and remember the need to adapt instead of adopt. The role of research in program preparation need not be a matter of full scale use or none at all. Obtaining a research based answer to 1 key question concerning how a program is to be done is using formative evaluation and reducing the guesswork. In a situation where radio and television are comparatively new, it would desirable to devote substantial effort to context and needs assessment, determination of goals and objectives, examination of auidence characteristics, and consideration of the media combination to be used. Assessment of educational needs should involve input from a representative range of people who know the real needs and nature of that society as well as the specific target audience. The cooperation of writers and producers is critical if formative evaluation is to do any good. The use of formative evaluation is likely to require a substantial revision of the usual project schedule. Pilot testing determines the extent to which the specific objectives were realized and exactly which material did or did not contribute to those ends. Question design if 1 of the most important skills for those engaged in formative evaluation. Caution is essential in 3rd world use of research techniques and communication models developed in Western countries. PMID:12312733

Adkins, G R

1983-12-01

76

Violence as a public health problem: An ecological study of 169 countries?  

PubMed Central

Individual level risk factors for violence have been widely studied, but little is known about country-level determinants, particularly in low and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that income inequality, through its detrimental effects on social cohesion, would be related to an increase in violence worldwide, and in low and middle-income countries in particular. We examined country-level associations of violence with socio-economic and health-related factors, using crime statistics from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and indicators from the Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Programme. Using regression models, we measured relationships between country-level factors (age, education, measures of income, health expenditure, and alcohol consumption) and four violent outcomes (including measures of violence-related mortality and morbidity) in up to 169 countries. We stratified our analyses comparing high with low and middle-income countries, and analysed longitudinal data on homicide and income inequality in high-income countries. In low and middle-income countries, income inequality was related to homicide, robbery, and self-reported assault (all p's < 0.05). In high-income countries, urbanicity was significantly associated with official assault (p = 0.002, ? = 0.716) and robbery (p = 0.011, ? = 0.587) rates; income inequality was related to homicide (p = 0.006, ? = 0.670) and self-reported assault (p = 0.020, ? = 0.563), and longitudinally with homicide (p = 0.021). Worldwide, alcohol consumption was associated with self-reported assault rates (p < 0.001, ? = 0.369) suggesting public policy interventions reducing alcohol consumption may contribute to reducing violence rates. Our main finding was that income inequality was related to violence in low and middle-income countries. Public health should advocate for global action to moderate income inequality to reduce the global health burden of violence. PMID:24581081

Wolf, Achim; Gray, Ron; Fazel, Seena

2014-01-01

77

Violence as a public health problem: an ecological study of 169 countries.  

PubMed

Individual level risk factors for violence have been widely studied, but little is known about country-level determinants, particularly in low and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that income inequality, through its detrimental effects on social cohesion, would be related to an increase in violence worldwide, and in low and middle-income countries in particular. We examined country-level associations of violence with socio-economic and health-related factors, using crime statistics from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and indicators from the Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Programme. Using regression models, we measured relationships between country-level factors (age, education, measures of income, health expenditure, and alcohol consumption) and four violent outcomes (including measures of violence-related mortality and morbidity) in up to 169 countries. We stratified our analyses comparing high with low and middle-income countries, and analysed longitudinal data on homicide and income inequality in high-income countries. In low and middle-income countries, income inequality was related to homicide, robbery, and self-reported assault (all p's < 0.05). In high-income countries, urbanicity was significantly associated with official assault (p = 0.002, ? = 0.716) and robbery (p = 0.011, ? = 0.587) rates; income inequality was related to homicide (p = 0.006, ? = 0.670) and self-reported assault (p = 0.020, ? = 0.563), and longitudinally with homicide (p = 0.021). Worldwide, alcohol consumption was associated with self-reported assault rates (p < 0.001, ? = 0.369) suggesting public policy interventions reducing alcohol consumption may contribute to reducing violence rates. Our main finding was that income inequality was related to violence in low and middle-income countries. Public health should advocate for global action to moderate income inequality to reduce the global health burden of violence. PMID:24581081

Wolf, Achim; Gray, Ron; Fazel, Seena

2014-03-01

78

Coastal Vulnerability to Erosion Processes: Study Cases from Different Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When natural processes affect or threaten human activities or infrastructures they become a natural hazard. In order to prevent the natural hazards impact and the associated economic and human losses, coastal managers need to know the intrinsic vulnerability of the littoral, using information on the physical and ecological coastal features, human occupation and present and future shoreline trends. The prediction of future coastline positions can be based on the study of coastal changes which have occurred over recent decades. Vertical aerial photographs, satellite imagery and maps are very useful data sources for the reconstruction of coast line changes at long (>60 years) and medium (between 60 and 10 years) temporal and spatial scales. Vulnerability maps have been obtained for several coastal sectors around the world through the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), computer-assisted multivariate analysis and numerical models. In the USA, "Flood Insurance Rate Maps" have been created by the government and "Coastal Zone Hazard Maps" have been prepared for coastal stretches affected by hurricane Hugo. In Spain, the vulnerability of the Ebro and an Andalusia coastal sector were investigated over different time scales. McLaughlin et al., (2002) developed a GIS based coastal vulnerability index for the Northern Ireland littoral that took into account socio-economic activities and coastal resistance to erosion and energetic characteristics. Lizárraga et al., (2001) combined beach reduction at Rosario (Mexico) with the probability of damage to landward structures, obtaining a vulnerability matrix. In this work several coastal vulnerability maps have also been created by comparing data on coastal erosion/accretion and land use along different coastal sectors in Italy, Morocco and Colombia. Keywords: Hazard, Vulnerability, Coastal Erosion, Italy, Morocco, Colombia.

Anfuso, Giorgio; Martinez Del Pozo, Jose Angel; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

2010-05-01

79

Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina) are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Methods Through focus groups discussions we were able to assess the concepts and expectations underlying women's evaluation of concepts and experiences of the care received in antenatal care clinics. 164 women participated in 24 focus groups discussion in all countries. Results Three areas are particularly addressed in this paper: a) concepts about pregnancy and health care, b) experience with health services and health providers, and c) opinions about the modified Antenatal Care (ANC) programme. In all three topics similarities were identified as well as particular opinions related to country specific social and cultural values. In general women have a positive view of the new ANC protocol, particularly regarding the information they receive. However, controversial issues emerged such as the reduction in the number of visits, particularly in Cuba where women are used to have 18 ANC visits in one pregnancy period. Conclusion Recommendations to improve ANC services performance are being proposed. Any country interested in the application of a new ANC protocol should regard the opinion and acceptability of women towards changes. PMID:12756055

Nigenda, Gustavo; Langer, Ana; Kuchaisit, Chusri; Romero, Mariana; Rojas, Georgina; Al-Osimy, Muneera; Villar, Jose; Garcia, Jo; Al-Mazrou, Yagob; Ba'aqeel, Hassan; Carroli, Guillermo; Farnot, Ubaldo; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Belizan, Jose; Bergsjo, Per; Bakketeig, Leiv; Lindmark, Gunilla

2003-01-01

80

Causality between financial development and economic growth: a case study on selected middle eastern countries  

E-print Network

This study empirically investigates the hypothesis of causality between financial development and economic growth in seven Middle East and North African countries from a time series perspective. I use ordinary least squares and vector auto...

Alrayes, Massa Waddah

2005-08-29

81

Social Studies. Microsift Courseware Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of 17 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 1-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

82

Evaluation of hsp65 Nested PCR-Restriction Analysis (PRA) for Diagnosing Tuberculosis in a High Burden Country  

PubMed Central

Current study evaluated the hsp65 Nested PCR Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA) to detect and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly in clinical samples for a rapid and specific diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA was applied directly to 218 clinical samples obtained from 127 patients suspected of TB or another mycobacterial infection from July 2009 to July 2010. The hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA showed 100% sensitivity and 95.0 and 93.1% specificity in comparison with culture and microscopy (acid fast bacillus smear), respectively. hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA was shown to be a fast and reliable assay for diagnosing TB, which may contribute towards a fast diagnosis that could help the selection of appropriate chemotherapeutic and early epidemiological management of the cases which are of paramount importance in a high TB burden country. PMID:24260739

Macente, Sara; Fujimura Leite, Clarice Queico; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Machado, Luzia Neri Cosmo; Marcondes, Nadir Rodrigues; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo

2013-01-01

83

Development based climate change adaptation and mitigation—conceptual issues and lessons learned in studies in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract,This paper discusses the conceptual basis for linking development,policies and climate change,adaptation and mitigation and suggests an analytical approach,that can be applied to studies in developing,countries. The approach,is centred on a broad set of policy evaluation criteria that merge,traditional economic,and sectoral goals and broader social issues related to health and income,distribution. The approach,is inspired by institutional economics and development paradigms

Kirsten Halsnæs Æ Jan Verhagen

84

Development based climate change adaptation and mitigation—conceptual issues and lessons learned in studies in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the conceptual basis for linking development policies and climate change adaptation and mitigation and\\u000a suggests an analytical approach that can be applied to studies in developing countries. The approach is centred on a broad\\u000a set of policy evaluation criteria that merge traditional economic and sectoral goals and broader social issues related to\\u000a health and income distribution. The

Kirsten Halsnæs; Jan Verhagen

2007-01-01

85

Protecting HIV information in countries scaling up HIV services: a baseline study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Individual-level data are needed to optimize clinical care and monitor and evaluate HIV services. Confidentiality and security of such data must be safeguarded to avoid stigmatization and discrimination of people living with HIV. We set out to assess the extent that countries scaling up HIV services have developed and implemented guidelines to protect the confidentiality and security of HIV

Eduard J Beck; Sundhiya Mandalia; Guy Harling; Xenophon M Santas; Debra Mosure; Paul R Delay

2011-01-01

86

The International Prevalence Study on Physical Activity: results from 20 countries  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity (PA) is one of the most important factors for improving population health, but no standardised systems exist for international surveillance. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed for international surveillance. The purpose of this study was a comparative international study of population physical activity prevalence across 20 countries. Methods Between 2002–2004, a standardised protocol using IPAQ was used to assess PA participation in 20 countries [total N = 52,746, aged 18–65 years]. The median survey response rate was 61%. Physical activity levels were categorised as "low", "moderate" and "high". Age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented by sex. Results The prevalence of "high PA" varied from 21–63%; in eight countries high PA was reported for over half of the adult population. The prevalence of "low PA" varied from 9% to 43%. Males more frequently reported high PA than females in 17 of 20 countries. The prevalence of low PA ranged from 7–41% among males, and 6–49% among females. Gender differences were noted, especially for younger adults, with males more active than females in most countries. Markedly lower physical activity prevalence (10% difference) with increasing age was noted in 11 of 19 countries for males, but only in three countries for women. The ways populations accumulated PA differed, with some reporting mostly vigorous intensity activities and others mostly walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of international PA surveillance, and showed that IPAQ is an acceptable surveillance instrument, at least within countries. If assessment methods are used consistently over time, trend data will inform countries about the success of their efforts to promote physical activity. PMID:19335883

Bauman, Adrian; Bull, Fiona; Chey, Tien; Craig, Cora L; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Sallis, James F; Bowles, Heather R; Hagstromer, Maria; Sjostrom, Michael; Pratt, Michael

2009-01-01

87

Problems of Organising and Reporting Internal and External Evaluation in Developing Countries: The Case of Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to develop capacity to link knowledge to economic growth in developing countries, there is an urgent need to make quality the major element of higher education systems. In Iran, a developing country, such a need was felt a decade ago in the academic community. Based on research projects conducted, a model that combines collegial…

Bazargan, Abbas

2007-01-01

88

Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This…

Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

2010-01-01

89

Empirical evidence on alternative theories of inflation and unemployment: a re-evaluation for the Scandinavian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper re-evaluates some inflation and unemployment models for the Scandinavian countries, utilizing a general to specific methodology. Two nested models are considered to represent a spectrum of unemployment and inflation models in order to examine the monetarist versus new classical unemployment debate, and the Keynesian versus monetarist inflation debate. Using an improved methodology and larger data set different results

George Woodward; J. Ram Pillarisetti

1999-01-01

90

End of life care in high-grade glioma patients in three European countries: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Exploring cross-national differences is useful to evaluate whether different patterns of end of life (EOL) care meet patient's specific needs. This study aimed to (1) compare EOL care processes for high-grade glioma (HGG) patients in three European countries, (2) explore differences in perceived quality of care (QOC), and (3) identify aspects of good QOC in the EOL phase. We analyzed 207 questionnaires from relatives of deceased HGG patients, using a similar retrospective study design in three countries [The Netherlands (n = 83), Austria (n = 72) and the UK (n = 52)], and examined four subthemes: (1) organization of EOL care, (2) treatment preferences, (3) experiences with EOL care, (4) perceived QOC. Three months before death 75 % of patients were at home. In all countries, on average, 50 % were transferred to a hospital at least once and received effective symptom treatment during the last 3 months. In The Netherlands, Austria and UK, respectively, patients most often died at home (60 %), in a hospital (41 %) or hospice (41 %) (p < 0.001). Advance directives were present in 46 % of Dutch, 36 % of British and 6 % of Austrian patients (p < 0.001). Fifty-three percent of patients experienced good QOC, irrespective of country. Dying at the preferred place, satisfaction with information provided and effective symptom treatment were independently associated with good QOC. There are various cross-national differences in organization and experiences with EOL care for HGG, but patient's perceived QOC is similar in the three countries. As symptom treatment was considered effective in only half of HGG patients, and independently predicted good QOC, this particularly needs further improvement in all countries. PMID:25038849

Koekkoek, J A F; Dirven, L; Reijneveld, J C; Sizoo, E M; Pasman, H R W; Postma, T J; Deliens, L; Grant, R; McNamara, S; Grisold, W; Medicus, E; Stockhammer, G; Oberndorfer, S; Flechl, B; Marosi, C; Taphoorn, M J B; Heimans, J J

2014-11-01

91

An evaluation of tobacco control and health insurance policies in low- and middle-income countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the many challenges facing health systems in low- and middle-income countries are access to health services, notably for the poor, and the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases. In many low- and middle-income countries, significant economic changes have resulted in substantial increases in household out-of-pocket spending on health and in tobacco use – a major risk factor of non-communicable diseases.

Godefroy Emmanuel Guindon

2010-01-01

92

Evaluation of the Impact of NCI Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention’s on Participants from Low- and Middle Income Countries  

PubMed Central

The NCI Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention provides scientists and health care professionals training in principles and practices of cancer prevention and control, and molecular biology and genetics of cancer. Originally intended for U.S. scientists, the Curriculum’s enrollment of international scientists has increased steadily. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the Curriculum’s impact on knowledge, skills and career accomplishments of the international participants from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). International participants from 1998 to 2009 completed questionnaires regarding knowledge, overall experience and accomplishments directly associated with the Curriculum. Almost all respondents agreed the Curriculum enhanced their knowledge and skills, prepared them to contribute to cancer control activities in their home countries and addressed specific needs and achieve research goals. The NCI Summer Curriculum on Cancer Prevention gives international participants a unique opportunity to enhance their knowledge and effectively contribute to cancer control activities in their home country. PMID:23355281

Williams, Makeda J.; Otero, Isabel V.; Harford, Joe B.

2013-01-01

93

The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry: study of errors in dosimetry.  

PubMed

To provide direct estimates of cancer risk after low-dose protracted exposure to ionizing radiation, a large-scale epidemiological study of nuclear industry workers was conducted in 15 countries. As part of this study, identification and quantification of errors in historical recorded doses was conducted based on a review of dosimetric practices and technologies in participating facilities. The main sources of errors on doses from "high-energy" photons (100-3000 keV) were identified as the response of dosimeters in workplace exposure conditions and historical calibration practices. Errors related to dosimetry technology and radiation fields were quantified to derive period- and facility-specific estimates of bias and uncertainties in recorded doses. This was based on (1) an evaluation of predominant workplace radiation from measurement studies and dosimetry expert assessment and (2) an estimation of the energy and geometry response of dosimeters used historically in study facilities. Coefficients were derived to convert recorded doses to H(p) (10) and organ dose, taking into account different aspects of the calibration procedures. A parametric, lognormal error structure model was developed to describe errors in doses as a function of facility and time period. Doses from other radiation types, particularly neutrons and radionuclide intake, could not be adequately reconstructed in the framework of the 15-Country Study. Workers with substantial doses from these radiation types were therefore identified and excluded from analyses. Doses from "lower-energy" photons (<100 keV) and from "higher-energy" photons (>3 MeV) were estimated to be small. PMID:17388692

Thierry-Chef, I; Marshall, M; Fix, J J; Bermann, F; Gilbert, E S; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Murray, W; Pearce, M S; Utterback, D; Bernar, K; Deboodt, P; Eklof, M; Griciene, B; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Lee, M-C; Moser, M; Pernicka, F; Cardis, E

2007-04-01

94

A Scientometric Study of General Internal Medicine Domain Among Muslim Countries of Middle East (1991 - 2011)  

PubMed Central

Background The position of General Internal Medicine in the Islamic countries in the Middle East has been investigated in the present study. Material and methods The scientific productions of the countries in the area on Web of science database during 1990-2011 constitute were examined. Results The result of the survey showed that the share of these countries in world scientific productions is very low. Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Iran are the first to third ones in this domain in order. In view of annual growth rate, Kuwait having high growth rate, is the first one. Libya and Syria are the next ones. The scientific poverty line of Islamic countries in the area was surveyed. The result showed that in view of the scientific poverty line, the highest is Kuwait with the population of 0.04 percent of the world. Next to it, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain are the second and third ones. Conclusion The results of this research showed that the share of Islamic countries in the Middle East in scientific production of this medicine domain is very low. It needs to be paid more attention by the countries in the area. PMID:23572864

Hodhodinezhad, Niloofar; Zahedi, Razieh; Ashrafi-rizzi, Hassan; Shams, Asadollah

2013-01-01

95

Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on international trends in suicide and to identify sex/age groups and countries most affected. Design Time trend analysis comparing the actual number of suicides in 2009 with the number that would be expected based on trends before the crisis (2000-07). Setting Suicide data from 54 countries; for 53 data were available in the World Health Organization mortality database and for one (the United States) data came the CDC online database. Population People aged 15 or above. Main outcome measures Suicide rate and number of excess suicides in 2009. Results There were an estimated 4884 (95% confidence interval 3907 to 5860) excess suicides in 2009 compared with the number expected based on previous trends (2000-07). The increases in suicide mainly occurred in men in the 27 European and 18 American countries; the suicide rates were 4.2% (3.4% to 5.1%) and 6.4% (5.4% to 7.5%) higher, respectively, in 2009 than expected if earlier trends had continued. For women, there was no change in European countries and the increase in the Americas was smaller than in men (2.3%). Rises in European men were highest in those aged 15-24 (11.7%), while in American countries men aged 45-64 showed the largest increase (5.2%). Rises in national suicide rates in men seemed to be associated with the magnitude of increases in unemployment, particularly in countries with low levels of unemployment before the crisis (Spearman’s rs=0.48). Conclusions After the 2008 economic crisis, rates of suicide increased in the European and American countries studied, particularly in men and in countries with higher levels of job loss. PMID:24046155

2013-01-01

96

Evaluation of the Seismic Hazard in Venezuela with a revised seismic catalog that seeks for harmonization along the country borders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment is a complex endeavor that relies on the quality of the information that comes from different sources: the seismic catalog, active faults parameters, strain rates, etc. Having this in mind, during the last several months, the FUNVISIS seismic hazard group has been working on a review and update of the local data base that form the basis for a reliable PSHA calculation. In particular, the seismic catalog, which provides the necessary information that allows the evaluation of the critical b-value, which controls how seismic occurrence distributes with magnitude, has received particular attention. The seismic catalog is the result of the effort of several generations of researchers along the years; therefore, the catalog necessarily suffers from the lack of consistency, homogeneity and completeness for all ranges of magnitude over any seismic study area. Merging the FUNVISIS instrumental catalog with the ones obtained from international agencies, we present the work that we have been doing to produce a consistent seismic catalog that covers Venezuela entirely, with seismic events starting from 1910 until 2012, and report the magnitude of completeness for the different periods. Also, we present preliminary results on the Seismic Hazard evaluation that takes into account such instrumental catalog, the historical catalog, updated known fault geometries and its correspondent parameters, and the new seismic sources that have been defined accordingly. Within the spirit of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), all these efforts look for possible bridges with neighboring countries to establish consistent hazard maps across the borders.

Rendon, H.; Alvarado, L.; Paolini, M.; Olbrich, F.; González, J.; Ascanio, W.

2013-05-01

97

Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.  

PubMed

This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. PMID:21763362

Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

2010-12-20

98

A Longitudinal Study of Mass Media Development in Less-Developed Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to examine the causal predictors of mass media development in 105 underdeveloped countries for various lengths of time to determine if there were consistent relationships among the dependent and independent variables regardless of the time lag. The study also sought to determine how mass media developed during the 29-year…

Shah, Hemant

99

Recent Studies on the Cost-Effectiveness of Military Training in TTCP Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes 22 recent empirical studies on the cost-effectiveness of military training reported by countries that participate in The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP), i.e., Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. A discussion of the methodology used to summarize the studies is followed by a…

Fletcher, J. D.; Orlansky, Jesse

100

Dell Hymes and the New Language Policy Studies: Update from an Underdeveloped Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay updates Dell Hymes's "Report from an Underdeveloped Country" (the USA), positioning our analysis in the New Language Policy Studies. Taking up Hymes's call for comparative, critical studies of language use, we examine three cases, organizing our analysis around Hymes's questions: What "counts" as a language, a language problem, and…

McCarty, Teresa L.; Collins, James; Hopson, Rodney K.

2011-01-01

101

PHS 810-644: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease: Country Studies  

E-print Network

1 PHS 810-644: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease: Country Studies Course and those participating in the Certificate in Global Health. Upper-level undergraduate students may also plan to participate in a PHS 645 Global Health Field Study or other credit-based field experiences

Sheridan, Jennifer

102

Financial Planning for Study in the United States: A Guide for Students from Other Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is written especially for students who are considering leaving their home countries to enter a college or university in the United States for a period of study. Its purpose is to provide these students with information about the costs of study in the United States, what responsibilities they will be expected to assume in meeting these…

Sasnett, Martena

103

Studying Evaluation Utilization through Simulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of studies using simulation for the study of evaluation utilization is reviewed. Communication theory is used as the conceptual framework to interpret the potential influences on utilization. Implications for the practitioners are discussed. (Author/GK)

Braskamp, Larry A.; And Others

1982-01-01

104

AGROCHEMICAL HAZARDS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS AND EVALUATION OF SUCH HAZARDS WITH EMPHASIS ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many developing countries are lacking protein in the diets of their population. Aquatic systems are good sources of protein in many areas with fish and shellfish as the main sources. The misuse of agrochemicals can directly or indirectly affect the use and suitability of these pr...

105

A severe wind storm affecting the Basque country: the Klaus case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution deals with the study of the Klaus episode focusing on Basque Country area. On 20th January Klaus, a strong extratropical cyclone, formed in the subtropical North Atlantic, West of the Azores Islands. The system moved northeastward into the Bay of Biscay on the next days. Klaus quickly traveled over Cantabric Coast in the North of Iberian peninsula, affecting Basque Country area on late 23th early 24th January. In the Basque country, wind gusts higher than 150 kilometers per hour were recorded in various locations across the region. A 200 kilometers per hour gust was recorded in a mountainous area in the interior. These are some of the strongest winds observed since records began in Basque Country Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Mesonetwork owned by the Basque Government. On the other hand, waves as high as 21 meters were recorded at the Basque coast. We present some aspects related with this severe weather episode, including synoptical and mesoscale features from numerical analysis, satellite, AWS and buoy data collected in the area. Finally we focus on comparisons with others situations occurred in the past in Basque Country area.

Gaztelumendi, S.; Egaña, J.; Gelpi, I. R.; Otxoa de Alda, K.; Hernandez, R.; Pierna, D.

2009-09-01

106

Seasonal Variation of Overall and Cardiovascular Mortality: A Study in 19 Countries from Different Geographic Locations  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality has been shown to follow a seasonal pattern. Several studies suggested several possible determinants of this pattern, including misclassification of causes of deaths. We aimed at assessing seasonality in overall, CVD, cancer and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality using data from 19 countries from different latitudes. Methods and Findings Monthly mortality data were compiled from 19 countries, amounting to over 54 million deaths. We calculated ratios of the observed to the expected numbers of deaths in the absence of a seasonal pattern. Seasonal variation (peak to nadir difference) for overall and cause-specific (CVD, cancer or non-CVD/non-cancer) mortality was analyzed using the cosinor function model. Mortality from overall, CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer showed a consistent seasonal pattern. In both hemispheres, the number of deaths was higher than expected in winter. In countries close to the Equator the seasonal pattern was considerably lower for mortality from any cause. For CVD mortality, the peak to nadir differences ranged from 0.185 to 0.466 in the Northern Hemisphere, from 0.087 to 0.108 near the Equator, and from 0.219 to 0.409 in the Southern Hemisphere. For cancer mortality, the seasonal variation was nonexistent in most countries. Conclusions In countries with seasonal variation, mortality from overall, CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer show a seasonal pattern with mortality being higher in winter than in summer. Conversely, cancer mortality shows no substantial seasonality. PMID:25419711

Gubelmann, Cédric; Stringhini, Silvia; Bovet, Pascal; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Paccaud, Fred; Tsai, Dai-Hua; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

2014-01-01

107

Conflicts in developing countries: a case study from Rio de Janeiro  

SciTech Connect

In developing countries, environmental conflicts are resolved mainly in the political arena. In the developed nations, approaches favoring structured negotiation support techniques are more common, with methodologies and studies designed especially for this purpose, deriving from Group Communications and Decision Theory. This paper analyzes an environmental dispute in the City of Rio de Janeiro, applying conflict analysis methods and simulating its settlement. It concludes that the use of these methodologies in the developing countries may be undertaken with adaptations, designed to train community groups in negotiating while fostering the democratization of the settlement of these disputes.

Bredariol, Celso Simoes; Magrini, Alessandra

2003-07-01

108

Measuring socioeconomic status in multicountry studies: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study  

PubMed Central

Background There is no standardized approach to comparing socioeconomic status (SES) across multiple sites in epidemiological studies. This is particularly problematic when cross-country comparisons are of interest. We sought to develop a simple measure of SES that would perform well across diverse, resource-limited settings. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 800 children aged 24 to 60 months across eight resource-limited settings. Parents were asked to respond to a household SES questionnaire, and the height of each child was measured. A statistical analysis was done in two phases. First, the best approach for selecting and weighting household assets as a proxy for wealth was identified. We compared four approaches to measuring wealth: maternal education, principal components analysis, Multidimensional Poverty Index, and a novel variable selection approach based on the use of random forests. Second, the selected wealth measure was combined with other relevant variables to form a more complete measure of household SES. We used child height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) as the outcome of interest. Results Mean age of study children was 41 months, 52% were boys, and 42% were stunted. Using cross-validation, we found that random forests yielded the lowest prediction error when selecting assets as a measure of household wealth. The final SES index included access to improved water and sanitation, eight selected assets, maternal education, and household income (the WAMI index). A 25% difference in the WAMI index was positively associated with a difference of 0.38 standard deviations in HAZ (95% CI 0.22 to 0.55). Conclusions Statistical learning methods such as random forests provide an alternative to principal components analysis in the development of SES scores. Results from this multicountry study demonstrate the validity of a simplified SES index. With further validation, this simplified index may provide a standard approach for SES adjustment across resource-limited settings. PMID:24656134

2014-01-01

109

The Naive Theory of the Infant and Some Maternal AttitudesA Two-Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes and beliefs are regarded as guides to action in early childhood socialization. Since the cultural specifity of those attitudes is commonly stressed, two countries are analyzed in this study. The cross-cultural design is aimed at clarifying socialization concepts. Pregnant women of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and Costa Rica were asked about their expectancies, timetable of care-giving activities,

Heidi Keller; Delia Miranda; Gudrun Gauda

1984-01-01

110

Determinants and antecedents of general attitudes towards advertising : A study of two EU accession countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships between determinants and primary antecedents of advertising and attitudes to advertising in the context of European Union accession countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Drawing on data from consumer surveys conducted in the major urban areas of Bulgaria and Romania the study conceptualises an extended version of Pollay and Mittal's model

Dan Petrovici; Marin Marinov

2007-01-01

111

Education Data Quality in the Third World: A Five Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings from a study of the confidence expressed by ministry-level decision makers in five developing countries (i.e., Somalia, Botswana, Liberia, Yemen, and Nepal) about the quality of the national-level education data available to them and reasons for the perceived 16-40 percent error rate. (DMM)

Chapman, David W.

1991-01-01

112

Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

2009-01-01

113

A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

Hien, P. D.

2010-01-01

114

Why should you study abroad? Find out how people in other countries view the world  

E-print Network

Why should you study abroad? Find out how people in other countries view the world Immerse some Engineering courses Take courses on the local culture Begin a new language or improve your Canada Germany India Ireland United Kingdom: Chemical Engineering Exchange with Univ. College, London

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

115

Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting

Lynn Van Wezemael; Wim Verbeke; Marcia D de Barcellos; Joachim Scholderer; Federico Perez-Cueto

2010-01-01

116

First aid guidelines for psychosis in Asian countries: A Delphi consensus study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Guidelines for how a member of the public should give first aid to a person who is becoming psychotic have been developed for English-speaking countries. However, these guidelines may not be appropriate for use in other cultures. A study was therefore carried out to examine whether it was possible to achieve consensus on guidelines that could apply in a

Anthony F Jorm; Harry Minas; Robyn L Langlands; Claire M Kelly

2008-01-01

117

Higher Education in Nine Countries: A Comparative Study of Colleges and Universities Abroad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In each of the countries studied in this report, colleges and universities have been adapted to national conditions, customs, social structures, and political systems; but familiar trends are visible. Among the most important trends are rapid enrollment growth and a movement toward universal access; rising expenditures; increasing public support;…

Burn, Barbara B.

118

Are National and Organizational Cultures Isomorphic? Evidence from a Four Country Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study investigates whether organizational practices as observed through differing organizational cultures systematically replicate or reject national values. It is among the first to project delineated, narrow national cultural portrayals of Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Denmark against pattern-specific organizational cultures. Through country cluster analysis and correlation tests, the results achieve significance along all three dimensions. Trust allocations, authority perceptions

Rune Ellemose Gulev

2009-01-01

119

Factors Influencing Teachers' Views of Health and Health Education: A Study in 15 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To analyse teachers' health views in order to obtain general trends in factors influencing health and health education and to fit them into the negative-positive model of health proposed by Downie and collaborators. Method: This large international study involved 15 countries from Western and Eastern Europe, North and Sub-Saharan…

Jourdan, D.; Pironom, J.; Berger, D.; Carvalho, G. S.

2013-01-01

120

Training, Recruitment and Utilization of Teachers in Primary and Secondary Education. Country Case Studies: Switzerland, Yugoslavia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of studies on the training, recruitment, and utilization of teachers in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This volume deals with Switzerland and Yugoslavia. The section on Switzerland (37 pages) is in French with no translation. The chapters deal with training of teachers and…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

121

Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): Case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Although more than 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries, knowledge of the importance of risk factors is largely derived from developed countries. Therefore, the effect of such factors on risk of coronary heart disease in most regions of the world is unknown. Methods We established a standardised case-control study of

Salim Yusuf; Steven Hawken; S. Ounpuu

2004-01-01

122

Welfare state regimes, health and health inequalities in adolescence: a multilevel study in 32 countries.  

PubMed

Comparative research on health and health inequalities has recently started to establish a welfare regime perspective. The objective of this study was to determine whether different welfare regimes are associated with health and health inequalities among adolescents. Data were collected from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2006, including 11- to 15-year-old students from 32 countries (N?=?141,091). Prevalence rates and multilevel logistic regression models were calculated for self-rated health (SRH) and health complaints. The results show that between 4 per cent and 7 per cent of the variation in both health outcomes is attributable to differences between countries. Compared to the Scandinavian regime, the Southern regime had lower odds ratios for SRH, while for health complaints the Southern and Eastern regime showed high odds ratios. The association between subjective health and welfare regime was largely unaffected by adjusting for individual socioeconomic position. After adjustment for the welfare regime typology, the country-level variations were reduced to 4.6 per cent for SRH and to 2.9 per cent for health complaints. Regarding cross-level interaction effects between welfare regimes and socioeconomic position, no clear regime-specific pattern was found. Consistent with research on adults this study shows that welfare regimes are important in explaining variations in adolescent health across countries. PMID:22497661

Richter, Matthias; Rathman, Katharina; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Hurrelmann, Klaus

2012-07-01

123

Is it worth offering a routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy in developing countries? A Thailand case study  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aims to investigate whether laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a cost-effective strategy for managing gallbladder-stone disease compared to the conventional open cholecystectomy(OC) in a Thai setting. Design and Setting Using a societal perspective a cost-utility analysis was employed to measure programme cost and effectiveness of each management strategy. The costs borne by the hospital and patients were collected from Chiang Rai regional hospital while the clinical outcomes were summarised from a published systematic review of international and national literature. Incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) derived from a decision tree model. Results The results reveal that at base-case scenario the incremental cost per QALY of moving from OC to LC is 134,000 Baht under government perspective and 89,000 Baht under a societal perspective. However, the probabilities that LC outweighed OC are not greater than 95% until the ceiling ratio reaches 190,000 and 270,000 Baht per QALY using societal and government perspective respectively. Conclusion The economic evaluation results of management options for gallstone disease in Thailand differ from comparable previous studies conducted in developed countries which indicated that LC was a cost-saving strategy. Differences were due mainly to hospital costs of post operative inpatient care and value of lost working time. The LC option would be considered a cost-effective option for Thailand at a threshold of three times per capita gross domestic product recommended by the committee on the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16259625

Teerawattananon, Yot; Mugford, Miranda

2005-01-01

124

Natural gas in developing countries: Evaluating the benefits to the environment. World Bank discussion paper  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the size of the natural gas resource in the developing countries, gives a broad indication of its costs, and outlines its main environmental benefits as an alternative fuel. It discusses the opportunities presented by new (and old) technology for using natural gas in an efficient way to reduce air pollution and relates that to recent developments in international concerns over the world's environment. The paper gives a perspective on the extent of flaring of natural gas in the petroleum industry and on the amount of emissions of the greenhouse gases of methane and carbon dioxide during production and use. It establishes a data source for many of the parameters necessary to derive both a country and a global perspective of the opportunities for natural gas.

Homer, J.

1993-01-01

125

Judgment under uncertainty; a probabilistic evaluation framework for decision-making about sanitation systems in low-income countries.  

PubMed

This paper introduces the probabilistic evaluation framework, to enable transparent and objective decision-making in technology selection for sanitation solutions in low-income countries. The probabilistic framework recognizes the often poor quality of the available data for evaluations. Within this framework, the evaluations will be done based on the probabilities that the expected outcomes occur in practice, considering the uncertainties in evaluation parameters. Consequently, the outcome of evaluations will not be single point estimates; but there exists a range of possible outcomes. A first trial application of this framework for evaluation of sanitation options in the Nyalenda settlement in Kisumu, Kenya, showed how the range of values that an evaluation parameter may obtain in practice would influence the evaluation outcomes. In addition, as the probabilistic evaluation requires various site-specific data, sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the influence of each data set quality on the evaluation outcomes. Based on that, data collection activities could be (re)directed, in a trade-off between the required investments in those activities and the resolution of the decisions that are to be made. PMID:23416987

Malekpour, Shirin; Langeveld, Jeroen; Letema, Sammy; Clemens, François; van Lier, Jules B

2013-03-30

126

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY IN THE BASQUE COUNTRY: A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last several years, policy evaluation has been one of the most discussed topics in policy research. Policy evaluation is an activity that provides information to policy makers in order to formulate better policies. In this context, science and technology (S&T) policy constitutes a policy that is considerable difficult to evaluate due to its intangibility and its cross-cutting character.

María José Aranguren; Mikel Navarro; San Sebastián

127

The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study  

PubMed Central

Background Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD), or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban–rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1) To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2) To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3) To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Methods Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents’ occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. Results The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35) with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7), India (33.2), Peru (39.4). Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest good internal consistency. High agreement was observed between this scale and a dichotomized version of the urbanicity scale (Kappa 0.76; Spearman’s rank-correlation coefficient 0.84 (p?countries (p?study demonstrates and validates a robust multidimensional, multi-country urbanicity scale. It is an important step on the path to creating a tool to assess complex processes like urbanization. This scale provides the means to understand which elements of urbanization have the greatest impact on health. PMID:22818019

2012-01-01

128

Depressive symptoms among immigrants and ethnic minorities: a population based study in 23 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  European studies about ethnic inequalities in depressive symptoms are scarce, show inconclusive results and are complicated\\u000a by the discussion of what constitute (im)migrant and ethnic minority groups. Moreover, comparisons across countries are hampered\\u000a by a lack of comparable measures of depressive symptoms. This study aims to assess the prevalence and determinants of depressive\\u000a symptoms among immigrants, ethnic minorities and natives

Sarah Missinne; Piet Bracke

129

Energy policies and the greenhouse effect volume two: Country studies and technical options  

SciTech Connect

This book is the second volume based on a 4-year study by the Energy and Environmental Programme at the Royal Institute of Interantional Affairs in the United Kingdom. First, the book provides an integrated discussion of the country studies and technical options that contain information for policy analysis. The second part explains how political, rather than technical or economic, constraints have inhibited widespread adoption of abatement policies in USA, UK, Japan, the former Soviet Union, China, and India.

Grubb, M.

1993-01-01

130

Gender, poverty and taxation: An overview of a multi-country study of gender and taxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While gender-budgeting has grown in prominence gender activists and policymakers have paid insufficient attention to the taxation side of public finance. Drawing on a three-year eight-country study this Profile outlines why gender activists should be concerned about the revenue side of the budget, shares the conceptual approach, methodology and some of the research findings of the study, and highlights key

Imraan Valodia

2009-01-01

131

Content Analysis of Primary and Secondary School Textbooks Regarding Malaria Control: A Multi-Country Study  

PubMed Central

Background In tropical settings, malaria education at school is potentially useful, but textbook content related to malaria education has so far received little attention. This study aimed to examine whether school textbooks contain sufficient knowledge and skills to help children in primary and lower secondary schools and their family members to cope with malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a descriptive, cross-country study. We collected textbooks that were used by children in grades one to nine from nine countries endemic for malaria: Laos, Cambodia, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Zambia, Niger, Benin, and Ghana. Two reviewers per country identified descriptions about malaria by seeking the term “malaria” or a local word that corresponds to malaria in languages other than English. The authors categorized the identified descriptions according to the content of the descriptions. Additionally, the authors examined whether the identified contents addressed life skill messages. Of a total of 474 textbooks collected, 35 contained descriptions about malaria. The most commonly included content was transmission mode/vector (77.1%), followed by preventive measures (60.0%), epidemiology (57.1%), cause/agent (54.3%), signs/symptoms (37.1%) and treatment (22.9%). Treatment-related content was not included in any textbooks from four countries and textbooks failed to recommend the use of insecticide-treated bed nets in five countries. Very few textbooks included content that facilitated prompt treatment, protection of risk groups, and use of recommended therapy. Conclusion/Significance Textbooks rarely included knowledge and skills that are crucial to protect schoolchildren and their families from malaria. This study identified the need for improvement to textbook contents regarding malaria. PMID:22574203

Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Jun; Yasuoka, Junko; Ayi, Irene; Jayatilleke, Achini C.; Shrestha, Sabina; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Haque, Syed E.; Yi, Siyan

2012-01-01

132

Experiences of stigma, discrimination, care and support among people living with HIV: a four country study.  

PubMed

While it is widely agreed that HIV-related stigma may impede access to treatment and support, there is little evidence describing who is most likely to experience different forms of stigma and discrimination and how these affect disclosure and access to care. This study examined experiences of interpersonal discrimination, internalized stigma, and discrimination at health care facilities among HIV-positive adults aged 18 years and older utilizing health facilities in four countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (N = 536). Prevalence of interpersonal discrimination across all countries was 34.6 %, with women significantly more likely to experience interpersonal discrimination than men. Prevalences of internalized stigma varied across countries, ranging from 9.6 % (Malawi) to 45.0 % (Burkina Faso). Prevalence of health care discrimination was 10.4 % across all countries. In multiple regression analyses, we found positive, significant, and independent associations between disclosure and interpersonal discrimination and disclosure and support group utilization, and positive associations between both internalized stigma and health care discrimination and referral for medications. PMID:23479002

Neuman, Melissa; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

2013-06-01

133

Yield estimation using SPOT-VEGETATION products: A case study of wheat in European countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the period 1999-2009 ten-day SPOT-VEGETATION products of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) at 1 km spatial resolution were used in order to estimate and forecast the wheat yield over Europe. The products were used together with official wheat yield statistics to fine-tune a statistical model for each NUTS2 region, based on the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) method. This method has been chosen to construct the model in the presence of many correlated predictor variables (10-day values of remote sensing indicators) and a limited number of wheat yield observations. The model was run in two different modalities: the "monitoring mode", which allows for an overall yield assessment at the end of the growing season, and the "forecasting mode", which provides early and timely yield estimates when the growing season is on-going. Performances of yield estimation at the regional and national level were evaluated using a cross-validation technique against yield statistics and the estimations were compared with those of a reference crop growth model. Models based on either NDVI or FAPAR normalized indicators achieved similar results with a minimal advantage of the model based on the FAPAR product. Best modelling results were obtained for the countries in Central Europe (Poland, North-Eastern Germany) and also Great Britain. By contrast, poor model performances characterize countries as follows: Sweden, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, Romania and Hungary. Country level yield estimates using the PLSR model in the monitoring mode, and those of a reference crop growth model that do not make use of remote sensing information showed comparable accuracies. The largest estimation errors were observed in Portugal, Spain and Finland for both approaches. This convergence may indicate poor reliability of the official yield statistics in these countries.

Kowalik, Wanda; Dabrowska-Zielinska, Katarzyna; Meroni, Michele; Raczka, Teresa Urszula; de Wit, Allard

2014-10-01

134

An econometric study of the demand for gasoline in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries  

SciTech Connect

Reliable and accurate estimation of price and income elasticities of demand for gasoline are important ingredients for long-run energy planning and policy formation. The purpose of this study is to develop and estimate a model for gasoline demand for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Oatar, Saufi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The model is capable of producing short-run and long-run price and income elasticities. Since the first oil price hike in 1973, a great deal of attention has been directed toward the demand for gasoline, especially in the industrialized countries. Few studies have been directed toward the demand for gasoline in developing countries. In terms of primary energy consumption, the GCC`s energy needs are met by oil, natural gas, and electricity. Without any doubt, oil is the largest energy source consumed and gasoline is the most important oil product. However, very few studies have been directed toward analyzing GCC energy demand, and yet there has been not attempt to model and estimate GCC gasoline demand. This study attempts to address this gap.

Eltony, M.N.

1994-12-31

135

Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

2013-09-01

136

Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries. PMID:23152194

Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Agueda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

2013-09-01

137

Serological cross-sectional studies on salmonella incidence in eight European countries: no correlation with incidence of reported cases  

PubMed Central

Background Published incidence rates of human salmonella infections are mostly based on numbers of stool culture-confirmed cases reported to public health surveillance. These cases constitute only a small fraction of all cases occurring in the community. The extent of underascertainment is influenced by health care seeking behaviour and sensitivity of surveillance systems, so that reported incidence rates from different countries are not comparable. We performed serological cross-sectional studies to compare infection risks in eight European countries independent of underascertainment. Methods A total of 6,393 sera from adults in Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and The Netherlands were analysed, mostly from existing serum banks collected in the years 2003 to 2008. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG against salmonella lipopolysaccharides were measured by in-house mixed ELISA. We converted antibody concentrations to estimates of infection incidence (‘sero-incidence’) using a Bayesian backcalculation model, based on previously studied antibody decay profiles in persons with culture-confirmed salmonella infections. We compared sero-incidence with incidence of cases reported through routine public health surveillance and with published incidence estimates derived from infection risks in Swedish travellers to those countries. Results Sero-incidence of salmonella infections ranged from 56 (95% credible interval 8–151) infections per 1,000 person-years in Finland to 547 (343–813) in Poland. Depending on country, sero-incidence was approximately 100 to 2,000 times higher than incidence of culture-confirmed cases reported through routine surveillance, with a trend for an inverse correlation. Sero-incidence was significantly correlated with incidence estimated from infection risks in Swedish travellers. Conclusions Sero-incidence estimation is a new method to estimate and compare the incidence of salmonella infections in human populations independent of surveillance artefacts. Our results confirm that comparison of reported incidence between countries can be grossly misleading, even within the European Union. Because sero-incidence includes asymptomatic infections, it is not a direct measure of burden of illness. But, pending further validation of this novel method, it may be a promising and cost-effective way to assess infection risks and to evaluate the effectiveness of salmonella control programmes across countries or over time. PMID:22799896

2012-01-01

138

Management Education Program Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Mainland China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: With the accession of the PRC to the WTO, Chinese education market is open to the educational service providers of the foreign countries. They are keen to offer MBA Degree programs to the Career Managers in the Mainland. Aims: This research studies program evaluation and so forth the quality assessment of a MBA degree program in the…

Sou, Gryphon; Zhou, Pinqiu

2007-01-01

139

Perspectives on the Impact of Varicella Immunization on Herpes Zoster. A Model-Based Evaluation from Three European Countries  

PubMed Central

The introduction of mass vaccination against Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV) is being delayed in many European countries because of, among other factors, the possibility of a large increase in Herpes Zoster (HZ) incidence in the first decades after the initiation of vaccination, due to the expected decline of the boosting of Cell Mediated Immunity caused by the reduced varicella circulation. A multi-country model of VZV transmission and reactivation, is used to evaluate the possible impact of varicella vaccination on HZ epidemiology in Italy, Finland and the UK. Despite the large uncertainty surrounding HZ and vaccine-related parameters, surprisingly robust medium-term predictions are provided, indicating that an increase in HZ incidence is likely to occur in countries where the incidence rate is lower in absence of immunization, possibly due to a higher force of boosting (e.g. Finland), whereas increases in HZ incidence might be minor where the force of boosting is milder (e.g. the UK). Moreover, a convergence of HZ post vaccination incidence levels in the examined countries is predicted despite different initial degrees of success of immunization policies. Unlike previous model-based evaluations, our investigation shows that after varicella immunization an increase of HZ incidence is not a certain fact, rather depends on the presence or absence of factors promoting a strong boosting intensity and which might or not be heavily affected by changes in varicella circulation due to mass immunization. These findings might explain the opposed empirical evidences observed about the increases of HZ in sites where mass varicella vaccination is ongoing. PMID:23613740

Poletti, Piero; Melegaro, Alessia; Ajelli, Marco; del Fava, Emanuele; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Faustini, Luca; Scalia Tomba, Giampaolo; Lopalco, Pierluigi; Rizzo, Caterina; Merler, Stefano; Manfredi, Piero

2013-01-01

140

Adoption of ICT in a government organization in a developing country: An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

eGovernment initiatives all over the world endeavor to integrate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to transform delivery of government services to their stakeholders by improving quality of services, accountability and efficiency. In this study we explore adoption of ICT to enhance government-to-employee interactions in a government organization in a developing country. We examine this adoption behavior by utilizing the Unified

Babita Gupta; Subhasish Dasgupta; Atul Gupta

2008-01-01

141

Attitudes of pharmacy students toward people with mental disorders, a six country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare and contrast the extent to which pharmacy students in Australia, Belgium, Finland, India, Estonia and Latvia hold\\u000a stigmatising attitudes toward people with schizophrenia and severe depression. Method Data were collected as part of the International Pharmacy Students Health Survey, a census survey of third-year pharmacy\\u000a students studying at eight universities in six countries. Respondents (n = 642) indicated how

J. Simon Bell; S. Elina Aaltonen; Elina Bronstein; Franciska A. Desplenter; Veerle Foulon; Anna Vitola; Ruta Muceniece; Manjiri S. Gharat; Daisy Volmer; Marja S. Airaksinen; Timothy F. Chen

2008-01-01

142

Low Ultraviolet B and Increased Risk of Brain Cancer: An Ecological Study of 175 Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether an inverse association exists between latitude, solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance, modeled 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and incidence rates of cancer of the brain. Methods: Associations of latitude and UVB irradiance with age-standardized incidence rates of cancer of the brain were analyzed for 175 countries while controlling for proportion of

Sharif B. Mohr; Edward D. Gorham; Cedric F. Garland; William B. Grant; Frank C. Garland

2010-01-01

143

An Asia Pacific six-country study on HIV-related discrimination: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a six-country study of institutionalised forms of HIV\\/AIDS-related discrimination in the Asia-Pacific region. Although recognised as a barrier to disease prevention and treatment, very limited data are available on the effects of institutionalised HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Understanding the forms of discrimination within the institutions where they occur is the first step to identifying effective ways of

D. D. Reidpath; B. Brijnath; K. Y. Chan

2005-01-01

144

Prevalence of markers of hepatitis B virus infection in various countries: a WHO Collaborative Study*  

PubMed Central

A WHO collaborative study on viral hepatitis B in which 21 laboratories in 20 countries participated is described. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), its subtypes, and its antibody (anti-HBs) by age and sex and urban or rural residence in normal populations in different parts of the world. High-risk groups in the populations and patients with various diseases were also investigated. The results of the study confirmed that HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence rates were higher in African and Asian countries than in the Americas, Australia, and northern and central Europe. Some eastern and southern European countries, however, were also shown to have high HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence rates, comparable with those in Africa and Asia. In countries with low HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence, there seems to be a gradual build-up during late childhood or early adolescence, whereas in countries with high HBsAg and its antibody prevalence, they were frequently detected in preschool children. Although the trend was towards a higher frequency of HBsAg and anti-HBs in urban than in rural and in male than in female populations, the differences were in most cases not significant. On the other hand, a significantly higher prevalence of markers of hepatitis B virus infection was seen in high-risk population groups than in normal populations. This was, however, clearly defined only in areas with low HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence in the normal population. The geographical distribution of HBsAg subtypes showed a higher prevalence of the ad subdeterminant over ay in central European countries, whereas in eastern and southern Europe the ay subtype predominated. In West Africa, ayw was the only variant found, whereas in East Africa ad occurred more frequently than ay. In Australia, both adw and ayw subtypes were detected, whereas in the Far East and South-east Asia only adw and adr were seen. PMID:6969134

Sobeslavsky, O.

1980-01-01

145

Evaluation of multiple measures of antiretroviral adherence in the Eastern European country of Georgia  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is little information on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the Eastern European region. This prospective study evaluated multiple measures of adherence and their association with viral suppression among HIV patients in Georgia. Methods A prospective cohort study enrolled 100 consecutive antiretroviral-naïve adult (age ?18 years) patients, who were followed for three months. Adherence was assessed by medication refill and three self-report measures (an AIDS Clinical Trial Group [ACTG] tool for four-day adherence, a visual analogue scale [VAS] and a rating task for 30-day adherence). The VAS represented a line anchored by 0 and 100% corresponding to the percentage of prescribed doses taken. The rating task asked patients to rate their ability to take all medications as prescribed, with responses categorized into six levels of adherence: very poor (0%), poor (20%), fair (40%), good (60%), very good (80%) and excellent (100%). Patients with adherence of ?95% by medication refill, ACTG and VAS, and ?80% by rating task, were defined as adherent. Results Of 100 patients enrolled, eight had missing data and were excluded from analysis. Among the remaining 92 patients, the median age was 39 years, and 70% were men. Major modes of HIV acquisition were injection drug use (IDU; 47.3%) and heterosexual contact (44.1%). The proportions of adherent patients were as follows: 68% by medication refill, 90% by ACTG questionnaire, 38% by VAS and 42% by rating task. On average, four months after commencing ART, 52 (56.5%) patients had a viral load <400 copies/ml and 26 (28.3%) patients had a viral load <50 copies/ml. Of 43 persons with a history of IDU, 22 (51.2%) reached a viral load of <400 copies/ml. In multivariate analysis, only refill adherence was a statistically significant predictor of viral suppression of <400 copies/ml: the risk ratio was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1–2.8). Refill adherence, VAS and rating task were associated with viral suppression of <50 copies/ml. Non-IDUs were twice as likely to achieve viral load <50 copies/ml compared to IDUs. Refill adherence had the largest area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for predicting viral suppression. Conclusions Medication refill adherence was the strongest predictor of viral suppression. IDUs can achieve optimal virologic outcomes, but may require additional adherence support. PMID:24721464

Chkhartishvili, Nikoloz; Rukhadze, Nino; Svanidze, Mariam; Sharvadze, Lali; Dehovitz, Jack A; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; McNutt, Louise-Anne; del Rio, Carlos

2014-01-01

146

Stagnant Neonatal Mortality and Persistent Health Inequality in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country’s socioeconomic-related child health inequality. Methodology Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. Findings Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education), regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. Conclusion The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality – that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system – to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country inequalities in child health. PMID:23308278

Kraft, Aleli D.; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

2013-01-01

147

Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.  

PubMed

Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries. PMID:24973053

Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

2014-12-01

148

Field Evaluation of a Coproantigen Detection Test for Fascioliasis Diagnosis and Surveillance in Human Hyperendemic Areas of Andean Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA) was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. Methodology and Findings A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD) and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg) in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg), nor in Huacullani high burden cases (?400 epg), although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg). Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg). Conclusions The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase, early detection of treatment failure or reinfection in post-treated subjects, and usefulness in surveillance programs. However, this technique falls short when evaluating the fluke burden on its own. PMID:23029575

Valero, Maria Adela; Periago, Maria Victoria; Perez-Crespo, Ignacio; Angles, Rene; Villegas, Fidel; Aguirre, Carlos; Strauss, Wilma; Espinoza, Jose R.; Herrera, Patricia; Terashima, Angelica; Tamayo, Hugo; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Mas-Coma, Santiago

2012-01-01

149

BIQSFP-12-CEA-Study-Evaluation-Template  

Cancer.gov

BIQSFP ‘12 (Biomarker, Imaging, & Quality of Life Studies Funding Program) COST- EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS (CEA) Study Evaluation Template BIQSFP ‘12 CEA Study Evaluation Template 3/11,3/12 STUDY EVALUATION TEMPLATE Cost-Effectiveness

150

Detecting and Responding to a Dengue Outbreak: Evaluation of Existing Strategies in Country Outbreak Response Planning  

PubMed Central

Background. Dengue outbreaks are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Evidence-based epidemic preparedness and effective response are now a matter of urgency. Therefore, we have analysed national and municipal dengue outbreak response plans. Methods. Thirteen country plans from Asia, Latin America and Australia, and one international plan were obtained from the World Health Organization. The information was transferred to a data analysis matrix where information was extracted according to predefined and emerging themes and analysed for scope, inconsistencies, omissions, and usefulness. Findings. Outbreak response planning currently has a considerable number of flaws. Outbreak governance was weak with a lack of clarity of stakeholder roles. Late timing of responses due to poor surveillance, a lack of combining routine data with additional alerts, and lack of triggers for initiating the response weakened the functionality of plans. Frequently an outbreak was not defined, and early response mechanisms based on alert signals were neglected. There was a distinct lack of consideration of contextual influences which can affect how an outbreak detection and response is managed. Conclusion. A model contingency plan for dengue outbreak prediction, detection, and response may help national disease control authorities to develop their own more detailed and functional context specific plans. PMID:24222774

Kroeger, Axel; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; O'Dempsey, Tim

2013-01-01

151

Evaluating large-scale health programmes at a district level in resource-limited countries.  

PubMed

Recent experience in evaluating large-scale global health programmes has highlighted the need to consider contextual differences between sites implementing the same intervention. Traditional randomized controlled trials are ill-suited for this purpose, as they are designed to identify whether an intervention works, not how, when and why it works. In this paper we review several evaluation designs that attempt to account for contextual factors that contribute to intervention effectiveness. Using these designs as a base, we propose a set of principles that may help to capture information on context. Finally, we propose a tool, called a driver diagram, traditionally used in implementation that would allow evaluators to systematically monitor changing dynamics in project implementation and identify contextual variation across sites. We describe an implementation-related example from South Africa to underline the strengths of the tool. If used across multiple sites and multiple projects, the resulting driver diagrams could be pooled together to form a generalized theory for how, when and why a widely-used intervention works. Mechanisms similar to the driver diagram are urgently needed to complement existing evaluations of large-scale implementation efforts. PMID:22084529

Svoronos, Theodore; Mate, Kedar S

2011-11-01

152

Post-Implementation Evaluation of HealthCare Information Systems in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) project managers require accurate and reliable evaluation to allocate and control project resources. In addition, many private hospitals indicate that a number of their projects have failed; and between one and two thirds of ICT projects exceed their budget and time. Further, about half of the expensive ICT projects at the end will be considered

Hussein Al-Yaseen; Saheer Al-Jaghoub; Maher Al-Shorbaji; Maher Salim

153

Assessment in Finland: A Scholarly Reflection on One Country's Use of Formative, Summative, and Evaluative Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finland's high test scores have prompted international comparisons of educational policy. This article explores the use of assessment in Finland, particularly the intended use of student assessment and evaluation of schools as described in the National Curriculum. This article explores Finnish educational policy through the lens of formative and…

Hendrickson, Katie A.

2012-01-01

154

Selecting a Learning Management System (LMS) in Developing Countries: Instructors' Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning management systems (LMSs) contain hidden costs, unclear user environments, bulky developer and administration manuals, and limitations with regard to interoperability, integration, localization, and bandwidth requirements. Careful evaluation is required in selecting the most appropriate LMS for use, and this is a general problem in…

Cavus, Nadire

2013-01-01

155

Pharmacists remuneration models in iran and selected countries: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Pharmacists are members of the healthcare teams that provide valuable services to society. Their incentive to deliver such services is influenced by remuneration methods. In this study, we aimed to review the remuneration models for pharmacists' services and the factors affecting the profitability of pharmacies in some selected countries, including France, Ireland, Canada and Turkey, and compared them to Iran. International data were collected by literature review on Google, Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus. In addition, domestic data were collected by contacting relevant organizations. There is no payment for pharmacists' cognitive services in Iran and in the countries investigated, except for some Canadian provinces. The dispensing fee system in Iran does not seem to be adequate, especially considering that most of the insurers do not cover these fees. The pricing method in Iran has resulted in a low price level, in comparison to the other countries, and this issue has dramatically affected the profitability of pharmacies in standard practice. It could be concluded that changing the current formulation for the dispensing fee to a more appropriate one, defining a remuneration system for non-owner pharmacists other than salary and implementing the new pricing method are necessary in order to improve the services provided by pharmacies. PMID:24523777

Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Keshavarz, Khosro; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Vazirian, Iman; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

2013-01-01

156

An analysis of the determinants of investment in developing countries a case study of Iran (1970-93)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to identify the major determinants of private investment , along with the effects of such investments on other macroeconomic factors, in developing countries, using Iran as a case study. In this regard we identify a number of macroeconomic variables which played a major role in enhancing private investment in developing countries, and Iran in particular, between 1970

Ahmad Ghassemi

1996-01-01

157

Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality, responsible for 28% of neonatal deaths overall. The administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk of preterm birth is a powerful perinatal intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in resource rich environments. The effect of antenatal steroids to reduce mortality and morbidity among preterm infants in hospital settings in developed countries with high utilization is well established, yet they are not routinely used in developing countries. The impact of increasing antenatal steroid use in hospital or community settings with low utilization rates and high infant mortality among premature infants due to lack of specialized services has not been well researched. There is currently no clear evidence about the safety of antenatal corticosteroid use for community-level births. Methods We hypothesize that a multi country, two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multifaceted intervention to increase the use of antenatal corticosteroids, including components to improve the identification of pregnancies at high risk of preterm birth and providing and facilitating the appropriate use of steroids, will reduce neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm newborns, compared with the standard delivery of care in selected populations of six countries. 102 clusters in Argentina, Guatemala, Kenya, India, Pakistan, and Zambia will be randomized, and around 60,000 women and newborns will be enrolled. Kits containing vials of dexamethasone, syringes, gloves, and instructions for administration will be distributed. Improving the identification of women at high risk of preterm birth will be done by (1) diffusing recommendations for antenatal corticosteroids use to health providers, (2) training health providers on identification of women at high risk of preterm birth, (3) providing reminders to health providers on the use of the kits, and (4) using a color-coded tape to measure uterine height to estimate gestational age in women with unknown gestational age. In both intervention and control clusters, health providers will be trained in essential newborn care for low birth weight babies. The primary outcome is neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm infants. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01084096 PMID:22992312

2012-01-01

158

Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

2014-08-01

159

Sustainable Agricultural and Watershed Management in Developing Countries - An India Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of sustainable agricultural and watershed management is to enhance agricultural productivity while protecting and preserving our environment and natural resources. The vast majority of information on sustainable watershed management practices is primarily derived from studies in developed nations with very few inputs from developing nations. Through a USDA-funded project, the University of Delaware (UD) initiated a collaboration with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) located in Hyderabad, India to study sustainable agricultural management practices in developing countries and their impacts on the environment, crop productivity, and socioeconomic conditions of the watershed community. As a part of this project, ICRISAT provided us with a vast amount of data on sustainable agricultural practices and their impacts on runoff, soil and water quality, crop yields, nutrient management and socioeconomic conditions. Conservation practices that were implemented included check dams, groundwater recharge wells, intercropping, nutrient management, integrated pest management and a suite of other practices. Using this information, students and faculty at UD developed teaching modules that were used for education and enrichment of existing UD courses and are also being used for the development of a stand-alone online course. The students and faculty visited India in July 2010 to get a first-hand experience of the conditions in the agricultural watersheds and the impacts of sustainable management practices. The project was a tremendous learning experience for US students and faculty and highlighted the challenges people face in developing countries and how that affects every aspect of their lives. Such challenges include environmental, agricultural, technological, economic, and transportation. Although we experience many of the same challenges, developing countries do not have the technology or economic infrastructure in place to effectively manage these challenges. This presentation highlights: (a) the agricultural and environmental challenges facing developing countries like India; (b) the types of best management practices (BMPs) employed; (c) the impacts of the BMPs in the study watersheds; (d) the development of the online course and (e) the lessons and experiences of the students and faculty from their study visit to India.

Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.

2011-12-01

160

Econometric study of an oil-exporting country: the case of Iran  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study is to contribute toward an analytical and empirical work on the oil-based developing economy of Iran. It focuses on the aggregate behavior of the Iranian economy through a simple linear econometric model. After a survey of the literature on the theoretical framework of macroeconomic models for the developing countries in general, and for the oil-exporting developing countries in particular, a linear econometric model for the Iranian economy if formulated and its logical and economic aspects are explained. The proposed model consists of basic consumption, production, foreign trade, and employment relationship. Results obtained from the estimation of the consumption functions seem to indicate that the aggregate Iranian consumption behavior can be best explained by Fiedman's Permanent Income Hypothesis. In general, the results of this study demonstrate that the links between different sectors of the Iranian economy are very weak and the import-substitution strategy of the government during the period of study failed to establish a genuine domestic industrial base and to reduce its dependence on foreign resources.

Heiat, A.

1987-01-01

161

Students' perceptions and doubts about menstruation in developing countries: a case study from India.  

PubMed

Menstrual education is a vital aspect of adolescent health education. Culture, awareness, and socioeconomic status often exert profound influence on menstrual practices. However, health education programs for young women in developing countries do not often address menstrual hygiene, practices, and disorders. Developing culturally sensitive menstrual health education and hygiene programs for adolescent females has been recommended by professional health organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. These programs cannot be developed without understanding existing myths and perceptions about menstruation in adolescent females of developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study from India was to document existing misconceptions regarding menstruation and perceptions about menarche and various menstrual restrictions that have been understudied. Out of the 612 students invited to participate by asking questions, 381 girls participated by asking specific questions about menstruation (response rate = 62%). The respondents consisted of 84 girls from sixth grade, 117 from seventh grade, and 180 from eighth grade. The questions asked were arranged into the following subthemes: anatomy and physiology, menstrual symptoms, menstrual myths and taboos, health and beauty, menstrual abnormalities, seeking medical advice and home remedies; sanitary pads usage and disposal; diet and lifestyle; and sex education. Results of our study indicate that students had substantial doubts about menstruation and were influenced by societal myths and taboos in relation to menstrual practices. Parents, adolescent care providers, and policy makers in developing countries should advocate for comprehensive sexuality education and resources (e.g., low-cost sanitary pads and school facilities) to promote menstrual health and hygiene promotion. PMID:24618653

Chothe, Vikas; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Seabert, Denise; Asalkar, Mahesh; Rakshe, Sarika; Firke, Arti; Midha, Inuka; Simmons, Robert

2014-05-01

162

Measuring the Social Rate of Return to R&D in the Energy Industry: A Study of the OECD Countries  

E-print Network

1 Measuring the Social Rate of Return to R&D in the Energy Industry: A Study of the OECD Countries and development in the energy industry using a similar approach to Jones and Williams (1998). Our model tries and significant rate of return that varies for each country. Keywords: social rate of return to R&D, energy, R

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

163

Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

2011-01-01

164

Body image perceptions in Western and post-communist countries: a cross-cultural pilot study of children and parents.  

PubMed

The development of an unrealistic ideal body image and body size dissatisfaction among children is common in Western countries, including the USA and many European nations. However, little is known about children's body image perceptions in post-communist countries. This pilot study evaluated body image perceptions in a sample of Czech school-aged children and their parents and compared them with the perceptions of American children and parents. Ninety-seven Czech and 45 American 4th-6th graders and their parents from eight urban schools participated in this study. A previously developed silhouette body image instrument was utilized in a parent questionnaire and during child interviews to measure perceived and ideal body image perceptions of children and parents. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests and paired t-tests were used to compare differences between children's and parents' perceived and ideal body image perceptions. Associations between body image perceptions and other variables were explored using bivariate correlations. American children had a thinner ideal body image compared with Czech children (P < 0.05). However, a larger proportion of Czech boys desired to be thinner compared with American boys (34.2% vs. 20%). Parent's ideal body image for their children did not differ by nationality (P = 0.858). While the pressure on children to look thinner was apparent among both American and Czech children, Czech children considered a larger body size as more ideal. A future study should evaluate body image perceptions and factors influencing these perceptions in a representative sample of Czech children and parents. PMID:18582355

Humenikova, Lenka; Gates, Gail E

2008-07-01

165

Water import and transfer versus desalination in arid regions: GCC countries case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scarcity of water resources and the increasing gaps between demand and available supply in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries is a major challenging issue facing the development sectors. GCC countries have extremely dry climates with rare rainfall, high evaporation rates and limited non-renewable groundwater resources. At present all GCC countries except Oman fall in the critical water scarcity

Mohamed A. Dawoud

2011-01-01

166

Human Capital, Social Capital and Innovation: A Multi-Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of two forms of capital, i.e. human capital and social capital, on innovation at the country level. We use secondary data from the World Development Report on a country’s overall human development to test for a relationship between human capital and innovation. We also use previous conceptualisations of social capital as comprising trust, associational activity, and

Mourad Dakhli; Dirk De Clercq

2003-01-01

167

Evaluating the experience of GAPS--a methodology for improving quality of mass immunization campaigns in developing countries.  

PubMed

The existence of pockets of under-vaccinated persons has allowed outbreaks of disease in countries that have achieved high levels of vaccination coverage. A field-based methodology--GAPS (Geographic Assessment of Planning and Services)--was developed to predict, in advance of an immunization campaign, the sites of which are most likely to have a pocket of unvaccinated persons and then use this information to improve planning, supervision, and evaluation of the campaign. At this time, there have been two applications of GAPS (Nepal and Ethiopia). The purpose of this paper was to evaluate these two applications of GAPS and make recommendations regarding its future use. Structured, expert interviews were conducted with at least three campaign organizers to evaluate each application of GAPS using purposive sampling. An evaluation of an individual campaign was considered positive when at least two of the three campaign organizers considered GAPS to be useful and worthwhile. The three campaign organizers interviewed following the GAPS application in Ethiopia responded that GAPS was useful and worth the effort. In Nepal, all four campaign organizers responded that GAPS was useful and worth the effort. Some suggestions for improvement were also identified. Although this evaluation was limited in the number of applications evaluated, GAPS appears to have promise as a practical method to help improve the quality of mass immunization campaigns. And even if no pockets of unvaccinated persons are found, the method may serve as a rapid quality-check of administrative estimates of coverage. Further applications in different settings are needed to confirm these findings or under what circumstances GAPS might best be used. GAPS may also be considered for improving other types of health campaigns, such as distribution of insecticide-treated bednets, vitamin A capsules, and deworming medications. PMID:19902805

Weiss, William M; Burnham, Gilbert; Winch, Peter J

2009-10-01

168

Maternal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Term Birth Weight: A Multi-Country Evaluation of Effect and Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Background: A growing body of evidence has associated maternal exposure to air pollution with adverse effects on fetal growth; however, the existing literature is inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weight and low birth weight (LBW) across 14 centers from 9 countries, and to explore the influence of site characteristics and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in this association. Methods: Using a common analytical protocol, International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) centers generated effect estimates for term LBW and continuous birth weight associated with PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter ? 10 and 2.5 µm). We used meta-analysis to combine the estimates of effect across centers (~ 3 million births) and used meta-regression to evaluate the influence of center characteristics and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in reported effect estimates. Results: In random-effects meta-analyses, term LBW was positively associated with a 10-?g/m3 increase in PM10 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05] and PM2.5 (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) exposure during the entire pregnancy, adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status. A 10-?g/m3 increase in PM10 exposure was also negatively associated with term birth weight as a continuous outcome in the fully adjusted random-effects meta-analyses (–8.9 g; 95% CI: –13.2, –4.6 g). Meta-regressions revealed that centers with higher median PM2.5 levels and PM2.5:PM10 ratios, and centers that used a temporal exposure assessment (compared with spatiotemporal), tended to report stronger associations. Conclusion: Maternal exposure to particulate pollution was associated with LBW at term across study populations. We detected three site characteristics and aspects of exposure assessment methodology that appeared to contribute to the variation in associations reported by centers. PMID:23384584

Parker, Jennifer; Bell, Michelle L.; Bonzini, Matteo; Brauer, Michael; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana V.; Gouveia, Nelson; Ha, Eun-hee; Leem, Jong Han; van den Hooven, Edith H.; Jalaludin, Bin; Jesdale, Bill M.; Lepeule, Johanna; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Morgan, Geoffrey G.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pierik, Frank H.; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Rich, David Q.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Seo, Juhee; Slama, Remy; Strickland, Matthew; Tamburic, Lillian; Wartenberg, Daniel; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

2013-01-01

169

Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity, particularly in Morocco, will be a crucial first step. PMID:23230285

Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

2013-01-01

170

Risk factors for neonatal encephalopathy in Kathmandu, Nepal, a developing country: unmatched case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the risk factors for neonatal encephalopathy among term infants in a developing country. Design Unmatched case-control study. Setting Principal maternity hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal. Subjects All 131 infants with neonatal encephalopathy from a population of 21?609 infants born over an 18 month period, and 635 unmatched infants systematically recruited over 12 months. Main outcome measures Adjusted odds ratio estimates for antepartum and intrapartum risk factors. Results The prevalence of neonatal encephalopathy was 6.1 per 1000 live births of which 63% were infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy. The risk of death from neonatal encephalopathy was 31%. The risk of neonatal encephalopathy increased with increasing maternal age and decreasing maternal height. Antepartum risk factors included primiparity (odds ratio 2.0) and non-attendance for antenatal care (2.1). Multiple births were at greatly increased risk (22). Intrapartum risk factors included non-cephalic presentation (3.4), prolonged rupture of membranes (3.8), and various other complications. Particulate meconium was strongly associated with encephalopathy (18). Induction of labour with oxytocin was associated with encephalopathy in 12 of 41 deliveries (5.7). Overall, 78 affected infants (60%) compared with 36 controls (6%) either had evidence of intrapartum compromise or were born after an intrapartum difficulty likely to result in fetal compromise. A concentration of maternal haemoglobin of less than 8.0 g/dl in the puerperium was significantly associated with encephalopathy (2.5) as was a maternal thyroid stimulating hormone concentration greater than 5 mIU/l (2.1). Conclusions Intrapartum risk factors remain important for neonatal encephalopathy in developing countries. There is some evidence of a protective effect from antenatal care. The use of oxytocin in low income countries where intrapartum monitoring is suboptimal presents a major risk to the fetus. More work is required to explore the association between maternal deficiency states and neonatal encephalopathy. PMID:10797030

Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Nilu; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony M de L

2000-01-01

171

Migration as a form of workforce attrition: a nine-country study of pharmacists  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of evidence to inform policy development on the reasons why health professionals migrate. Few studies have sought to empirically determine factors influencing the intention to migrate and none have explored the relationship between factors. This paper reports on the first international attempt to investigate the migration intentions of pharmacy students and identify migration factors and their relationships. Methods Responses were gathered from 791 final-year pharmacy students from nine countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Croatia, Egypt, Portugal, Nepal, Singapore, Slovenia and Zimbabwe. Data were analysed by means of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and two-step cluster analysis to determine the relationships between factors influencing migration and the characteristics of subpopulations most likely and least likely to migrate. Results Results showed a significant difference in attitudes towards the professional and sociopolitical environment of the home country and perceptions of opportunities abroad between those who have no intention of migrating and those who intend to migrate on a long-term basis. Attitudes of students planning short-term migration were not significantly different from those of students who did not intend to migrate. These attitudes, together with gender, knowledge of other migrant pharmacists and past experiences abroad, are associated with an increased propensity for migration. Conclusion Given the influence of the country context and environment on migration intentions, research and policy should frame the issue of migration in the context of the wider human resource agenda, thus viewing migration as one form of attrition and a symptom of other root causes. Remuneration is not an independent stand-alone factor influencing migration intentions and cannot be decoupled from professional development factors. Comprehensive human resource policy development that takes into account the issues of both remuneration and professional development are necessary to encourage retention. PMID:19358704

Wuliji, Tana; Carter, Sarah; Bates, Ian

2009-01-01

172

Cessation assistance reported by smokers in 15 countries participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) policy evaluation surveys  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe some of the variability across the world in levels of quit smoking attempts and use of various forms of cessation support. Design Use of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys of smokers, using the 2007 survey wave (or later, where necessary). Settings Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Ireland, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Thailand, UK, Uruguay and USA. Measures Self-report on use of cessation aids and on visits to health professionals and provision of cessation advice during the visits. Findings Prevalence of quit attempts in the last year varied from under 20% to over 50% across countries. Similarly, smokers varied greatly in reporting of visiting health professionals in the last year (< 20% to over 70%), and among those who did, provision of advice to quit also varied greatly. There was also marked variability in the levels and types of help reported. Use of medication was generally more common than use of behavioural support, except where medications are not readily available. Conclusions There is wide variation across countries in rates of attempts to stop smoking and use of assistance with higher overall use of medication than behavioural support. There is also wide variation in the provision of brief advice to stop by health professionals. PMID:21883605

Borland, Ron; Li, Lin; Driezen, Pete; Wilson, Nick; Hammond, David; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Mons, Ute; Willemsen, Marc C.; McNeill, Ann; Thrasher, James F.; Cummings, K. Michael

2011-01-01

173

Alcohol consumption and social inequality at the individual and country levels--results from an international study  

PubMed Central

Background: International comparisons of social inequalities in alcohol use have not been extensively investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol consumption in 33 countries. Methods: Data on 101?525 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 33 countries of the GENACIS study were used. Individual SES was measured by highest attained educational level. Alcohol use measures included drinking status and monthly risky single occasion drinking (RSOD). The relationship between individuals’ education and drinking indicators was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step the individual level data and country data were combined and tested in multilevel models. As country level indicators we used the Purchasing Power Parity of the gross national income, the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: For both genders and all countries higher individual SES was positively associated with drinking status. Also higher country level SES was associated with higher proportions of drinkers. Lower SES was associated with RSOD among men. Women of higher SES in low income countries were more often RSO drinkers than women of lower SES. The opposite was true in higher income countries. Conclusion: For the most part, findings regarding SES and drinking in higher income countries were as expected. However, women of higher SES in low and middle income countries appear at higher risk of engaging in RSOD. This finding should be kept in mind when developing new policy and prevention initiatives. PMID:22562712

Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard; Bloomfield, Kim

2013-01-01

174

Improving energy data collection and analysis in developing countries: a comparative study in Uganda, Liberia, and Sudan  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the resources (funds, analytic equipment and trained personnel) available for collecting and analyzing data in energy planning agencies and organizations in three African countries: Uganda, Liberia, and Sudan. It examines the quality of national energy assessments and energy supply/demand statements conducted in each of these countries. The objectives of this study were: (a) to make recommendations regarding specific training needs in the three countries included in the analysis; and (b) to make observations about planning activities and data collection and analysis problems in these countries that might have application in other countries involved in energy data collection and analysis activities. The methodology consisted of conducting structured interviews with host government personnel in ministries/agencies who participate in energy planning activities in each country, as well as with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) staff members associated with energy planning projects in these countries. Data quality was analyzed and the findings identified a number of analytic and institutional problems common to the countries examined. It delineated criteria that contributed to the success or failure of planning activities.

Burchfield, S.A.

1986-01-01

175

The inverse relation of average population blood pressure and stroke mortality rates in the seven countries study: A paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to explain the unexpected finding of an inverse population (ecological) relationship between mean systolic blood pressure levels and stroke death rates in 25 years follow-up of the Seven Countries Study, a cross-cultural study of cardiovascolar disease. Sixteen cohorts of all men aged 40–59 in seven countries (one cohort in the USA, two in Finland, one in the

Alessandro Menotti; Henry Blackburn; Daan Kromhout; Aulikki Nissinen; Martti Karvonen; Christ Aravanis; Anastasios Dontas; Flaminio Fidanza; Simona Giampaoli

1997-01-01

176

Who Uses Smoking Cessation Apps? A Feasibility Study Across Three Countries via Smartphones  

PubMed Central

Background Smartphone use is growing worldwide. While hundreds of smoking cessation apps are currently available in the app stores, there is no information about who uses them. Smartphones also offer potential as a research tool, but this has not previously been explored. Objective This study aims to measure and compare the uptake of a smoking cessation app over one year in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also assesses the feasibility of conducting research via an app, describing respondents’ characteristics (demographics, smoking status, and other health related app use), and examining differences across countries. Methods This is a cross-sectional exploratory study of adults 18 years and older, passively recruited over one year in 2012, who downloaded this study app (Quit Advisor) via the two largest app stores (Apple and Android). Results The total number of app downloads after one year was 1751, 72.98% (1278/1751) of them were Apple operation system users. Of these 1751 participants, 47.68% (835/1751) were from the United States, 29.18% (511/1751) were from the United Kingdom, and 16.68% (292/1751) were from Australia. There were 602 participants, 36.75% (602/1638) that completed a questionnaire within the app. Of these 602 participants, 58.8% (354/602) were female and the mean age was 32 years. There were no significant differences between countries in terms of age, operation system used, number of quitting attempts, and language spoken at home. However, there were significant differences between countries in terms of gender and stage of change. There were 77.2% (465/602) of the respondents that were ready to quit in the next 30 days and the majority of these had never sought professional help (eg, “Quitline”). More than half had downloaded smoking cessation apps in the past and of these, three-quarters had made quitting attempts (lasted at least 24 hours) using an app before. Respondents who had attempted to quit three times or more in the previous year were more likely to have tried smoking cessation apps (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1-5.2). There were 50.2% (302/602) of the respondents that had used other health related apps before. Of these, 89.4% (270/302) were using health related apps at least once a week, but 77.5% (234/302) never checked the credibility of the health app publishers before downloading. Conclusions A smartphone app was able to reach smokers across three countries that were not seeking professional help, but were ready to quit within the next 30 days. Respondents were relatively young and almost demographically similar across all three countries. They also frequently used other health related apps, mostly without checking the credibility of their publishers. PMID:25098439

McGeechan, Kevin; Trevena, Lyndal

2014-01-01

177

Global Inequality in Eye Health: Country-Level Analysis From the Global Burden of Disease Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed global inequality in eye health by using data on the global burden of disease measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods. We estimated the burden of eye disease by calculating the sum of DALYs (from the Global Burden of Disease study, 2004 update) due to trachoma, vitamin A deficiency, glaucoma, cataract, refractive errors, and macular degeneration. We assessed the geographic distribution of eye disease in relation to economic status and etiology by calculating the Gini coefficient, the Theil index, and the Atkinson index. Results. The global burden of eye disease was estimated at 61.4 million DALYs worldwide (4.0% of total DALYs). Vitamin A deficiency and trachoma were distributed more unevenly than were noncommunicable eye diseases, regardless of economic status. For noncommunicable eye diseases, the major contributor was refractive errors, regardless of economic status. The most uneven distribution was observed for cataract (high-income countries) and refractive errors (middle- and low-income countries). Conclusions. Creating new eye health service for refractive errors and reducing the unacceptable eye health disparity in refractive errors should be the highest priorities for international public health services in eye care and eye health. PMID:20634443

Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Murakami, Akira

2010-01-01

178

How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the Medical Course in Portugal and African Portuguese Speaking Countries  

PubMed Central

Background A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. Methods The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. Results The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p < 0.001) and Professional Behavior (p = 0.043). Conclusions The reliability of the instrument in Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some weaknesses. PMID:21612609

2011-01-01

179

The IEA Six Subject Survey: An Empirical Study of Education in Twenty-One Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to describe in nontechnical language the objectives, methods and findings of the six subject study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement during the years 1966-1973. The six subjects covered in the study were Science, Reading Comprehension, Literature, English as a…

Walker, David A.

180

National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.  

PubMed

Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

2012-03-01

181

Evaluation of the quality of informed consent in a vaccine field trial in a developing country setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Informed consent is an ethical and legal requirement for research involving human participants. However, few studies have evaluated the process, particularly in Africa. Participants in a case control study designed to identify correlates of immune protection against tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa. This study was in turn nested in a large TB vaccine efficacy trial. The aim of the

Deon Minnies; Tony Hawkridge; Willem Hanekom; Rodney Ehrlich; Leslie London; Greg Hussey

2008-01-01

182

Exploring the transition to DRGs in Developing Countries: A case study in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Objective: With the success of DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) in developing countries, this prospective payment system has been imported into China from the early 21st century. However, DRGs has been struggling and has made little progress since (its adoption in) 2004. This study contributes to the debate on how to bridge the pay-for-service (system/scheme) and DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) during the transitional period of payment reform in China. Methods: From 2008 to 2012, sixty regional general hospitals in Shanghai were divided into three groups according to their economic level, and one hospital was picked from each group randomly. After ranking of morbidity, 22130 patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease were chosen as sample. Using multiple linear regression analysis, the inter relationships between the total medical expenses of the inpatients, and age, gender of the inpatients, length of stay, region and economic level of the hospitals were examined. Results: The main findings were (1) Age, LOS and the economic level of treatment location had a statistically significant impact on patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease. However, gender is only a significant factor to patients with coronary heart disease. The results suggested that age, LOS and the economic level of treatment location should be considered in formulating pricing standards for the hypertension patient group. Besides the above mentioned factors, gender should also be considered in formulating pricing standards for the coronary heart disease patient group. (2) Under the premise of limited resources, developing countries should first narrow down to screen for common and frequently occurring diseases, then study the key factors which affect the treatment cost of the diseases. Conclusion: Simplification of the DRGs standard- setting process based on standardized clinical pathways and accurate costing will greatly increase the efficiency of implementing DRGs in the developing world. PMID:24772121

Wang, Zhaoxin; Liu, Rui; Li, Ping; Jiang, Chenghua

2014-01-01

183

Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

1980-01-01

184

Value Orientations and Studying in School-Leisure Conflict: A Study with Samples from Five Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relations between students' value orientations and experiences of motivational interference during studying following conflicts between learning and leisure activities were investigated in a self-report study. Overall, 1075 adolescents, mostly from Catholic schools, in Bosnia-Herzegovina (n = 203), India (n = 200), Paraguay (n = 96), Spain (n…

Hofer, Manfred; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan; Zivkovic, Ilija; Dietz, Franziska

2009-01-01

185

Psychological distress among patients of an orthopaedic outpatient clinic: a study from a low-income country  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression is common among general trauma patients and is associated with a poor outcome. We evaluated the relationship of psychological distress to physical injury, musculoskeletal complaints, and social factors in a low-income country. METHODS: We administered the Self-Rating Questionnaire (SRQ), the Oslo social support questionnaire, and the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ). RESULTS: An SRQ score of 9 or more,

Nusrat Husain; Syed M Humail; Imran B Chaudhry; Raza Rahman; Holly Robinson; Francis Creed

2010-01-01

186

Bias in Terms of Culture and a Method for Reducing It: An Eight-Country "Explanations of Unemployment Scale" Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several sources of bias can plague research data and individual assessment. When cultural groups are considered, across or even within countries, it is essential that the constructs assessed and evaluated are as free as possible from any source of bias and specifically from bias caused due to culturally specific characteristics. Employing the…

Mylonas, Kostas; Furnham, Adrian; Divale, William; Leblebici, Cigdem; Gondim, Sonia; Moniz, Angela; Grad, Hector; Alvaro, Jose Luis; Cretu, Romeo Zeno; Filus, Ania; Boski, Pawel

2014-01-01

187

Immigrant generation, socioeconomic status, and economic development of countries of origin: a longitudinal study of body mass index among children.  

PubMed

Prior research has yielded mixed evidence of a relationship between immigrant generational status or acculturation and overweight or obesity among children of immigrants. This study examined socioeconomic status (SES) and economic development of the sending country as additional factors influencing children body mass index (BMI) and as moderating the relationship between parental generational status and BMI. Using data from the kindergarten cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (N=16,664 children) carried out in the USA, the research estimated growth curve models and tested the significance of interaction terms between generational status (i.e., children of the 1.0 generation, who arrived at age 12 or older; children of the 1.5 generation, who arrived between the ages of birth and 11; and children of natives), SES, and the country of origin's gross domestic product per capita. Results indicate that the children of the 1.0 generation from higher-income countries tended to gain more weight than children from lower-income countries. The relationship between family SES and weight gain was positive among the first-generation children and stronger among those from lower-income countries than from higher-income countries. Weight gain was positively associated with generation only among lower SES children from low-income countries. It was negatively associated with generation for higher SES children from low-income countries. The results are consistent with a conceptual model of BMI assimilation that links global nutrition patterns to the levels and socioeconomic variations in BMI among the 1.0-generation and their children, and conceptualizes assimilation as occurring within socioeconomic strata. This approach leads to the expectation that overweight is likely to be positively associated with generation among those from low-income countries (as measured by GDP/capita) with low SES but negatively associated among those from low-income countries with high SES. PMID:17570571

Van Hook, Jennifer; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper

2007-09-01

188

A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYTICAL STUDY OF REGIONAL TELEVISION COOPERATION AMONG ARABIAN GULF COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arab countries in the Arabian Gulf area which are members of the Gulf Cooperative Council are now undergoing a unique mass media cooperation. These countries are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Besides a good political relationship between their respective governments, they share the same culture, religion, historical background, language, racial stock, land, environment,

HAMZA AHMAD BAIT-ALMAL

1986-01-01

189

Improving Elementary Science Education in a Developing Country: A Case Study From Fiji  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improved science education is seen as an important goal for many developing countries. The role of elementary science is of particular importance, given that research has shown a high correlation between economic growth and the time spent on elementary science education. However, the teaching of science in many developing countries is dominated by…

Taylor, Neil; Maiwaikatakata, Tema; Biukoto, Emele; Suluma, Wili; Coll, Richard K.

2008-01-01

190

Lessons Learned from the Advanced Developing Countries. GENESYS Special Studies No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the experience of development in the advanced developing countries in Asia from a gender perspective and draws some lessons for women in development policy in middle income countries in the Asian and Near East regions. The nature of the paper is exploratory, asking many questions on which further research and information are…

Joekes, Susan P.

191

Productivity Dynamics in a Large Sample of Countries: A Panel Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research shows that productivity differences are more important than differences in accumulation rates in explaining per capita income differences across countries. So far static differences in productivity have been mainly computed and analyzed in large samples of countries. This paper extends the research by focusing on productivity dynamics. It uses the panel approach to compute productivity indices for a

Nazrul Islam

2003-01-01

192

Redefining Entrepreneurial Learning Paradigms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a rapidly changing world of knowledge exchange, innovation and technological advancements, entrepreneurship continues to fuel economic growth in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, an increased influx of graduate entrepreneurs sustains economic growth whilst, in contrast, developing countries continue to suffer from…

Owusu-Manu, D.; Afrane, S. K.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.; Brown, M.

2013-01-01

193

Measures of social class based on education for use in health studies in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the appropriateness of education, compared to occupation and income, as a measure of social class for use in health-related studies in developing societies in transition. Three evaluation criteria were used, namely, the feasibility of constructing the measure, its sensitivity in reflecting relevant social class life conditions, and its ability to produce a family-level measure of

H Zurayk; S Halabi; M Deeb

1987-01-01

194

Developing social capital in implementing a complex intervention: a process evaluation of the early implementation of a suicide prevention intervention in four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Variation in the implementation of complex multilevel interventions can impact on their delivery and outcomes. Few suicide prevention interventions, especially multilevel interventions, have included evaluation of both the process of implementation as well as outcomes. Such evaluation is essential for the replication of interventions, for interpreting and understanding outcomes, and for improving implementation science. This paper reports on a process evaluation of the early implementation stage of an optimised suicide prevention programme (OSPI-Europe) implemented in four European countries. Methods The process analysis was conducted within the framework of a realist evaluation methodology, and involved case studies of the process of implementation in four European countries. Datasets include: repeated questionnaires to track progress of implementation including delivery of individual activities and their intensity; serial interviews and focus groups with stakeholder groups; and detailed observations at OSPI implementation team meetings. Results Analysis of local contexts in each of the four countries revealed that the advisory group was a key mechanism that had a substantial impact on the ease of implementation of OSPI interventions, particularly on their ability to recruit to training interventions. However, simply recruiting representatives of key organisations into an advisory group is not sufficient to achieve impact on the delivery of interventions. In order to maximise the potential of high level ‘gatekeepers’, it is necessary to first transform them into OSPI stakeholders. Motivations for OSPI participation as a stakeholder included: personal affinity with the shared goals and target groups within OSPI; the complementary and participatory nature of OSPI that adds value to pre-existing suicide prevention initiatives; and reciprocal reward for participants through access to the extended network capacity that organisations could accrue for themselves and their organisations from participation in OSPI. Conclusions Exploring the role of advisory groups and the meaning of participation for these participants revealed some key areas for best practice in implementation: careful planning of the composition of the advisory group to access target groups; the importance of establishing common goals; the importance of acknowledging and complementing existing experience and activity; and facilitating an equivalence of benefit from network participation. PMID:23425005

2013-01-01

195

Assessing emergency medical care in low income countries: A pilot study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Emergency Medical Care is an important component of health care system. Unfortunately it is however, ignored in many low income countries. We assessed the availability and quality of facility-based emergency medical care in the government health care system at district level in a low income country – Pakistan. Methods We did a quantitative pilot study of a convenience sample of 22 rural and 20 urban health facilities in 2 districts – Faisalabad and Peshawar – in Pakistan. The study consisted of three separate cross-sectional assessments of selected community leaders, health care providers, and health care facilities. Three data collection instruments were created with input from existing models for facility assessment such as those used by the Joint Commission of Accreditation of Hospitals and the National Center for Health Statistics in USA and the Medical Research Council in Pakistan. Results The majority of respondents 43/44(98%), in community survey were not satisfied with the emergency care provided. Most participants 36/44(82%) mentioned that they will not call an ambulance in health related emergency because it does not function properly in the government system. The expenses on emergency care for the last experience were reported to be less than 5,000 Pakistani Rupees (equivalent to US$ 83) for 19/29(66%) respondents. Most health care providers 43/44(98%) were of the opinion that their facilities were inadequately equipped to treat emergencies. The majority of facilities 31/42(74%) had no budget allocated for emergency care. A review of medications and equipment available showed that many critical supplies needed in an emergency were not found in these facilities. Conclusion Assessment of emergency care should be part of health systems analysis in Pakistan. Multiple deficiencies in emergency care at the district level in Pakistan were noted in our study. Priority should be given to make emergency care responsive to needs in Pakistan. Specific efforts should be directed to equip emergency care at district facilities and to organize an ambulance network. PMID:18598353

Razzak, Junaid A; Hyder, Adnan A; Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mubashir; Khan, Uzma R

2008-01-01

196

Philippines: Environment and natural resource management study. World Bank country study  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the most significant issues of natural-resource management in the Philippines. These include the disappearence or degradation of forests; erosion and changes in hydrological regimes; the conversion of mangrove swamps to fishponds; degradation of coral reefs; and depletion of nearshore fisheries through overfishing and destructive techniques. The issues addressed concern the extent and rate of degradation of these resource stocks, the impact thereof on the national economy, and the scope for ameliorative measures through policy responses, management changes, and investments. The Government is responsible for management of public resources, which include over half of the land area of the Philippines as well as the coastal waters. Historically, public management has been less than optimal, as evidenced by an unsustainable rate of deforestation and the recent stagnation or decline in extractive fisheries.

Not Available

1989-01-01

197

Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular. PMID:20550647

2010-01-01

198

The multinational transfer of competency-based foster parent assessment, selection, and training: a nine-country case study.  

PubMed

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child mandates (Articles 19 and 20) that alternative care be available to protect children from maltreatment by parents and caregivers. Increasingly, countries around the world have recognized the benefits to child well-being of family-based care as an alternative to institutional care. The special if not extraordinary needs of children separated from parents because of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment and placed with foster families requires a commensurate effort to develop foster families who have special if not extraordinary skills. Methods that are effective and replicable across countries offer significant advantages, reducing investments in policies and practices that otherwise would have to be developed independently, country by country. This case study describes the factors that contributed to the transfer of knowledge in the assessment, selection, and training of foster parents and the impact to date. PMID:11678420

Herczog, M; van Pagée, R; Pasztor, E M

2001-01-01

199

Modelling energy-economy interactions in small developing countries : a case study of Sri Lanka  

E-print Network

This report is addressed at modelling energy-economy interactions in small developing countries, those with populations less than 20 million or so and where neither the industrial or energy sectors are dominant. The overall ...

Blitzer, Charles R.

1985-01-01

200

Tenements : dwellings for the urban poor. Comparative study illustrating 28 cases in developing countries  

E-print Network

Tenements are significant systems that provide habitation to the poor in most of the urban areas of the developing countries. Yet, tenements are practically ignored if not prohibited by the public sector and consequently ...

Aliman, Isam Mohammad

1981-01-01

201

End-of-life decision-making in six European countries: descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Empirical data about end-of-life decision-making practices are scarce. We aimed to investigate frequency and characteristics of end-of-life decision-making practices in six European countries: Belgium, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. Methods In all participating countries, deaths reported to death registries were stratified for cause (apart from in Switzerland), and samples were drawn from every stratum. Reporting doctors

Agnes van der Heide; Luc Deliens; Karin Faisst; Tore Nilstun; Michael Norup; Eugenio Paci; Gerrit van der Wal; Paul J van der Maas

202

Psychosocial correlates of substance use in adolescence: A cross-national study in six European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine the psychosocial correlates of substance use among adolescents in six European countries. Design: Cross-sectional school population survey (ESPAD) based on standardized methodological procedures. Setting: High schools in six European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Slovenia and UK. Participants: Representative samples of a total sample of 16,445 high school students whose 16th birthday fell in the year of

Anna Kokkevi; Clive Richardson; Silvia Florescu; Marina Kuzman; Eva Stergar

2007-01-01

203

Agricultural investment and international land deals: evidence from a multi-country study in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent spikes in world food and energy prices have fostered renewed momentum for agricultural investment in lower and middle-income\\u000a countries. Governments in some food-importing countries are promoting the acquisition of land overseas as a means to ensure\\u000a long-term national food security. Businesses are recognizing new opportunities for strong returns from international investments\\u000a in agriculture for food, fuel and other agricultural

Lorenzo Cotula; Sonja Vermeulen; Paul Mathieu; Camilla Toulmin

2011-01-01

204

Iron-Fortified Drinking Water Studies for the Prevention of Children's Anemia in Developing Countries.  

PubMed

Anemia and iron deficiency should receive special attention considering their high prevalence and serious consequences. For prevention, globally it is recommended to increase dietary iron intake, iron fortification of industrialized foods, and medical iron supplementation. Food fortification for the prevention of iron deficiency in developing countries should consider carriers locally available and consumed daily, requiring limited infrastructure and technology. Drinking water is the iron carrier we have been working for years for the prevention of iron deficiency and anemia in small children in Brazil. It was shown that studies with iron-fortified drinking water were proved to be effective on children's anemia prevention. Water is found everywhere, consumed daily by everyone may be easily fortified with simple technology, is low priced and was effective on the prevention of children's anemia. Fortification of drinking water with iron was locally implemented with the direct participation of the government and community. Government authorities, health personnel and population were part of the project and responsible for its community implementation. The mayor/municipality permitted and supported the proposal to supply it to children at their day-care centers. To keep the children drinking water iron fortified supply an officially authorized legislation was also approved. PMID:21826263

Dutra-de-Oliveira, Jose E; Marchini, J Sergio; Lamounier, Joel; Almeida, Carlos A N

2011-01-01

205

Molecular study of the rhodopsin gene in retinitis pigmentosa patients in the Basque Country.  

PubMed Central

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative disorder affecting the outer segment of the retina and leading to night blindness and progressive visual field loss. The rhodopsin gene encodes a photolabile pigment located in the rod outer segments constituting around 80-90% of its protein content and is the initiation point for the visual cascade upon absorption of a single photon. Seventy-five unrelated, isolated RP families in the Basque Country, with at least one affected member, were diagnosed at our hospital after ophthalmic examination and electroretinogram analysis. The patients received genetic counselling according to their individual case based on their clinical diagnosis. The modes of inheritance found from pedigree studies were the following: 20% (15/75) were classified as autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP), 17.33% (13/75) were autosomal recessive (ARRP), 2.66% (2/75) were unclassified (NC), and 60% (45/75) were sporadic cases (SCRP). From these families, 75 unrelated and affected index cases together with 22 affected relatives and 42 unaffected relatives were screened for mutations in the rhodopsin gene by GC clamped denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that five ADRP, three ARRP, 15 SCRP, and one NC families had alterations in this gene. Only three of these alterations, that is 4% (3/75) (95% CL 0-8), appeared to be responsible for the disease. This represents a lower percentage than the 10% previously reported. PMID:9610801

Alvarez, A I; Arostegui, E; Martin, R; Duran, M; Onaindia, M L; Molina, M; Tejada, M I

1998-01-01

206

Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.

Henry, Rotich K. [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Zhao Yongsheng [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)]. E-mail: zhaoyongsheng@jlu.edu.cn; Dong Jun [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)

2006-07-01

207

Social Studies. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of 11 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 3-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

208

A History of Abuse and Operative Delivery - Results from a European Multi-Country Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult. Design The Bidens study, a cohort study in six European countries (Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden) recruited 6724 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care. History of abuse was assessed through questionnaire and linked to obstetric information from hospital records. The main outcome measure was operative delivery as a dichotomous variable, and categorized as an elective caesarean section (CS), or an operative vaginal birth, or an emergency CS. Non-obstetrically indicated were CSs performed on request or for psychological reasons without another medical reason. Binary and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. Results Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (?18 years) increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28–3.49), and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24–11.24). Women expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46–11.3). Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood <18 years), nor sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416 multiparous women, neither sexual, nor emotional abuse was significantly associated with any kind of operative delivery, while physical abuse had an increased AOR for emergency CS of 1.51 (1.05–2.19). Conclusion Sexual abuse as an adult increases the risk of an elective CS among women with no prior birth experience, in particular for non-obstetrical reasons. Among multiparous women, a history of physical abuse increases the risk of an emergency CS. PMID:24498142

Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Karro, Helle; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Laanpere, Made; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Tabor, Ann; Temmerman, Marleen; Van Parys, An-Sofie; Wangel, Anne-Marie; Steingrimsdottir, Thora

2014-01-01

209

Barriers of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development and Implementation in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Knowledge products such as clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are vitally required for evidence-based medicine (EBM). Although the EBM, to some extent, has been attended during recent years, no result has achieved thus far. The current qualitative study is to identify the barriers to establishing development system and implementation of CPGs in Iran. Methods: Twelve semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of health policy and decision makers, the experts of development and or adaptation of CPGs, and the experts of EBM education and development. In addition, 11 policy-makers, decision-makers, and managers of the health system participated in a focus group discussion. The analysis of the study data was undertaken by thematic framework approach. Result: Six themes emerged in order of their frequency include practice environment, evidence-based health care system, individual professional, politician and political context, innovation (CPG) and patients. Most of the indications in the treatment environment focused on such sub-themes as regulations and rules, economical factors, organizational context, and social context. While the barriers related to the conditions of treatment environment, service provider and the features of innovation and patients had been identified before in other studies, very little attention has been paid to the evidence-based health care system and politician and political context Conclusion: The lack of an evidence-based healthcare system and a political macro support are mentioned as the key barriers in Iran as a developing country. The establishment of a system of development and implementation of CPGs as the evidence-based practice tools will not be possible, unless the barriers are removed. PMID:23626892

Baradaran-Seyed, Zahra; Nedjat, Sima; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza

2013-01-01

210

Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external radiation with a total follow-up of 5.2 million person years. Main outcome measurements Estimates of excess relative risks per sievert (Sv) of radiation dose for mortality from cancers other than leukaemia and from leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the main causes of death considered by radiation protection authorities. Results The excess relative risk for cancers other than leukaemia was 0.97 per Sv, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.97. Analyses of causes of death related or unrelated to smoking indicate that, although confounding by smoking may be present, it is unlikely to explain all of this increased risk. The excess relative risk for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 1.93 per Sv (< 0 to 8.47). On the basis of these estimates, 1-2% of deaths from cancer among workers in this cohort may be attributable to radiation. Conclusions These estimates, from the largest study of nuclear workers ever conducted, are higher than, but statistically compatible with, the risk estimates used for current radiation protection standards. The results suggest that there is a small excess risk of cancer, even at the low doses and dose rates typically received by nuclear workers in this study. PMID:15987704

Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Solano, J Bernar; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Sacristan, A Diez; Eklof, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

2005-01-01

211

Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

2003-01-01

212

Pandemic influenza in Papua New Guinea: a modelling study comparison with pandemic spread in a developed country  

PubMed Central

Objectives The possible occurrence of a highly pathogenic influenza strain is of concern to health authorities worldwide. It is known that during past influenza pandemics developing countries have experienced considerably higher death rates compared with developed countries. Furthermore, many developing countries lack appropriate pandemic preparedness plans. Mathematical modelling studies to guide the development of such plans are largely focused on predicting pandemic influenza spread in developed nations. However, intervention strategies shown by modelling studies to be highly effective for developed countries give limited guidance as to the impact which an influenza pandemic may have on low-income countries given different demographics and resource constraints. To address this, an individual-based model of a Papua New Guinean (PNG) community was created and used to simulate the spread of a novel influenza strain. The results were compared with those obtained from a comparable Australian model. Design A modelling study. Setting The towns of Madang in PNG (population ?35?000) and Albany (population ?30?000) in Australia. Outcome measures Daily and cumulative illness attack rates in both models following introduction of a novel influenza strain into a naive population, for an unmitigated scenario and two social distancing intervention scenarios. Results The unmitigated scenario indicated an approximately 50% higher attack rate in PNG compared with the Australian model. The two social distancing-based interventions strategies were 60–70% less effective in a PNG setting compared with an Australian setting. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that an influenza pandemic occurring in a low-income country such as PNG may have a greater impact than one occurring in a developed country, and that PNG-feasible interventions may be substantially less effective. The larger average household size in PNG, the larger proportion of the population under 18 and greater community-wide contact all contribute to this feature. PMID:23535701

Milne, George J; Baskaran, Pravin; Halder, Nilimesh; Karl, Stephan; Kelso, Joel

2013-01-01

213

Contradictions and conflict: A meta-ethnographic study of migrant women's experiences of breastfeeding in a new country  

PubMed Central

Background Studies report mixed findings about rates of both exclusive and partial breastfeeding amongst women who are migrants or refugees in high income countries. It is important to understand the beliefs and experiences that impact on migrant and refugee women’s infant feeding decisions in order to appropriately support women to breastfeed in a new country. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a meta-ethnographic study that explored migrant and refugee women’s experiences and practices related to breastfeeding in a new country. Methods CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library with Full Text databases were searched for the period January 2000 to May 2012. Out of 2355 papers retrieved 11 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was undertaken using the analytic strategies and theme synthesis techniques of reciprocal translation and refutational investigation. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Results Eight qualitative studies and three studies reporting both qualitative and quantitative data were included and one overarching theme emerged: ‘Breastfeeding in a new country: facing contradictions and conflict’. This theme comprised four sub-themes ‘Mother’s milk is best’; ‘Contradictions and conflict in breastfeeding practices’; ‘Producing breast milk requires energy and good health’; and ‘The dominant role of female relatives’. Migrant women who valued, but did not have access to, traditional postpartum practices, were more likely to cease breastfeeding. Women reported a clash between their individual beliefs and practices and the dominant practices in the new country, and also a tension with family members either in the country of origin or in the new country. Conclusion Migrant women experience tensions in their breastfeeding experience and require support from professionals who can sensitively address their individual needs. Strategies to engage grandmothers in educational opportunities may offer a novel approach to breastfeeding support. PMID:23270315

2012-01-01

214

Decisions concerning potentially life-sustaining treatments in paediatric nephrology: a multicentre study in French-speaking countries  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have looked at the way in which decisions to withhold or to withdraw potential life-sustaining treatments (LST) are taken in paediatric nephrology. The aim of this work was to evaluate such practices in all nephrology centres in French-speaking European countries, so that guidelines could be drawn up and discussed by professionals. Methods Semi-directed interviews were used to question health-care professionals prospectively. We also retrospectively analysed the medical files of all children (n= 50) for whom a decision to withhold or to withdraw LST had been taken in the last five years. The doctors (n=31) who had been involved in the decision-making process were interviewed. Results All 31 of the French-speaking paediatric nephrology centres in Europe were included in this study. Eighteen of these centres had made decisions about whether to withhold or to withdraw LST in the previous five years. Subsequent quality of life, based on long-term living conditions, was the principal criterion used to make decisions. Criteria affecting relational aspects of life and the child’s prognosis were also considered. The decision-making processes (DMP) were not always collective even though interactions between doctors and the rest of the medical team seemed to be a key element. The parents’ involvement in the DMP differed between centres. Conclusions The criteria used to decide whether to withhold or to withdraw LST are not standardised and no specific guidelines have been established. PMID:14993486

Fauriel, Isabelle; Moutel, Gregoire; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Montuclard, Luc; Duchange, Nathalie; Callies, Ingrid; Francois, Irene; Cochat, Pierre; Herve, Christian

2004-01-01

215

Systemic antibiotic prescribing to paediatric outpatients in 5 European countries: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the utilisation of antibiotics in children and adolescents across 5 European countries based on the same drug utilisation measures and age groups. Special attention was given to age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups, since comparison in this regard between countries is lacking so far. Methods Outpatient paediatric prescriptions of systemic antibiotics during the years 2005-2008 were analysed using health care databases from the UK, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy and Germany. Annual antibiotic prescription rates per 1,000 person years were estimated for each database and stratified by age (?4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-18 years). Age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups were calculated for 2008. Results With 957 prescriptions per 1000 person years, the highest annual prescription rate in the year 2008 was found in the Italian region Emilia Romagna followed by Germany (561), the UK (555), Denmark (481) and the Netherlands (294). Seasonal peaks during winter months were most pronounced in countries with high utilisation. Age-group-specific use varied substantially between countries with regard to total prescribing and distributions of antibiotic subgroups. However, prescription rates were highest among children in the age group ?4 years in all countries, predominantly due to high use of broad spectrum penicillins. Conclusions Strong increases of antibiotic prescriptions in winter months in high utilising countries most likely result from frequent antibiotic treatment of mostly viral infections. This and strong variations of overall and age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups across countries, suggests that antibiotics are inappropriately used to a large extent. PMID:24997585

2014-01-01

216

Long-Term Impact of War on Healthcare Costs: An Eight-Country Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposure to war can negatively affect health and may impact on healthcare costs. Estimating these costs and identifying their predictors is important for appropriate service planning. We aimed to measure use of health services in an adult population who had experienced war in the former-Yugoslavia on average 8 years previously, and to identify characteristics associated with the use and costs of healthcare. Method War-affected community samples in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, and Serbia were recruited through a random walk technique. Refugees in Germany, Italy and the UK were contacted through registers, organisations and networking. Current service use was measured for the previous three months and combined with unit costs for each country for the year 2006/7. A two-part approach was used, to identify predictors of service use with a multiple logistic regression model and predictors of cost with a generalised linear regression model. Results 3,313 participants were interviewed in Balkan countries and 854 refugees in Western European countries. In the Balkan countries, traumatic events and mental health status were related to greater service use while in Western countries these associations were not found. Participants in Balkan countries with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had costs that were 63% higher (p?=?0.005) than those without PTSD. Distress experienced during the most traumatic war event was associated with higher costs (p?=?0.013). In Western European countries costs were 76% higher if non-PTSD anxiety disorders were present (0.027) and 63% higher for mood disorders (p?=?0.006). Conclusions War experiences and their effects on mental health are associated with increased health care costs even many years later, especially for those who stayed in the area of conflict. Focussing on the mental health impact of war is important for many reasons including those of an economic nature. PMID:22238627

Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; McCrone, Paul; Bogic, Marija; Ajdukovic, Dean; Franciskovic, Tanja; Colombini, Niccolo; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Morina, Nexhmedin; Popovski, Mihajlo; Schutzwohl, Matthias; Priebe, Stefan

2012-01-01

217

Dental students' perceived sources of stress: a multi-country study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify dental students' self-reported sources of stress and to explore the role of specific curricular and institutional differences in the variation of perceived stressors among dental students in Greece, Ireland, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, and Croatia. A thirty-item modified version of the Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was administered to all undergraduate students enrolled at six European dental schools selected to reflect geographical, curricular, and professional environment diversity: Athens, Greece; Dublin, Ireland; Ljubljana, Slovenia; Malmö, Sweden; Santiago de Compostela, Spain; and Zagreb, Croatia. Participation varied from 93 percent in Athens to 65 percent in Dublin. A total of 1,492 questionnaires were available for analysis. Univariate analysis and multivariate modelling were used for data analysis. Performance pressure, workload, and self-efficacy beliefs constituted the students' main concerns. In the univariate analysis, student responses differed by country: Swedish students provided the lowestst scores in five out of six DES factors, Spanish students were the most concerned about "clinical training" and "performance pressure," whereas Greek students were the most concerned about "patient treatment." Multivariate modelling revealed that problem-based learning (PBL) was inversely associated with perceived stress for "self-efficacy beliefs" OR (95% CI): 0.66 (0.52, 0.84), "workload" OR (95% CI): 0.58 (0.41, 0.80); and "clinical training" OR (95% CI): 0.69 (0.50, 0.95) when compared to traditional curricula. Students' perceived stressors differed greatly among the six institutions and were associated with both individual (gender, study level) and educational/institutional (curriculum type, class size, educational costs) parameters. PMID:19433538

Polychronopoulou, Argy; Divaris, Kimon

2009-05-01

218

Parents' perceptions, attitudes and behaviours towards child safety: a study in 14 European countries.  

PubMed

Injury is the leading cause of death for children 0- 19 years of age in Europe, accounting for 3.1 deaths per 10 000 children per year. The youngest children of the ages 0-4 years require the most protection in this age group, with 2.5 injury-related deaths per 10 000 children in Europe annually. As parents are the primary caregivers of children, it is necessary to learn more about parents' perceptions, attitudes and behaviours towards child safety. This study presents the findings of a 14-country study in Europe on this theme. A quantitative survey of parents of children aged 5 years or under was performed in 14 EU member states in order to enable better targeting of prevention efforts aimed at educating parents. The total sample size was 2088. The results show that 95% of parents reported that they personally take measures to avoid accidental injury to their children. Their top concern with regard to safety of their children was children being hit by a car. The most common response, when asked why some parents find it difficult to protect their children from accidental injury, was not being able to watch their children constantly. Lack of awareness or knowledge about the causes of accidents was the second response. Two-thirds of parents would like to see more help from the government to prevent childhood injuries. Three-quarters of parents agreed that child injuries can be avoided. It was concluded that parents want to be better informed about the causes of child accidents and about actions they and society can take to reduce injury-related risks to children. PMID:16335436

Vincenten, Joanne A; Sector, Mathilde J; Rogmans, Wim; Bouter, Lex

2005-09-01

219

Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents over Europe. An overview of current studies in the Nordic countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To give an overview of the dietary habits among adolescents in the Nordic countries and to present results from studies showing the relationship between dietary habits and other lifestyle factors, nutritional status and socio-economic conditions. Design: A number of nutritional studies among adolescents performed during recent decades using recalls, dietary records and food frequency questionnaire. Setting: Denmark, Finland, Norway

G Samuelson

2000-01-01

220

Northern E-Dimension Action Plan: E-Skills Study in the Baltic Countries and Northwest Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study is the first attempt to systematically gather information about what is happen- ing in research and education in the ICT field in t he Baltic countries and Northwest Russia, so it is mostly a general investigation and fact-finding project, leading to possible future research and activities in the field. The study will estimate how well the supply of

Eugenijus Kurilovas

2003-01-01

221

Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether flavonoid intake explains differences in mortality rates from chronic diseases between populations. DESIGN: Cross-cultural correlation study. SETTING\\/PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen cohorts of the Seven Countries Study in whom flavonoid intake at baseline around 1960 was estimated by flavonoid analysis of equivalent food composites that represented the average diet in the cohorts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from coronary heart disease,

M. G. L. Hertog; D. Kromhout; C. Aravanis; H. Blackburn; R. Buzina; F. Fidanza; S. Giampaoli; A. Jansen; A. Menotti; S. I. Nedeljkovic; M. Pekkarinen; B. S. Simic; H. Toshima; E. J. M. Feskens; P. C. H. Hollman; M. B. Katan

1995-01-01

222

Students' Peer Interactions within a Cohort and in Host Countries during a Short-Term Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative case study, we explored students' peer interactions within their cohort and in the host countries during a short-term study abroad. Framed by Bronfenbrenner's (1993) ecological systems theory, findings revealed that students spent considerable energy reflecting on interactions with peers. The students considered…

Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Aragones, Aileen

2013-01-01

223

Deepening Learning and Inspiring Rigor: Bridging Academic and Experiential Learning Using a Host Country Approach to a Study Tour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American students are increasingly incorporating study in a foreign country into their college educations, but many participate in short-term programs that limit their engagement with any more than the superficial aspects of the host culture. This article describes a short-term study abroad course for American students to Japan in which the…

Long, Susan Orpett; Akande, Yemi Susan; Purdy, R. W.; Nakano, Keiko

2010-01-01

224

Understanding the Relationships among PISA Scores, Economic Growth and Employment in Different Sectors: A Cross-Country Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores in mathematics, science and reading and the employment rates in the following four economic activities: research and development, agriculture, industry, and service industries. Thirty-three countries were included in the study, and most…

Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

2008-01-01

225

Primary Irritation Evaluation Program Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hexanoic acid monoester with 1,3-hydroxy-2-propanene (ENT-70156), which is a candidate repellent, was evaluated on New Zealand White rabbits for its potential to cause skin and eye irritation. The data obtained serve as a basis for making a recommendation...

J. E. Briel

1973-01-01

226

NORTHERN OHIO AEROSOL STUDY: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

227

Economic Aspects of Agricultural Development in Africa. A Selective Annotated Reading List of Reports and Studies Concerning 40 African Countries During the Period 1960 - 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some 1394 research studies from various African countries are annotated in this bibliography, which is divided into 37 country sections with a separate section (Africa General) for studies dealing with the continent as a whole, with geographical regions, or with groups of countries. The publications listed and summarized were published primarily…

Neville-Rolfe, Edmund, Comp.

228

The establishment of an academic health sciences library in a developing country: a case study.  

PubMed Central

The development of a Faculty of Medical Sciences (FMS) and an academic health sciences library for the University of the West Indies (UWI) has proven to be a polemical and political issue due to the depressed economy of the country. Although FMS is still shrouded in politics and controversy after its inaugural year, the Medical Sciences Library (MSL) has expanded its dimensions and is actively developing a biomedical information network within the country. This will result in better dissemination and control of biomedical information. The library now participates in joint projects with other health sciences libraries in the country with the goal of joint automated listings of holdings and shared cataloging projects. This paper examines the development of the library and explains the difficulties experienced in its developmental stages due to politics, the delay in appointment of a medical sciences librarian, and the financial decline in the local economy. PMID:1884084

Ellis, L S

1991-01-01

229

Breast-Milk Substitutes: A New Old-Threat for Breastfeeding Policy in Developing Countries. A Case Study in a Traditionally High Breastfeeding Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDeveloping countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS) in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding.MethodsRandomised

Hubert Barennes; Gwenaelle Empis; Thao Duong Quang; Khouanheuan Sengkhamyong; Phonethepa Phasavath; Aina Harimanana; Emercia M. Sambany; Paulin N. Koffi

2012-01-01

230

Socioeconomic determinants of HIV testing and counselling: A comparative study in four African countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives Research indicates that individuals tested for HIV have higher socioeconomic status than those not tested, but less is known about how socioeconomic status is associated with modes of testing. We compared individuals tested through provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC), those tested through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), and those never tested. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at health facilities in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, and Uganda, as part of the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV) study. 3,659 clients were asked about testing status, type of facility of most recent test, and socioeconomic status. Two outcome measures were analyzed: ever tested for HIV, and mode of testing. We compared VCT at standalone facilities and PITC, which includes Integrated facilities where testing is provided with medical care, and PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission) facilities. The determinants of ever testing and of using a particular mode of testing were analysed using modified Poisson regression and multinomial logistic analyses. Results Higher socioeconomic status was associated with the likelihood of testing at VCT rather than other facilities or not testing. There were no significant differences in socioeconomic characteristics between those tested through PITC (integrated and PMTCT facilities) and those not tested. Conclusions Provider-initiated modes of testing make testing accessible to individuals from lower socioeconomic groups to a greater extent than traditional VCT. Expanding testing through PMTCT reduces socioeconomic obstacles, especially for women. Continued efforts are needed to encourage testing and counselling among men and the less affluent. PMID:23937702

Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Neuman, Melissa; Hardon, Anita; Desclaux, Alice; Wanyenze, Rhoda; Kyzerbo, Odette; Cherutich, Peter; Namakhoma, Ireen

2013-01-01

231

Directory of country environmental studies, 1993. An annotated bibliography of environmental and natural resource profiles and assessments  

SciTech Connect

The 1993 edition of the Directory provides detailed citations and abstracts for 357 major natural resource and environmental studies (257 of which were added since the 1990 edition) covering 129 developing countries and 12 regional groupings. Most of the studies (93%) were prepared between 1987 and 1992. Included are 66 national reports prepared for the U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Thirty-three countries, including Algeria, Bhutan, Cuba, Republic of Korea, Laos, Namibia, South Africa, Suriname, Taiwan, and Venezuela, are new to this edition of the directory, which focuses on reports that link quantitative assessment of a country's natural resources to economic development and the maintenance of ecosystems, with particular emphasis on natural resource management strategies and action plans.

Tunstall, D.B.; van der Wansem, M.

1992-11-01

232

Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study  

PubMed Central

Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27?957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100?000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100?000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

Haglund, Bengt; Hogberg, Ulf; Essen, Birgitta

2013-01-01

233

Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian…

Rosser, Andrew

2012-01-01

234

Key drivers for sustainable operations in developing countries: A textile case study from Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent paradigm shift towards sustainable development of business operations worldwide. Limited resources and the need for a cleaner and unpolluted global environment, along with recent developments in governmental legislations have made it difficult for international companies to take advantage of developing countries more lenient environmental policies. This paper presents an in-depth case analysis of a leading

Sherwat E. Ibrahim; Karim H. Ahmed

2011-01-01

235

The Role of Individualism/Collectivism in Critical Classroom Encounters: A Four Country Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internationalization raises the issue of whether, and to what extent, the inherent culture of a country may have particular influence on the nature of service interactions, and on education (i.e., student-professor interactions) specifically. Thus the service encounter in the classroom becomes a subject of increasing importance and interest with…

Frankel, Robert; Swanson, Scott R.; Sagan, Mariusz

2005-01-01

236

International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain: A Study of 24 Labor-Exporting Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the level of international migration and remittances continues to grow, data on international migration remains unreliable. At the international level, there is no consistent set of statistics on the number or skill characteristics of international migrants. At the national level, most labor-exporting countries do not collect data on their migrants.Adams tries to overcome these problems by constructing a new

2003-01-01

237

MEASURING FINANCIAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT: A STUDY OF SELECTED ASIA-PACIFIC COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

RADITIONAL measures of financial deepening, those based on monetary and credit aggregates, may not enable to assess accurately a country's financial development. For example, China has a higher ratio of broad money to GDP than Australia, and around the same level as Japan. Yet no one would consider China's financial system to be anywhere near as well developed as either

David LYNCH

1996-01-01

238

Maternal education and child survival: A comparative study of survey data from 17 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A uniform analytical methodology was applied to survey data from 17 developing countries with the aim of addressing a series of questions regarding the positive statistical association between maternal education and the health and survival of children under age two. As has been observed previously, the education advantage in survival was less pronounced during than after the neonatal period. Strong

George T. Bicego; J. Ties Boerma

1993-01-01

239

Youth, mobility and mobile phones in Africa: findings from a three-country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of mobile phones into sub-Saharan Africa has occurred with amazing rapidity: for many young people, they now represent a very significant element of their daily life. This paper explores usage and perceived impacts among young people aged c. 9–18 years in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and South Africa. Our evidence comes from intensive qualitative research with young people,

Gina Porter; Kate Hampshire; Albert Abane; Alister Munthali; Elsbeth Robson; Augustine Tanle

2012-01-01

240

Consumer Movements in Newly Industrialized Countries: Taiwan as a Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the evolution of a consumer society in the newly industrialized countries of Asia, especially Taiwan. Looks at Taiwan's growing consumer presence , emerging consumer policy framework, and evolving family and social structure as well as consumer movement efforts and the impact of international organizations. (Contains 52 references.) (JOW)

McGregor, Sue L. T.

2000-01-01

241

TransFatty Acids in Bakery Products from 14 European Countries: the TRANSFAIR Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of bakery products from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis ontransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in cookies and biscuits ranged from <1 to 28%.Transfatty acids content in sweet pastry ranged from practically 0 to 33%. Croissants and doughnuts had varying amounts oftransfatty acids, with the highest value of 15% in croissants and 32%

M. A. van Erp-baart; C. Couet; C. Cuadrado; A. Kafatos; G. van Poppel

1998-01-01

242

New Patterns of Adult Learning: A Six-Country Comparative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 10 papers based on a data set from the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey, which collected data from more than 20,000 individual respondents in samples representative of the adult populations in 6 countries: Canada, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. The papers are: "Foreword" (Paul…

Tuijnman, Albert; Belanger, Paul, Ed.

243

Patterns in the occupational mobility network of the higher education graduates. Comparative study in 12 EU countries  

E-print Network

The article investigates the properties of the occupational mobility network (OMN) in 12 EU countries. Using REFLEX database we construct for each country an empirical OMN that reflects the job movements of the university graduates, during the first five years after graduation (1999 - 2005). The nodes are represented by the occupations coded at 3 digits according to ISCO-88 and the links are weighted with the number of graduates switching from one occupation to another. We construct the networks as weighted and directed. This comparative study allows us to see what are the common patterns in the OMN over different EU labor markets.

Lungu, Eliza-Olivia; Mocanu, Cristina

2013-01-01

244

Consumer perception of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The present study addresses consumer acceptance of food products involving the use of different applications of genetic modification in four Nordic countries. Three food products were used as examples: hard cheese, hard candy, and salmon. Three types of applications of genetic modification were investigated: modification of the raw material, use of genetic modification in enzyme production, and direct use

Klaus G. Grunert; Liisa Lähteenmäki; Niels A. Nielsen; Jacob B. Poulsen; Oydis Ueland; Annika Åström

2000-01-01

245

Problems of Electronic Commerce applications in a developing country: A descriptive case study of the banking industry of Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet banking is a relatively new area and there are several issues, which have been generally untouched and are therefore open to further investigation, especially in the developing countries. Hence, this study is a step in this direction. This research has been focused on investigating to identify and highlight the main potential factors or impediments that are currently inhibiting the

Khamis N. Al-Gharbi; A. M. Khalfan; Ahmed M. Al-Kindi

2006-01-01

246

Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of High School Students from Four Countries-Austria, Czech Republic, England, and USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitude toward physical education of 1107 high school students from four countries, Czech Republic, Austria, England, and the United States. Survey data were gathered and measured using the Adams Scale survey instrument (Adams, 1963). While the data revealed individual differences, the overall sample indicated a…

Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James M.; Fenster, Mark J.; Langford, George

2004-01-01

247

Cultural and leadership predictors of corporate social responsibility values of top management: a GLOBE study of 15 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines cultural and leadership variables associated with corporate social responsibility values that managers apply to their decision-making. In this longitudinal study, we analyze data from 561 firms located in 15 countries on five continents to illustrate how the cultural dimensions of institutional collectivism and power distance predict social responsibility values on the part of top management team members.

David A Waldman; Mary Sully de Luque; Nathan Washburn; Robert J House; Bolanle Adetoun; Angel Barrasa; Mariya Bobina; Muzaffer Bodur; Yi-Jung Chen; Sukhendu Debbarma; Peter Dorfman; Rosemary R Dzuvichu; Idil Evcimen; Pingping Fu; Mikhail Grachev; Roberto Gonzalez Duarte; Vipin Gupta; Deanne N Den Hartog; Annebel H B de Hoogh; Jon Howell; Kuen-Yung Jone; Hayat Kabasakal; Edvard Konrad; P L Koopman; Rainhart Lang; Cheng-Chen Lin; Jun Liu; Boris Martinez; Almarie E Munley; Nancy Papalexandris; T K Peng; Leonel Prieto; Narda Quigley; James Rajasekar; Francisco Gil Rodríguez; Johannes Steyrer; Betania Tanure; Henk Thierry; V M Thomas; Peter T van den Berg; Celeste P M Wilderom

2006-01-01

248

Climate policies : what if emerging country baseline were not so optimistic? a case study related to India  

E-print Network

1 of 14 Climate policies : what if emerging country baseline were not so optimistic? ­ a case study-mail address: mathy@centre-cired.fr (S. Mathy) Keywords India, domestic policies and measures, climate policies, long term scenarios, international negotiations, power sector, climate regime, policies and measures

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

Patterns of alcohol consumption and ischaemic heart disease in culturally divergent countries: the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the effect of alcohol intake patterns on ischaemic heart disease in two countries with contrasting lifestyles, Northern Ireland and France.Design Cohort data from the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME) were analysed. Weekly alcohol consumption, incidence of binge drinking (alcohol >50 g on at least one day a week), incidence of regular drinking (at least one

Jean-Bernard Ruidavets; Pierre Ducimetière; Alun Evans; Michèle Montaye; Bernadette Haas; Annie Bingham; John Yarnell; Philippe Amouyel; Dominique Arveiler; Frank Kee; Vanina Bongard; Jean Ferrières

2010-01-01

250

Preventive Health Care for Young Children: Findings from a 10-Country Study and Directions for United States Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earlier observations on U.S. infant health and survival as compared with other Western industrial democracies are extended in a study of preventive health services for children from infancy through adolescence and to the social benefit programs that support their families. This report looks at the condition of children in 10 European countries

Williams, Bret C.; Miller, C. Arden

251

Does Subculture Within a Country Matter? A Cross-Cultural Study of Motivational Domains and Business Performance in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of within-country subcultures on business outcomes. We first argue that individuals' values vary across subcultures. We then suggest that values, as expressed through motivational domains, influence business performance. Finally, joining these two propositions, we posit that business performance will vary by subculture. Based on data from four regional subcultures in Brazil, a subculture effect was

Tomasz Lenartowicz; Kendall Roth

252

Does Subculture Within a Country Matter? A Cross-Cultural Study of Motivational Domains and Business Performance in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of within-country subcultures on business outcomes. We first argue that individuals' values vary across subcultures. We then suggest that values, as expressed through motivational domains, influence business performance. Finally, joining these two propositions, we posit that business performance will vary by subculture. Based on data from four regional subcultures in Brazil, a subculture effect was

Tomasz Lenartowicz; Kendall Roth

2001-01-01

253

Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination  

PubMed Central

Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP). Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9%) and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major challenge in the future will be prevention and management of imported malaria infections from neighbouring Indian states. Bhutan plans to implement screening at border points to prevent importation of malaria and to targeted prevention and surveillance efforts towards at-risk Bhutanese and migrant workers in construction sites. PMID:22230355

2012-01-01

254

Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming - A Case Study of the Gulf Countries  

PubMed Central

Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC. The preliminary assessment indicates increased mortality rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, thermal stress, and increased frequency of infectious vector borne diseases in the region between 2070 and 2099. PMID:19190352

Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

2008-01-01

255

Factors associated with self-rated health status in university students: a cross-sectional study in three European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Self-rated health status (SRHS) is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to assess which candidate variables were independently associated with SRHS in university students, to compare these variables by country and by gender, and to investigate which of the variables was most important as a rating frame for SRHS. Methods The data is from the Cross-National Student Health Survey, conducted in 2005 in universities in Germany, Bulgaria, and Poland (n = 2103; mean age = 20.7 years). SRHS was assessed with a single question using a five-point scale ranging from "excellent" to "poor". The study also measured a wide range of variables including: physical and psychological health, studying, social contacts/social support, and socio-demographic status. Results Psychosomatic complaints (considered an aspect of physical health and, adjusted for psychological health) were the most important indicators in forming a rating frame for students' SRHS. There were few differences in the effects of variables associated with SRHS by gender (well-being: a measure of psychological health) and the variables associated with SRHS by country (well-being and self-efficacy). The remaining variables showed homogenous effects for both genders and for all three countries. Conclusion The results suggest that SRHS can be reasonably used to compare students' health across countries. SRHS is affected by different physical, psychological and psychosomatic aspects of health; however, its strongest association is with psychosomatic complaints. PMID:18564422

Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Brzoska, Patrick; Maier, Claudia; Ottova, Veronika; Meier, Sabine; Dudziak, Urszula; Ilieva, Snezhana; El Ansari, Walid

2008-01-01

256

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu (Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry)

1992-08-01

257

Policies for developing defense technology in newly industrialised countries: a case study of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post-Cold War era has witnessed considerably reduced national defense budgets and a consequent decline in the international arms trade. Therefore, the world’s arms suppliers have begun to sell high-performance weapons as another means of acquiring additional foreign exchange, thus enabling newly industrialised countries (NICs) to procure relatively advanced weaponry at lower prices. This trend is driving defense procurement policies

Chiou-Guey Jan

2003-01-01

258

Transpeople, Transprejudice and Pathologization: A Seven-Country Factor Analytic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight hundred and forty one undergraduate students in seven countries (China, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, United Kingdom and United States) completed a questionnaire examining perceptions of transwomen (on a transacceptance–transprejudice continuum). The aim was to identify factors underlying transacceptance-transprejudice, and relationships among them. Five factors were identified (MENTAL-ILLNESS, DENIAL-WOMEN, SOCIAL-REJECTION, PEER-REJECTION, SEXUAL-DEVIANCE). MENTAL-ILLNESS (the belief that transwomen were mentally ill)

Sam Winter; Pornthip Chalungsooth; Yik Koon Teh; Nongnuch Rojanalert; Kulthida Maneerat; Ying Wuen Wong; Anne Beaumont; Loretta Man Wah Ho; Francis “Chuck” Gomez; Raymond Aquino Macapagal

2009-01-01

259

A Basque Country autochthonous population study of 11 Y-chromosome STR loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 11 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 168 unrelated autochthonous male individuals from the Basque Country. The eight surnames and birth places of the grandparents of all analyzed individuals were of Basque origin. A total of 89 haplotypes were

Oscar Garc??a; Pablo Mart??n; Leonor Gusmão; Cristina Albarrán; Santos Alonso; Concepción de la Rua; Carlos Flores; Neskuts Izagirre; Raúl Peñas; Juan Antonio Pérez; Ion Uriarte; Iñaki Yurrebaso; Antonio Alonso

2004-01-01

260

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

1992-08-01

261

Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient?=?0.231 at lag?=??1 week). Conclusions School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data. PMID:24155907

Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

2013-01-01

262

International Evaluation Studies of Second Step, a Primary Prevention Programme: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second Step is a social-emotional, skill-based, violence-prevention programme, which has been adapted for several European countries. The various versions of the programme (for kindergarten/preschool, elementary school, middle school) have been evaluated in a series of research studies. The outcomes and study designs of these studies are reported…

Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred

2013-01-01

263

Experimental study and evaluation of radioprotective drugs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental study evaluates radioprotective drugs administered before exposure either orally or intravenously. Specifically studied are the sources of radiation, choice of radiation dose, choice of animals, administration of drugs, the toxicity of protective agents and types of protective drug.

Smith, D. E.; Thomson, J. F.

1968-01-01

264

Public satisfaction as a measure of health system performance: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Measurement of health system performance increasingly includes the views of healthcare users, yet little research has focussed on general population satisfaction with health systems. This study is the first to examine public satisfaction with health systems in the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data were derived from two related studies conducted in 2001 and 2010 in nine fSU countries, using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of health system satisfaction in each country was compared for 2001 and 2010. Patterns of satisfaction were further examined by comparing satisfaction with the health system and other parts of the public sector, and the views of health care users and non-users. Potential determinants of population satisfaction were explored using logistic regression. For all countries combined, the level of satisfaction with health systems increased from 19.4% in 2001 to 40.6% in 2010, but varied considerably by country. Changes in satisfaction with the health system were similar to changes with the public sector, and non-users of healthcare were slightly more likely to report satisfaction than users. Characteristics associated with higher satisfaction include younger age, lower education, higher economic status, rural residency, better health status, and higher levels of political trust. Our results suggest that satisfaction can provide useful insight into public opinion on health system performance, particularly when used in conjunction with other subjective measures of satisfaction with government performance. PMID:23545269

Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Mills, Anne; Richardson, Erica; McKee, Martin

2013-09-01

265

Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in 52 Countries Results of the INTERHEART Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Diet is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but it varies markedly in different regions of the world. The objectives of the present study were to assess the association between dietary patterns and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) globally. Methods and Results—INTERHEART is a standardized case-control study involving participants from 52 countries. The present analysis included 5761 cases and

Romaina Iqbal; Sonia Anand; Stephanie Ounpuu; Shofiqul Islam; Xiaohe Zhang; Sumathy Rangarajan; Jephat Chifamba; Ali Al-Hinai; Matyas Keltai; Salim Yusuf

2010-01-01

266

New vaccine adoption: qualitative study of national decision-making processes in seven low- and middle-income countries.  

PubMed

As more new and improved vaccines become available, decisions on which to adopt into routine programmes become more frequent and complex. This qualitative study aimed to explore processes of national decision-making around new vaccine adoption and to understand the factors affecting these decisions. Ninety-five key informant interviews were conducted in seven low- and middle-income countries: Bangladesh, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Kenya, Mali and South Africa. Framework analysis was used to explore issues both within and between countries. The underlying driver for adoption decisions in GAVI-eligible countries was the desire to seize GAVI windows of opportunity for funding. By contrast, in South Africa and Guatemala, non-GAVI-eligible countries, the decision-making process was more rooted in internal and political dynamics. Decisions to adopt new vaccines are, by nature, political. The main drivers influencing decisions were the availability of funding, political prioritization of vaccination or the vaccine-preventable disease and the burden of disease. Other factors, such as financial sustainability and feasibility of introduction, were not as influential. Although GAVI procedures have established more formality in decision-making, they did not always result in consideration of all relevant factors. As familiarity with GAVI procedures increased, questioning by decision-makers about whether a country should apply for funding appeared to have diminished. This is one of the first studies to empirically investigate national processes of new vaccine adoption decision-making using rigorous methods. Our findings show that previous decision-making frameworks (developed to guide or study national decision-making) bore little resemblance to real-life decisions, which were dominated by domestic politics. Understanding the realities of vaccine policy decision-making is critical for developing strategies to encourage improved evidence-informed decision-making about new vaccine adoptions. The potential for international initiatives to encourage evidence-informed decision-making should be realised, not assumed. PMID:22513732

Burchett, H E D; Mounier-Jack, S; Griffiths, U K; Biellik, R; Ongolo-Zogo, P; Chavez, E; Sarma, H; Uddin, J; Konate, M; Kitaw, Y; Molla, M; Wakasiaka, S; Gilson, L; Mills, A

2012-05-01

267

Where Is the Literature in Evaluation on Managing Studies, Evaluators, and Evaluation Units?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of a multistage exploration of evaluation texts, electronic searches, and nominations from the field and from managing social science, the author concludes there is little research literature on managing evaluation studies, evaluators and other workers, and evaluation units. The discussion explores what this limited literature tells…

Compton, Donald W.

2009-01-01

268

Abstract--A methodology to evaluate the installation of new electricity metering technologies in a developing country is  

E-print Network

of measurement technology, replacing the old system for electronic components. This has greatly improved are perceived as too expensive. It does not help that often, 1 Thanks to Fondecyt and Chilectra for support countries own or lease an electromechanical meter to allow the measurement and determination of their energy

Dixon, Juan

269

Student Loans in Developing Countries: An Evaluation of the Colombian Performance. Bank Staff Working Paper No. 182.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The student loan program run by the Instituto Colombiano de Credito Educativo y Estudios Tecnicos en el Exterior (ICETEX) has three main objectives: to increase the country's supply of highly skilled manpower, to achieve more equality of educational opportunity, and to provide a meaningful source of finance for higher education. An analysis of…

Jallade, Jean-Pierre

270

Evaluation of Taxes and Revenues from the Energy Sector in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Former Soviet Union Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the level and structure of fiscal revenues from the Baltics, Russia, and other former Soviet Union countries' (BRO) energy sector and suggests reforms in energy tax policy. Revenues from the oil and gas sectors are about half the level that might be expected from international comparisons. Low oil revenues result from infrastructure constraints on oil exports, weak

Dale F. Gray

1998-01-01

271

User and researcher collaborations in mental health in low and middle income countries: a case study of the EMPOWER project  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing recognition has been given to the interaction of users and researchers in shaping the perspective and practice of mental health care. However, there remains very little evidence exploring how this interaction works, particularly in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to explore experiences of how users and researchers worked together to communicate research, using a case study of the EMPOWER project. Methods The study followed a case-study approach. EMPOWER was a project that sought to strengthen the capacity of user organizations in India, Kenya, Nepal and Zambia by encouraging user-researcher collaborations to communicate research findings in the four countries. A qualitative research method was applied for this study, with semi-structured interviews conducted with seven people: two researchers, one communications developer, and four user group members (one from each of the four countries). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The findings indicated positive perceptions of the collaboration between researchers and users. Key themes were partnership and support, the value of the personal experience of users and their knowledge of the target audiences, and empowerment. Key challenges related to differences in levels of education and technical knowledge and the lack of payments to users. Conclusions This exploratory study provides insight to help understand collaborative processes for communicating mental health research. It highlights many positive outcomes from the EMPOWER collaboration but also highlights the need for more in-depth research on this issue. PMID:24423150

2014-01-01

272

Equity in HIV testing: evidence from a cross-sectional study in ten Southern African countries  

PubMed Central

Background HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled) are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves tested. PMID:20836859

2010-01-01

273

Adolescent prediabetes in a high-risk Middle East country: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence of prediabetes in adolescents living in a high-risk country and to detect risk factors associated with this disorder. Design Survey questionnaire combined with physical measurements and blood sugar determination. Setting Doha, capital city of Qatar. Participants A total of 1694 male and female students aged 11–18 years without previously diagnosed diabetes enrolled in four schools. Main outcome measure Blood sugar measurements. Other measured variables included gender, height, weight, abdominal circumference, country of origin, family history of diabetes and frequency of exercise. Results Using a random blood sugar ?7.8?mmol/L or a fasting blood sugar ?5.5?mmol/L as cutpoints, we identified 4.2% of students (56 boys, 15 girls) as probable prediabetics. In a multivariate model, being boys (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7–6.2), having a diabetic parent (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.2) or having a waist-to-height ratio >0.5 (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0) were significantly associated with being a prediabetic. The parental origin of diabetes had a differential effect upon blood sugar. The mean random blood sugar in students with a maternal inheritance pattern of diabetes was 5.61?mmol/L?±?1.0, compared to 5.39?mmol/L?±?0.89 in students with a paternal inheritance pattern (p?=?0.02). Conclusions In a country with a high risk of adult diabetes, we identified 4.2% of students aged 11–18 as being prediabetic. Risk factors associated with prediabetes included male gender, family history of diabetes and waist-to-height ratio >0.5.

Mamtani, Ravinder; Sheikh, Javaid; Cheema, Sohaila; Al-Hamaq, Abdulla; Matthis, Sharoud A; El-Nahas, Katie G; Maisonneuve, Patrick

2014-01-01

274

The Invisible Scientist in India -- a case study for emergent countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergent countries such as India, China, and Brazil, face unique problems in the realisation of their science and technology potential. I will discuss the situation in India, which may be relevant at least in part to the others. The basic focus of the talk will be the possible ways in which the invisible scientist, the person on the ground who has no part in the pyramid of the science establishment, can be rendered more visible—both for her or his own sake, and to prevent the erosion of an enormous intellectual potential by a still continuing brain drain.

Mehta, Anita

2008-03-01

275

Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal level for viable compost production. This paper presents a multidisciplinary analysis of factors influencing the success and failure of the composting initiative of KIWODET, a community based organization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The results show that despite the ready availability and good compostability of the waste stream, not all fractions of municipal organic wastes qualify as feedstock. Negative consumer attitude hindered the acceptance of compost produced from residential wastes. KIWODET did manage to successfully implement a composting operation for commercial organic wastes. Their additional waste collection and sorting activities also contributed to an increased feedstock control as well as the integration of informal waste collecting activities. When KIWODET was forced to suspend its composting activities because of land use issues, their diversified waste sector activities proved crucial in reducing the negative financial impact on their overall performance. This paper emphasizes that successful composting initiatives can arise from local capacity in developing countries. However, the lack of municipal integration and support leaves such technically viable initiatives strongly vulnerable to external factors. PMID:21558081

Oberlin, Aisa S; Szántó, Gábor L

2011-10-01

276

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

1992-08-01

277

Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

2013-06-01

278

Comparison of different solar reactors for household disinfection of drinking water in developing countries: evaluation of their efficacy in relation to the waterborne enteropathogen Cryptosporidium parvum.  

PubMed

Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a type of treatment that can significantly improve the microbiological quality of drinking water at household level and therefore prevent waterborne diseases in developing countries. Cryptosporidium parvum is an obligate protozoan parasite responsible for the diarrhoeal disease cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. Recently, this parasite has been selected by the WHO as a reference pathogen for protozoan parasites in the evaluation of household water treatment options. In this study, the field efficacy of different static solar reactors [1.5 l transparent plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles as well as 2.5 l borosilicate glass and 25 l methacrylate reactors fitted with compound parabolic concentrators (CPC)] for solar disinfection of turbid waters experimentally contaminated with C. parvum oocysts was compared. Potential oocyst viability was determined by inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide. The results demonstrate that static solar reactors fitted with CPCs are an excellent alternative to the conventional SODIS method with PET bottles. These reactors improved the efficacy of the SODIS method by enabling larger volumes of water to be treated and, in some cases, the C. parvum oocysts were rendered totally unviable, minimising the negative effects of turbidity. PMID:23032082

Gómez-Couso, H; Fontán-Sainz, M; Navntoft, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Ares-Mazás, E

2012-11-01

279

Earthquake Loss Assessment for the Evaluation of the Sovereign Risk and Financial Sustainability of Countries and Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently earthquakes have struck cities both from developing as well as developed countries, revealing significant knowledge gaps and the need to improve the quality of input data and of the assumptions of the risk models. The quake and tsunami in Japan (2011) and the disasters due to earthquakes in Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), New Zealand (2011) and Spain (2011), only to mention some unexpected impacts in different regions, have left several concerns regarding hazard assessment as well as regarding the associated uncertainties to the estimation of the future losses. Understanding probable losses and reconstruction costs due to earthquakes creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to cope with sovereign risk, including allocating the sustained budgetary resources necessary to reduce those potential damages and safeguard development. Therefore the use of robust risk models is a need to assess the future economic impacts, the country's fiscal responsibilities and the contingent liabilities for governments and to formulate, justify and implement risk reduction measures and optimal financial strategies of risk retention and transfer. Special attention should be paid to the understanding of risk metrics such as the Loss Exceedance Curve (empiric and analytical) and the Expected Annual Loss in the context of conjoint and cascading hazards.

Cardona, O. D.

2013-05-01

280

Is Maternal and Child Health Service use a Causal Gatewayto Subsequent Contraceptive use?: A Multi-Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between MCH service utilization and contraceptive use in five countries:\\u000a Bolivia, Guatemala, Indonesia, Morocco, and Tanzania. The analysis is carried out at the level of the individual woman, with\\u000a contraceptive-use status modeled as a function of: (1) the availability, quality, and packaging of MCH and family planning\\u000a services; (2) community-

David R. Hotchkiss; Jeffrey J. Rous; Eric E. Seiber; Andrés A. Berruti

2005-01-01

281

The search for quality: A five country study of national strategies to improve educational quality in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparative analysis of the strategies employed over the last decade by governments of five Central Asia republics—Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan—to raise educational quality at the primary and secondary levels. Data are drawn from a 2002 cross-national study sponsored by the Asian Development Bank that examined recent education reform efforts across these countries. Using

David W. Chapman; John Weidman; Marc Cohen; Malcolm Mercer

2005-01-01

282

Consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods. Results of a qualitative study in four countries.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to gain insight into consumers> attitudes towards genetic modification in food production. With means-end chain theory as the theoretical basis, laddering interviews were conducted with 400 consumers in Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy. Perceived risks and benefits of genetic modification in foods were investigated using beer and yoghurt as examples. German and Danish responses revealed more complex cognitive structures than did the results from the United Kingdom and Italy. In all four countries, however, applying genetic modification was associated with unnaturalness and low trustworthiness of the resulting products, independently of whether the genetically modified material was traceable in the product. Moral considerations were voiced as well, as were a number of other consequences that were perceived to conflict with both individual and social values. PMID:10625527

Bredahl, L

1999-12-01

283

Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System: A Cross-Country Field Study in Nine Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself…

Torres, Rosa-Maria

2008-01-01

284

Evaluating the Madrasa Preschool Programme in East Africa: A Quasi-Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of preschool experience (two types of preschool: Madrasa and non-Madrasa) on the cognitive development of children in East Africa. In the three countries studied (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania/Zanzibar) preschool education is burgeoning and government standards are being set. This quasi experimental evaluation used…

Mwaura, Peter A. M.; Sylva, Kathy; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

2008-01-01

285

Smoking in movies and adolescent smoking: cross-cultural study in six European countries  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate whether the association between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking among youth is independent of cultural context. Method Cross-sectional survey of 16 551 pupils recruited in Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD=1.18) and an equal gender distribution. School-based surveys were conducted between November 2009 and June 2010. Using previously validated methods, exposure to movie smoking was estimated from the 250 top-grossing movies of each country (years 2004–2009) and related to ever smoking. Results Overall, 29% of the sample had tried smoking. The sample quartile (Q) of movie smoking exposure was significantly associated with the prevalence of ever smoking: 14% of adolescents in Q1 had tried smoking, 21% in Q2, 29% in Q3 and 36% in Q4. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, television screen time, number of movies seen, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents and siblings), the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking in the entire sample were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for adolescents in Q2, 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) for Q3 and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) for Q4 compared with Q1. The adjusted relationship between ever smoking and higher movie smoking exposure levels was significant in all countries with a non-linear association in Italy and Poland. Conclusions The link between smoking in movies and adolescent smoking is robust and transcends different cultural contexts. Limiting young people's exposure to movie smoking could have important public health implications. PMID:21873322

Morgenstern, Matthis; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Karlsdottir, Solveig; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

2013-01-01

286

Psychologists experience of cognitive behaviour therapy in a developing country: a qualitative study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological therapies especially Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) are used widely in the West to help patients with psychiatric problems. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has an established evidence base for the treatment of different emotional disorders. In spite of these developments in the developed world, patients in most developing countries hardly benefit from non pharmacological interventions. Although a significant number of psychologists are trained in Pakistan each year, psychological interventions play only a minor role in treatment plans in Pakistan. We conducted interviews with psychologists in Pakistan, to explore their experiences and their views on "providing CBT in Pakistan". These interviews were conducted as part of a project whose focus was to try to develop culturally-sensitive CBT in Pakistan. Methods In depth semi structured interviews were conducted with 5 psychologists working in psychiatry departments in Lahore, Pakistan. Results All the psychologists reported that psychotherapies, including CBT, need adjustments for use in Pakistan, although they were not able to elicit on these in details. Four major themes were discovered, hurdles in therapy, therapy related issues, involvement of the family and modification in therapy. The biggest hurdles in therapy were described to be service and resource issues. Conclusions For CBT to be acceptable, accessible and effective in Non Western cultures numerous adjustments need to be made, taking into consideration; factors related to service structure and delivery, patient's knowledge and beliefs about health and the therapy itself. Interviews with the psychologists in these countries can give us insights which can guide development of therapy and manuals to support its delivery. PMID:20181039

2010-01-01

287

How Are Social Studies Curriculum Materials Evaluated?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and compares two principal modes of evaluating social studies curricula: the Curriculum Materials Analysis System (CMAS) developed by the Social Science Education Consortium and a system developed by Elizabeth Vallance. (Author/RM)

Milburn, G.

1977-01-01

288

Tropical forests: a call for action. Part 1: the plan. Part 2: case studies. Part 3: country investment profiles  

SciTech Connect

The World Resources Institute (WRI), in cooperation with multi- and bi-lateral organizations, has launched a major initiative to conserve forests in the humid and semiarid/arid areas of developing countries. The 3-part WRI report is a call to political action on this subject. Part 1 describes the high costs exacted by deforestation, but asserts that the process can be arrested and reversed by a partnership of governments, local participants, and development-assistance agencies. Proposals are presented for a 5-year action plan in farm, community, and arid-zone forestry. Parts 2 and 3 include case studies of the successful projects listed in Part 1 and 5-year investment profiles of 56 developing countries affected by deforestation.

Not Available

1985-10-01

289

The Private Regulation of Labour Standards and Rights in the Global Clothing Industry: An Evaluation of Its Effectiveness in Two Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effectiveness of private transnational regulation of labour standards\\/rights in the clothing industry. It adopts three objectives. First, the study focuses on national states in developing countries, explaining their lack of enforcement of labour law and the suppression of labour rights. Second, the article examines the effectiveness of transnational regulatory networks (TRNs) in raising labour standards\\/rights in

Tugce Bulut

2011-01-01

290

Relations between Adolescents' Self-Evaluations, Time Perspectives, Motivation for School and Their Achievement in Different Countries and at Different Ages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study focused on the relations between the self-efficacy, social self-concept, time perspectives, school investment and academic achievement of students in four different European countries and in different adolescence periods. A total of 1623 students completed questionnaires. The relations between the concepts proved not to be…

Peetsma, Thea; Hascher, Tina; van der Veen, Ineke; Roede, Ewoud

2005-01-01

291

Evaluating the Evaluator: A Case Study Illustrating Three Critical Mistakes No Evaluator Should Make  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most employees do not like to be evaluated because they fear the process and people involved. Although optimal performance evaluators can minimize people's anxieties about being assessed, actual performance evaluators can perpetuate employees' fears and, worse, lower their job performances and morale. A case study illustrates the actions of an…

Lanigan, Mary L.

2010-01-01

292

Inventory of important wetlands in Lithuania: a case study of a country in transition  

E-print Network

A country-wide inventory of important wetlands was undertaken in Lithuania in 1996–1999, covering more than 80 wetlands with a total area of about 130 000 ha. Intensive field surveys (land-based, aerial- and boat-surveys) were performed at all sites. The Ramsar Information Sheet and data recording methodology was used as the basis for the structure of the inventory. Results of the field surveys revealed more than 29 wetlands that met the Ramsar criteria for identification of wetlands of international importance. Five wetlands were proposed for immediate inclusion into the national Ramsar list: the Girutiškis mire complex, the R?dninkai mire complex, the northern part of the Kurši? Marios lagoon with the adjacent meadows, lakes of the Meteliai Regional park and inshore marine waters at the Palanga coast. A special Lithuanian Wetlands Database was created and duplicate copies forwarded to the regional and local authorities responsible for land reform and further management of wetlands. Results of the inventory were compiled in a special publication ‘Important Wetlands in Lithuania’ (1999). Successful completion of this program will enable more effective and ongoing practical implementation of recommendations concerning the protection and further management of important wetlands during a continuing period landuse reform and other economic developments.

S Švažas; L Bal?iauskas

293

Dying from cancer in developed and developing countries: lessons from two qualitative interview studies of patients and their carers  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the experiences of illness and needs and use of services in two groups of patients with incurable cancer, one in a developed country and the other in a developing country. Design Scotland: longitudinal study with qualitative interviews. Kenya: cross sectional study with qualitative interviews. Settings Lothian region, Scotland, and Meru District, Kenya. Participants Scotland: 20 patients with inoperable lung cancer and their carers. Kenya: 24 patients with common advanced cancers and their main informal carers. Main outcome measures Descriptions of experiences, needs, and available services. Results 67 interviews were conducted in Scotland and 46 in Kenya. The emotional pain of facing death was the prime concern of Scottish patients and their carers, while physical pain and financial worries dominated the lives of Kenyan patients and their carers. In Scotland, free health and social services (including financial assistance) were available, but sometimes underused. In Kenya, analgesia, essential equipment, suitable food, and assistance in care were often inaccessible and unaffordable, resulting in considerable unmet physical needs. Kenyan patients thought that their psychological, social, and spiritual needs were met by their families, local community, and religious groups. Some Scottish patients thought that such non-physical needs went unmet. Conclusions In patients living in developed and developing countries there are differences not only in resources available for patients dying from cancer but also in their lived experience of illness. The expression of needs and how they are met in different cultural contexts can inform local assessment of needs and provide insights for initiatives in holistic cancer care. What is already known on this topic?Cancer treatment is a priority and is well developed in the United KingdomThere is an increasing burden on inadequately funded health services in developing countriesWhat this study addsThe experience of dying from cancer in Scotland contrasts starkly with that experienced in KenyaInequalities in provision of palliative care persist between developed and developing countriesDespite the availability of resources in the United Kingdom, people still have major areas of unmet needsConsideration of patients' experiences and provision of care in contrasting cultural settings can highlight gaps in frameworks of cancer care PMID:12586671

Murray, Scott A; Grant, Elizabeth; Grant, Angus; Kendall, Marilyn

2003-01-01

294

Fall 2003 Harvard College Alcohol Study Sanction Thematic Evaluations Harvard Study Review Sanction Evaluation Fall 2003  

E-print Network

review focused on secondary effects of alcohol abuse in study. 28 14 0 0 B. Responsibility 1. StudentFall 2003 Harvard College Alcohol Study Sanction Thematic Evaluations Harvard Study Review Sanction requirements. 1 41 0 0 42 Sanctions Evaluated Responses #12;Fall 2003 Harvard College Alcohol Study Sanction

Gering, Jon C.

295

Health interventions for the metal working industry: which is the most cost-effective? A study from a developing country.  

PubMed

This study ranked the cost-effectiveness of health interventions in the metal working industry in a developing country. Data were based on 82 034 workers of the Northern region of Mexico. Effectiveness was measured through 'healthy life years' (HeaLYs) gained. Costs were estimated per worker according to type and appropriate inputs from selected health interventions. 'Hand' was the anatomical region that yielded the most gain of HeaLYs and amputation was the injury that yielded the most gain of HeaLYs. The most effective health intervention corresponded to training, followed by medical care, education, helmets, safety shoes, lumbar supports, safety goggles, gloves and safety aprons. In dollar terms, education presented the best cost-effectiveness ratio (US$637) and safety aprons presented the worst cost-effectiveness ratio (US$1 147 770). Training proved to be a very expensive intervention, but presented the best effectiveness outcome and the second best cost-effectiveness ratio (US$2084). Cost-effectiveness analyses in developing countries are critical. Corporations might not have the same funds and technology as those in developed countries or multinational companies. PMID:12063358

Salinas, A M; Villarreal, E; Nuñez, G M; Garza, M E; Briones, H; Navarro, O

2002-05-01

296

Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females) from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity. PMID:24348144

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Lalla, Osama; Ali, Essa Y. A.; Kalam, Faiza; Benhamed, Mofida M.; Saghir, Sabri; Halahleh, Ismail; Djoudi, Zahra; Chirane, Manel

2013-01-01

297

Breastfeeding practices in relation to country of origin among women living in denmark: a population-based study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002-2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database. The data was linked with data on maternal socio-demographic information from Danish population-covering registries. Suboptimal breastfeeding was defined as <4 months of full breastfeeding as described by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority. We used logistic regression to model the crude associations between suboptimal breastfeeding and country of origin, and taking maternal age and parity, and a variety of parental socio-economic measures into account. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among non-Western migrant women than among women of Danish origin. Women who were descendants of Turkish and Pakistani immigrants had a higher risk of suboptimal breastfeeding as compared to the group of women who had migrated from the same countries, suggesting that acculturation did not favor breastfeeding. For all but the group of women who had migrated from Pakistan, adjustment for socio-demographic indicators (age, parity, education, attachment to labour market, and income) eliminated the increased risk of suboptimal breastfeeding. There was no evidence for differences in the breastfeeding support provided at hospital level according to migrant status. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among women who were non-Nordic migrants and descendants of migrants than among women with Danish origin. PMID:24748214

Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

2014-12-01

298

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Fearnside, P.M. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia)

1992-08-01

299

Education and risk for acute myocardial infarction in 52 high, middle and low-income countries: INTERHEART case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the effect of education and other measures of socioeconomic status (SES) on risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients and controls from countries with diverse economic circumstances (high, middle, and low income countries).Design:Case-control study.Setting:52 countries from all inhabited regions of the world.Participants:12242 cases and 14622 controls.Main outcome measures:First non-fatal AMI.Results:SES was measured using education, family income, possessions

A Rosengren; S V Subramanian; S Islam; C K Chow; A Avezum; K Kazmi; K Sliwa; M Zubaid; S Rangarajan; S Yusuf

2009-01-01

300

Oasis Connections: Results from an Evaluation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a community-based basic computer and Internet training program designed for older adults, provide recommendations for program refinement, and gather preliminary information on program sustainability. Design and Methods: The program was developed by the OASIS Institute, a nonprofit…

Czaja, Sara J.; Lee, Chin Chin; Branham, Janice; Remis, Peggy

2012-01-01

301

Paintball Countries  

E-print Network

Highlights · Paintball · Countries · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Paintball! Come out and have some fun! This Saturday, January 17th, we are going to play Paintball! Paintball is a popular game is $25 for equipment and 300 paintballs. You may purchase 500 paintballs for $35. You must pay

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

302

Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the Undertreatment of Hypercholesterolemia: Results From the CEPHEUS Study in Arabian Gulf Countries.  

PubMed

The Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS) survey evaluated the attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals among patients on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) guideline. The survey was conducted in 6 Arabian Gulf countries. Patients aged ?18 years on LLDs for at least ?3 months (stable medication for ?6 weeks) were recruited. Fasting blood samples were collected at a single visit. In this survey, 5276 (58.2% male) patients were included in the final analysis. The LDL-C goal was attained in 91.1% of low-risk, 52.7% of high-risk, and 32.0% in very-high-risk categories. Goal attainment was directly related to female gender, age <40 years, history of diabetes, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The results of this survey highlight the suboptimal management of hypercholesterolemia across Arabian Gulf countries. PMID:24301426

Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Mahmeed, Wael Al; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Tamimi, Omer Al; Herz, Shorook Al; Anazi, Faisal Al; Nemer, Khalid Al; Metwally, Othman; Alkhadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel Razak; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Jassim, Obaid Al; Hallaq, Omar Al; Baslaib, Fahad Omar Ahmed S; Alawadhi, Mahmoud; Amin, Haitham; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Shehab, Abdullah

2014-11-01

303

Cross?Country Skiing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to study the adaptation to speed in the temporal patterns of the movement cycle and determine any differences in velocity, cycle rate and cycle length at the maximum speed level in the different classical style and freestyle cross?country skiing techniques. Eight skilled male cross?country skiers were filmed with a digital video camera in the sagittal plane while

Johnny Nilsson; Per Tveit; Olav Eikrehagen

2004-01-01

304

Project identification and evaluation techniques for transportation infrastructure : assessing their role in metropolitan areas of developing countries  

E-print Network

Project identification and evaluation of transportation infrastructure play a vital role in shaping and sustaining the forms of cities all over the world. These cities differ substantially in character and urban form and ...

Kumar, Vimal, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

305

Rethinking Indicators of Microbial Drinking Water Quality for Health Studies in Tropical Developing Countries: Case Study in Northern Coastal Ecuador  

PubMed Central

To address the problem of the health impacts of unsafe drinking water, methods are needed to assess microbiologic contamination in water. However, indicators of water quality have provided mixed results. We evaluate five assays (three for Escherichia coli and one each for enterococci and somatic coliphage) of microbial contamination in villages in rural Ecuador that rely mostly on untreated drinking water. Only membrane filtration for E. coli using mI agar detected a significant association with household diarrheal disease outcome (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–1.65 in household containers and odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–1.37) in source samples. Our analysis and other published research points to the need for further consideration of study design factors, such as sample size and variability in measurements, when using indicator organisms, especially when relating water quality exposure to health outcomes. Although indicator organisms are used extensively in health studies, we argue that their use requires a full understanding of their purposes and limitations. PMID:22403326

Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

2012-01-01

306

Studies of biochemistry and clinical biochemistry. Studies at sample medical schools in 13 EU countries regarding biochemistry and clinical biochemistry teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study summarizes the results obtained during personal visits to 53 medical schools in the 13 original EU countries during 2004–2006. Data from the Czech Republic is shown for comparison. The possibilities of acquiring information from the websites of the medical schools in the local language and English are assessed. The admission process to medical schools and the organization of

Petr Stern; Ivan Sebesta; Bohuslava Trnkova; Tomas Zima

2008-01-01

307

Moving beyond prevalence studies: screening and interventions for children with disabilities in low-income and middle-income countries.  

PubMed

Research understanding the lives of children with disabilities in low-income and middle-income countries has predominantly focused on prevalence studies with little progress on evidence-based service development. At the same time, global attention in child health has shifted from child survival strategies to those that bring child survival and development together. This review examines whether intervention research can be better aligned with current theoretical constructs of disability and international guidelines that advocate for the realisation of rights for children with disabilities and inclusive early childhood development. PMID:24647995

Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lynch, Paul; Gladstone, Melissa

2014-09-01

308

Teacher Education Matters: A Study of Middle School Mathematics Teacher Preparation in Six Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a major international teacher education research project--the Mathematics Teaching in the 21st Century Study (MT21)--this book investigates the pre-service preparation of middle school mathematics teachers in the United States, South Korea, Taiwan, Germany, Bulgaria, and Mexico. The study was funded by the National Science Foundation and…

Schmidt, William H.; Blomeke, Sigrid; Tatto, Maria Teresa

2011-01-01

309

Mobile Phone Use in a Developing Country: A Malaysian Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factors that influence consumer satisfaction with mobile telephone use in Malaysia. The validity of the study's constructs, criterion, and content was confirmed. Construct validity was verified through the factor analysis with a total variance of 73.72 percent explained by all six independent factors. Content validity was…

Yeow, Paul H. P.; Yen Yuen, Yee; Connolly, Regina

2008-01-01

310

Study in the Netherlands: Small Countries Have To Be Smarter. General Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes opportunities for higher education study in the Netherlands along with information, addresses, and practical tips for foreign students who are considering taking a course or earning a degree at a Dutch institution of higher education. Six sections cover: (1) the rewards of the investment in study abroad; (2) background on…

Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education, The Hague.

311

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND SOCIOPOLITICAL MODERNITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES; CASE STUDY OF IRAN1  

Microsoft Academic Search

What we must keep in mind is that although nanotechnology is an emerging and high technology, it is still technology or, in other words, it has an instrumental nature and in order to study its effect on societies we have to consider the role of instruments' evolution in societies and study nanotechnology as the most recent part of this trend.

Sepehr Ghazinoory; Reza Ghazinouri

312

SMS reminders to improve the tuberculosis cure rate in developing countries (TB-SMS Cameroon): a protocol of a randomised control study  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis is a public health problem in Cameroon, just like in many other countries in the world. The National Tuberculosis Control Programme (PNLT) put in place by the state, aims to fight tuberculosis through the implementation of international directives (Directly Observed Treatment Short, DOTS). Despite the deployment of this strategy across the world, its implementation is difficult in the context of low-resource countries. Some expected results are not achieved. In Cameroon, the cure rate for patients with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TPM+) after 6 months is only about 65%, 20% below the target. This is mainly due to poor patient adherence to treatment. By relying on the potential of mobile Health, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of SMS reminders on the cure rate of TPM?+?patients, measured using 6-month bacilloscopy. Methods/design This is a blinded, randomised controlled multicentre study carried out in Cameroon. The research hypothesis is that sending daily SMS messages to remind patients to take their prescribed tuberculosis medication, together with the standard DOTS strategy, will increase the cure rate from 65% (control group: DOTS, no SMS intervention) to 85% (intervention group: DOTS, with SMS intervention) in a group of new TPM?+?patients. In accordance with each treatment centre, the participants will be randomly allocated into the two groups using a computer program: the intervention group and the control group. A member of the research team will send daily SMS messages. Study data will be collected by health professionals involved in the care of patients. Data analysis will be done by the intention-to-treat method. Discussion The achieving of expected outcomes by the PNLT through implementation of DOTS requires several challenges. Although it has been demonstrated that the DOTS strategy is effective in the fight against tuberculosis, its application remains difficult in developing countries. This study explores the potential of mHealth to support DOTS strategy. It will gather new evidence on the effectiveness of mHealth-based interventions and SMS reminders in the improvement of treatment adherence and the cure rate of tuberculosis patients, especially in a low-resource country such as Cameroon. Trial registration The trial is registered on the Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.pactr.org) under unique identification number: PACTR201307000583416. PMID:24460827

2014-01-01

313

Impacts of active labor market programs : new evidence from evaluations with particular attention to developing and transition countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the recent international experience with active labor market programs (ALMPs). Basing the evidence on the growing body of program evaluations, it focuses on the impacts of ALMPs on the subsequent employment and earnings of participants. This paper provides an update to earlier assessments by incorporating the results of the more recent

Gordon Betcherman; Karina Olivas; Amit Dar

2004-01-01

314

Collecting Panel Data in Developing Countries: Does It Make Sense? Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper No. 23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no difference in principle between developing and developed countries in deciding whether it is desirable to collect panel data. However, there are many relevant circumstantial differences in developing countries. A number of aspects of the collection and use of panel data from developing country households are reviewed. Sampling issues…

Ashenfelter, Orley; And Others

315

Access to health care for asylum seekers in the European Union--a comparative study of country policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

care in the 25 EU countries. A total of 60% of the ministries and 20% of the NGOs responded. We received answers from 24 out of the 25 countries. Results: Medical screening was provided to asylum seekers upon arrival in all EU countries but Greece. The content of screening programs, however, varied as well as whether they were voluntary or

Marie Norredam; Anna Mygind; Allan Krasnik

2006-01-01

316

Evaluation of an Online Study Skills Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the evaluation of an online study skills course unit designed, using evidence-based principles, to support undergraduate students. A mixed-methods approach was employed to establish the extent to which the unit was (a) fit for purpose and (b) effective. Data were obtained from an online survey (n = 63) conducted on entry to…

Pryjmachuk, Steven; Gill, Anita; Wood, Patricia; Olleveant, Nicola; Keeley, Philip

2012-01-01

317

Viral hemorrhagic fever cases in the country of Georgia: Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance Study results.  

PubMed

Minimal information is available on the incidence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus and hantavirus infections in Georgia. From 2008 to 2011, 537 patients with fever ? 38°C for ? 48 hours without a diagnosis were enrolled into a sentinel surveillance study to investigate the incidence of nine pathogens, including CCHF virus and hantavirus. Of 14 patients with a hemorrhagic fever syndrome, 3 patients tested positive for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Two of the patients enrolled in the study had acute renal failure. These 2 of 537 enrolled patients were the only patients in the study positive for hantavirus IgM antibodies. These results suggest that CCHF virus and hantavirus are contributing causes of acute febrile syndromes of infectious origin in Georgia. These findings support introduction of critical diagnostic approaches and confirm the need for additional surveillance in Georgia. PMID:24891463

Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Clark, Danielle V; Bautista, Christian T; Abdel Fadeel, Moustafa; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J; Wölfel, Silke; Wölfel, Roman; Rivard, Robert G

2014-08-01

318

Severe aplastic anaemia in the Nordic countries: a population based study of incidence, presentation, course, and outcome.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Incidence data for severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) in children are scanty and vary. Few population based studies have been reported. A retrospective and prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence and course of SAA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All children with a diagnosis of SAA in the Nordic countries from 1982 through 1993 were registered and have been followed up since 1987. RESULTS: A total of 101 children were diagnosed with SAA. The mean annual child population was 4.31 million. A constant incidence of 1.95/million children/year was found: 2.4 for boys and 1.5 for girls. A non-significant increase of cases occurred from November to March. Possible aetiological agents were noted in 29%. The actuarial survival was 79% after one year and 68% after five years without significant difference between boys and girls. CONCLUSION: The incidence of SAA in the Nordic countries remains stable with a preponderance among boys. SAA has still a high initial mortality and a risk of late deaths. PMID:8669932

Clausen, N; Kreuger, A; Salmi, T; Storm-Mathisen, I; Johannesson, G

1996-01-01

319

Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific: Country Studies--Philippines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes primary education in the Philippines. Focusing on the primary education system, Chapter One discusses the development of primary education, educational legislation, organization of the school system, administration and supervision, teaching staff, curriculum, textbooks and instructional materials, mass media and educational…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

320

Education Policy Formation in Africa: A Comparative Study of Five Countries. Technical Paper No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains a set of five case studies and two analytical overview chapters that lay the foundation for a deeper understanding of the process of educational policy formation in Africa. Reflecting developments until late 1992, the cases include Botswana, Tanzania, Uganda, Mali, and Senegal. The articles describe and analyze current…

Evans, David R., Ed.

321

Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

Onianwa, P. C.

1993-01-01

322

Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific: Country Studies--Republic of Korea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the Republic of Korea's efforts to provide universal primary education. Chapter One analyzes the causes of the explosive expansion of the population eligible for educational services. Chapter Two reports strategies for universalizing elementary education. Chapter Three points out areas needing improvement, including class…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

323

Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

2005-01-01

324

Corruption and Elections: An Empirical Study for a Cross-Section of Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study whether voters are more likely to “vote out” a corrupt incumbent than to re-elect him. Specifically, we examine whether they retract their support from political candidates who they think are corrupt by looking at changes in an index of corruption perceptions between the current and the last elections. Our results suggest that corruption in public

Stefan Krause; Fabio Mendez

2007-01-01

325

CORRUPTION AND ELECTIONS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY FOR A CROSS-SECTION OF COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study whether voters are more likely to “vote out” a corrupt incumbent than to re-elect him. Specifically, we examine whether they retract their support from political candidates who they think are corrupt by looking at changes in an index of corruption perceptions between the current and the last elections. Our results suggest that corruption in public

STEFAN KRAUSE; FABIO MÉNDEZ

2009-01-01

326

Reciprocal Cooperation and the Moderating Effect of Individualism: A Five-Country Negotiation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have conceptualized the problem-solving approach to include cooperation between negotiators in order to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes. The observed cooperation between parties embodies the concept of positive reciprocity where negotiators match the cooperative bargaining strategy of their counterparts. Using this premise, the current study investigates reciprocity through the relationship between negotiators’ perceptions of their counterpart's cooperative behaviors and their

Alma Mintu-Wimsatt; Anna Madjourova-Davri

2011-01-01

327

Values--A Study of Teacher and Student Perceptions in Four Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed to assess and compare the values prevalent among the students and teachers of Universities in Bangladesh, Japan, USA and Germany. The sample consisted of 480 students and 236 teachers. The sample included 120 undergraduate students from Japan; 120 undergraduate students from Bangladesh; 120 undergraduate students from USA, and 120…

Mahmud, Shamsul H.; Warchal, Judith R.; Masuchi, Ayumi; Ahmed, Rafiq; Schoelmerich, Axel

2009-01-01

328

Improving building efficiency in developing countries: Case study of insulation for northern Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to improve building envelopes in many parts of the developing world. In cold climates, scarce fuel is consumed in an attempt to maintain reasonable indoor temperatures. In Northern Pakistan, traditional houses are made with stone walls while newer buildings, houses and schools, use uninsulated concrete block that has even lower thermal resistance. Evaluation and improvement of these buildings were undertaken with a regional non-governmental organization. Measurements were made of the thermal resistance of typical exterior walls. An energy analysis showed that using 1.0 kg of straw in an insulation board would save about 5 kg of firewood over a winter in a Pakistani school. Recent research has focused on development of an insulation that can be retrofitted over existing walls. The insulation board must be sufficiently strong to support itself during construction and resist damage at its surface. Several methods of containing and binding straw were examined; the most promising adhesive was commercially available methane di-isocyanate. Good mechanical properties were obtained at resin contents as low as 2% by weight. At densities of 128 and 160 kg/m{sup 3} (8 and 10 lb/ft{sup 3}), these boards have thermal conductivities of 0.039--0.041 W/m-K (R-values of 3.7 and 3.45 per inch), respectively. The boards have an estimated materials cost per unit thermal resistance that is roughly half the delivered cost of competing insulations available in Pakistan. Straw insulation boards have the added advantage that they can be made on site with semi-skilled local labor and local materials.

Glicksman, L.R.; Norford, L.; Charlson, J.; Harvey, H.; Sullivan, G.

1998-07-01

329

Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic deforestation in tropical countries is responsible for a significant part of global carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. To plan efficient climate change mitigation programs (such as REDD+, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), reliable forecasts of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are necessary. Although population density has been recognized as a key factor in tropical deforestation, current methods of prediction do not allow the population explosion that is occurring in many tropical developing countries to be taken into account. Here, we propose an innovative approach using novel computational and statistical tools, including R/GRASS scripts and the new phcfM R package, to model the intensity and location of deforestation including the effect of population density. We used the model to forecast anthropogenic deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions in five large study areas in the humid and spiny-dry forests of Madagascar. Using our approach, we were able to demonstrate that the current rapid population growth in Madagascar (+3.39% per year) will significantly increase the intensity of deforestation by 2030 (up to +1.17% per year in densely populated areas). We estimated the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the loss of aboveground biomass to be of 2.24 and 0.26 tons per hectare and per year in the humid and spiny-dry forest, respectively. Our models showed better predictive ability than previous deforestation models (the figure of merit ranged from 10 to 23). We recommend this approach to reduce the uncertainty associated with deforestation forecasts. We also underline the risk of an increase in the speed of deforestation in the short term in tropical developing countries undergoing rapid population expansion. PMID:23789079

Vieilledent, Ghislain; Grinand, Clovis; Vaudry, Romuald

2013-06-01

330

Refractive error study in children: sampling and measurement methods for a multi-country survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:The Refractive Error Study in Children was designed to assess the prevalence of refractive error and vision impairment in children of different ethnic origins and cultural settings.METHODS:Population-based cross-sectional samples of children 5 to 15 years of age were obtained through cluster sampling. Presenting, uncorrected, and best-corrected visual acuity, along with refractive error under cycloplegia, were the main outcome measures. Amblyopia

A. Dominique Negrel; Eugenio Maul; Gopal P. Pokharel; Jialiang Zhao; Leon B. Ellwein

2000-01-01

331

Longitudinal twin study of early reading development in three countries: Preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have initiated parallel longitudinal studies in Australia (Byrne, PI), the United States (Olson, PI), and Norway (Samuelsson,\\u000a PI) of identical and fraternal twins who are being tested in preschool for prereading skills, and in kindergarten, first grade,\\u000a and second grade for the development of early reading, spelling, and related cognitive skills. Comparisons of the similarities\\u000a of identical and fraternal

Brian Byrne; Cara Delaland; Ruth Fielding-Barnsley; Peter Quain; Stefan Samuelsson; Torleiv Høien; Robin Corley; John C. DeFries; Sally Wadsworth; Erik Willcutt; Richard K. Olson

2002-01-01

332

Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries.  

PubMed

Ten cohort and two case-control studies from Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Senegal, and Zaire comparing the mortality of nonimmunized children and children immunized with standard titre measles vaccine were analyzed to determine whether the reduction in mortality after standard titre measles immunization can be explained simply by the prevention of acute measles and its long-term consequences. Protective efficacy against death after measles immunization ranged from 30% to 86%. Efficacy was highest in the studies with short follow-up and when children were immunized in infancy. Vaccine efficacy against death was much greater than the proportion of deaths attributed to acute measles disease. In four studies from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Burundi, vaccine efficacy against death remained almost unchanged when cases of measles were excluded from the analysis. Finally, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and polio vaccinations were not associated with reduction in mortality. These findings suggest that standard titre measles vaccine may confer a beneficial effect against mortality which is unrelated to the specific protection against measles disease. PMID:7647643

Aaby, P; Samb, B; Simondon, F; Seck, A M; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H

1995-08-19

333

Country Cures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

London's Natural History Museum presents Country Cures, an "interactive project to gather information about the sometimes familiar, often surprising, use of plants in traditional medicine." Readers are highly encouraged to participate in this on-going project by contributing their own herbal remedies, which are listed by plant under The Exhibition and by ailment under Your Cures. All contributions featured in this website appear to be from residents of the U.K. and the Republic of Ireland, but there is nothing to suggest that others may not participate (especially as dandelions, yarrow, comfrey, and other plants in the exhibit are common in North American folk remedies).

334

Are teenage pregnancies at high risk? A comparison study in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this study was to compare obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage and non-teenage pregnancies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed retrospective data of 15,498 pregnant patients who delivered from March 2008 to April 2009 in Jawaharlal Institute\\u000a of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, a referral tertiary care and teaching hospital in Pondicherry, South India.\\u000a Girls aged ? 19 years were compared with pregnancy outcomes

Haritha Sagili; N. Pramya; Karthiga Prabhu; Mariano Mascarenhas; P. Reddi Rani

335

Application of the contingent valuation method in a developing country: a case study of the Yusufeli dam in northeast Turkey.  

PubMed

Hydroelectric power plants and dams often play an important role in developing countries in terms of their contribution to economy. In accordance with the energy policies of Turkish Republic, Yusufeli Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant in Northeastern Turkey have been initiated. In this study, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was conducted in Yusufeli Village to determine the environmental costs of the Yusufeli Project. The purpose is to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) of Yusufeli Village residents for restoration of the environmental impacts of the dam project and also to investigate the underlying economic, psychological, and social motivations for WTP. WTP was calculated as US$761 per person which can further be used in the cost-benefit analysis. The results from the study suggest that application of the CVM in rural and urban areas located in the same region can show differences. PMID:20595759

Alp, Emre; Yeti?, Ulkü

2010-01-01

336

Dissemination of Multiple Drug Resistance Genes by Class 1 Integrons in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Four Countries: a Comparative Study ?  

PubMed Central

A comparative genetic analysis of 42 clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, resistant to two or more antibiotics belonging to the broad-spectrum ?-lactam group, sourced from Sydney, Australia, and three South American countries is presented. The study focuses on the genetic contexts of class 1 integrons, mobilizable genetic elements best known for their role in the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative pathogens. It was found that the class 1 integrons in this cohort were located in a number of different genetic contexts with clear regional differences. In Sydney, IS26-associated Tn21-like transposons on IncL/M plasmids contribute greatly to the dispersal of integron-associated multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) loci. In contrast, in the South American countries, Tn1696-like transposons on an IncA/C plasmid(s) appeared to be disseminating a characteristic MDR region. A range of mobile genetic elements is clearly being recruited by clinically important mobile class 1 integrons, and these elements appear to be becoming more common with time. This in turn is driving the evolution of complex and laterally mobile MDR units and may further complicate antibiotic therapy. PMID:21518841

Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Ingold, Ana; Vanegas, Natasha; Martinez, Elena; Merlino, John; Merkier, Andrea Karina; Castro, Mercedes; Gonzalez Rocha, Gerardo; Borthagaray, Graciela; Centron, Daniela; Bello Toledo, Helia; Marquez, Carolina M.; Stokes, H. W.

2011-01-01

337

Working and hypertension: gaps in employment not associated with increased risk in 13 European countries, a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence to suggest unemployment has a role in the development and incidence of cardiovascular disease. This study explores the contribution of breaks in employment to the development of hypertension, a key risk factor for coronary heart disease. Methods We use data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe to estimate the association between gaps in employment of 6 months or more (‘Not Working’, NW) and the incidence of hypertension in 9,985 individuals aged 50 or over across 13 European countries. Life history information including transitions in and out of employment was used to create a panel dataset where each visit represented one year of life between age 30 and incident hypertension or censoring (whichever came first). Pooled logistic models estimated the odds of hypertension according to the experience of not working, controlling for age at interview, age at each visit, gender, childhood socio-economic position, and country. Results We consistently found no association between NW and hypertension, irrespective of the metrics used in defining the exposure or model specification. Conclusion There is the possibility of bias contributing to the null findings. However, given the relatively consistent evidence for an association between unemployment and cardiovascular outcomes in the literature, our results suggest there may be mechanisms - outside of hypertension – that have a comparatively greater contribution to this association. PMID:24885853

2014-01-01

338

Forecasting generation of urban solid waste in developing countries--a case study in Mexico.  

PubMed

Based on a study of the composition of urban solid waste (USW) and of socioeconomic variables in Morelia, Mexico, generation rates were estimated. In addition, the generation of residential solid waste (RSW) and nonresidential solid waste (NRSW) was forecasted by means of a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. For residential sources, the independent variables analyzed were monthly wages, persons per dwelling, age, and educational level of the heads of the household. For nonresidential sources, variables analyzed were number of employees, area of facilities, number of working days, and working hours per day. The forecasted values for residential waste were similar to those observed. This approach may be applied to areas in which available data are scarce, and in which there is an urgent need for the planning of adequate management of USW. PMID:11218430

Buenrostro, O; Bocco, G; Vence, J

2001-01-01

339

Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Urban Health Research in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

The neighborhood has been used as a sampling unit for exploring variations in health outcomes. In a variety of studies census tracts or ZIP codes have been used as proxies for neighborhoods because the boundaries are pre-defined units for which other data are readily available. However these spatial units can be arbitrary and do not account for social-cultural behaviors and identities that are significant to residents. In this study for the city of Accra, Ghana, our goal was to create a neighborhood map that represented the boundaries generally agreed upon by the residents of the city using the smallest available census unit, the enumeration area (EA), as the base unit. This neighborhood map was then used as the basis for mapping spatial variations in health within the city. The first step in demarcating the boundaries was to identify features that limit a person’s movement including the major roads, drainage features, and railroad tracks that people use to partially define their neighborhood boundaries. Once an initial set of boundaries were established, they were iteratively modified by walking the neighborhoods, talking to residents, public officials, and others. The resulting neighborhood map consolidated 1,723 EAs into 108 neighborhoods covering the entire Accra metropolitan area. Results indicated that the team achieved 71 percent accuracy in mapping neighborhoods when the neighborhood keyed to the survey EA was compared with the response given by the interviewees in the 2008–2009 Women’s Health Survey of Accra when asked which neighborhood they lived in. PMID:23690870

Ofiesh, Caetlin; Rain, David; Jewell, Henry; Weeks, John

2013-01-01

340

Summary of California DSM impact evaluation studies  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, four of the largest investor-owned California utilities have completed more than 50 evaluation studies designed to measure the energy and demand impacts of their demand-side management (DSM) programs. These four are: Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E), Southern California Edison (SCE), Southern California Gas (SoCalGas), and San diego Gas and Electric (SDG and E). These studies covered residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural DSM programs and provided a wealth of information on program impacts. The objective of this report is to summarize the results of these DSM evaluation studies in order to describe what DSM has achieved in California, to assess how well these achievements were forecast, and to compare the effectiveness of different types of DSM programs. This report documents the sizable investment made by the California utilities in their 1990--92 DSM programs. Between 1990 and 1992, the four utilities spent $772 million on energy-efficiency/conservation programs. This report also summarizes the realization rates estimated by the 50+ evaluation studies. Realization rates are defined as ex-post net savings estimates divided by ex-ante net savings estimates. Realization rates are summarized for 158 programs and program segments.

Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mihlmester, P.E. [Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-10-01

341

European citizens' use of E-health services: A study of seven countries  

PubMed Central

Background European citizens are increasingly being offered Internet health services. This study investigated patterns of health-related Internet use, its consequences, and citizens' expectations about their doctors' provision of e-health services. Methods Representative samples were obtained from the general populations in Norway, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Poland, Portugal and Latvia. The total sample consisted of 7934 respondents. Interviews were conducted by telephone. Results 44 % of the total sample, 71 % of the Internet users, had used the Internet for health purposes. Factors that positively affected the use of Internet for health purposes were youth, higher education, white-collar or no paid job, visits to the GP during the past year, long-term illness or disabilities, and a subjective assessment of one's own health as good. Women were the most active health users among those who were online. One in four of the respondents used the Internet to prepare for or follow up doctors' appointments. Feeling reassured after using the Internet for health purposes was twice as common as experiencing anxieties. When choosing a new doctor, more than a third of the sample rated the provision of e-health services as important. Conclusion The users of Internet health services differ from the general population when it comes to health and demographic variables. The most common way to use the Internet in health matters is to read information, second comes using the net to decide whether to see a doctor and to prepare for and follow up on doctors' appointments. Hence, health-related use of the Internet does affect patients' use of other health services, but it would appear to supplement rather than to replace other health services. PMID:17425798

Andreassen, Hege K; Bujnowska-Fedak, Maria M; Chronaki, Catherine E; Dumitru, Roxana C; Pudule, Iveta; Santana, Silvina; Voss, Henning; Wynn, Rolf

2007-01-01

342

Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving health outcomes in these communities. If developed at sufficient scale and intensity, sex work organisations could play a critical role in reducing the present harms caused by criminalisation and stigma. PMID:23889941

2013-01-01

343

A Comparison of Model-Based and Design-Based Impact Evaluations of Interventions in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a long-standing debate as to whether nonexperimental estimators of causal effects of social programs can overcome selection bias. Most existing reviews either are inconclusive or point to significant selection biases in nonexperimental studies. However, many of the reviews, the so-called "between-studies," do not make direct…

Hansen, Henrik; Klejnstrup, Ninja Ritter; Andersen, Ole Winckler

2013-01-01

344

Towards a developing country firm perspective on outsourcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – While the implications of outsourcing have been extensively studied from the point of view of the developed country multinational corporation (MNC) and its home economy, far less attention has been paid to the developing country firm (DCF) participating in the outsourcing collaboration. This article aims at presenting, evaluating, and synthesizing a number of theoretical contributions that may help

Michael W. Hansen; Henrik Schaumburg-Müller; Eugene Pottenger

2008-01-01

345

Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180

2013-01-01

346

Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries  

PubMed Central

Background Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Methods Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1) the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV) study's main survey, conducted in 2008-09 among clients (N = 408) and providers at health facilities offering HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) services; 2) semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 63 HIV-positive women on their experiences of stigma, disclosure, post-test counseling and access to follow-up psycho-social support; (3) in-depth interviews with key informants and PMTCT healthcare workers; and (4) document study of national PMTCT policies and guidelines. We quantitatively examined differences in the quality of counseling by country and by HIV status using Fisher's exact tests. Results The majority of pregnant women attending antenatal care (80-90%) report that they were explained the meaning of the tests, explained how HIV can be transmitted, given advice on prevention, encouraged to refer their partners for testing, and given time to ask questions. Our qualitative findings reveal that some women found testing regimes to be coercive, while disclosure remains highly problematic. 79% of HIV-positive pregnant women reported that they generally keep their status secret; only 37% had disclosed to their husband. Conclusion To achieve better PMTCT outcomes, the strategy of testing women in antenatal care (perceived as an exclusively female domain) when they are already pregnant needs to be rethought. When scaling up HIV testing programs, it is particularly important that issues of partner disclosure are taken seriously. PMID:22236097

2012-01-01

347

Circadian rhythm of blood pressure and life style: a study of clinically healthy subjects living in rural and industrialized countries.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate how the blood pressure (BP) circadian rhythm (CR) is influenced by life style. Two groups of subjects were recruited from Nepal and Japan because of the extremely different occupational routines of these countries. The Nepalese represent a rural culture, while the Japanese reflect an industrialized civilization. Both the ethnic groups have in common a high dietary sodium intake. The BP monitoring was estimated according to chronobiological methods. Results provide evidence for a phase difference in BP CR which is coherent with the life style in the two groups. Furthermore, the estimates demonstrate that the Japanese show a higher level in daily BP which is related to the greater number of hours in which they are active. These findings may be taken into account for better deciphering of what is the role of life style on BP physiology in human beings. PMID:8817400

Kawasaki, T; Cugini, P; Itoh, K; Uezono, K; Ogaki, T; Yoshimizu, Y; Cornélissen, G

1996-05-01

348

What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite a growing body of\\u000a research into risk factors for IPV, methodological differences limit the extent to which comparisons can be made between studies.\\u000a We used data from ten countries included in the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence to identify\\u000a factors

Tanya Abramsky; Charlotte H Watts; Claudia Garcia-Moreno; Karen Devries; Ligia Kiss; Mary Ellsberg; Henrica AFM Jansen; Lori Heise

2011-01-01

349

Evaluation of the WHO helminth eggs criteria using a QMRA approach for the safe reuse of wastewater and sludge in developing countries.  

PubMed

An analysis of the actual WHO recommendations to develop standards for the safe reuse of wastewater, excreta or sludge in agriculture using a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is presented. The proposed values are defined using a risk-based model for Ascaris lumbricoides infection to assess the human risks associated with exposure to this pathogen from crops irrigated with polluted water, or from crops grown in biosolid-enriched soil. From the results it becomes evident that, with regard to helminth eggs, the WHO guidelines for wastewater reuse in agriculture seem more stringent than are needed in developing countries, while for the reuse of sludge they appear to be the opposite. Although more information is needed to confirm this conclusion, which was derived from a single piece of research, at the very least a more cautious approach is recommended when evaluating excreta or sludge for agricultural purposes in developing countries. Additionally, this work shows that the application of some barriers, other than wastewater and sludge treatment as suggested by WHO, can play an important role in controlling risks. PMID:21508556

Navarro, I; Jiménez, B

2011-01-01

350

Exposure of Pregnant Women to Indoor Air Pollution: A Study from nine low and middle income countries  

PubMed Central

Objective We studied exposure to solid fuel smoke and second-hand tobacco smoke among pregnant women in south Asia, Africa and Latin America. Design Prospective cross-sectional survey. Setting Antenatal clinics in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Uruguay, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, India and Pakistan. Sample A total of 7961 pregnant women in ten sites in nine countries were interviewed between October 2004 and September 2005. Methods A standardized questionnaire on exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) and to secondhand smoke was administered to pregnant women during antenatal care. Main Outcome Measures Exposure to IAP and second-hand tobacco smoke. Results South Asian pregnant women commonly reported use of wood (49.1%–89.7%), crop residue and animal dung for cooking and heating fuel. African pregnant women reported higher use of charcoal (85.4%–93.5%). Latin American pregnant women had greater use of petroleum gas. Among south Asian women, solid fuel use and cooking on an open flame inside the home were common. There was a significant association between solid fuel use and allowing smoking within the home at the Asian sites and in Zambia (p<0.05). Conclusions Pregnant women from low/middle income countries were commonly exposed to IAP secondary to use of solid fuels. Among these populations, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke was also common. This combination of exposures likely increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes among the most vulnerable women. Our study highlights the importance of further research on the combined impact of IAP and second-hand tobacco smoke exposures on adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:19961275

Kadir, Muhammad Masood; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Garces, Ana L.; Moore, Janet; Onyamboko, Marie; Kaseba, Christine; Althabe, Fernando; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Freire, Salvio; Parida, Sailajanandan; Saleem, Sarah; Wright, Linda L.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2014-01-01

351

Crop residue mulching in tropical and semi-tropical countries: An evaluation of residue availability and other technological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residue mulching (CRM) can be defined as a technology whereby at the time of crop emergence at least 30% of the soil surface is covered by organic residue of the previous crop. The present study proposes CRM as the most adequate term for the technology in view of the substantial controversy and confusion surrounding existing terms, particularly conservation tillage.

Olaf Erenstein

2002-01-01

352

Evaluation of Color and Color Infrared Photography from the Goldfield Mining District, Esmerelda and Nye Countries, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of geological features characteristic of the Goldfield epithermal ore deposits is considered and which of them can be identified from color and color infrared aerial photography. The Goldfield mining district in the western part of the Basin and Range Province is the area of study, located in desert terrain of relatively low relief.

Ashley, R. P.

1970-01-01

353

Integrating ethics, health policy and health systems in low- and middle-income countries: case studies from Malaysia and Pakistan.  

PubMed

Scientific progress is a significant basis for change in public-health policy and practice, but the field also invests in value-laden concepts and responds daily to sociopolitical, cultural and evaluative concerns. The concepts that drive much of public-health practice are shaped by the collective and individual mores that define social systems. This paper seeks to describe the ethics processes in play when public-health mechanisms are established in low- and middle-income countries, by focusing on two cases where ethics played a crucial role in producing positive institutional change in public-health policy. First, we introduce an overview of the relationship between ethics and public health; second, we provide a conceptual framework for the ethical analysis of health system events, noting how this approach might enhance the power of existing frameworks; and third, we demonstrate the interplay of these frameworks through the analysis of a programme to enhance road safety in Malaysia and an initiative to establish a national ethics committee in Pakistan. We conclude that, while ethics are gradually being integrated into public-health policy decisions in many developing health systems, ethical analysis is often implicit and undervalued. This paper highlights the need to analyse public-health decision-making from an ethical perspective. PMID:18797618

Hyder, Adnan A; Merritt, Maria; Ali, Joseph; Tran, Nhan T; Subramaniam, Kulanthayan; Akhtar, Tasleem

2008-08-01

354

Reducing childhood mortality in poor countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistence of high perinatal and neonatal mortality rates in many developing countries make efforts to improve perinatal care in the home and at local health facilities important public health concerns. We describe a study which aims to evaluate a community-level participatory intervention in rural Nepal. The effectiveness of community-based action research interventions with mothers and other key members of

David Osrin; Natasha Mesko; Bhim P. Shrestha; Dej Shrestha; Suresh Tamang; Sushma Thapa; Kirti M. Tumbahangphe; Jyoti R. Shrestha; Madan K. Manandhar; Dharma S. Manandhar; Anthony M. de L. Costello

2003-01-01

355

A Multi-Country Economic Evaluation of Low-Dose Aspirin in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is standard care in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The use of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention is not yet fully established, although meta-analyses and US and European guidelines support its use in people at increased risk of CVD. The primary objective of this study was to assess the economic consequences of

Mark Lamotte; Lieven Annemans; Thomas Evers; Maria Kubin

2006-01-01

356

Evidence Acquisition and Evaluation for Evidence Summit on Population-Level Behavior Change to Enhance Child Survival and Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries  

PubMed Central

Recognizing the need for evidence to inform public health officials and health care workers in the U.S. government and low- and middle-income country governments on efficient, effective behavior change policies, strategies, and programs for child health and development, the U.S. government convened the Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. This article summarizes the background and methods for the acquisition and evaluation of the evidence used to the achieve the goals of the summit that is reviewed in other articles in this special issue of the Journal of Health Communication. The process began by identifying focal questions intended to inform the U.S. and low- and middle-income governments about behavior change interventions that accelerate reductions in under-5 mortality and optimize healthy and protective child development to 5 years of age. Experts were selected representing the research and program communities, academia, relevant nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies and assembled into evidence review teams. This was followed by the systematic gathering of relevant peer-reviewed literature that would inform the focal questions. Members of the evidence review teams were invited to add relevant articles not identified in the initial literature review to complete the bibliographies. Details of the search processes and methods used for screening and quality reviews are described. The evidence review teams were asked to comply with a specific evaluation framework for recommendations on practice and policy on the basis of both expert opinion and the quality of the data reviewed. PMID:25207446

Balster, Robert L.; Levy, Stephanie; Stammer, Emily

2014-01-01

357

Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System . A cross-country field study in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LITERACY AND ACCESS TO THE WRITTEN CULTURE BY YOUTH AND ADULTS EXCLUDED FROM THE SCHOOL SYSTEM - The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself was carried out in a particular region, the findings have implications for a wider international audience.

Torres, Rosa-Maria

2008-11-01

358

Risk of injury after alcohol consumption from case-crossover studies in five countries from the America's  

PubMed Central

Aims This study aimed to: 1) provide relative risk (RR) estimates between acute alcohol use and injuries from emergency departments in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua and Panama, and 2) test whether the RR differs if two control periods for the estimates were used. Design Case-crossover methodology was used to obtain estimates of the RR of having an injury within six hours after drinking alcohol, using a pair-matching design with control periods of the same time of day the day prior to injury, and the same time of day and day of week the week prior to injury. Setting Emergency departments(EDs). Participants 2,503 injured patients from EDs were interviewed between 2010–2011, with a response rate of 92.6%. Measurements Number of drinks consumed within six hours prior to the injury and in the two control periods. Findings The RR of injury after drinking alcohol was 4.38 (95% confidence interval CI= 3.29–5.84) using as the control period the prior week, and 5.35 (CI=3.50–8.17) using as a control period the prior day. The RR was 5.08 (CI=4.15–6.23) in multiple matching. Those drinking 1–2 drinks had a RR of 4.85 (CI=3.12–7.54); those drinking 3–5 a RR of 5.00 (CI =3.47–7.18); those drinking 6–15 a RR of 4.54 (CI=3.36–6.14); and those drinking 16 or more a RR of 10.42 (CI=4.38–24.79). Conclusions As in other countries, alcohol drinking is a trigger for an injury in all five countries. The use of more than one control period give further strength to these findings from case-crossover analysis. PMID:22775508

Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Monteiro, Maristela; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Then, Eddy Perez; Lopez, Victor A.; Bassier-Paltoo, Marcia; Weil A., Donald; de Bradshaw, Aldacira M

2012-01-01

359

The predictive utility of micro indicators of concern about smoking: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country study.  

PubMed

This study explored the association between six "micro indicators" of concern about smoking (1. stubbing out cigarettes before finishing; 2. forgoing cigarettes due to packet warning labels; thinking about... 3. the harms to oneself of smoking; 4. the harms to others of one's smoking; 5. the bad conduct of tobacco companies; and 6. money spent on cigarettes) and cessation outcomes (making quit attempts, and achieving at least six months of sustained abstinence) among adult smokers from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Participants were 12,049 individuals from five survey waves of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (interviewed between 2002 and 2006, and followed-up approximately one year later). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analysis was used, enabling us to control for within-participant correlations due to possible multiple responses by the same individual over different survey waves. The frequency of micro indicators predicted making quit attempts, with premature stubbing out, forgoing, and thinking about the harms to oneself of smoking being particularly strong predictors. An interaction effect with expressed intention to quit was observed, such that stubbing out and thinking about the harms on oneself predicted quit attempts more strongly among smokers with no expressed plans to quit. In contrast, there was a negative association between some micro indicators and sustained abstinence, with more frequent stubbing out, forgoing, and thinking about money spent on cigarettes associated with a reduced likelihood of subsequently achieving sustained abstinence. In countries with long-established tobacco control programs, micro indicators index both high motivation by smokers to do something about their smoking at least partly independent of espoused intention and, especially those indicators not part of a direct pathway to quitting, reduced capacity to quit successfully. PMID:24813549

Partos, Timea R; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F; Li, Lin; Yong, Hua-Hie; O'Connor, Richard J; Siahpush, Mohammad

2014-08-01

360

Does migrants' clandestineness damage potential development in the countries of origin? A study of illegal migrants in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the return-remittance nexus (favouring sending countries' development) received extensive attention for legal migrants, little is known for illegal migrants, dominating migratory flows nowadays. Clandestine immigrants and asylum seekers, illegal migrants' two classes, substantially differ in their motivation to notify their presence to the receiving countries' authorities. The former face higher income uncertainty. Building on a representative sample of illegal

Maria Concetta Chiuri; Nicola Coniglio; Giovanni Ferri; Laura Serlenga

2005-01-01

361

State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

2012-01-01

362

Accelerated Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Multi-Institutional Prospective Study of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia Among Eight Asian Countries  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A multi-institutional prospective single-arm study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Between 1999 and 2002, 120 patients (64 with Stage IIB and 56 with Stage IIIB) with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated RT. External beam RT consisted of 30 Gy to the whole pelvis, 1.5 Gy/fraction twice daily, followed by 20 Gy of pelvic RT with central shielding at a dose of 2-Gy fractions daily. A small bowel displacement device was used with the patient in the prone position. In addition to central shielding RT, intracavitary brachytherapy was started. Acute and late morbidities were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: The median overall treatment time was 35 days. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 4.7 years. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate for all patients was 84% and 70%, respectively. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate was 78% and 69% for tumors {>=}6 cm in diameter, respectively. No treatment-related death occurred. Grade 3-4 late toxicities of the small intestine, large intestine, and bladder were observed in 1, 1, and 2 patients, respectively. The 5-year actuarial rate of Grade 3-4 late toxicity at any site was 5%. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that accelerated hyperfractionated RT achieved sufficient pelvic control and survival without increasing severe toxicity. This treatment could be feasible in those Asian countries where chemoradiotherapy is not available.

Ohno, Tatsuya [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: t_ohno@nirs.go.jp; Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] (and others)

2008-04-01

363

Country News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes information shared at an international seminar on teacher training, the management of population education, and adolescent education. Proposes an evaluative research activity to assess the achievements of these experiences. Indicates that experimental schools have reported positive outcomes for the program. Describes efforts in several…

Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1988

1988-01-01

364

Outcome Evaluation in Decision Making: ERP Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Decision making can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes (cognitive process) leading to the selection of a course\\u000a of action among several alternatives. Every decision-making process produces a final choice. In this chapter, we would use\\u000a the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique to study neural correlates of outcome evaluation in decision making.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Firstly, we used the motivation to

Yue-Jia Luo; Shi-Yue Sun; Xiao-Qin Mai; Ruo-Lei Gu; Hui-Jun Zhang

365

Complementing Neurophysiology Education for Developing Countries via Cost-Effective Virtual Labs: Case Studies and Classroom Scenarios  

PubMed Central

Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. PMID:24693260

Diwakar, Shyam; Parasuram, Harilal; Medini, Chaitanya; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema; Wiertelak, Eric; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Achuthan, Krishnashree; Nair, Bipin

2014-01-01

366

Complementing Neurophysiology Education for Developing Countries via Cost-Effective Virtual Labs: Case Studies and Classroom Scenarios.  

PubMed

Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. PMID:24693260

Diwakar, Shyam; Parasuram, Harilal; Medini, Chaitanya; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema; Wiertelak, Eric; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Achuthan, Krishnashree; Nair, Bipin

2014-01-01

367

Migration and maternity: insights of context, health policy, and research evidence on experiences and outcomes from a three country preliminary study across Germany, Canada, and the United kingdom.  

PubMed

A group from Germany, Canada, and the United Kingdom undertook country-specific scoping reviews and stakeholder consultations before joining to holistically compare migration and maternity in all three countries. We examined four interlinking dimensions to understand how international migrant/minority maternal health might be improved upon using transnational research: (a) wider sociopolitical context, (b) health policy arena, (c) constellation, outcomes, and experiences of maternity services, and (d) existing research contexts. There was clear evidence that the constellation and delivery of services may undermine good experiences and outcomes. Interventions to improve access and quality of care remain small scale, short term, and lacking in rigorous evaluation. PMID:23631670

Higginbottom, Gina; Reime, Birgit; Bharj, Kuldip; Chowbey, Punita; Ertan, Kubilay; Foster-Boucher, Caroline; Friedrich, Jule; Gerrish, Kate; Kentenich, Heribert; Mumtaz, Zubia; O'Brien, Beverley; Salway, Sarah

2013-01-01

368

Scaling up specialist training in developing countries: lessons learned from the first 12 years of regional postgraduate training in Fiji - a case study  

PubMed Central

Background In 1997, regional specialist training was established in Fiji, consisting of one-year Postgraduate Diplomas followed by three-year master’s degree programs in anesthesia, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics and surgery. The evolution of these programs during the first 12?years is presented. Case description A case study utilizing mixed methods was carried out, including a prospective collection of enrolment and employment data, supplemented by semi-structured interviews. Between 1997 and 2009, 207 doctors (113 from Fiji and 94 from 13 other countries or territories in the Pacific) trained to at least the Postgraduate Diploma level. For Fiji graduates, 29.2% migrated permanently to developed countries, compared to only 8.5% for regional graduates (P <0.001). Early years of the program were characterized by large intakes and enthusiasm, but also uncertainty. Many resignations took place following a coup d’etat in 2000. By 2005, interviews suggested a dynamic of political instability initially leading to resignations, leading to even heavier workloads, compounded by academic studies that seemed unlikely to lead to career benefit. This was associated with loss of hope and downward spirals of further resignations. After 2006, however, Master’s graduates generally returned from overseas placements, had variable success in career progression, and were able to engage in limited private practice. Enrolments and retention stabilized and increased. Discussion and evaluation Over time, all specialties have had years when the viability and future of the programs were in question, but all have recovered to varying degrees, and the programs continue to evolve and strengthen. Prospective clarification of expected career outcomes for graduates, establishment of career pathways for diploma-only graduates, and balancing desires for academic excellence with workloads that trainees were able to bear may have lessened ongoing losses of trainees and graduates. Conclusions Despite early losses of trainees, the establishment of regional postgraduate training in Fiji is having an increasingly positive impact on the specialist workforce in the Pacific. With forethought, many of the difficulties we encountered may have been avoidable. Our experiences may help others who are establishing or expanding postgraduate training in developing countries to optimize the benefit of postgraduate training on their national and regional workforces. PMID:23270525

2012-01-01

369

Oral lichenoid lesions associated with amalgam restorations: A prospective pilot study addressing the adult population of the Basque Country  

PubMed Central

Oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs) are linked to a heterogeneous group of pathologies involving the oral mucosa that cannot be distinguished from the oral lichen planus excepting the fact that direct causal factors such as silver amalgam restorations (SARs) can be allocated to them. Purpose: To analyze the prevalence of mucosal lesions associated with SAR in a group of SAR carrying patients in the Basque Country. Study Design: A clinical prospective study was carried out on 100 adult patients over 30 years of age at the UPV/EHU Clinical Odontology Service whose rear teeth had at least one SAR. Patients were identified and mucosal lesions and amalgam restorations were characterized. Patch tests were performed on patients with lesions and amalgams were replaced with composite material. A statistical and comparative analysis was performed with the resulting data. Results: OLLs were found in 7 patients whose predominant lesion was bilateral, asymmetrical and asymptomatic white papule-macule. Lesions were related to old and corroded SARs. Patch testing was positive in two cases. SAR substitution produced an improvement in 5 cases. Conclusions: The presence of lichenoid lesions associated with SARs is infrequent in our environment and is preferentially related to old and corroded restorations. Key words:Oral mucosa, lichenoid lesions, restoration, silver amalgam, patch test. PMID:22322507

Martinez-Revilla, Begona; Saiz-Garcia, Carolina; Eguizabal-Saracho, Sonia; Aguirre-Urizar, Jose M.

2012-01-01

370

Genotype by environment interactions in cognitive ability: a survey of 14 studies from four countries covering four age groups.  

PubMed

A large part of the variation in cognitive ability is known to be due to genetic factors. Researchers have tried to identify modifiers that influence the heritability of cognitive ability, indicating a genotype by environment interaction (G×E). To date, such modifiers include measured variables like income and socioeconomic status. The present paper focuses on G×E in cognitive ability where the environmental variable is an unmeasured environmental factor that is uncorrelated in family members. We examined this type of G×E in the GHCA-database (Haworth et al., Behav Genet 39:359-370, 2009), which comprises data of 14 different cognition studies from four different countries including participants of different ages. Results indicate that for younger participants (4-13 years), the strength of E decreases across the additive genetic factor A, but that this effect reverts for older participants (17-34 years). However, a clear and general conclusion about the presence of a genuine G×E is hampered by differences between the individual studies with respect to environmental and genetic influences on cognitive ability. PMID:23397253

Molenaar, Dylan; van der Sluis, Sophie; Boomsma, Dorret I; Haworth, Claire M A; Hewitt, John K; Martin, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert; Wright, Margaret J; Dolan, Conor V

2013-05-01

371

Genotype by Environment Interactions in Cognitive Ability: A Survey of 14 Studies from 4 Countries covering 4 Age Groups  

PubMed Central

A large part of the variation in cognitive ability is known to be due to genetic factors. Researchers have tried to identify modifiers that influence the heritability of cognitive ability, indicating a genotype by environment interaction (GxE). To date, such modifiers include measured variables like income and socioeconomic status. The present paper focuses on GxE in cognitive ability where the environmental variable is an unmeasured environmental factor that is uncorrelated in family members. We examined this type of GxE in the GHCA-database (Haworth et al., 2009), which comprises data of 14 different cognition studies from 4 different countries including participants of different ages. Results indicate that for younger participants (4–13 years), the strength of E decreases across the additive genetic factor A, but that this effect reverts for older participants (17–34 years). However, a clear and general conclusion about the presence of a genuine GxE is hampered by differences between the individual studies with respect to environmental and genetic influences on cognitive ability. PMID:23397253

Molenaar, Dylan; van der Sluis, Sophie; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Hewitt, John K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Plomin, Robert; Wright, Margie J.; Dolan, Conor V.

2014-01-01

372

Health Facility Characteristics and Their Relationship to Coverage of PMTCT of HIV Services across Four African Countries: The PEARL Study  

PubMed Central

Background Health facility characteristics associated with effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) coverage in sub-Saharan are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted surveys in health facilities with active PMTCT services in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Data was compiled via direct observation and exit interviews. We constructed composite scores to describe provision of PMTCT services across seven topical areas: antenatal quality, PMTCT quality, supplies available, patient satisfaction, patient understanding of medication, and infrastructure quality. Pearson correlations and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of facilities within countries were used to evaluate the relationship between the composite scores, total time of visit and select individual variables with PMTCT coverage among women delivering. Between July 2008 and May 2009, we collected data from 32 facilities; 78% were managed by the government health system. An opt-out approach for HIV testing was used in 100% of facilities in Zambia, 63% in Cameroon, and none in Côte d'Ivoire or South Africa. Using Pearson correlations, PMTCT coverage (median of 55%, (IQR: 33–68) was correlated with PMTCT quality score (rho?=?0.51; p?=?0.003); infrastructure quality score (rho?=?0.43; p?=?0.017); time spent at clinic (rho?=?0.47; p?=?0.013); patient understanding of medications score (rho?=?0.51; p?=?0.006); and patient satisfaction quality score (rho?=?0.38; p?=?0.031). PMTCT coverage was marginally correlated with the antenatal quality score (rho?=?0.304; p?=?0.091). Using GEE adjustment for clustering, the, antenatal quality score became more strongly associated with PMTCT coverage (p<0.001) and the PMTCT quality score and patient understanding of medications remained marginally significant. Conclusions/Results We observed a positive relationship between an antenatal quality score and PMTCT coverage but did not identify a consistent set of variables that predicted PMTCT coverage. PMID:22276130

Ekouevi, Didier K.; Stringer, Elizabeth; Coetzee, David; Tih, Pius; Creek, Tracy; Stinson, Kathryn; Westfall, Andrew O.; Welty, Thomas; Chintu, Namwinga; Chi, Benjamin H.; Wilfert, Cathy; Shaffer, Nathan; Stringer, Jeff; Dabis, Francois

2012-01-01

373

Worldwide burden of COPD in high- and low-income countries. Part III. Asia-Pacific studies.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health problem that poses a heavy burden on most countries in the Asia-Pacific region. When compared to industrialised Western countries, the COPD burden in the Asia-Pacific region is higher in terms of the number of deaths, years spent living with disability and years of life lost. Given the high prevalence of tobacco smoking, poor indoor and outdoor air quality and the aging population in many Asian countries, urgent actions need to be taken to reduce the development, morbidity and mortality of this disease. PMID:18544193

Ko, F W S; Hui, D S C; Lai, C K W

2008-07-01

374

Studying Instructional Television: What Should Be Evaluated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation of instructional television (ITV) is a new field with evaluation methods largely borrowed from other disciplines. The evaluator is not apt to be trained specifically in this area but will learn "on the job" while defining his role for those with whom he works. The evaluator should consider the following recommendations: (1)…

McAnany, Emile G.; And Others

375

Calf-Level Factors Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia - A Multi-Country Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP), a high fatality condition causing haemorrhages in calves aged less than 4 weeks, was first reported in 2007 in Germany and subsequently observed at low incidence in other European countries and New Zealand. A multi-country matched case-control study was conducted in 2011 to identify calf-level risk factors for BNP. 405 BNP cases were recruited from 330 farms in Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands by laboratory confirmation of farmer-reported cases. Up to four calves of similar age from the same farm were selected as controls (1154 calves). Risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. Multivariable modelling using conditional logistic regression indicated that PregSure®BVD (PregSure, Pfizer Animal Health) vaccination of the dam was strongly associated with BNP cases (adjusted matched Odds Ratio - amOR 17.8 first lactation dams; 95% confidence interval – ci 2.4, 134.4; p?=?0.005), and second or more lactation PregSure-vaccinated dams were more likely to have a case than first lactation vaccinated dams (amOR 2.2 second lactation; ci 1.1, 4.3; p?=?0.024; amOR 5.3 third or more lactation; ci 2.9, 9.8; p?=?<0.001). Feeding colostrum from other cows was strongly associated with BNP if the dam was not PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 30.5; ci 2.1, 440.5; p?=?0.012), but the effect was less if the dam was PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 2.1; ci 1.1, 4.0; p?=?0.024). Feeding exclusively dam’s milk was a higher risk than other types of milk (amOR 3.4; ci 1.6, 7.5; p?=?0.002). The population attributable fractions were 0.84 (ci 0.68, 0.92) for PregSure vaccination, 0.13 (ci 0.06, 0.19) for feeding other cows’ colostrum, and 0.15 (ci 0.08, 0.22) for feeding dam’s milk. No other calf-level factors were identified, suggesting that there are other important factors that are outside the scope of this study, such as genetics, which explain why BNP develops in some PregSure-colostrum-exposed calves but not in others. PMID:24312485

Jones, Bryony A.; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Henning, Joerg; Stoll, Alexander; Nielen, Mirjam; Van Schaik, Gerdien; Smolenaars, Anja; Schouten, Matthijs; den Uijl, Ingrid; Fourichon, Christine; Guatteo, Raphael; Madouasse, Aurelien; Nusinovici, Simon; Deprez, Piet; De Vliegher, Sarne; Laureyns, Jozef; Booth, Richard; Cardwell, Jackie M.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

2013-01-01

376

A comprehensive approach to the formulation of capital projects in developing countries : finance and implementation. Case study, Edendale, Kwazulu (housing)  

E-print Network

This Thesis deals with capital project formulation in developing countries. The objective is to provide guidelines for the formulation of housing development projects, their implementation structures and financial plans ...

Davis, Trevor Paul

1983-01-01

377

The effects of HIV/AIDS on economic growths and human capitals: a panel study evidence from Asian countries.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) affects economic growths by reducing the human capitals are among the most poorly understood aspect of the AIDS epidemic. This article analyzes the effects of the prevalence of HIV and full-blown AIDS on a country's human capitals and economic growths. Using a fixed effect model for panel data 1990-2010 from the Asia, I explored the dynamic relationships among HIV/AIDS, economic growths, and human capitals within countries over time. The econometric effects concerned that HIV/AIDS plays an important role in the field of economic growths and it is measured as a change in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and human capitals. The modeling results for the Asian countries indicates HIV/AIDS prevalence that has a hurtful effect on GDP per capita by reducing human capitals within countries over time. PMID:24983845

Roy, Shongkour

2014-12-01

378

Registry data for cross-country comparisons of migrants' healthcare utilization in the EU: a survey study of availability and content  

PubMed Central

Background Cross-national comparable data on migrants' use of healthcare services are important to address problems in access to healthcare; to identify high risk groups for prevention efforts; and to evaluate healthcare systems comparatively. Some of the main obstacles limiting analyses of health care utilization are lack of sufficient coverage and availability of reliable and valid healthcare data which includes information allowing for identification of migrants. The objective of this paper was to reveal which registry data on healthcare utilization were available in the EU countries in which migrants can be identified; and to determine to what extent data were comparable between the EU countries. Methods A questionnaire survey on availability of healthcare utilization registries in which migrants can be identified was carried out among all national statistic agencies and other relevant national health authorities in the 27 EU countries in 2008-9 as part of the Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health Observatory-project (MEHO). The information received was compared with information from a general survey on availability of survey and registry data on migrants conducted by Agency of Public Health, Lazio Region, Italy within the MEHO-project; thus, the information on registries was double-checked to assure accuracy and verification. Results Available registry data on healthcare utilization which allow for identification on migrants on a national/regional basis were only reported in 11 EU countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, and Sweden. Data on hospital care, including surgical procedures, were most frequently available whereas only few countries had data on care outside the hospital. Regarding identification of migrants, five countries reported having information on both citizenship and country of birth, one reported availability of information on country of birth, and five countries reported availability of information on citizenship. Conclusion Lack of registry data in 16 EU countries, shortage of data on healthcare utilization, and the diversity in the definition of migrant status hampers cross-national comparisons and calls for an urgent establishment of registries, expansion of the existing registry information, and adoption of a common, generally acceptable definition and identification method of migrants across the EU. PMID:19922657

2009-01-01

379

Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries  

PubMed Central

Purpose Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). Main Challenges Identified The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Conclusion Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries. PMID:23292003

Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E.; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

2013-01-01

380

Strategies for the Study of Neuropsychiatric Disorders Using Endophenotypes in Developing Countries: A Potential Databank from China  

PubMed Central

Endophenotypic research can be considered to be one of the most promising strategies to bridge the gap between genomic complexity and the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, despite the promising and systematic work initiated by our western counterparts, this research strategy is still not well known in developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to argue the merits and promise of a potentially useful database on phenotypes and endophenotypes for developing countries. PMID:21103014

Chan, Raymond C. K.; Gottesman, Irving I.; Ge, Xiaojia; Sham, Pak C.

2010-01-01

381

[A historical study of coffee in Japanese and Asian countries: focusing the medicinal uses in Asian traditional medicines].  

PubMed

The medicinal properties of coffee, making it a diuretic and stimulant, because of the effects of caffeine, have been known since ancient times, and coffee is today a popular beverage worldwide. In Japan it was introduced at the end of the eighteenth century through overseas trading with the Netherlands. During this period, various Western cultures flowed into Japan, and coffee was one of the subjects introduced through the translations of Dutch medical books. The pharmacological effects of coffee have been presented by Yamamoto in "K?m? Honzou, (--, 1783)"; by K. Takahashi, G. Ohtsuki, and Y. Udagawa et al. in "K?sei Shimpen (--, 1811)"; and by Kai Hirokawa in "Nagasaki Bunkenroku (--, 1795)." In the Chinese and Arabic traditional systems of medicine, the uses of coffee were based on its diuretic and central nervous system stimulant properties, attributed in general to caffeine. This study dealt with the uses of coffee in the traditional medicines of Asian countries and with some biological activities related to aging, infectious diseases, and cardioprotective effects. In various biological tests, the water extract of coffee showed no notable effect on myocardial cell beating; however, it did show superoxide anion-scavenging effects, inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. These biological activities are closely related to the presence of caffeic acid derivatives, especially chlorogenic acid. The findings suggest that besides its stimulant effect, coffee has properties to prevent the deleterious actions of free radicals and viral infections. PMID:12412599

Namba, Tsuneo; Matsuse, Tomoco

2002-01-01

382

Educational Intervention among Barbers to Improve Their Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS: A Pilot Study from a South Asian Country  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT One of the Millennium Development Goals is to combat HIV, the burden of which continues to increase in developing countries, like Pakistan. The prevalence is high among the high-risk population, and the use of unsterilized surgical instruments, traditional straight razors, and blades adds to the spread of this disease. This study assesses the effect of an educational intervention on the knowledge of 70 barbers practising in a suburban community in Pakistan regarding HIV and its symptoms and transmission. At baseline, only 10% of the barbers reported that they had ever heard about HIV compared to 49% after the intervention. Similarly, 4% and 6% of them had good knowledge at baseline about symptoms and transmission of the disease, increasing to 39% and 43% respectively, after the intervention (p<0.001). The results of this educational intervention warrant consideration of activation of mass campaigns to increase public awareness about bloodborne diseases and to educate personnel who might harm the persons in their communities by unsafe practices.

Ali, Faridah Amir; Khuwaja (Late), Ali Khan; Qidwai, Waris; Ali, Badar Sabir

2014-01-01

383

Paratransit and urban public transport policy in low- and medium-income countries: a case study of Istanbul, Turkey  

SciTech Connect

This study uses multiple data collection and research methods including in depth interviews, 271 surveys of shared taxi and minibus operators, participant observation, secondary sources, and the literature on public transport from low, medium, and high-income countries. Extensive use is also made of a survey administered in Istanbul in 1976 to 1935 paratransit operators. Primary findings are that private buses are more efficient than public buses on a cost per passenger-km basis, and that private minibuses are as efficient as public buses. In terms of energy efficiency, minibuses are almost as efficient as public and private buses using actual-occupancy levels. Large shared taxis are twice as cost and energy efficient as cars, and small shared taxis 50% more efficient. In terms of investment cost per seat, large shared taxis have the lowest cost followed by smaller shared taxis, minibuses, and buses. Considering actual occupancy levels, minibuses are only slightly less effective in terms of congestion than buses, and large and small shared taxis are twice as effective as cars. It is also shown that minibuses and shared taxis have better service quality than buses because of higher frequencies and speeds, and because they provide a much higher probability of getting a seat than buses. Analysis of regulation and policy suggests that there are many unintended cost of public-transport regulations.

Feibel, C.E.

1987-01-01

384

Nutrition risk in the child and adolescent population of the Basque country: the enKid Study.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional population studies provide valuable information for nutrition surveillance and planning intervention strategies. The enKid Study is the largest nutrition survey on the child and adolescent Spanish population to date. In the present paper, nutrition risks in children and young people of the Basque country based on the enKid Study subsample for the Basque region are presented. Dietary assessment was completed by means of a 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire completed in an interview with the mother or caregiver for children under 13 years. A second 24 h recall was completed on 25 % of the sample. Body weight, height and circumference were measured on each individual. Overweight and obesity were defined using Cole et al. cut-offs. Fat intake supplied 40 % of energy intake and saturated fats 13.8 %. Overall, 80 % of the sample had intakes of fat above 35 %. Main food sources of fats were added fats (32 %), meat (20 %) and milk products (20 %). Buns, cakes and pastry supplied 11 % of total fat intake. The nutrients showing the highest proportion of people who did not reach one third (33 %) of the Spanish dietary reference intake levels were vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin A and folate. Prevailing food pattern showed a high consumption of meat and meat products, milk, dairy products and cereals. Conversely, consumption of fruit, vegetables and fish was low; in fact, 89 % of the sample had a normal consumption of fruit and vegetables below five portions a day. Prevalence of obesity was estimated at 3.94 %, and 17.85 % of the sample was classified as overweight. PMID:16923253

Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Delgado-Rubio, Alfonso

2006-08-01

385

Process evaluation of a community-based program for prevention and control of non-communicable disease in a developing country: The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of mortality in Iran. A six-year, comprehensive, integrated community-based demonstration study entitled Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) conducted in Iran, and it started in 2000. Evaluation and monitoring are integrated parts of this quasi-experimental trial, and consists of process, as well as short and long-term impact evaluations. This paper presents the design

Katayoun Rabiei; Roya Kelishadi; Nizal Sarrafzadegan; Heidar Abedi; Mousa Alavi; Kamal Heidari; Ahmad Bahonar; Maryam Boshtam; Karim Zare; Shahryar Sadeghi

2009-01-01

386

Revisioning the Process: A Case Study in Feminist Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted a case study of the evaluation of a women's substance abuse prevention program and identified three key aspects of negotiated evaluation. Discusses the processes involved in feminist evaluation, including collaborative agenda setting and cooperative teamwork. (SLD)

Beardsley, Rebecca M.; Miller, Michelle Hughes

2002-01-01

387

Breast feeding and bottle feeding controversies in the developing world: evidence from a study in four countries.  

PubMed

This paper describes some of the findings from a comparative study to investigate infant feeding practices and their determinants in four Third World urban areas: Bangkok, Thailand; Bogota, Colombia; Nairobi, Kenya; and Semarang, Indonesia. The information about developing country urban woman provided by these data allows examination of the interaction of feeding practices with socio-economic and biomedical variables. Through the use of descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analytic techniques, it is possible to explore some of the questions which have been debated regarding infant feeding practices. Data addressing five major questions are described in this paper: (1) Is breast feeding declining? (2) Is bottle feeding making women breast feed less? (3) Why do women use bottles? (4) How do mothers get the idea of using bottles? (5) How does paid employment affect infant feeding practices and the use of baby bottles? The study documents changes in infant feeding that can be expected to have detrimental effects for child health and for child spacing. Bottle use appears to interfere with breast feeding in all cultures, but more dramatically in more 'modernized' societies. Mothers resort to bottle use for a variety of reasons, but not usually as an attempt to wean. The health care system often provides the first contact between mothers and bottle use, and health care providers frequently encourage the use of artificial feeding. Women who work away from home early in their infants' lives must often use bottle feeding, but the percent of women affected is very small. Many more women use bottles and wean early than work away from home, and most artificially-fed babies do not have working mothers. PMID:2799428

Winikoff, B; Laukaran, V H

1989-01-01

388

Participatory Evaluation: A Case Study of Involving Stakeholders in the Evaluation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to ensure that an evaluation has “utility” is to use a participatory evaluation approach where the evaluator partners with primary users to carry out various phases of an evaluation. This article provides a case study of how participatory evaluation was used in an out-of-school youth development and employment program at the Science Museum of Minnesota's Kitty Andersen Youth

Amy Grack Nelson; Robby Callahan Schreiber

2009-01-01

389

Coronary heart disease incidence in northern and southern European populations: a reanalysis of the seven countries study for a European coronary risk chart  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVEA systematic reanalysis of 10 year coronary heart disease incidence data from the northern and the southern European cohorts of the seven countries study, to contribute indirectly to the production of a European coronary risk chart.DESIGN AND SETTINGMen aged 40–59 years at entry were studied in three northern European cohorts based in Finland and Netherlands (n = 2213); and in

A Menotti; M Lanti; P E Puddu; D Kromhout

2000-01-01

390

The Same Term but Different Connotations: Cultural and Historical Perspectives on Studying the Academic Profession in China and Other Asian Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through experiencing and reviewing multiple-country endeavors in academic profession study and participating in a new project regarding the academic profession in Asia, the author pinpoints and anticipates the shortcomings of study alone or dominantly questionnaire-based and ignoring the broader social context. The author proposes a new…

Yan, Fengqiao

2013-01-01

391

Understanding Private Sector Antimalarial Distribution Chains: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Methods Study in Six Malaria-Endemic Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Private for-profit outlets are important treatment sources for malaria in most endemic countries. However, these outlets constitute only the last link in a chain of businesses that includes manufacturers, importers and wholesalers, all of which influence the availability, price and quality of antimalarials patients can access. We present evidence on the composition, characteristics and operation of these distribution chains and of the businesses that comprise them in six endemic countries (Benin, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia). Methods and Findings We conducted nationally representative surveys of antimalarial wholesalers during 2009–2010 using an innovative sampling approach that captured registered and unregistered distribution channels, complemented by in-depth interviews with a range of stakeholders. Antimalarial distribution chains were pyramidal in shape, with antimalarials passing through a maximum of 4–6 steps between manufacturer and retailer; however, most likely pass through 2–3 steps. Less efficacious non-artemisinin therapies (e.g. chloroquine) dominated weekly sales volumes among African wholesalers, while volumes for more efficacious artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) were many times smaller. ACT sales predominated only in Cambodia. In all countries, consumer demand was the principal consideration when selecting products to stock. Selling prices and reputation were key considerations regarding supplier choice. Business practices varied across countries, with large differences in the proportions of wholesalers offering credit and delivery services to customers, and the types of distribution models adopted by businesses. Regulatory compliance also varied across countries, particularly with respect to licensing. The proportion of wholesalers possessing any up-to-date licence from national regulators was lowest in Benin and Nigeria, where vendors in traditional markets are important antimalarial supply sources. Conclusions The structure and characteristics of antimalarial distribution chains vary across countries; therefore, understanding the wholesalers that comprise them should inform efforts aiming to improve access to quality treatment through the private sector. PMID:24699934

Palafox, Benjamin; Patouillard, Edith; Tougher, Sarah; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rueda, Sergio Torres; Kiefer, Sabine; O'Connell, Kathryn A.; Zinsou, Cyprien; Phok, Sochea; Akulayi, Louis; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Chavasse, Desmond

2014-01-01

392

Evaluation Design Project: Multilevel Interpretation of Evaluation Data Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies are presented in this report. The first is titled "Empirical Studies of Multilevel Approaches to Test Development and Interpretation: Measuring Between-Group Differences in Instruction." Because of a belief that schooling does affect student achievement, researchers have questioned the empirical and measurement techniques used to…

Miller, M. David; Burstein, Leigh

393

Vascular injuries following road traffic collisions in a high-income developing country: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism and pattern of vascular injury vary between different populations. The commonest mechanism of vascular injury in civilian practice is road traffic collisions. We aimed to prospectively study the incidence, detailed mechanism and anatomical distribution of hospitalized vascular trauma patients following road traffic collisions in a high-income developing country. Methods Data were collected prospectively on road traffic collision injuries in the whole city of Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates, from April 2006 to October 2007 with full details of mechanism of injury and its relation to sustained injuries. Results Out of 1008 patients in the registry, 13 patients had vascular injury, a calculated incidence of 1.87 cases/100 000 inhabitants per year. There were eight car occupants, four pedestrians, and one motorcyclist. Upper limb vascular injuries were the most common anatomical site (n = 4) followed by thoracic aorta (n = 3). All thoracic aortic injuries were acceleration injuries (pedestrians hit by a moving vehicle). None of the eight car occupants was wearing a seatbelt and the majority sustained a front impact deceleration injuries. The median injury severity score, hospital stay, and ICU stay were significantly higher in the vascular injury group compared with nonvascular group (P < 0.0001). Three patients died (23%); two due to severe liver trauma and one due to rupture thoracic aorta. Conclusions The incidence of hospitalized vascular injury due to road traffic collisions in Al-Ain city is 1.87 cases/100 000 inhabitants. These injuries occurred mainly in the upper part of the body. Seatbelt compliance of car occupants having vascular injuries was very low. Compliance with safety measures needs more enforcement in our community. PMID:20482814

2010-01-01

394

Can the right to health inform public health planning in developing countries? A case study for maternal healthcare from Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high in developing countries despite international advocacy, development targets, and simple, affordable and effective interventions. In recent years, regard for maternal mortality as a human rights issue as well as one that pertains to health, has emerged. Objective We study a case of maternal death using a theoretical framework derived from the right to health to examine access to and quality of maternal healthcare. Our objective was to explore the potential of rights-based frameworks to inform public health planning from a human rights perspective. Design Information was elicited as part of a verbal autopsy survey investigating maternal deaths in rural settings in Indonesia. The deceased's relatives were interviewed to collect information on medical signs, symptoms and the social, cultural and health systems circumstances surrounding the death. Results In this case, a prolonged, severe fever and a complicated series of referrals culminated in the death of a 19-year-old primagravida at 7 months gestation. The cause of death was acute infection. The woman encountered a range of barriers to access; behavioural, socio-cultural, geographic and economic. Several serious health system failures were also apparent. The theoretical framework derived from the right to health identified that none of the essential elements of the right were upheld. Conclusion The rights-based approach could identify how and where to improve services. However, there are fundamental and inherent conflicts between the public health tradition (collective and preventative) and the right to health (individualistic and curative). As a result, and in practice, the right to health is likely to be ineffective for public health planning from a human rights perspective. Collective rights such as the right to development may provide a more suitable means to achieve equity and social justice in health planning. PMID:20027244

D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Byass, Peter; Nurul Qomariyah, Siti

2008-01-01

395

Health system determinants of infant, child and maternal mortality: A cross-sectional study of UN member countries  

PubMed Central

Objective Few studies have examined the link between health system strength and important public health outcomes across nations. We examined the association between health system indicators and mortality rates. Methods We used mixed effects linear regression models to investigate the strength of association between outcome and explanatory variables, while accounting for geographic clustering of countries. We modelled infant mortality rate (IMR), child mortality rate (CMR), and maternal mortality rate (MMR) using 13 explanatory variables as outlined by the World Health Organization. Results Significant protective health system determinants related to IMR included higher physician density (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 0.81; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.71-0.91), higher sustainable access to water and sanitation (aRR 0.85; 95% CI 0.78-0.93), and having a less corrupt government (aRR 0.57; 95% CI 0.40-0.80). Out-of-pocket expenditures on health (aRR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03-1.62) were a risk factor. The same four variables were significantly related to CMR after controlling for other variables. Protective determinants of MMR included access to water and sanitation (aRR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.94), having a less corrupt government (aRR 0.49; 95%; CI 0.36-0.66), and higher total expenditures on health per capita (aRR 0.84; 95% CI 0.77-0.92). Higher fertility rates (aRR 2.85; 95% CI: 2.02-4.00) were found to be a significant risk factor for MMR. Conclusion Several key measures of a health system predict mortality in infants, children, and maternal mortality rates at the national level. Improving access to water and sanitation and reducing corruption within the health sector should become priorities. PMID:22023970

2011-01-01

396

Comparison of Early Childhood Education (Preschool Education) in Turkey and OECD Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, it was aimed to evaluate how the difference the early childhood education in Turkey and OECD countries. The outstanding point evaluated by the teachers about the difference between the education in Turkey and that in OECD countries and the conditions needing to be improved was the compare of age groups benefiting from the services…

Ozgan, Habib

2010-01-01

397

Leuprolide acetate 1-, 3- and 6-monthly depot formulations in androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer in nine European countries: evidence review and economic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective Leuprolide is an established luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist used as first-line treatment in advanced prostate cancer. As different formulations and dosing schedules are likely to have economic implications, we aimed to evaluate their efficacy, safety, and costs in nine European countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, and Portugal. Methods Database searches identified 13 clinical trials of leuprolide 1- (1 M), 3- (3 M) and 6-monthly (6 M). Only data on leuprolide with Atrigel were compared for all three formulations, which had the same efficacy, safety, and adherence. Cost-minimization analysis accounting for cost of Eligard®, specialist consultations, and diagnostics during up to 12 months follow-up was conducted. The perspective was that of public payers. Results No significant differences were observed in the percentages of intention-to-treat patients achieving testosterone levels ? 50 ng/dL following treatment with Eligard® 1 M (93.3%), 3 M (98.3%), and 6 M (97.3%) (P > 0.05), and adverse event profiles of the three formulations were comparable. Overall, 6 M was the least expensive, with average total annual costs from €788 (Belgium) to €1839 (Portugal). The 3 M option was between 2.5% (Hungary) and 37.6% (Belgium) more expensive than 6 M; 1 M formulation was the most expensive, with costs 15.5% and 151.6% more expensive than 6 M for those countries, respectively. The 3 M option was 11.2%–45.3% less expensive than 1 M. Total costs were associated with frequency of visits for injection and monitoring. The 1 M required twelve visits, 3 M 4.4–4.8 visits, and 6 M 2.1–2.3 visits. Up to 50% additional visits could be funded with the savings resulting from switching eligible patients from 1 M and 3 M to 6 M. Results were stable in univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Conclusion Eligard® formulations offer comparable efficacy and safety, but different dosing schedules require different number of visits. The 6 M formulation offers the greatest cost savings and should be considered the treatment of choice in eligible patients in Europe. PMID:23836996

Wex, Jaro; Sidhu, Manpreet; Odeyemi, Isaac; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Retsa, Peny; Tombal, Bertrand

2013-01-01

398

African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES)  

PubMed Central

Objective To define differences in optic disc, retinal nerve fiber layer, and macular structure between healthy participants of African (AD) and European descent (ED) using quantitative imaging techniques in the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES). Methods Reliable images were obtained using stereoscopic photography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg retina tomography [HRT]), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for 648 healthy subjects in ADAGES. Findings were compared and adjusted for age, optic disc area, and reference plane height where appropriate. Results The AD participants had significantly greater optic disc area on HRT (2.06 mm2; P<.001) and OCT (2.47 mm2; P<.001) and a deeper HRT cup depth than the ED group (P<.001). Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was greater in the AD group except within the temporal region, where it was significantly thinner. Central macular thickness and volume were less in the AD group. Conclusions Most of the variations in optic nerve morphologic characteristics between the AD and ED groups are due to differences in disc area. However, differences remain in HRT cup depth, OCT macular thickness and volume, and OCT retinal nerve fiber layer thickness independent of these variables. These differences should be considered in the determination of disease status. PMID:20457974

Girkin, Christopher A.; Sample, Pamela A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Jain, Sonia; Bowd, Christopher; Becerra, Lida M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Racette, Lyne; Dirkes, Keri A.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

2010-01-01

399

Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States. Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

2003-01-01

400

Comparative Study of Educational Expenditure and Its Trends in O. E. C. D. Countries Since 1950. Background Study No. 2. Conference on Policies for Educational Growth. (Paris, France, June 3-5, 1970.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this study, a series of data has been collected covering the total amount of expenditure and its main constituent items. Data are also included for Yugoslavia, an associated member country. In the first chapter, the trend of educational expenditure in each country is measured and, controlling for the effect of price increases, the following…

Debeauvais, Michel, Comp.; And Others

401

Evaluation of Management Development: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focuses on how behaviour changes in an organization should be evaluated following management development. Describes the evaluation strategy, the rationale for this, and problems associated with such a strategy, following a team-building programme of integrated modules in a community-based unit of a district health authority.

Graeme Currie

1994-01-01

402

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Ambulatory Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in a General Hospital in a Middle Income Country: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Aim We aimed to estimate the morbidity rate and associated factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a low-middle income country setting. Methods Cross-sectional study, data was gathered at Peru's Ministry of Health national specialized hospital for endocrinological conditions through standardized interviews, anthropometric measurements and blood tests for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). DPN was evaluated using two techniques: the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and the diabetic neuropathy symptom score. Overall prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Potential factors related to DPN explored included body mass index, years with disease (<10 vs. ?10 years), glycaemic control (HbA1c <7% vs. ?7%), microalbuminuria, retinopathy, and current pharmacological treatment. Multivariable analysis was performed using Poisson analysis to calculate prevalence ratios. Results DPN was observed in 73/129 (56.6%) patients. In multivariable analysis adjusted by age and sex, the prevalence ratio of neuropathy was 1.4 times higher (95% CI 1.07–1.88) in patients who took insulin plus metformin compared to patients who used one treatment alone, and 1.4 higher (95% CI 1.02–1.93) in patients with ?10 years of disease compared to those with a shorter duration of disease. Also we found some characteristics in foot evaluation associated to neuropathy such as deformities (p<0.001), onychomycosis (p?=?0.012), abnormal Achilles reflex (p<0.001), pain perception (p<0.001) and vibration perception (p<0.001). Conclusion DPN is highly frequent among patients with diabetes in a national specialized facility from Peru. Associated factors to DPN included being a diabetic patient for over ten years, and receiving insulin plus metformin PMID:24789071

Lazo, Maria de los Angeles; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Pinto, Miguel E.; Ticse, Ray; Malaga, German; Sacksteder, Katherine; Miranda, J. Jaime; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

403

Education and Training in Madagascar: Toward a Policy Agenda for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Madagascar is a poor, primarily rural country in which three-quarters of the population has subsisted below the poverty line for at least two decades. In view of the important role of education in the government's poverty reduction agenda, this report documents the current status of educational development in Madagascar and the key constraints on…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

404

Renewable-energy-resource model to satisfy basic needs in Third World countries - a case study of El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized energy model was designed to estimate the energy resources required by a country of the Third World to satisfy the food and housing needs of the population as well as to maintain a certain degree of transportation and industry. The model was designed to analyze the energy situation of El Salvador; however, minor modifications in the model structure

1983-01-01

405

A comparative study on motivation for and experience with ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 certification among Far Eastern countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast evolution of management systems standards ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 worldwide, from unknown entities to well-established management practices, represents a facet of the global marketplace in which many firms operate. Over 400,000 firms in over 150 countries have adopted ISO 9000 since it was introduced in 1986. Its successor, ISO 14000, was introduced in 1996 and has already

Jeh-nan Pan

2003-01-01

406

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in AsiaA Seven-Country Study of CSR Web Site Reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses four hypotheses: (a) that corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Asia is not homogeneous but varies among countries, (b) that the variation is explained by stages of development, (c) that globalization enhances the adoption of CSR in Asia, and (d) that national business systems structure the profile of multinational corporations’ CSR. These hypotheses are investigated through analysis of

Wendy Chapple; Jeremy Moon

2005-01-01

407

Policies to benefit from the globalization of corporate R&D: An exploratory study for European Union countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the globalization of corporate R&D has led to the emergence of new policy strategies across European Union countries, involving a more proactive role of governments and a closer connection between innovation policies and FDI promotion policies. The first part presents an analytical framework encompassing the main policy objectives and instruments at stake, which may apply to

José Guimón

408

Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Combination antiretroviral therapy has led to significant increases in survival and quality of life, but at a population-level the effect on life expectancy is not well understood. Our objective was to compare changes in mortality and life expectancy among HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy. Methods The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration is a multinational collaboration of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America. Patients were included in this analysis if they were aged 16 years or over and antiretroviral-naive when initiating combination therapy. We constructed abridged life tables to estimate life expectancies for individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996–99, 2000–02, and 2003–05, stratified by sex, baseline CD4 cell count, and history of injecting drug use. The average number of years remaining to be lived by those treated with combination antiretroviral therapy at 20 and 35 years of age was estimated. Potential years of life lost from 20 to 64 years of age and crude death rates were also calculated. Findings 18 587, 13 914, and 10 854 eligible patients initiated combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996–99, 2000–02, and 2003–05, respectively. 2056 (4·7%) deaths were observed during the study period, with crude death rates decreasing from 16·3 deaths per 1000 person-years in 1996–99 to 10·0 deaths per 1000 person-years in 2003–05. Potential years of life lost per 1000 person-years also decreased over the same time, from 366 to 189 years. Life expectancy at age 20 years increased from 36·1 (SE 0·6) years to 49·4 (0·5) years. Women had higher life expectancies than men. Patients with presumed transmission via injecting drug use had lower life expectancies than those from other transmission groups (32·6 [1·1] years vs 44·7 [0·3] years in 2003–05). Life expectancy was lower in patients with lower baseline CD4 counts than in those with higher baseline counts (32·4 [1·1] years for CD4 cell counts below 100 cells per ?L vs 50·4 [0·4] years for counts of 200 cells per ?L or more). Interpretation Life expectancy in HIV-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy increased between 1996 and 2005, although there is considerable variability in subgroups of patients. However, the average number of years remaining to be lived at age 20 years was about two-thirds of that in the general population in these countries. PMID:18657708

2011-01-01

409

Evidenced Formal Coverage Index and universal healthcare enactment: A prospective longitudinal study of economic, social, and political predictors of 194 countries.  

PubMed

Determinants of universal healthcare (UHC) are poorly empirically understood. We undertook a comprehensive study of UHC development using a novel Evidenced Formal Coverage (EFC) index that combines three key UHC elements: legal framework, population coverage, and accessibility. Applying the EFC index measures (legislation, ?90% skilled birth attendance, ?85% formal coverage) to 194 countries, aggregating time-varying data from 1880-2008, this study investigates which macro-economic, political, and social indicators are major longitudinal predictors of developing EFC globally, and in middle-income countries. Overall, 75 of 194 countries implemented legal-text UHC legislation, of which 51 achieved EFC. In a country-year prospective longitudinal analysis of EFC prediction, higher GDP-per-capita (per GDP-per-capita doubling, relative risk [RR]=1.77, 95% CI: 1.49-2.10), higher primary school completion (per +20% completion, RR=2.30, 1.65-3.21), and higher adult literacy were significantly associated with achieving EFC. Results also identify a GDP-per-capita of I$5000 as a minimum level for development of EFC. GDP-per-capita and education were each robust predictors in middle-income countries, and education remained significant even controlling for time-varying GDP growth. For income-inequality, the GINI coefficient was suggestive in its role in predicting EFC (p=0.024). For social and political indicators, a greater degree of ethnic fractionalization (per +25%, RR=0.51, 0.38-0.70), proportional electoral system (RR=2.80, 1.22-6.40), and dictatorships (RR=0.10, 0.05-0.27) were further associated with EFC. The novel EFC index and this longitudinal prospective study together indicate that investment in both economic growth and education should be seen of equal importance for development of UHC. Our findings help in understanding the social and political drivers of universal healthcare, especially for transitioning countries. PMID:23906506

Feigl, Andrea B; Ding, Eric L

2013-11-01

410

Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Study Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress: Study Reports" describes the special studies that comprised the design of the evaluation. In the Final Report, the authors presented a practical discussion of the evaluation studies to its primary, intended audience, namely policymakers. On this accompanying CD, readers will find…

Buckendahl, Chad W.; Davis, Susan L.; Plake, Barbara S.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Zenisky, April L.; Wells, Craig S.

2009-01-01

411

Pupil Evaluation in Science. Report of a Study Group Meeting (Penang, Malaysia, January 9-18, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education specialists from Asian and Pacific countries convened to explore issues related to the evaluation of pupil science learning. This document contains a synthesis of the discussions and findings of the meeting. Summaries of the study group's deliberations are provided in four sections. Chapter 1 describes the participating…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

412

American Academy of Pediatrics. Preventive health care for young children: Findings from a 10-country study and directions for United States policy.  

PubMed

Infant health and survival in the US compare unfavorably with other Western industrial democracies. Circumstances that contribute to favorable pregnancy outcomes in other countries include nearly complete participation of pregnant women in early prenatal care and linkage of care to extensive support benefits. The study reported here extends these earlier observations to preventive health services for children from infancy through adolescence and to the social benefit programs that support their families. This report looks at the condition of children in 10 European countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All of these countries have better infant survival rates than the US, and they all share elements of pluralism in their systems of health care. PMID:1574377

Williams, B C; Miller, C A

1992-05-01

413

Daily Hassles and Coping Dispositions as Predictors of Psychological Adjustment: A Comparative Study of Young Unaccompanied Refugees and Youth in the Resettlement Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined daily hassles and coping dispositions in relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms among resettled unaccompanied refugees and other youth in the resettlement country. A total of 223 unaccompanied refugees ("M" = 20 years) was compared with 609 ethnic minority and 427 majority youth in Norway. Unaccompanied…

Seglem, Karoline B.; Oppedal, Brit; Roysamb, Espen

2014-01-01