Sample records for country study evaluation

  1. Methods for Accrediting Publications to Authors or Countries: Consequences for Evaluation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald; Van Hooydonk, Guido

    2000-01-01

    Discusses science evaluation studies that seek to determine quantitatively the contribution of different authors, departments, or countries to the whole system, and suggests that different scoring methods can yield totally different rankings. Presents formulas for counting procedures, nontrivial examples of anomalies, and possible solutions.…

  2. The Mobile Field Study Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Clifford F.

    Effectiveness of the Mobile Field Study Unit's work in environmental education in south-west Queensland during 1979-1980 was evaluated through records kept by the Unit and the Priority Country Area Program (PCAP) office, evaluations by teachers, interviews with teachers and educational administrators, and participant observation of the Unit. The…

  3. Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Martinez, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Mark, J.

    1994-08-01

    Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large carbon emissions reductions in the future, while also meeting key criteria for commercialization and acceptability in developing countries. In addition, this study evaluates the connection between technology identification and the selection of projects that are designed to demonstrate technologies with a propensity for carbon emission reductions (e.g., Global Environmental Facility projects). Although this report applies the methodology to Mexico in a case study format, the methodology is broad based and could be applied to any developing country, as well as to other technologies. The methodology used in this report is composed of four steps: technology screening, technology identification, technology deployment scenarios, and estimates of carbon emissions reductions. The four technologies with the highest ranking in the technology identification process for the on-grid category were geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind, and micro-/mini-hydro. Compressed natural gas (CNG) was the alternative that received the highest ranking for the transportation category.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants for Rural Water Supply in a Developing Country – A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Kelkar; V. A. Joshi; M. H. Ansari; U. Manivel

    2003-01-01

    Performance evaluation of two reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants (DSP) at villages: Melasirupodhu (30 m3 day-1) and Sikkal (50 m3 day-1) in Ramanathpuram district,Tamil Nadu (India) were studied so as to bring out the state-of-art of their operation and maintenance (O&M). Detailedinformation on plant design and engineering, water quality,plant personnel, and cost of O&M was collected for a period ofthree

  5. Real-life evidence in evaluating effectiveness of treatment in Haemophilia A with a recombinant FVIII concentrate: A non-interventional study in emerging countries.

    PubMed

    Gouider, E; Rauchensteiner, S; Andreeva, T; Al Zoebie, A; Mehadzic, S; Nefyodova, L; Brunn, M; Tueckmantel, C; Meddeb, B

    2015-05-01

    Some progress has been made regarding availability of recombinant factor VIII concentrates and prophylaxis for haemophilia A in emerging countries, where plasma-derived concentrates were used in the vast majority. Clinical studies to document their introduction and effectiveness are so far not widely available in literature. This non-interventional study evaluates the real-life effectiveness and safety of prophylactic and on-demand treatment with recombinant factor VIII formulated with sucrose (rFVIII-FS) for bleed control and preservation of joints in emerging countries from Eastern Europe, North Africa and Middle East area. One hundred and eighty-six patients from 11 countries were enrolled, mean ± SD age 12.8 ± 12.7 years. At enrolment, majority (79.6%) had severe haemophilia A (<2% IU mL(-1) ), 47.8% had a target joint, 15% had an inhibitor history and one patient was on immune tolerance induction. During the 24-month observation period, 58.1% of the patients were prescribed prophylaxis at every visit, 31.7% were on an on-demand regimen. Patients with severe haemophilia A on prophylaxis (n = 82) had a mean annual rate of treated bleeds of 2.8 ± 4.4, whereas it was 19.1 ± 32.0 for the on-demand group (n = 31), and a mean total Gilbert Score of 9.9 ± 10.3 at baseline and 4.1 ± 6.7 at study end; vs. 15.2 ± 17.3 and 13.7 ± 17.1 for on-demand respectively. The majority of the bleeds (91.1%) were treated with one or two infusions. Four patients without inhibitor history had a first positive inhibitor test during the study. This study demonstrates the effective use of rFVIII-FS in emerging countries and adds to the established safety profile of rFVIII-FS. PMID:25649665

  6. Country-of-Origin Effects on Product Evaluations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren J. Bilkey; Erik Nes

    1982-01-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the effect of country of origin on buyer evaluations of products. The issue is important for countries (especially resource-poor, developing countries) that need to increase manufactured exports and for firms that source products in countries different from where sold. Marketing inferences are drawn, and implications for future research are developed.© 1982 JIBS. Journal of

  7. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less-developed countries, especially those in Asia, there is also a requirement to focus on the development of environmentally friendly practices in wealthier countries. PMID:20454670

  8. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less-developed countries, especially those in Asia, there is also a requirement to focus on the development of environmentally friendly practices in wealthier countries. PMID:20454670

  9. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River and its tributaries were not transformed upstream our sample points (Lavie et al., 2013, under press). Finally, we studied an urban drinking waters network, in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, one of the least developed countries, with chronic political crises. The nearly 6 million inhabitants of this settlement suffer many cuts and bad pressure at tap. Furthermore, Nile's waters that feed the network are summarily treated and then quite turbid, especially in summer during Nile's floods. This situation obliges the population to store and to decant water, transforming it into clear ones (Lavie and Hamza, 2013, under press). The results of our studies demonstrate that, generally, we can observe a correlation between increasing turbidity and bacteriology, and decreasing oximetry. This assumption is disproven in many cases: (1) the stagnant waters of Khartoum and (2) the clarified Mendoza River waters. Finally, (3) the seasonal anthropogenic uses of soil and waters in the Doubegue and Tunuyán Rivers have more impact on the bacteriological quality than the natural seasonality of the suspended solids because soil erosion has increased.

  10. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

  11. How Do Other Countries Evaluate Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James H.; Engel, Laura C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the primary role of teachers in affecting student achievement, U.S. policy makers and reformers have increasingly focused on monitoring and evaluating teacher effectiveness by emphasizing the links to student learning outcomes. Large-scale international assessments are frequently used as base examples to justify reform. But, relatively…

  12. Peace Corps/Ghana. Country Program Evaluation. ACTION Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Neil; And Others

    Ghana first received Peace Corps assistance in 1961 (the first country in the world to receive volunteers) and since then volunteer strength has fluctuated from between 185 to 415 (presently 179). Secondary education has been the major thrust in programing until recently when Peace Corps/Ghana (PC/G) shifted its emphases to agriculture and rural…

  13. Methods of Evaluating Child Welfare in Indian Country: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kathleen; Cross, Terry L.; John, Laura; Carter, Patricia; Pavkov, Thomas; Wang, Ching-Tung; Diaz, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The poor quality and quantity of data collected in tribal communities today reflects a lack of true community participation and commitment. This is especially problematic for evaluation studies, in which the needs and desires of the community should be the central focus. This challenge can be met by emphasizing indigenous methods and voice. The…

  14. Photovoltaic evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

    Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

  15. Country report Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rotich K. Henry; Zhao Yongsheng; Dong Jun

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level

  16. Evaluation of Immigrant Tuberculosis Screening in Industrialized Countries

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Manish; Baussano, Iacopo; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Dye, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In industrialized countries, tuberculosis (TB) cases are concentrated among immigrants and driven by reactivation of imported latent TB infection (LTBI). We examined mechanisms used to screen immigrants for TB and LTBI by sending an anonymous, 18-point questionnaire to 31 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Twenty-nine (93.5%) of 31 responded; 25 (86.2%) screened immigrants for active TB. Fewer countries (16/29, 55.2%) screened for LTBI. Marked variations were observed in targeted populations for age (range <5 years of age to all age groups) and TB incidence in countries of origin of immigrants (>20 cases/100,000 population to >500 cases/100,000). LTBI screening was conducted in 11/16 countries by using the tuberculin skin test. Six countries used interferon-? release assays, primarily to confirm positive tuberculin skin test results. Industrialized countries performed LTBI screening infrequently and policies varied widely. There is an urgent need to define the cost-effectiveness of LTBI screening strategies for immigrants. PMID:22931959

  17. Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

  18. The Process of Choosing a Management Career: Evaluation of Gender and Contextual Dynamics in a Comparative Study of Six Countries--Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, UK and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanova, Cem; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Inal, Gozde

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to identify the reasons MBA students have for their career choices, and to explore the contextual and gender-related aspects of career choice and development, based on a comparative study carried out with participants in six countries, i.e. Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, the UK and the USA. The paper…

  19. Drug use in children: cohort study in three European countries

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence of “recurrent/chronic” use (three or more prescriptions a year) and “non-recurrent” or “acute” use (less than three prescriptions a year) within each therapeutic class. Descriptions of the top five most commonly used drugs evaluated for off label status within each anatomical class. Results Three levels of drug use could be distinguished in the study population: high (>10/100 children per year), moderate (1-10/100 children per year), and low (<1/100 children per year). For all age categories, anti-infective, dermatological, and respiratory drugs were in the high use group, whereas cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs were always in the low use group. Emollients, topical steroids, and asthma drugs had the highest prevalence of recurrent use, but relative use of low prevalence drugs was more often recurrent than acute. In the top five highest prevalence drugs topical inhaled and systemic steroids, oral contraceptives, and topical or systemic antifungal drugs were most commonly used off label. Conclusion This overview of outpatient paediatric prescription patterns in a large European population could provide information to prioritise paediatric therapeutic research needs. PMID:19029175

  20. Using Strong Evaluation Designs in Developing Countries: Experience and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberger, Michael; White, Howard

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the discussion of issues currently being debated on the need for more rigorous program evaluation in educational and other sectors of research, to the field of international development evaluation, reviewing the different approaches which can be adopted to rigorous evaluation methodology and their…

  1. Foreign Study for Development or Dependency of Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    Foreign study has been growing worldwide since the end of World War II. There is a significant flow of students from less developed countries to more developed ones. This paper presents findings of a study that assessed two theories of development, modernization theory and dependency theory, and applied these theories to identify the impact of…

  2. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries

  3. Inbreeding Depression and IQ in a Study of 72 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In this ecological study, a robust negative correlation of r = - 0.62 (P less than 0.01) is reported between national IQs and consanguinity as measured by the log10 transformed percentage of consanguineous marriages for 72 countries. This correlation is reduced in magnitude, when IQ is controlled for GDP per capita (r = - 0.41, P less than 0.01);…

  4. Preliminary lithostratigraphic correlation study in OAPEC member countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lababidi, M.M.; Hamdan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines a study correlating rock units in the Middle Eastern and North African member countries, based on direct information from the members. It comprises Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic correlation charts for each region and a lexicon giving the definition, age, lithology, and equivalents of each formation.

  5. Environmental Education in the South Pacific: An Evaluation of Progress in Three Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Neil; Topalian, Teny

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates formal environmental education in three countries in the South Pacific Region: Fiji (Melanesia); Kiribati (Micronesia); and Niue (Polynesia). Findings reveal that environmental education is at different stages of evolution in each of these countries and only Niue appears to deliver environmental education effectively when compared with…

  6. Civic Education across Countries: Twenty-four National Case Studies from the IEA Civic Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith; Schwille, John; Amadeo, Jo-Ann

    This volume reports the results of the first phase of the Civic Education Study conducted by International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). During 1996 and 1997, researchers in 24 countries collected documentary evidence on the circumstances, contents, and processes of civic education in response to a common set of…

  7. Evaluation of collared peccary translocations in the Texas Hill Country 

    E-print Network

    Porter, Brad Alan

    2007-09-17

    of collared peccaries, however, has not been evaluated. 1 Translocations have been used in the restoration of mid- to large-sized mammal populations in many areas of the United States (Nielsen 1988). For example, use of translocations for Sitka black-tailed... partitioning in sympatric populations of collared peccaries and feral hogs in southern Texas. Journal of Mammalogy 76: 784-799. Lee, D. J., and M. R. Vaughan. 2004. Black bear family breakup in western Virginia. Northeastern Naturalist 11: 111...

  8. Economic evaluations of non-communicable disease interventions in developing countries: a critical review of the evidence base

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo-Ann Mulligan; Damian Walker; Julia Fox-Rushby

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Demographic projections suggest a major increase in non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality over the next two decades in developing countries. In a climate of scarce resources, policy-makers need to know which interventions represent value for money. The prohibitive cost of performing multiple economic evaluations has generated interest in transferring the results of studies from one setting to another. This paper

  9. How Can We Assess and Evaluate the Competitive Advantage of a Country's Human Resource Development System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hunseok; Ryu, Hyue-Hyun; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country's human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The…

  10. Drug use in children: cohort study in three European countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam C J M Sturkenboom; Katia M C Verhamme; Alfredo Nicolosi; Macey L Murray; Antje Neubert; Daan Caudri; Gino Picelli; Elif Fatma Sen; Carlo Giaquinto; Luigi Cantarutti; Paola Baiardi; Maria-Grazia Felisi; Adriana Ceci; Ian C K Wong

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries.Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5.Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet).Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands).Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence

  11. Hospital quality management system in a low income Arabic country: an evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Øvretveit; Abdul Al Serouri

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to present findings from an evaluation of a quality management system implemented in a low-income country hospital. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a single-case before and after evaluation. Findings – The quality system, although only 70 per cent implemented, resulted in increasing compliance with a few selected standards and produced modest improvements in patient satisfaction and

  12. Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: Workers' Evaluations in Five Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17…

  13. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

  14. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-12-01

    Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

  15. Consumers' product evaluations in emerging markets : Does country of design, country of manufacture, or brand image matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leila Hamzaoui Essoussi; Dwight Merunka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate, in an emerging market, the simultaneous effects of country of design (COD), country of manufacture (COM), and brand image on consumers' perceptions of bi-national products. A comprehensive model broadens country-of-origin literature by incorporating brand image and the concepts of fit and congruity borrowed from brand extension research. Perceptual (in) coherences

  16. Case study evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Keen, J.; Packwood, T.

    1995-01-01

    Case study evaluations, using one or more qualitative methods, have been used to investigate important practical and policy questions in health care. This paper describes the features of a well designed case study and gives examples showing how qualitative methods are used in evaluations of health services and health policy. Images p446-a PMID:7640596

  17. Influence of institutional environment on entrepreneurial intention: a comparative study of two countries university students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carlos Díaz-Casero; Joao José M. Ferreira; Ricardo Hernández Mogollón; Mario Lino Barata Raposo

    Institutional environment influences the perceptions of desirability and feasibility, society’s social and cultural environment,\\u000a such as beliefs, values and attitudes, conditions behaviour and decisions made by individuals. This research evaluates the\\u000a influence of institutional environment on entrepreneurial intention using a comparative analysis of different attitudes among\\u000a university students in two countries: Portugal and Spain. In particular, this study aims to

  18. Job insecurity and health: A study of 16 European countries

    PubMed Central

    László, Krisztina D.; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S.; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45–70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. PMID:20060634

  19. Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

  20. The Challenges of Small-Scale Evaluation in a Foreign Country: Reflections on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a reflection on practice. It begins by briefly describing an evaluation of an externally-funded education programme in Kosovo (a new country in south-east Europe). The programme was managed by Save the Children in Kosovo and aimed to develop and promote models of inclusive education through three strands of activity. The first of…

  1. Evaluation of the applicability of SWAT in the Nile Basin countries: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Griensven, A.; Ndomba, P. M.; Kilonzo, F.

    2012-04-01

    A plethora of hydrological modeling codes are nowadays available and many applications of these tools have been reported in peer reviewed journal papers. The hypothesis that the model is appropriate for the case study and the purpose of the study is however very often not questioned. We aim here at critically reviewing the use of a widely used hydrological simulation tool, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the context of the modeling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile Basin countries. Up to date, more than 20 peer reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT in this region for a variety of problems, such as erosion modeling, land use modeling, climate change impact modeling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are clustered in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. A number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, the performance, the physical representation of the model parameters, and the representativeness of the hydrological model balance. Here we evaluate the applications of within the Nile basin. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained several losses that might not be justified. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For that reason, it is difficult to give an overall positive evaluation to most of the reported SWAT models. An important gap is the lack of attention that is given to the vegetation and crop processes. None of the papers reported any adaptation to the crop parameters, or any crop related output such as leaf area index, biomass or crop yields. A proper simulation of the land cover is important for obtaining correct evapotranspiration and erosion computations. It is also found that a comparison of SWAT applications on the same or similar case study but by different research teams and/or model versions resulted in very different results. It is therefore recommended to try to find better methods to evaluate the representativeness of the distributed processes and parameters, especially when land use studies are envisaged. The main recommendation is that more details on the model set-up, the parameters and outputs should be provided in the journal papers in order to allow for a more stringent evaluation of these models.

  2. A Comparison of Model-based and Design-based Impact Evaluations of Interventions in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Hansen; Ninja Ritter Klejntrup; Ole Winckler Andersen

    2011-01-01

    We argue that non-experimental impact estimators will continue to be needed for evaluations of interventions in developing countries as social experiments, for various reasons, will never be the most preferred approach. In a survey of four studies that empirically compare the performance of experimental and non-experimental impact estimates using data from development interventions, we show that the preferred non-experimental estimators

  3. Career success and satisfaction: a comparative study in nine countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betty Jane Punnett; Jo Ann Duffy; Suzy Fox; Ann Gregory; Terri Lituchy; John Miller; Silvia Inés Monserrat; Miguel R. Olivas-Luján; Neusa Maria Bastos F. Santos

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This project aims to examine levels of career and life satisfaction among successful women in nine countries in the Americas. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A structured survey and in-depth interviews were used, and a variety of occupations, demographics, and personality characteristics assessed – 1,146 successful women from nine countries in the USA responded the survey: 105 from Argentina, 210 from

  4. Therapeutic research in low-income countries: studying trial communities.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2014-11-01

    Social scientists undertaking studies of transnational medical research in developing countries focus on 'trial communities': networks of funders, institutions, researchers, clinical staff, fieldworkers and study participants. They relate these to the political economy that brings powerful research resources to poor settings. Whereas bioethicists tend to consider universal ethical requirements, social scientists examine how ethics are practiced in given situations in the light of the concerns and interests held by different parties involved in medical research. In conditions of poverty, high morbidity and weak public health services, research subjects are heavily induced by the prospect of high quality medical care and other benefits that researchers seem to offer. Studies of medical research undertaken by well-established internationally funded institutions in Africa show that parents are keen to have their children 'join' projects at these organisations. They assess benefits and risks less in terms of specific research projects and more in terms of their overall trust in the care these institutions are known to have provided previously for others in the community. Bioethics should widen its scope beyond concern with protecting individual subjects from the risks of specific research projects. It should recognise that clinical and research functions are indistinguishable for many participants, who want information on results of clinical investigations and sustained support for improving the health of their children. PMID:24748638

  5. Neurophysiological evidence for the country-of-origin effect: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwangsu; Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Consumers often rely on observable cues that hint at the hidden quality of a product. The aim of this study was to investigate brain activities associated with the country-of-origin (COO) effect and consumer evaluation of a product design. Electroencephalogram recordings were used to observe event-related brain potentials associated with the COO effect and design evaluation. We found that the frontocentral N90 and parieto-occipital P220 amplitudes are involved in forming preference to design, whereas the COO effect is processed in the centroparietal P500 amplitude. We also found a significant interaction effect between COO and design preference with regard to reaction times. Specifically, participants tended to spend more time making a preference decision when they did not like the product design made in a country with a favorable COO. These results imply that the two cognitive processes, evaluation of COO and formation of design preference, are activated independently at an early stage. It also suggests that these two processes interact with each other toward the end of the decision phase. Together, the results of this study provide neuropsychological evidence supporting a significant role of COO in the formation of design preference. Future studies are required to further delve into other neurophysiological activities associated with the COO effect. PMID:24518230

  6. Strengthening primary health care in low- and middle-income countries: generating evidence through evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rule, John; Ngo, Duc Anh; Oanh, Tran Thi Mai; Asante, Augustine; Doyle, Jennifer; Roberts, Graham; Taylor, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Since the publication of the World Health Report 2008, there has been renewed interest in the potential of primary health care (PHC) to deliver global health policy agendas. The WHO Western Pacific Regional Strategy 2010 states that health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be strengthened using PHC values as core principles. This review article explores the development of an evidence-based approach for assessing the effectiveness of PHC programs and interventions in LMICs. A realist review method was used to investigate whether there is any internationally consistent approach to evaluating PHC. Studies from LMICs using an explicit methodology or framework for measuring PHC effectiveness were collated. Databases of published articles were searched, and a review of gray literature was undertaken to identify relevant reports. The review found no consistent approach for assessing the effectiveness of PHC interventions in LMICs. An innovative approach used in China, which developed a set of core community health facility indicators based on stakeholder input, does show some potential for use in other LMIC contexts. PMID:24097939

  7. Child Prostitution in 12 Countries: An Exploratory Study of Tuyen N. Huynh, McNair Scholar

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    135 Child Prostitution in 12 Countries: An Exploratory Study of Predictors Tuyen N. Huynh, Mc variables of child prostitution in 12 countries. These variables include literacy rates for women aged 15, and age population structure. Thailand has the highest rate of child prostitution among the 12 countries

  8. Can Voluntary Environmental Regulation Work in Developing Countries? Lessons from Case Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen Blackman

    2008-01-01

    Hamstrung by weak institutions that undermine conventional environmental regulatory tools, policymakers in developing countries are increasingly turning to voluntary approaches. To date, however, there have been few evaluations of these policy experiments. To help fill this gap, we summarize arguments for and against the use of voluntary regulation in developing countries, review the nascent literature on the topic, and present

  9. Development of Hydropower: A Case Study in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Yüksel

    2007-01-01

    Over the last two decades, global electricity production has more than doubled, and electricity demand is rising rapidly around the world as economic development spreads to emerging economies. Therefore, technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. In addition, small hydropower (SHP) represents an

  10. Peaceful Uses Bona Fides: Criteria for Evaluation and Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ajemian, Chris K.; Hazel, Mike; Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.; Morris, Fred A.; Seward, Amy M.; Peterson, Danielle J.; Smith, Brian W.

    2007-06-06

    This study applies a set of indicators to assess the peaceful nature of a state’s nuclear program. Evaluation of a country’s nuclear program relative to these indicators can help the international community to take appropriate actions to ensure that the growth of the global nuclear energy industry proceeds peacefully and to minimize nuclear proliferation risks.

  11. Release criteria from hospitals of 131I thyrotoxicosis therapy patients in developing countries--case study.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Wazir; Faaruq, Shafqat; Matiullah; Hussain, Amjad; Khan, Amjad Aziz

    2006-01-01

    The current release limit, recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)(1), from hospitals of patients undergoing 131I thyrotoxicosis therapy is approximately 1100 MBq (approximately 30 mCi). Owing to the difference in socio-economic conditions, literacy rate, family system, etc., this release limit may not be applicable in most of the developing countries like Pakistan. Therefore, the prime objective of this case study was to re-evaluate the release criteria for 131I thyrotoxicosis therapy patients by taking into account their lifestyle, economic conditions and other facilities such as availability of private/public transport, etc. In this context, systematic studies were carried out and 50 patients (i.e. 35 outpatients and 15 inpatients) at the Nuclear Medicine Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute (NORI), Islamabad, were studied. Exposure rate at the surface of the body and at a distance of 1 m from the standing patient was measured. Results obtained from this study showed that the dose equivalent delivered by these patients to their family members (particularly children) and general public was higher than annual dose limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiation Protection in their report ICRP Publication 60(2). In the light of this study, it is recommended that the release activity limit of approximately 370 MBq (or dose rate level of approximately 10 microSv h-1 at 1 m from the patient) be adopted instead of approximately 1100 MBq in developing countries like Pakistan. PMID:16464838

  12. Economic burden of torture for a refugee host country: development of a model and presentation of a country case study

    PubMed Central

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Frey, Conrad; Chastonay, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Torture is an important social and political problem worldwide that affects millions of people. Many host countries give victims of torture the status of refugee and take care of them as far as basic needs; health care, professional reinsertion, and education. Little is known about the costs of torture. However, this knowledge could serve as an additional argument for the prevention and social mobilization to fight against torture and to provide a powerful basis of advocacy for rehabilitation programs and judiciary claims. Objectives Development of a model for estimating the economic costs of torture and applying the model to a specific country. Methods The estimation of the possible prevalence of victims of torture was based on a review of the literature. The identification of the socioeconomic factors to be considered was done by analogy with various health problems. The estimation of the loss of the productivity and of the economic burden of disease related to torture was done through the human capital approach and the component technique analysis. Case study The model was applied to the situation in Switzerland of estimated torture victims Switzerland is confronted with. Results When applied to the case study, the direct costs – such as housing, food, and clothing – represent roughly 130 million Swiss francs (CHF) per year; whereas, health care costs amount to 16 million CHF per year, and the costs related to education of young people to 34 million CHF per year. Indirect costs, namely those costs related to the loss of the productivity of direct survivors of torture, have been estimated to one-third of 1 billion CHF per year. This jumps to 10,073,419,200 CHF in the loss of productivity if one would consider 30 years of loss per survivor. Conclusion Our study shows that a rough estimation of the costs related to torture is possible with some prerequisites, such as access to social and economic indicators at the country level. PMID:24729721

  13. Catastrophe risk models for evaluating disaster risk reduction investments in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Michel-Kerjan, E; Hochrainer-Stigler, S; Kunreuther, H; Linnerooth-Bayer, J; Mechler, R; Muir-Wood, R; Ranger, N; Vaziri, P; Young, M

    2013-06-01

    Major natural disasters in recent years have had high human and economic costs, and triggered record high postdisaster relief from governments and international donors. Given the current economic situation worldwide, selecting the most effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures is critical. This is especially the case for low- and middle-income countries, which have suffered disproportionally more economic and human losses from disasters. This article discusses a methodology that makes use of advanced probabilistic catastrophe models to estimate benefits of DRR measures. We apply such newly developed models to generate estimates for hurricane risk on residential structures on the island of St. Lucia, and earthquake risk on residential structures in Istanbul, Turkey, as two illustrative case studies. The costs and economic benefits for selected risk reduction measures are estimated taking account of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. We conclude by emphasizing the advantages and challenges of catastrophe model-based cost-benefit analyses for DRR in developing countries. PMID:23237737

  14. Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, James; Gallimore, Ronald; Garnier, Helen; Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Jacobs, Jennifer; Chui, Angel Miu-Ying; Wearne, Diana; Smith, Margaret; Kersting, Nicole; Manaster, Alfred; Tseng, Ellen; Etterback, Wallace; Manaster, Carl; Gonzales, Patrick; Stigler, James

    2003-01-01

    Presents results from the mathematics portion of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video study, which examined classroom teaching practices in eighth-grade mathematics and science in seven countries. Identifies some general features among the countries, but discernible variation in teaching methods and topics…

  15. Developing a web site for human immunodeficiency virus prevention in a middle income country: a pilot study from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Viseskul, Nongkran; Srikantha, Wimonsiri; Fongkaew, Warunee; Surapagdee, Natthakarn; Grimes, Richard M

    2012-10-01

    The Internet has often been used to reach men who have sex with men (MSMs) in developed countries. However, its use has not been as widespread in middle income countries because of a perceived lack of access to the web by residents of these countries. However, over half of the Internet users in the world now live in middle income countries. This article describes the development of web-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention program that can serve as a model for middle income countries. Thai nursing faculty worked with MSMs to create and evaluate a Web site that provided HIV prevention messages directed toward MSMs. The steps for creating the site are described. Forty-one MSMs used the site and provided feedback to the site developers. The group was young (median=19 years), low income (median income was ?170 US$ per month). The users demonstrated that they had access to the Internet and that they could utilize the site. They also reported moderate-to-high levels of satisfaction with site design, content, ease of use, information obtained, and benefits obtained from using the site. A previous article in the Thai language also showed that they reduced risk behaviors. They also made many useful suggestions for improving the content of the site. In conclusion, the study showed that the combination of nurses and MSMs from a middle income country could develop a usable HIV prevention Web site that instructed and changed behavior. PMID:23002987

  16. Multiple Paths to Effective National Evaluation Societies: Evidence from 37 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holvoet, Nathalie; Dewachter, Sara

    2013-01-01

    National Evaluation Societies (NES) are situated at the intersection between Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) supply and demand. To date, little research has explored NES and their potential for strengthening national M&E. This study addresses this gap, examining perceived NES performance relevant to organizational and policy-oriented goals…

  17. Theory-Driven Process Evaluation of a Complementary Feeding Trial in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jamie E.; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K. Michael; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Bose, Carl L.; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Wright, Linda L.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square…

  18. Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pernille Due; Bjørn E. Holstein; John Lynch; Finn Diderichsen

    2005-01-01

    Background: There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. Methods: This international cross- sectional survey included 123,227 students 11, 13 and 15 years of age from a nationally representative sample of schools in 28 countries in Europe and

  19. The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries. IEA Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    This book focuses on the impact of private education in developing countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Peru, Romania, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The private education sector is large and innovative in the countries studied and not the domain of the wealthy. Contrary to popular opinion, private education in…

  20. Barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine: a bi-country evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vimarlund, Vivian; Le Rouge, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing that current practices for healthcare delivery are no longer sustainable, OECD governments are focusing more and more on how to leverage ICT to facilitate superior healthcare delivery. One such possibility is the use of Telemedicine. A major goal of telemedicine today is to develop next-generation telemedicine tools and technologies. However, key "classic" barriers continue to challenge widespread telemedicine adoption by health care organizations. These barriers include technology, financial, legal/standards, business strategy, and human resources issues. This comparative study explores the current status of barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine in two different countries: Sweden, and USA. PMID:23920707

  1. Gaps in capacity for respiratory care in developing countries. Nigeria as a case study.

    PubMed

    Obaseki, Daniel; Adeniyi, Bamidele; Kolawole, Tolulope; Onyedum, Cajetan; Erhabor, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    There are unmet needs for respiratory medical care in developing countries. We sought to evaluate the quality and capacity for respiratory care in low- and lower-middle-income countries, using Nigeria as a case study. We obtained details of the respiratory practice of consultants and senior residents (fellows) in respiratory medicine in Nigeria via a semistructured questionnaire administered to physician attendees at the 2013 National Congress of the Nigerian Thoracic Society. Out of 76 society-registered members, 48 attended the congress, 40 completed the questionnaire, and 35 provided complete data (73% adjusted response rate). Respondents provided information on the process and costs of respiratory medicine training and facility, equipment, and supply capacities at the institutions they represented. Approximately 83% reported working at a tertiary level (teaching) hospital; 91% reported capacity for sputum smear analysis for acid alcohol-fast bacilli, 37% for GeneXpert test cartridges, and 20% for BACTEC liquid sputum culture. Only 34% of respondents could perform full spirometry on patients, and none had the capacity for performing a methacholine challenge test or for measuring the diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. We estimated the proportion of registered respiratory physicians to the national population at 1 per 2.3 million individuals. Thirteen states with an estimated combined population of 57.7 million offer no specialist respiratory services. Barriers to development of this capacity include the high cost of training. We conclude that substantial gaps exist in the capacity and quality of respiratory care in Nigeria, a pattern that probably mirrors most of sub-Saharan Africa and other countries of similar economic status. Health policy makers should address these gaps systematically. PMID:25734613

  2. Obesity Researches Over the Past 24 years: A Scientometrics Study in Middle East Countries

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers call for updated valid evidences to monitor, prevent, and control of alarming trends of obesity. We quantify the trends of obesity/overweight researches outputs of Middle East countries. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus database as the only sources for multidisciplinary citation reports, with the most coverage in health and biomedicine disciplines for all related obesity/overweight publications, from 1990 to 2013. These scientometrics analysis assessed the trends of scientific products, citations, and collaborative papers in Middle East countries. We also provided Information on top institutions, journals, and collaborative research centers in the field of obesity/overweight. Results: Over 24-year period, the number of obesity/overweight publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. Globally, during 1990–2013, 415,126 papers have been published, from them, 3.56% were affiliated to Middle East countries. Iran with 26.27%, compare with other countries in the regions, after Turkey (47.94%) and Israel (35.25%), had the third position. Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Conclusions: Despite the ascending trends in research outputs, more efforts required for promotion of collaborative partnerships. Results could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These findings also could be used for future complementary analysis. PMID:26015861

  3. HIV vulnerability of men who have sex with men in developing countries: Horizons studies, 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    Geibel, Scott; Tun, Waimar; Tapsoba, Placide; Kellerman, Scott

    2010-01-01

    While male-to-male sexual behavior has been recognized as a primary risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), research targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) in less-developed countries has been limited due to high levels of stigma and discrimination. In response, the Population Council's Horizons Program began implementing research activities in Africa and South America beginning in 2001, with the objectives of gathering information on MSM sexual risk behaviors, evaluating HIV-prevention programs, and informing HIV policy makers. The results of this nearly decade-long program are presented in this article as a summary of the Horizons MSM studies in Africa (Senegal and Kenya) and Latin America (Brazil and Paraguay), and include research methodologies, study findings, and interventions evaluated. We also discuss future directions and approaches for HIV research among MSM in developing countries. PMID:20297760

  4. Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that…

  5. Case Study of a Course for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Peter B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a course designed to provide the necessary academic study prior to students engaging in the practice of irrigation engineering. Rationale for the course, course structure, and special features of the course are included. (JN)

  6. Country of Contrasts: A Study Guide on Panama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athey, Lois E., Ed.; And Others

    This study guide seeks to provide resources to bring the voices and experiences of Panamanian students into classrooms. This guide includes: (1) "History of a Canal" (in English and Spanish) (Pablo Neruda); (2) "Poems by Cubena"; (3) "Maps of Panama and The Canal Zone"; (4) "Historical Overview: Panama (1501-1992)"; (5) "Molas" (Maria…

  7. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  8. TECHNICAL REPORTS The study area (Alegria watershed, Basque Country, Northern

    E-print Network

    in a nitrate-vulnerable zone. The main objective of the study was to find land management options for water.Suchcatchmentsareespeciallyvulnerable to groundwater pollution (Lam et al., 2010; Schmalz et al., 2007; Muller et al., 2004). In such lowland watersheds, groundwater transport plays a key role in the transport of pollutants from the soils

  9. Coastal Vulnerability to Erosion Processes: Study Cases from Different Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, Giorgio; Martinez Del Pozo, Jose Angel; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    When natural processes affect or threaten human activities or infrastructures they become a natural hazard. In order to prevent the natural hazards impact and the associated economic and human losses, coastal managers need to know the intrinsic vulnerability of the littoral, using information on the physical and ecological coastal features, human occupation and present and future shoreline trends. The prediction of future coastline positions can be based on the study of coastal changes which have occurred over recent decades. Vertical aerial photographs, satellite imagery and maps are very useful data sources for the reconstruction of coast line changes at long (>60 years) and medium (between 60 and 10 years) temporal and spatial scales. Vulnerability maps have been obtained for several coastal sectors around the world through the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), computer-assisted multivariate analysis and numerical models. In the USA, "Flood Insurance Rate Maps" have been created by the government and "Coastal Zone Hazard Maps" have been prepared for coastal stretches affected by hurricane Hugo. In Spain, the vulnerability of the Ebro and an Andalusia coastal sector were investigated over different time scales. McLaughlin et al., (2002) developed a GIS based coastal vulnerability index for the Northern Ireland littoral that took into account socio-economic activities and coastal resistance to erosion and energetic characteristics. Lizárraga et al., (2001) combined beach reduction at Rosario (Mexico) with the probability of damage to landward structures, obtaining a vulnerability matrix. In this work several coastal vulnerability maps have also been created by comparing data on coastal erosion/accretion and land use along different coastal sectors in Italy, Morocco and Colombia. Keywords: Hazard, Vulnerability, Coastal Erosion, Italy, Morocco, Colombia.

  10. The e-health implementation toolkit: qualitative evaluation across four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Implementation researchers have attempted to overcome the research-practice gap in e-health by developing tools that summarize and synthesize research evidence of factors that impede or facilitate implementation of innovation in healthcare settings. The e-Health Implementation Toolkit (e-HIT) is an example of such a tool that was designed within the context of the United Kingdom National Health Service to promote implementation of e-health services. Its utility in international settings is unknown. Methods We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the e-HIT in use across four countries--Finland, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden. Data were generated using a combination of interview approaches (n = 22) to document e-HIT users' experiences of the tool to guide decision making about the selection of e-health pilot services and to monitor their progress over time. Results e-HIT users evaluated the tool positively in terms of its scope to organize and enhance their critical thinking about their implementation work and, importantly, to facilitate discussion between those involved in that work. It was easy to use in either its paper- or web-based format, and its visual elements were positively received. There were some minor criticisms of the e-HIT with some suggestions for content changes and comments about its design as a generic tool (rather than specific to sites and e-health services). However, overall, e-HIT users considered it to be a highly workable tool that they found useful, which they would use again, and which they would recommend to other e-health implementers. Conclusion The use of the e-HIT is feasible and acceptable in a range of international contexts by a range of professionals for a range of different e-health systems. PMID:22098945

  11. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus. PMID:22583562

  12. Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This…

  13. Problems of Organising and Reporting Internal and External Evaluation in Developing Countries: The Case of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop capacity to link knowledge to economic growth in developing countries, there is an urgent need to make quality the major element of higher education systems. In Iran, a developing country, such a need was felt a decade ago in the academic community. Based on research projects conducted, a model that combines collegial…

  14. Tuberculosis care: an evaluability study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Cláudia Santos; Brito, Ewerton Willian Gomes; Negrão, Oswaldo Gomes Corrêa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the tuberculosis control program (TCP) is evaluable and to examine the feasibility of building an evaluation model in apriority municipality for the control of tuberculosis. METHOD: this evaluability study was conducted in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. For data collection, documental analysis and interviews with key informants were performed. For indicator validation, the nominal group technique was adopted. RESULTS: the details of TCP were described, and both the logical model and the classification framework for indicators were developed and agreed up on, with the goal of characterizing the structural elements of the program, defining the structure and process indicators, and formulating the evaluation questions. CONCLUSION: TCP is evaluable. Based on logical operational analysis, it was possible to evaluate the adequacy of the program goals for the control of tuberculosis. Therefore, the performance of a summative evaluation is recommended, with a focus on the analysis of the effects of tuberculosis control interventions on decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:25493675

  15. Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, James; Gallimore, Ronald; Garnier, Helen; Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Jacobs, Jennifer; Chui, Angel Miu-Ying; Wearne, Diana; Smith, Margaret; Kersting, Nicole; Manaster, Alfred; Tseng, Ellen; Etterbeek, Wallace; Manaster, Carl; Gonzales, Patrick; Stigler, James

    This book reports teaching practices in mathematics in seven countries from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 video study. A detailed description of the methods in the mathematics portion of the study is presented in an accompanying technical report from an international perspective. Contexts of the lessons, the…

  16. A lack of neuroblastoma in Down syndrome: a study from 11 European countries.

    PubMed

    Satgé, D; Sasco, A J; Carlsen, N L; Stiller, C A; Rubie, H; Hero, B; de Bernardi, B; de Kraker, J; Coze, C; Kogner, P; Langmark, F; Hakvoort-Cammel, F G; Beck, D; von der Weid, N; Parkes, S; Hartmann, O; Lippens, R J; Kamps, W A; Sommelet, D

    1998-02-01

    An epidemiological investigation in 11 European countries comprising a total childhood population of 54.1 million children and using 8 separate data sources was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of neuroblastoma in Down syndrome (DS). No cases of DS were detected among 6724 infants and children with neuroblastoma, although more than five were expected. This highly significant result (P = 0.0045 according to the Poisson test) is consistent with data in the literature, which contains only two poorly detailed cases in epidemiological studies and one ganglioneuroma in a DS mosaic patient. Like other tumors, such as leukemias, testicular germ cell tumors and lymphomas are in excess in DS patients; the lack of neuroblastomas does not reflect a general decreased incidence of cancer but rather a specific underrepresentation of this precise tumor. S-100 b protein, the gene for which maps to the long arm of chromosome 21, (a) is overproduced in DS patients, (b) produces growth inhibition and differentiation of neural cells in vitro, (c) is abundant in good-prognosis neuroblastomas, and (d) has been shown to induce growth inhibition and differentiation and cell death in several human and murine neuroblastoma cell lines and could be responsible for this variation. Additional epidemiological and experimental studies are warranted to confirm our interpretation of these data. PMID:9458088

  17. A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high schools offering the Ontario curriculum under the auspice of the Ontario Ministry of Education. All teachers completed the Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised (Jerabeck, Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised, 2001) online. The study found that international teachers had a statistically lower level of burnout than teachers working in their country of origin.

  18. The Transport Requirements of P.C.A.P. Field Staff in the South-West and Central Priority Country Areas. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Clifford F.

    General transport requirements of the Priority Country Area Program (PCAP) field staff in the South-West and Central Priority Country Areas in Queensland, Australia, (exceeding 320,000 and 150,000 square kilometers respectively) for 1978-79 were evaluated, with emphasis on: duties of PCAP staff and their consequent transport needs; existing…

  19. A Scientometric Study of General Internal Medicine Domain Among Muslim Countries of Middle East (1991 – 2011)

    PubMed Central

    Hodhodinezhad, Niloofar; Zahedi, Razieh; Ashrafi-rizzi, Hassan; Shams, Asadollah

    2013-01-01

    Background The position of General Internal Medicine in the Islamic countries in the Middle East has been investigated in the present study. Material and methods The scientific productions of the countries in the area on Web of science database during 1990-2011 constitute were examined. Results The result of the survey showed that the share of these countries in world scientific productions is very low. Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Iran are the first to third ones in this domain in order. In view of annual growth rate, Kuwait having high growth rate, is the first one. Libya and Syria are the next ones. The scientific poverty line of Islamic countries in the area was surveyed. The result showed that in view of the scientific poverty line, the highest is Kuwait with the population of 0.04 percent of the world. Next to it, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain are the second and third ones. Conclusion The results of this research showed that the share of Islamic countries in the Middle East in scientific production of this medicine domain is very low. It needs to be paid more attention by the countries in the area. PMID:23572864

  20. Diabetes research in Middle East countries; a scientometrics study from 1990 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Peykari, Niloofar; Djalalinia, Shirin; Kasaeian, Amir; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Hasannia, Tahereh; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes burden is a serious warning for urgent action plan across the world. Knowledge production in this context could provide evidences for more efficient interventions. Aimed to that, we quantify the trend of diabetes research outputs of Middle East countries focusing on the scientific publication numbers, citations, and international collaboration. Materials and Methods: This scientometrics study was performed based on the systematic analysis through three international databases; ISI, PubMed, and Scopus from 1990 to 2012. International collaboration of Middle East countries and citations was analyzed based on Scopus. Diabetes’ publications in Iran specifically were assessed, and frequent used terms were mapped by VOSviewer software. Results: Over 23-year period, the number of diabetes publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. The number of articles on diabetes in ISI, PubMed, and Scopus were respectively; 13,994, 11,336, and 20,707. Turkey, Israel, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt have devoted the five top competition positions. In addition, Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Iran in all databases stands on third position and produced 12.7% of diabetes publications within region. Regarding diabetes researches, the frequent used terms in Iranian articles were “effect,” “woman,” and “metabolic syndrome.” Conclusion: Ascending trend of diabetes research outputs in Middle East countries is appreciated but encouraging to strategic planning for maintaining this trend, and more collaboration between researchers is needed to regional health promotion.

  1. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2010-12-20

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. PMID:21763362

  2. Dell Hymes and the New Language Policy Studies: Update from an Underdeveloped Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Collins, James; Hopson, Rodney K.

    2011-01-01

    This essay updates Dell Hymes's "Report from an Underdeveloped Country" (the USA), positioning our analysis in the New Language Policy Studies. Taking up Hymes's call for comparative, critical studies of language use, we examine three cases, organizing our analysis around Hymes's questions: What "counts" as a language, a language problem, and…

  3. Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. Recent Developments in Continuing Professional Education. Country Study: Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savicevic, Dusan; Jovanovic, Goran

    This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in continuing professional education, contains two papers on recent developments in Yugoslavia. The first presents the findings of a study of continuing professional education at Belgrade University in Serbia and at Titograd University in Montenegro.…

  4. A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high…

  5. Theory-driven process evaluation of a complementary feeding trial in four countries.

    PubMed

    Newman, Jamie E; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Michael Hambidge, K; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A; Bose, Carl L; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square tests to examine differences between treatment groups. We administered exit interviews to 219 caregivers and 45 intervention staff to explore why caregivers may or may not have performed suggested infant feeding behaviors. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between caregiver scores and infant linear growth velocity. As message recall increased, irrespective of treatment group, linear growth velocity increased when controlling for other factors (P < 0.05), emphasizing the importance of study messages. Our detailed process evaluation revealed few differences between treatment groups, giving us confidence that the main trial's lack of effect to reverse the progression of stunting cannot be explained by differences between groups or inconsistencies in protocol implementation. These findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting limited impact on stunting of interventions initiated during the period of complementary feeding in impoverished environments. The early onset and steady progression support the provision of earlier and comprehensive interventions. PMID:24399265

  6. A vaccine cold chain freezing study in PNG highlights technology needs for hot climate countries.

    PubMed

    Wirkas, Theo; Toikilik, Steven; Miller, Nan; Morgan, Chris; Clements, C John

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen data loggers were packed with vaccine vials at the national vaccine store, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and sent to peripheral locations in the health system. The temperatures that the data loggers recorded during their passage along the cold chain indicated that heat damage was unlikely, but that all vials were exposed to freezing temperatures at some time. The commonest place where freezing conditions existed was during transport. The freezing conditions were likely induced by packing the vials too close to the ice packs that were themselves too cold, and with insufficient insulation between them. This situation was rectified and a repeat dispatch of data loggers demonstrated that the system had indeed been rectified. Avoiding freeze damage becomes even more important as the price of freeze-sensitive vaccines increases with the introduction of more multiple-antigen vaccines. This low-cost high-tech method of evaluating the cold chain function is highly recommended for developing and industrialized nations and should be used on a regular basis to check the integrity of the vaccine cold chain. The study highlights the need for technological solutions to avoid vaccine freezing, particularly in hot climate countries. PMID:16968657

  7. Stillbirth rates in low-middle income countries 2010 - 2013: a population-based, multi-country study from the Global Network

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Stillbirth rates remain nearly ten times higher in low-middle income countries (LMIC) than high income countries. In LMIC, where nearly 98% of stillbirths worldwide occur, few population-based studies have documented characteristics or care for mothers with stillbirths. Non-macerated stillbirths, those occurring around delivery, are generally considered preventable with appropriate obstetric care. Methods We undertook a prospective, population-based observational study of all pregnant women in defined geographic areas across 7 sites in low-resource settings (Kenya, Zambia, India, Pakistan, Guatemala and Argentina). Staff collected demographic and health care characteristics with outcomes obtained at delivery. Results From 2010 through 2013, 269,614 enrolled women had 272,089 births, including 7,865 stillbirths. The overall stillbirth rate was 28.9/1000 births, ranging from 13.6/1000 births in Argentina to 56.5/1000 births in Pakistan. Stillbirth rates were stable or declined in 6 of the 7 sites from 2010-2013, only increasing in Pakistan. Less educated, older and women with less access to antenatal care were at increased risk of stillbirth. Furthermore, women not delivered by a skilled attendant were more likely to have a stillbirth (RR 2.8, 95% CI 2.2, 3.5). Compared to live births, stillbirths were more likely to be preterm (RR 12.4, 95% CI 11.2, 13.6). Infants with major congenital anomalies were at increased risk of stillbirth (RR 9.1, 95% CI 7.3, 11.4), as were multiple gestations (RR 2.8, 95% CI 2.4, 3.2) and breech (RR 3.0, 95% CI 2.6, 3.5). Altogether, 67.4% of the stillbirths were non-macerated. 7.6% of women with stillbirths had cesarean sections, with obstructed labor the primary indication (36.9%). Conclusions Stillbirth rates were high, but with reductions in most sites during the study period. Disadvantaged women, those with less antenatal care and those delivered without a skilled birth attendant were at increased risk of delivering a stillbirth. More than two-thirds of all stillbirths were non-macerated, suggesting potentially preventable stillbirth. Additionally, 8% of women with stillbirths were delivered by cesarean section. The relatively high rate of cesarean section among those with stillbirths suggested that this care was too late or not of quality to prevent the stillbirth; however, further research is needed to evaluate the quality of obstetric care, including cesarean section, on stillbirth in these low resource settings. Study registration Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475) PMID:26063292

  8. Vocational and Technical Education; A Comparative Study of Present Practice and Future Trends in Ten Countries. Monographs on Education-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Hugh

    Based on information provided by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the respective countries, this study presents a synoptic review of the educational systems in the United States and nine European countries. Some of the trends common to the 10 countries are the emphasis toward integration of vocational…

  9. Evaluating preceptors: a methodological study.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Heather; Cantrell, Donita; Dollahan, Katherine; Hall, Brittany; Lewis, Preston; Merritt, Sharon; Mills, Linda; Moe, Krista; White, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test the Baptist Health Lexington Performance and Proficiency Assessment for validity and reliability. Twelve expert nurse educators evaluated the instrument for content validity. The sample for test-retest included nurse administrators (5), preceptors (9), and new graduates (10). To evaluate internal consistency, administrators (12), preceptors (66), and new graduates (43) responded. Strong validity and reliability were found for all subscales on the preceptor and new graduate versions. PMID:25784491

  10. Implementing facility-based kangaroo mother care services: lessons from a multi-country study in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some countries have undertaken programs that included scaling up kangaroo mother care. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the implementation status of facility-based kangaroo mother care services in four African countries: Malawi, Mali, Rwanda and Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional, mixed-method research design was used. Stakeholders provided background information at national meetings and in individual interviews. Facilities were assessed by means of a standardized tool previously applied in other settings, employing semi-structured key-informant interviews and observations in 39 health care facilities in the four countries. Each facility received a score out of a total of 30 according to six stages of implementation progress. Results Across the four countries 95 per cent of health facilities assessed demonstrated some evidence of kangaroo mother care practice. Institutions that fared better had a longer history of kangaroo mother care implementation or had been developed as centres of excellence or had strong leaders championing the implementation process. Variation existed in the quality of implementation between facilities and across countries. Important factors identified in implementation are: training and orientation; supportive supervision; integrating kangaroo mother care into quality improvement; continuity of care; high-level buy in and support for kangaroo mother care implementation; and client-oriented care. Conclusion The integration of kangaroo mother care into routine newborn care services should be part of all maternal and newborn care initiatives and packages. Engaging ministries of health and other implementing partners from the outset may promote buy in and assist with the mobilization of resources for scaling up kangaroo mother care services. Mechanisms for monitoring these services should be integrated into existing health management information systems. PMID:25001366

  11. Evaluating the World Bank's Role in Supporting Structural Adjustment in Developing Countries With Special Reference to Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amal Nagah Elbeshbishi

    2000-01-01

    This discussion focuses on the effect that World Bank adjustment loans have on a variety of economic indicators. The study is applied to five MENA countries (Egypt, Jordan, Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia). ^ The findings of the current study support the theory of a positive impact of World Bank adjustment loans on GDP, GNP per capita, exports growth rates, Gross

  12. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  13. Seasonal Variation of Overall and Cardiovascular Mortality: A Study in 19 Countries from Different Geographic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Gubelmann, Cédric; Stringhini, Silvia; Bovet, Pascal; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Paccaud, Fred; Tsai, Dai-Hua; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality has been shown to follow a seasonal pattern. Several studies suggested several possible determinants of this pattern, including misclassification of causes of deaths. We aimed at assessing seasonality in overall, CVD, cancer and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality using data from 19 countries from different latitudes. Methods and Findings Monthly mortality data were compiled from 19 countries, amounting to over 54 million deaths. We calculated ratios of the observed to the expected numbers of deaths in the absence of a seasonal pattern. Seasonal variation (peak to nadir difference) for overall and cause-specific (CVD, cancer or non-CVD/non-cancer) mortality was analyzed using the cosinor function model. Mortality from overall, CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer showed a consistent seasonal pattern. In both hemispheres, the number of deaths was higher than expected in winter. In countries close to the Equator the seasonal pattern was considerably lower for mortality from any cause. For CVD mortality, the peak to nadir differences ranged from 0.185 to 0.466 in the Northern Hemisphere, from 0.087 to 0.108 near the Equator, and from 0.219 to 0.409 in the Southern Hemisphere. For cancer mortality, the seasonal variation was nonexistent in most countries. Conclusions In countries with seasonal variation, mortality from overall, CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer show a seasonal pattern with mortality being higher in winter than in summer. Conversely, cancer mortality shows no substantial seasonality. PMID:25419711

  14. Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors. PMID:24885184

  15. Corporal Punishment, Maternal Warmth, and Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study in Eight Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S.; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children’s behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Method Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in eight countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted one and two years later. Results Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children’s anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. Conclusions The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children’s behaviors. PMID:24885184

  16. Social and Cultural Challenges in ERP Implementation: A Comparative Study Across Countries and Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sapna Poti; Sanghamitra Bhattacharyya; T. J. Kamalanabhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the differential practices of change management in organizations of western origin and compares it with the best practices prevalent in Indian organizations, with special emphasis on social and cultural challenges faced in these countries. Since Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), as part of an information and communication technology (ICT) initiative, is frequently associated with organization change and transformation

  17. First aid guidelines for psychosis in Asian countries: A Delphi consensus study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony F Jorm; Harry Minas; Robyn L Langlands; Claire M Kelly

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines for how a member of the public should give first aid to a person who is becoming psychotic have been developed for English-speaking countries. However, these guidelines may not be appropriate for use in other cultures. A study was therefore carried out to examine whether it was possible to achieve consensus on guidelines that could apply in a

  18. Modeling the Logistics Performance in Developing Countries: An exploratory study of Moroccan context

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Modeling the Logistics Performance in Developing Countries: An exploratory study of Moroccan to raise their levels of logistics performance. This article is a research progress; it presents, Technological Practices, Supply Chain performance, Morocco. 1. INTRODUCTION: Logistic in Morocco is still

  19. www.unbc.ca/international Country University Website Field of Study Academic Term Language

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    ://www.tuas.fi/public/default.aspx?nodeid=75 63&contentlan=2&culture=en-US Int'l Business, Bus. Tech, I.T. Nursing September to May English www.upm.es CPSC/Engineering/Language October to June Spanish Jonkoping International Business Schoolwww.unbc.ca/international Country University Website Field of Study Academic Term Language New

  20. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

  1. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  2. Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Cardis; M Vrijheid; M Blettner; E Gilbert; M Hakama; C Hill; G Howe; J Kaldor; C R Muirhead; T Yoshimura; F Bermann; G Cowper; C Hacker; M Marshall; I Thierry-Chef; D Utterback; E Amoros; P Ashmore; A Auvinen; J Bernar Solano; A Biau; E Combalot; P Deboodt; A Diez Sacristan; M Eklof; H Engels; G Engholm; G Gulis; K Holan R Habib; A Kerekes; J Kurtinaitis; H Malker; M Martuzzi; A Mastauskas; A Monnet; M Moser; M S Pearce; D B Richardson; F Rodriguez-Artalejo; A Rogel; H Tardy; M Telle-Lamberton; I Turai; M Usel; K Veress

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external

  3. Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries – Kenyan case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rotich K. Henry; Zhao Yongsheng; Dong Jun

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level

  4. Medical record information disclosure laws and policies among selected countries; a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Tavakoli, Nahid; Nansa, Leila Ghaderi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitals have responsibility for responding to legitimate demands for release of health information while protecting the confidentiality of the patient health records. There have always been challenges concerning medical records confidentiality and their disclosure and release type in medical record departments. This study investigated and compared laws and policies of disclosure of health information in Iran and selected countries and tried to identify the differences and the similarities between them. METHODS: This is a descriptive and comparative study. The scope of study included related laws and policies of disclosure of health information in selected countries such as United States, Australia, England, Malaysia and Iran. Data were gathered from systematic internet search, library resources and communication with health information professionals. Data analysis was done using comparative tables and qualitative method. RESULTS: Study results showed that legislative institutions of each country have ordained laws and policies concerning disclosure and release of health information and in turn hospitals developed policies and procedures based on these laws. In Iran, however, there are few laws and policies concerning disclosure of health information in the form of formal letters and bylaws. There are no specific written policies and procedures for disclosure of health information in the hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to develop legitimate and appropriate laws and policies in different levels for information utilization by hospitals, medical universities and others. Meanwhile in all of the selected countries there are ordained limitations for release of health information for protecting health information in regard to patient rights. PMID:21526073

  5. Home Literacy Environments and Children's Reading Performance: A Comparative Study of 25 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon

    2008-01-01

    Using data for 4th graders in primary schools from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), I compare across 25 countries the ways in which home literacy environments influence children's reading performance. Examined are three indicators: early home literacy activities, parental attitudes toward reading, and number of books…

  6. Relationship Between Trade Liberalization, Growth, and Balance of Payments in Developing Countries: An Econometric Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Parikh

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to study the impact of liberalization on growth, the trade deficits, and the current accounts of developing countries. It is expected that trade liberalization would promote economic growth from the supply side by leading to a more efficient use of resources, by encouraging competition, and by increasing the flow of ideas and knowledge across

  7. Study Programmes for Engineers from Developing Countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasson, Axel; Hermansen, John

    1989-01-01

    Describes the background of the study and fellowship programs for graduates from the developing countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. Discusses some experiences with the programs. Includes a brief description of five courses: (1) "Pulp and Paper Technology"; (2) "Marine Civil Engineering"; (3) "Hydropower Development"; (4) "Electric…

  8. Understanding and Measuring Student Engagement in School: The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Kikas, Eve; Shin, Hyeonsook; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Cefai, Carmel; Negovan, Valeria; Stanculescu, Elena; Yang, Hongfei; Liu, Yi; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Nelson, Brett; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a scale that is appropriate for use internationally to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data of 3,420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th grade) from 12 countries (Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia,…

  9. Heritability of adult body height: a comparative study of twin cohorts in eight countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karri Silventoinen; Sampo Sammalisto; Markus Perola; Dorret I. Boomsma; Belinda K. Cornes; Chayna Davis; Leo Dunkel; Marlies de Lange; Jennifer R. Harris; J. V. B. Hjemborg; Michelle Luciano; Nicholas G. Martin; Jakob Mortensen; L. Nistico; Nancy L. Pedersen; Axel Skytthe; Tim D. Spector; Maria Antonietta Stazi; J Kaprio; Jaakko Kaprio

    2003-01-01

    A major component of variation in body height is due to genetic differences, but environmental factors have a sub- stantial contributory effect. In this study we aimed to analyse whether the genetic architecture of body height varies between affluent western societies. We analysed twin data from eight countries comprising 30,111 complete twin pairs by using the univariate genetic model of

  10. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): Case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim Yusuf; Steven Hawken; S. Ounpuu

    2004-01-01

    Summary Background Although more than 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries, knowledge of the importance of risk factors is largely derived from developed countries. Therefore, the effect of such factors on risk of coronary heart disease in most regions of the world is unknown. Methods We established a standardised case-control study of

  11. Design of a decision support system to evaluate logistics distribution network in Greater Mekong Subregion Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athakorn Kengpol

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is to present an approach to guide Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in order to minimise the total transportation costs with maximum satisfaction in distributing goods between the distribution centre (DC) and the customer, the so-called logistics distribution network. The decision support system (DSS) model is the combination of a number of models beginning with

  12. AGROCHEMICAL HAZARDS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS AND EVALUATION OF SUCH HAZARDS WITH EMPHASIS ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many developing countries are lacking protein in the diets of their population. Aquatic systems are good sources of protein in many areas with fish and shellfish as the main sources. The misuse of agrochemicals can directly or indirectly affect the use and suitability of these pr...

  13. Assessment of Pediatric asthma drug use in three European countries; a TEDDY study

    PubMed Central

    Verhamme, Katia M. C.; Neubert, Antje; Hsia, Yingfen; Murray, Macey; Felisi, Mariagrazia; Giaquinto, Carlo; ‘t Jong, Geert W.; Picelli, Gino; Baraldi, Eugenio; Nicolosi, Alfredo; Ceci, Adriana; Wong, Ian C.; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Asthma drugs are amongst the most frequently used drugs in childhood, but international comparisons on type and indication of use are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe asthma drug use in children with and without asthma in the Netherlands (NL), Italy (IT), and the United Kingdom (UK). We conducted a retrospective analysis of outpatient medical records of children 0–18 years from 1 January 2000 until 31 December 2005. For all children, prescription rates of asthma drugs were studied by country, age, asthma diagnosis, and off-label status. One-year prevalence rates were calculated per 100 children per patient-year (PY). The cohort consisted of 671,831 children of whom 49,442 had been diagnosed with asthma at any time during follow-up. ß2-mimetics and inhaled steroids were the most frequently prescribed asthma drug classes in NL (4.9 and 4.1/100 PY), the UK (8.7 and 5.3/100 PY) and IT (7.2 and 16.2/100 PY), respectively. Xanthines, anticholinergics, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and anti-allergics were prescribed in less than one child per 100 per year. In patients without asthma, ß2-mimetics were used most frequently. Country differences were highest for steroids, (Italy highest), and for ß2-mimetics (the UK highest). Off-label use was low, and most pronounced for ß2-mimetics in children <18 months (IT) and combined ß2-mimetics?+?anticholinergics in children <6 years (NL). Conclusion: This study shows that among all asthma drugs, ß2-mimetics and inhaled steroids are most often used, also in children without asthma, and with large variability between countries. Linking multi-country databases allows us to study country specific pediatric drug use in a systematic manner without being hampered by methodological differences. This study underlines the potency of healthcare databases in rapidly providing data on pediatric drug use and possibly safety. PMID:20811908

  14. [Economic evaluation studies in health].

    PubMed

    Rovira-Forns, Joan; Antoñanzas-Villar, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    Clinical journals often publish economic evaluation studies of health technologies and programs. To improve the peer review process and, hence, the quality and validity of published studies, the British Medical Journal (BMJ) established publication guidelines for the publication of economic evaluations aimed at authors, reviewers and editors. The present article analyzes the opportunity of adopting the BMJ's or similar guidelines by Medicina Clínica and the probable effectiveness of this measure. The article concludes that although this initiative would probably improve the review process and the quality of the papers published, it might be worthwhile to review, up-date and adapt the BMJ guidelines to the Spanish context by means of a consensus-forming process. Finally, this article discusses the limitations of the peer review process in improving the quality and validity of economic evaluations and suggests some complementary measures, drawing on lessons and experiences from the field of clinical research. PMID:16464430

  15. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  16. Serological cross-sectional studies on salmonella incidence in eight European countries: no correlation with incidence of reported cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Published incidence rates of human salmonella infections are mostly based on numbers of stool culture-confirmed cases reported to public health surveillance. These cases constitute only a small fraction of all cases occurring in the community. The extent of underascertainment is influenced by health care seeking behaviour and sensitivity of surveillance systems, so that reported incidence rates from different countries are not comparable. We performed serological cross-sectional studies to compare infection risks in eight European countries independent of underascertainment. Methods A total of 6,393 sera from adults in Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and The Netherlands were analysed, mostly from existing serum banks collected in the years 2003 to 2008. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG against salmonella lipopolysaccharides were measured by in-house mixed ELISA. We converted antibody concentrations to estimates of infection incidence (‘sero-incidence’) using a Bayesian backcalculation model, based on previously studied antibody decay profiles in persons with culture-confirmed salmonella infections. We compared sero-incidence with incidence of cases reported through routine public health surveillance and with published incidence estimates derived from infection risks in Swedish travellers to those countries. Results Sero-incidence of salmonella infections ranged from 56 (95% credible interval 8–151) infections per 1,000 person-years in Finland to 547 (343–813) in Poland. Depending on country, sero-incidence was approximately 100 to 2,000 times higher than incidence of culture-confirmed cases reported through routine surveillance, with a trend for an inverse correlation. Sero-incidence was significantly correlated with incidence estimated from infection risks in Swedish travellers. Conclusions Sero-incidence estimation is a new method to estimate and compare the incidence of salmonella infections in human populations independent of surveillance artefacts. Our results confirm that comparison of reported incidence between countries can be grossly misleading, even within the European Union. Because sero-incidence includes asymptomatic infections, it is not a direct measure of burden of illness. But, pending further validation of this novel method, it may be a promising and cost-effective way to assess infection risks and to evaluate the effectiveness of salmonella control programmes across countries or over time. PMID:22799896

  17. Cost of dengue cases in eight countries in the Americas and Asia: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Suaya, Jose A; Shepard, Donald S; Siqueira, João B; Martelli, Celina T; Lum, Lucy C S; Tan, Lian Huat; Kongsin, Sukhontha; Jiamton, Sukhum; Garrido, Fàtima; Montoya, Romeo; Armien, Blas; Huy, Rekol; Castillo, Leticia; Caram, Mariana; Sah, Binod K; Sughayyar, Rana; Tyo, Karen R; Halstead, Scott B

    2009-05-01

    Despite the growing worldwide burden of dengue fever, the global economic impact of dengue illness is poorly documented. Using a common protocol, we present the first multicountry estimates of the direct and indirect costs of dengue cases in eight American and Asian countries. We conducted prospective studies of the cost of dengue in five countries in the Americas (Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, and Venezuela) and three countries in Asia (Cambodia, Malaysia, and Thailand). All studies followed the same core protocol with interviews and medical record reviews. The study populations were patients treated in ambulatory and hospital settings with a clinical diagnosis of dengue. Most studies were performed in 2005. Costs are in 2005 international dollars (I$). We studied 1,695 patients (48% pediatric and 52% adult); none died. The average illness lasted 11.9 days for ambulatory patients and 11.0 days for hospitalized patients. Among hospitalized patients, students lost 5.6 days of school, whereas those working lost 9.9 work days per average dengue episode. Overall mean costs were I$514 and I$1,394 for an ambulatory and hospitalized case, respectively. With an annual average of 574,000 cases reported, the aggregate annual economic cost of dengue for the eight study countries is at least I$587 million. Preliminary adjustment for under-reporting could raise this total to $1.8 billion, and incorporating costs of dengue surveillance and vector control would raise the amount further. Dengue imposes substantial costs on both the health sector and the overall economy. PMID:19407136

  18. Association between Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Mortality: An Explorative Study across Three European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Malmusi, Davide; Juel, Knud; Rey, Grégoire; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To integrate immigrants into their societies, European countries have adopted different types of policies, which may influence health through both material and psychosocial determinants. Recent studies have suggested poorer health outcomes for immigrants living in countries with poorly rated integration policies. Objective To analyse mortality differences of immigrants from the same country of origin living in countries with distinct integration policy contexts. Methods From the mortality dataset collected in the Migrant Ethnic Health Observatory (MEHO) project, we chose the Netherlands (linked data from 1996-2006), France (unlinked; 2005-2007) and Denmark (linked; 1992-2001) as representatives of the inclusive, assimilationist and exclusionist policy models, respectively, based on the Migrant Integration Policy Index. We calculated for each country sex- and age-standardized mortality rates for Turkish-, Moroccan- and local-born populations aged 20-69 years. Poisson regression was used to estimate the mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for cross-country and within-country comparisons. The analyses were further stratified by age group and cause of death. Results Compared with their peers in the Netherlands, Turkish-born immigrants had higher all-cause mortality in Denmark (MRR men 1.92; 95% CI 1.74-2.13 and women 2.11; 1.80-2.47) but lower in France (men 0.64; 0.59-0.69 and women 0.58; 0.51-0.67). A similar pattern emerged for Moroccan-born immigrants. The relative differences between immigrants and the local-born population were also largest in Denmark and lowest in France (e.g., Turkish-born men MRR 1.52; 95% CI 1.38-1.67 and 0.62; 0.58-0.66, respectively). These patterns were consistent across all age groups, and more marked for cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Although confounders and data comparability issues (e.g., French cross-sectional data) may affect the findings, this study suggests that different macro-level policy contexts may influence immigrants’ mortality. Comparable mortality registration systems across Europe along with detailed socio-demographic information on immigrants may help to better assess this association. PMID:26067249

  19. The Missing Link: Deficits of Country-Level Studies. A Review of 22 Articles Explaining Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonnenmacher, Alexandra; Friedrichs, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    To explain country differences in an analytical or structural dependent variable, the application of a macro-micro-model containing contextual hypotheses is necessary. Our methodological study examines whether empirical studies apply such a model. We propose that a theoretical base for country differences is well described in multilevel studies,…

  20. Yield estimation using SPOT-VEGETATION products: A case study of wheat in European countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalik, Wanda; Dabrowska-Zielinska, Katarzyna; Meroni, Michele; Raczka, Teresa Urszula; de Wit, Allard

    2014-10-01

    In the period 1999-2009 ten-day SPOT-VEGETATION products of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) at 1 km spatial resolution were used in order to estimate and forecast the wheat yield over Europe. The products were used together with official wheat yield statistics to fine-tune a statistical model for each NUTS2 region, based on the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) method. This method has been chosen to construct the model in the presence of many correlated predictor variables (10-day values of remote sensing indicators) and a limited number of wheat yield observations. The model was run in two different modalities: the "monitoring mode", which allows for an overall yield assessment at the end of the growing season, and the "forecasting mode", which provides early and timely yield estimates when the growing season is on-going. Performances of yield estimation at the regional and national level were evaluated using a cross-validation technique against yield statistics and the estimations were compared with those of a reference crop growth model. Models based on either NDVI or FAPAR normalized indicators achieved similar results with a minimal advantage of the model based on the FAPAR product. Best modelling results were obtained for the countries in Central Europe (Poland, North-Eastern Germany) and also Great Britain. By contrast, poor model performances characterize countries as follows: Sweden, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, Romania and Hungary. Country level yield estimates using the PLSR model in the monitoring mode, and those of a reference crop growth model that do not make use of remote sensing information showed comparable accuracies. The largest estimation errors were observed in Portugal, Spain and Finland for both approaches. This convergence may indicate poor reliability of the official yield statistics in these countries.

  1. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  2. An econometric study of the demand for gasoline in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries

    SciTech Connect

    Eltony, M.N.

    1994-12-31

    Reliable and accurate estimation of price and income elasticities of demand for gasoline are important ingredients for long-run energy planning and policy formation. The purpose of this study is to develop and estimate a model for gasoline demand for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Oatar, Saufi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The model is capable of producing short-run and long-run price and income elasticities. Since the first oil price hike in 1973, a great deal of attention has been directed toward the demand for gasoline, especially in the industrialized countries. Few studies have been directed toward the demand for gasoline in developing countries. In terms of primary energy consumption, the GCC`s energy needs are met by oil, natural gas, and electricity. Without any doubt, oil is the largest energy source consumed and gasoline is the most important oil product. However, very few studies have been directed toward analyzing GCC energy demand, and yet there has been not attempt to model and estimate GCC gasoline demand. This study attempts to address this gap.

  3. Association between Obesity and Selected Morbidities: A Study of BRICS Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ankita; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Singh, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Objective Over the past few decades, obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic diseases and disability. There is little evidence on obesity related co-morbidities in BRICS countries. The first objective is to examine the factors associated with overweight and obesity in four of the five BRICS countries (China, India, Russia and South Africa). The second is to examine the linkage of obesity with selected morbidities. Methods We used data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in China, India, Russia and South Africa during 2007–10. The morbidities included in the analysis are Hypertension, Diabetes, Angina, Stroke, Arthritis and Depression. Findings The prevalence of obesity was highest in South Africa (35%) followed by Russia (22%), China (5%) and India (3%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in females as compared to males in all the countries. While the wealth quintile was associated with overweight in India and China, engaging in work requiring physical activity was associated with obesity in China and South Africa. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with Hypertension and Diabetes in all the four countries. Obesity was also positively associated with Arthritis and Angina in China, Russia and South Africa. In comparison, overweight/obesity was not associated with Stroke and Depression in any of the four countries. Conclusion Obesity was statistically associated with Hypertension, Angina, Diabetes and Arthritis in China, Russia and South Africa. In India, obesity was associated only with Hypertension and Diabetes. PMID:24718033

  4. Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

  5. Adoption of ICT in a government organization in a developing country: An empirical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babita Gupta; Subhasish Dasgupta; Atul Gupta

    2008-01-01

    eGovernment initiatives all over the world endeavor to integrate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to transform delivery of government services to their stakeholders by improving quality of services, accountability and efficiency. In this study we explore adoption of ICT to enhance government-to-employee interactions in a government organization in a developing country. We examine this adoption behavior by utilizing the Unified

  6. Population study of 3 STR loci in the Basque Country (northern Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Alonso; A. Castro; I. Fernandez; M. Gömez de Cedrön; A. Garcia-Orad; E. Meyer; M. Martínez de Pancorbo

    1995-01-01

    The tetrameric STRs, HUMTH01, HUMVWA31A and HUMFES\\/FPS, were studied in a population from the Basque Country (northern Spain) for their frequency distribution and applicability to identity and paternity testing. All systems conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; pairwise comparisons demonstrated the allelic independence between loci, and furthermore, all systems seemed to be in agreement with expectations from the Stepwise Mutation Model (SMM)

  7. Field Evaluation of a Coproantigen Detection Test for Fascioliasis Diagnosis and Surveillance in Human Hyperendemic Areas of Andean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Valero, María Adela; Periago, María Victoria; Pérez-Crespo, Ignacio; Angles, René; Villegas, Fidel; Aguirre, Carlos; Strauss, Wilma; Espinoza, José R.; Herrera, Patricia; Terashima, Angelica; Tamayo, Hugo; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA) was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. Methodology and Findings A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD) and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg) in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg), nor in Huacullani high burden cases (?400 epg), although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg). Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg). Conclusions The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase, early detection of treatment failure or reinfection in post-treated subjects, and usefulness in surveillance programs. However, this technique falls short when evaluating the fluke burden on its own. PMID:23029575

  8. Systematic sports medical prophylactic evaluations in the countries of the former USSR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Mustafins; A Landyr; I Schybria; J Istomina; T Gurevich

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundPeriodic health evaluations for athletes are widely discussed in the sports medical literature, and are intended to screen for underlying cardiovascular disease, identify sports injury risk factors and posture disturbances, as well as exercise induced physiological conditions.ObjectiveTo review the systematic the athletes' periodic health evaluations in the territories of the former USSR.ParticipantsSelected sports medicine outpatient centres (SMC) and sports medicine

  9. An analysis of the determinants of investment in developing countries a case study of Iran (1970-93)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    1996-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major determinants of private investment , along with the effects of such investments on other macroeconomic factors, in developing countries, using Iran as a case study. In this regard we identify a number of macroeconomic variables which played a major role in enhancing private investment in developing countries, and Iran in particular, between 1970

  10. Participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country--a case study.

    PubMed

    Helali, Faramarz; Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Shahnavaz, Houshang

    2008-01-01

    In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces. PMID:18534152

  11. Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries. PMID:24973053

  12. Tobacco use and risk of myocardial infarction in 52 countries in the INTERHEART study: a case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koon K Teo; Stephanie Ounpuu; Steven Hawken; Vicent Valentin; David Hunt; Rafael Diaz; Wafa Rashed; Rosario Freeman; Lixin Jiang; Xiaofei Zhang; Salim Yusuf

    2006-01-01

    Summary Background Tobacco use is one of the major avoidable causes of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to assess the risks associated with tobacco use (both smoking and non-smoking) and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) worldwide. Methods We did a standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with 27 089 participants in 52 countries (12 461 cases, 14 637 controls).

  13. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p?=?0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p?=?0.17). Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to malnutrition. PMID:23237098

  14. International technology transfer: study of selected problems encountered by multinational businesses in lesser-developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This project describes some of the problems encountered in the transfer of technology to Lesser Developed Countries (LDC) by Multinational Corporations. (MNC) In this study, the concept of technology is expanded to include industrial processes as well as the marketing of the goods containing the technical knowledge. The development and use of this technology is created under the values and standards existing in the MNC's country. However, when it is transferred to Third World Nations, the corporation frequently encounters cultural situations that are contrary to its domestic situation. In the Nestle case, baby formula was marketed in the Third World under assumptions that were valid in the Western World but which had tragic consequencesin the LDCs. The assumption of a clean water supply was taken for granted in the advanced nations. In the LDCs, however, impure water supplies were a fact of life. This and other circumstances led to misuse of the formula. The Union Carbide case involved the transfer of an industrial process for the manufacture of pesticides. These products were prohibited in the MNC's country but the lax regulations in India permitted the corporation to produce the toxic materials using less-stringent control. Many thousands of Indians were killed and injured when a deadly gas escaped from the plant. In both situations, the MNC failed to consider the local cultural conditions in its strategic planning.

  15. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress. PMID:22789097

  16. Visiting one's native country: the risks of nonadherence in HIV-infected sub-Saharan migrants--ANRS VIHVO study.

    PubMed

    Abgrall, Sophie; Fugon, Lionel; Lélé, Nathalie; Carde, Estelle; Bentata, Michelle; Patey, Olivier; Khuong, Marie-Aude; Spire, Bruno; Carrieri, Patrizia; Bouchaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent travel-related factors may cause adherence failure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in otherwise adherent migrants when traveling back to Africa. HIV-infected sub-Saharian migrants living in France with a plasma HIV viral load < 200 copies/mL, with no change in ART for ?3 months and who were about to visit their native country for between 2 weeks and 6 months were enrolled for the study. Patients completed a self-administered adherence questionnaire both at enrollment and during the week following their return to France. Adherence failure occurred in 23 (11.5%) of 200 patients. Negative perception about ART effectiveness (adjusted odds ratio = 4.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.3-13.7), unexpected traumatic events during their stay in their native country (7.8; 2.3-26.1), and a prolongation of their stay (5.2; 1.4-20.4) were independently associated with a higher likelihood of adherence failure. Owning/renting one's house in France (0.30; 0.10-0.96), singlehood (0.23; 0.05-1.00), and HIV status disclosure (0.19; 0.05-0.76) were correlates of sustained adherence during traveling. PMID:23697775

  17. Evaluating large-scale health programmes at a district level in resource-limited countries.

    PubMed

    Svoronos, Theodore; Mate, Kedar S

    2011-11-01

    Recent experience in evaluating large-scale global health programmes has highlighted the need to consider contextual differences between sites implementing the same intervention. Traditional randomized controlled trials are ill-suited for this purpose, as they are designed to identify whether an intervention works, not how, when and why it works. In this paper we review several evaluation designs that attempt to account for contextual factors that contribute to intervention effectiveness. Using these designs as a base, we propose a set of principles that may help to capture information on context. Finally, we propose a tool, called a driver diagram, traditionally used in implementation that would allow evaluators to systematically monitor changing dynamics in project implementation and identify contextual variation across sites. We describe an implementation-related example from South Africa to underline the strengths of the tool. If used across multiple sites and multiple projects, the resulting driver diagrams could be pooled together to form a generalized theory for how, when and why a widely-used intervention works. Mechanisms similar to the driver diagram are urgently needed to complement existing evaluations of large-scale implementation efforts. PMID:22084529

  18. Selecting a Learning Management System (LMS) in Developing Countries: Instructors' Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2013-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMSs) contain hidden costs, unclear user environments, bulky developer and administration manuals, and limitations with regard to interoperability, integration, localization, and bandwidth requirements. Careful evaluation is required in selecting the most appropriate LMS for use, and this is a general problem in…

  19. Detecting and responding to a dengue outbreak: evaluation of existing strategies in country outbreak response planning.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Julia; Kroeger, Axel; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dengue outbreaks are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Evidence-based epidemic preparedness and effective response are now a matter of urgency. Therefore, we have analysed national and municipal dengue outbreak response plans. Methods. Thirteen country plans from Asia, Latin America and Australia, and one international plan were obtained from the World Health Organization. The information was transferred to a data analysis matrix where information was extracted according to predefined and emerging themes and analysed for scope, inconsistencies, omissions, and usefulness. Findings. Outbreak response planning currently has a considerable number of flaws. Outbreak governance was weak with a lack of clarity of stakeholder roles. Late timing of responses due to poor surveillance, a lack of combining routine data with additional alerts, and lack of triggers for initiating the response weakened the functionality of plans. Frequently an outbreak was not defined, and early response mechanisms based on alert signals were neglected. There was a distinct lack of consideration of contextual influences which can affect how an outbreak detection and response is managed. Conclusion. A model contingency plan for dengue outbreak prediction, detection, and response may help national disease control authorities to develop their own more detailed and functional context specific plans. PMID:24222774

  20. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  1. Safe-sex belief and sexual risk behaviours among adolescents from three developing countries: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13–18. Results One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. PMID:25916489

  2. Sustainable Agricultural and Watershed Management in Developing Countries - An India Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of sustainable agricultural and watershed management is to enhance agricultural productivity while protecting and preserving our environment and natural resources. The vast majority of information on sustainable watershed management practices is primarily derived from studies in developed nations with very few inputs from developing nations. Through a USDA-funded project, the University of Delaware (UD) initiated a collaboration with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) located in Hyderabad, India to study sustainable agricultural management practices in developing countries and their impacts on the environment, crop productivity, and socioeconomic conditions of the watershed community. As a part of this project, ICRISAT provided us with a vast amount of data on sustainable agricultural practices and their impacts on runoff, soil and water quality, crop yields, nutrient management and socioeconomic conditions. Conservation practices that were implemented included check dams, groundwater recharge wells, intercropping, nutrient management, integrated pest management and a suite of other practices. Using this information, students and faculty at UD developed teaching modules that were used for education and enrichment of existing UD courses and are also being used for the development of a stand-alone online course. The students and faculty visited India in July 2010 to get a first-hand experience of the conditions in the agricultural watersheds and the impacts of sustainable management practices. The project was a tremendous learning experience for US students and faculty and highlighted the challenges people face in developing countries and how that affects every aspect of their lives. Such challenges include environmental, agricultural, technological, economic, and transportation. Although we experience many of the same challenges, developing countries do not have the technology or economic infrastructure in place to effectively manage these challenges. This presentation highlights: (a) the agricultural and environmental challenges facing developing countries like India; (b) the types of best management practices (BMPs) employed; (c) the impacts of the BMPs in the study watersheds; (d) the development of the online course and (e) the lessons and experiences of the students and faculty from their study visit to India.

  3. Improving integration for integrated coastal zone management: an eight country study.

    PubMed

    Portman, M E; Esteves, L S; Le, X Q; Khan, A Z

    2012-11-15

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is a widely accepted approach for sustainable management of the coastal environment. ICZM emphasizes integration across sectors, levels of government, uses, stakeholders, and spatial and temporal scales. While improving integration is central to progress in ICZM, the role of and the achievement of integration remain understudied. To further study these two points, our research analyzes the performance of specific mechanisms used to support ICZM in eight countries (Belgium, India, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, UK, and Vietnam). The assessment is based on a qualitative comparative analysis conducted through the use of two surveys. It focuses on five ICZM mechanisms (environmental impact assessment; planning hierarchy; setback lines; marine spatial planning, and regulatory commission) and their role in improving integration. Our findings indicate that certain mechanisms enhance specific types of integration more effectively than others. Environmental impact assessment enhances science-policy integration and can be useful to integrate knowledge across sectors. Planning hierarchy and regulatory commissions are effective mechanisms to integrate policies across government levels, with the latter also promoting public-government integration. Setback lines can be applied to enhance integration across landscape units. Marine spatial planning is a multi-faceted mechanism with the potential to promote all types of integration. Policy-makers should adopt the mechanisms that are suited to the type of integration needed. Results of this study also contribute to evidence-based coastal management by identifying the most common impediments related to the mechanisms of integration in the eight studied countries. PMID:23063925

  4. An international labour migration to developing countries in Asia: a case study of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J K

    1996-12-01

    This study is based on a random sample of 431 temporary migrant workers from developing countries in Korea. Interviews were conducted from mid-October 1995 to mid-March 1996 with 105 Pakistanis, 77 Filipinos, 71 Sri Lankans, 67 Bangladeshi, 40 Indonesians, 26 individuals from Myanmar, 22 Chinese, 16 Nepalese, 2 Iranians, 2 Kazakstanians, 1 Malaysian, 1 Vietnamese, and 1 Ghanaian. Migration follows legal and illegal patterns. Legal trainee migrants leave before their contract time due to low pay, inadequate living conditions, forced overtime work, and lack of freedom. Trainees tend to be ethnic Koreans born in China and Chinese nationals. The number of illegal migrants is increasing. Foreign workers gain entry illegally through smuggling networks and legally through industrial work or tourist visas. Sample data reveal that the average age ranged from 26 to 32 years. Almost 70% were unmarried, and most were males. Filipinos tended to be older and show gender and marital balance. Age, marital status, religion, and education varied widely by ethnic group. Indonesians and Sri Lankans had lower household income than Pakistanis and Filipinos. Pakistanis tended to come from larger families. Total travel costs ranged from $3000 to $5000. Korea is one of four rapidly developing countries that shifted from being a major exporter of labor to a major importer of workers. Shortages of workers accompanied the shift. This case study illustrates that the traditional structural paradigm does not explain some unique features of international labor migration (ILM) in Asia, including the encouragement of illegal migration. The clandestine networks are different from those in developed countries. State policies mediate the flow of ILM. PMID:12320871

  5. Students' perceptions and doubts about menstruation in developing countries: a case study from India.

    PubMed

    Chothe, Vikas; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Seabert, Denise; Asalkar, Mahesh; Rakshe, Sarika; Firke, Arti; Midha, Inuka; Simmons, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Menstrual education is a vital aspect of adolescent health education. Culture, awareness, and socioeconomic status often exert profound influence on menstrual practices. However, health education programs for young women in developing countries do not often address menstrual hygiene, practices, and disorders. Developing culturally sensitive menstrual health education and hygiene programs for adolescent females has been recommended by professional health organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. These programs cannot be developed without understanding existing myths and perceptions about menstruation in adolescent females of developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study from India was to document existing misconceptions regarding menstruation and perceptions about menarche and various menstrual restrictions that have been understudied. Out of the 612 students invited to participate by asking questions, 381 girls participated by asking specific questions about menstruation (response rate = 62%). The respondents consisted of 84 girls from sixth grade, 117 from seventh grade, and 180 from eighth grade. The questions asked were arranged into the following subthemes: anatomy and physiology, menstrual symptoms, menstrual myths and taboos, health and beauty, menstrual abnormalities, seeking medical advice and home remedies; sanitary pads usage and disposal; diet and lifestyle; and sex education. Results of our study indicate that students had substantial doubts about menstruation and were influenced by societal myths and taboos in relation to menstrual practices. Parents, adolescent care providers, and policy makers in developing countries should advocate for comprehensive sexuality education and resources (e.g., low-cost sanitary pads and school facilities) to promote menstrual health and hygiene promotion. PMID:24618653

  6. Technological Complexity and Country-of-Origin Effects on Binational Product Evaluation: Investigation in an Emerging Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leila Hamzaoui-Essoussi

    2010-01-01

    Research into the impact of the country of origin (COO) dimensions on product perceived quality in emerging markets is limited and does not distinguish between technologically complex\\/simple products. This paper investigates country-of-design (COD) and country-of-manufacture (COM) effects through their two subconstructs (global country image and the perceived capacity of the country to design\\/manufacture products), on the perceived quality of four

  7. PATENTS WITH INVENTORS FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES: EXPLORING SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES THROUGH A CASE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Bergek; Maria Bruzelius

    This paper assesses the relevance of using cross-country patents, i.e. patents with inventors from several countries, as an indicator of international R&D collaboration and explores the consequences of different principles for assignment of these patents to countries of origin, using the case of ABB as an illustration. We show that less than 40% of ABB's cross-country patents are the result

  8. Towards Age-Friendly Hospitals in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ahmad; Seyedin, Hesam; Fadaye-Vatan, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Developing countries such as Iran are experiencing a growth in the elderly population. This is a challenge for healthcare providers and their families. This study investigated the extent in which hospitals at Tehran meet the criteria of age-friendly hospitals. Methods: In this descriptive study, using convenience sampling, 26 hospitals were selected in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. The instrument was a checklist included 50 items in the three dimensions of information and training of service providers, management systems in health care centers, physical environment and accessibility of hospitals. Results: Most hospitals were in a good condition regarding physical environment and access to public transportation, but in a poor condition for special healthcare programs for the elderly, teaching principles of geriatrics and gerontology, interaction of medical staff, physicians and nurses with senior patients and systems of priority for them. Conclusion: Due to the growing elderly population, it is necessary for health policymakers, especially in developing countries, to consider seriously the issue of elderly healthcare and their need for special outpatient and inpatient services. PMID:26000245

  9. Health Manpower Planning: A Comparative Study in Four Countries. Volume 1. Health Manpower References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Daniel F.; And Others

    The health manpower planning experiences of four countries reported here were presented in a traveling seminar held for member countries of the Pan American Health Organization. Focus was on what should be carried out in any country to coordinate the training of health workers with the operation of health services. Following the introduction, the…

  10. Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity, particularly in Morocco, will be a crucial first step. PMID:23230285

  11. Learning lessons on implementing performance based financing, from a multi-country evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Toonen; A. Canavan; P. Vergeer; R. Elovainio

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the “performance based financing” (PBF) approach has received increasing attention. However, benefits of PBF are still inconclusive with suggestions that it is not sustainable, it will not have a pro-poor effect, and it may create perverse incentives. This study shows that PBF is a promising approach, but more research will be necessary to examine whether it is

  12. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Agents on Microbial Pathogens of Reproductive Health Importance in a Developing Country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasheed Bakare

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Objective: Objective: Objective: The present study was carried out to determine the most potent available antimicrobials in the treatment of pathogens of reproductive health importance in Nigeria. Mate Mate Mate Material and methods: rial and methods: rial and methods: rial and methods: Using the agar disc-diffusion and modified agar well-diffusion methods, bacterial and fungal pathogens obtained from clinical specimens

  13. Childhood diabetes in Arab countries. Diabetes Epidemiology Research International Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic disease of childhood that is associated with high costs, mortality and morbidity, but which is of unknown etiology. Globally, the incidence and prevalence of the disease are highly variable. Study of IDDM among Arab children, who have similar genetic characteristics, but markedly different environmental backgrounds, could provide important insight into its cause. Few studies of IDDM in Arab populations have been carried out, but the limited data available indicate that there are marked variations in the risk of the disease and in its distribution between the sexes. It is therefore very important that IDDM registries be established in Arab countries since this could lead to a greater understanding of the disease and perhaps its prevention. PMID:2364481

  14. Food composition database harmonization for between-country comparisons of nutrient data in the TEDDY Study

    PubMed Central

    Uusitalo, Ulla; Kronberg-Kippila, Carina; Aronsson, Carin Andren; Schakel, Sally; Schoen, Stefanie; Mattisson, Irene; Reinivuo, Heli; Silvis, Katherine; Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Stevens, Mary; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young Study (TEDDY) aims at examining the associations between islet autoimmunity and various environmental exposures, (e.g. diet) in Finland, Germany, Sweden and the United States (US). In order to produce comparable results from dietary assessments, the national food composition databases (FCDB) must contain mutually comparable food composition data. Systematic comparison (definition, unit of measurement, and method of analysis) of energy, protein, fats, carbohydrates, cholesterol, fiber, 13 vitamins, and 8 minerals was carried out among the FCDB of the four countries. Total fat, cholesterol, vitamin A: retinol equivalents and beta-carotene, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, and zinc are comparable across all four databases. Carbohydrates, fiber, sugars, fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E: alpha-tocopherol, vitamin K, vitamin C, pantothenic acid, niacin, manganese, and copper are comparable or can be converted comparable at least across three of the databases. Vitamin E: alpha-tocopherol equivalents, will be comparable across all databases after Finland and Germany subtract tocotrienols from their values. Nitrogen values were added to the Swedish and US databases. After recalculation of protein from nitrogen (Sweden and US), and subtraction of fiber from the total carbohydrate (Finland) followed by recalculations of energy, these values will be comparable across the countries. Starch and folate are not comparable. PMID:22058606

  15. Nutrient profiling and food label claims: evaluation of dairy products in three major European countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Trichterborn; G Harzer; C Kunz

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives:This study reviews commercially available dairy products with nutrition or health-related on-pack communication against selected nutrient profiling models. It aims to provide guidance on the model characteristics required to appropriately categorise products into those that are suitable for carrying claims, versus those whose overall nutritional composition does not support such product communication.Subjects\\/Methods:More than 300 dairy products carrying claims were identified

  16. Psychological distress among patients of an orthopaedic outpatient clinic: a study from a low-income country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nusrat Husain; Syed M Humail; Imran B Chaudhry; Raza Rahman; Holly Robinson; Francis Creed

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is common among general trauma patients and is associated with a poor outcome. We evaluated the relationship of psychological distress to physical injury, musculoskeletal complaints, and social factors in a low-income country. METHODS: We administered the Self-Rating Questionnaire (SRQ), the Oslo social support questionnaire, and the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ). RESULTS: An SRQ score of 9 or more,

  17. Vocational Education in Developing Countries. A Review of Studies and Project Experience. Education Division Documents No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultin, Mats

    This paper looks at the position taken in available literature and evaluation reports of multinational and bilateral agencies in regard to vocational education in developing countries. Section 1 provides background on such topics as links between education and development, support of vocational education, diversified secondary education, foreign…

  18. Barriers to medication counselling for people with mental health disorders: a six country study

    PubMed Central

    Aaltonen, S. Elina; Laine, Niina P.; Volmer, Daisy; Gharat, Manjiri S.; Muceniece, Ruta; Vitola, Anna; Foulon, Veerle; Desplenter, Franciska A.; Airaksinen, Marja S.; Chen, Timothy F.; Bell, J. Simon

    2009-01-01

    Provision of medication information may improve adherence and prevent medication related problems. People with mental health disorders commonly receive less medication counselling from pharmacists than people with other common long term and persistent disorders. Objective The objective of this study was to compare and contrast barriers pharmacy students perceive toward providing medication counselling for people with mental health disorders in Australia, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, India and Latvia. Methods Barriers identified by third-year pharmacy students as part of the International Pharmacy Students’ Health Survey were content analysed using a directed approach. Students’ responses were categorised as pharmacist related, patient related, health-system related, or social or cultural related. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS version 14.0. Results Survey instruments were returned by 649 students. Of the respondents, 480 identified one or more barriers to medication counselling for people with mental health disorders. Patient related factors accounted for between 25.3% and 36.2% of barriers identified by the pharmacy students. Pharmacist related factors accounted for between 17.6% and 45.1% of the barriers identified by the pharmacy students. Students in India were more likely to attribute barriers to pharmacist and social and cultural related factors, and less likely to health-system related factors, than students studying in other countries. Conclusion The nature of barriers identified by pharmacy students differed according to the country in which they studied. Undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy education programs may need to be amended to address common misconceptions among pharmacy students. PMID:25132880

  19. Training Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Athari, Ahmad; Zairi, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    A study of training evaluation activity and challenges in 77 Kuwaiti organizations found that most respondents evaluate their programs only occasionally through the use of questionnaires. Most use the Kilpatrick model for evaluation and the most common level of evaluation is reaction type. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)

  20. Social Studies. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This compilation of 11 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 3-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

  1. Total hydrocarbon analyzer evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Shamat, N. (EMA Services, Inc., St. Paul, MN (United States)); Crumpler, E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)); Roddan, A. (Rosemount Analytical Division, La Habra, CA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    Measuring and controlling organic emissions from incineration processes has become a major environmental concern in recent years. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed a regulation for sewage sludge incinerators under section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act that will require all sludge incinerators to monitor total hydrocarbon emissions (THCs) on a continuous basis. Such a requirement would be part of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits and site-specific THC limits would be established for facilities based on a risk assessment of organic emissions. Before EPA can finalize the proposed requirement, THC monitoring must be successfully conducted in a plant environment and the system required by any final regulation must be kept in operation so that facilities can comply with their permits. The Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) in St. Paul, Minn., and Rosemount Analytical Division in La Habre, Calif., entered into a joint agreement with EPA to demonstrate a hot' THC monitoring system to detect THCs in stack gases. The objectives of the study are to determine the feasibility of THC monitoring of sludge incinerator emissions; evaluate the long term reliability, cost of operation, and consistency of a continuous THC monitoring system in an incinerator environment; and determine the correlation of THC stack concentration to incinerator and scrubber operating conditions, carbon monoxide concentration, and specific VOC emissions.

  2. Evaluation -- Shanti: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, David J.; Mulcahy, Gene

    1975-01-01

    This newsletter comprises four sections: (1) the educational philosophy and objectives of Shanti, a public alternative school in Hartford, Connecticut; (2) Rosen's statements about the difficulties of finding an evaluation model for alternative schools and the implications of the methodology that he later used in evaluating the Shanti school in…

  3. Stroke Outcomes in Malawi, a Country with High Prevalence of HIV: A Prospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Heikinheimo, Terttu; Chimbayo, Daniel; Kumwenda, Johnstone J.; Kampondeni, Sam; Allain, Theresa J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stroke contributes significantly to disability and mortality in developing countries yet little is known about the determinants of stroke outcomes in such countries. 12% of Malawian adults have HIV/AIDS. It is not known whether having HIV-infection alters the outcome of stroke. The aim of this study was to document the functional outcome and mortality at 1 year of first-ever acute stroke in Malawi. Also to find out if the baseline variables, including HIV-infection, affect the outcome of stroke. Methods and Findings 147 adult patients with first-ever acute stroke were prospectively followed up for 12 months. Conventional risk factors and HIV-infection were assessed at baseline. Stroke severity was evaluated with modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS) and functional outcome with modified Rankin scale (mRS). Fifty (34%) of patients were HIV-seropositive. 53.4% of patients had a poor outcome (severe disability or death, mRS 4–6) at 1 year. Poor outcome was related to stroke severity and female gender but not to presence of HIV-infection. HIV-seropositive patients were younger and had less often common risk factors for stroke. They suffer more often ischemic stroke than HIV-seronegative patients. Conclusions Mild stroke and male gender were associated with favourable outcome. HIV-infection is common in stroke patients in Malawi but does not worsen the outcome of stroke. However, it may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke for young people, who do not have the common stroke risk factors. Our results are significant, because stroke outcome in HIV-seropositive patients has not been studied before in a setting such as ours, with very limited resources and a high prevalence of HIV. PMID:22479439

  4. Exploring the transition to DRGs in Developing Countries: A case study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoxin; Liu, Rui; Li, Ping; Jiang, Chenghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective: With the success of DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) in developing countries, this prospective payment system has been imported into China from the early 21st century. However, DRGs has been struggling and has made little progress since (its adoption in) 2004. This study contributes to the debate on how to bridge the pay-for-service (system/scheme) and DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) during the transitional period of payment reform in China. Methods: From 2008 to 2012, sixty regional general hospitals in Shanghai were divided into three groups according to their economic level, and one hospital was picked from each group randomly. After ranking of morbidity, 22130 patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease were chosen as sample. Using multiple linear regression analysis, the inter relationships between the total medical expenses of the inpatients, and age, gender of the inpatients, length of stay, region and economic level of the hospitals were examined. Results: The main findings were (1) Age, LOS and the economic level of treatment location had a statistically significant impact on patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease. However, gender is only a significant factor to patients with coronary heart disease. The results suggested that age, LOS and the economic level of treatment location should be considered in formulating pricing standards for the hypertension patient group. Besides the above mentioned factors, gender should also be considered in formulating pricing standards for the coronary heart disease patient group. (2) Under the premise of limited resources, developing countries should first narrow down to screen for common and frequently occurring diseases, then study the key factors which affect the treatment cost of the diseases. Conclusion: Simplification of the DRGs standard- setting process based on standardized clinical pathways and accurate costing will greatly increase the efficiency of implementing DRGs in the developing world. PMID:24772121

  5. A Comparative Study of Early Childhood Programs in 15 Countries. The IEA Preprimary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, Patricia P.

    The Preprimary Project is a comprehensive comparative study of early childhood services in nations on four continents. This report describes the project, the instrument devised to measure the project's effectiveness, and some preliminary findings. The project is sponsored by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational…

  6. Cancer Genetics Education in a Low- to Middle-Income Country: Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop for Clinicians in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jessica A.; Lee, Su Yeon; Njambi, Lucy; Corson, Timothy W.; Dimaras, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical genetic testing is becoming an integral part of medical care for inherited disorders. While genetic testing and counseling are readily available in high-income countries, in low- and middle-income countries like Kenya genetic testing is limited and genetic counseling is virtually non-existent. Genetic testing is likely to become widespread in Kenya within the next decade, yet there has not been a concomitant increase in genetic counseling resources. To address this gap, we designed an interactive workshop for clinicians in Kenya focused on the genetics of the childhood eye cancer retinoblastoma. The objectives were to increase retinoblastoma genetics knowledge, build genetic counseling skills and increase confidence in those skills. Methods The workshop was conducted at the 2013 Kenyan National Retinoblastoma Strategy meeting. It included a retinoblastoma genetics presentation, small group discussion of case studies and genetic counseling role-play. Knowledge was assessed by standardized test, and genetic counseling skills and confidence by questionnaire. Results Knowledge increased significantly post-workshop, driven by increased knowledge of retinoblastoma causative genetics. One-year post-workshop, participant knowledge had returned to baseline, indicating that knowledge retention requires more frequent reinforcement. Participants reported feeling more confident discussing genetics with patients, and had integrated more genetic counseling into patient interactions. Conclusion A comprehensive retinoblastoma genetics workshop can increase the knowledge and skills necessary for effective retinoblastoma genetic counseling. PMID:26035834

  7. An evaluation of the 'voice test' as a method for assessing hearing in children with particular reference to the situation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prescott, C A; Omoding, S S; Fermor, J; Ogilvy, D

    1999-12-15

    In developing countries with limited no or access to standard audiometric methods a 'voice test' is a potential non-technological alternative method of assessing hearing. A three level 'voice test' was developed, refined and standardised-accurate response to a whispered voice equating with normal hearing, to a conversational voice with mild hearing loss and to a loud voice to moderate/severe hearing loss. In a hospital based study 177 children were voice tested in sound treated rooms and then tested using standard audiometric procedures to determine precise hearing thresholds. In this situation the voice test had a specificity of 95.9% and a sensitivity of 80%. When the test was evaluated on 201 children aged 3-8 years, first voice tested and then tested with standard audiometry in the classrooms of their pre-primary schools it was found to have a specificity of 97.8% and a sensitivity of 83.3%. With this degree of accuracy in detecting hearing impairment and given the simplicity required to administer the test, it is felt that such a test could be recommended for use by primary health care workers in developing countries where access to standard audiometric methods for assessing hearing are not available. PMID:10628542

  8. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…

  9. Improving Elementary Science Education in a Developing Country: A Case Study From Fiji

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Neil; Maiwaikatakata, Tema; Biukoto, Emele; Suluma, Wili; Coll, Richard K.

    2008-01-01

    Improved science education is seen as an important goal for many developing countries. The role of elementary science is of particular importance, given that research has shown a high correlation between economic growth and the time spent on elementary science education. However, the teaching of science in many developing countries is dominated by…

  10. The Impact of Presumed Consent Legislation on Cadaveric Organ Donation: A Cross Country Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Abadie; Sebastien Gay

    2004-01-01

    In the U.S., Great Britain, and in many other countries, the gap between the demand and the supply of human organs for transplantation is on the rise, despite the efforts of governments and health agencies to promote donor registration. In some countries of continental Europe, however, cadaveric organ procurement is based on the principle of presumed consent. Under presumed consent

  11. The impact of presumed consent legislation on cadaveric organ donation: A cross-country study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Abadie; Sebastien Gay

    2006-01-01

    In the U.S., Great Britain and in many other countries, the gap between the demand and the supply of human organs for transplantation is on the rise, despite the efforts of governments and health agencies to promote donor registration. In some countries of continental Europe, however, cadaveric organ procurement is based on the principle of presumed consent. Under presumed consent

  12. Redefining Entrepreneurial Learning Paradigms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Manu, D.; Afrane, S. K.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.; Brown, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a rapidly changing world of knowledge exchange, innovation and technological advancements, entrepreneurship continues to fuel economic growth in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, an increased influx of graduate entrepreneurs sustains economic growth whilst, in contrast, developing countries continue to suffer from…

  13. Parental Involvement in Selected PISA Countries and Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Borgonovi; Guillermo Montt

    2012-01-01

    Studies have highlighted the beneficial effects of parental involvement in children’s educational lives. Few studies, however, analyse parental involvement in a cross-national perspective and few evaluate a wide array of forms of involvement. In 2009, 14 countries and economies implemented the parental questionnaire option in the PISA 2009 cycle. This working paper evaluates the levels of parental involvement across countries

  14. Quality evaluation of human serum albumin prepared by heat denaturation in Iran: an experience for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khorsand Mohammad Pour, Hashem; Banazadeh, Soudabeh; Aghaie, Afsaneh

    2014-04-01

    Blood and plasma are unique resources and access to these products save life. In this study, albumin demand and surplus plasma makes it possible to use local experiences in plasma industry for preparation of albumin so plasma was heated after stabilization; afterward denatured proteins were precipitated and separated by continuous centrifuge system. The supernatant contained albumin was filtrated, diafiltrated, ultrafiltrated, formulated and pasteurized. Albumin preparation in pilot scale with heat denaturation was performed for the first time in Iran. This method using surplus plasma is recommended for all countries that have no access to plasma fractionation industry. Therefore with more attention it has potential for use in the production of safe plasma derived products and thereby it can be used as a safe product in clinic. PMID:24525282

  15. Evaluation of Three Sampling Methods to Monitor Outcomes of Antiretroviral Treatment Programmes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Tassie, Jean-Michel; Malateste, Karen; Pujades-Rodríguez, Mar; Poulet, Elisabeth; Bennett, Diane; Harries, Anthony; Mahy, Mary; Schechter, Mauro; Souteyrand, Yves; Dabis, François

    2010-01-01

    Background Retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) over time is a proxy for quality of care and an outcome indicator to monitor ART programs. Using existing databases (Antiretroviral in Lower Income Countries of the International Databases to Evaluate AIDS and Médecins Sans Frontières), we evaluated three sampling approaches to simplify the generation of outcome indicators. Methods and Findings We used individual patient data from 27 ART sites and included 27,201 ART-naive adults (?15 years) who initiated ART in 2005. For each site, we generated two outcome indicators at 12 months, retention on ART and proportion of patients lost to follow-up (LFU), first using all patient data and then within a smaller group of patients selected using three sampling methods (random, systematic and consecutive sampling). For each method and each site, 500 samples were generated, and the average result was compared with the unsampled value. The 95% sampling distribution (SD) was expressed as the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile values from the 500 samples. Overall, retention on ART was 76.5% (range 58.9–88.6) and the proportion of patients LFU, 13.5% (range 0.8–31.9). Estimates of retention from sampling (n?=?5696) were 76.5% (SD 75.4–77.7) for random, 76.5% (75.3–77.5) for systematic and 76.0% (74.1–78.2) for the consecutive method. Estimates for the proportion of patients LFU were 13.5% (12.6–14.5), 13.5% (12.6–14.3) and 14.0% (12.5–15.5), respectively. With consecutive sampling, 50% of sites had SD within ±5% of the unsampled site value. Conclusions Our results suggest that random, systematic or consecutive sampling methods are feasible for monitoring ART indicators at national level. However, sampling may not produce precise estimates in some sites. PMID:21085709

  16. International Evaluation Studies of Second Step, a Primary Prevention Programme: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Second Step is a social-emotional, skill-based, violence-prevention programme, which has been adapted for several European countries. The various versions of the programme (for kindergarten/preschool, elementary school, middle school) have been evaluated in a series of research studies. The outcomes and study designs of these studies are reported…

  17. Contradictions and conflict: A meta-ethnographic study of migrant women’s experiences of breastfeeding in a new country

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies report mixed findings about rates of both exclusive and partial breastfeeding amongst women who are migrants or refugees in high income countries. It is important to understand the beliefs and experiences that impact on migrant and refugee women’s infant feeding decisions in order to appropriately support women to breastfeed in a new country. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a meta-ethnographic study that explored migrant and refugee women’s experiences and practices related to breastfeeding in a new country. Methods CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library with Full Text databases were searched for the period January 2000 to May 2012. Out of 2355 papers retrieved 11 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was undertaken using the analytic strategies and theme synthesis techniques of reciprocal translation and refutational investigation. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Results Eight qualitative studies and three studies reporting both qualitative and quantitative data were included and one overarching theme emerged: ‘Breastfeeding in a new country: facing contradictions and conflict’. This theme comprised four sub-themes ‘Mother’s milk is best’; ‘Contradictions and conflict in breastfeeding practices’; ‘Producing breast milk requires energy and good health’; and ‘The dominant role of female relatives’. Migrant women who valued, but did not have access to, traditional postpartum practices, were more likely to cease breastfeeding. Women reported a clash between their individual beliefs and practices and the dominant practices in the new country, and also a tension with family members either in the country of origin or in the new country. Conclusion Migrant women experience tensions in their breastfeeding experience and require support from professionals who can sensitively address their individual needs. Strategies to engage grandmothers in educational opportunities may offer a novel approach to breastfeeding support. PMID:23270315

  18. Fall 2003 Harvard College Alcohol Study Sanction Thematic Evaluations Harvard Study Review Sanction Evaluation Fall 2003

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    Fall 2003 Harvard College Alcohol Study Sanction Thematic Evaluations Harvard Study Review Sanction requirements. 1 41 0 0 42 Sanctions Evaluated Responses #12;Fall 2003 Harvard College Alcohol Study Sanction

  19. Organizational aspects and implementation of data systems in large-scale epidemiological studies in less developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Acosta, Camilo J; Deen, Jacqueline L; Clemens, John D

    2006-01-01

    Background In the conduct of epidemiological studies in less developed countries, while great emphasis is placed on study design, data collection, and analysis, often little attention is paid to data management. As a consequence, investigators working in these countries frequently face challenges in cleaning, analyzing and interpreting data. In most research settings, the data management team is formed with temporary and unskilled persons. A proper working environment and training or guidance in constructing a reliable database is rarely available. There is little information available that describes data management problems and solutions to those problems. Usually a line or two can be obtained in the methods section of research papers stating that the data are doubly-entered and that outliers and inconsistencies were removed from the data. Such information provides little assurance that the data are reliable. There are several issues in data management that if not properly practiced may create an unreliable database, and outcomes of this database will be spurious. Results We have outlined the data management practices for epidemiological studies that we have modeled for our research sites in seven Asian countries and one African country. Conclusion Information from this model data management structure may help others construct reliable databases for large-scale epidemiological studies in less developed countries. PMID:16584571

  20. Feasibility of a large cohort study in sub-Saharan Africa assessed through a four-country study

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Shona; Holmes, Michelle D.; Laurence, Carien; Bajunirwe, Francis; Guwatudde, David; Njelekela, Marina; Adebamowo, Clement; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Chiwanga, Faraja S.; Volmink, Jimmy; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Kalyesubula, Robert; Reid, Todd G.; Dockery, Douglas; Hemenway, David; Adami, Hans-Olov

    2015-01-01

    Background Large prospective epidemiologic studies are vital in determining disease etiology and forming national health policy. Yet, such studies do not exist in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) notwithstanding the growing burden of chronic diseases. Objective We explored the feasibility of establishing a large-scale multicountry prospective study at five sites in four sub-Saharan countries. Design Based on country-specific considerations of feasibility, Nigeria enrolled health care professionals, South Africa and Tanzania enrolled teachers, and Uganda enrolled village residents at one rural and one periurban site each. All sites used a 6-month follow-up period but different approaches for data collection, namely standardized questionnaires filled out by participants or face-to-face interviews. Results We enrolled 1415 participants from five sites (range 200–489) with a median age of 41 years. Approximately half had access to clean-burning cooking fuel and 70% to piped drinking water, yet 92% had access to a mobile phone. The prevalence of chronic diseases was 49% among 45- to 54-year-olds and was dominated by hypertension (21.7% overall) – ranging from 4.5 to 31.2% across sites – and a serious injury in the past 12 months (12.4% overall). About 80% of participants indicated willingness to provide blood samples. At 6-month follow-up, 68% completed a questionnaire (45 to 96% across sites) with evidence that mobile phones were particularly useful. Conclusions Our pilot study indicates that a large-scale prospective study in SSA is feasible, and the burden of chronic disease in SSA may already be substantial necessitating urgent etiologic research and primary prevention. PMID:26015082

  1. Relations between adolescents’ self-evaluations, time perspectives, motivation for school and their achievement in different countries and at different ages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thea peetsma; Tina Hascher; Ineke van der Veen; Ewoud Roede

    2005-01-01

    The present study focused on the relations between the self-efficacy, social self-concept, time perspectives, school investment\\u000a and academic achievement of students in four different European countries and in different adolescence periods. A total of\\u000a 1623 students completed questionnaires. The relations between the concepts proved not to be specific to the Western or to\\u000a the former Communist bloc countries studied. The

  2. Relationships between food consumption and living arrangements among university students in four European countries - A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The transition of young people from school to university has many health implications. Food choice at the university can differ because of childhood food consumption patterns, sex and the living arrangements. Food consumption may change especially if students are living away from home. We aimed to assess food consumption patterns among university students from four European countries and how they differ by their living arrangements. Methods We analysed data from a cross-country survey assessing health and health behaviours of students. The sample comprised a total of 2402 first year undergraduate students from one university in each of the countries of Germany, Denmark, Poland and Bulgaria. Food consumption was assessed by means of a food frequency questionnaire with 9 food groups (indicators). Results Students’ food consumption patterns differed across the countries. Frequent consumption of unhealthy items was common. Bulgarian students reported most often frequent consumption of sweets and cakes and snacks (e.g. chips and fast food). Polish students reported the least frequent consumption of vegetables and a low consumption of fruits. Across all countries except Bulgaria, men reported substantially more often frequent consumption of snacks than women. Students living at parental home consumed more fruit, vegetables, and meat than those who resided outside of their family home in all studied countries. There was more variation with regard to cakes and salads with more frequent consumption of cakes among Bulgarian female students and Danish male students and more frequent consumption of salads among Danish female students not living at parental home, compared to students from other countries. Conclusions Nutrition habits of university students differed across countries and by sex. Students living at parental home displayed more healthy nutrition habits, with some exceptions. PMID:22531503

  3. MYCOTOXINS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF MAIZE IN NEPAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For both developed and developing countries, mycotoxin management begins in the field with improved farming practices and improved crop plants with increased resistance to insect damage, fungal infection, and mycotoxin production. Mycotoxin management continues with improved harvesting practices an...

  4. Economic Evaluation alongside Multinational Studies: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Oppong, Raymond; Jowett, Sue; Roberts, Tracy E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study This study seeks to explore methods for conducting economic evaluations alongside multinational trials by conducting a systematic review of the methods used in practice and the challenges that are typically faced by the researchers who conducted the economic evaluations. Methods A review was conducted for the period 2002 to 2012, with potentially relevant articles identified by searching the Medline, Embase and NHS EED databases. Studies were included if they were full economic evaluations conducted alongside a multinational trial. Results A total of 44 studies out of a possible 2667 met the inclusion criteria. Methods used for the analyses varied between studies, indicating a lack of consensus on how economic evaluation alongside multinational studies should be carried out. The most common challenge appeared to be related to addressing differences between countries, which potentially hinders the generalisability and transferability of results. Other challenges reported included inadequate sample sizes and choosing cost-effectiveness thresholds. Conclusions It is recommended that additional guidelines be developed to aid researchers in this area and that these be based on an understanding of the challenges associated with multinational trials and the strengths and limitations of alternative approaches. Guidelines should focus on ensuring that results will aid decision makers in their individual countries. PMID:26121465

  5. Diagnostic scope in out-of-hours primary care services in eight European countries: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In previous years, out- of-hours primary care has been organised in large-scale organisations in many countries. This may have lowered the threshold for many patients to present health problems at nights and during the weekend. Comparisons of out-of-hours care between countries require internationally comparable figures on symptoms and diagnoses, which were not available. This study aimed to describe the symptoms and diagnoses in out-of-hours primary care services in regions in eight European countries. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study based on medical records from out-of-hours primary care services in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland. We aimed to include data on 1000 initial contacts from up to three organisations per country. Excluded were contacts with an administrative reason. The International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC) was used to categorise symptoms and diagnoses. In two countries (Slovenia and Spain) ICD10 codes were translated into ICPC codes. Results The age distribution of patients showed a high consistency across countries, while the percentage of males varied from 33.7% to 48.3%. The ICPC categories that were used most frequently concerned: chapter A 'general and unspecified symptoms' (mean 13.2%), chapter R 'respiratory' (mean 20.4%), chapter L 'musculoskeletal' (mean 15.0%), chapter S 'skin' (mean 12.5%), and chapter D 'digestive' (mean 11.6%). So, relatively high numbers of patients presenting with infectious diseases or acute pain related syndromes. This was largely consistent across age groups, but in some age groups chapter H ('ear problems'), chapter L ('musculoskeletal') and chapter K ('cardiovascular') were frequently used. Acute life-threatening problems had a low incidence. Conclusions This international study suggested a highly similar diagnostic scope in out-of-hours primary care services. The incidence rates of acute life-threatening health problems were low in all countries. PMID:21569483

  6. Psychosocial correlates of substance use in adolescence: A cross-national study in six European countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Kokkevi; Clive Richardson; Silvia Florescu; Marina Kuzman; Eva Stergar

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To examine the psychosocial correlates of substance use among adolescents in six European countries. Design: Cross-sectional school population survey (ESPAD) based on standardized methodological procedures. Setting: High schools in six European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Slovenia and UK. Participants: Representative samples of a total sample of 16,445 high school students whose 16th birthday fell in the year of

  7. Anemia management and outcomes from 12 countries in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (DOPPS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L Pisoni; Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham; Eric W Young; Tadao Akizawa; Yasushi Asano; Francesco Locatelli; Juergen Bommer; Jose Miguel Cruz; Peter G Kerr; David C Mendelssohn; Philip J Held; Friedrich K Port

    2004-01-01

    Background:Anemia is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods:Data collected from nationally representative samples of HD patients (n = 11,041) in 2002 to 2003 were used to describe current anemia management for long-term HD patients at 309 dialysis units in 12 countries. Analyses of associations and outcomes were adjusted for demographics, 15 comorbid classes, laboratory values, country, and facility clustering. Results:For

  8. A Multicentre Study of Shigella Diarrhoea in Six Asian Countries: Disease Burden, Clinical Manifestations, and Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Lee, Hyejon; Wang, XuanYi; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Canh, Do Gia; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Agtini, Magdarina D; Hossain, Anowar; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Mason, Carl; Sethabutr, Ornthipa; Talukder, Kaisar; Nair, G. B; Deen, Jacqueline L; Kotloff, Karen; Clemens, John

    2006-01-01

    Background The burden of shigellosis is greatest in resource-poor countries. Although this diarrheal disease has been thought to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of 1,000,000 deaths globally per year, little recent data are available to guide intervention strategies in Asia. We conducted a prospective, population-based study in six Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the current disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology of shigellosis in Asia. Methods and Findings Over 600,000 persons of all ages residing in Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand were included in the surveillance. Shigella was isolated from 2,927 (5%) of 56,958 diarrhoea episodes detected between 2000 and 2004. The overall incidence of treated shigellosis was 2.1 episodes per 1,000 residents per year in all ages and 13.2/1,000/y in children under 60 months old. Shigellosis incidence increased after age 40 years. S. flexneri was the most frequently isolated Shigella species (1,976/2,927 [68%]) in all sites except in Thailand, where S. sonnei was most frequently detected (124/146 [85%]). S. flexneri serotypes were highly heterogeneous in their distribution from site to site, and even from year to year. PCR detected ipaH, the gene encoding invasion plasmid antigen H in 33% of a sample of culture-negative stool specimens. The majority of S. flexneri isolates in each site were resistant to amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. Ciprofloxacin-resistant S. flexneri isolates were identified in China (18/305 [6%]), Pakistan (8/242 [3%]), and Vietnam (5/282 [2%]). Conclusions Shigella appears to be more ubiquitous in Asian impoverished populations than previously thought, and antibiotic-resistant strains of different species and serotypes have emerged. Focusing on prevention of shigellosis could exert an immediate benefit first by substantially reducing the overall diarrhoea burden in the region and second by preventing the spread of panresistant Shigella strains. The heterogeneous distribution of Shigella species and serotypes suggest that multivalent or cross-protective Shigella vaccines will be needed to prevent shigellosis in Asia. PMID:16968124

  9. Iron-Fortified Drinking Water Studies for the Prevention of Children's Anemia in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Dutra-de-Oliveira, Jose E; Marchini, J Sergio; Lamounier, Joel; Almeida, Carlos A N

    2011-01-01

    Anemia and iron deficiency should receive special attention considering their high prevalence and serious consequences. For prevention, globally it is recommended to increase dietary iron intake, iron fortification of industrialized foods, and medical iron supplementation. Food fortification for the prevention of iron deficiency in developing countries should consider carriers locally available and consumed daily, requiring limited infrastructure and technology. Drinking water is the iron carrier we have been working for years for the prevention of iron deficiency and anemia in small children in Brazil. It was shown that studies with iron-fortified drinking water were proved to be effective on children's anemia prevention. Water is found everywhere, consumed daily by everyone may be easily fortified with simple technology, is low priced and was effective on the prevention of children's anemia. Fortification of drinking water with iron was locally implemented with the direct participation of the government and community. Government authorities, health personnel and population were part of the project and responsible for its community implementation. The mayor/municipality permitted and supported the proposal to supply it to children at their day-care centers. To keep the children drinking water iron fortified supply an officially authorized legislation was also approved. PMID:21826263

  10. Language experienced in utero affects vowel perception after birth: a two-country study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Christine; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2012-01-01

    Aims To test the hypothesis that exposure to ambient language in the womb alters phonetic perception shortly after birth. This two-country study aimed to see if neonates demonstrated prenatal learning by how they responded to vowels in a category from their native language and another nonnative language, regardless of how much postnatal experience the infants had. Method A counterbalanced experiment was conducted in Sweden (n=40) and the USA (n=40) using Swedish and English vowel sounds. The neonates (mean postnatal age = 33 hrs) controlled audio presentation of either native or nonnative vowels by sucking on a pacifier, with the number of times they sucked their pacifier being used to demonstrate what vowel sounds attracted their attention. The vowels were either the English /i/ or Swedish /y/ in the form of a prototype plus 16 variants of the prototype. Results The infants in the native and nonnative groups responded differently. As predicted, the infants responded to the unfamiliar nonnative language with higher mean sucks. They also sucked more to the nonnative prototype. Time since birth (range: 7–75 hours) did not affect the outcome. Conclusion The ambient language to which foetuses are exposed in the womb starts to affect their perception of their native language at a phonetic level. This can be measured shortly after birth by differences in responding to familiar vs. unfamiliar vowels. PMID:23173548

  11. Enacted Sexual Stigma, Stigma Consciousness, and Subjective Happiness Scale Adaptation: A Two-Country Study.

    PubMed

    Strizzi, Jenna; Fernández-Agis, Inmaculada; Parrón-Carreño, Tesifon; Alarcón-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2014-11-01

    Violence against people due to their sexual orientation is a phenomenon that exists within a framework of sexual stigma and sexual prejudice that can result in enacted stigma. The present study primarily aimed to validate the Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; for lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] populations) in the Spanish context by using samples from two countries (Spain [N = 157] and the United States [N = 83]). Also, to examine how the construct of stigma consciousness correlates with anti-LGBQ (anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) hate crime victimization and violent incidents, as well as examine whether the former influences subjective happiness. The population from the United States reported higher stigma consciousness and received more anti-LGBQ threats and insults. Hate crime victimization was the same across the two samples and positively correlated with violent incidents in both samples. Subjective happiness was negatively correlated with SCQ, although its subscales it did not correlate with enacted stigma measures. PMID:25381273

  12. Understanding the Relationships among PISA Scores, Economic Growth and Employment in Different Sectors: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores in mathematics, science and reading and the employment rates in the following four economic activities: research and development, agriculture, industry, and service industries. Thirty-three countries were included in the study, and most…

  13. Deepening Learning and Inspiring Rigor: Bridging Academic and Experiential Learning Using a Host Country Approach to a Study Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Susan Orpett; Akande, Yemi Susan; Purdy, R. W.; Nakano, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    American students are increasingly incorporating study in a foreign country into their college educations, but many participate in short-term programs that limit their engagement with any more than the superficial aspects of the host culture. This article describes a short-term study abroad course for American students to Japan in which the…

  14. The Professional Value of Temporary Study in Another European Country: Employment and Work of Former ERASMUS Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich; Janson, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Temporary study in another European country supported by the ERASMUS programmes spread from a few thousand participants in the late 1980s to about 150,000 annually in recent years. Such a study period is not only viewed as academically, culturally, and linguistically valuable but is also expected to have a positive impact on subsequent employment…

  15. Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. L. Hertog; D. Kromhout; C. Aravanis; H. Blackburn; R. Buzina; F. Fidanza; S. Giampaoli; A. Jansen; A. Menotti; S. I. Nedeljkovic; M. Pekkarinen; B. S. Simic; H. Toshima; E. J. M. Feskens; P. C. H. Hollman; M. B. Katan

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether flavonoid intake explains differences in mortality rates from chronic diseases between populations. DESIGN: Cross-cultural correlation study. SETTING\\/PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen cohorts of the Seven Countries Study in whom flavonoid intake at baseline around 1960 was estimated by flavonoid analysis of equivalent food composites that represented the average diet in the cohorts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from coronary heart disease,

  16. Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. The Case of the Humanities and Social Sciences. Country Study: Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bruce

    This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in the humanities and social sciences, looks at employment prospects for social science and humanities graduates in Australia. An opening section describes government studies and initiatives and changes in the Australian higher education system since…

  17. Work related complaints of neck, shoulder and arm among computer office workers: a cross-sectional evaluation of prevalence and risk factors in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Complaints of arms, neck and shoulders (CANS) is common among computer office workers. We evaluated an aetiological model with physical/psychosocial risk-factors. Methods We invited 2,500 computer office workers for the study. Data on prevalence and risk-factors of CANS were collected by validated Maastricht-Upper-extremity-Questionnaire. Workstations were evaluated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Visual-Display-Terminal workstation-checklist. Participants' knowledge and awareness was evaluated by a set of expert-validated questions. A binary logistic regression analysis investigated relationships/correlations between risk-factors and symptoms. Results Sample size was 2,210. Mean age 30.8 ± 8.1 years, 50.8% were males. The 1-year prevalence of CANS was 56.9%, commonest region of complaint was forearm/hand (42.6%), followed by neck (36.7%) and shoulder/arm (32.0%). In those with CANS, 22.7% had taken treatment from a health care professional, only in 1.1% seeking medical advice an occupation-related injury had been suspected/diagnosed. In addition 9.3% reported CANS-related absenteeism from work, while 15.4% reported CANS causing disruption of normal activities. A majority of evaluated workstations in all participants (88.4%,) and in those with CANS (91.9%) had OSHA non-compliant workstations. In the binary logistic regression analyses female gender, daily computer usage, incorrect body posture, bad work-habits, work overload, poor social support and poor ergonomic knowledge were associated with CANS and its' severity In a multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender and duration of occupation, incorrect body posture, bad work-habits and daily computer usage were significant independent predictors of CANS Conclusions The prevalence of work-related CANS among computer office workers in Sri Lanka, a developing, South Asian country is high and comparable to prevalence in developed countries. Work-related physical factors, psychosocial factors and lack of awareness were all important associations of CANS and effective preventive strategies need to address all three areas. PMID:21816073

  18. A cross-national study of the pattern of modernization in the developing countries, 1965-75 

    E-print Network

    Choi, Kwok-on Frankie

    1979-01-01

    A CROSS-NATIONAL STUDY OF THE PATTERN OF MODERNIZATION IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, 1965-75 A Thesis by KWOK-ON FRANKIE CHOI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subjects Sociology A CROSS-NATIONAL STUDY OF THE PATTERN OF MODERNI2ATION IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES I 1965-1975 A Thesis by KWOK-ON FRANKIE CHOI Approved as to style and content bye Chairman of Committee Dr...

  19. Women's Studies Collections: A Checklist Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Brooke A.

    2009-01-01

    A checklist evaluation on thirty-seven Women's Studies programs conducted using the individual institutions' online public access catalogs (OPACs) is presented. Although Women's Studies collections are very difficult to build, an evaluation of existing programs shows that collections, for the most part, have managed substantial coverage of the…

  20. Experimental study and evaluation of radioprotective drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Thomson, J. F.

    1968-01-01

    Experimental study evaluates radioprotective drugs administered before exposure either orally or intravenously. Specifically studied are the sources of radiation, choice of radiation dose, choice of animals, administration of drugs, the toxicity of protective agents and types of protective drug.

  1. Where Is the Literature in Evaluation on Managing Studies, Evaluators, and Evaluation Units?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a multistage exploration of evaluation texts, electronic searches, and nominations from the field and from managing social science, the author concludes there is little research literature on managing evaluation studies, evaluators and other workers, and evaluation units. The discussion explores what this limited literature tells…

  2. Climate variability as a threat for countries progressing towards malaria elimination: The case study of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousam, Aneela; Maggioni, Viviana; Quispe, Antonio; Aquila, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Malaria cases reported by the Peruvian Ministry of Health demonstrate a 61% reduction of malaria in the last decade (2001- 2010). However, during the years 2011-14 malaria increased by ~2.7 folds in Peru and ~5 folds in Loreto, an Amazonian department that continues contributing over 90% of the malaria cases in Peru. Past studies have indicated that there is a strong association between climate variability and malaria rates. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that climate variables have played a key role in the recent increase of malaria cases in Peru. Climate data, such as precipitation, temperature, humidity and surface pressure simulated by the NASA MERRA model during a 10-year ling time series (2004-2013) are used to verify this hypothesis. Preliminary data analyses show large deviations from the 10-year mean (i.e., climatological anomalies) in humidity, surface pressure, and temperature during 2010 up to four times larger than previous and subsequent years. An increase of 8% in precipitation yearly averages is observed in 2010, which also corresponds with the following reverse of the downward trend of malaria incidence, particularly in Loreto. The sudden amplification of climatological anomalies in 2010 could have set the environmental conditions that caused the re-emergence of malaria in 2011. Investigation is underway to link weekly malaria data from different districts in Peru to the climate conditions at those locations during the past ten years. This will be crucial in understanding why some countries, despite all necessary efforts, are unable to completely eliminate malaria.

  3. Early life bereavement and childhood cancer: a nationwide follow-up study in two countries

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Natalie C; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika; Cnattingius, Sven; Li, Jiong

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood cancer is a leading cause of child deaths in affluent countries, but little is known about its aetiology. Psychological stress has been suggested to be associated with cancer in adults; whether this is also seen in childhood cancer is largely unknown. We investigated the association between bereavement as an indicator of severe childhood stress exposure and childhood cancer, using data from Danish and Swedish national registers. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark and Sweden. Participants All live-born children born in Denmark between 1968 and 2007 (n=2?729?308) and in Sweden between 1973 and 2006 (n=3?395?166) were included in this study. Exposure was bereavement by the death of a close relative before 15?years of age. Follow-up started from birth and ended at the first of the following: date of a cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, day before their 15th birthday or end of follow-up (2007 in Denmark, 2006 in Sweden). Outcome measures Rates and HRs for all childhood cancers and specific childhood cancers. Results A total of 1?505?938 (24.5%) children experienced bereavement at some point during their childhood and 9823 were diagnosed with cancer before the age of 15?years. The exposed children had a small (10%) increased risk of childhood cancer (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.17). For specific cancers, a significant association was seen only for central nervous system tumours (HR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.28). Conclusions Our data suggest that psychological stress in early life is associated with a small increased risk of childhood cancer. PMID:23793702

  4. Systemic antibiotic prescribing to paediatric outpatients in 5 European countries: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe the utilisation of antibiotics in children and adolescents across 5 European countries based on the same drug utilisation measures and age groups. Special attention was given to age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups, since comparison in this regard between countries is lacking so far. Methods Outpatient paediatric prescriptions of systemic antibiotics during the years 2005-2008 were analysed using health care databases from the UK, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy and Germany. Annual antibiotic prescription rates per 1,000 person years were estimated for each database and stratified by age (?4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-18 years). Age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups were calculated for 2008. Results With 957 prescriptions per 1000 person years, the highest annual prescription rate in the year 2008 was found in the Italian region Emilia Romagna followed by Germany (561), the UK (555), Denmark (481) and the Netherlands (294). Seasonal peaks during winter months were most pronounced in countries with high utilisation. Age-group-specific use varied substantially between countries with regard to total prescribing and distributions of antibiotic subgroups. However, prescription rates were highest among children in the age group ?4 years in all countries, predominantly due to high use of broad spectrum penicillins. Conclusions Strong increases of antibiotic prescriptions in winter months in high utilising countries most likely result from frequent antibiotic treatment of mostly viral infections. This and strong variations of overall and age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups across countries, suggests that antibiotics are inappropriately used to a large extent. PMID:24997585

  5. Integrated circuit tester evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, P.

    1980-03-01

    The primary AIMD test requirements for a small, inexpensive, commercially available, digital IC tester could be met by only one tester. This was the Automatic Fault Isolation Tester (AFIT) model 2050 manufactured by Testline Co. Many other testers were available that had the basic testing capability but were outside the price constraints or that were edge board testers. Bed-of-nails testers were not considered for AIMD use. The AFIT was submitted for technical and User Evaluations and demonstrated that it could detect faulty IC's on PC boards not coated with a conformal moisture-proofing compound. This fault detection ability was demonstrated for both the in-circuit and out-of-circuit modes of operation.

  6. Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian…

  7. Towards a cleaner production in developing countries: a case study in a Chilean tannery.

    PubMed

    Rivela, Beatriz; Méndez, Ranón; Bornhardt, Cristian; Vidal, Gladys

    2004-06-01

    A Chilean leather tanning industry (tannery) was studied in terms of input/output (I/O) analysis of beamhouse, tanyard and retanning processes. The physical-chemical characterization of 19 streams were investigated. Streams from the beamhouse process and some streams from the retanning process were found to have high organic contents ranging from 2.5 to 18.1 g COD L(-1). The pH ranged between 3.45 and 12.28. Sulphur was found in most of the streams whereas chromium was detected in two wastewaters from the tanyard and in seven streams from the retanning process. Pollution prevention opportunities were evaluated and an appropriate treatment strategy was proposed. The main emphasis was on determining waste reduction measures that can be easily implemented and are not particularly expensive. Measures for reduction at source were proposed to reduce water and chemicals consumption and wastewater pollution. A so-called S(index) strategy was used to evaluate proposals on segregation and specific treatment of the main chromium- and sulphur-containing wastewaters. It was suggested that some streams may be re-used, but it is necessary to apply anaerobic or aerobic treatment first, depending on their organic load. Solid wastes were also evaluated and a proposal for their reduction and disposal was made. PMID:15253496

  8. Feasibility studies of a power interconnection system for Central American countries: SIEPAC project

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Enamorado, J.C. (Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica); Vela, A. (Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-06-01

    The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC project which consists of a 1,678 km long 500 kV ac power transmission line that would link the six electrical systems of the region through seven power substations (one for each country and two in Panama), installed close to the highest demand national centers and six control centers of energy (one for each country) to allow coordinated operation of the interconnection.This project also considers a set of complementary assets (230 ac power transmission lines into some countries and the border transmission line between El Salvador and Honduras, and various other equipment). The power transmission line will greatly reinforce the actual border interconnections, which have a reduced capacity of exchange and technical problems associated with the stability of a weak longitudinal system. On the other hand, economic savings for the region would be achieved, coming from a higher coordination level in the operation and planning of their systems.

  9. Knowledge translation: a case study on pneumonia research and clinical guidelines in a low- income country

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The process and effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported. In Cambodia, a low-income country (LIC), an intervention aiming to provide evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia to health authorities was developed to help update pediatric and adult national clinical guidelines. Through a case study, we assessed the effectiveness of this KT intervention, with the goal of identifying the barriers to KT and suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. Methods An extensive search for all relevant sources of data documenting the processes of updating adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines was done. Documents included among others, reports, meeting minutes, and email correspondences. The study was conducted in successive phases: an appraisal of the content of both adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines; an appraisal of the quality of guidelines by independent experts, using the AGREE-II instrument; a description and modeling of the KT process within the guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools 2.2; and the listing of the barriers and facilitators to KT we identified during the study. Results The first appraisal showed that the integration of the KT key messages in pediatric and adult guidelines varied with a better efficiency in the pediatric guidelines. The overall AGREE-II quality assessments scored 37% and 44% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Scores were lowest for the domains of ‘rigor of development’ and ‘editorial independence.’ The UML analysis highlighted that time frames and constraints of the involved stakeholders greatly differed and that there were several missed opportunities to translate on evidence into the adult pneumonia guideline. Seventeen facilitating factors and 18 potential barriers to KT were identified. Main barriers were related to the absence of a clear mandate from the Ministry of Health for the researchers and to a lack of synchronization between knowledge production and policy-making. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stakeholders, both researchers and policy makers planning to update clinical guidelines in LIC may need methodological support to overcome the expected barriers. PMID:24969242

  10. Prevalence of dementia subtypes in a developing country: a clinicopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, Lea T.; Nitrini, Ricardo; Suemoto, Claudia K.; de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah; Leite, Renata E. P.; Farfel, Jose Marcelo; Santos, Erika; de Andrade, Mara Patricia Guilhermino; Di Lorenzo Alho, Ana Tereza; do Carmo Lima, Maria; Oliveira, Katia C.; Tampellini, Edilaine; Polichiso, Livia; Santos, Glaucia B.; Rodriguez, Roberta Diehl; Ueda, Kenji; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the distribution of dementia subtypes in Brazil using a population-based clinicopathological study. METHOD: Brains from deceased individuals aged ?50 years old were collected after the next of kin signed an informed consent form and provided information through standardized questionnaires. Post-mortem clinical diagnoses were established in consensus meetings, and only cases with moderate or severe dementia or without cognitive impairment were included in the analysis. Immunohistochemical neuropathological examinations were performed following the universally accepted guidelines. A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was made when there were at least both a moderate density of neuritic plaques (Consortium to Establish a Register for Alzheimer's disease B or C) and Braak stage III for neurofibrillary tangle distribution. For the diagnosis of vascular dementia, at least three zones or strategic areas had to be affected by infarcts, lacunae, or microinfarcts. RESULTS: From 1,291 subjects, 113 cases were classified as having moderate or severe dementia, and 972 cases were free of cognitive impairment. The neuropathological diagnoses of the dementia sub-group were Alzheimer's disease (35.4%), vascular dementia (21.2%), Alzheimer's disease plus vascular dementia (13.3%), and other causes of dementia (30.1%). Small-vessel disease, which alone was not considered sufficient for a vascular dementia diagnosis, was present in 38.9% of all of the dementia cases and in 16.8% of the group without cognitive impairment (odds ratio?=?2.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-5.51), adjusted for age, sex, and education. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively high frequencies of vascular dementia and small-vessel disease in the dementia sub-group constitute relevant findings for public health initiatives because control of vascular risk factors could decrease the prevalence of dementia in developing countries. PMID:24037011

  11. Socioeconomic determinants of HIV testing and counselling: A comparative study in four African countries

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Neuman, Melissa; Hardon, Anita; Desclaux, Alice; Wanyenze, Rhoda; Kyzerbo, Odette; Cherutich, Peter; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Research indicates that individuals tested for HIV have higher socioeconomic status than those not tested, but less is known about how socioeconomic status is associated with modes of testing. We compared individuals tested through provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC), those tested through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), and those never tested. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at health facilities in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, and Uganda, as part of the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV) study. 3,659 clients were asked about testing status, type of facility of most recent test, and socioeconomic status. Two outcome measures were analyzed: ever tested for HIV, and mode of testing. We compared VCT at standalone facilities and PITC, which includes Integrated facilities where testing is provided with medical care, and PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission) facilities. The determinants of ever testing and of using a particular mode of testing were analysed using modified Poisson regression and multinomial logistic analyses. Results Higher socioeconomic status was associated with the likelihood of testing at VCT rather than other facilities or not testing. There were no significant differences in socioeconomic characteristics between those tested through PITC (integrated and PMTCT facilities) and those not tested. Conclusions Provider-initiated modes of testing make testing accessible to individuals from lower socioeconomic groups to a greater extent than traditional VCT. Expanding testing through PMTCT reduces socioeconomic obstacles, especially for women. Continued efforts are needed to encourage testing and counselling among men and the less affluent. PMID:23937702

  12. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs) between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated. PMID:22280469

  13. Development and human resources in the Islamic world: a study of selected countries.

    PubMed

    Duza, M B

    1987-01-01

    "The present paper attempts to provide an analytical profile of development and human resources in [12] selected [Islamic] countries." The countries--Bangladesh, Somalia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey, Malaysia, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates--vary in income levels from low to high and in population size from 1 million to 159 million. Using data from the World Bank and the Population Council, comparisons are made on the basis of mortality and fertility levels, family size, income, urbanization, labor force size and growth, education, nutrition, and health. Governmental policy changes and future directions are discussed. PMID:12315536

  14. Improving antimicrobial use among health workers in first-level facilities: results from the multi-country evaluation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, Eleanor; Bryce, Jennifer; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Amaral, João; Pariyo, George; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Fontaine, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) case management training on the use of antimicrobial drugs among health-care workers treating young children at first-level facilities. Antimicrobial drugs are an essential child-survival intervention. Ensuring that children younger than five who need these drugs receive them promptly and correctly can save their lives. Prescribing these drugs only when necessary and ensuring that those who receive them complete the full course can slow the development of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Data collected through observation-based surveys in randomly selected first-level health facilities in Brazil, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania were statistically analysed. The surveys were carried out as part of the multi-country evaluation of IMCI effectiveness, cost and impact (MCE). FINDINGS: Results from three MCE sites show that children receiving care from health workers trained in IMCI are significantly more likely to receive correct prescriptions for antimicrobial drugs than those receiving care from workers not trained in IMCI.They are also more likely to receive the first dose of the drug before leaving the health facility, to have their caregiver advised how to administer the drug, and to have caregivers who are able to describe correctly how to give the drug at home as they leave the health facility. CONCLUSIONS: IMCI case management training is an effective intervention to improve the rational use of antimicrobial drugs for sick children visiting first-level health facilities in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:15508195

  15. Increasing the Number of Women Teachers in Rural Schools: A Synthesis of Country Case Studies, South Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report synthesizes case studies of women teachers in rural areas of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. In each country, interviews and focus groups were conducted in selected states and districts with administrators and women teachers in rural elementary schools, as well as policymakers and community members. Following an introduction to…

  16. Internationalisation in Online Distance Learning Postgraduate Education: A Case Study on Student Views on Learning Alongside Students from Other Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemmell, Isla; Harrison, Roger; Clegg, Judith; Reed, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Internationalisation in higher education has been shown to provide both intellectual and cultural benefits to students which can help in their future employment. This case study describes student views on learning alongside students from different countries in an online distance learning environment. Seventy-three students undertaking the online…

  17. Cultural and leadership predictors of corporate social responsibility values of top management: a GLOBE study of 15 countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A Waldman; Mary Sully de Luque; Nathan Washburn; Robert J House; Bolanle Adetoun; Angel Barrasa; Mariya Bobina; Muzaffer Bodur; Yi-Jung Chen; Sukhendu Debbarma; Peter Dorfman; Rosemary R Dzuvichu; Idil Evcimen; Pingping Fu; Mikhail Grachev; Roberto Gonzalez Duarte; Vipin Gupta; Deanne N Den Hartog; Annebel H B de Hoogh; Jon Howell; Kuen-Yung Jone; Hayat Kabasakal; Edvard Konrad; P L Koopman; Rainhart Lang; Cheng-Chen Lin; Jun Liu; Boris Martinez; Almarie E Munley; Nancy Papalexandris; T K Peng; Leonel Prieto; Narda Quigley; James Rajasekar; Francisco Gil Rodríguez; Johannes Steyrer; Betania Tanure; Henk Thierry; V M Thomas; Peter T van den Berg; Celeste P M Wilderom

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines cultural and leadership variables associated with corporate social responsibility values that managers apply to their decision-making. In this longitudinal study, we analyze data from 561 firms located in 15 countries on five continents to illustrate how the cultural dimensions of institutional collectivism and power distance predict social responsibility values on the part of top management team members.

  18. Case Studies for Teacher Evaluation: A Study of Effective Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Arthur E.; And Others

    This document presents the four case studies that constituted the major sources for "Teacher Evaluation: A Study of Effective Practices" by the same authors. The study was undertaken to find teacher evaluation processes that produce information useful to school districts in helping teachers improve or in making personnel decisions. The four school…

  19. New Patterns of Adult Learning: A Six-Country Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert; Belanger, Paul, Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers based on a data set from the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey, which collected data from more than 20,000 individual respondents in samples representative of the adult populations in 6 countries: Canada, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. The papers are: "Foreword" (Paul…

  20. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

  1. Implementation of Large-Scale Science Curricula: A Study in Seven European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, G. M.; Waddington, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Salters Chemistry courses, context-led curricula for 13-16 and 17-18 year old students, first developed by the Science Education Group at the University of York in the UK, have now been translated and/or adapted in seven other European countries. This paper describes and discusses the different reasons for taking up the courses, the ways in…

  2. The Varied Educational Effects of Parent-Child Communication: A Comparative Study of Fourteen Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the ways in which parent-child communication--a major indicator of parental involvement--influences children's educational achievement across 14 countries. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the author examines the extent to which social class differences in the effect of…

  3. Educational Attainment and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati

    2008-01-01

    Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…

  4. The Digital Balance between Industrialised and Developing Countries: Futures Studies for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Olli

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of researching the digital balance between industrialised and developing countries was to discover how information and communication technology (ICT), content and e-services developed in Finland will work on the African continent, and vice versa. Globalisation and the associated new international division of labour and well-being…

  5. Consumer Movements in Newly Industrialized Countries: Taiwan as a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Sue L. T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of a consumer society in the newly industrialized countries of Asia, especially Taiwan. Looks at Taiwan's growing consumer presence , emerging consumer policy framework, and evolving family and social structure as well as consumer movement efforts and the impact of international organizations. (Contains 52 references.) (JOW)

  6. Lessons from the Pacific programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: a case study of 5 countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Huppatz; Corinne Capuano; Kevin Palmer; Paul M Kelly; David N Durrheim

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is an important Neglected Tropical Disease, being a major cause of disability worldwide. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to eliminate LF as a public health problem by the year 2020, primarily through repeated Mass Drug Administration (MDA). The Pacific region programme commenced in 1999. By June 2007, five of the eleven countries classified

  7. Student Engagement in Two Countries: A Comparative Study Using NSSE Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Kandiko

    To compare college and university student engagement in two countries with different responses to global forces, Canada and the U.S., a series of hierarchical linear regression (HLM) models were developed to analyze data from the 2006 administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement. Overall, students in the U.S. are more engaged, particularly in areas of active and collaborative learning

  8. Student Engagement in Two Countries: A Comparative Study Using National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. KANDIKO

    To compare college and university student engagement in two countries with different responses to global forces, Canada and the United States (US), a series of hierarchical linear regression (HLM) models were developed to analyse data from the 2006 administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Overall, students in the U.S. are more engaged, particularly in areas of active

  9. Impact of College Rankings on Institutional Decision Making: Four Country Case Studies. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The ranking of higher education institutions is a growing phenomenon around the globe, with ranking systems in place in more than 40 countries and the emergence of international ranking systems that compare institutions across national lines. With this proliferation of rankings come questions about the goals, uses, and outcomes of these systems.…

  10. Training for empowerment? A comparative study of nonformal education for women in small island countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, A M

    1997-10-01

    This article compares nonformal education (NFE) and training options for women among the small island countries of Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Tonga, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Data were obtained from 4 groups (the government agency for women, the national women's organization, a nongovernmental organization, and the university extension center) that operated an NFE course during 1992-94. Interviews were conducted among the tutor and 5 women from the selected NFE programs who had attended research workshops. Over 200 women were interviewed. Caribbean country NFE programs included a varied program of instruction that included, for example, self-defense, assertiveness training, and women-in-trade programs. South Pacific training programs included, for example, training of trainers, leadership training, women and traditional medicine, and women in development. Regional papers in preparation for the 1995 Beijing Conference included research findings on NFE, including workshop findings. Facilitators from Niue and Tonga were more satisfied with women's status in their countries than those in Fiji and Kiribati, but women in all 4 countries said things were changing. Women reported benefits from NFE programs such as new information, acquiring new skills, visiting new places, and sharing experiences with other women. In Kiribati and Tonga, women were disappointed in lack of follow-up. Caribbean women were self-aware, but gained insight into their lack of rights and justice. Not all programs empowered women. NFE providers and participants were unable to identify significant outcomes. PMID:12348991

  11. Open Access and Institutional Repositories — A Developing Country Perspective: a case study of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Ghosh; Anup Kumar Das

    2007-01-01

    Open access facilitates the availability and distribution of scholarly communication freely, as a means and effort to solve the problem of inaccessibility, primarily due to financial constraints, particularly in the developing countries. In India there has been a gradual realization of the usefulness of open access among various institutions. Various open access initiatives have been undertaken and are operational. Many

  12. Open access and institutional repositories - a developing country perspective: a case study of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. GHOSH; ANUP KUMAR DAS

    2006-01-01

    In the recent years much discussions and initiatives are taken in the area of open access. Open access, a philosophy facilitates availability and distribution of scholarly communication freely, as a means to solve the problem of inaccessibility primarily due to financial constraint particularly in the context of developing countries. Many scholarly literature are freely accessible now without any hindrance. Open

  13. Dietary habits in three Central and Eastern European countries: the HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The high cardiovascular mortality in Eastern Europe has often been attributed to poor diet, but individual-level data on nutrition in the region are generally not available. This paper describes the methods of dietary assessment and presents preliminary findings on food and nutrient intakes in large general population samples in Russia, Poland and the Czech Republic. Methods The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study examined random samples of men and women aged 45-69 years at baseline in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and six Czech urban centres in 2002-2005. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (at least 136 items); complete dietary information was available for 26,870 persons. Results Total energy intakes among men ranged between 8.7 MJ in the Czech sample and 11.7 MJ in the Russian sample, while among women, energy intakes ranged between 8.2 MJ in the Czech sample and 9.8 MJ in the Russian sample. A Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), ranging from a score of 0 (lowest) to 7 (highest), was developed using the World Health Organisation's (WHO) guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases. The mean HDI scores were low, ranging from 1.0 (SD = 0.7) among the Polish subjects to 1.7 (SD = 0.8) among the Czech females. Very few subjects met the WHO recommended intakes for complex carbohydrates, pulses or nuts; intakes of saturated fatty acids, sugar and protein were too high. Only 16% of Polish subjects met the WHO recommendation for polyunsaturated fat intake. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was lower than recommended, especially among those Russian subjects who were assessed during the low intake season. Fewer than 65% of subjects consumed adequate amounts of calcium, magnesium and potassium, when compared with the United Kingdom's Reference Nutrient Intake. Conclusion This first large scale study of individual-based dietary intakes in the general population in Eastern Europe implies that intakes of saturated fat, sugar and complex carbohydrates are a cause for concern. The development of country-specific nutritional tools must be encouraged and nutritional campaigns must undergo continuing development. PMID:19951409

  14. Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient?=?0.231 at lag?=??1 week). Conclusions School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data. PMID:24155907

  15. A preliminary study of a cloud-computing model for chronic illness self-care support in an underdeveloped country

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D.; Mendoza-Avelares, Milton O.; Ganser, Martha; Mohamed, Muhima; Marinec, Nicolle; Krishnan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Background Although interactive voice response (IVR) calls can be an effective tool for chronic disease management, many regions of the world lack the infrastructure to provide these services. Objective This study evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of an IVR program using a cloud-computing model to improve diabetes management in Honduras. Methods A single group, pre-post study was conducted between June and August 2010. The telecommunications infrastructure was maintained on a U.S. server, and calls were directed to patients’ cell phones using VoIP. Eighty-five diabetes patients in Honduras received weekly IVR disease management calls for six weeks, with automated follow-up emails to clinicians, and voicemail reports to family caregivers. Patients completed interviews at enrollment and a six week follow-up. Other measures included patients’ glycemic control (A1c) and data from the IVR calling system. Results 55% of participants completed the majority of their IVR calls and 33% completed 80% or more. Higher baseline blood pressures, greater diabetes burden, greater distance from the clinic, and better adherence were related to higher call completion rates. Nearly all participants (98%) reported that because of the program, they improved in aspects of diabetes management such as glycemic control (56%) or foot care (89%). Mean A1c’s decreased from 10.0% at baseline to 8.9% at follow-up (p<.01). Most participants (92%) said that if the service were available in their clinic they would use it again. Conclusions Cloud computing is a feasible strategy for providing IVR services globally. IVR self-care support may improve self-care and glycemic control for patients in under-developed countries. PMID:21565655

  16. Teacher Evaluation: A Study of Effective Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Arthur E.; And Others

    A preliminary survey of 32 school districts identified as having highly developed teacher evaluation systems was followed by the selection of 4 case study districts (Salt Lake City, Utah; Lake Washington, Washington; Greenwich, Connecticut; and Toledo, Ohio) representing diverse teacher evaluation processes and organizational environments. Common…

  17. How Are Social Studies Curriculum Materials Evaluated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, G.

    1977-01-01

    This article describes and compares two principal modes of evaluating social studies curricula: the Curriculum Materials Analysis System (CMAS) developed by the Social Science Education Consortium and a system developed by Elizabeth Vallance. (Author/RM)

  18. Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.

    PubMed

    Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

    2008-12-01

    Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates increased mortality rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, thermal stress, and increased frequency of infectious vector borne diseases in the region between 2070 and 2099. PMID:19190352

  19. Public satisfaction as a measure of health system performance: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Mills, Anne; Richardson, Erica; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Measurement of health system performance increasingly includes the views of healthcare users, yet little research has focussed on general population satisfaction with health systems. This study is the first to examine public satisfaction with health systems in the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data were derived from two related studies conducted in 2001 and 2010 in nine fSU countries, using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of health system satisfaction in each country was compared for 2001 and 2010. Patterns of satisfaction were further examined by comparing satisfaction with the health system and other parts of the public sector, and the views of health care users and non-users. Potential determinants of population satisfaction were explored using logistic regression. For all countries combined, the level of satisfaction with health systems increased from 19.4% in 2001 to 40.6% in 2010, but varied considerably by country. Changes in satisfaction with the health system were similar to changes with the public sector, and non-users of healthcare were slightly more likely to report satisfaction than users. Characteristics associated with higher satisfaction include younger age, lower education, higher economic status, rural residency, better health status, and higher levels of political trust. Our results suggest that satisfaction can provide useful insight into public opinion on health system performance, particularly when used in conjunction with other subjective measures of satisfaction with government performance. PMID:23545269

  20. Variance components models for physical activity with age as modifier: a comparative twin study in seven countries.

    PubMed

    Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Medland, Sarah E; de Moor, Marleen H M; Stubbe, Janine H; Cornes, Belinda K; Martin, Nicholas G; Skytthea, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Rose, Richard J; Kujala, Urho M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Harris, Jennifer R; Pedersen, Nancy L; Cherkas, Lynn; Spector, Tim D; de Geus, Eco J C

    2011-02-01

    Physical activity is influenced by genetic factors whose expression may change with age. We employed an extension to the classical twin model that allows a modifier variable, age, to interact with the effects of the latent genetic and environmental factors. The model was applied to self-reported data from twins aged 19 to 50 from seven countries that collaborated in the GenomEUtwin project: Australia, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom. Results confirmed the importance of genetic influences on physical activity in all countries and showed an age-related decrease in heritability for 4 countries. In the other three countries age did not interact with heritability but those samples were smaller or had a more restricted age range. Effects of shared environment were absent, except in older Swedish participants. The study confirms the importance of taking age effects into account when exploring the genetic and environmental contribution to physical activity. It also suggests that the power of genome-wide association studies to identify the genetic variants contributing to physical activity may be larger in young adult cohorts. PMID:21314253

  1. Postnatal depression and infant growth and development in low income countries: a cohort study from Goa, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Patel; N DeSouza; M Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Background: Postnatal depression is a recognised cause of delayed cognitive development in infants in developed countries. Being underweight is common in South Asia.Aims: To determine whether postnatal depression contributes to poor growth and development outcomes in Goa, India.Methods: Cohort study for growth outcomes with nested case-control study for developmental outcomes. A total of 171 babies were weighed and measured at

  2. Development of a telemedicine model for emerging countries: a case study on pediatric oncology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hira, A Y; Nebel de Mello, A; Faria, R A; Odone Filho, V; Lopes, R D; Zuffo, M K

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a telemedicine model for emerging countries, through the description of ONCONET, a telemedicine initiative applied to pediatric oncology in Brazil. The ONCONET core technology is a Web-based system that offers health information and other services specialized in childhood cancer such as electronic medical records and cooperative protocols for complex treatments. All Web-based services are supported by the use of high performance computing infrastructure based on clusters of commodity computers. The system was fully implemented on an open-source and free-software approach. Aspects of modeling, implementation and integration are covered. A model, both technologically and economically viable, was created through the research and development of in-house solutions adapted to the emerging countries reality and with focus on scalability both in the total number of patients and in the national infrastructure. PMID:17947134

  3. Solid Waste Management In Developing Countries — A Case Study Of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günay Kocasoy

    \\u000a Proper management of solid wastes continues to be a serious problem world wide and especially in the economically developing\\u000a countries. Growing population, rising standards of living and life-style, industrialization, and production and consumption\\u000a of new products are acting in concert to generate increasingly greater quantities of solid wastes, and this in turn is creating\\u000a serious problems of their management and

  4. Policies for developing defense technology in newly industrialised countries: a case study of Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiou-Guey Jan

    2003-01-01

    The post-Cold War era has witnessed considerably reduced national defense budgets and a consequent decline in the international arms trade. Therefore, the world’s arms suppliers have begun to sell high-performance weapons as another means of acquiring additional foreign exchange, thus enabling newly industrialised countries (NICs) to procure relatively advanced weaponry at lower prices. This trend is driving defense procurement policies

  5. Transpeople, Transprejudice and Pathologization: A Seven-Country Factor Analytic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam Winter; Pornthip Chalungsooth; Yik Koon Teh; Nongnuch Rojanalert; Kulthida Maneerat; Ying Wuen Wong; Anne Beaumont; Loretta Man Wah Ho; Francis “Chuck” Gomez; Raymond Aquino Macapagal

    2009-01-01

    Eight hundred and forty one undergraduate students in seven countries (China, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, United Kingdom and United States) completed a questionnaire examining perceptions of transwomen (on a transacceptance–transprejudice continuum). The aim was to identify factors underlying transacceptance-transprejudice, and relationships among them. Five factors were identified (MENTAL-ILLNESS, DENIAL-WOMEN, SOCIAL-REJECTION, PEER-REJECTION, SEXUAL-DEVIANCE). MENTAL-ILLNESS (the belief that transwomen were mentally ill)

  6. An exploration of parents' perceptions and beliefs about changes following participation in a family skill training program: a qualitative study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Anilena; Ulph, Fiona; Calam, Rachel

    2015-07-01

    Family skill training programs have been recognized as effective strategies for preventing substance use. However, they have been evaluated mainly in high-income countries. Families in developing countries also face difficulties; therefore, it is important to explore the fit of existing programs in this context. The present study explores parents' perceptions and beliefs about changes following participation in the Strengthening Families Program 10-14, which was implemented in Panama by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Thirty parents who had taken part in the program between 2010 and 2011 were interviewed. Thematic analysis was conducted taking a participant-driven inductive stand. An exploration of parents' narratives suggested that, after the program, they observed changes in themselves as parents, in their children, in the interaction between the two of them, and in their functioning as a couple. Perceived changes centered on communication, limits, obedience, relationship roles, emotional regulation, and social development. For example, parents reported being able to control their emotions in a healthier manner, reducing the use of shouting and setting limits in a more effective way. All these factors have been recognized in previous research as strategies for preventing substance use. It is important to assess participants' perceptions of programs brought from elsewhere before dissemination efforts can take place. Parents interviewed for this study appeared to hold positive views about this program. This methodology is discussed as a means of evaluating evidence-based interventions in different cultural settings. PMID:25387790

  7. Computer literacy among first year medical students in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of computer assisted learning (CAL) has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. Methods The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190) were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Results Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%), 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3%) owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%). Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%), self learning (63.0%) or by peer learning (49.2%). The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%), entertainment (95.0%), web browsing (80.1%) and preparing presentations (76.8%). Majority of the students (75.7%) expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty. Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6). There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p < 0.001). In the linear regression analysis, formal computer training was the strongest predictor of computer literacy (? = 13.034), followed by using internet facility, being from Western province, using computers for Web browsing and computer programming, computer ownership and doing IT (Information Technology) as a subject in GCE (A/L) examination. Conclusion Sri Lankan medical undergraduates had a low-intermediate level of computer literacy. There is a need to improve computer literacy, by increasing computer training in schools, or by introducing computer training in the initial stages of the undergraduate programme. These two options require improvement in infrastructure and other resources. PMID:22980096

  8. The Mobile Manual Arts Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Clifford F.; Peters, Joanne

    Begun in 1978 to bring manual arts experience to children in Queensland's "disadvantaged country areas," the Mobile Manual Arts Unit by the end of the 1980 school year had visited 16 separate locations, involving 25 different schools. A total of 727 students had participated (out of a target population of 992 pupils) and a total of 259 contact…

  9. Student Loans in Developing Countries: An Evaluation of the Colombian Performance. Bank Staff Working Paper No. 182.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jallade, Jean-Pierre

    The student loan program run by the Instituto Colombiano de Credito Educativo y Estudios Tecnicos en el Exterior (ICETEX) has three main objectives: to increase the country's supply of highly skilled manpower, to achieve more equality of educational opportunity, and to provide a meaningful source of finance for higher education. An analysis of…

  10. Study Abroad in a Developing and a Developed Country: A Comparison of American Undergraduate Students' Experiences in Ghana and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the differences among the experiences of 7 American undergraduate students; 4 who studied for a semester in Ghana, a developing country, and 3 who studied for a semester in England, a developed country. Using phenomenology as its guiding framework, transcribed interviews were analyzed and the focal phenomenon of the…

  11. Oasis Connections: Results from an Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Sara J.; Lee, Chin Chin; Branham, Janice; Remis, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a community-based basic computer and Internet training program designed for older adults, provide recommendations for program refinement, and gather preliminary information on program sustainability. Design and Methods: The program was developed by the OASIS Institute, a nonprofit…

  12. Bibliometric study on food science and technology: Scientific production in Iberian-American countries (1991-2000)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Alfaraz; Amalia Mirta Calviño

    2004-01-01

    This study presents a bibliometric analysis of the scientific production in the food science and technology (FST) field for\\u000a the period 1991-2000, in Iberian-America (IA). Eight selected IA countries contributed 97.6% of the IA production and accounted\\u000a for a 6.6% of the world production. The most frequent document type is journal article published in English. Retrieved records\\u000a display characteristical authorship

  13. Exploratory Study of within-Country Differences in Work and Life ValuesThe Case of Spanish Business Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shimon L. Dolan; Miriam Díez-Piñol; MariLuz Fernández-Alles; Antonio Martín-Prius; Salustiano Martínez-Fierro

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the article is to present the results of an exploratory study that analyses a sample of business students from two geographically separated regions (the North-East and the South-West) in Spain, to establish if different sub-cultures can be detected within one country, taking into account work and life values. Measures of culture (defined by a set of work

  14. Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

    2013-06-01

    Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

  15. Earthquake Loss Assessment for the Evaluation of the Sovereign Risk and Financial Sustainability of Countries and Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, O. D.

    2013-05-01

    Recently earthquakes have struck cities both from developing as well as developed countries, revealing significant knowledge gaps and the need to improve the quality of input data and of the assumptions of the risk models. The quake and tsunami in Japan (2011) and the disasters due to earthquakes in Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), New Zealand (2011) and Spain (2011), only to mention some unexpected impacts in different regions, have left several concerns regarding hazard assessment as well as regarding the associated uncertainties to the estimation of the future losses. Understanding probable losses and reconstruction costs due to earthquakes creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to cope with sovereign risk, including allocating the sustained budgetary resources necessary to reduce those potential damages and safeguard development. Therefore the use of robust risk models is a need to assess the future economic impacts, the country's fiscal responsibilities and the contingent liabilities for governments and to formulate, justify and implement risk reduction measures and optimal financial strategies of risk retention and transfer. Special attention should be paid to the understanding of risk metrics such as the Loss Exceedance Curve (empiric and analytical) and the Expected Annual Loss in the context of conjoint and cascading hazards.

  16. Psychological Stress and Hospitalization for Childhood Asthma-a Nationwide Cohort Study in Two Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Olsen, Jørn; Agerbo, Esben; Yuan, Wei; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong

    2013-01-01

    Objective Exposures to psychological stress in early life may contribute to the development or exacerbation of asthma. We undertook a cohort study based on data from several population-based registers in Denmark and Sweden to examine whether bereavement in childhood led to increased asthma hospitalization. Methods All singleton children born in Denmark during 1977-2008 and in Sweden during 1973-2006 were included in the study (N=5,202,576). The children were followed from birth to the date of first asthma hospitalization, emigration, death, their 18th birthday, or the end of study (31 December 2007 in Sweden and 31 December 2008 in Denmark), whichever came first. All the children were assigned to the non-bereaved group until they lost a close relative (mother, father or a sibling), from when they were included in the bereaved group. We evaluated the hazard ratio (HR) of first hospitalization for asthma in bereaved children using Cox proportional hazards regression models, compared to those who were in the non-bereaved group. We also did a sub-analysis on the association between bereavement and first asthma medication. Results A total of 147,829 children were hospitalized for asthma. The overall adjusted HR of asthma hospitalization in bereaved children was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.16), compared to non-bereaved children. The risk of asthma hospitalization was increased in those who lost a close relative at age of 14-17 years (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.23-1.92), but not in younger age groups. The association between bereavement and asthma hospitalization did not change over time since bereavement. In the sub-analysis in singleton live births during 1996-2008 recorded in the DMBR, bereavement was associated with a lower use of asthma medication (HR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.95). Conclusions Our data suggests that psychological stress following bereavement in late adolescence is associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalization or lowers the threshold for asthma hospitalization. PMID:24205324

  17. Tropical forests: a call for action. Part 1: the plan. Part 2: case studies. Part 3: country investment profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The World Resources Institute (WRI), in cooperation with multi- and bi-lateral organizations, has launched a major initiative to conserve forests in the humid and semiarid/arid areas of developing countries. The 3-part WRI report is a call to political action on this subject. Part 1 describes the high costs exacted by deforestation, but asserts that the process can be arrested and reversed by a partnership of governments, local participants, and development-assistance agencies. Proposals are presented for a 5-year action plan in farm, community, and arid-zone forestry. Parts 2 and 3 include case studies of the successful projects listed in Part 1 and 5-year investment profiles of 56 developing countries affected by deforestation.

  18. Country News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  19. The Critical Role of Supervision in Retaining Staff in Obstetric Services: A Three Country Study

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, Eilish; Daly, Michael; Kamwendo, Francis; Masanja, Honorati; Sidat, Mohsin; de Pinho, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 commits us to reducing maternal mortality rates by three quarters and MDG 4 commits us to reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In order to reach these goals, greater access to basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as well as comprehensive EmOC which includes safe Caesarean section, is needed.. The limited capacity of health systems to meet demand for obstetric services has led several countries to utilize mid-level cadres as a substitute to more extensively trained and more internationally mobile healthcare workers. Although this does provide greater capacity for service delivery, concern about the performance and motivation of these workers is emerging. We propose that poor leadership characterized by inadequate and unstructured supervision underlies much of the dissatisfaction and turnover that has been shown to exist amongst these mid-level healthcare workers and indeed health workers more generally. To investigate this, we conducted a large-scale survey of 1,561 mid-level cadre healthcare workers (health workers trained for shorter periods to perform specific tasks e.g. clinical officers) delivering obstetric care in Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. Participants indicated the primary supervision method used in their facility and we assessed their job satisfaction and intentions to leave their current workplace. In all three countries we found robust evidence indicating that a formal supervision process predicted high levels of job satisfaction and low intentions to leave. We find no evidence that facility level factors modify the link between supervisory methods and key outcomes. We interpret this evidence as strongly supporting the need to strengthen leadership and implement a framework and mechanism for systematic supportive supervision. This will promote better job satisfaction and improve the retention and performance of obstetric care workers, something which has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in the countdown to 2015. PMID:23555581

  20. CORRESPONDENCE STUDY EVALUATION PROJECT, STAGE 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALL, SANDRA J.; AND OTHERS

    AN ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTED FROM STUDENT REGISTRATION CARDS AND THE FORMULATION OF A STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTITUTE THE FIRST PART OF A THREE-STAGE LONG-RANGE RESEARCH PROJECT TO EVALUATE A UNIVERSITY CORRESPONDENCE STUDY PROGRAM. THE DATA ANALYSIS DESCRIBES THE POPULATION OF CORRESPONDENCE STUDENTS IN TERMS OF RELEVANT INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL…

  1. Contemporary rhetorical trends and tensions in women's country music 

    E-print Network

    Haynes, Julie Ann

    1994-01-01

    randomly selected songs by women which reached number one on Billboard's "Country Singles" charts. Additionally, through the use of gender ideology criticism, the four most popular music videos of the 1990s sample are evaluated. The study revealed...

  2. Management of surgical margins after endoscopic laser surgery for early glottic cancers: a multicentric evaluation in French-speaking European countries.

    PubMed

    Fakhry, Nicolas; Vergez, Sébastien; Babin, Emmanuel; Baumstarck, Karine; Santini, Laure; Dessi, Patrick; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the practices of ENT surgeons for the management of surgical margins after endoscopic laser surgery for early glottic cancers. A questionnaire was sent to different surgeons managing cancers of the larynx in France, Belgium and Switzerland. A descriptive and comparative analysis of practices across centers was performed. Sixty-nine surgeons completed the questionnaire (58 in France, 10 in Belgium and 1 in Switzerland). In case of very close or equivocal resection margins after definitive histological examination, 67 % of surgeons perform close follow-up, 28 % further treatment and 5 % had no opinion. Factors resulting in a significant change in the management of equivocal or very close margins were: the country of origin (p = 0.011), the specialty of the multidisciplinary team leader (p = 0.001), the fact that radiation equipment is located in the same center (p = 0.027) and the access to IMRT technique (p = 0.027). In case of positive resection margins, 80 % of surgeons perform further treatment, 15 % surveillance, and 5 % had no opinion. The only factor resulting in a significant change in the management of positive margins was the number of cancers of the larynx treated per year (p = 0.011). It is important to spare, on one hand equivocal or very close margins and on the other hand, positive margins. Postoperative management should be discussed depending on intraoperative findings, patient, practices of multidisciplinary team, and surgeon experience. This management remains non-consensual and writing a good practice guideline could be useful. PMID:25666588

  3. Immigrant Integration policies and perceived Group Threat: A Multilevel Study of 27 Western and Eastern European Countries.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, Elmar; Meuleman, Bart; Davidov, Eldad

    2013-05-01

    Although immigrant integration policies have long been hypothesized to be associated with majority members' anti-immigrant sentiments, systematic empirical research exploring this relationship is largely absent. To address this gap in the literature, the present research takes a cross-national perspective. Drawing from theory and research on group conflict and intergroup norms, we conduct two studies to examine whether preexisting integration policies that are more permissive promote or impede majority group members' subsequent negative attitudes regarding immigrants. For several Western and Eastern European countries, we link country-level information on immigrant integration policies from 2006 with individual-level survey data from the Eurobarometer 71.3 collected in 2009 (Study 1) and from the fourth wave of the European Value Study collected between 2008 and 2009 (Study 2). For both studies, the results from multilevel regression models demonstrate that immigrant integration policies that are more permissive are associated with decreased perceptions of group threat from immigrants. These findings suggest that immigrant integration policies are of key importance in improving majority members' attitudes regarding immigrants, which is widely considered desirable in modern immigrant-receiving societies. PMID:23521987

  4. Constraints to healthcare waste treatment in low-income countries - a case study from Somaliland.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Veronica; Ali, Mansoor; Vaccari, Mentore

    2012-06-01

    In low-income countries, healthcare waste is mixed with the municipal waste stream and rarely receives special attention. This paper presents the lessons learned from a pilot project targeted to improve healthcare waste management in Hargeisa (Somaliland). The interventions were carried out in three of the main hospitals in the city. Consideration was also given to improve the overall situation regarding the management of healthcare waste. Three De Montfort incinerators were built and training was provided to operators, waste workers and healthcare personnel. Although the incinerators were constructed in accordance with the required standards, major constraints were identified in the operational phase: irregular de-ashing procedures, misuse of safety equipment, and ineffective separation of healthcare waste were seen in this phase. The paper concludes that in other small hospitals in the developing world, such as those in Hargeisa, on-site incineration by use of low-cost, small-scale incinerators could be successfully applied as an interim solution, provided that an agreed and acceptable plan of operation and maintenance is in place and responsibilities for the management of the facility are clearly identified. Moreover, when replicating this experience in other settings even greater importance should be given to the technical capacity building of operators and pressure should be exercised on local administrations in order to control and supervise the whole management system. PMID:22128091

  5. THE STUDY ABOUT THE EVALUATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL LAND IMPROVEMENT PLANS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE MUTUAL RELATION AMONG THE AREAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Toru

    This study evaluates the result of the Comprehensive National Land Improvement Plans in Japan from the point of view of the mutual relation among the areas, using the data which is gotten from the inter-regional input-output table. In the research, it considers the idea of the connection among the areas which the Plans have regarded as important. It classifies connection relation into three kinds of the connection of the one's own local, to the other area, to the foreign countries. While comparing country-by-country, it evaluates saying the getting of certain good results by the uniting policy in the country which the Plans showed.

  6. Project identification and evaluation techniques for transportation infrastructure : assessing their role in metropolitan areas of developing countries

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Vimal, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Project identification and evaluation of transportation infrastructure play a vital role in shaping and sustaining the forms of cities all over the world. These cities differ substantially in character and urban form and ...

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN CARIBBEAN AND LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carel Ligeon; Philip Gregorowicz; Curtis M. Jolly

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is considered an important social activity but a major health risk in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC). Alcohol consumption net benefits are doubtful and the factors influencing alcohol consumption in the LAC countries are not well documented. In this study, we use secondary data and Ordinary Least Squares Regression models to evaluate the factors influencing alcohol consumption

  8. Comparison of Risk Management Policies in OECD Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Lahidji

    2006-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development started in 2003 a series of country studies and reviews aimed at assisting its Member countries in evaluating the effectiveness of their risk management systems, notably in terms of their ability to contend with large-scale risks of the future, and at offering them guidance in making the requisite improvements. The project, entitled the

  9. Evaluating the value proposition for improving vaccine thermostability to increase vaccine impact in low and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Karp, Christopher L; Lans, Deborah; Esparza, José; Edson, Eleanore B; Owen, Katey E; Wilson, Christopher B; Heaton, Penny M; Levine, Orin S; Rao, Raja

    2015-07-01

    The need to keep vaccines cold in the face of high ambient temperatures and unreliable access to electricity is a challenge that limits vaccine coverage in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Greater vaccine thermostability is generally touted as the obvious solution. Despite conventional wisdom, comprehensive analysis of the value proposition for increasing vaccine thermostability has been lacking. Further, while significant investments have been made in increasing vaccine thermostability in recent years, no vaccine products have been commercialized as a result. We analyzed the value proposition for increasing vaccine thermostability, grounding the analysis in specific vaccine use cases (e.g., use in routine immunization [RI] programs, or in campaigns) and in the broader context of cold chain technology and country level supply chain system design. The results were often surprising. For example, cold chain costs actually represent a relatively small fraction of total vaccine delivery system costs. Further, there are critical, vaccine use case-specific temporal thresholds that need to be overcome for significant benefits to be reaped from increasing vaccine thermostability. We present a number of recommendations deriving from this analysis that suggest a rational path toward unlocking the value (maximizing coverage, minimizing total system costs) of increased vaccine thermostability, including: (1) the full range of thermostability of existing vaccines should be defined and included in their labels; (2) for new vaccines, thermostability goals should be addressed up-front at the level of the target product profile; (3) improving cold chain infrastructure and supply chain system design is likely to have the largest impact on total system costs and coverage in the short term-and will influence the degree of thermostability required in the future; (4) in the long term, there remains value in monitoring the emergence of disruptive technologies that could remove the entire RI portfolio out of the cold chain. PMID:26055297

  10. Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this evidence has shown complexity with regard to setting, conflict-phase, gender, and age. These complex findings raise the need of a detailed evaluation of the specific factors which influence size and direction of intervention effects. Individual patient data meta-analysis is a specific type of meta-analysis that allows the collection of exact information at an individual patient level, and to examine whether intervention and socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support may act as moderators and mediators of intervention effect. The aim of the present study is to carry out an individual patient data meta-analysis using data from all available randomized controlled trials (either published or unpublished) comparing psychosocial intervention with waiting list or no intervention arms in children exposed to traumatic events living in low- and middle-income countries. Methods/Design All randomized trials comparing selective preventive psychosocial intervention versus waiting list or no treatment conditions in children (0–18 years) living in low- and middle-income countries will be included. Studies will be identified in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. There will be no restrictions on publication type, status, language, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be psychological symptoms (post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (coping methods, social support, self-esteem), and function impairment. Discussion We are expecting that some variables, like socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support will act as moderators/mediators of intervention effect. The investigation of the role of these factors on the intervention effects will help in the appropriate selection, development, implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based programs in low- and middle-income countries. Trial registration This protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (registration number: CRD42013006960). PMID:24721115

  11. Team-level approaches to addressing disordered eating: a qualitative study of two female collegiate cross country running teams.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Goldman, Roberta E; Kubzansky, Laura D; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to consider strategies used by two similarly competitive female collegiate cross country running teams to address teammate eating behaviors perceived to be unhealthy and problematic. Data were obtained through semi-structured individual interviews with team members (n?=?35). Teams differed in how they addressed problematic eating behaviors: members of one team described a collaborative, positive, team-focused and direct approach, while the most commonly described strategy for the other team was to do nothing. Possible contextual and compositional reasons for between-team differences and implications for prevention and detection of disordered eating among female athletes are discussed. PMID:24392949

  12. Why should you study abroad? Find out how people in other countries view the world

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    current level of ability Opportunities to study Engineering in English abroad: Hong Kong Australia the Education Abroad Advising Center, 455 Hills South, to learn more Make an appointment with one of the Study & Technology New Zealand: Univ. of Christchurch Israel: Tel Aviv Univ. STUDY ABROAD OPTIONS FOR ENGINEERING

  13. Country Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Environmental Education Section.

    The reports from five countries participating at a seminar on teacher training in environmental education for Asia are compiled in this document. The objectives of the seminar were: (1) to familiarize teacher educators with the contents of the series of teacher training modules in environmental education prepared by the International Environmental…

  14. Study of urban community survey in India: growing trend of high prevalence of hypertension in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence pattern of hypertension in developing countries is different from that in the developed countries. In India, a very large, populous and typical developing country, community surveys have documented that between three and six decades, prevalence of hypertension has increased by about 30 times among urban dwellers and by about 10 times among the rural inhabitants. Various factors might have contributed to this rising trend and among others, consequences of urbanization such as change in life style pattern, diet and stress, increased population and shrinking employment have been implicated. In this paper, we study the prevalence of hypertension in an urban community of India using the JNC VII criteria, with the aim of identifying the risk factors and suggesting intervention strategies. A total of 1609 respondents out of 1662 individuals participated in our cross-sectional survey of validated and structured questionnaire followed by blood pressure measurement. Results showed pre-hypertensive levels of blood pressures among 35.8% of the participants in systolic group (120-139mm of Hg) and 47.7% in diastolic group (80-89 mm of Hg). Systolic hypertension (140 mm of Hg) was present in 40.9% and diastolic hypertension (90 mm of Hg) in 29.3% of the participants. Age and sex-specific prevalence of hypertension showed progressive rise of systolic and diastolic hypertension in women when compared to men. Men showed progressive rise in systolic hypertension beyond fifth decade of life. Bivariate analysis showed significant relationship of hypertension with age, sedentary occupation, body mass index (BMI), diet, ischemic heart disease, and smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed age and BMI as risk factors, and non-vegetarian diet as protective factor with respect to hypertension. Prevalence of prehypertensives was high among younger subjects - particularly students and laborers who need special attention. Role of non-vegetarian diet as a protective factor might have been related to fish-eating behavior of the sample population, who also use mustard oil as cooking medium - both of which have significant level of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The observed prevalence of hypertension in this study and other studies suggest the need for a comprehensive national policy to control hypertension in India, and, in other similar developing countries. PMID:15968343

  15. The relationship between maternal depression and smoking cessation during pregnancy--a cross-sectional study of pregnant women from 15 European countries.

    PubMed

    Smedberg, Janne; Lupattelli, Angela; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Øverland, Simon; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy. However, differences in study design and methodology challenge study comparability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and continuing smoking among pregnant European women while adjusting for maternal characteristics. This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data on depression status, smoking habits, maternal socio-demographic characteristics, and life-style factors were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Associations were estimated with logistic regression. Of 4,295 women included, 1,481 (34.5 %) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 391 (26.4 %) continued smoking during pregnancy whereof 127 (32.5 %) were depressed. The association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy were uniform across the European countries (OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.50-2.71), with about twice the prevalence of continuing smoking among the depressed. There was a strong relationship between continuing smoking in pregnancy and low education level (OR 4.46, 95 % CI 2.72-7.32), which coincided with risky pregnancy behavior such as failure to attend pregnancy/birth preparation courses (OR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.19-2.72) and follow recommended use of folic acid (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.23-2.65). Women who perceived the risk for the fetus of continued smoking during pregnancy as higher were the least likely to continue smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.68-0.77). This underlines the clustering of risk in some pregnant women, and the results should guide antenatal care of depressed women struggling to quit smoking during pregnancy. PMID:25352316

  16. PRE-RELEASE EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR SILVELEAF WHITEFLY WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OTHER COUNTRIES CONSIDERING RELEASE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A retrospective evaluation of the biological control program for Bemisia tabaci biotype B in the USA was conducted. The use of climate matching to direct foreign exploration led to the discovery of B. tabaci parasitoids from diverse climates, which proved useful in selecting species which would est...

  17. The Mobile Remedial Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briody, P. M.

    Data for evaluation of the Mobile Remedial Unit, instituted to assist approximately 250 isolated Queensland children with learning difficulties during 1978 and 1979, were obtained by visits to 10 schools; discussions with principals, teachers, administrators, and the 2 mobile remedial teachers; document analysis; and travel with a remedial teacher…

  18. Community Participation in Schools in Developing Countries: Characteristics, Methods and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how communities participate in schools across diverse contexts in developing countries and the results attributed to community participation. It reviews evaluations of participatory approaches to education in developing countries to answer two basic questions: 1) How do communities participate in school in developing countries?…

  19. Draining the Swamp: Democracy Promotion, State Failure, and Terrorism in 19 Middle Eastern Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Piazza

    2007-01-01

    This study empirically evaluates the question of whether or not the promotion of democracy in the Middle East will reduce terrorism, both in terms of terrorist attacks sustained by Middle Eastern countries and in terms of attacks perpetrated by terrorist groups based in Middle Eastern countries. Using a series of pooled, time-series negative binomial statistical regression models on 19 countries

  20. How TIMSS-R Contributed to Education in Eighteen Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elley, Warwick B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an independent evaluation of the impact, in eighteen countries, of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study of 1999-Repeat, usually referred to as TIMSS-R. The countries of interest were all low- and middle-income countries that had received financial assistance from the World Bank, after a…

  1. Creating Child-Friendly EnvironmentsCase Studies on Children's Participation in Three European Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LIISA HORELLI

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss the literature on children's participation and to analyse what planning theorists, educators and child researchers can learn from the comparison of case studies on children's involvement in neighbourhood improvement in Finland, Switzerland and France. The case studies indicate that the creation of child-friendly environments with young people means a shift towards more

  2. Creating Child-Friendly Environments: Case Studies on Children's Participation in Three European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horelli, Liisa

    1998-01-01

    Discusses literature on children's community participation and analyzes case studies on children's involvement in neighborhood improvement in Finland, Switzerland, and France. Case-study findings indicate that the creation of child-friendly environments with young people requires a shift toward more ecological and socially supportive settings with…

  3. Mobile Phone Use in a Developing Country: A Malaysian Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeow, Paul H. P.; Yen Yuen, Yee; Connolly, Regina

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the factors that influence consumer satisfaction with mobile telephone use in Malaysia. The validity of the study's constructs, criterion, and content was confirmed. Construct validity was verified through the factor analysis with a total variance of 73.72 percent explained by all six independent factors. Content validity was…

  4. Population Growth and Economic Development: Lessons from Selected Asian Countries. Policy Development Studies, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; And Others

    The major findings of a research project on the relationship between population growth and economic development are summarized in this monograph. The study compares recent demographic and economic trends in Japan, Korea, Thailand, and Indonesia to worldwide experience as described by an econometric model of population and development. The study

  5. Bintang MalangSuara Jogja Special Edition ACICIS -Australian Consortium for`In-Country' Indonesian Studies

    E-print Network

    the final month of semester to write a report on their field study experience. This report is between 8 be in English with a summary in Indonesian. At the end of semester, students submit their final report field option students. ACICIS field study reports and seminars are as- sessed by UnMuh academics. Any

  6. Organic supply chain collaboration: a case study in eight EU Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Naspetti; Nicolas Lampkin; P. Nicolas; Matthias Stolze; Raffaele Zanoli

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at contributing to a better understanding of the linkage between supply chain performance and possible performance improvement with respect to food quality and safety. Therefore, the paper addresses the question whether the level of collaborative planning and close supply chain relationships could help improve quality and safety of organic supply chains. The study was conducted as a

  7. Organic Supply Chain Collaboration: A Case Study in Eight EU Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Naspetti; N. Lampkin; P. Nicolas; M. Stolze; R. Zanoli

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at contributing to a better understanding of the linkage between supply chain performance and possible performance improvement with respect to food quality and safety. Therefore, the article addresses the question whether the level of collaborative planning and close supply chain relationships could help improve the quality and safety of organic supply chains. The study was conducted as

  8. School-Based Understanding of Human Rights in Four Countries: A Commonwealth Study. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, R.; Gundara, J.; Dev, A.; Ratsoma, N.; Rukanda, M.; Smith A.; Birthistle, U.

    This project is the result of a three year study of a sample of secondary schools in Botswana, India, Northern Ireland, and Zimbabwe. The study is backed up by longer interviews with students, teachers, and administrators, an audit of the curriculum, a review of educational materials, and an examination of the teacher education available. A…

  9. Short of transformation: American ADN students' thoughts, feelings, and experiences of studying abroad in a low-income country.

    PubMed

    Foronda, Cynthia L; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-01-01

    ADN students are a large yet distinct subgroup of nursing students who require research and understanding. The purpose of this study was to describe the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of American associate degree nursing (ADN) students who participated in a short study abroad course in a low-income country. A qualitative, narrative method was used. Three categories emerged from the analysis. Participants revealed thoughts of "constant comparisons", feelings of an "emotional journey", and they experienced "learning". Participants did not demonstrate perspective transformation as defined by Mezirow as participants signified no intent for social action. Several potential blocks to perspective transformation were identified: egocentrism/emotional disconnect, perceived powerlessness/being overwhelmed, and a vacation mindset. The findings provide insight into the student experience of studying abroad. Transformative learning is not a guaranteed result. Nurse educators must consider strategies to foster transformation including discussing global systemic oppressors, international relations, coping, connecting, and social action. PMID:22673958

  10. Country of birth and body mass index: a national study of 2,000 immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wändell, Per Erik; Ponzer, Sari; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of country of birth on body mass index (BMI) after adjustment for age, educational status, physical activity and smoking habits. Two random samples of men and women, aged 27-60, were used: 1,957 immigrants and 2,975 Swedes, both from 1996. Men and women were analysed in separate models by the use of linear regression. The BMI levels were significantly higher among Polish (0.8 BMI units) and Chilean (0.7 BMI units) men, and Chilean (1.9 BMI units) and Turkish (1.5 BMI units) women than among their Swedish controls, after adjustment for all explanatory variables. Other intermediate risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as physical inactivity and daily smoking, were also more frequent among almost all the immigrant subgroups. This study shows a strong influence of country of birth on BMI even after adjustment for age, educational status, physical activity and smoking habits. PMID:15648593

  11. How to Make Diagnosis Related Groups Payment More Feasible in Developing Countries- A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Zhaoxin; LIU, Rui; LI, Ping; JIANG, Chenghua; HAO, Mo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Given limited health sources, how to make DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) more feasible is a big question in developing countries. This study contributes to the debate on how to bridge the pay-for-service and DRGs during the transitional period of payment reform. Methods From 2008 to 2012, 20740 patients with cirrhosis or duodenal ulcer disease were chosen as sample. Using multiple linear regression analysis, the interrelationships between the total medical expenses of the inpatients, and age, gender of the inpatients, length of stay (LOS), region and economic level of the hospitals were examined. Results The main findings were 1) length of stay (LOS) and the economic level of treatment location had a statistically significant impact on patients with cirrhosis or duodenal ulcer disease. Meanwhile gender is not a significant factor for both of them. 2) Under the premise of limited resources, developing countries should first narrow down to screen for common and frequently occurring diseases, then study the key factors which affect the treatment cost of the diseases. Conclusion Based on picking out common diseases and their key factors, Simplification of the DRGs setting process will greatly increase the efficiency of implementing DRGs in the developing world.

  12. Psychosocial interventions for disruptive behavioural problems in children living in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Burkey, Matthew D; Hosein, Megan; Purgato, Marianna; Morton, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) are among the most common forms of child psychopathology and have serious long-term academic, social, and mental health consequences worldwide. Psychosocial treatments are the first line of evidence-based treatments for DBDs, yet their effectiveness often varies according to patient sociodemographic characteristics, practice setting, and implementation procedures. While a large majority of the world's children live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), most studies have evaluated psychosocial treatments for DBDs in high-income Anglo countries. Methods and analysis The primary objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of psychosocial treatments for DBDs in children and adolescents (under age 18) diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, or other disruptive behavioural problems living in LMIC. The secondary objectives are to: (1) describe the range and types of psychosocial treatments used to address DBDs in LMIC and (2) identify key dissemination and implementation factors (adaptation processes, training/supervision processes, and financial costs). All controlled trials comparing psychosocial treatments versus waiting list, no treatment, or treatment as usual in children living in LMIC will be included. Studies will be identified using the methods outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines without restrictions on language, publication type, status, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be disruptive behavioural problems (eg, oppositionality, defiance, aggression or deceit). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (eg, prosocial behaviour), function impairment, institutionalisation (or hospitalisation), academic outcomes and caregiver outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This study uses data from published studies; therefore ethical review is not required. Findings will be presented in a published manuscript. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42014015334. PMID:25995239

  13. Relating national veterinary services to the country's livestock industry: case studies from four countries--Great Britain, Botswana, Perú, and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Roger S

    2002-10-01

    At the end of WW II, the British Government of the time decided that it was essential for Britain to become self-sufficient in food. In consequence there was a large investment in services to agriculture and in particular many new veterinary investigation centers were opened to help farmers produce more animal products. The upsurge in world trade led the Government of Mrs. Thatcher to decide that livestock was just another commodity and so there has been a massive scaling down of money available to assist the livestock farmer. For Botswana the livestock industry is vital to the well-being of the people and successive Governments have continued to invest in veterinary services. As a consequence, Botswana has one of the best and most efficient Veterinary Services in Africa. By contrast, the livestock industry in Perú has an insignificant effect on the gross national product. The fiber exports from camelids are a small international market, while the dairy industry is unable to provide sufficient milk for the nation. Partly as a result of this, the Peruvian Government invests very little in the livestock industry or the veterinary services that support it. Vietnam is in a transitional stage: there is a large but as yet unorganized livestock industry with a mass of smallholder farmers. The Government has made a large investment in people in the Department of Animal Health but without a concomitant investment in equipment and training. If the industry is to develop, it will require much more investment from the government. These countries will be discussed in more detail and an attempt will be made to show how by relating the services to the livestock industry, governments can improve services and at the same time cut the costs. PMID:12381561

  14. Viral hemorrhagic fever cases in the country of Georgia: Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance Study results.

    PubMed

    Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Clark, Danielle V; Bautista, Christian T; Abdel Fadeel, Moustafa; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J; Wölfel, Silke; Wölfel, Roman; Rivard, Robert G

    2014-08-01

    Minimal information is available on the incidence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus and hantavirus infections in Georgia. From 2008 to 2011, 537 patients with fever ? 38°C for ? 48 hours without a diagnosis were enrolled into a sentinel surveillance study to investigate the incidence of nine pathogens, including CCHF virus and hantavirus. Of 14 patients with a hemorrhagic fever syndrome, 3 patients tested positive for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Two of the patients enrolled in the study had acute renal failure. These 2 of 537 enrolled patients were the only patients in the study positive for hantavirus IgM antibodies. These results suggest that CCHF virus and hantavirus are contributing causes of acute febrile syndromes of infectious origin in Georgia. These findings support introduction of critical diagnostic approaches and confirm the need for additional surveillance in Georgia. PMID:24891463

  15. Using ergonomics checkpoints to support a participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country (IDC)--a case study.

    PubMed

    Helali, Faramarz

    2009-01-01

    To achieve ergonomics awareness in 3 subsidiary companies, an intervention team was formed. The aims of this study were to implement basic ergonomics through a participatory ergonomics intervention process that can support a continuous learning process and lead to an improvement in health and safety as well as in the work systems in the organization. The findings of this study (i.e., method, continuous learning and integration) were key to making the participatory ergonomics intervention successful. Furthermore, 4 issues of the ergonomics checkpoints (i.e., work schedules, work tasks, healthy work organization and learning) for assessing the work system were found suitable for both changing work schedules and for improving the work system. This paper describes the result of this project and also the experiences gained and the conclusions reached from using the International Labour Office's ergonomics checkpoints in the industries of industrially developing country. PMID:19744374

  16. University students' perceived norms of peers and drug use: a multicentric study in five Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Inés V; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta; de Oliveira, Elias Barbosa; de Oliveira Júnior, Hercilio Pereira; Santos Figueroa, Syntia Dinora; Montoya Vásquez, Erika Maria; Cazenave, Angelica; Chaname, Eva; Medina Matallana, Luz Stella; Ramirez Castillo, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study compared perceived peer drug use and actual drug use in a sample of Latin American university students. Students from nine universities in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Honduras and Peru) completed a questionnaire that addressed the use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine. Analysis focused on comparing perceptions to actual drug use. The findings largely, but not completely, confirmed the idea that students overestimate peer drug use. The unexpected findings were those relating to alcohol. While students generally overestimated peer use of tobacco, marijuana and cocaine, they accurately estimated or underestimated peer use of alcohol. Apart from the anomalous findings with regard to alcohol, this study shows that perceived drug use relates to actual drug use in Latin America as it does elsewhere. The results also support the suggestion that interventions using normative feedback would be useful to strengthen drug use prevention programs aimed at youth in Latin America. PMID:20011910

  17. Canadians Engaged in Post-Doctoral Studies in Other Countries 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payton, L. C.

    In a previous study entitled Post-doctoral Education in the Ontario Universities 1969-70 (HE 003 573), the author showed that the majority of postdoctoral students in the Ontario universities in 1969-70 were not citizens of Canada. Upon finding this, the author determined to find out if a significant number of Canadian doctoral graduates continued…

  18. Exploring our Country's History: Linking Fiction to Nonfiction. Literature Bridges to Social Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Phyllis J.

    Fiction is a powerful tool that can motivate students to learn. This book is designed to assist elementary teachers in planning integrated units of study based on quality fiction titles about U.S. history. These titles build interest, illuminate specific eras, and lead students to related nonfiction titles. Organized in sections that cover…

  19. Values--A Study of Teacher and Student Perceptions in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmud, Shamsul H.; Warchal, Judith R.; Masuchi, Ayumi; Ahmed, Rafiq; Schoelmerich, Axel

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to assess and compare the values prevalent among the students and teachers of Universities in Bangladesh, Japan, USA and Germany. The sample consisted of 480 students and 236 teachers. The sample included 120 undergraduate students from Japan; 120 undergraduate students from Bangladesh; 120 undergraduate students from USA, and 120…

  20. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  1. Corporate governance and capital structure in developing countries: a case study of Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faizul Haque; Thankom Gopinath Arun; Colin Kirkpatrick

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of firm-level corporate governance on the capital structure pattern of non-financial listed firms, using a case study of Bangladesh. The agency theory suggests that better corporate governance will reduce agency costs and improve investor confidence, which in turn will enhance the ability of a firm to gain access to equity finance, reducing dependence on debt

  2. Corporate governance and capital structure in developing countries: a case study of Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faizul Haque; Thankom Gopinath Arun; Colin Kirkpatrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of firm-level corporate governance on the capital structure pattern of non-financial listed firms, using a case study of Bangladesh. The agency theory suggests that better corporate governance will reduce agency costs and improve investor confidence, which in turn will enhance the ability of a firm to gain access to equity finance, reducing dependence on debt

  3. Forecasting Generation of Urban Solid Waste in Developing Countries—A Case Study in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otoniel Buenrostro; Gerardo Bocco; Javier Vence

    2001-01-01

    Based on a study of the composition of urban solid waste (USW) and of socioeconomic variables in Morelia, Mexico, generation rates were estimated. In addition, the generation of residential solid waste (RSW) and nonresidential solid waste (NRSW) was forecasted by means of a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. For residential sources, the independent variables analyzed were monthly wages, persons per

  4. www.unbc.ca/international-services Country (16) University (34) Website Field of Study Academic Term

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    ://en.wzu.edu.cn/ Chinese Language and Culture September to July Chinese Roskilde University http://www.ruc.dk/en/international International University www.oiu.ac.jp/english Japanese language and culture September to July Japanese New://www.hifm.no/eng/www_hifm_no- 1/welcome-1/courses-taught-in-english Business, Development, English, International Studies August

  5. A study of dermatoglyphics in gonadal dysgenesis: a computerised analysis applicable in under-developed countries.

    PubMed

    Richards, B; Mandasescu, S

    1997-01-01

    Dermatoglyphics, the study of finger-tip and palmar prints, can play an important role in suggesting or confirming the diagnosis in the case of certain congenital syndromes. The paper discusses the prints in the cases of two important syndromes viz Turner's and Klinefelter's, and shows how to differentiate between the two. PMID:10179556

  6. Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

  7. Going to a different country to study can be daunting, but you'll find an

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    links: University of Aberdeen www.abdn.ac.uk University of Abertay Dundee www.abertay.ac.uk University students International students choosing to study in Scotland can be assured that Scotland's universities research and teaching expertise. We're immensely proud of our family of international scholars and alumni

  8. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

  9. Characteristics and Behaviors of Effective Social Studies Teachers in Selected Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, Jack R.

    This report summarizes research on teacher effectiveness in social studies classrooms. Observations were conducted in a large urban school district on the west coast of the United States, as well as in selected classrooms in Australia, New Zealand, Poland, and Germany since 1991. Effective teachers are those for whom there is evidence that…

  10. Education Policy Formation in Africa: A Comparative Study of Five Countries. Technical Paper No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David R., Ed.

    This publication contains a set of five case studies and two analytical overview chapters that lay the foundation for a deeper understanding of the process of educational policy formation in Africa. Reflecting developments until late 1992, the cases include Botswana, Tanzania, Uganda, Mali, and Senegal. The articles describe and analyze current…

  11. Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

  12. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  13. Correlates of physical activity in adolescence: a study from a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Shokrvash, Behjat; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rahimi, Abbas; Djazayeri, Abolgasem; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is important for adolescent health. The current study aimed to explore factors that predict physical activity among adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of physical activity among a sample of adolescents in Tabriz, Iran. Information on physical activity was collected using a modified version of the Adolescent Physical Activity and Recall Questionnaire (APARQ). In addition, a self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, perceived family support, and self-efficacy. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between physical activity and independent variables including gender and psychosocial predictors. Results In all, 402 students were studied. The mean age of adolescents was 12.93 (SD=0.49) years; 51.5% were female. The mean time of moderate and vigorous physical activity for all adolescents was 44.64 (SD=23.24) Metabolic Equivalent (MET) min per day. This figure for female adolescents was 38.77 (SD=19.94) MET min per day and for males it was 50.87 (SD=24.88) (P<0.001). The results obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that female gender (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.46–4.57, P=0.001) and poor family support (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.03–1.20, P=0.038) were the most significant contributing factors to low level physical activity in adolescents. Other variables studied did not show any significant results. Conclusion The findings from the current study indicated that female adolescents were at risk of lower level of physical activity. In addition, it was found that the lack of family support represented an increased risk for low-level physical activity. It seems that family support should be an integrated part of any health education/promotion programs for improving physical activity among young adolescents in general and for female adolescents in particular. PMID:23663416

  14. Caregiver education in Parkinson’s disease: formative evaluation of a standardized program in seven European countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. I. A’Campo; N. G. A. Spliethoff-Kamminga; M. Macht; R. A. C. Roos

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The formative evaluation of a standardized psychosocial education program for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and their\\u000a caregivers. The results of the participation of the caregivers are presented next to the data of the patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Caregivers (n = 137) and patients with PD (n = 151) participated in the 8-week program in separate groups. Measurements were performed on psychosocial problems (BELA-P\\/A-k),\\u000a health state (EQ-5D

  15. Fetal Pulse Oximetry and Neonatal Outcome: A Study in a Developing Country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Fayez Bakr; Mohammad Al-Abd; Tarek Karkour

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The aim of this cohort, prospective study was to compare the diagnostic value of intrapartum fetal pulse oximetry (FPO) with that of fetal scalp blood gas (FSBG) for an abnormal neonatal outcome in cases with abnormal fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings.METHODS:Fetal oxygen saturation was continuously monitored with Nellcor N-400 FPO during labor. Simultaneous FSBG determinations were obtained. The results were

  16. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  17. Women, drug dependency and consequences: a study from a developing country.

    PubMed

    Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh; Erfanian, Majidreza; Alipourtabrizi, Arash; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Addiction in women can expose them to malnutrition, high blood pressure, cancer, and some other dangerous diseases like hepatitis, AIDS, or other sexual transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to assess illegal sexual relations in three groups of women. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that was done on 236 girls and young women aged 16-25 years in 2012 in three groups: vulnerable women who have substance dependency (crimes that had made women incarcerated were considered as vulnerability in this study), invulnerable women who have substance dependency (substance dependent women without a history of incarceration), and a control group (women with no history of substance dependency or being in prison). Results. 43.8% of vulnerable women who have substance dependency had extramarital sexual relations; this percentage was 55.8% in invulnerable women who have substance dependency and 1.4% in the control group. Crystal and methamphetamine abuse was higher in addicts who had extramarital sexual relations and alcohol abuse was correlated with unsafe sexual intercourse (r = 0.36, P = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in extramarital sexual relation based on marital status (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Poverty, drug dependency, divorce, and alcohol consumption make women prone to other high risk behaviors that need more attention. PMID:25802797

  18. Women, Drug Dependency and Consequences: A Study from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh; Erfanian, Majidreza; Alipourtabrizi, Arash; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Addiction in women can expose them to malnutrition, high blood pressure, cancer, and some other dangerous diseases like hepatitis, AIDS, or other sexual transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to assess illegal sexual relations in three groups of women. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that was done on 236 girls and young women aged 16–25 years in 2012 in three groups: vulnerable women who have substance dependency (crimes that had made women incarcerated were considered as vulnerability in this study), invulnerable women who have substance dependency (substance dependent women without a history of incarceration), and a control group (women with no history of substance dependency or being in prison). Results. 43.8% of vulnerable women who have substance dependency had extramarital sexual relations; this percentage was 55.8% in invulnerable women who have substance dependency and 1.4% in the control group. Crystal and methamphetamine abuse was higher in addicts who had extramarital sexual relations and alcohol abuse was correlated with unsafe sexual intercourse (r = 0.36, P = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in extramarital sexual relation based on marital status (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Poverty, drug dependency, divorce, and alcohol consumption make women prone to other high risk behaviors that need more attention. PMID:25802797

  19. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya Abramsky; Charlotte H Watts; Claudia Garcia-Moreno; Karen Devries; Ligia Kiss; Mary Ellsberg; Henrica AFM Jansen; Lori Heise

    2011-01-01

    Background  Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite a growing body of\\u000a research into risk factors for IPV, methodological differences limit the extent to which comparisons can be made between studies.\\u000a We used data from ten countries included in the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence to identify\\u000a factors

  20. A review of potable water accessibility and sustainability issues in developing countries - case study of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nayebare, Shedrack R; Wilson, Lloyd R; Carpenter, David O; Dziewulski, David M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Providing sources of sustainable and quality potable water in Uganda is a significant public health issue. This project aimed at identifying and prioritizing possible actions on how sustainable high quality potable water in Uganda's water supply systems could be achieved. In that respect, a review of both the current water supply systems and government programs on drinking water in Uganda was completed. Aspects of quantity, quality, treatment methods, infrastructure, storage and distribution of water for different water systems were evaluated and compared with the existing water supply systems in the U.S., Latin America and the Caribbean, for purposes of generating feasible recommendations and opportunities for improvement. Uganda utilizes surface water, groundwater, and rainwater sources for consumption. Surface water covers 15.4% of the land area and serves both urban and rural populations. Lake Victoria contributes about 85% of the total fresh surface water. Potable water quality is negatively affected by the following factors: disposal of sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, and surface run-offs during heavy rains. The total renewable groundwater resources in Uganda are estimated to be 29 million m3/year with about 20,000 boreholes, 3000 shallow-wells and 200,000 springs, serving more than 80% of the rural and slum communities. Mean annual rainfall in Uganda ranges from 500 mm to 2500 mm. Groundwater and rainwater quality is mainly affected by poor sanitation and unhygienic practices. There are significant regional variations in the accessibility of potable water, with the Northeastern region having the least amount of potable water from all sources. Uganda still lags behind in potable water resource development. Priorities should be placed mainly on measures available for improvement of groundwater and rainwater resource utilization, protection of watersheds, health education, improved water treatment methods and distribution in rural areas, and pollution control and monitoring. Implementing these changes can promote potable water accessibility especially to the poor populations living in rural and urban slum areas because they comprise the majority (80%) of Uganda's population. PMID:24918455

  1. Are teenage pregnancies at high risk? A comparison study in a developing country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haritha Sagili; N. Pramya; Karthiga Prabhu; Mariano Mascarenhas; P. Reddi Rani

    Objective  The aim of this study was to compare obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage and non-teenage pregnancies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed retrospective data of 15,498 pregnant patients who delivered from March 2008 to April 2009 in Jawaharlal Institute\\u000a of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, a referral tertiary care and teaching hospital in Pondicherry, South India.\\u000a Girls aged ? 19 years were compared with pregnancy outcomes

  2. Community mental health centres initiated by the South-Eastern Europe Stability Pact: evaluation in seven countries.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Stefan; Matanov, Aleksandra; Demi, Neli; Blagovcanin Simic, Joka; Jovanovic, Sandra; Gajic, Milena; Radonic, Elizabeta; Bajraktarov, Stojan; Boderscova, Larisa; Konatar, Monika; Nica, Raluca; Muijen, Matthijs

    2012-06-01

    Eight community mental health care centres (initiated by the South-Eastern Europe Stability Pact) in Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro and Romania were evaluated. Characteristics of patients, patient reported outcomes and patient views of care were assessed in 305 psychiatric patients. Patient characteristics varied across centres, with most patients having long term psychotic disorders. Treatment satisfaction and therapeutic relationships were rated favourably. Subjective quality of life mean scores were rather low, with higher satisfaction with health and dissatisfaction with the financial and employment situation. Being unemployed was the only factor associated with poor quality of life and lower treatment satisfaction. Most developing centres target patients with persistent psychotic disorders. Care appears highly valued by the patients. The findings encourage establishing more centres in the region and call for employment schemes for people with mental illnesses. PMID:21617994

  3. Mortality after Parental Death in Childhood: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Obel, Carsten; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    Background Bereavement by spousal death and child death in adulthood has been shown to lead to an increased risk of mortality. Maternal death in infancy or parental death in early childhood may have an impact on mortality but evidence has been limited to short-term or selected causes of death. Little is known about long-term or cause-specific mortality after parental death in childhood. Methods and Findings This cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1968 to 2008 (n?=?2,789,807) and in Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n?=?3,380,301), and a random sample of 89.3% of all born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n?=?1,131,905). A total of 189,094 persons were included in the exposed cohort when they lost a parent before 18 years old. Log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratio (MRR). Parental death was associated with a 50% increased all-cause mortality (MRR?=?1.50, 95% CI 1.43–1.58). The risks were increased for most specific cause groups and the highest MRRs were observed when the cause of child death and the cause of parental death were in the same category. Parental unnatural death was associated with a higher mortality risk (MRR?=?1.84, 95% CI 1.71–2.00) than parental natural death (MRR?=?1.33, 95% CI 1.24–1.41). The magnitude of the associations varied according to type of death and age at bereavement over different follow-up periods. The main limitation of the study is the lack of data on post-bereavement information on the quality of the parent-child relationship, lifestyles, and common physical environment. Conclusions Parental death in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased all-cause mortality into early adulthood. Since an increased mortality reflects both genetic susceptibility and long-term impacts of parental death on health and social well-being, our findings have implications in clinical responses and public health strategies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25051501

  4. Prediction of adaptation difficulties by country of origin, cumulate psychosocial stressors and attitude toward integrating: A Swedish study of first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China

    PubMed Central

    Zolkowska, Krystyna; McNeil, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different types of accumulated stress have been found to have negative consequences for immigrants’ capacity to adapt to the new environment. It remains unclear which factors have the greatest influence. Aims: The study investigated whether immigrants’ experience of great difficulty in adapting to a new country could best be explained by (1) country of origin, (2) exposure to accumulated stressors before arrival or (3) after arrival in the new country and/or (4) reserved attitude toward integrating into the new society. Methods: The 119 first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China, living in Malmö, Sweden, were interviewed in a standardized manner. Results: Experiencing great difficulty in adapting to Sweden was independent of length of residence, but significantly related to all four influences, studied one at a time. Country of origin was also related to stressors and attitude. When the effects of the other influences were mutually controlled for, only exposure to accumulated stressors in Sweden (and especially experiencing discrimination/xenophobia/racism) accounted for great adaptation difficulty. Stressors in Sweden had a greater effect if the immigrant had been exposed to stressors earlier. Conclusions: Immigrants’ long-term experiences of great difficulty in adapting to a new country were explained primarily by exposure to accumulated stressors while moving to and living in the new country, rather than by their backgrounds or attitudes toward integrating. This suggests promoting strategies to avoid discrimination and other stressors in the host country. PMID:24927925

  5. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ? 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  6. ["Running amok"--content analytic study of 196 news presentations from industrialized countries].

    PubMed

    Adler, L; Lehmann, K; Räder, K; Schünemann, K F

    1993-12-01

    We performed a content analysis study based on 196 reports in the German press published during the last decade on acts of violence designated as "going berserk" or "running amok (amuck)" and meeting defined criteria. With less than one person per one million men per year running berserk or amok, this is a very rare act of violence, albeit a very dangerous one involving 1.3 deaths and 1.7 injuries per case. Offenders differ from the normal population in regards to the small percentage of women (5%) and high unemployment (40%), and from other violent offenders in that they are normally occupationally well-qualified. Severe psychiatric disorders are overrepresented. A total of 108 cases were classified according to specific syndromes either by specialists or experts on the spot, or on the basis of a description of the signs and symptoms. Of the syndrome-related acts, the most dangerous offences were committed by 10 delusionally ill and 2 psychopathic individuals. 30 less dangerous offenders suffered from paranoid-hallucinatory syndromes. 28 crimes committed in a state of intoxication and 11 "crimes of passion" were the least dangerous. Another 25 persons with an extensive incidence of suicide in the family, without any apparent pre-existing psychiatric disorder, may have gone berserk in the course of a depressive syndrome. Although psychotically ill individuals tend to overreact more often following a minimal slight, under delusions or with no apparent reason at all, on the whole the causes for both the psychotic and other offenders are of a serious nature. Object loss and private disputes on the one hand and social conflicts on the other were of approximately equal significance. The relationship between the offender and his victim is more essential for the course of the occurrence than motives or the type of the psychopathological syndrome. If only family members are attacked, the offenders have usually been inconspicuous, elderly individuals, two thirds of whom can not be allocated to a given syndrome and may be depressive. They kill deliberately and on-target, do not merely injure their victims--hardly ever, in fact--and then commit suicide practically without exception. If strangers are the target of violence, the crimes are generally committed by younger, passive-aggressive, psychopathic, paranoid or intoxicated offenders. They kill only about half of their victims, but injure many, also causing a great deal of damage. They rarely commit suicide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8112706

  7. Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180

  8. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. PMID:24656422

  9. Case study on impact of seasonal variations of soil resistivities on substation grounding systems safety in tropical country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noradlina Abdullah; Aziz Marzuki Ahmad Marican; Miszaina Osman; Nurul Azlina Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the validity and safety of the substation earthing system since over time the physical and electrical properties or requirements of the substation earthing can change in many ways. A research study focused on safety assessment of substation earthing systems due to variations of soil resistivities values which dependent on tropical rainfall variations was carried out

  10. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System . A cross-country field study in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-11-01

    LITERACY AND ACCESS TO THE WRITTEN CULTURE BY YOUTH AND ADULTS EXCLUDED FROM THE SCHOOL SYSTEM - The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself was carried out in a particular region, the findings have implications for a wider international audience.

  11. Scaling up specialist training in developing countries: lessons learned from the first 12?years of regional postgraduate training in Fiji – a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 1997, regional specialist training was established in Fiji, consisting of one-year Postgraduate Diplomas followed by three-year master’s degree programs in anesthesia, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics and surgery. The evolution of these programs during the first 12?years is presented. Case description A case study utilizing mixed methods was carried out, including a prospective collection of enrolment and employment data, supplemented by semi-structured interviews. Between 1997 and 2009, 207 doctors (113 from Fiji and 94 from 13 other countries or territories in the Pacific) trained to at least the Postgraduate Diploma level. For Fiji graduates, 29.2% migrated permanently to developed countries, compared to only 8.5% for regional graduates (P <0.001). Early years of the program were characterized by large intakes and enthusiasm, but also uncertainty. Many resignations took place following a coup d’etat in 2000. By 2005, interviews suggested a dynamic of political instability initially leading to resignations, leading to even heavier workloads, compounded by academic studies that seemed unlikely to lead to career benefit. This was associated with loss of hope and downward spirals of further resignations. After 2006, however, Master’s graduates generally returned from overseas placements, had variable success in career progression, and were able to engage in limited private practice. Enrolments and retention stabilized and increased. Discussion and evaluation Over time, all specialties have had years when the viability and future of the programs were in question, but all have recovered to varying degrees, and the programs continue to evolve and strengthen. Prospective clarification of expected career outcomes for graduates, establishment of career pathways for diploma-only graduates, and balancing desires for academic excellence with workloads that trainees were able to bear may have lessened ongoing losses of trainees and graduates. Conclusions Despite early losses of trainees, the establishment of regional postgraduate training in Fiji is having an increasingly positive impact on the specialist workforce in the Pacific. With forethought, many of the difficulties we encountered may have been avoidable. Our experiences may help others who are establishing or expanding postgraduate training in developing countries to optimize the benefit of postgraduate training on their national and regional workforces. PMID:23270525

  12. The Effect of Trade Liberalization in South-Eastern European Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jože P. Damijan; José De Sousa; Olivier Lamotte

    2006-01-01

    South-Eastern European (SEE) countries have recently engaged in a regional integration process, through the establishment of free trade agreements between themselves and with the European Union (EU). This study evaluates the impact of this process on trade and firm performance. Three complementary approaches are used. The first consists in evaluating the degree of trade integration of SEE countries and determining

  13. Risk of injury after alcohol consumption from case-crossover studies in five countries from the America’s

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Monteiro, Maristela; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Then, Eddy Pérez; López, Víctor A.; Bassier-Paltoo, Marcia; Weil A., Donald; de Bradshaw, Aldacira M

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to: 1) provide relative risk (RR) estimates between acute alcohol use and injuries from emergency departments in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua and Panama, and 2) test whether the RR differs if two control periods for the estimates were used. Design Case-crossover methodology was used to obtain estimates of the RR of having an injury within six hours after drinking alcohol, using a pair-matching design with control periods of the same time of day the day prior to injury, and the same time of day and day of week the week prior to injury. Setting Emergency departments(EDs). Participants 2,503 injured patients from EDs were interviewed between 2010–2011, with a response rate of 92.6%. Measurements Number of drinks consumed within six hours prior to the injury and in the two control periods. Findings The RR of injury after drinking alcohol was 4.38 (95% confidence interval CI= 3.29–5.84) using as the control period the prior week, and 5.35 (CI=3.50–8.17) using as a control period the prior day. The RR was 5.08 (CI=4.15–6.23) in multiple matching. Those drinking 1–2 drinks had a RR of 4.85 (CI=3.12–7.54); those drinking 3–5 a RR of 5.00 (CI =3.47–7.18); those drinking 6–15 a RR of 4.54 (CI=3.36–6.14); and those drinking 16 or more a RR of 10.42 (CI=4.38–24.79). Conclusions As in other countries, alcohol drinking is a trigger for an injury in all five countries. The use of more than one control period give further strength to these findings from case-crossover analysis. PMID:22775508

  14. City, Country: Foundation Study

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    contact details of two referees who know you personally. However, references from family or other A of the Application Form. Ethnicity Codes Disability Codes 10 White 00 No disability 21 Black or Black British ­ Caribbean 01 Dyslexia 22 Black or Black British ­ African 02 Blind/Partially sighted 29 Other Black

  15. The Evolution of Developmental Gaps between Rich and Poor Countries, 1955-65: A Methodological Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gostkowski, Zygmunt

    1975-01-01

    The taxonomic distance from an "ideal country" is used as a composite index of relative development levels of 50 countries; measuring economic, mass media, and high-level manpower potentials, and showing acceleration of rate of increases, and underlying shifts in rank positions in years 1955, 1960, and 1965. (Author/ND)

  16. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

  17. Epidemiology of Oral Cavity Cancers in a Country Located in the Esophageal Cancer Belt: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Saedi, Babak; Razmpa, Ebrahim; Ghalandarabadi, Masoomeh; Ghadimi, Hamidreza; Saghafi, Farnaz; Naseri, Mahshid

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: As one of the most common cancers among head and neck malignancies, cancer of the oral cavity probably has some variations in countries with a high prevalence of esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: Patients with oral cavity cancer who were treated at two tertiary referral centers from January 1999 to January 2009 were included in this study. In addition to demographic data, information regarding personal and family history of head and neck cancer, use of dentures, presence of immune deficiency, consumption of alcohol, and incidence of cigarette smoking was collected. Additionally, a history of opium usage was obtained from the participants in this study. Moreover, an appropriately matched control group was selected for comparisons between the risk factors. Results: A total of 557 patients were entered into this study over a 10-year period, of whom 219 (39.3%) were female and the remaining 338 (60.7%) were male. The tongue was the most common site of cancer and 9% of the patients had a history of opium abuse, but more than half of the patients did not have any recognized risk factors. The incidence and stage of cancer had a significant relationship with cigarette smoking (P= 0.013). Conclusion: Tongue cancer in non-smokers is the predominant pattern of oral cavity cancer in Iran. PMID:24303395

  18. Complementing Neurophysiology Education for Developing Countries via Cost-Effective Virtual Labs: Case Studies and Classroom Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Diwakar, Shyam; Parasuram, Harilal; Medini, Chaitanya; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema; Wiertelak, Eric; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Achuthan, Krishnashree; Nair, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. PMID:24693260

  19. Complementing Neurophysiology Education for Developing Countries via Cost-Effective Virtual Labs: Case Studies and Classroom Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Shyam; Parasuram, Harilal; Medini, Chaitanya; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema; Wiertelak, Eric; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Achuthan, Krishnashree; Nair, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. PMID:24693260

  20. Correspondence Study: Faculty Evaluation; Phase I of the State-Wide Correspondence Study: Faculty Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Educational Assessment Center.

    The first of a two-part evaluation of correspondence studies in the State of Washington was concerned with opinion, descriptions, and recommendations of faculty at four state institutions on (1) how the faculty member is affected personally, (2) how students are affected, and (3) program improvement. Interviews collected data from 100 faculty…

  1. Evaluation research in occupational health services: general principles and a systematic review of empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Hulshof, C. T.; Verbeek, J. H.; van Dijk, F. J.; van der Weide, W. E.; Braam, I. T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the nature and extent of evaluation research in occupational health services (OHSs). METHODS: Literature review of evaluation research in OHSs. On the basis of a conceptual model of OHS evaluation, empirical studies are categorised into aspects of input, process, output, outcome, and OHS core activities. RESULTS: Many methods to evaluate OHSs or OHS activities exist, depending on the objective and object of evaluation. The amount of empirical studies on evaluation of OHSs or OHS activities that met the non-restrictive inclusion criteria, was remarkably limited. Most of the 52 studies were more descriptive than evaluative. The methodological quality of most studies was not high. A differentiated picture of the evidence of effectiveness of OHSs arises. Occupational health consultations and occupational rehabilitation are hardly studied despite much time spent on the consultation by occupational physicians in most countries. The lack of effectiveness and efficiency of the pre-employment examination should lead to its abandonment as a means of selection of personnel by OHSs. Periodic health monitoring or surveillance, and education on occupational health hazards can be carried out with reasonable process quality. Identification and evaluation of occupational health hazards by a workplace survey can be done with a high output quality, which, however, does not guarantee a favourable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Although rigorous study designs are not always applicable or feasible in daily practice, much more effort should be directed at the scientific evaluation of OHSs and OHS instruments. To develop evidence-based occupational health care the quality of evaluation studies should be improved. In particular, process and outcome of consultation and rehabilitation activities of occupational physicians need to be studied more.   PMID:10474531

  2. Learning from international policies on trans fatty acids to reduce cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries, using Mexico as a case study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ferrer, Carolina; Lock, Karen; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and are consumed in large quantities in low- and middle-income countries as they are used to produce low cost, commonly eaten processed food products. International organizations agree that evidence linking TFA and CVD is strong enough to warrant public health action. This study investigates barriers and opportunities that exist for TFA policy development in low- and middle-income countries, through a literature review of international TFA policy and stakeholder analysis. Previous national policy responses have mostly been in developed countries. Voluntary reduction of TFA by the food industry, following food labelling and/or consumer lobbying, has been the approach in several countries but with varying levels of success, and resulting in major differences in formulation of products between countries. Canada and New York have now moved from voluntary to mandatory approaches. Only three countries have regulated the TFA content of food. Common factors for successful TFA reduction include increased consumer and political awareness of the health impacts of TFA and the need for champion consumer organizations. A stakeholder analysis, using the Mexican policy context as a case study, explored contextual issues influencing implementation of TFA regulation in low- or middle-income countries. Although the public health context seemed to be appropriate to promote TFA policy, the issue is not on the political agenda because it lacks legitimacy and support as a health or regulatory issue. The food industry and government resist the need for regulation, and there is no organized health or consumer lobby to counter this. This is likely to be the case in other middle- and low-income countries. PMID:19741052

  3. Study of procedures for integrating economic and environmental impact data from irrigation projects in tropical developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Caupp, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Integrated Economic Environmental Projects Analysis (IEEPA) is presented as a procedure for incorporating environmental impacts into project feasibility studies. This study documents the need for considering environmental elements in the analysis of Large-Scale River Basin Development Projects (LSRBDPs). Environmental impacts are associated with changes in ecological processes during development (nutrient cycling, population density, water availability, and disease patterns). Traditional project analysis methodologies have failed to examine negative environmental impacts. These methods separate economic and environmental factors, and consequently, cannot deal with the interrelated problems caused by LSRBDPs. Researchers are allowed through IEEPA to provide a more realistic estimate of the costs associated with development projects in developing countries. The success of IEEPA is attributed to the inclusion of environmental impacts in all phases of project design and implementation of a project. An analysis of a dam and irrigation project in the Senegal River Basin was done to demonstrate the process. The inclusion of environmental impacts showed that the intensive irrigation would not be self-supporting and that an alternative project enhancing existing farming practices would cost less and cause fewer environmental impacts.

  4. Calf-Level Factors Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia – A Multi-Country Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bryony A.; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Henning, Joerg; Stoll, Alexander; Nielen, Mirjam; Van Schaik, Gerdien; Smolenaars, Anja; Schouten, Matthijs; den Uijl, Ingrid; Fourichon, Christine; Guatteo, Raphael; Madouasse, Aurélien; Nusinovici, Simon; Deprez, Piet; De Vliegher, Sarne; Laureyns, Jozef; Booth, Richard; Cardwell, Jackie M.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP), a high fatality condition causing haemorrhages in calves aged less than 4 weeks, was first reported in 2007 in Germany and subsequently observed at low incidence in other European countries and New Zealand. A multi-country matched case-control study was conducted in 2011 to identify calf-level risk factors for BNP. 405 BNP cases were recruited from 330 farms in Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands by laboratory confirmation of farmer-reported cases. Up to four calves of similar age from the same farm were selected as controls (1154 calves). Risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. Multivariable modelling using conditional logistic regression indicated that PregSure®BVD (PregSure, Pfizer Animal Health) vaccination of the dam was strongly associated with BNP cases (adjusted matched Odds Ratio - amOR 17.8 first lactation dams; 95% confidence interval – ci 2.4, 134.4; p?=?0.005), and second or more lactation PregSure-vaccinated dams were more likely to have a case than first lactation vaccinated dams (amOR 2.2 second lactation; ci 1.1, 4.3; p?=?0.024; amOR 5.3 third or more lactation; ci 2.9, 9.8; p?=?<0.001). Feeding colostrum from other cows was strongly associated with BNP if the dam was not PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 30.5; ci 2.1, 440.5; p?=?0.012), but the effect was less if the dam was PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 2.1; ci 1.1, 4.0; p?=?0.024). Feeding exclusively dam’s milk was a higher risk than other types of milk (amOR 3.4; ci 1.6, 7.5; p?=?0.002). The population attributable fractions were 0.84 (ci 0.68, 0.92) for PregSure vaccination, 0.13 (ci 0.06, 0.19) for feeding other cows’ colostrum, and 0.15 (ci 0.08, 0.22) for feeding dam’s milk. No other calf-level factors were identified, suggesting that there are other important factors that are outside the scope of this study, such as genetics, which explain why BNP develops in some PregSure-colostrum-exposed calves but not in others. PMID:24312485

  5. Social networks and health: a systematic review of sociocentric network studies in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), naturally occurring social networks may be particularly vital to health outcomes as extended webs of social ties often are the principal source of various resources. Understanding how social network structure, and influential individuals within the network, may amplify the effects of interventions in LMICs, by creating, for example, cascade effects to non-targeted participants, presents an opportunity to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public health interventions in such settings. We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, Econlit, Sociological Abstracts, and PsycINFO to identify a sample of 17 sociocentric network papers (arising from 10 studies) that specifically examined health issues in LMICs. We also separately selected to review 19 sociocentric network papers (arising from 10 other studies) on development topics related to wellbeing in LMICs. First, to provide a methodological resource, we discuss the sociocentric network study designs employed in the selected papers, and then provide a catalog of 105 name generator questions used to measure social ties across all the LMIC network papers (including both ego- and sociocentric network papers) cited in this review. Second, we show that network composition, individual network centrality, and network structure are associated with important health behaviors and health and development outcomes in different contexts across multiple levels of analysis and across distinct network types. Lastly, we highlight the opportunities for health researchers and practitioners in LMICs to 1) design effective studies and interventions in LMICs that account for the sociocentric network positions of certain individuals and overall network structure, 2) measure the spread of outcomes or intervention externalities, and 3) enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of aid based on knowledge of social structure. In summary, human health and wellbeing are connected through complex webs of dynamic social relationships. Harnessing such information may be especially important in contexts where resources are limited and people depend on their direct and indirect connections for support. PMID:25442969

  6. A Critical Evaluation of the Fetal Origins Hypothesis and Its Implications for Developing Countries Early Life Origins of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes in India and Other Asian Countries1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Yajnik

    There is a rapidly increasing epidemic of type 2 diabetes in India and other Asian countries. The thrifty genotype and the thrifty phenotype are two nonexclusive explanations. People in the Indian subcontinent have faced undernutrition for many generations, and Indian babies are among the smallest in the world. However, the diabetes epidemic is of recent origin, and diabetes is more

  7. A longitudinal ecological study of the influences of political, economic, and health services characteristics on under-five mortality in less-developed countries.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ying-Chih; Sung, Pei-Wei; Chao, Hsing Jasmine; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chang, Chia-Jung

    2013-09-01

    This study used a longitudinal dataset and lagged dependent-variable panel regression models to examine whether political and economic characteristics directly predict under-5-year mortality rates (U5MR), and moderate the effects of health services and environment on U5MR. We used a sample of 46 less-developed countries from 1980 to 2009. Our results showed that the effects of political and economic characteristics on U5MR varied by non-sub-Saharan and sub-Saharan countries. After controlling for baseline U5MR and other socioeconomic variables, while foreign investment and health services were negatively associated U5MR, democracy was positively associated with U5MR in nonsub-Saharan countries. In contrast, debt was positively associated with and democracy and foreign investment were negatively associated with U5MR in sub-Saharan countries. The interaction analyses indicated that for sub-Saharan countries, the effects of health services on U5MR only existed for countries with low foreign investment. PMID:23832128

  8. Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E.; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). Main Challenges Identified The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Conclusion Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries. PMID:23292003

  9. Appraisal of family doctors: an evaluation study.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Malcolm; Elwyn, Glyn; Wood, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appraisal has evolved to become a key component of workforce management. However, it is not clear from existing proposals for appraisal of doctors whether employers, health authorities or primary care organisations should take responsibility for appraisal processes. AIMS: To evaluate the introduction of a pilot peer appraisal system in general practice and to gain insight into the reactions of appraisers and doctors. DESIGN OF STUDY: Semi-structured telephone interviews combined with participant surveys and documentary analysis. SETTING: Five health authorities in Wales. PARTICIPANTS: General practitioners (GPs) appointed as appraisers and volunteer practitioners (doctors). METHOD: Twenty-six appraisers were appointed and given training in the appraisal process, each appraising an average of eight individuals. Appraisers and appraised doctors participated in semi-structured telephone interviews and completed separate participant questionnaires. RESULTS: GPs willingly undertook peer appraisal in a volunteer-based pilot study where participation was recompensed. The majority of participating clinicians were positive, with appraisers reporting the most gain. Appraisers were enthusiastic, provided the process remained non-judgemental and did not threaten or burden their colleagues. Appraised doctors were less enthusiastic but the most significant perceived benefit was the opportunity to reflect on individual performance with a supportive colleague. There were, however, repeated concerns about time, confusion with revalidation and personal development plans, worries about including health and probity queries, and an opinion that the process would be entirely different if conducted with non-volunteers or by representatives of 'management'. CONCLUSION: This study illustrated three fundamental problems for appraisal systems in general practice. First, there is as yet no organisational hierarchy in general practice. Perhaps the aggregation of practices into primary care organisations will generate a hierarchy. Second, the question of who conducts appraisals then becomes pertinent; this study illustrates a professionally-led peer appraisal model. Third, the spectre of summative assessment causes problems in appraisal schemes. Typically, only mutually agreed summaries are kept for future use in appraisal systems (for example, for promotion or discipline). So the proposal to use GP annual appraisal documentation as the basis of a summative 'revalidation' exercise is at odds with orthodox personnel practice, which regards appraisal as a formative process. PMID:12939890

  10. [A historical study of coffee in Japanese and Asian countries: focusing the medicinal uses in Asian traditional medicines].

    PubMed

    Namba, Tsuneo; Matsuse, Tomoco

    2002-01-01

    The medicinal properties of coffee, making it a diuretic and stimulant, because of the effects of caffeine, have been known since ancient times, and coffee is today a popular beverage worldwide. In Japan it was introduced at the end of the eighteenth century through overseas trading with the Netherlands. During this period, various Western cultures flowed into Japan, and coffee was one of the subjects introduced through the translations of Dutch medical books. The pharmacological effects of coffee have been presented by Yamamoto in "K?m? Honzou, (--, 1783)"; by K. Takahashi, G. Ohtsuki, and Y. Udagawa et al. in "K?sei Shimpen (--, 1811)"; and by Kai Hirokawa in "Nagasaki Bunkenroku (--, 1795)." In the Chinese and Arabic traditional systems of medicine, the uses of coffee were based on its diuretic and central nervous system stimulant properties, attributed in general to caffeine. This study dealt with the uses of coffee in the traditional medicines of Asian countries and with some biological activities related to aging, infectious diseases, and cardioprotective effects. In various biological tests, the water extract of coffee showed no notable effect on myocardial cell beating; however, it did show superoxide anion-scavenging effects, inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. These biological activities are closely related to the presence of caffeic acid derivatives, especially chlorogenic acid. The findings suggest that besides its stimulant effect, coffee has properties to prevent the deleterious actions of free radicals and viral infections. PMID:12412599

  11. Paratransit and urban public transport policy in low- and medium-income countries: a case study of Istanbul, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Feibel, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    This study uses multiple data collection and research methods including in depth interviews, 271 surveys of shared taxi and minibus operators, participant observation, secondary sources, and the literature on public transport from low, medium, and high-income countries. Extensive use is also made of a survey administered in Istanbul in 1976 to 1935 paratransit operators. Primary findings are that private buses are more efficient than public buses on a cost per passenger-km basis, and that private minibuses are as efficient as public buses. In terms of energy efficiency, minibuses are almost as efficient as public and private buses using actual-occupancy levels. Large shared taxis are twice as cost and energy efficient as cars, and small shared taxis 50% more efficient. In terms of investment cost per seat, large shared taxis have the lowest cost followed by smaller shared taxis, minibuses, and buses. Considering actual occupancy levels, minibuses are only slightly less effective in terms of congestion than buses, and large and small shared taxis are twice as effective as cars. It is also shown that minibuses and shared taxis have better service quality than buses because of higher frequencies and speeds, and because they provide a much higher probability of getting a seat than buses. Analysis of regulation and policy suggests that there are many unintended cost of public-transport regulations.

  12. A study of baseline risk factors for coronary heart disease: results of population screening in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Boedhi-Darmojo, R; Setianto, B; Sutedjo; Kusmana, D; Andradi; Supari, F; Salan, R

    1990-01-01

    To contribute information on coronary heart disease and its risk factors (information which is still scarce in developing countries), this report is presented on a population screening study done in urban Jakarta, using the MONICA Protocol. A randomly selected sample of 2073 people (25-64 years) from 3 districts (total population 523,000) of Jakarta were examined. The results were as follows: electrocardiogram (ECG) signs of old myocardial infarction were found in 2.7%, and sequelae of stroke in 0.5% of respondents: prevalence of hypertension was found in 14.9%; male smokers were 59.9% (females only 5.9%); mean serum total cholesterol concentrations were 5.2 mmol/L in men and 5.4 mmol/L in women, with 13.4% of all respondents having hypercholesterolaemia (greater than or equal to 6.5 mmol/L); regular alcohol drinkers were only 2.7%. Anti-smoking, anti-hypertension and active physical exercise campaigns already launched many years ago will be boosted, along with the preservation of the traditional low fat diet of the common Indonesian. PMID:2082456

  13. The impact of supportive nursing care on the needs of men with prostate cancer: a study across seven European countries

    PubMed Central

    Cockle-Hearne, J; Charnay-Sonnek, F; Denis, L; Fairbanks, H E; Kelly, D; Kav, S; Leonard, K; van Muilekom, E; Fernandez-Ortega, P; Jensen, B T; Faithfull, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is for many men a chronic disease with a long life expectancy after treatment. The impact of prostate cancer therapy on men has been well defined, however, explanation of the consequences of cancer treatment has not been modelled against the wider variables of long-term health-care provision. The aim of this study was to explore the parameters of unmet supportive care needs in men with prostate cancer in relation to the experience of nursing care. Methods: A survey was conducted among a volunteer sample of 1001 men with prostate cancer living in seven European countries. Results: At the time of the survey, 81% of the men had some unmet supportive care needs including psychological, sexual and health system and information needs. Logistic regression indicated that lack of post-treatment nursing care significantly predicted unmet need. Critically, men's contact with nurses and/or receipt of advice and support from nurses, for several different aspects of nursing care significantly had an impact on men's outcomes. Conclusion: Unmet need is related not only to disease and treatment factors but is also associated with the supportive care men received. Imperative to improving men's treatment outcomes is to also consider the access to nursing and the components of supportive care provided, especially after therapy. PMID:24064968

  14. Coronary heart disease incidence in northern and southern European populations: a reanalysis of the seven countries study for a European coronary risk chart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Menotti; M Lanti; P E Puddu; D Kromhout

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVEA systematic reanalysis of 10 year coronary heart disease incidence data from the northern and the southern European cohorts of the seven countries study, to contribute indirectly to the production of a European coronary risk chart.DESIGN AND SETTINGMen aged 40–59 years at entry were studied in three northern European cohorts based in Finland and Netherlands (n = 2213); and in

  15. Incidence and risk factors of aplastic anemia in Latin American countries: the LATIN case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Maluf, Eliane; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Júnior, Álvaro Avezum; Eluf-Neto, José; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Lorand-Metze, Irene G.; Goldenberg, Daniel; Santana, Cézar Leite; de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Daniela; da Motta Passos, Leny Nascimento; Rosenfeld, Luis Gastão Mange; Pitta, Marimilia; Loggetto, Sandra; Feitosa Ribeiro, Andreza A.; Velloso, Elvira Deolinda; Kondo, Andrea Tiemi; de Miranda Coelho, Erika Oliveira; Pintão, Maria Carolina Tostes; de Souza, Hélio Moraes; Borbolla, José Rafael; Pasquini, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between aplastic anemia and numerous drugs, pesticides and chemicals have been reported. However, at least 50% of the etiology of aplastic anemia remains unexplained. Design and Methods This was a case-control, multicenter, multinational study, designed to identify risk factors for agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The cases were patients with diagnosis of aplastic anemia confirmed through biopsy or bone marrow aspiration, selected through an active search of clinical laboratories, hematology clinics and medical records. The controls did not have either aplastic anemia or chronic diseases. A total of 224 patients with aplastic anemia were included in the study, each case was paired with four controls, according to sex, age group, and hospital where the case was first seen. Information was collected on demographic data, medical history, laboratory tests, medications, and other potential risk factors prior to diagnosis. Results The incidence of aplastic anemia was 1.6 cases per million per year. Higher rates of benzene exposure (?30 exposures per year) were associated with a greater risk of aplastic anemia (odds ratio, OR: 4.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.82–9.82). Individuals exposed to chloramphenicol in the previous year had an adjusted OR for aplastic anemia of 8.7 (CI: 0.87–87.93) and those exposed to azithromycin had an adjusted OR of 11.02 (CI 1.14–108.02). Conclusions The incidence of aplastic anemia in Latin America countries is low. Although the research study centers had a high coverage of health services, the underreporting of cases of aplastic anemia in selected regions can be discussed. Frequent exposure to benzene-based products increases the risk for aplastic anemia. Few associations with specific drugs were found, and it is likely that some of these were due to chance alone. PMID:19734415

  16. Course Evaluation at Rhodes: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziehl, Susan C.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 32 department heads at Rhodes University (South Africa) found that in just over half the departments, students were given the opportunity to evaluate course content and presentation, and department heads were favorably disposed toward the system. Two issues deemed important in institutionalization of course evaluation were methods for…

  17. Short and Long-Run Differences in the Treatment Effects of Inflation Targeting on Developed and Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WenShwo Fang; Stephen M. Miller; ChunShen Lee

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies that evaluate inflation targeting through average treatment effects generally conclude the window-dressing view for industrial countries and policy effectiveness for developing countries. Allowing for a time-varying relationship (treatment effect) between the monetary policy and its effects on economic performance over time, this paper provides new findings. First, developed countries lower inflation and reach their targets rapidly in two

  18. Rural, Urban and Migrant Differences in Non-Communicable Disease Risk-Factors in Middle Income Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study of WHO-SAGE Data

    PubMed Central

    Oyebode, Oyinlola; Pape, Utz J.; Laverty, Anthony A.; Lee, John T.; Bhan, Nandita; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding how urbanisation and rural-urban migration influence risk-factors for non-communicable disease (NCD) is crucial for developing effective preventative strategies globally. This study compares NCD risk-factor prevalence in urban, rural and migrant populations in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Methods Study participants were 39,436 adults within the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), surveyed 2007–2010. Risk ratios (RR) for each risk-factor were calculated using logistic regression in country-specific and all country pooled analyses, adjusted for age, sex and survey design. Fully adjusted models included income quintile, marital status and education. Results Regular alcohol consumption was lower in migrant and urban groups than in rural groups (pooled RR and 95%CI: 0.47 (0.31–0.68); 0.58, (0.46–0.72), respectively). Occupational physical activity was lower (0.86 (0.72–0.98); 0.76 (0.65–0.85)) while active travel and recreational physical activity were higher (pooled RRs for urban groups; 1.05 (1.00–1.09), 2.36 (1.95–2.83), respectively; for migrant groups: 1.07 (1.0 -1.12), 1.71 (1.11–2.53), respectively). Overweight, raised waist circumference and diagnosed diabetes were higher in urban groups (1.19 (1.04–1.35), 1.24 (1.07–1.42), 1.69 (1.15–2.47), respectively). Exceptions to these trends exist: obesity indicators were higher in rural Russia; active travel was lower in urban groups in Ghana and India; and in South Africa, urban groups had the highest alcohol consumption. Conclusion Migrants and urban dwellers had similar NCD risk-factor profiles. These were not consistently worse than those seen in rural dwellers. The variable impact of urbanisation on NCD risk must be considered in the design and evaluation of strategies to reduce the growing burden of NCDs globally. PMID:25849356

  19. Breast feeding and bottle feeding controversies in the developing world: evidence from a study in four countries.

    PubMed

    Winikoff, B; Laukaran, V H

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes some of the findings from a comparative study to investigate infant feeding practices and their determinants in four Third World urban areas: Bangkok, Thailand; Bogota, Colombia; Nairobi, Kenya; and Semarang, Indonesia. The information about developing country urban woman provided by these data allows examination of the interaction of feeding practices with socio-economic and biomedical variables. Through the use of descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analytic techniques, it is possible to explore some of the questions which have been debated regarding infant feeding practices. Data addressing five major questions are described in this paper: (1) Is breast feeding declining? (2) Is bottle feeding making women breast feed less? (3) Why do women use bottles? (4) How do mothers get the idea of using bottles? (5) How does paid employment affect infant feeding practices and the use of baby bottles? The study documents changes in infant feeding that can be expected to have detrimental effects for child health and for child spacing. Bottle use appears to interfere with breast feeding in all cultures, but more dramatically in more 'modernized' societies. Mothers resort to bottle use for a variety of reasons, but not usually as an attempt to wean. The health care system often provides the first contact between mothers and bottle use, and health care providers frequently encourage the use of artificial feeding. Women who work away from home early in their infants' lives must often use bottle feeding, but the percent of women affected is very small. Many more women use bottles and wean early than work away from home, and most artificially-fed babies do not have working mothers. PMID:2799428

  20. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Ambulatory Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in a General Hospital in a Middle Income Country: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, María de los Angeles; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Pinto, Miguel E.; Ticse, Ray; Malaga, German; Sacksteder, Katherine; Miranda, J. Jaime; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim We aimed to estimate the morbidity rate and associated factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a low-middle income country setting. Methods Cross-sectional study, data was gathered at Peru's Ministry of Health national specialized hospital for endocrinological conditions through standardized interviews, anthropometric measurements and blood tests for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). DPN was evaluated using two techniques: the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and the diabetic neuropathy symptom score. Overall prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Potential factors related to DPN explored included body mass index, years with disease (<10 vs. ?10 years), glycaemic control (HbA1c <7% vs. ?7%), microalbuminuria, retinopathy, and current pharmacological treatment. Multivariable analysis was performed using Poisson analysis to calculate prevalence ratios. Results DPN was observed in 73/129 (56.6%) patients. In multivariable analysis adjusted by age and sex, the prevalence ratio of neuropathy was 1.4 times higher (95% CI 1.07–1.88) in patients who took insulin plus metformin compared to patients who used one treatment alone, and 1.4 higher (95% CI 1.02–1.93) in patients with ?10 years of disease compared to those with a shorter duration of disease. Also we found some characteristics in foot evaluation associated to neuropathy such as deformities (p<0.001), onychomycosis (p?=?0.012), abnormal Achilles reflex (p<0.001), pain perception (p<0.001) and vibration perception (p<0.001). Conclusion DPN is highly frequent among patients with diabetes in a national specialized facility from Peru. Associated factors to DPN included being a diabetic patient for over ten years, and receiving insulin plus metformin PMID:24789071

  1. Systematic synthesis of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) project evaluation reports for evidence-based policy: a proof-of-concept study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pim Kuipers; Sheila Wirz; Sally Hartley

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents the methodology and findings from a proof-of-concept study undertaken to explore the viability of conducting a systematic, largely qualitative synthesis of evaluation reports emanating from Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) projects in developing countries. METHODS: Computer assisted thematic qualitative analysis was conducted on recommendation sections from 37 evaluation reports, arising from 36 disability and development projects in

  2. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Clare; Wharton–Smith, Alexandra; Sinyangwe, Chomba; Mubiru, Denis; Ssekitooleko, James; Meier, Joslyn; Gbanya, Miatta; Tibenderana, James K.; Counihan, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM) over the last five years. All key in–country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions), and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre–agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This qualitative study is a valuable contribution in understanding the ‘hows’ of iCCM implementation with key insights for improved feasibility and acceptability. Main findings show how community support to iCCM and community health workers is necessary for sustained health benefits coupled with a focus on strengthening and ‘enabling’ the public health system. The participatory study design and methodologies used enabled the scope of the research enquiry to effectively capture various stakeholder perspectives. PMID:25520794

  3. Leuprolide acetate 1-, 3- and 6-monthly depot formulations in androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer in nine European countries: evidence review and economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wex, Jaro; Sidhu, Manpreet; Odeyemi, Isaac; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Retsa, Peny; Tombal, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Objective Leuprolide is an established luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist used as first-line treatment in advanced prostate cancer. As different formulations and dosing schedules are likely to have economic implications, we aimed to evaluate their efficacy, safety, and costs in nine European countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, and Portugal. Methods Database searches identified 13 clinical trials of leuprolide 1- (1 M), 3- (3 M) and 6-monthly (6 M). Only data on leuprolide with Atrigel were compared for all three formulations, which had the same efficacy, safety, and adherence. Cost-minimization analysis accounting for cost of Eligard®, specialist consultations, and diagnostics during up to 12 months follow-up was conducted. The perspective was that of public payers. Results No significant differences were observed in the percentages of intention-to-treat patients achieving testosterone levels ? 50 ng/dL following treatment with Eligard® 1 M (93.3%), 3 M (98.3%), and 6 M (97.3%) (P > 0.05), and adverse event profiles of the three formulations were comparable. Overall, 6 M was the least expensive, with average total annual costs from €788 (Belgium) to €1839 (Portugal). The 3 M option was between 2.5% (Hungary) and 37.6% (Belgium) more expensive than 6 M; 1 M formulation was the most expensive, with costs 15.5% and 151.6% more expensive than 6 M for those countries, respectively. The 3 M option was 11.2%–45.3% less expensive than 1 M. Total costs were associated with frequency of visits for injection and monitoring. The 1 M required twelve visits, 3 M 4.4–4.8 visits, and 6 M 2.1–2.3 visits. Up to 50% additional visits could be funded with the savings resulting from switching eligible patients from 1 M and 3 M to 6 M. Results were stable in univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Conclusion Eligard® formulations offer comparable efficacy and safety, but different dosing schedules require different number of visits. The 6 M formulation offers the greatest cost savings and should be considered the treatment of choice in eligible patients in Europe. PMID:23836996

  4. National health policy-makers’ views on the clarity and utility of Countdown to 2015 country profiles and reports: findings from two exploratory qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of sets of indicators to assess progress has become commonplace in the global health arena. Exploratory research has suggested that indicators used for global monitoring purposes can play a role in national policy-making, however, the mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly understood. This article reports findings from two qualitative studies that aimed to explore national policy-makers’ interpretation and use of indicators from country profiles and reports developed by Countdown to 2015. Methods An initial study aimed at exploring comprehension of Countdown data was conducted at the 2010 joint Women Deliver/Countdown conference. A second study was conducted at the 64th World Health Assembly in 2011, specifically targeting national policy-makers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 29 and 22 participants, respectively, at each event. Participants were asked about their understanding of specific graphs and indicators used or proposed for use in Countdown country profiles, and their perception of how such data can inform national policy-making. Responses were categorised using a framework analysis. Results Respondents in both studies acknowledged the importance of the profiles for tracking progress on key health indicators in and across countries, noting that they could be used to highlight changes in coverage, possible directions for future policy, for lobbying finance ministers to increase resources for health, and to stimulate competition between neighbouring or socioeconomically similar countries. However, some respondents raised questions about discrepancies between global estimates and data produced by national governments, and some struggled to understand the profile graphs shown in the absence of explanatory text. Some respondents reported that use of Countdown data in national policy-making was constrained by limited awareness of the initiative, insufficient detail in the country profiles to inform policy, and the absence of indicators felt to be more appropriate to their own country contexts. Conclusions The two studies emphasise the need for country consultations to ensure that national policy-makers understand how to interpret and use tools like the Countdown profile for planning purposes. They make clear the value of qualitative research for refining tools used to promote accountability, and the need for country level Countdown-like processes. PMID:25128385

  5. Health system determinants of infant, child and maternal mortality: A cross-sectional study of UN member countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined the link between health system strength and important public health outcomes across nations. We examined the association between health system indicators and mortality rates. Methods We used mixed effects linear regression models to investigate the strength of association between outcome and explanatory variables, while accounting for geographic clustering of countries. We modelled infant mortality rate (IMR), child mortality rate (CMR), and maternal mortality rate (MMR) using 13 explanatory variables as outlined by the World Health Organization. Results Significant protective health system determinants related to IMR included higher physician density (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 0.81; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.71-0.91), higher sustainable access to water and sanitation (aRR 0.85; 95% CI 0.78-0.93), and having a less corrupt government (aRR 0.57; 95% CI 0.40-0.80). Out-of-pocket expenditures on health (aRR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03-1.62) were a risk factor. The same four variables were significantly related to CMR after controlling for other variables. Protective determinants of MMR included access to water and sanitation (aRR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.94), having a less corrupt government (aRR 0.49; 95%; CI 0.36-0.66), and higher total expenditures on health per capita (aRR 0.84; 95% CI 0.77-0.92). Higher fertility rates (aRR 2.85; 95% CI: 2.02-4.00) were found to be a significant risk factor for MMR. Conclusion Several key measures of a health system predict mortality in infants, children, and maternal mortality rates at the national level. Improving access to water and sanitation and reducing corruption within the health sector should become priorities. PMID:22023970

  6. Understanding Private Sector Antimalarial Distribution Chains: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Methods Study in Six Malaria-Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Palafox, Benjamin; Patouillard, Edith; Tougher, Sarah; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rueda, Sergio Torres; Kiefer, Sabine; O’Connell, Kathryn A.; Zinsou, Cyprien; Phok, Sochea; Akulayi, Louis; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Chavasse, Desmond

    2014-01-01

    Background Private for-profit outlets are important treatment sources for malaria in most endemic countries. However, these outlets constitute only the last link in a chain of businesses that includes manufacturers, importers and wholesalers, all of which influence the availability, price and quality of antimalarials patients can access. We present evidence on the composition, characteristics and operation of these distribution chains and of the businesses that comprise them in six endemic countries (Benin, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia). Methods and Findings We conducted nationally representative surveys of antimalarial wholesalers during 2009–2010 using an innovative sampling approach that captured registered and unregistered distribution channels, complemented by in-depth interviews with a range of stakeholders. Antimalarial distribution chains were pyramidal in shape, with antimalarials passing through a maximum of 4–6 steps between manufacturer and retailer; however, most likely pass through 2–3 steps. Less efficacious non-artemisinin therapies (e.g. chloroquine) dominated weekly sales volumes among African wholesalers, while volumes for more efficacious artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) were many times smaller. ACT sales predominated only in Cambodia. In all countries, consumer demand was the principal consideration when selecting products to stock. Selling prices and reputation were key considerations regarding supplier choice. Business practices varied across countries, with large differences in the proportions of wholesalers offering credit and delivery services to customers, and the types of distribution models adopted by businesses. Regulatory compliance also varied across countries, particularly with respect to licensing. The proportion of wholesalers possessing any up-to-date licence from national regulators was lowest in Benin and Nigeria, where vendors in traditional markets are important antimalarial supply sources. Conclusions The structure and characteristics of antimalarial distribution chains vary across countries; therefore, understanding the wholesalers that comprise them should inform efforts aiming to improve access to quality treatment through the private sector. PMID:24699934

  7. A thermal battery operational reliability evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Herzberg, M.; Jaeger, M.; Shalev, H. [Rafael, Haifa (Israel)

    1994-12-31

    A thermal battery is a one shot device. Its overall reliability is given as the product of its technical and operational reliability. This work evaluates operational reliability. The operational reliability for various performance requirements was estimated by analyzing data received from qualification tests of a certain thermal battery. A lower bound of its operational reliability was evaluated by use of the statistical tolerance method for each specific electrical performance requirement. A conservative overall lower bound for the operational reliability of the thermal battery was calculated as the product of the individual operational reliability estimates corresponding to each performance requirement.

  8. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support Evidence-Based Practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on EBM courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. I. R. Hugenholtz; K. Nieuwenhuijsen; J. K. Sluiter; Dijk van F. J. H

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT\\\\BACKGROUND:Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs) to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores the facilities in the knowledge infrastructure being used by OPs in different countries, and their perceived importance for EBM

  9. Quality of Agricultural Products and Protection of the Environment: Training, Knowledge Dissemination and Certification. Synthesis Report of a Study in Five European Countries. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadaki-Klavdianou, A.; Menkisoglou-Spiroudi, O.; Tsakiridou, E.

    This book examines existing European environmental education and agricultural practices friendly to the environment. Focus is on studies conducted in five countries Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain--that aimed to define new knowledge qualifications related to environmental issues in producing alternative agricultural products…

  10. Daily Hassles and Coping Dispositions as Predictors of Psychological Adjustment: A Comparative Study of Young Unaccompanied Refugees and Youth in the Resettlement Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seglem, Karoline B.; Oppedal, Brit; Roysamb, Espen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined daily hassles and coping dispositions in relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms among resettled unaccompanied refugees and other youth in the resettlement country. A total of 223 unaccompanied refugees ("M" = 20 years) was compared with 609 ethnic minority and 427 majority youth in Norway. Unaccompanied…

  11. Sports Facilities for Schools in Developing Countries. An Inventory of Experience and Proposals for Future Projects. Educational Studies and Documents No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, F. B.

    Aimed at encouraging developing countries to make better use of local sporting traditions and locally available materials, this study reviews existing information on the design of facilities for sport and physical education programs and outlines a handbook that could serve as a guide to the production of those facilities. The assessment of the…

  12. Students' Perceptions of Secondary Science Teachers' Interpersonal Style in Six Countries: A Study on the Cross National Validity of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Brok, Perry; Fisher, Darrell; Brekelmans, Mieke; Rickards, Tony; Wubbels, Theo; Levy, Jack; Waldrip, Bruce

    This study compares the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) constructed by Wubbels, et al., for six countries including The Netherlands, United States, Australia, Slovakia, Singapore, and Brunei. The Model for Interpersonal Teacher Behavior (MITB) as a "circumplex" model with specific properties is discussed and an overview of methods to…

  13. Evaluating Teacher Education. 1975 CMTI Impact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Omaha. Teacher Corps Recruitment and Technical Resources Center.

    These technical papers examine alternative approaches to the evaluation of inservice and preservice training programs for Teacher Corps interns. The first paper explores the theoretical and practical consequences in conceptualizing teacher education as a socialization process. In the second, the suggestion is made that to understand the…

  14. Ground Penetrating Radar for Concrete Evaluation Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Gehrig; Derek V. Morris; John T. Bryant

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical imaging technique used for subsurface exploration and monitoring. It is widely used within the forensic, engineering, geological, mining and archeological communities. GPR provides an ideal technique for concrete evaluation in that it has the highest resolution of any subsurface imaging, non-invasive method and is far safer than other method such as x-ray technology.

  15. Correspondence Courses for In-service Teacher Training at Primary Level in Developing Countries. International Studies in Education 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdos, Renee, Ed.; Clark, John H., Ed.

    This conference report, which presents guidelines for the establishment of in-service primary level teacher training in developing countries through correspondence courses, is divided into two sections: a) Policy and Planning and b) the Establishment of an Institution. Once the decision has been made to establish a correspondence training program,…

  16. Information Technology Facilitates Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Developing Countries: An Observational Study of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-Chen Tina. Shih; I-Wen Pan; Yi-Wen Tsai

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health information technology offers a powerful tool to monitor the performance of a healthcare system. Advances in computer technology and capacity combined with lower start-up costs will allow developing countries to achieve greater impact when they initiate electronic health information systems. We focused on the integrated health information system that was established in Taiwan in conjunction with the launch

  17. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Western Balkans. A Tempus Study. Issue 06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The attached descriptions of higher education systems in the Tempus partner countries provide a tool for those who are either planning or already carrying out projects within Tempus. This document forms part of a series of four publications which have been produced for each of the regions covered by Tempus. The descriptions have been drafted by…

  18. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Southern Mediterranean. A Tempus Study. Issue 07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The attached descriptions of higher education systems in the Tempus partner countries provide a tool for those who are either planning or already carrying out projects within Tempus. This document forms part of a series of four publications which have been produced for each of the regions covered by Tempus. The descriptions have been drafted by…

  19. Foreign direct investment strategies: Least-developed countries and foreign firms. A case study of Sudan and Chevron Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The least-developed countries (LDCS) are politically underdeveloped. They often have autocratic authoritarian regimes that give less than appropriate attention to their societies' development. Being vulnerable and fairly unstable, such regimes are more occupied with their own survival than with developing pragmatic plans that cater to supplying their nations with missing economic resources needed through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Internal and external pressures on LDCS with such primitive political structures have greatly confused their leaderships and have resulted in the lack of institutionalization in these countries. Foreign firms normally choose to serve world markets through direct operations rather than exporting or licensing because the former maximize their gains more than the two other alternatives. This is why benefits to host countries may not match a host country's expectations when it allows FDI penetration. It is the contention of this research that Sudan failed to formulate a right policy towards FDI, and came short of maximizing its scarce resource returns. On the other hand, Chevron Oil, with a global overall profit-maximization strategy, succeeded in running its subsidiary in Sudan in accordance with its global outlook.

  20. Education and Training in Madagascar: Toward a Policy Agenda for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Madagascar is a poor, primarily rural country in which three-quarters of the population has subsisted below the poverty line for at least two decades. In view of the important role of education in the government's poverty reduction agenda, this report documents the current status of educational development in Madagascar and the key constraints on…

  1. Restoring Fiscal Discipline for Poverty Reduction in Peru: A Public Expenditure Review. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Calix, Jose; Melo, Alberto

    Since his inauguration in July 2001, Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo has proposed to take actions in the areas of macroeconomic stabilization; reopening of country's access to international financial markets; budget modernization and state decentralization; social policy; revamping of the armed forces, police, and internal security services;…

  2. Cross-cultural equivalence of the Beck Depression Inventory: A five-country analysis from the ODIN study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Nuevo; Graham Dunn; Christopher Dowrick; José Luis Vázquez-Barquero; Patricia Casey; Odd Stefen Dalgard; Ville Lehtinen; José Luis Ayuso-Mateos

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThe Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) has demonstrated excellent psychometric properties and good performance as a screening measure in different contexts and languages. However, comparison of its structure across countries and languages remains understudied. Measurement invariance is a prerequisite for considering the BDI equivalent across versions, and for using it to make valid and interpretable comparisons of the severity of depression

  3. Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Combination antiretroviral therapy has led to significant increases in survival and quality of life, but at a population-level the effect on life expectancy is not well understood. Our objective was to compare changes in mortality and life expectancy among HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy. Methods The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration is a multinational collaboration of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America. Patients were included in this analysis if they were aged 16 years or over and antiretroviral-naive when initiating combination therapy. We constructed abridged life tables to estimate life expectancies for individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996–99, 2000–02, and 2003–05, stratified by sex, baseline CD4 cell count, and history of injecting drug use. The average number of years remaining to be lived by those treated with combination antiretroviral therapy at 20 and 35 years of age was estimated. Potential years of life lost from 20 to 64 years of age and crude death rates were also calculated. Findings 18 587, 13 914, and 10 854 eligible patients initiated combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996–99, 2000–02, and 2003–05, respectively. 2056 (4·7%) deaths were observed during the study period, with crude death rates decreasing from 16·3 deaths per 1000 person-years in 1996–99 to 10·0 deaths per 1000 person-years in 2003–05. Potential years of life lost per 1000 person-years also decreased over the same time, from 366 to 189 years. Life expectancy at age 20 years increased from 36·1 (SE 0·6) years to 49·4 (0·5) years. Women had higher life expectancies than men. Patients with presumed transmission via injecting drug use had lower life expectancies than those from other transmission groups (32·6 [1·1] years vs 44·7 [0·3] years in 2003–05). Life expectancy was lower in patients with lower baseline CD4 counts than in those with higher baseline counts (32·4 [1·1] years for CD4 cell counts below 100 cells per ?L vs 50·4 [0·4] years for counts of 200 cells per ?L or more). Interpretation Life expectancy in HIV-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy increased between 1996 and 2005, although there is considerable variability in subgroups of patients. However, the average number of years remaining to be lived at age 20 years was about two-thirds of that in the general population in these countries. PMID:18657708

  4. A Diary Study Based Evaluation Framework for Mobile Information Retrieval

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Diary Study Based Evaluation Framework for Mobile Information Retrieval Ourdia Bouidghaghen, cedex 09 {bouidgha,tamine,bougha}@irit.fr Abstract. In this poster, we propose an evaluation framework that in- vestigates the integration of the user context (interests, location and time) into the evaluation

  5. Case study of nonlinear inverse problems: mammography and nondestructive evaluation

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Case study of non­linear inverse problems: mammography and non­destructive evaluation O. Kosheleva such as faults in non­destructive evaluation or bumps in mammography. Non­linear terms (quadratic or cubic) give. Keywords: Non­linear inverse problem, non­linear data compression, non­destructive evaluation, mammography

  6. A pilot study for evaluating Arabic websites using automated WCAG 2.0 evaluation tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hend S. Al-Khalifa; Maryam Al-Kanhal; Hailah Al-Nafisah; Noura Al-soukaih; Elaf Al-hussain; Moneerah Al-onzi

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, automatic WCAG 2.0 evaluation tools are increasing in numbers, however, there is little evidence of whether these tools are able to evaluate Arabic websites and provide reflective recommendations to improve their accessibility. To gain insight into this issue, we conducted a pilot study to evaluate a set of WCAG 2.0 tools and report on their results. We believe that

  7. Care in the Country: A Historical Case Study of Long-Term Sustainability in 4 Rural Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    From 1978 to 1983, researchers at the University of North Carolina conducted a National Evaluation of Rural Primary Care Programs. Thirty years later, many of the programs they studied have closed, but the challenges of providing rural health care have persisted. I explored the histories of 4 surviving rural primary care programs and identified factors that contributed to their sustainability. These included physician advocates, innovative practices, organizational flexibility, and community integration. As rural health programs look ahead, identifying future generations of physician advocates is a crucial next step in developing the rural primary care workforce. It is also important for these programs to find ways to cope with high rates of staff turnover. PMID:19608960

  8. Critic evaluation of arterial hypertension studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Davila

    Arterial hypertension is the most frequent important disease in adult. In children, its incidence is smaller than in adult, but remains important by diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic consequences. This study compares the results of the children arterial hypertension studies in Romania, regarding prevalence. There are 10 studies confronted, published in Romanian journals in the last 33 years. We analyzed the

  9. Comparative Study on LUCC and CLID of Zhangjiagang, Hanoi and Dehradun in the developing countries of Asia-Pacific region: A real challenge to food security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Zhang; Jianlong Li; Yizhao Chen; Qi Yang; Chengcheng Gang; Inakwu O. A. Odeh; Xinglong Zou

    2011-01-01

    Three cities with different degrees of urbanization in developing countries of Asia-Pacific region are selected as the study areas, They are Zhangjiagang city in China,Dehradun in India and Hanoi in Vietnam. In this paper, data was collected concluding nearly a decade of remote sensing data, population,economic data and other relevant information. We studied land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) and cultivated

  10. Country Analysis Briefs

    EIA Publications

    2028-01-01

    An ongoing compilation of country energy profiles. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries that are important to world energy markets, including members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers, major energy transit countries, major energy consumers, and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers.

  11. A+ Country Reports

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A fantastic resource for students, teachers, tourists, and anyone else interested in the globe, A+ Country Reports offers a wealth of information on all of the countries of the world. Like the CIA's World Factbook (last mentioned in the September 28, 2001 Scout Report ), A+ Country Reports presents up-to-date information on population, geography, economy, history, and politics. Aside from that, however, the site presents a lively array of extras that don't figure in the CIA's matter of fact dossiers, things such as audio clips of national anthems and links to current weather reports. As the site itself boasts, through a list of quotes from current reviews, A+ Country Reports is particularly appealing to teachers and younger students, and it's obvious why it's appealing, given its attention to the kinds of details kids demand -- bright graphics, large fonts, and Flash-automated features among them. For those interested in sharing what they have learned or already know, there is also a discussion area and links to sites for further study.

  12. Efficacy evidences in prevention of HIV infection in developing countries. A critical appraisal from population-based studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Atzori; P. Bonfanti; L. Carenzi; G. Rizzardini

    2009-01-01

    For generalised HIV\\/AIDS sub-Saharan African epidemics emphasis has been placed on the three established pillars of HIV prevention:\\u000a condom promotion and distribution, Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) and treatment of other sexually transmitted infections\\u000a (STIs). Experiences in several countries support the positive results of Ugandan prevention politics called Abstinence, Be\\u000a faithful, Condom (ABC), based on Primary Behaviour Change (PBC). Polemics

  13. PROJECT SELF-EVALUATION METHODOLOGY: THE HEALTHREATS PROJECT CASE STUDY

    E-print Network

    Bohanec, Marko

    PROJECT SELF-EVALUATION METHODOLOGY: THE HEALTHREATS PROJECT CASE STUDY Martin Znidarsic1 , Marko presents an approach to self-evaluation in collaborative research projects. The approach is taken from a case study of the project Healthreats, where it is used in practice. Aims and focuses of self

  14. ENGINEERING EVALUATION STUDIES HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTOR PLANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Chittenden; G. F. Hoveke

    1961-01-01

    Engineering evaluation studies focused on heavy water moderated power ; reactor technology are discussed. Stainless steel, carbon steel, and Zircaloy-2 ; corrosion data are presented. Water treatment and corrosion product deposition ; are described. A study aimed at evaluating the effect of incorporating alternate ; low cost materials into a full-scale boiling DâO direct cycle power reactor ; plant was

  15. Evaluation of Cerec endocrowns: a preliminary cohort study.

    PubMed

    Decerle, N; Bessadet, M; Munoz-Sanchez, M L; Eschevins, C; Veyrune, J; Nicolas, E

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate clinical qualities and evolution on ceramic endocrowns produced with the Cerec 3D (Sirona). Endocrowns were produced in a hospital environment and evaluated according to the FDI criteria on the day of placement and 6 months afterwards. Each item was graded from 1 (good) to 5 (bad). A global score, as well as a score for aesthetics, functioning and biological integration was assessed for each evaluation. During the 6-month evaluation period, the scores were always related to good clinical quality, except for single crown restoration. The scores did not change between the two periods of evaluation. PMID:25134368

  16. Management accounting in less developed countries: what is known and needs knowing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Hopper; Mathew Tsamenyi; Shahzad Uddin; Danture Wickramasinghe

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate management accounting research in developing countries and formulate suggestions for its progression. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a desk based study of existing literature analysed through a framework of management control transformation in developing countries derived from the authors' research. Findings – Research is growing, especially on accounting in state-owned and

  17. DESIGN ISSUES FOR EVALUATING SEEDLING EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree seedling studies, covering a wide range of experimental conditions in pollutant treatment, species, facilities, and exposure regimes, have become commonplace in forestry research for assessing the actual and potential environmental effects of air pollutants on forest ecosyst...

  18. My Favorite Country

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Mabey

    2008-11-17

    Students will do a search through the internet to research a country of their choice. Introduction Have you ever wondered what kind of food they eat in India? Or the style of clothing they wear in Japan? Well, here\\'s your chance to find out! Task After browsing through a list of all the countries in the world... Countries of the World or More Country Information or Another country information website Choose one country that you would like to research and learn ...

  19. Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society solar energy pilot study. First follow-up report, October 1979, pilot country: United States; co-pilot countries: Denmark and France. CCMS report No. 110

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-01-01

    During 1973 to 1978, over twenty nations participated in the NATO/CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study, whose objective was to promote and accelerate the use of solar heating and cooling of buildings. The activities in this information exchange included (1) the regular reporting of national solar heating and cooling programs, (2) the development of a format for reporting the performance of solar heating and cooling systems, (3) the exchange of system performance reports, (4) the establishment of two specialized working groups for solar-assisted low energy dwellings and passive solar applications. At the conclusion of the pilot study in 1978, the participants formulated recommendations for continued action at the international level, as well as for action at the national level. This report describes the progress made in implementing those recommendations. In addition to detailing the steps taken to continue collaboration in various efforts initiated within the Solar Energy Pilot Study, the report contains papers on the 1979 status of the solar heating and cooling programs in seventeen CCMS countries.

  20. Management Development of Internal Evaluation in the Islamic Republic of Iran (Case Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavarz, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    During the last two decades, many higher education systems in the world have attempted to evaluate and improve the quality of education, research and services at the university and higher education level. Countries which have been successful in these attempts have initiated continuous evaluation and applied internal evaluation as a basis for…

  1. Deepening our understanding of quality improvement in Europe (DUQuE): overview of a study of hospital quality management in seven countries

    PubMed Central

    Secanell, Mariona; Groene, Oliver; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Lopez, Maria Andrée; Kutryba, Basia; Pfaff, Holger; Klazinga, Niek; Wagner, Cordula; Kristensen, Solvejg; Bartels, Paul Daniel; Garel, Pascal; Bruneau, Charles; Escoval, Ana; França, Margarida; Mora, Nuria; Suñol, Rosa; Klazinga, N; Kringos, DS; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Bottaro, S; Garel, P; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Lívio, A; Eiras, M; Franca, M; Leite, I; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; Chow, A; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, CA; Wang, A; Thompson, A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Objective This paper provides an overview of the DUQuE (Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe) project, the first study across multiple countries of the European Union (EU) to assess relationships between quality management and patient outcomes at EU level. The paper describes the conceptual framework and methods applied, highlighting the novel features of this study. Design DUQuE was designed as a multi-level cross-sectional study with data collection at hospital, pathway, professional and patient level in eight countries. Setting and Participants We aimed to collect data for the assessment of hospital-wide constructs from up to 30 randomly selected hospitals in each country, and additional data at pathway and patient level in 12 of these 30. Main outcome measures A comprehensive conceptual framework was developed to account for the multiple levels that influence hospital performance and patient outcomes. We assessed hospital-specific constructs (organizational culture and professional involvement), clinical pathway constructs (the organization of care processes for acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hip fracture and deliveries), patient-specific processes and outcomes (clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience) and external constructs that could modify hospital quality (external assessment and perceived external pressure). Results Data was gathered from 188 hospitals in 7 participating countries. The overall participation and response rate were between 75% and 100% for the assessed measures. Conclusions This is the first study assessing relation between quality management and patient outcomes at EU level. The study involved a large number of respondents and achieved high response rates. This work will serve to develop guidance in how to assess quality management and makes recommendations on the best ways to improve quality in healthcare for hospital stakeholders, payers, researchers, and policy makers throughout the EU. PMID:24671120

  2. Metal contamination in urban, suburban, and country park soils of Hong Kong: a study based on GIS and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Celine Siu-Lan; Li, Xiangdong; Shi, Wenzhong; Cheung, Sharon Ching-nga; Thornton, Iain

    2006-03-01

    The urban environment quality is of vital importance as the majority of people now live in cities. Due to the continuous urbanisation and industrialisation in many parts of the world, metals are continuously emitted into the terrestrial environment and pose a great threat on human health. An extensive survey was conducted in the highly urbanised and commercialised Hong Kong Island area (80.3 km2) of Hong Kong using a systematic sampling strategy of five soil samples per km2 in urban areas and two samples per km2 in the suburban and country park sites (0-15 cm). The analytical results indicated that the surface soils in urban and suburban areas are enriched with metals, such as Cu, Pb, and Zn. The Pb concentration in the urban soils was found to exceed the Dutch target value. The statistical analyses using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) showed distinctly different associations among trace metals and the major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the urban, suburban, and country park soils. Soil pollution maps of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soils were produced based on geographical information system (GIS) technology. The hot-spot areas of metal contamination were mainly concentrated in the northern and western parts of Hong Kong Island, and closely related to high traffic conditions. The Pb isotopic composition of the urban, suburban, and country park soils showed that vehicular emissions were the major anthropogenic sources for Pb. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in soils decreased as Pb concentrations increased in a polynomial line (degree=2). PMID:15913711

  3. National Economic Development and Disparities in Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study of Data from 38 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Melissa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven; Subramanian, SV.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increases in body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of overweight in low- and middle income countries (LMICs) are often ascribed to changes in global trade patterns or increases in national income. These changes are likely to affect populations within LMICs differently based on their place of residence or socioeconomic status (SES). Objective Using nationally representative survey data from 38 countries and national economic indicators from the World Bank and other international organizations, we estimated ecological and multilevel models to assess the association between national levels of gross domestic product (GDP), foreign direct investment (FDI), and mean tariffs and BMI. Design We used linear regression to estimate the ecological association between average annual change in economic indicators and BMI, and multilevel linear or ordered multinomial models to estimate associations between national economic indicators and individual BMI or over- and underweight. We also included cross-level interaction terms to highlight differences in the association of BMI with national economic indicators by type of residence or socioeconomic status (SES). Results There was a positive but non-significant association of GDP and mean BMI. This positive association of GDP and BMI was greater among rural residents and the poor. There were no significant ecological associations between measures of trade openness and mean BMI, but FDI was positively associated with BMI among the poorest respondents and in rural areas and tariff levels were negatively associated with BMI among poor and rural respondents. Conclusion Measures of national income and trade openness have different associations with the BMI across populations within developing countries. These divergent findings underscore the complexity of the effects of development on health and the importance of considering how the health effects of “globalizing” economic and cultural trends are modified by individual-level wealth and residence. PMID:24919199

  4. Emotional intelligence – A review and evaluation study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Dulewicz; Malcolm Higgs

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the subject of “emotional intelligence” (EQ) and attempts to pin-down and define this nebulous construct, using competency-based and personality factor scales. In an exploratory study, the reliability and construct and predictive validity of three scales were investigated. An EQ scale based on 16 relevant competencies showed highly promising reliability and validity. The results also

  5. The psychological impact of technology from a global perspective: A study of technological sophistication and technophobia in university students from twenty-three countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry D. Rosen

    1995-01-01

    This study examined technological sophistication and the level of technophibia in 3,392 first year university students in 38 universities from 23 countries. Technological sophistication was measured by the use of consumer technology (video-cassette recorders, microwave ovens, automated banking machines, computer\\/video games), university computing (classroom computers, word processing, programming languages, and library computers) and computer ownership. Technophobia was assessed by instruments

  6. A Population-Based Study of Fracture Incidence in Southern Tasmania: Lifetime Fracture Risk and Evidence for Geographic Variations within the Same Country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Cooley; G. Jones

    2001-01-01

    :   Symptomatic fractures are a significant problem in terms of both morbidity and financial cost. Marked variation in both total\\u000a and site-specific fracture incidence has been documented internationally but there is limited within-country data. This prospective\\u000a population-based study documented the incidence of all symptomatic fractures occurring from July 1, 1997 to June 30, 1999\\u000a in adults ?50 years of age

  7. Who's got the balance? A study of satisfaction with the work–family balance among part-time service sector employees in five western European countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Beham; Patrick Präg; Sonja Drobni?

    2012-01-01

    Working part-time is frequently considered a viable strategy for employees to better combine work and non-work responsibilities. The present study examines differences in satisfaction with work-family balance (SWFB) among professional and non-professional part-time service sector employees in five western European countries. Part-time employees were found to be more SWFB than full-time employees even after taking varying demands and resources into

  8. Case Study Impact Evaluations of the Industrial Energy Savings Plan

    E-print Network

    Lilly, P.; Pearson, D.

    Case Study Impact Evaluations of the Industrial Energy Savings Plan Patrick Lilly, Engineering Research Manager, Regional Economic Research, Inc., Vancouver, Washington Dennis Pearson, Energy Research and Evaluation Analyst, Seattle City Light...-energy benefits. A summary of conclusions and lessons learned is also provided. The evaluation team included Patrick Lilly of Regional Economic Research Inc., Paresh Parekh of Unicade Inc., D'Arcy Swanson of Pacific Sciences Inc., and Dennis Pearson...

  9. Meta-Evaluation of Worksite Health Promotion Economic Return Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Larry S.

    2003-01-01

    This meta-evaluation provides a standardized look at the quality of the economic evaluation literature for multi-component worksite health promotion programs. Analysis of 42 studies suggests that the evidence is very strong for average reductions in sick leave, health plan costs, and workers' compensation and disability costs of slightly more than…

  10. A subjective study to evaluate video quality assessment algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalpana Seshadrinathan; Rajiv Soundararajan; Alan C. Bovik; Lawrence K. Cormack

    2010-01-01

    Automatic methods to evaluate the perceptual quality of a digital video sequence have widespread applications wherever the end-user is a human. Several objective video quality assessment (VQA) algorithms exist, whose performance is typically evaluated using the results of a subjective study performed by the video quality experts group (VQEG) in 2000. There is a great need for a free, publicly

  11. Postgraduate Study and Managers' Subsequent Work Experience: An Exploratory Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jane; Harris, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on an exploratory qualitative study, this article considers the link between business school teaching at graduate level and subsequent work behaviour and experiences of former students. It evaluates the student experience some time "after" graduation. The findings of the retrospective evaluation point to the value of classroom peer…

  12. A Qualitative Study on Primary School Mathematics Lesson Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dongchen; Ma, Yunpeng

    2009-01-01

    Through the qualitative interviews of five implementers of primary school mathematics curriculum, this study addresses the ways in which mathematics lessons are evaluated. Results show that each evaluator recognizes different aspects of a "good lesson," however, among all criteria, the design of the lesson plan, realization of the lesson goals,…

  13. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  14. Exchanging Ideas on Evaluation: Evaluating an Initial Management Skills Course: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Pat

    1979-01-01

    Describes an evaluation study of an interpersonal effectiveness management course for first-level supervisors. The evaluator collected information using graduate appraisal of course content, skill retention, measures, significant incident techniques, analysis of work products/records, appraisal of instructor, observation checklists, and…

  15. Convergence of ecological footprint and emergy analysis as a sustainability indicator of countries: Peru as case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siche, Raúl; Pereira, Lucas; Agostinho, Feni; Ortega, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    In the last decade, two scientific tools have been extensively used worldwide to measure the human impact on nature: ecological footprint (EF) and emergy analysis (EA). Papers trying to combine the strong points of EF and EA, and obtain more accurate results have appeared in scientific literature, in which Zhao's et al. (2005) [61] approach is an important one. Unfortunately, some weak points of the original methods still remain on the new approaches proposed. The aim of this present work is to discuss some weak points found in Zhao's approach, trying to overcome them through a new approach called emergetic ecological footprint (EEF). The main difference between Zhao's approach and EEF is that the last one accounted for the internal storage of capital natural in the biocapacity calculation. Besides that, soil loss and water for human consume were considered as additional categories in the footprint calculation. After discussing it through comparisons with other approaches, EEF was used to assess Peru as a case study, resulting in a biocapacity of 51.76 gha capita -1 and a footprint of 12.23 gha capita -1, with 2004 data; that resulted in an ecological surplus of 39.53 gha capita -1. The load capacity factor obtained was 4.23, meaning that Peru can support a population 4.23 times bigger considering the life style of 2004. The main limitations of the EEF are: (i) it is impossible to make comparisons between the biocapacity and footprint for each category; (ii) a need for a handbook with emergy intensity factors with good quality. On the other hand, the main positive points are: (i) its easiness of application in global and national scales; (ii) its final indicators account for all the previous energy (or emergy) used to make something; (iii) internal natural capital storage was accounted for in the biocapacity calculation, which can be a valid step towards the evaluation and assess of services provided by nature.

  16. Indoor radon measurements and methodologies in Latin American countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Canoba; F. O López; M. I Arnaud; A. A Oliveira; R. S Neman; J. C Hadler; P. J Iunes; S. R Paulo; A. M Osorio; R Aparecido; C Rodr??guez; V Moreno; R Vasquez; G Espinosa; J. I Golzarri; T Mart??nez; M Navarrete; I Cabrera; N Segovia; P Peña; E Taméz; P Pereyra; M. E López-Herrera; L Sajo-Bohus

    2001-01-01

    According to the current international guidelines concerning environmental problems, it is necessary to evaluate and to know the indoor radon levels, specially since most of the natural radiation dose to man comes from radon gas and its progeny. Several countries have established National Institutions and National Programs for the study of radon and its connection with lung cancer risk and

  17. Attitudes Justifying Domestic Violence Predict Endorsement of Corporal Punishment and Physical and Psychological Aggression towards Children: A Study in 25 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bradley, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Convention on the Rights of the Child has prompted countries to protect children from abuse and exploitation. Exposure to domestic violence and corporal punishment are risk factors in children’s development. This study investigated how women’s attitudes about domestic violence are related to attitudes about corporal punishment, and harsh behaviors toward children, and whether country-wide norms regarding domestic violence and corporal punishment are related to psychological aggression and physical violence toward children. Study design Data were drawn from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, a nationally representative and internationally comparable household survey developed by UNICEF. Measures of domestic violence and discipline were completed by 85,999 female caregivers of children between the ages of 2 and 14 years from families in 25 low- and middle-income countries. Results Mothers who believed that husbands were justified in hitting their wives were more likely to believe that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children, and, in turn, were justified in hitting their wives and that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children were more likely to report that their child had experienced psychological aggression and physical violence. Countrywide norms regarding the acceptability of husbands hitting wives and advisability of corporal punishment moderated the links between mothers’ attitudes and their behaviors toward children. Conclusions Pediatricians can address parents’ psychological aggression and physical violence toward children by discussing parents’ attitudes and behaviors within a framework that incorporates social norms regarding the acceptability of domestic violence and corporal punishment. PMID:24412139

  18. The value of inter-professional education: a comparative study of dental technology students' perceptions across four countries.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Henderson, A J; Sun, J; Haugen, H; Myhrer, T; Maryan, C; Ivanow, K N; Cameron, A; Johnson, N W

    2015-04-24

    The ability to function as an effective member of a dental care team is a highly desirable - frequently mandated - attribute of dental technology (DT) graduates. Currently, there is little rigorous examination of how the learning of team-working skills might best be structured in a DT curriculum. This research compares DT curricula, and students' attitudes and perceptions regarding collaboration in practice, from four countries. Students (n = 376) were invited to complete an education profile questionnaire, and the standardised measure - the shared learning scale. There were 196 (52%) responses. Students given opportunities to engage with others had better perceptions of inter-professional learning (IPL). Most believed that team-work and collaborative skills were best acquired by learning together with other dental care professionals, preferably sharing cases for real patients. Curricula should maximise opportunities for dental technology students to experience authentic IPL. Collaboration and team-work needs to be embedded through the whole undergraduate programme. PMID:25908364

  19. Estimating the welfare loss to households from natural disasters in developing countries: a contingent valuation study of flooding in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Navrud, Ståle; Tuan, Tran Huu; Tinh, Bui Duc

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural disasters have severe impacts on the health and well-being of affected households. However, we find evidence that official damage cost assessments for floods and other natural disasters in Vietnam, where households have little or no insurance, clearly underestimate the total economic damage costs of these events as they do not include the welfare loss from mortality, morbidity and well-being experienced by the households affected by the floods. This should send a message to the local communities and national authorities that higher investments in flood alleviation, reduction and adaptive measures can be justified since the social benefits of these measures in terms of avoided damage costs are higher than previously thought. Methods We pioneer the use of the contingent valuation (CV) approach of willingness-to-contribute (WTC) labour to a flood prevention program, as a measure of the welfare loss experienced by household due to a flooding event. In a face-to-face household survey of 706 households in the Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam, we applied this approach together with reported direct physical damage in order to shed light of the welfare loss experienced by the households. We asked about households’ WTC labour and multiplied their WTC person-days of labour by an estimate for their opportunity cost of time in order to estimate the welfare loss to households from the 2007 floods. Results The results showed that this contingent valuation (CV) approach of asking about willingness-to-pay in-kind avoided the main problems associated with applying CV in developing countries. Conclusion Thus, the CV approach of WTC labour instead of money is promising in terms of capturing the total welfare loss of natural disasters, and promising in terms of further application in other developing countries and for other types of natural disasters. PMID:22761603

  20. Bachelor of Arts in American Studies For a country less than 250 years old, the United States

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    recruiters, among other services. High School Preparation Students who wish to major in American studies: Interdisciplinary studies, healthcare studies Master of Arts: Interdisciplinary studies Minors Offered If your of Interdisciplinary Studies, the following minors are available: · American studies · Gender studies · Healthcare

  1. eldis Country Profiles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new briefing service from eldis (Electronic Development and Environment Information System) (originally reviewed in the October 9, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) offers access to a large amount of informative material on individual countries. The heart of this material will be multiple documents providing sectoral profiles of Agriculture, Environment, Economics, Gender, Politics, Education, and Health. Please note, however, that the site is still very much under development, and only profiles of the agricultural sector are currently available. Other resources include links to current news, maps, statistics, CIA and IMF country profiles, industrial and trade profiles, and human rights records. At present, the Country Profiles section only contains the nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Until the new profiles are completed, users may still access older eldis resource collections for North America, Europe, and the Middle East and North Africa from this site. When completed, this site will be a powerful one-stop tool for researchers and professionals in development studies and political science.

  2. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) of Diarrheal Disease in Infants and Young Children in Developing Countries: Epidemiologic and Clinical Methods of the Case/Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kotloff, Karen L.; Blackwelder, William C.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Nataro, James P.; Farag, Tamer H.; van Eijk, Annemieke; Adegbola, Richard A.; Alonso, Pedro L.; Breiman, Robert F.; Golam Faruque, Abu Syed; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O.; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Biswas, Kousick; Panchalingam, Sandra; Clemens, John D.; Cohen, Dani; Glass, Roger I.; Mintz, Eric D.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Levine, Myron M.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?Diarrhea is a leading cause of illness and death among children aged <5 years in developing countries. This paper describes the clinical and epidemiological methods used to conduct the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a 3-year, prospective, age-stratified, case/control study to estimate the population-based burden, microbiologic etiology, and adverse clinical consequences of acute moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) among a censused population of children aged 0–59 months seeking care at health centers in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Methods.?GEMS was conducted at 7 field sites, each serving a population whose demography and healthcare utilization practices for childhood diarrhea were documented. We aimed to enroll 220 MSD cases per year from selected health centers serving each site in each of 3 age strata (0–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months), along with 1–3 matched community controls. Cases and controls supplied clinical, epidemiologic, and anthropometric data at enrollment and again approximately 60 days later, and provided enrollment stool specimens for identification and characterization of potential diarrheal pathogens. Verbal autopsy was performed if a child died. Analytic strategies will calculate the fraction of MSD attributable to each pathogen and the incidence, financial costs, nutritional consequences, and case fatality overall and by pathogen. Conclusions.?When completed, GEMS will provide estimates of the incidence, etiology, and outcomes of MSD among infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. This information can guide development and implementation of public health interventions to diminish morbidity and mortality from diarrheal diseases. PMID:23169936

  3. Art as an Evaluative Tool: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Mary-Ann; Graham, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a pilot study completed in preparation for a multisite study of the effectiveness of children's grief support groups. Uses art therapy to assess children's perspectives of their experience in a grief support group. Results of study support the use of art as an effective qualitative tool that can be utilized in future evaluations of…

  4. Inter-country variations in anti-asthmatic drug prescriptions for children. Systematic review of studies published during the 2000–2009 period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Bianchi; Antonio Clavenna; Maurizio Bonati

    2010-01-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to analyse inter-and intra-country quantitative and qualitative differences in anti-asthmatic\\u000a prescriptions to children and adolescents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A literature search was performed in EMBASE and MEDLINE to identify pharmaco-epidemiological studies published from January\\u000a 1, 2000 to December 31, 2008 in which anti-asthmatic prescription prevalence in out-hospital children was measured. A meta-analytic\\u000a weighted average and 95% confidence

  5. Influenza vaccines in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Jördis J.; Klein Breteler, Janna; Tam, John S.; Hutubessy, Raymond C.W.; Jit, Mark; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Economic evaluations on influenza vaccination from low resource settings are scarce and have not been evaluated using a systematic approach. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review on the value for money of influenza vaccination in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for economic evaluations published in any language between 1960 and 2011. Main outcome measures were costs per influenza outcome averted, costs per quality-adjusted life years gained or disability-adjusted life years averted, costs per benefit in monetary units or cost-benefit ratios. Results: Nine economic evaluations on seasonal influenza vaccine met the inclusion criteria. These were model- or randomized-controlled-trial (RCT)-based economic evaluations from middle-income countries. Influenza vaccination provided value for money for elderly, infants, adults and children with high-risk conditions. Vaccination was cost-effective and cost-saving for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and in elderly above 65 y from model-based evaluations, but conclusions from RCTs on elderly varied. Conclusion: Economic evaluations from middle income regions differed in population studied, outcomes and definitions used. Most findings are in line with evidence from high-income countries highlighting that influenza vaccine is likely to provide value for money. However, serious methodological limitations do not allow drawing conclusions on cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in middle income countries. Evidence on cost-effectiveness from low-income countries is lacking altogether, and more information is needed from full economic evaluations that are conducted in a standardized manner. PMID:23732900

  6. Energy technology, indoor air pollution, and respiratory infections in developing countries: A field study from Central Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzati, Majid

    Globally, more than two billion people rely on biofuels as the primary source of domestic energy. Exposure to indoor air pollution, especially to particulate matter, from biomass combustion, is a causal agent of respiratory and eye diseases. Acute respiratory infections (ARI) and chronic respiratory diseases lead the causes of disease and mortality worldwide, and account for more than 10% of the global burden of disease, mostly in developing countries. In this dissertation, I consider the linkages among household energy technology, indoor environment, and health. I provide quantitative analysis of (1) patterns of human exposure to indoor air pollution, (2) the exposure-response relationship for particulate matter and ARI, and (3) the pollution reducing performance of an array of stove-fuel combinations. Data are from three years (1996--1999) of field research in Central Kenya. I also briefly discuss the important issues in successful dissemination of household level technologies. I construct Profiles of exposure using continuous real-time monitoring of pollution concentration and the location and activities of household members, supplemented by data on the spatial dispersion of pollution and interviews. Exposure during brief high-intensity emission episodes accounts for 31%--61% of the total exposure of household members who participate in cooking and 0%--11% for those who do not. Simple models that neglect the spatial distribution of pollution within the home, intense emission episodes, and activity patterns underestimate exposure by 3%--71% for different demographic sub-groups, resulting in inaccurate and biased estimations. ARI and acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are increasing, concave functions of average daily exposure to PM10. The rate of increase declines for exposures above approximately 2000 mug·m -3. Consequently, programs aiming to reduce the adverse health impacts of indoor air pollution in developing countries should focus on measures that result in larger reductions in pollution, especially those that bring average exposure below 2000 mug·m-3. Improved wood stoves provide an overall reduction in the emission concentration compared to 3-stone fire. The largest reduction of emission concentrations and human exposure, however, is achieved through a transition from wood to charcoal. I discuss the implications for public health and technology transfer.

  7. Release of Bet v 1 from birch pollen from 5 European countries. Results from the HIALINE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Thibaudon, Michel; Smith, Matt; Kennedy, Roy; Rantio-Lehtimäki, Auli; Albertini, Roberto; Reese, Gerald; Weber, Bernhard; Galan, Carmen; Brandao, Rui; Antunes, Celia M.; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe; Celenk, Sevcan; Grewling, ?ukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Sauliene, Ingrida; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Sarioglu, Hakan; Ueffing, Marius; Behrendt, Heidrun; Prank, Marje; Sofiev, Mikhail; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Hialine Working Group

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to allergens is pivotal in determining sensitization and allergic symptoms in individuals. Pollen grain counts in ambient air have traditionally been assessed to estimate airborne allergen exposure. However, the exact allergen content of ambient air is unknown. We therefore monitored atmospheric concentrations of birch pollen grains and the matched major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 simultaneously across Europe within the EU-funded project HIALINE (Health Impacts of Airborne Allergen Information Network). Pollen count was assessed with Hirst type pollen traps at 10 l min-1 at sites in France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Finland. Allergen concentrations in ambient air were sampled at 800 l min-1 with a Chemvol® high-volume cascade impactor equipped with stages PM > 10 ?m, 10 ?m > PM > 2.5 ?m, and in Germany also 2.5 ?m > PM > 0.12 ?m. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was determined with an allergen specific ELISA. Bet v 1 isoform patterns were analyzed by 2D-SDS-PAGE blots and mass spectrometric identification. Basophil activation was tested in an Fc?R1-humanized rat basophil cell line passively sensitized with serum of a birch pollen symptomatic patient. Compared to 10 previous years, 2009 was a representative birch pollen season for all stations. About 90% of the allergen was found in the PM > 10 ?m fraction at all stations. Bet v 1 isoforms pattern did not vary substantially neither during ripening of pollen nor between different geographical locations. The average European allergen release from birch pollen was 3.2 pg Bet v 1/pollen and did not vary much between the European countries. However, in all countries a >10-fold difference in daily allergen release per pollen was measured which could be explained by long-range transport of pollen with a deviating allergen release. Basophil activation by ambient air extracts correlated better with airborne allergen than with pollen concentration. Although Bet v 1 is a mixture of different isoforms, its fingerprint is constant across Europe. Bet v 1 was also exclusively linked to pollen. Pollen from different days varied >10-fold in allergen release. Thus exposure to allergen is inaccurately monitored by only monitoring birch pollen grains. Indeed, a humanized basophil activation test correlated much better with allergen concentrations in ambient air than with pollen count. Monitoring the allergens themselves together with pollen in ambient air might be an improvement in allergen exposure assessment.

  8. Release of Bet v 1 from birch pollen from 5 European countries. Results from the HIALINE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The HIALINE working Group; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Thibaudon, Michel; Smith, Matt; Kennedy, Roy; Rantio-Lehtimäki, Auli; Albertini, Roberto; Reese, Gerald; Weber, Bernhard; Galan, Carmen; Brandao, Rui; Antunes, Celia M.; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe; Celenk, Sevcan; Grewling, ?ukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Sauliene, Ingrida; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Sarioglu, Hakan; Ueffing, Marius; Behrendt, Heidrun; Prank, Marje; Sofiev, Mikhail; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to allergens is pivotal in determining sensitization and allergic symptoms in individuals. Pollen grain counts in ambient air have traditionally been assessed to estimate airborne allergen exposure. However, the exact allergen content of ambient air is unknown. We therefore monitored atmospheric concentrations of birch pollen grains and the matched major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 simultaneously across Europe within the EU-funded project HIALINE (Health Impacts of Airborne Allergen Information Network).Pollen count was assessed with Hirst type pollen traps at 10 l min-1 at sites in France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Finland. Allergen concentrations in ambient air were sampled at 800 l min-1 with a Chemvol® high-volume cascade impactor equipped with stages PM > 10 ?m, 10 ?m > PM > 2.5 ?m, and in Germany also 2.5 ?m > PM > 0.12 ?m. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was determined with an allergen specific ELISA. Bet v 1 isoform patterns were analyzed by 2D-SDS-PAGE blots and mass spectrometric identification. Basophil activation was tested in an Fc?R1-humanized rat basophil cell line passively sensitized with serum of a birch pollen symptomatic patient.Compared to 10 previous years, 2009 was a representative birch pollen season for all stations. About 90% of the allergen was found in the PM > 10 ?m fraction at all stations. Bet v 1 isoforms pattern did not vary substantially neither during ripening of pollen nor between different geographical locations. The average European allergen release from birch pollen was 3.2 pg Bet v 1/pollen and did not vary much between the European countries. However, in all countries a >10-fold difference in daily allergen release per pollen was measured which could be explained by long-range transport of pollen with a deviating allergen release. Basophil activation by ambient air extracts correlated better with airborne allergen than with pollen concentration.Although Bet v 1 is a mixture of different isoforms, its fingerprint is constant across Europe. Bet v 1 was also exclusively linked to pollen. Pollen from different days varied >10-fold in allergen release. Thus exposure to allergen is inaccurately monitored by only monitoring birch pollen grains. Indeed, a humanized basophil activation test correlated much better with allergen concentrations in ambient air than with pollen count. Monitoring the allergens themselves together with pollen in ambient air might be an improvement in allergen exposure assessment.

  9. Teaching Science in Five Countries: Results From the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2006-011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Kathleen J.; Druker, Stephen L.; Garnier, Helen E.; Lemmens, Meike; Chen, Catherine; Kawanaka, Takako; Rasmussen, Dave; Trubacova, Svetlana; Warvi, Dagmar; Okamoto, Yukari; Stigler, James; Gallimore, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of eighth-grade science teaching, conducted as part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video Study. The Video Study is a supplement to the TIMSS 1999 student assessment, a successor to the TIMSS 1995 student assessment. The TIMSS 1999 Video Study had the broad purpose…

  10. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    W.J. Clark

    1999-06-28

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-00011 Rev 01) (CRWMS M&O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M&O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the responsibility of the assigned Principal Investigator(s) (PIs) and are not evaluated in this DIE.

  11. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk Among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry: design, epidemiological methods and descriptive results.

    PubMed

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Ahn, Y-O; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Engels, H; Gulis, G; Habib, R R; Hosoda, Y; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Moser, M; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

    2007-04-01

    Radiation protection standards are based mainly on risk estimates from studies of atomic bomb survivors in Japan. The validity of extrapolations from the relatively high-dose acute exposures in this population to the low-dose, protracted or fractionated environmental and occupational exposures of primary public health concern has long been the subject of controversy. A collaborative retrospective cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk after low-dose protracted exposures. The study included nearly 600,000 workers employed in 154 facilities in 15 countries. This paper describes the design, methods and results of descriptive analyses of the study. The main analyses included 407,391 nuclear industry workers employed for at least 1 year in a participating facility who were monitored individually for external radiation exposure and whose doses resulted predominantly from exposure to higher-energy photon radiation. The total duration of follow-up was 5,192,710 person-years. There were 24,158 deaths from all causes, including 6,734 deaths from cancer. The total collective dose was 7,892 Sv. The overall average cumulative recorded dose was 19.4 mSv. A strong healthy worker effect was observed in most countries. This study provides the largest body of direct evidence to date on the effects of low-dose protracted exposures to external photon radiation. PMID:17388694

  12. North American Students in Israel: An Evaluation of a Study Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donitsa-Schmidt, Smadar; Vadish, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Every year, thousands of students worldwide leave home for the purpose of participating in an educational experience in a different country. Israel is one of the many destinations offering study abroad programs. Yet, being a Jewish country and a homeland for the Jewish Diaspora (Jewish communities outside Israel), Israel constitutes a unique study

  13. Are there differences in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality between immigrants in Sweden and in their country of birth? A follow-up study of total populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malin Gadd; Sven-Erik Johansson; Jan Sundquist; Per Wändell

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases is higher among immigrants than native Swedes. It is not clear whether the high mortality persists from the country of birth or is a result of migration. The purpose of the present study was to analyse whether all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality differ between immigrants in Sweden and in the country of birth. METHODS:

  14. Towards standardised evaluative measurement of nature impacts: two spatial planning case studies for major Dutch lakes.

    PubMed

    van Puijenbroek, P J T M; Sijtsma, F J; Wortelboer, F G; Ligtvoet, W; Maarse, M

    2015-02-01

    In the assessment of complex spatial planning projects, the ecological impacts and socio-economic impacts are fundamental to the evaluation. The measurements of ecological impacts of spatial plans have to be integrated in a standardised way. In the present paper, we analyse two Dutch case studies and apply the standardised Threat-Weighted Ecological Quality Area measurement. This measurement is developed to evaluate projects with terrestrial impacts but has not yet been applied for water evaluations. We aim to show how the use of a common measurement tool incorporates both ecological quality and degree of threat on criteria in the EU Water Framework Directive and Nature 2000. The measurements discussed here derive from two cases of cost-benefit analysis: The first case is the Markermeer, the second largest lake of The Netherlands, and a study on water quality improvement and nature restoration; an artificial island will also be the setting for a new residential area. The second case study is on water level management carried out on the IJsselmeer, the largest lake in the country. Results of our analysis show the potential impacts with a standardised method to the spatial distribution and quality of the ecosystems. PMID:24770926

  15. The Use of Volunteers in Evaluation and Research Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger, Miriam; And Others

    This paper addresses issues important to maintaining a volunteer effort in research and evaluation studies. The Research Department of Child and Family Services, a private agency in Connecticut, conducted a statewide study of children and youth in long-term foster care. Eighty-seven volunteers, mainly from the Junior League, were recruited to…

  16. Post-occupancy evaluation and field studies of thermal comfort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fergus Nicol; Susan Roaf

    2005-01-01

    The similarities and differences are explored in both the aims and the methods between post-occupancy evaluations and field studies of thermal comfort in buildings. The interpretations of the field study results are explored, especially the ways the results differ from laboratory experiments. Particular attention is drawn to the dynamic nature of the interaction between buildings and their occupants. Answers to

  17. California School-to-Career Evaluation Study Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MPR Associates, Berkeley, CA.

    California's school-to-career (STC) efforts were examined in a statewide evaluation study that was initiated in December 2000 and scheduled for completion by June 2002. The study's first phase was assessed in an interim report that focused on the following major activities: (1) development of a white paper describing the STC's national and state…

  18. An Evaluative Case Study of Nine Virtual High School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannister, Clara M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a program evaluation of nine virtual high school programs in the states of Alabama, California, Florida, Idaho, Colorado, Illinois, Michigan, North Carolina and Massachusetts. In order to assess the quality and effectiveness of the virtual high school programs in the study in terms of overall quality and…

  19. Understanding the Head Start Impact Study. Evaluation Science Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Early Childhood Policy and Programs, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 report of the Head Start Impact Study is an important follow-up evaluation of the only national investigation that attempts to answer the question: "What are the program's impacts, as measured at the end of first grade, for children who received Head Start services when they were 3 or 4 years of age?" Overall, the study was sound…

  20. A Major Children's Educational Art Exhibit: An Evaluative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenk, George W.; Shrock, Sharon A.

    Results of a case study of an exhibit of art and artifacts designed for children are presented. The focus of the study was to apply the principles of instructional-message design to the evaluation of the exhibit. The exhibit, "Art Inside Out: Exploring Art and Culture through Time," was displayed at the Art Institute of Chicago. Textual elements,…

  1. Evaluating Mixed Research Studies: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Dellinger, Amy B.; Brannagan, Kim B.; Tanaka, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate application of a new framework, the validation framework (VF), to assist researchers in evaluating mixed research studies. Based on an earlier work by Dellinger and Leech, a description of the VF is delineated. Using the VF, three studies from education, health care, and counseling fields are…

  2. Digital libraries and repositories in India: an evaluative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rekha Mittal; G. Mahesh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to identify and evaluate the collections within digital libraries and repositories in India available in the public domain. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The digital libraries and repositories were identified through a study of the literature, as well as internet searching and browsing. The resulting digital libraries and repositories were explored to study their collections.

  3. EVA - Evaluation of Energy Concepts: Case Study of Siedlungswerk, Stuttgart

    E-print Network

    Stefan, P.; Mahler, B.; Fisch, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. VI-3-4 EVA - Evaluation of Energy Concepts: Case Study of Siedlungswerk, Stuttgart Plesser Stefan, Boris Mahler, M. Norbert Fisch IGS... ? Institute of Building Services and Energy Design, Technical University Braunschweig, Germany November 2006 stefan.plesser@gmx.de Abstract: This paper presents the evaluation and optimization results of the office building Siedlungswerk as part...

  4. Entrepreneurial intentions in developing and developed countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Iakovleva; Lars Kolvereid; Ute Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 2,225 students

  5. Family Trends in Selected Nonsocialist Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenkel, William F.; Benson, Barbara

    Changes in marriage and the family from 1950-74 in five nonsocialist countries were explored. The countries selected for the study were Japan, the Netherlands, West Germany, Sweden, and the United States. Most of the data were derived from the United Nations'"Demographic Yearbook," although various original sources from the particular countries

  6. Technology and women's health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    MacCormack, C P

    1989-01-01

    In developing countries is medical technology transfer reaching women? Do women control new technologies or are they only passive recipients? What is the impact of these new technologies on women's health and welfare? To answer these questions this article explores concepts of health, technologies, and women, then gives findings from an extensive literature search on contraception, childbirth, immunization, essential drugs, oral rehydration therapy, water, sanitation, and breast-feeding. The article concludes with recommendations on pre-project planning studies, monitoring, and evaluation. PMID:2684870

  7. Social Policy and the Under-3s: Six Country Case Studies. A Resource for Policy Makers, Advocates and Scholars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Alfred J.; Kamerman, Sheila B.

    This collection of six case studies is a by-product of a European-focused study that sought to understand the policies focused on children from birth to age 3, whether directly affecting the children or reaching them indirectly through their parents. The study examined the social infrastructure in which the specific "under-3" policies are…

  8. An Evaluation Study of Youth Participation in Youth Work: A Case Study in Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morciano, Daniele; Scardigno, Anna Fausta; Manuti, Amelia; Pastore, Serafina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an evaluation study of a public programme financing a regional network of 157 youth centres in the South of Italy is presented. A theory-based evaluation model was adopted to explore the causal links between different types of participation experience. Evaluation questions focused on three main issues are: the perception of…

  9. Evaluating HIV Prevention Programs: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Antibodies as Biomarker for Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adults in Resource-Poor Countries

    PubMed Central

    Behling, Juliane; Chan, Adrienne K.; Zeh, Clement; Nekesa, Carolyne; Heinzerling, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Background Measuring effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions is challenged by bias when using self-reported knowledge, attitude or behavior change. HIV incidence is an objective marker to measure effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions, however, because new infection rates are relatively low, prevention studies require large sample sizes. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is similarly transmitted and more prevalent and could thus serve as a proxy marker for sexual risk behavior and therefore HIV infection. Methods HSV-2 antibodies were assessed in a sub-study of 70,000 students participating in an education intervention in Western Province, Kenya. Feasibility of testing for HSV-2 antibodies was assessed comparing two methods using Fisher’s exact test. Three hundred and ninety four students (aged 18 to 22 years) were randomly chosen from the cohort and tested for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of these, 139 students were tested for HSV-2 with ELISA and surveyed for sexual risk behavior and 89 students were additionally tested for HSV-2 with a point-of-contact (POC) test. Results Prevalence rates were 0.5%, 1.8%, 0.3% and 2.3% for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively. Prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies was 3.4 % as measured by POC test (n=89) and 14.4 % by ELISA (n=139). Specificity of the POC test compared with ELISA was 100%, and the sensitivity only 23.1%. Associations between self-reported sexual behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown. Conclusions Associations between self-reported sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown, probably due to social bias in interviews since its transmission is clearly linked. HSV-2 antibody testing is feasible in resource-poor settings and shows higher prevalence rates than other sexually transmitted diseases thus representing a potential biomarker for evaluation of HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26010772

  10. Post-release evaluation of biological control of Bemisia tabaci biotype “B” in the USA and the development of predictive tools to guide introductions for other countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Goolsby; Paul J. DeBarro; Alan A. Kirk; Robert W. Sutherst; Luis Canas; Matthew A. Ciomperlik; Peter C. Ellsworth; Juli R. Gould; Diana M. Hartley; Kim A. Hoelmer; Steven E. Naranjo; Mike Rose; William J. Roltsch; Raul A. Ruiz; Charles H. Pickett; Don C. Vacek

    2005-01-01

    Climatic matching and pre-release performance evaluation were useful predictors of parasitoid establishment in a retrospective analysis of a classical biological control program against Bemisia tabaci biotype “B” in the USA. Laboratory evaluation of 19 imported and two indigenous parasitoid species in quarantine on B. tabaci showed that the Old World Eretmocerus spp, had the highest attack rate. The climate matching

  11. A cross-country comparison of intensive care physicians’ beliefs about their transfusion behaviour: A qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence of variations in red blood cell transfusion practices have been reported in a wide range of clinical settings. Parallel studies in Canada and the United Kingdom were designed to explore transfusion behaviour in intensive care physicians. The aim of this paper is three-fold: first, to explore beliefs that influence Canadian intensive care physicians’ transfusion behaviour; second, to systematically select relevant theories and models using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to inform a future predictive study; and third, to compare its results with the UK study. Methods Ten intensive care unit (ICU) physicians throughout Canada were interviewed. Physicians’ responses were coded into theoretical domains, and specific beliefs were generated for each response. Theoretical domains relevant to behaviour change were identified, and specific constructs from the relevant domains were used to select psychological theories. The results from Canada and the United Kingdom were compared. Results Seven theoretical domains populated by 31 specific beliefs were identified as relevant to the target behaviour. The domains Beliefs about capabilities (confident to not transfuse if patients’ clinical condition is stable), Beliefs about consequences (positive beliefs of reducing infection and saving resources and negative beliefs about risking patients’ clinical outcome and potentially more work), Social influences (transfusion decision is influenced by team members and patients’ relatives), and Behavioural regulation (wide range of approaches to encourage restrictive transfusion) that were identified in the UK study were also relevant in the Canadian context. Three additional domains, Knowledge (it requires more evidence to support restrictive transfusion), Social/professional role and identity (conflicting beliefs about not adhering to guidelines, referring to evidence, believing restrictive transfusion as professional standard, and believing that guideline is important for other professionals), and Motivation and goals (opposing beliefs about the importance of restrictive transfusion and compatibility with other goals), were also identified in this study. Similar to the UK study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Operant Learning Theory, Action Planning, and Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour model were identified as potentially relevant theories and models for further study. Personal project analysis was added to the Canadian study to explore the Motivation and goals domain in further detail. Conclusions A wide range of beliefs was identified by the Canadian ICU physicians as likely to influence their transfusion behaviour. We were able to demonstrate similar though not identical results in a cross-country comparison. Designing targeted behaviour-change interventions based on unique beliefs identified by physicians from two countries are more likely to encourage restrictive transfusion in ICU physicians in respective countries. This needs to be tested in future prospective clinical trials. PMID:22999460

  12. A case-control study of smoking and sudden infant death syndrome in the Scandinavian countries, 1992 to 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Alm; J Milerad; G Wennergren; R Skjærven; N Øyen; G Norvenius; A-K Daltveit; K Helweg-Larsen; T Markestad; L M Irgens

    1998-01-01

    AIMTo establish whether smoking is an independent risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), if the effect is mainly due to prenatal or postnatal smoking, and the effect of smoking cessation.METHODSThe analyses were based on data from the Nordic epidemiological SIDS study, a case-control study with 244 cases and 869 controls. Odds ratios were computed by conditional logistic regression

  13. Gender Differences in Filicide Offense Characteristics--A Comprehensive Register-Based Study of Child Murder in Two European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putkonen, Hanna; Amon, Sabine; Eronen, Markku; Klier, Claudia M.; Almiron, Maria P.; Cederwall, Jenny Yourstone; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study searched for gender differences in filicidal offense characteristics and associated variables. Methods: In this binational register-based study all filicide perpetrators (75 mothers and 45 fathers) and their crimes in Austria and Finland 1995-2005 were examined for putative gender differences. The assessed variables were…

  14. A Review of Local Economic and Employment Development Policy Approaches in OECD Countries: Case Studies of Regional Economic Development Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Potter; Marco Marchese

    2010-01-01

    This report collects five case studies of regional economic development models that have been considered of interest to Wales and similar regions. For each of the five strategies the aim has been to analyse rationale and conceptual framework, policy pillars, delivery mechanisms and potential transferability to Wales. The case studies have been prepared following a qualitative approach that has consisted

  15. A Cross-Country Study on Research Students' Perceptions of the Role of Supervision and Cultural Knowledge in Thesis Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinty, Suzanne Claire; Koo, Yew Lie; Saeidi, Mahnaz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from a research study in Australia, Malaysia and Iran on students' perceptions of the roles of supervisor and student in the production of their thesis and the contribution of their cultural knowledge to thesis development. The 360 respondents who answered an online survey were studying for their Master's…

  16. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period (+2): Wide scale river flooding, marshy acres and meadows.-Farmers cope with poor harvests of hay, grains, fruit etc. resulting in famines.-Late grape harvests, poor yield quantity and quality of wine. Wet period (+1): High water levels cq discharges of major rivers, tributaries and brooks, local river floodings, marshy acres and meadows in the low lying areas.-Wearisome and hampered agriculture. Normal (0) Dry period (-1): Low water levels cq discharges of major rivers, tributaries and brooks. Some brooks may dry up.-Summer half year: local short of yield of grass, hay and other forage.-Summer half year: moor-, peat- and forest fires. Very dry period (-2): Very low water levels cq discharges of major rivers and tributaries. Brooks and wells dry up. Serious shortage of drinking water; especially in summer.-Major agricultural damage, shortage of water, mortality stock of cattle. Shortage of grain. Flour can not be produced due to water mills running out of water, shortage of bread, bread riots, famines.-Large scale forest and peat areas, resulting in serious air pollution. Town fires. By verifying the historical evidence on these criterions, a series of 5 step indices ranging from very dry to very wet for summer and winter half year of the Low Countries was obtained. Subsequently these indices series were compared with the instrumentally observed seasonal precipitation sums for De Bilt (1735-2008), which is considered to be representative for the Central Netherlands. For winter (Oct-March) and summer half year (Apr.-Sept.) the accumulated precipitation amounts are calculated; these amounts are approximately normally distributed. Based on this distribution, the cumulative frequency distribution is calculated. By tabulating the number of summers in the pre-instrumental period 1201-1750 for each of the drought classes, a distribution is calculated which is then related to the modern accumulated precipitation distribution. Assuming that the accumulated precipitation amount has not been below (above) the mean precipitation minus (plus) three standard deviations for

  17. Female life expectancy, gender stratification, health status, and level of economic development: a cross-national study of less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J B; Boehmer, U

    1997-07-01

    A number of studies have attempted to account for cross-national differences in life expectancy, but relatively few have focused on female life expectancy, and even fewer on the relevance of predictors linked to gender stratification theory. The present study seeks to assess the utility of gender stratification theory in accounting for cross-national differences in female life expectancy in less developed countries. An incremental model building strategy is used to develop a final model that combines predictors linked to both industrialism theory and gender stratification theory. The analysis is based on multiple regression and cross-sectional samples that vary in size from 40 to 97 countries. Evidence is presented that several aspects of women's status have a positive effect on female life expectancy. Indicators of women's educational status, women's economic status, and women's reproductive autonomy all prove to be important predictors of female life expectancy. Analysis of interaction effects suggests that the strength of the effects of some aspects of women's economic status and the effect of some aspects of health status on female life expectancy vary with the level of economic development. A comprehensive assessment of the relative strength of alternative measures of women's education is carried out, and evidence is presented that it does make a difference how the level of women's education is measured. PMID:9225417

  18. Toward evaluating the effect of climate change on investments in the water resources sector: insights from the forecast and analysis of hydrological indicators in developing countries

    E-print Network

    Jacobsen, Michael

    The World Bank has recently developed a method to evaluate the effects of climate change on six hydrological indicators across 8951 basins of the world. The indicators are designed for decision-makers and stakeholders to ...

  19. Medication use in relation to noise from aircraft and road traffic in six European countries: results of the HYENA study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Floud; Federica Vigna-Taglianti; Anna Hansell; Marta Blangiardo; Danny Houthuijs; Oscar Breugelmans; Ennio Cadum; Wolfgang Babisch; Jenny Selander; Göran Pershagen; Maria Chiara Antoniotti; Salvatore Pisani; Konstantina Dimakopoulou; Alexandros S Haralabidis; Venetia Velonakis; Lars Jarup

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesStudies on the health effects of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure suggest excess risks of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the use of sedatives and hypnotics. Our aim was to assess the use of medication in relation to noise from aircraft and road traffic.MethodsThis cross-sectional study measured the use of prescribed antihypertensives, antacids, anxiolytics, hypnotics, antidepressants and antasthmatics in 4,861

  20. How effective is good domestic kitchen hygiene at reducing diarrhoeal disease in developed countries? A systematic review and reanalysis of the UK IID study

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, Anna; Macdonald, Clare; Hunter, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    Background To assess whether domestic kitchen hygiene is an important contributor to the development of diarrhoea in the developed world. Methods Electronic searches were carried out in October 2006 in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane central register of clinical trials and CINAHL. All publications, irrespective of study design, assessing food hygiene practices with an outcome measure of diarrhoea were included in the review. All included studies underwent data extraction and the data was subsequently analysed. The analysis was conducted by qualitative synthesis of the results. Given the substantial heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures meta-analysis was not done. In addition the existing dataset of the UK IID study was reanalysed to investigate possible associations between self-reported diarrhoea and variables indicative of poor domestic kitchen hygiene Results Some 14 studies were finally included in subsequent analyses. Of the 14 studies included in this systematic review, 11 were case-control studies, 2 cross-sectional surveys, and 1 RCT. Very few studies identified any significant association with good environmental kitchen hygiene. Although some of the variables in the reanalysis of the UK IID study were statistically significant no obvious trend was seen. Conclusion The balance of the available evidence does not support the hypothesis that poor domestic kitchen hygiene practices are important risk factors for diarrhoeal disease in developed countries. PMID:18294383

  1. Negative Impact and Positive Value in Caregiving: Validation of the COPE Index in a Six-Country Sample of Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balducci, Cristian; Mnich, Eva; McKee, Kevin J.; Lamura, Giovanni; Beckmann, Anke; Krevers, Barbro; Wojszel, Z. Beata; Nolan, Mike; Prouskas, Constantinos; Bien, Barbara; Oberg, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study attempts to further validate the COPE Index on a large sample of carers drawn from six European countries. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey, with approximately 1,000 carers recruited in each of six countries by means of a common standard evaluation protocol. Our saturation recruitment of a designated…

  2. A multi-country study of intussusception in children under 2 years of age in Latin America: analysis of prospective surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intussusception (IS) is a form of acute intestinal obstruction that occurs mainly in infants and is usually of unknown cause. An association between IS and the first licensed rotavirus vaccine, a reassortant-tetravalent, rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV), led to the withdrawal of the vaccine. New rotavirus vaccines have now been developed and extensively studied for their potential association with IS. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and to estimate the incidence of IS in Latin American infants prior to new vaccine introduction. Methods Children under 2 years of age representing potential IS cases were enrolled in 16 centers in 11 Latin American countries from January 2003 to May 2005. IS cases were classified as definite, probable, possible or suspected as stated on the Brighton Collaboration Working Group guidelines. Results From 517 potential cases identified, 476 (92%) cases were classified as definite, 21 probable, 10 possible and 10 suspected for intussusception. Among the 476 definite IS cases, the median age at presentation was 6.4 months with 89% of cases aged <1 year. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The incidence of definite IS per 100,000 subject-years ranged from 1.9 in Brazil to 62.4 in Argentina for children <2 years of age, and from 3.8 in Brazil to 105.3 in Argentina for children aged <1 year. Median hospital stay was 4 days with a high prevalence of surgery as the primary treatment (65%). Most cases (88%) made a complete recovery, but 13 (3%) died. No clear seasonal pattern of IS cases emerged. Conclusions This study describes the epidemiology and estimates the incidence of IS in Latin American infants prior to the introduction of new rotavirus vaccines. The incidence of IS was found to vary between different countries, as observed in previous studies. Trial registration Clinical study identifier 999910/204 (SERO-EPI-IS-204) PMID:23710610

  3. Exposure to aircraft and road traffic noise and associations with heart disease and stroke in six European countries: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a number of studies have found an association between aircraft noise and hypertension, there is a lack of evidence on associations with other cardiovascular disease. For road traffic noise, more studies are available but the extent of possible confounding by air pollution has not been established. Methods This study used data from the Hypertension and Environmental Noise near Airports (HYENA) study. Cross-sectional associations between self-reported ‘heart disease and stroke’ and aircraft noise and road traffic noise were examined using data collected between 2004 and 2006 on 4712 participants (276 cases), who lived near airports in six European countries (UK, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, Greece, Italy). Data were available to assess potential confounding by NO2 air pollution in a subsample of three countries (UK, Netherlands, Sweden). Results An association between night-time average aircraft noise and ‘heart disease and stroke’ was found after adjustment for socio-demographic confounders for participants who had lived in the same place for???20 years (odds ratio (OR): 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.51) per 10 dB (A)); this association was robust to adjustment for exposure to air pollution in the subsample. 24 hour average road traffic noise exposure was associated with ‘heart disease and stroke’ (OR: 1.19 (95% CI 1.00, 1.41), but adjustment for air pollution in the subsample suggested this may have been due to confounding by air pollution. Statistical assessment (correlations and variance inflation factor) suggested only modest collinearity between noise and NO2 exposures. Conclusions Exposure to aircraft noise over many years may increase risks of heart disease and stroke, although more studies are needed to establish how much the risks associated with road traffic noise may be explained by air pollution. PMID:24131577

  4. Perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity in 11 countries: Do associations differ by country?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing empirical evidence supports associations between neighborhood environments and physical activity. However, since most studies were conducted in a single country, particularly western countries, the generalizability of associations in an international setting is not well understood. The current study examined whether associations between perceived attributes of neighborhood environments and physical activity differed by country. Methods Population representative samples from 11 countries on five continents were surveyed using comparable methodologies and measurement instruments. Neighborhood environment × country interactions were tested in logistic regression models with meeting physical activity recommendations as the outcome, adjusted for demographic characteristics. Country-specific associations were reported. Results Significant neighborhood environment attribute × country interactions implied some differences across countries in the association of each neighborhood attribute with meeting physical activity recommendations. Across the 11 countries, land-use mix and sidewalks had the most consistent associations with physical activity. Access to public transit, bicycle facilities, and low-cost recreation facilities had some associations with physical activity, but with less consistency across countries. There was little evidence supporting the associations of residential density and crime-related safety with physical activity in most countries. Conclusion There is evidence of generalizability for the associations of land use mix, and presence of sidewalks with physical activity. Associations of other neighborhood characteristics with physical activity tended to differ by country. Future studies should include objective measures of neighborhood environments, compare psychometric properties of reports across countries, and use better specified models to further understand the similarities and differences in associations across countries. PMID:23672435

  5. Use of a Dry-Plasma Collection Device to Overcome Problems with Storage and Transportation of Blood Samples for Epidemiology Studies in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZHANNAT Z. NURGALIEVA; R. Almuchambetova; A. Machmudova; D. Kapsultanova; MICHAEL S. OSATO; JEFFREY PEACOCK; RICHARD P. ZOLTEK; PATRICE A. MARCHILDON; DAVID Y. GRAHAM; ABAI ZHANGABYLOV

    2000-01-01

    Studies are difficult in areas lacking modern facilities due to the inability to reliably collect, store, and ship samples. Thus, we sought to evaluate the use of a dry plasma collection device for seroepidemiology studies. Plasma was obtained by fingerstick using a commercial dry plasma collection device (Chemcard Plasma Collection Device) and serum (venipuncture) from individuals in Kazakhstan. Plasma samples

  6. Effects of research tool patents on biotechnology innovation in a developing country: A case study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Ryu, Tae-Kyu; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2009-01-01

    Background Concerns have recently been raised about the negative effects of patents on innovation. In this study, the effects of patents on innovations in the Korean biotech SMEs (small and medium-sized entrepreneurs) were examined using survey data and statistical analysis. Results The survey results of this study provided some evidence that restricted access problems have occurred even though their frequency was not high. Statistical analysis revealed that difficulties in accessing patented research tools were not negatively correlated with the level of innovation performance and attitudes toward the patent system. Conclusion On the basis of the results of this investigation in combination with those of previous studies, we concluded that although restricted access problems have occurred, this has not yet deterred innovation in Korea. However, potential problems do exist, and the effects of restricted access should be constantly scrutinized. PMID:19321013

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for forced or coerced sex among school-going youth: national cross-sectional studies in 10 southern African countries in 2003 and 2007

    PubMed Central

    Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Milne, Deborah; Omer, Khalid; Marokoane, Nobantu; Laetsang, Ditiro; Cockcroft, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study prevalence at two time points and risk factors for experience of forced or coerced sex among school-going youth in 10 southern African countries. Design Cross-sectional surveys, by facilitated self-administered questionnaire, of in-school youth in 2003 and 2007. Setting Schools serving representative communities in eight countries (Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe) in 2003 and with Tanzania and South Africa added in 2007. Participants Students aged 11–16?years present in the school classes. Main outcome measures Experience of forced or coerced sex, perpetration of forced sex. Results In 2007, 19.6% (4432/25?840) of female students and 21.1% (4080/21?613) of male students aged 11–16?years reported they had experienced forced or coerced sex. Rates among 16-year-olds were 28.8% in females and 25.4% in males. Comparing the same schools in eight countries, in an analysis age standardised on the 2007 Botswana male sample, there was no significant decrease between 2003 and 2007 among females in any country and inconsistent changes among males. In multilevel analysis using generalised linear mixed model, individual-level risk factors for forced sex among female students were age over 13?years and insufficient food in the household; school-level factors were a lower proportion of students knowing about child rights and higher proportions experiencing or perpetrating forced sex; and community-level factors were a higher proportion of adults in favour of transactional sex and a higher rate of intimate partner violence. Male risk factors were similar. Some 4.7% of female students and 11.7% of male students reported they had perpetrated forced sex. Experience of forced sex was strongly associated with perpetration and other risk factors for perpetration were similar to those for victimisation. Conclusions Forced or coerced sex remained common among female and male youth in 2007. Experience of sexual abuse in childhood is recognised to increase the risk of HIV infection. The association the authors found between forced sex and school-level factors suggests preventive interventions in schools could help to tackle the HIV epidemic in southern Africa. PMID:22389362

  8. ‘On-table’ extubation in elective paediatric congenital cardiac surgery: A feasibility study in a developing country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pathamadai Seshadrinathan Sreemathi; Ramaswamy Rajendran; Carounanidy Saravanane; Sivarajan Siva Subramanium; Arumugam Varadharajulu; Mazhuvanchery-Parambath Paul Korath; Kesavan Jagadeesan

    2010-01-01

    Background  ‘On-table extubation’ (OTE) is a simple, cost-effective method promising wider applicability. Most congenital cardiac corrective\\u000a surgeries involve post operative ventilatory support that lead to ventilator associated complications and cost overuns in\\u000a elective Congenital Cardiac Surgery (CCS). The objective of the study is to assess the feasibility and safety of OTE in patients\\u000a undergoing for CCS.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  A retrospective study

  9. Heuristic Evaluation of Digital Game Based Learning: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Hsuan Liao; Chun-Yi Shen

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, computer games have been gradually seen as one of effective teaching methods and environments, and they have been widely applied in various fields. The purpose of this case study was to investigate the usability of the computer Game, Crazy Machines 2, as a digital game-based learning material through heuristic evaluation to ascertain whether the game conform

  10. EVALUATIVE STUDY OF WEB BASED PERSONAL HEALTH RECORD SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khin Than Win; Goran Selakovic

    This paper explores the importance of personal health records in health care. The research will identify and give an overview of personal health records available online. Authors have conducted evaluative study of selected web based personal health record systems to analyse the current status of personal health record systems available in healthcare industry.

  11. Evaluation Study of Day-Care Centers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korazim, Malka; Trachtenberg, Silvia

    In recent years, day-care centers for the elderly have been playing an increasingly important role in the community service system for the elderly in Israel. ESHEL, one of the leading agencies in developing day-care services in Israel initiated a comprehensive evaluation study of day-care centers to identify variations among different types of…

  12. Americans with Disabilities Act Continuing Education Self-Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, William B.; Lewis, Mary; Neault, Lynn C.

    In 1997, the San Diego Community College District conducted a self-evaluation study of their continuing education programs to assess the program's compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Ten focus groups revealed their knowledge and views of the ADA. Students cited the availability of special instructional accommodations, but…

  13. Evaluation Study of "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" Spring 2006 Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabb, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: A pilot study of the "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" program was conducted by Learning Gauger, Inc., for National Geographic School Publishing, in spring 2006. The program evaluation examined the classroom adoption approaches used by participating teachers and the subsequent impact of the "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" (LLV)…

  14. The Efficacy of Math Coaching: An Evaluative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbins, C. Neelie

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of implementation of instructional strategies to assist middle school teachers in improving mathematics education for their students. Coaching is one solution to this problem, but its impact on student achievement is unclear. This case study evaluated the relationship between coaching and teacher efficacy and the impact of these…

  15. A SIMPLE METHOD FOR EVALUATING DATA FROM AN INTERLABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large-scale laboratory-and method-performance studies involving more than about 30 laboratories may be evaluated by calculating the HORRAT ratio for each test sample (HORRAT=[experimentally found among-laboratories relative standard deviation] divided by [relative standard deviat...

  16. Digital Libraries and Repositories in India: An Evaluative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittal, Rekha; Mahesh, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify and evaluate the collections within digital libraries and repositories in India available in the public domain. Design/methodology/approach: The digital libraries and repositories were identified through a study of the literature, as well as internet searching and browsing. The resulting digital…

  17. Evaluation Design Project: School District Organization Study. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Adrianne; Williams, Richard C.

    A three-year research project aims to describe and analyze how school district management of educational testing and evaluation can better link these activities to instructional improvement, according to this first annual report. After chronicling the first year's activities, the authors discuss their use of case studies, interviews, and…

  18. Progress and Challenges in Astronomical Research in Developing Countries of Sub-Saharan African: Nigeria as a Case Study by Prof. F.E. Opara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opara, Fidelix

    ABSTRCT: The Centre for Basic Space Science and Astronomy (CBSS) is an activity Centre for Space Research and development in Nigeria mandated to pursue capacity building (manpower and infrastructural development) that can sufficiently address the developmental needs of the country in several areas through studies, research and development in Basic Space Science such as Astronomy and Astrophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, Cosmology and origin of life, Atmospheric Science, Geomagnetism, Rocketry and Satellite Science and Technology. In this study, we highlight the progress made by the centre in the area of capacity and infrastructural building. The challenges faced by the Centre were also highlighted while successful researches on Near Earth Objects that fell in Nigeria and their impact craters have been simulated.

  19. INTERCOMPARISON STUDY OF ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY MODELS: 2. MODELING RESULTS VS. LONG-TERM OBSERVATIONS AND COMPARISON OF COUNTRY ATMOSPHERIC BALANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five regional scale models with a horizontal domain covering the European continent and its surrounding seas, two hemispheric and one global scale model participated in the atmospheric Hg modelling intercomparison study. The models were compared between each other and with availa...

  20. Expanding the Field of Inquiry: A Cross-Country Study of Higher Education Institutions' Responses to HIV and AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report compares, analyses, and summarises findings from twelve case studies commissioned by the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in higher education institutions in Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Lebanon, Lesotho, Suriname,…

  1. Government Stance and Internal Diversity of Protest: A Comparative Study of Protest against the War in Iraq in Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walgrave, Stefaan; Verhulst, Joris

    2009-01-01

    This study tackles the question to what extent the composition of protest events is determined by the stance of governments. Established contextual theories do not formulate propositions on how context affects individual protesters. The article engages in empirically testing whether the macro-context affects the internal diversity of the crowds…

  2. A Study of Teachers' Paradigms of the "China Today" Module in Hong Kong under One Country and Two Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Dick Tak-sang

    2009-01-01

    Background: During the period of British colonial rule, the nature of civic education in Hong Kong was characterized as denationalized, depoliticized and decontextualized. The 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration substantially altered the nature of civic education. The "China Today" module of Liberal Studies (LS) was one of the results of the…

  3. Democratization and Educational Decentralization in Spain: A Twenty Year Struggle for Reform. Country Studies: Education Reform and Management Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    In little more than 2 decades following the death of General Francisco Franco, Spain celebrated its transition from the most centralized to one of the most decentralized nations in Europe--in government and education. The objective of the study described in this report was to describe and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of a complex and…

  4. Regional Seminars on University Governance in the Tempus Partner Countries (2010-2011): Conclusions. A Tempus Study. Issue 08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John: Jongsma, Ard

    2011-01-01

    Following the publication of the Tempus study Changing Rules--a Review of Tempus Support to University Governance, the European Commission and the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency held a series of four regional seminars to present its results and to provide an opportunity for reflection and discussion on challenges and trends in…

  5. Perceived HIV stigma and life satisfaction among persons living with HIV infection in five African countries: A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minrie Greeff; Leana R. Uys; Dean Wantland; Lucy Makoae; Maureen Chirwa; Priscilla Dlamini; Thecla W. Kohi; Joseph Mullan; Joanne Rachel Naidoo; Yvette Cuca; William L. Holzemer

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundDescriptive literature exists on the effects of HIV-related stigma on the lives of people living with HIV infection but few empirical studies have measured perceived HIV stigma nor explored its potential relationship to quality of life (QoL) over time in people living with HIV infection.

  6. Combining Mass Spectrometry and Toxicology for a Multi-Country European Epidemiologic Study on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HiWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking WATEr) project is the first systematic analysis that combines the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes with analytical chemistry and analytical biology in the European Union. This study...

  7. Combining Mass Spectrometry and Toxicology for a Multi-Country European Epidemiologic Study on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HiWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking WATEr) project is the first systematic analysis that combines the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes with analytical chemistry and analytical biology in the European Union. This study...

  8. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-13 - Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the date of the study and evaluation and any corrective action...the date of the study and evaluation. (2) The study and evaluation of the transfer agent's...a relatively low level the risk that errors or...

  9. Evaluating oil, gas ventures in W. Siberia: Feasibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, J.A. (Questa Engineering Corp., Golden, CO (United States)); Connelly, W. (Pangea International Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

    1993-02-08

    This article discusses the methodology and calculations used in performing the economic evaluations for a typical western Siberia oil project venture. The discussion of taxes, funds, depreciation, and costs assumes the venture is a stock company and that economics are calculated on a project basis. Most ventures available to western companies are delineated oil fields that are not yet developed or producing. The authors focus on this type of property. The required elements for an economic evaluation include original-oil-in-place (OOIP) and recoverable reserves; development plan and associated production forecast; and capital requirements and operating costs. The level of evaluation-i.e., screening, preliminary feasibility study, Technical Efficiency of Organization (TEO), or full feasibility study-determines the detail needed for each of these elements. Several economic analyses of a venture should be made to evaluate the sensitivity of alternative development plans, joint venture deal terms, capital requirements, operating costs, product prices, and taxation variables. The first three parts of this five part series dealt with (1) log and core data, (2) reservoir description and (3) flow tests and reservoir performance, and provided a technical foundation for the evaluation of oil and gas ventures in western Siberia.

  10. Can we import quality tools? a feasibility study of European practice assessment in a country with less organised general practice

    PubMed Central

    Remmen, Roy; Seuntjens, Luc; Paulus, Dominique; Pestiaux, Dominique; Knops, Klaus; Bruel, Ann Van den

    2009-01-01

    Background Quality is on the agenda of European general practice (GP). European researchers have, in collaboration, developed tools to assess quality of GPs. In this feasibility study, we tested the European Practice Assessment (EPA) in a one-off project in Belgium, where general practice has a low level of GP organisation. Methods A framework for feasibility analysis included describing the recruiting of participants, a brief telephone study survey among non-responders, organisational and logistic problems. Using field notes and focus groups, we studied the participants' opinions. Results In this study, only 36 of 1000 invited practices agreed to participate. Co-ordination, administrative work, practice visits and organisational problems required several days per practice. The researchers further encountered technical problems, for instance when entering the data and uploading to the web-based server. In subsequent qualitative analysis using two focus groups, most participant GPs expressed a positive feeling after the EPA procedure. In the short period of follow-up, only a few GPs reported improvements after the visit. The participant GPs suggested that follow-up and coaching would probably facilitate the implementation of changes. Conclusion This feasibility study shows that prior interest in EPA is low in the GP community. We encountered a number of logistic and organisational problems. It proved attractive to participants, but it can be augmented by coaching of participants in more than a one-off project to identify and achieve targets for quality improvement. In the absence of commitment of the government, a network of universities and one scientific organisation will offer EPA as a service to training practices. PMID:19818153

  11. A Multi-country Study of the Household Willingness-to-Pay for Dengue Vaccines: Household Surveys in Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background The rise in dengue fever cases and the absence of dengue vaccines will likely cause governments to consider various types of effective means for controlling the disease. Given strong public interests in potential dengue vaccines, it is essential to understand the private economic benefits of dengue vaccines for accelerated introduction of vaccines into the public sector program and private markets of high-risk countries. Methodology/Principal Findings A contingent valuation study for a hypothetical dengue vaccine was administered to 400 households in a multi-country setting: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia. All respondents received a description of the hypothetical dengue vaccine scenarios of 70% or 95% effectiveness for 10 or 30 years with a three dose series. Five price points were determined after pilot tests in order to reflect different local situations such as household income levels and general perceptions towards dengue fever. We adopted either Poisson or negative binomial regression models to calculate average willingness-to-pay (WTP), as well as median WTP. We found that there is a significant demand for dengue vaccines. The parametric median WTP is $26.4 ($8.8 per dose) in Vietnam, $70.3 ($23.4 per dose) in Thailand, and $23 ($7.7 per dose) in Colombia. Our study also suggests that respondents place more value on vaccinating young children than school age children and adults. Conclusions/Significance Knowing that dengue vaccines are not yet available, our study provides critical information to both public and private sectors. The study results can be used to ensure broad coverage with an affordable price and incorporated into cost benefit analyses, which can inform prioritization of alternative health interventions at the national level. PMID:26030922

  12. Evaluation of clonality and carbapenem resistance mechanisms among Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex and Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in European and Mediterranean countries and detection of two novel ?-lactamases, GES-22 and VIM-35.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Mariana; Costello, Sarah E; Woosley, Leah N; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Davies, Todd A; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated doripenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex (ACB; n = 411) and Enterobacteriaceae (n = 92) isolates collected from patients from 14 European and Mediterranean countries during 2009 to 2011 for the presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes and clonality. Following susceptibility testing, carbapenem-resistant (doripenem MIC, >2 ?g/ml) isolates were screened for carbapenemases. New ?-lactamase genes were expressed in a common background and susceptibility was tested. Class 1 integrons were sequenced. Clonality was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (Pasteur scheme). Relative expression of ?-lactam intrinsic resistance mechanisms was determined for carbapenemase-negative Enterobacteriaceae. ACB and Enterobacteriaceae displayed 58.9 and 0.9% doripenem resistance, respectively. bla(OXA-23), bla(OXA-58), and bla(OXA-24/OXA-40) were detected among 277, 77, and 29 ACB, respectively (in 8, 6, and 5 countries). Ten Turkish isolates carried bla(GES-11) or bla(GES-22). GES-22 (G243A and M169L mutations in GES-1) had an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase profile. A total of 33 clusters of ? 2 ACB isolates were observed, and 227 isolates belonged to sequence type 2/international clone II. Other international clones were limited to Turkey and Israel. Doripenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae increased significantly (0.7 to 1.6%), and 15 blaKPC-2- and 22 blaKPC-3-carrying isolates, mostly belonging to clonal complexes 11 and 258, were observed. Enterobacteriaceae isolates producing OXA-48 (n = 16; in Turkey and Italy), VIM-1 (n = 10; in Greece, Poland, and Spain), VIM-26 (n = 1; in Greece), and IMP-19, VIM-4, and the novel VIM-35 (n = 1 each from Poland) were detected. VIM-35 had one substitution compared to VIM-1 (A235T) and a similar susceptibility profile. One or more resistance mechanisms were identified in 4/6 carbapenemase-negative Enterobacteriaceae. This broad evaluation confirms results from country-specific surveys and shows a highly diverse population of carbapenemase-producing ACB and Enterobacteriaceae in Europe and Mediterranean countries. PMID:25267671

  13. Clinicopathological spectrum of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors; 20 years’ retrospective study in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian sex cord stromal tumors are rare neoplasms as compared to epithelial tumors. No large study has been done in Pakistan to find out the frequencies of various sex cord stromal tumors and their clinicopathological behavior in our region. The purpose of our study was to determine the various histological patterns and clinical features of ovarian sex cord stromal tumors along with follow-up in our set-up. Methods It is a retrospective observational study. The study was conducted in section of Histopathology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. All reported cases of sex cord stromal tumors of ovary during 1992 to 2012 were retrieved. The retrieved slides were reviewed and patient demographics, clinical and pathological features were noted on proforma. SPSS Statistics Version 19 was used for all analyses. Data is expressed as absolute values and percentage or as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Results A total of 480 cases of sex cord stromal tumors were retrieved. The median age was 45 years. Bilaterality was observed in 4 cases. Of the different subtypes of sex-cord stromal tumors, most common was adult granulosa cell tumor 211(43.9%). 24 Juvenile granulosa cell tumors were retrieved (5%). Other types were fibromas 98 (20.4%) fibrothecomas 47(9.8%), thecomas 26(5.4%), sertoli-leydig cell tumors 34(7%), sclerosing stromal tumors 26 (5.4%), steroid cell tumors (10) and 4 cases of sex cord tumor with annular tubules. Of various immunohistochemical stains applied, Inhibin was frequently positive in all subtypes and focal cytokeratins were also seen commonly. Follow up information was available in 305 cases and out of these only 16 (5%) developed recurrence or metastasis. Conclusions Sex cord stromal tumors are uncommon ovarian tumors in Pakistani population, with wide age range and diverse histological types having good prognosis. Immunohistochemical markers overlap with epithelial tumors so there is need to distinguish these two. PMID:24304499

  14. Perception of sexuality and fertility in women living with HIV: a questionnaire study from two Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Wessman, Maria; Aho, Inka; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Johansen, Isik S; Lunding, Suzanne; Pedersen, Gitte; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kivelä, Pia; Helleberg, Marie; Katzenstein, Terese L; Weis, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population ages, issues concerning sexuality and fertility, among others, are becoming relevant. HIV is still surrounded by stigma and taboos, and there have been few studies conducted in industrialized settings concerning these questions. We therefore wanted to investigate the perception of sexuality and fertility in women living with HIV (WLWH) in an industrialized setting, using a questionnaire. Methods WLWH were recruited at their regular outpatient clinic visits, at the major Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark and Finland, from January 2012 to October 2013. A questionnaire was developed, study participants were informed of the nature of study and, if they agreed to participate and signed a consent form, they filled in the questionnaire. Demographic information on the participants was obtained from patient files (in Finland) or from a national HIV cohort (in Denmark). Statistical analysis was performed using STATA®, version 11. Results In total, 560 women were included in the study. The median age was 44 years. The majority were of white European origin, with fully suppressed HIV viral load, CD4 cell count >350 µL and mild or no symptoms of their HIV infection. A total of 62% were sexually active, stating condom use as their sole form of contraception. Of the sexually inactive women, one-third were in steady relationships. Eighty percent reported prior pregnancies, of which the majority had one or more children. Most children were born prior to the women's HIV diagnosis and the mode of conception was predominantly natural. One-quarter of the participating women desired pregnancy, while more than half did not. The remaining quarter either stated that they already had the desired number of children or chose not to answer the question. Fourteen percent stated that their HIV diagnosis ended their wish for children; of these women, the median time of diagnosis was between 1995 and 1996. Pregnancy had been attempted unsuccessfully in one-quarter of study participants. The final question inquired what the risk of mother-to-child transmission was, with all precautions taken. Fifteen percent estimated the risk to be above two percent. Conclusions In conclusion, the majority of WLWH in industrialized settings in Denmark and Finland have few HIV-related symptoms, are sexually active and have a strong desire for children. PMID:26037151

  15. Impact of Country-of-Origin Dimensions on Product Quality and Design Quality Perceptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Chao

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the multidimensional constructs of the country concept and how they impact consumer evaluations of product and design qualities. Specifically, country-of-assembly, country-of-design, and parts-source country are incorporated into the research design. The results reveal that whereas country-of-assembly and country-of-parts only affect the product quality perception and country-of-design only affects the design quality perception, parts-source country moderates the design

  16. Dose evaluation for paediatric chest x-ray examinations in Brazil and Sudan: low doses and reliable examinations can be achieved in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamadain, K. E. M.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Azevedo, A. C. P.; Guebel, M. R. N.; Boechat, M. C. B.; Habani, F.

    2004-03-01

    Radiation protection in paediatric radiology deserves special attention since it is assumed that children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. The aim of this work is to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) for chest x-ray exposure of paediatric patients in five large units, three in Sudan and two in Brazil, and to compare the results obtained in both countries with each other and with other values obtained by some European countries. Two examination projections have been investigated, namely, postero-anterior (PA) and antero-posterior (AP). The age intervals considered were: 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results have been obtained with the use of a software called DoseCal. Results of mean ESD for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection are: 66 µGy (Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagão Gesteira—IPPMG Hospital), 41, 86 and 68 µGy (Instituto Fernandes Figueira—IFF Hospital), 161 µGy (Omdurman Hospital), 395 µGy (Khartoum Hospital) and 23 µGy (Ahmed Gasim Hospital). In the case of the IFF Hospital, the results refer, respectively, to rooms 1, 2 and for the six mobile equipments. The reference dose values given by the European Guidelines were exceeded in the Khartoum Hospital whilst in all the other hospitals results obtained were below CEC reference values and comparable with the results found in Sweden, Germany, Spain and Italy. The mean E for the same age interval was 11 µSv in the IPPMG, 6, 15 and 11 µSv in the IFF, respectively for rooms 1, 2 and the 6 mobiles, 25 µSv in the Omdurman Hospital, 45 µSv in the Khartoum Hospital and 3 µSv in the Ahmed Gasim Hospital. These are some examples of the large discrepancies that have been detected in this survey.

  17. Cesarean Section Rates and Indications in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-Country Study from Medecins sans Frontieres

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kathryn; Cortier, Hilde; Maldonado, Fernando; Mashant, Tshiteng; Ford, Nathan; Trelles, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The World Health Organization considers Cesarean section rates of 5–15% to be the optimal range for targeted provision of this life saving intervention. However, access to safe Cesarean section in resource-limited settings is much lower, estimated at 1–2% reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study reports Cesarean sections rates and indications in Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, and Sierra Leone, and describe the main parameters associated with maternal and early neonatal mortality. Methods Women undergoing Cesarean section from August 1 2010 to January 31 2011 were included in this prospective study. Logistic regression was used to model determinants of maternal and early neonatal mortality. Results 1276 women underwent a Cesarean section, giving a frequency of 6.2% (range 4.1–16.8%). The most common indications were obstructed labor (399, 31%), poor presentation (233, 18%), previous Cesarean section (184, 14%), and fetal distress (128, 10%), uterine rupture (117, 9%) and antepartum hemorrhage (101, 8%). Parity >6 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]?=?8.6, P?=?0.015), uterine rupture (aOR?=?20.5; P?=?.010), antepartum hemorrhage (aOR?=?13.1; P?=?.045), and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (aOR?=?42.9; P?=?.017) were associated with maternal death. Uterine rupture (aOR?=?6.6, P<0.001), anterpartum hemorrhage (aOR?=?3.6, P<0.001), and cord prolapse (aOR?=?2.7, P?=?0.017) were associated with early neonatal death. Conclusions This study demonstrates that target Cesarean section rates can be achieved in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying the common indications for Cesarean section and associations with mortality can target improvements in antenatal services and emergency obstetric care. PMID:22962616

  18. Early life diarrhoea and later blood pressure in a developing country: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Batty, G D; Horta, B L; Smith, G Davey; Barros, F C; Victora, C

    2009-01-01

    Background: It has recently been hypothesised that acute dehydration in early childhood may “programme” increased blood pressure via salt retention. We examined whether there was an association between episodes of diarrhoea (a proxy for acute dehydration) and later measured blood pressure. Methods: In the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study (Brazil), parents/carers reported hospital admissions for diarrhoea in the first 12 and 20 months of study members’ lives. Blood pressure was subsequently measured directly in adolescence (aged 15, 18, 19 years) and early adulthood (aged 23 years). Results: We found no evidence of an association between diarrhoea in the first 12 months of life and blood pressure measured at any point in adolescence or early adulthood. These findings were unchanged after adjustment for a range of covariates. Equally null results were apparent when diarrhoea admissions in the first 20 months of life, access to home sanitation and use of piped water were the exposures of interest. Conclusions: Early life proxies for dehydration and diarrhoea were unrelated to later blood pressure in this examination, the most comprehensive to date, of the potential association. PMID:18801796

  19. Numerical simulation study on earthquake-induced landslide stability evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Tang, H.; Wang, L.; Xiong, C.

    2009-12-01

    Landslide is one of the most dangerous geological hazards in the world, and its stability is affected by many factors. Especially in the earthquake-prone area, the earthquake plays a quite significant role in the stability evaluation of landslide. A typical landslide in Western China area was taken as an example, from which the geological model of landslide with considering the earthquake effect was established. The dynamic analysis module of finite difference software FLAC3D was carried out the numerical simulation in order to evaluate the stability of the landslide under the condition of earthquake effect. The result indicates that the numerical simulation analysis is in concordance with the engineering practice of the landslide. This study can provided a significant scientific basis for the stability evaluation of landslide in earthquake-prone area of Western China.

  20. A study on the quantitative evaluation of skin barrier function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Tomomi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Kido, Michiko; Yamada, Kenji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Takechi, Yohei; Furuta, Tomotaka; Ishii, Shoichi; Katayama, Haruna; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of skin barrier function using Optical Coherence Microscopy system (OCM system) with coherency of near-infrared light. There are a lot of skin problems such as itching, irritation and so on. It has been recognized skin problems are caused by impairment of skin barrier function, which prevents damage from various external stimuli and loss of water. To evaluate skin barrier function, it is a common strategy that they observe skin surface and ask patients about their skin condition. The methods are subjective judgements and they are influenced by difference of experience of persons. Furthermore, microscopy has been used to observe inner structure of the skin in detail, and in vitro measurements like microscopy requires tissue sampling. On the other hand, it is necessary to assess objectively skin barrier function by quantitative evaluation method. In addition, non-invasive and nondestructive measuring method and examination changes over time are needed. Therefore, in vivo measurements are crucial for evaluating skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluate changes of stratum corneum structure which is important for evaluating skin barrier function by comparing water-penetrated skin with normal skin using a system with coherency of near-infrared light. Proposed method can obtain in vivo 3D images of inner structure of body tissue, which is non-invasive and non-destructive measuring method. We formulate changes of skin ultrastructure after water penetration. Finally, we evaluate the limit of performance of the OCM system in this work in order to discuss how to improve the OCM system.