Science.gov

Sample records for county level database

  1. ORECCL-Oak Ridge energy crop county level database

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Allison, L.J.; Becker, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    A database on energy crop potential is being developed. This database will provide, for every county in the United States, information on the availability and cost of cropland and the yields, production costs and projected prices of energy crops. The database will be an EXCEL{copyright} spreadsheet that can be downloaded from an Internet site. The 35 variables in the database are described in the paper.

  2. The development and application of a county-level geographic database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturdevant, James A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper us to describe the collection of land use data by remote sensing techniques, the incorporation of land use, soils and slope data into a geographic database, and an application of geographic database techniques to a county planning problem. Land use data were successfully interpreted from aerial photographs and incorporated in a geographic database along with digital slope and soils data. All data were registered to a common map base and rasterized to 50- by 50-meter grid cells. Data combination procedures were applied to the database to produce an image depicting areas of relative suitability for dwelling unit construction. This image can be used for planning future urban development. However, the limitations of this suitability image, which have been introduced through data resolution, data combination techniques, and subjectively made decisions, must be considered by data users.

  3. Database of groundwater levels and hydrograph descriptions for the Nevada Test Site area, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Water levels in the database were quality assured and analyzed. Multiple conditions were assigned to each water‑level measurement to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed to each water-level measurement.

  4. Rural County Report. County Level Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, J. Dennis

    This report represents a county-level Pennsylvania data base focused on variables of significance to rural communities. The data includes computations of per capita rates for counties in rural, urban influence, and urban clusters. This report is intended for comparing rural counties to other areas of the state. Three categories are used to present…

  5. Database of Ground-Water Levels in the Vicinity of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada 1957-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Fenelon

    2006-08-15

    More than 1,200 water-level measurements from 1957 to 2005 in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test Site were quality assured and analyzed. Water levels were measured from 50 discrete intervals within 18 boreholes and from 4 tunnel sites. An interpretive database was constructed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in the Rainier Mesa area. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes hydrograph narratives that describe the water-level history of each well.

  6. Database of Ground-Water Levels in the Vicinity of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1957-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    More than 1,200 water-level measurements from 1957 to 2005 in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test Site were quality assured and analyzed. Water levels were measured from 50 discrete intervals within 18 boreholes and from 4 tunnel sites. An interpretive database was constructed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in the Rainier Mesa area. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes hydrograph narratives that describe the water-level history of each well.

  7. Vegetation database for land-cover mapping, Clark and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charlet, David A.; Damar, Nancy A.; Leary, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Floristic and other vegetation data were collected at 3,175 sample sites to support land-cover mapping projects in Clark and Lincoln Counties, Nevada, from 2007 to 2013. Data were collected at sample sites that were selected to fulfill mapping priorities by one of two different plot sampling approaches. Samples were described at the stand level and classified into the National Vegetation Classification hierarchy at the alliance level and above. The vegetation database is presented in geospatial and tabular formats.

  8. Conceptual and logical level of database modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    Conceptual and logical levels form the top most levels of database modeling. Usually, ORM (Object Role Modeling) and ER diagrams are utilized to capture the corresponding schema. The final aim of business process modeling is to store its results in the form of database solution. For this reason, value oriented business process modeling which utilizes ER diagram to express the modeling entities and relationships between them are used. However, ER diagrams form the logical level of database schema. To extend possibilities of different business process modeling methodologies, the conceptual level of database modeling is needed. The paper deals with the REA value modeling approach to business process modeling using ER-diagrams, and derives conceptual model utilizing ORM modeling approach. Conceptual model extends possibilities for value modeling to other business modeling approaches.

  9. Indoor radon levels in Cumberland County, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.L.; Nason, R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of radon levels in 165 randomly selected homes in Cumberland County, PA during Winter 1984-1985. The average and mean levels were found to be 9.1 +/- 0.7 pCi/L and 6.3 +/- 0.5 pCi/L, respectively, many times normally encountered levels. Average and mean radon levels are reported vs. various house characteristics. 4 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  10. County-level environmental quality and associations with individual - and county-level preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human health is influenced by simultaneous exposure to stressors and amenities, but research usually considers single exposures. We constructed a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) using principal components analysis with data from five domains (air, water, land, buil...

  11. Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milesi, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Presentation by Cristina Milesi, First Author, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA at the "Meeting the Challenge of Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County" on June 19, 2005 Santa Clara County, bordering with the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay, is highly vulnerable to flooding and to sea level rise (SLR). In this presentation, the latest sea level rise projections for the San Francisco Bay will be discussed in the context of extreme water height frequency and extent of flooding vulnerability. I will also present preliminary estimations of levee requirements and possible mitigation through tidal restoration of existing salt ponds. The examples will draw mainly from the work done by the NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigators at NASA Ames.

  12. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Readiness Level Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 solar sail system design and development hardware demonstration activities over the past 20 months. Able Engineering Company (AEC) of Goleta, CA is leading one team and L Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA is leading the other team. Component, subsystem and system fabrication and testing has been completed successfully. The goal of these activities is to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by 2006. These activities will culminate in the deployment and testing of 20-meter solar sail system ground demonstration hardware in the 30 meter diameter thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in 2005. This paper will describe the features of a computer database system that documents the results of the solar sail development activities to-date. Illustrations of the hardware components and systems, test results, analytical models, relevant space environment definition and current TRL assessment, as stored and manipulated within the database are presented. This database could serve as a central repository for all data related to the advancement of solar sail technology sponsored by the ISPT, providing an up-to-date assessment of the TRL of this technology. Current plans are to eventually make the database available to the Solar Sail community through the Space Transportation Information Network (STIN).

  13. County-level environmental quality and associations with cancer incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer has been associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as PM2.5 and arsenic. However, the role of the overall ambient environment is not well-understood. A novel county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) was developed for all U.S. counties (n=3,141)...

  14. Hardee County Energy Activities - Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Described are over 70 activities designed to help students develop writing skills by examining energy issues. Intended for middle school students, the lessons were developed by Hardee County, Florida teachers. Learning strategies employed include class discussions, analogies, word puzzles, letter writing, sentence completions, vocabulary building…

  15. Cooperative success stories at the county level

    SciTech Connect

    Merryman, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Orange County Health Care Agency, Environmental Health Division has had a contract with the State Water Resources Control Board to oversee the cleanup of sites contaminated by leaking underground fuel storage tanks since 1988. Environmental Health is currently overseeing the remediation of approximately 670 contaminated sites. Throughout the implementation of their Local Oversight Program, Environmental Health has worked with business owners in an effort to remediate sites and to close cases so that property can be redeveloped.

  16. Watershed Data Management (WDM) Database for Salt Creek Streamflow Simulation, DuPage County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Ishii, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with DuPage County Department of Engineering, Stormwater Management Division, maintains a database of hourly meteorologic and hydrologic data for use in a near real-time streamflow simulation system, which assists in the management and operation of reservoirs and other flood-control structures in the Salt Creek watershed in DuPage County, Illinois. The majority of the precipitation data are collected from a tipping-bucket rain-gage network located in and near DuPage County. The other meteorologic data (wind speed, solar radiation, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) are collected at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. Potential evapotranspiration is computed from the meteorologic data. The hydrologic data (discharge and stage) are collected at USGS streamflow-gaging stations in DuPage County. These data are stored in a Watershed Data Management (WDM) database. This report describes a version of the WDM database that was quality-assured and quality-controlled annually to ensure the datasets were complete and accurate. This version of the WDM database contains data from January 1, 1997, through September 30, 2004, and is named SEP04.WDM. This report provides a record of time periods of poor data for each precipitation dataset and describes methods used to estimate the data for the periods when data were missing, flawed, or snowfall-affected. The precipitation dataset data-filling process was changed in 2001, and both processes are described. The other meteorologic and hydrologic datasets in the database are fully described in the annual U.S. Geological Survey Water Data Report for Illinois and, therefore, are described in less detail than the precipitation datasets in this report.

  17. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  18. Digital database of microfossil localities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, Kristin; Block, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The eastern San Francisco Bay region (Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California) is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block. Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U.S. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

  19. A County-Level Measure of Urban Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghelfi, Linda M.; Parker, Timothy S.

    1997-01-01

    Nine county-level urban-influence categories were developed to enhance research on geographic differences in economic opportunities. Categories differ along many social and economic dimensions: population growth, educational attainment, employment growth, earnings, presence of institutions of higher learning, and hospital and physician supply.…

  20. LOWER LEVEL INFERENCE CONTROL IN STATISTICAL DATABASE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, D.L.; Wong, H.K.T.

    1984-02-01

    An inference is the process of transforming unclassified data values into confidential data values. Most previous research in inference control has studied the use of statistical aggregates to deduce individual records. However, several other types of inference are also possible. Unknown functional dependencies may be apparent to users who have 'expert' knowledge about the characteristics of a population. Some correlations between attributes may be concluded from 'commonly-known' facts about the world. To counter these threats, security managers should use random sampling of databases of similar populations, as well as expert systems. 'Expert' users of the DATABASE SYSTEM may form inferences from the variable performance of the user interface. Users may observe on-line turn-around time, accounting statistics. the error message received, and the point at which an interactive protocol sequence fails. One may obtain information about the frequency distributions of attribute values, and the validity of data object names from this information. At the back-end of a database system, improved software engineering practices will reduce opportunities to bypass functional units of the database system. The term 'DATA OBJECT' should be expanded to incorporate these data object types which generate new classes of threats. The security of DATABASES and DATABASE SySTEMS must be recognized as separate but related problems. Thus, by increased awareness of lower level inferences, system security managers may effectively nullify the threat posed by lower level inferences.

  1. Geologic Map and Map Database of Eastern Sonoma and Western Napa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, R.W.; Brabb, E.E.; Jones, D.L.; Barnes, J.; Nicholson, R.S.; Stamski, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report contains a new 1:100,000-scale geologic map, derived from a set of geologic map databases (Arc-Info coverages) containing information at 1:62,500-scale resolution, and a new description of the geologic map units and structural relations in the map area. Prepared as part of the San Francisco Bay Region Mapping Project, the study area includes the north-central part of the San Francisco Bay region, and forms the final piece of the effort to generate new, digital geologic maps and map databases for an area which includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. Geologic mapping in Lake County in the north-central part of the map extent was not within the scope of the Project. The map and map database integrates both previously published reports and new geologic mapping and field checking by the authors (see Sources of Data index map on the map sheet or the Arc-Info coverage eswn-so and the textfile eswn-so.txt). This report contains new ideas about the geologic structures in the map area, including the active San Andreas Fault system, as well as the geologic units and their relations. Together, the map (or map database) and the unit descriptions in this report describe the composition, distribution, and orientation of geologic materials and structures within the study area at regional scale. Regional geologic information is important for analysis of earthquake shaking, liquifaction susceptibility, landslide susceptibility, engineering materials properties, mineral resources and hazards, as well as groundwater resources and hazards. These data also assist in answering questions about the geologic history and development of the California Coast Ranges.

  2. Estimating Employer Demand for County Level Educational Attainment: A Case Study of Taylor County, West Virginia. Research Paper 2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiadi

    An on-going study is examining a method proposed by S. Goetz and D. Debertin for estimating demand for educational attainment at the county level by using secondary data. The method produces compact information showing the relationship between employment, occupation, and educational attainment, information not available at the county level. The…

  3. Geologic map database of the El Mirage Lake area, San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.

    2000-01-01

    This geologic map database for the El Mirage Lake area describes geologic materials for the dry lake, parts of the adjacent Shadow Mountains and Adobe Mountain, and much of the piedmont extending south from the lake upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. This area lies within the western Mojave Desert of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, southeastern California. The area is traversed by a few paved highways that service the community of El Mirage, and by numerous dirt roads that lead to outlying properties. An off-highway vehicle area established by the Bureau of Land Management encompasses the dry lake and much of the land north and east of the lake. The physiography of the area consists of the dry lake, flanking mud and sand flats and alluvial piedmonts, and a few sharp craggy mountains. This digital geologic map database, intended for use at 1:24,000-scale, describes and portrays the rock units and surficial deposits of the El Mirage Lake area. The map database was prepared to aid in a water-resource assessment of the area by providing surface geologic information with which deepergroundwater-bearing units may be understood. The area mapped covers the Shadow Mountains SE and parts of the Shadow Mountains, Adobe Mountain, and El Mirage 7.5-minute quadrangles. The map includes detailed geology of surface and bedrock deposits, which represent a significant update from previous bedrock geologic maps by Dibblee (1960) and Troxel and Gunderson (1970), and the surficial geologic map of Ponti and Burke (1980); it incorporates a fringe of the detailed bedrock mapping in the Shadow Mountains by Martin (1992). The map data were assembled as a digital database using ARC/INFO to enable wider applications than traditional paper-product geologic maps and to provide for efficient meshing with other digital data bases prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project.

  4. Holocene Sea-Level Database For The Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, N. S.; Horton, B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.; Vane, C. H.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records from far-field locations are important for understanding the driving mechanisms controlling the nature and timing of the mid-late Holocene reduction in global meltwaters and providing background rates of late Holocene RSL change with which to compare the magnitude of 20th century RSL rise. The Caribbean region has traditionally been considered far-field (i.e., with negligible glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) influence), although recent investigations indicate otherwise. Here, we consider the spatial variability in glacio-isostatic, tectonic and local contributions on RSL records from the circum-Caribbean region to infer a Holocene eustatic sea-level signal. We have constructed a database of quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive, Holocene RSL observations for the circum-Caribbean region. The database contains over 500 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space. The database incorporates sea-level observations from a latitudinal range of 5°N to 25°N and longitudinal range of 55°W to 90°W. We include sea-level observations from 11 ka BP to present, although the majority of the index points in the database are younger than 8 ka BP. The database is sub-divided into 13 regions based on the distance from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet and regional tectonic setting. The index points were primarily derived from mangrove peat deposits, which in the Caribbean form in the upper half of the tidal range, and corals (predominantly Acropora palmata), the growth of which is constrained to the upper 5 m of water depth. The index points are classified on the basis of their susceptibility to compaction (e.g., intercalated, basal). The influence of temporal changes in tidal range on index points is also considered. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, except at sites in Suriname/Guayana and possibly Trinidad

  5. The Association between County-Level IQ and County-Level Crime Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    An impressive body of research has revealed that individual-level IQ scores are negatively associated with criminal and delinquent involvement. Recently, this line of research has been extended to show that state-level IQ scores are associated with state-level crime rates. The current study uses this literature as a springboard to examine the…

  6. Influence of Urbanization Level and Gross Domestic Product of Counties in Croatia on Access to Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Drakulić, Velibor; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina; Vlahušić, Andro; Bilić, Ivica; Matanić, Dubravka

    2008-01-01

    Aim To examine the association of counties’ urbanization level and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita on the access to health care. Methods Counties were divided in two groups according to the urbanization level and GDP per capita in purchasing power standards. The number of physicians per 100 000 inhabitants, the number of physicians in hospitals in four basic specialties, physicians’ workload, average duration of working week, the average number of insurants per general practice (GP) team, and the number of inhabitants covered by one internal medicine outpatient clinic were compared between predominantly urban and predominantly rural counties, and between richer and poorer counties. Our study included only GP teams and outpatients’ clinics under the contract with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance. Data on physicians were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance, the Croatian Institute for Public Health, and the Croatian Medical Chamber. Data on the contracts with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and health care services provided under these contracts were obtained from the database of the Institute, while population and gross domestic product data were obtained from the Database of the Croatian Institute for Statistics. World Health Organization Health for All Database was used for the international comparison of physician’s data. Results There was no significant difference in the total number of physicians per 100 000 inhabitants between predominantly urban and predominantly rural counties (206.9 ± 41.0 vs 175.4 ± 30.3; P = 0.067, t test) nor between richer and poorer counties (194.5 ± 49.8 vs 187.7 ± 25.3; P = 0.703, t test). However, there were significantly fewer GPs per 100 000 inhabitants in rural than urban counties (49.0 ± 5.5 vs 56.7 ± 4.6; P = 0.003, t test). GPs in rural counties had more insurants than those

  7. Determinants of US Prescription Drug Utilization using County Level Data.

    PubMed

    Nianogo, Thierry; Okunade, Albert; Fofana, Demba; Chen, Weiwei

    2016-05-01

    Prescription drugs are the third largest component of US healthcare expenditures. The 2006 Medicare Part D and the 2010 Affordable Care Act are catalysts for further growths in utilization becuase of insurance expansion effects. This research investigating the determinants of prescription drug utilization is timely, methodologically novel, and policy relevant. Differences in population health status, access to care, socioeconomics, demographics, and variations in per capita number of scripts filled at retail pharmacies across the USA justify fitting separate econometric models to county data of the states partitioned into low, medium, and high prescription drug users. Given the skewed distribution of per capita number of filled prescriptions (response variable), we fit the variance stabilizing Box-Cox power transformation regression models to 2011 county level data for investigating the correlates of prescription drug utilization separately for low, medium, and high utilization states. Maximum likelihood regression parameter estimates, including the optimal Box-Cox λ power transformations, differ across high (λ = 0.214), medium (λ = 0.942), and low (λ = 0.302) prescription drug utilization models. The estimated income elasticities of -0.634, 0.031, and -0.532 in high, medium, and low utilization models suggest that the economic behavior of prescriptions is not invariant across different utilization levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25903420

  8. A Multi-Level Bayesian Analysis of Racial Bias in Police Shootings at the County-Level in the United States, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Cody T.

    2015-01-01

    A geographically-resolved, multi-level Bayesian model is used to analyze the data presented in the U.S. Police-Shooting Database (USPSD) in order to investigate the extent of racial bias in the shooting of American civilians by police officers in recent years. In contrast to previous work that relied on the FBI’s Supplemental Homicide Reports that were constructed from self-reported cases of police-involved homicide, this data set is less likely to be biased by police reporting practices. County-specific relative risk outcomes of being shot by police are estimated as a function of the interaction of: 1) whether suspects/civilians were armed or unarmed, and 2) the race/ethnicity of the suspects/civilians. The results provide evidence of a significant bias in the killing of unarmed black Americans relative to unarmed white Americans, in that the probability of being {black, unarmed, and shot by police} is about 3.49 times the probability of being {white, unarmed, and shot by police} on average. Furthermore, the results of multi-level modeling show that there exists significant heterogeneity across counties in the extent of racial bias in police shootings, with some counties showing relative risk ratios of 20 to 1 or more. Finally, analysis of police shooting data as a function of county-level predictors suggests that racial bias in police shootings is most likely to emerge in police departments in larger metropolitan counties with low median incomes and a sizable portion of black residents, especially when there is high financial inequality in that county. There is no relationship between county-level racial bias in police shootings and crime rates (even race-specific crime rates), meaning that the racial bias observed in police shootings in this data set is not explainable as a response to local-level crime rates. PMID:26540108

  9. A Multi-Level Bayesian Analysis of Racial Bias in Police Shootings at the County-Level in the United States, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Ross, Cody T

    2015-01-01

    A geographically-resolved, multi-level Bayesian model is used to analyze the data presented in the U.S. Police-Shooting Database (USPSD) in order to investigate the extent of racial bias in the shooting of American civilians by police officers in recent years. In contrast to previous work that relied on the FBI's Supplemental Homicide Reports that were constructed from self-reported cases of police-involved homicide, this data set is less likely to be biased by police reporting practices. County-specific relative risk outcomes of being shot by police are estimated as a function of the interaction of: 1) whether suspects/civilians were armed or unarmed, and 2) the race/ethnicity of the suspects/civilians. The results provide evidence of a significant bias in the killing of unarmed black Americans relative to unarmed white Americans, in that the probability of being {black, unarmed, and shot by police} is about 3.49 times the probability of being {white, unarmed, and shot by police} on average. Furthermore, the results of multi-level modeling show that there exists significant heterogeneity across counties in the extent of racial bias in police shootings, with some counties showing relative risk ratios of 20 to 1 or more. Finally, analysis of police shooting data as a function of county-level predictors suggests that racial bias in police shootings is most likely to emerge in police departments in larger metropolitan counties with low median incomes and a sizable portion of black residents, especially when there is high financial inequality in that county. There is no relationship between county-level racial bias in police shootings and crime rates (even race-specific crime rates), meaning that the racial bias observed in police shootings in this data set is not explainable as a response to local-level crime rates. PMID:26540108

  10. Watershed Data Management (WDM) database for Salt Creek streamflow simulation, DuPage County, Illinois, water years 2005-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bera, Maitreyee

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with DuPage County Stormwater Management Division, maintains a USGS database of hourly meteorologic and hydrologic data for use in a near real-time streamflow simulation system, which assists in the management and operation of reservoirs and other flood-control structures in the Salt Creek watershed in DuPage County, Illinois. Most of the precipitation data are collected from a tipping-bucket rain-gage network located in and near DuPage County. The other meteorologic data (wind speed, solar radiation, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) are collected at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Ill. Potential evapotranspiration is computed from the meteorologic data. The hydrologic data (discharge and stage) are collected at USGS streamflow-gaging stations in DuPage County. These data are stored in a Watershed Data Management (WDM) database. An earlier report describes in detail the WDM database development including the processing of data from January 1, 1997, through September 30, 2004, in SEP04.WDM database. SEP04.WDM is updated with the appended data from October 1, 2004, through September 30, 2011, water years 2005–11 and renamed as SEP11.WDM. This report details the processing of meteorologic and hydrologic data in SEP11.WDM. This report provides a record of snow affected periods and the data used to fill missing-record periods for each precipitation site during water years 2005–11. The meteorologic data filling methods are described in detail in Over and others (2010), and an update is provided in this report.

  11. Development of a Land Use Database for the Little Blackwater Watershed, Dorchester County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milheim, Lesley E.; Jones, John W.; Barlow, Roger A.

    2007-01-01

    Many agricultural and forested areas in proximity to National Wildlife Refuges (NWR) are under increasing economic pressure to develop lands for commercial or residential development. The upper portion of the Little Blackwater River watershed - a 27 square mile area within largely low-lying Dorchester County, Maryland, on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay - is important to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) because it flows toward the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (BNWR), and developmental impacts of areas upstream from the BNWR are unknown. One of the primary concerns for the refuge is how storm-water runoff may affect living resources downstream. The Egypt Road project (fig. 1), for which approximately 600 residential units have been approved, has the potential to markedly change the land use and land cover on the west bank of the Little Blackwater River. In an effort to limit anticipated impacts, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (Maryland DNR) recently decided to purchase some of the lands previously slated for development. Local topography, a high water table (typically 1 foot or less below the land surface), and hydric soils present a challenge for the best management of storm-water flow from developed surfaces. A spatial data coordination group was formed by the Dorchester County Soil and Conservation District to collect data to aid decisionmakers in watershed management and on the possible impacts of development on this watershed. Determination of streamflow combined with land cover and impervious-surface baselines will allow linking of hydrologic and geologic factors that influence the land surface. This baseline information will help planners, refuge managers, and developers discuss issues and formulate best management practices to mitigate development impacts on the refuge. In consultation with the Eastern Region Geospatial Information Office, the dataset selected to be that baseline land cover source was the June-July 2005

  12. Development of an Impervious-Surface Database for the Little Blackwater River Watershed, Dorchester County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milheim, Lesley E.; Jones, John W.; Barlow, Roger A.

    2007-01-01

    Many agricultural and forested areas in proximity to National Wildlife Refuges (NWR) are under increasing economic pressure for commercial or residential development. The upper portion of the Little Blackwater River watershed - a 27 square mile area within largely low-lying Dorchester County, Maryland, on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay - is important to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) because it flows toward the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (BNWR), and developmental impacts of areas upstream from the BNWR are unknown. One of the primary concerns for the Refuge is how storm-water runoff may affect living resources downstream. The Egypt Road project (fig. 1), for which approximately 600 residential units have been approved, has the potential to markedly change the land use and land cover on the west bank of the Little Blackwater River. In an effort to limit anticipated impacts, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (Maryland DNR) recently decided to purchase some of the lands previously slated for development. Local topography, a high water table (typically 1 foot or less below the land surface), and hydric soils present a challenge for the best management of storm-water flow from developed surfaces. A spatial data coordination group was formed by the Dorchester County Soil and Conservation District to collect data to aid decisionmakers in watershed management and on the possible impacts of development on this watershed. Determination of streamflow combined with land cover and impervious-surface baselines will allow linking of hydrologic and geologic factors that influence the land surface. This baseline information will help planners, refuge managers, and developers discuss issues and formulate best management practices to mitigate development impacts on the refuge. In consultation with the Eastern Region Geospatial Information Office, the dataset selected to be that baseline land cover source was the June-July 2005 National

  13. ORECCL - Summary of a national database on energy crop landbase, yields, and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Allison, L.J.; Becker, D.A.

    1997-07-01

    The Biofuels Feedstock Development Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed a county-level database on energy crops-the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County-Level database (RECCL). This database encompasses all U.S. counties and provides easy access to energy crop information specific to a state or county. The database contains predictions of energy crop yields and farmgate prices along with county-level data on the acreage of land suitable for energy crop production. This paper describes the database and presents state-level summary statistics on land suitable for energy crop production and average predicted yields and farmgate prices.

  14. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, January 1995 through December 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into an agreement to continue collecting water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, the USGS has provided training and instrumentation for County personnel to measure, on a quarterly basis, the depth to water below the land surface in selected wells. The agreement includes the operation of continuous water-level recorders installed on four wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant and Lake Townships (fig. 1). County personnel make quarterly water-level measurements of 22 other wells. Once each year, County personnel are accompanied by USGS personnel who provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made.

  15. Horticulture for Secondary Level Handicapped Adolescents: The Cherokee County Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Greg H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Cherokee County (Alabama) horticulture training program provides 40 mildly mentally retarded adolescents with vocational training in a marketable skills. The broad spectrum of vocational skills makes horticulture ideal for the handicapped. (DB)

  16. Palaeo sea-level and ice-sheet databases: problems, strategies and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düsterhus, A.; Rovere, A.; Carlson, A. E.; Barlow, N. L. M.; Bradwell, T.; Dutton, A.; Gehrels, R.; Hibbert, F. D.; Hijma, M. P.; Horton, B. P.; Klemann, V.; Kopp, R. E.; Sivan, D.; Tarasov, L.; Törnqvist, T. E.

    2015-06-01

    Sea-level and ice-sheet databases are essential tools for evaluating palaeoclimatic changes. However, database creation poses considerable challenges and problems related to the composition and needs of scientific communities creating raw data, the compiliation of the database, and finally using it. There are also issues with data standardisation and database infrastructure, which should make the database easy to understand and use with different layers of complexity. Other challenges are correctly assigning credit to original authors, and creation of databases that are centralised and maintained in long-term digital archives. Here, we build on the experience of the PALeo constraints on SEA level rise (PALSEA) community by outlining strategies for designing a self-consistent and standardised database of changes in sea level and ice sheets, identifying key points that need attention when undertaking the task of database creation.

  17. Spring Database for the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavelko, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    A database containing nearly 3,400 springs was developed for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The spring database provides a foundation for field verification of springs in the study area. Attributes in the database include location, geographic and general geologic settings, and available discharge and temperature data for each spring.

  18. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Van Remortel; Y. J. Lee; K. E. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates, and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data.

  19. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Y. J. Lee; R. D. Van Remortel; K. E. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates,and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data.

  20. Rural County Report, 1993. Data Report from County Level Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    This report presents numerical data for 1990-92 on demographic, social, and educational variables, comparing rural and urban areas of Pennsylvania. Two types of comparisons are provided: (1) rural, urban influence, and urban groupings, based on population density typology (people per square mile and size of the largest community in the county);…

  1. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  2. Geologic map and map database of western Sonoma, northernmost Marin, and southernmost Mendocino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blake, M.C., Jr.; Graymer, R.W.; Stamski, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (wsomf.ps, wsomf.pdf, wsomf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller.

  3. Protocol for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility Disposal Limits Database

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R

    2006-01-31

    A database has been developed to contain the disposal limits for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). This database originates in the form of an EXCEL{copyright} workbook. The pertinent sheets are translated to PDF format using Adobe ACROBAT{copyright}. The PDF version of the database is accessible from the Solid Waste Division web page on SHRINE. In addition to containing the various disposal unit limits, the database also contains hyperlinks to the original references for all limits. It is anticipated that database will be revised each time there is an addition, deletion or revision of any of the ELLWF radionuclide disposal limits.

  4. Drought-trigger ground-water levels and analysis of historical water-level trends in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chester County observation-well network was established in 1973 through a cooperative agreement between the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and the U.S. Geological Survey. The network was established to monitor local ground-water levels, to determine drought conditions, and to monitor ground-water-level trends. Drought-warning and drought-emergency water-level triggers were determined for 20 of the 23 wells in the Chester County observation-well network. A statistical test to determine either rising or declining water-level trends was performed on data for all wells in the network. Water-level data from both of these wells showed a rising trend. A decrease in ground-water pumping in the area near these wells was probably the reason for the rise in water levels.

  5. The landslide database for Germany: Closing the gap at national level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, Bodo; Klose, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany has long been among the few European countries that lack a national landslide database. Systematic collection and inventory of landslide data still has a long research history in Germany, but one focussed on the development of databases with local or regional coverage. This has changed in recent years with the launch of a database initiative aimed at closing the data gap existing at national level. The present paper reports on this project that is based on a landslide database which evolved over the last 15 years to a database covering large parts of Germany. A strategy of systematic retrieval, extraction, and fusion of landslide data is at the heart of the methodology, providing the basis for a database with a broad potential of application. The database offers a data pool of more than 4,200 landslide data sets with over 13,000 single data files and dates back to the 12th century. All types of landslides are covered by the database, which stores not only core attributes, but also various complementary data, including data on landslide causes, impacts, and mitigation. The current database migration to PostgreSQL/PostGIS is focused on unlocking the full scientific potential of the database, while enabling data sharing and knowledge transfer via a web GIS platform. In this paper, the goals and the research strategy of the database project are highlighted at first, with a summary of best practices in database development providing perspective. Next, the focus is on key aspects of the methodology, which is followed by the results of three case studies in the German Central Uplands. The case study results exemplify database application in the analysis of landslide frequency and causes, impact statistics, and landslide susceptibility modeling. Using the example of these case studies, strengths and weaknesses of the database are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a summary of the database project with regard to previous

  6. Digital Database of Selected Aggregate and Related Resources in Ada, Boise, Canyon, Elmore, Gem, and Owyhee Counties, Southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Wallis, John C.; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen D.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a database of aggregate sites and geotechnical sample data for six counties - Ada, Boise, Canyon, Elmore, Gem, and Owyhee - in southwest Idaho as part of a series of studies in support of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) planning process. Emphasis is placed on sand and gravel sites in deposits of the Boise River, Snake River, and other fluvial systems and in Neogene lacustrine deposits. Data were collected primarily from unpublished Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) records and BLM site descriptions, published Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) records, and USGS sampling data. The results of this study provides important information needed by land-use planners and resource managers, particularly in the BLM, to anticipate and plan for demand and development of sand and gravel and other mineral material resources on public lands in response to the urban growth in southwestern Idaho.

  7. County-Level Crop Yield Prediction Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, K. L.; Roper, A.; Lane, T.

    2007-12-01

    Early estimates of crop yield, particularly at a fine scale, can inform precision agriculture efforts. The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) currently provides estimates of yield on a monthly basis for each state. These estimates are based on phone interviews with farmers and in-situ examination of randomly selected plots. We seek to provide predictions at a much higher spatial resolution, on a more frequent basis, using remote sensing observations. We use publicly available data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments on the Aqua and Terra spacecraft. These observations have a spatial resolution of 250 m and consist of two spectral bands (red and infra-red) with a repeat period of 8 days. As part of the HARVIST (Heterogeneous Agricultural Research Via Interactive, Scalable Technology) project, we have created statistical crop yield models using historical MODIS data combined with the per-county yield reported by the USDA at the end of the growing season. In our approach, we analyze 100 randomly selected historical pixels from each county to generate a yield prediction for the county as a whole. We construct a time series for each pixel that consists of its NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) value observed during each 8-day time period to date. We then cluster all pixels together to identify groups of distinct elements (different crops, bodies of water, urban areas, desert, etc.) and create a regression model for each one. For each crop of interest, the model that best predicts that crop's historical yield is selected. These models can then be applied to data from subsequent years to generate predictions for the future. We applied this approach to data from California and Kansas for corn and wheat. We found that, in general, the yield prediction error decreased as the harvest time approached. In California, distinctly different models were selected to predict corn and wheat, permitting specialization

  8. LANL High-Level Model (HLM) database development letter report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Traditional methods of evaluating munitions have been able to successfully compare like munition`s capabilities. On the modern battlefield, however, many different types of munitions compete for the same set of targets. Assessing the overall stockpile capability and proper mix of these weapons is not a simple task, as their use depends upon the specific geographic region of the world, the threat capabilities, the tactics and operational strategy used by both the US and Threat commanders, and of course the type and quantity of munitions available to the CINC. To sort out these types of issues, a hierarchical set of dynamic, two-sided combat simulations are generally used. The DoD has numerous suitable models for this purpose, but rarely are the models focused on munitions expenditures. Rather, they are designed to perform overall platform assessments and force mix evaluations. However, in some cases, the models could be easily adapted to provide this information, since it is resident in the model`s database. Unfortunately, these simulations` complexity (their greatest strength) precludes quick turnaround assessments of the type and scope required by senior decision-makers.

  9. Digital Compilation of "Preliminary Map of Landslide Deposits in Santa Cruz County, California, By Cooper-Clark and Associates, 1975": A Digital Map Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Report by Roberts, Sebastian; Barron, Andrew D.; Preface by Brabb, Earl E.; Pike, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    A 1:62,500-scale black-and-white map identifying some 2,000 landslides of various types in Santa Cruz County, California, has been converted to a digital-map database that can be acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey over the Internet or on magnetic tape.

  10. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, March 1993 through December 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan. In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into an agreement to continue collecting water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, the USGS provided training and instrumentation for County personnel to measure, on a quarterly basis, the depth to water below the land surface in selected wells. The program included the operation of continuous water-level recorders installed on four wells, in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant and Lake townships (figure 1). County personnel make quarterly water-level measurements on 22 other wells (figure 1). Once each year, County personnel are accompanied by USGS personnel who provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Two of the wells with recorders are completed in the Marshall aquifer (H5r and H25Ar), one is completed in the glacio-fluvial aquifer (H2r), and one is completed in the Saginaw aquifer (H9r). Hydrographs are presented for each of the four wells with water level recorders (figures 3, 4, 6, and 8). Hydrographs of quarterly water-level measurements and range of water levels during the period October, 1988 to January, 1990 (the original project period) are shown in figures 5, 7, 9, and 10 and quarterly water levels are presented in tables 1 through 4. Figure 2 shows the monthly-mean water-level elevation of Lake Huron, as measured at Harbor Beach and Essexville, and monthly-mean precipitation as recorded at Bad Axe, for the period October, 1988 through December, 1994. In general, Lake Huron water-level elevation were at or near record lows in late 1989, and near record highs in late 1993. Precipitation throughout the period was generally within the normal range.

  11. Development of the county database: Estimates of exposure rates and times of arrival of fallout in the ORERP Phase-2 area

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, H.L. ); Anspaugh, L.R. )

    1991-12-01

    Estimates of exposure rates and fallout-arrival times have been made for each of 142 counties or county segments for 55 nuclear events producing significant deposition downwind from the Nevada Test Site. All sources of available data were examined to provide the best possible estimates for each event. The cumulative fallout deposited per unit area in each county based on these estimates is compared with estimates of cumulative deposition density based on analyses of contemporary and historical soil samples. The good agreement between the two sets of cumulative deposition estimates gives credence to the individual event estimates and suggests that no major sources of fission-product deposition were overlooked. This county database is being used as primary input data in a number of on-going dose-reconstruction studies.

  12. Brazoria County Re-Leveling Pleasant Bayou Geopressured Well Site

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    The purpose is to conduct first order leveling surveys as part of an ongoing environmental monitoring program for geopressured-geothermal test wells. The scope is to Conduct First Order, Class I, leveling to monitor subsidence of previously installed and leveled bench marks, established by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and Vernon F. Meyer and Associates, Inc., in the area of the Pleasant Bayou geopressured test well. All leveling surveys to conform to NGS standards and specifications.

  13. County Level Assessment of Impaired Waters and Gastrointestinal Infections

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality data are measured at a watershed level and health data are organized at different levels of aggregation therefore, assessing the population-level impact of water quality on health can be difficult. To address this discrepancy and enable the consideration of water ...

  14. Prevalence of Doctor-Diagnosed Arthritis at State and County Levels - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Boring, Michael; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; Holt, James B

    2016-01-01

    Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition that affects approximately 52.5 million (22.7%) adults in the United States and is a leading cause of disability (1,2). The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis has been well documented at the national level (1), but little has been published at the state level and the county level, where interventions are carried out and can have their greatest effect. To estimate the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis among adults at the state and county levels, CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, for all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) overall, the age-standardized median prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis was 24% (range = 18.8%-35.5%). The age-standardized model-predicted prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis varied substantially by county, with estimates ranging from 15.8% to 38.6%. The high prevalence of arthritis in all counties, and the high frequency of arthritis-attributable limitations (1) among adults with arthritis, suggests that states and counties might benefit from expanding underused, evidence-based interventions for arthritis that can reduce arthritis symptoms and improve self-management. PMID:27196398

  15. Personality Characteristics and Level of Performance of Male County Extension Agents in Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Dasharathrai Navnitrai

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected personality characteristics and attitudes of male extension agents in Wisconsin, and their level of job performance. The relationships between selected background factors and the level of agent's job performance were also studied. Subjects were 79 male county agents…

  16. The Efficacy of County-Level Sex Offender Residence Restrictions in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socia, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    Residence restrictions seek to protect community members from registered sex offenders (RSOs) reentering society following incarceration. These policies, first passed in 1995 at the state level and in 2005 at the county and local levels, have become extremely popular throughout the United States but without proof that they are effective. To date,…

  17. Construction, lithologic, and water-level data for wells near the Dickson County landfill, Dickson County, Tennessee, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ladd, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Organic compounds were detected in water samples collected from Sullivan Spring during several sampling events in 1994. Prior to this, the spring was the drinking-water source for two families in the Dickson, Tennessee area. An investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Dickson County Solid Waste Management, to determine if Sullivan Spring is hydraulically downgradient from the Dickson County landfill. This report describes the data collected during the investigation. Five monitoring wells were installed near the northwestern corner of the landfill at points between the landfill and Sullivan Spring. Water-level measurements were made on June 1 and 2, 1995, at these wells and 13 other wells near the landfill to determine ground- water altitudes in the area. Water-level altitudes in the five new monitoring wells and three other landfill-monitoring wells were higher (750.04 to 800.17 feet) than the altitude of Sullivan Spring (approximately 725 feet). In general, wells in topographically high areas had higher water-level altitudes than Sullivan Spring and wells near streams in lowland areas.

  18. Geologic Map and Map Database of the Spreckels 7.5-minute Quadrangle, Monterey County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph C.; Brabb, Earl E.; Rosenberg, Lewis I.; Goss, Heather V.; Watkins, Sarah E.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction The Spreckels quadrangle lies at the north end of the Sierra de Salinas and extends from the Salinas Valley on the northeast across Los Laurelles Ridge south to Carmel Valley, an intermontane valley that separates the Santa Lucia Range from the Sierra de Salinas (fig. 1). The Toro Regional Park occupies the east-central part of the quadrangle, whereas the former Fort Ord Military Reservation covers the northwestern part of the area and is the probable locus of future development. Subdivisions largely occupy the older floodplain of Toro Creek and the adjacent foothills, with less dense development along the narrower canyons of Corral de Tierra and San Benancio Gulch to the south. The foothills southwest of the Salinas River are the site of active residential development. Geologically, the study area has a crystalline basement of Upper Cretaceous granitic rocks of the Salinian block and older metasedimentary rocks of the schist of the Sierra de Salinas of probable Cretaceous age. Resting nonconformably upon these basement rocks is a sedimentary section that ranges in age from middle Miocene to Holocene and has a composite thickness of as much as 1,200 m. One of the purposes of the present study was to investigate the apparent lateral variation of the middle to upper Miocene sections from the typical porcelaneous and diatomaceous Monterey Formation of the Monterey and Seaside quadrangles to the west (Clark and others, 1997) to a thick marine sandstone section in the eastern part of the Spreckels quadrangle. Liquefaction, which seriously affected the Spreckels area in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake (Lawson, 1908), and landsliding are the two major geological hazards of the area. The landslides consist mainly of older large slides in the southern and younger debris flows in the northern part of the quadrangle. This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general

  19. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, January 1996 through December 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into an agreement to continue collecting water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, the USGS has provided training and instrumentation for County personnel to measure, on a quarterly basis, the depth to water below the land surface in selected wells. The agreement includes the operation of continuous water-level recorders installed on four wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant and Lake Townships (fig. 1). County personnel make quarterly water-level measurements of 22 other wells. Once each year, County personnel are accompanied by USGS personnel who provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Precipitation and the altitude of Lake Huron are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at two sites, and mean monthly precipitation as recorded in Huron County, for the period October 1988 through December 1996. In general, Lake Huron water levels in 1996 were about the same as they were from 1992-94 (NOAA, 1988-96). Precipitation was generally within the normal range, but was lower than 1993 or 1994. Rainfall during May, June, and July was, cumulatively, about 8.5 inches less in 1995 than in 1994. Hydrographs are presented for each of four wells with water-level recorders. Quarterly water-level measurements and range of water levels during 1996 for the other 22 wells are shown graphically and tabulated. In general, water levels in the glaciofluvial aquifer reflect seasonal variations, with maximum depths to water occurring in late summer and early fall and minimum depths to water occurring in late winter and early

  20. Preliminary maps of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility, nine-county San Francisco Bay region, California: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Witter, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Helley, Edward J.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Wright, Heather M.; Brown, Katherine H.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the nine-county San Francisco Bay region, together with a digital compendium of ground effects associated with past earthquakes in the region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database of fivedata layers (Quaternary deposits, quadrangle index, and three ground effects layers) and two text layers (a labels and leaders layer for Quaternary deposits and for ground effects), (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map, liquefaction interpretation, and the ground effects compendium, and (4) the databse description pamphlet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a modern and regionally consistent treatment of Quaternary surficial deposits that builds on the pioneering mapping of Helley and Lajoie (Helley and others, 1979) and such intervening work as Atwater (1982), Helley and others (1994), and Helley and Graymer (1997a and b). Like these earlier studies, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, and inferred depositional environments to define and distinguish the map units. In contrast to the twelve map units of Helley and Lajoie, however, this new map uses a complex stratigraphy of some forty units, which permits a more realistic portrayal of the Quaternary depositional system. The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:275,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of

  1. Database for the Geologic Map of Newberry Volcano, Deschutes, Klamath, and Lake Counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bard, Joseph A.; Ramsey, David W.; MacLeod, Norman S.; Sherrod, David R.; Chitwood, Lawrence A.; Jensen, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Newberry Volcano, one of the largest Quaternary volcanoes in the conterminous United States, is a broad shield-shaped volcano measuring 60 km north-south by 30 km east-west with a maximum elevation of more than 2 km. Newberry Volcano is the product of deposits from thousands of eruptions, including at least 25 in the past approximately 12,000 years (Holocene Epoch). Newberry Volcano has erupted as recently as 1,300 years ago, but isotopic ages indicate that the volcano began its growth as early as 0.6 million years ago. Such a long eruptive history and recent activity suggest that Newberry Volcano is likely to erupt in the future. This geologic map database of Newberry Volcano distinguishes rocks and deposits based on their composition, age, and lithology.

  2. Palaeo sea-level and ice-sheet databases: problems, strategies and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, Alessio; Düsterhus, André; Carlson, Anders; Barlow, Natasha; Bradwell, Tom; Dutton, Andrea; Gehrels, Roland; Hibbert, Fiona; Hijma, Marc; Horton, Benjamin; Klemann, Volker; Kopp, Robert; Sivan, Dorit; Tarasov, Lev; Törnqvist, Torbjorn

    2016-04-01

    Databases of palaeoclimate data have driven many major developments in understanding the Earth system. The measurement and interpretation of palaeo sea-level and ice-sheet data that form such databases pose considerable challenges to the scientific communities that use them for further analyses. In this paper, we build on the experience of the PALSEA (PALeo constraints on SEA level rise) community, which is a working group inside the PAGES (Past Global Changes) project, to describe the challenges and best strategies that can be adopted to build a self-consistent and standardised database of geological and geochemical data related to palaeo sea levels and ice sheets. Our aim in this paper is to identify key points that need attention and subsequent funding when undertaking the task of database creation. We conclude that any sea-level or ice-sheet database must be divided into three instances: i) measurement; ii) interpretation; iii) database creation. Measurement should include postion, age, description of geological features, and quantification of uncertainties. All must be described as objectively as possible. Interpretation can be subjective, but it should always include uncertainties and include all the possible interpretations, without unjustified a priori exclusions. We propose that, in the creation of a database, an approach based on Accessibility, Transparency, Trust, Availability, Continued updating, Completeness and Communication of content (ATTAC3) must be adopted. Also, it is essential to consider the community structure that creates and benefits of a database. We conclude that funding sources should consider to address not only the creation of original data in specific research-question oriented projects, but also include the possibility to use part of the funding for IT-related and database creation tasks, which are essential to guarantee accessibility and maintenance of the collected data.

  3. Geologic map and digital database of the Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Morton, D.M.; Cox, B.F.; Carson, S.E.; Yetter, T.J.; Digital preparation by: Cossette, P.M.; Wright, M.C.; Kennedy, S.A.; Dawson, M.L.; Hauser, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    database cannot be used for site-specific geologic evaluations, although it can be used to plan and guide investigations at the site-specific level.

  4. Geologic map and digital database of the Porcupine Wash 7.5 minute Quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Porcupine Wash 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California. The quadrangle, situated in Joshua Tree National Park in the eastern Transverse Ranges physiographic and structural province, encompasses parts of the Hexie Mountains, Cottonwood Mountains, northern Eagle Mountains, and south flank of Pinto Basin. It is underlain by a basement terrane comprising Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and Mesozoic and Mesozoic or Cenozoic hypabyssal dikes. The basement terrane is capped by a widespread Tertiary erosion surface preserved in remnants in the Eagle and Cottonwood Mountains and buried beneath Cenozoic deposits in Pinto Basin. Locally, Miocene basalt overlies the erosion surface. A sequence of at least three Quaternary pediments is planed into the north piedmont of the Eagle and Hexie Mountains, each in turn overlain by successively younger residual and alluvial deposits. The Tertiary erosion surface is deformed and broken by north-northwest-trending, high-angle, dip-slip faults and an east-west trending system of high-angle dip- and left-slip faults. East-west trending faults are younger than and perhaps in part coeval with faults of the northwest-trending set. The Porcupine Wash database was created using ARCVIEW and ARC/INFO, which are geographical information system (GIS) software products of Envronmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The database consists of the following items: (1) a map coverage showing faults and geologic contacts and units, (2) a separate coverage showing dikes, (3) a coverage showing structural data, (4) a scanned topographic base at a scale of 1:24,000, and (5) attribute tables for geologic units (polygons and regions), contacts (arcs), and site-specific data (points). The database, accompanied by a pamphlet file and this metadata file, also includes the following graphic and text products: (1) A portable document file (.pdf) containing a

  5. Geologic map and digital database of the Conejo Well 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Conejo Well 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California. The quadrangle, situated in Joshua Tree National Park in the eastern Transverse Ranges physiographic and structural province, encompasses part of the northern Eagle Mountains and part of the south flank of Pinto Basin. It is underlain by a basement terrane comprising Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and Mesozoic and Mesozoic or Cenozoic hypabyssal dikes. The basement terrane is capped by a widespread Tertiary erosion surface preserved in remnants in the Eagle Mountains and buried beneath Cenozoic deposits in Pinto Basin. Locally, Miocene basalt overlies the erosion surface. A sequence of at least three Quaternary pediments is planed into the north piedmont of the Eagle Mountains, each in turn overlain by successively younger residual and alluvial deposits. The Tertiary erosion surface is deformed and broken by north-northwest-trending, high-angle, dip-slip faults in the Eagle Mountains and an east-west trending system of high-angle dip- and left-slip faults. In and adjacent to the Conejo Well quadrangle, faults of the northwest-trending set displace Miocene sedimentary rocks and basalt deposited on the Tertiary erosion surface and Pliocene and (or) Pleistocene deposits that accumulated on the oldest pediment. Faults of this system appear to be overlain by Pleistocene deposits that accumulated on younger pediments. East-west trending faults are younger than and perhaps in part coeval with faults of the northwest-trending set. The Conejo Well database was created using ARCVIEW and ARC/INFO, which are geographical information system (GIS) software products of Envronmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The database consists of the following items: (1) a map coverage showing faults and geologic contacts and units, (2) a separate coverage showing dikes, (3) a coverage showing structural data, (4) a point coverage

  6. Problems Impacting Extension Program Quality at the County Level: Results from an Analysis of County Program Reviews Conducted in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Amy; Moore, Austen; Mazurkewicz, Melissa; Benge, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Needs assessments are an important tool for informing organizational development efforts in Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify problems faced by county units within UF/IFAS Extension during county program reviews. The findings were drawn from the reports created after five county units experienced program reviews in…

  7. Palaeo-sea-level and palaeo-ice-sheet databases: problems, strategies, and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düsterhus, André; Rovere, Alessio; Carlson, Anders E.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Klemann, Volker; Tarasov, Lev; Barlow, Natasha L. M.; Bradwell, Tom; Clark, Jorie; Dutton, Andrea; Gehrels, W. Roland; Hibbert, Fiona D.; Hijma, Marc P.; Khan, Nicole; Kopp, Robert E.; Sivan, Dorit; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level and ice-sheet databases have driven numerous advances in understanding the Earth system. We describe the challenges and offer best strategies that can be adopted to build self-consistent and standardised databases of geological and geochemical information used to archive palaeo-sea-levels and palaeo-ice-sheets. There are three phases in the development of a database: (i) measurement, (ii) interpretation, and (iii) database creation. Measurement should include the objective description of the position and age of a sample, description of associated geological features, and quantification of uncertainties. Interpretation of the sample may have a subjective component, but it should always include uncertainties and alternative or contrasting interpretations, with any exclusion of existing interpretations requiring a full justification. During the creation of a database, an approach based on accessibility, transparency, trust, availability, continuity, completeness, and communication of content (ATTAC3) must be adopted. It is essential to consider the community that creates and benefits from a database. We conclude that funding agencies should not only consider the creation of original data in specific research-question-oriented projects, but also include the possibility of using part of the funding for IT-related and database creation tasks, which are essential to guarantee accessibility and maintenance of the collected data.

  8. The Impact of Wind Development on County-Level Income and Employment: A Review of Methods and an Empirical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Lantz

    2012-09-21

    To gain an understanding of the long-term county-level impacts from a large sample of wind power projects and to understand the potential significance of methodological criticisms, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently joined efforts to complete a first-of-its-kind study that quantifies the annual impact on county-level personal income resulting from wind power installations in nearly 130 counties across 12 states. The results of this study as well as a comparison with the prior county-level estimates generated from input-output models, are summarized in the fact sheet.

  9. A National Study of the Association between Food Environments and County-Level Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Melissa; Brown, Cheryl; Dukas, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This national, county-level study examines the relationship between food availability and access, and health outcomes (mortality, diabetes, and obesity rates) in both metro and non-metro areas. Methods: This is a secondary, cross-sectional analysis using Food Environment Atlas and CDC data. Linear regression models estimate relationships…

  10. 7 CFR 1940.308 - Environmental responsibilities at the District and County Office levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental responsibilities at the District and County Office levels. 1940.308 Section 1940.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. Evaluation of Cooperative Extension Efforts at the County Level: The University of California Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Emmett P.

    County-level data were gathered on California's agricultural-social conditions and the University of California's Cooperative Extension specializations, budgets, and manpower to measure the empirical relationship existing between the two. The agricultural and social data were treated as independent variables, while the Cooperative Extension…

  12. Factors Associated with Level of Living in Washington County, Mississippi. Technical Bulletin No. 1501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John L.

    Step-wise multiple regression and typological analysis were used to analyze the extent to which selected factors influence vertical mobility and achieved level of living. A sample of 418 male household heads who were 18 to 45 years old in Washington County, Mississippi were interviewed during 1971. A prescreening using census and local housing…

  13. Surficial and bedrock geologic map database of the Kelso 7.5 Minute quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedford, David R.

    2003-01-01

    This geologic map database describes geologic materials for the Kelso 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California. The area lies in eastern Mojave Desert of California, within the Mojave National Preserve (a unit of the National Parks system). Geologic deposits in the area consist of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Cambrian-Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic plutonic and hypabyssal rocks, Tertiary basin fill, and Quaternary surficial deposits. Bedrock deposits are described by composition, texture, and stratigraphic relationships. Quaternary surficial deposits are classified into soil-geomorphic surfaces based on soil characteristics, inset relationships, and geomorphic expression. The surficial geology presented in this report is especially useful to understand, and extrapolate, physical properties that influence surface conditions, and surface- and soil-water dynamics. Physical characteristics such as pavement development, soil horizonation, and hydraulic characteristics have shown to be some of the primary drivers of ecologic dynamics, including recovery of those ecosystems to anthropogenic disturbance, in the eastern Mojave Desert and other arid and semi-arid environments.

  14. Longitudinal Association of County-Level Economic Indicators and Child Maltreatment Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Frioux, Sarah; Wood, Joanne N.; Fakeye, Oludolapo; Luan, Xianqun; Localio, Russell; Rubin, David M.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between economic indicators (unemployment and mortgage foreclosure rates) and volume of investigated and substantiated cases of child maltreatment at the county level from 1990 to 2010 in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. County-level investigated reports of child maltreatment and proportion of investigated cases substantiated by child protective services in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania were compared with county-level unemployment rates from 1990 to 2010, and with county-level mortgage foreclosure rates from 2000 to 2010. We employed fixed-effects Poisson regression modeling to estimate the association between volume of investigated and substantiated cases of maltreatment, and current and prior levels of local economic indicators adjusting for temporal trend. Across Pennsylvania, annual rate of investigated maltreatment reports decreased through the 1990s and rose in the early 2000s before reaching a peak of 9.21 investigated reports per 1,000 children in 2008, during the recent economic recessionary period. The proportion of investigated cases substantiated, however, decreased statewide from 33 % in 1991 to 15 % in 2010. Within counties, current unemployment rate, and current and prior-year foreclosure rates were positively associated with volume of both investigated and substantiated child maltreatment incidents (p < 0.05). Despite recent increases in investigations, the proportion of investigated cases substantiated decreased by more than half from 1990 to 2010 in Pennsylvania. This trend suggests significant changes in substantiation standards and practices during the period of study. Economic indicators demonstrated strong association with investigated and substantiated maltreatment, underscoring the urgent need for directing important prophylactic efforts and resources to communities experiencing economic hardship. PMID:24682605

  15. Geologic map and database of the Roseburg 30' x 60' quadrangle, Douglas and Coos counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; Jayko, A.S.; Niem, A.R.; Black, G.; Wiley, T.; Baldwin, E.; Molenaar, K.M.; Wheeler, K.L.; DuRoss, C.B.; Givler, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    of the Tyee basin. New geologic mapping of twenty-eight 7.5' quadrangles is summarized on the map (see figure 3, also shown on map sheet), and the digital database contains geologic information suitable for both 1:100K and 1:24K scale analysis. DOGAMI has published a compilation and synthesis of previous mapping (Niem and Niem, 1990), a basin-wide sequence stratigraphic model and correlations (Ryu and others, 1992), and a report on the oil and gas potential (Ryu and others, 1996). Readers interested in the oil and gas potential of the Roseburg quadrangle should use the map in combination with Ryu and others (1996) to address specific stratigraphic units and structural plays. Stratigraphic terminology for the Tyee basin adopts the type sections, formation names, and framework of Ryu and others (1992, 1996), which were developed concurrently with the mapping and are recognized throughout the basin. For detailed discussion of nomenclature, type sections, lithology, thickness and distribution, age, contact relationships, and depositional environment of stratigraphic units, the reader is referred to Ryu and others (1992). In this report we focus on the spatial, temporal, and structural relationships between units revealed by geologic mapping. Map unit ages (see figure 4 in pamphlet, also shown on map sheeet) are adjusted slightly from Ryu and others (1992, 1996) to fit new coccolith age determinations (D. Bukry, cited in pamphlet), paleomagnetic polarity data (Simpson, 1977 and new data cited in pamphlet), and the time scale of Berggren and others (1995).

  16. Hydrogeology and Simulation of Regional Ground-Water-Level Declines in Monroe County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Wright, Kirsten V.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Observed ground-water-level declines from 1991 to 2003 in northern Monroe County, Michigan, are consistent with increased ground-water demands in the region. In 1991, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 20 million gallons per day, and 80 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. In 2001, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 30 million gallons per day, and 75 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. Prior to approximately 1990, the ground-water demands were met by capturing natural discharge from the area and by inducing leakage through glacial deposits that cover the bedrock aquifer. Increased ground-water demand after 1990 led to declines in ground-water level as the system moves toward a new steady-state. Much of the available natural discharge from the bedrock aquifer had been captured by the 1991 conditions, and the response to additional withdrawals resulted in the observed widespread decline in water levels. The causes of the observed declines were explored through the use of a regional ground-water-flow model. The model area includes portions of Lenawee, Monroe, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties in Michigan, and portions of Fulton, Henry, and Lucas Counties in Ohio. Factors, including lowered water-table elevations because of below average precipitation during the time period (1991 - 2001) and reduction in water supply to the bedrock aquifer because of land-use changes, were found to affect the regional system, but these factors did not explain the regional decline. Potential ground-water capture for the bedrock aquifer in Monroe County is limited by the low hydraulic conductivity of the overlying glacial deposits and shales and the presence of dense saline water within the bedrock as it dips into the Michigan Basin to the west and north of the county. Hydrogeologic features of the bedrock and the overlying glacial deposits were included in the model design. An important step of characterizing the bedrock aquifer was the

  17. Recent advances in the compilation of holocene relative Sea-level database in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Vacchi, M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Nikitina, D.

    2015-12-01

    Reconstruction of relative sea level (RSL) has implications for investigation of crustal movements, calibration of earth rheology models and the reconstruction of ice sheets. In recent years, efforts were made to create RSL databases following a standardized methodology. These regional databases provided a framework for developing our understanding of the primary mechanisms of RSL change since the Last Glacial Maximum and a long-term baseline against which to gauge changes in sea-level during the 20th century and forecasts for the 21st. Here we present two quality-controlled Holocene RSL database compiled for North America. Along the Pacific coast of North America (British Columbia, Canada to California, USA), our re-evaluation of sea-level indicators from geological and archaeological investigations yield 841 RSL data-points mainly from salt and freshwater wetlands or adjacent estuarine sediment as well as from isolation basin. Along the Atlantic coast of North America (Hudson Bay, Canada to South Carolina, USA), we are currently compiling a database including more than 2000 RSL data-points from isolation basin, salt and freshwater wetlands, beach ridges and intratidal deposits. We outline the difficulties and solutions we made to compile databases in such different depostional environment. We address complex tectonics and the framework to compare such large variability of RSL data-point. We discuss the implications of our results for the glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) models in the two studied regions.

  18. Breastfeeding Supportive Hospital Practices in the US Differ by County Urbanization Level

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jessica A.; Perrine, Cria G.; Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding rates are lower among infants living in rural areas of the United States, yet there are limited data on whether hospital breastfeeding support differs between rural and urban areas. Objective This study aimed to describe whether maternity care practices supportive of breastfeeding vary by level of urbanization. Methods We linked data from the 2007, 2009, and 2011 Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) surveys with Rural-Urban Continuum Codes to categorize hospital counties as metropolitan urbanized, nonmetropolitan urbanized, less urbanized, and thinly populated. Results From 2007 to 2011, the average hospital mPINC score, a composite quality score ranging from 0 to 100, increased from 64 to 71 in metropolitan urbanized counties and from 54 to 65 in thinly populated areas. Scores were lowest in thinly populated counties in 2007 and 2009 and in less urbanized counties in 2011. Examination of 2011 mPINC scores by 7 domains of care revealed that hospitals in less urbanized counties had lower scores than those in metropolitan urbanized counties for feeding of breastfed infants, breastfeeding assistance, staff training, and structural and organizational aspects of care delivery; for 3 of these practices, scores were 10 or more points lower—breastfeeding assistance, structural and organizational aspects of care, and staff training. In contrast, hospitals in thinly populated areas had higher scores than in metropolitan areas for mother–infant contact and facility discharge care; differences were less than 10 points. Conclusion Interventions that specifically target rural hospitals may reduce the gap in access to hospital maternity care practices supportive of breastfeeding by population density. PMID:25800795

  19. A dedicated database system for handling multi-level data in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in high-throughput technologies have enabled extensive generation of multi-level omics data. These data are crucial for systems biology research, though they are complex, heterogeneous, highly dynamic, incomplete and distributed among public databases. This leads to difficulties in data accessibility and often results in errors when data are merged and integrated from varied resources. Therefore, integration and management of systems biological data remain very challenging. Methods To overcome this, we designed and developed a dedicated database system that can serve and solve the vital issues in data management and hereby facilitate data integration, modeling and analysis in systems biology within a sole database. In addition, a yeast data repository was implemented as an integrated database environment which is operated by the database system. Two applications were implemented to demonstrate extensibility and utilization of the system. Both illustrate how the user can access the database via the web query function and implemented scripts. These scripts are specific for two sample cases: 1) Detecting the pheromone pathway in protein interaction networks; and 2) Finding metabolic reactions regulated by Snf1 kinase. Results and conclusion In this study we present the design of database system which offers an extensible environment to efficiently capture the majority of biological entities and relations encountered in systems biology. Critical functions and control processes were designed and implemented to ensure consistent, efficient, secure and reliable transactions. The two sample cases on the yeast integrated data clearly demonstrate the value of a sole database environment for systems biology research. PMID:25053973

  20. An update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    De, P.L.; Barker, R.C.

    1993-03-01

    This paper gives an overview and update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada. To provide a relevant perspective, Canadian data are compared with US data on annual waste arisings and with disposal initiatives of the US compacts and states. Presented also is an assessment of the data and its implications for disposal solutions in Canada.

  1. Non-redundant patent sequence databases with value-added annotations at two levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Weizhong; McWilliam, Hamish; de la Torre, Ana Richart; Grodowski, Adam; Benediktovich, Irina; Goujon, Mickael; Nauche, Stephane; Lopez, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    The European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) provides public access to patent data, including abstracts, chemical compounds and sequences. Sequences can appear multiple times due to the filing of the same invention with multiple patent offices, or the use of the same sequence by different inventors in different contexts. Information relating to the source invention may be incomplete, and biological information available in patent documents elsewhere may not be reflected in the annotation of the sequence. Search and analysis of these data have become increasingly challenging for both the scientific and intellectual-property communities. Here, we report a collection of non-redundant patent sequence databases, which cover the EMBL-Bank nucleotides patent class and the patent protein databases and contain value-added annotations from patent documents. The databases were created at two levels by the use of sequence MD5 checksums. Sequences within a level-1 cluster are 100% identical over their whole length. Level-2 clusters were defined by sub-grouping level-1 clusters based on patent family information. Value-added annotations, such as publication number corrections, earliest publication dates and feature collations, significantly enhance the quality of the data, allowing for better tracking and cross-referencing. The databases are available format: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/patentdata/nr/. PMID:19884134

  2. Social Capital and Human Mortality: Explaining the Rural Paradox with County-Level Mortality Data

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Leif; Haran, Murali

    2014-01-01

    The “rural paradox” refers to standardized mortality rates in rural areas that are unexpectedly low in view of well-known economic and infrastructural disadvantages there. We explore this paradox by incorporating social capital, a promising explanatory factor that has seldom been incorporated into residential mortality research. We do so while being attentive to spatial dependence, a statistical problem often ignored in mortality research. Analyzing data for counties in the contiguous United States, we find that: (1) the rural paradox is confirmed with both metro/non-metro and rural-urban continuum codes, (2) social capital significantly reduces the impacts of residence on mortality after controlling for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic covariates, (3) this attenuation is greater when a spatial perspective is imposed on the analysis, (4) social capital is negatively associated with mortality at the county level, and (5) spatial dependence is strongly in evidence. A spatial approach is necessary in county-level analyses such as ours to yield unbiased estimates and optimal model fit. PMID:25392565

  3. Transcriptome networks in the mouse retina: An exon level BXD RI database

    PubMed Central

    King, Rebecca; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Differences in gene expression provide diverse retina phenotypes and may also contribute to susceptibility to injury and disease. The present study defines the transcriptome of the retina in the BXD RI strain set, using the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST array to investigate all exons of traditional protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, and microRNAs. These data are presented in a highly interactive database on the GeneNetwork website. Methods In the Normal Retina Database, the mRNA levels of the transcriptome from retinas was quantified using the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST array. This database consists of data from male and female mice. The data set includes a total of 52 BXD RI strains, the parental strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J), and a reciprocal cross. Results In combination with GeneNetwork, the Department of Defense (DoD) Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) Normal Retina Database provides a large resource for mapping, graphing, analyzing, and testing complex genetic networks. Protein-coding and non-coding RNAs can be used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to expression differences among the BXD strains and to establish links between classical ocular phenotypes associated with differences in the genomic sequence. Using this resource, we extracted transcriptome signatures for retinal cells and defined genetic networks associated with the maintenance of the normal retina. Furthermore, we examined differentially expressed exons within a single gene. Conclusions The high level of variation in mRNA levels found among the BXD RI strains makes it possible to identify expression networks that underline differences in retina structure and function. Ultimately, we will use this database to define changes that occur following blast injury to the retina. PMID:26604663

  4. A county level assessment of water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing: Where are impacts most likely? [Poster 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess, at the county level, the potential for hydraulic fracturing (HF) water withdrawals to impact the quantity of drinking water resources, and identify where potential impacts may be most frequent or severe.

  5. A new Holocene sea-level database for the US Gulf Coast: Improving constraints for past and future sea levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijma, M.; Tornqvist, T. E.; Hu, P.; Gonzalez, J.; Hill, D. F.; Horton, B. P.; Engelhart, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    The interpretation of present-day sea-level change, as well as the prediction of future relative sea-level (RSL) rise and its spatial variability, depend increasingly on the ability of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models to reveal non-eustatic components of RSL change. GIA results from the redistribution of mass due to the growth and decay of ice sheets. As a consequence, formerly ice-covered areas are still rebounding and currently experience RSL fall, while in other areas the rate of RSL rise is enhanced due to glacial forebulge collapse. The development of GIA models relies to a large extent on the availability of quality-controlled Holocene RSL data. There is thus an urgent need for systematically compiled and publicly available databases of geological RSL data that can be used not only for the purposes mentioned above, but also can serve to underpin coastal management and policy decisions. We have focused our efforts to develop a Holocene sea-level database for the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the US. Many of the research problems that can be addressed with this sea-level database revolve around the identification of crustal motions due to glacial forebulge collapse that affects the entire region and likely extends beyond South Florida. For the east coast, GIA-related subsidence rates have been calculated with unprecedented precision: <0.8 mm a-1 in Maine, increasing to rates of 1.7 mm a-1 in Delaware, and a return to rates <0.9 mm a-1 in the Carolinas. Here, we first define our methodology to reconstruct RSL, with particular reference to the quantification of age and elevation errors. Many sea-level indicators are related to a specific tide level (e.g., peat that formed between highest astronomical tide and mean high water level). We use paleotidal modeling to account for any changes during the Holocene. We furthermore highlight a number of errors associated with 14C dating that have rarely, if ever, been considered in previous studies of this nature

  6. Grecia: Nivel IV. Basado en el curso de estudios sociales de Montgomery County Public Schools. (Greece. Level 6. Based on the Montgomery County Public Schools Social Studies Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Marisol

    This curriculum unit, developed by the Montgomery County Public Schools, Maryland, was designed for use in an elementary level foreign language immersion program. It is geared toward the sixth grade social studies classroom. The unit includes instructional and performance objectives, necessary vocabulary lists, optional language structure…

  7. Development of the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Database: a caBIG Silver level compliant system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Taoying; Shenoy, Pareen J; Sinha, Rajni; Graiser, Michael; Bumpers, Kevin W; Flowers, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    Lymphomas are the fifth most common cancer in United States with numerous histological subtypes. Integrating existing clinical information on lymphoma patients provides a platform for understanding biological variability in presentation and treatment response and aids development of novel therapies. We developed a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) Silver level compliant lymphoma database, called the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Data-system (LEAD), which integrates the pathology, pharmacy, laboratory, cancer registry, clinical trials, and clinical data from institutional databases. We utilized the Cancer Common Ontological Representation Environment Software Development Kit (caCORE SDK) provided by National Cancer Institute's Center for Bioinformatics to establish the LEAD platform for data management. The caCORE SDK generated system utilizes an n-tier architecture with open Application Programming Interfaces, controlled vocabularies, and registered metadata to achieve semantic integration across multiple cancer databases. We demonstrated that the data elements and structures within LEAD could be used to manage clinical research data from phase 1 clinical trials, cohort studies, and registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. This work provides a clear example of how semantic technologies from caBIG can be applied to support a wide range of clinical and research tasks, and integrate data from disparate systems into a single architecture. This illustrates the central importance of caBIG to the management of clinical and biological data. PMID:19492074

  8. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in the United States, 1945 to 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use were made for counties in the United States for the period 1945 to 1985. County fertilizer use estimates were obtained through the disaggregation of state-level fertilizer use in proportion to the amount of state fertilized acreage reported to exist in counties. Numerical values of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use by county are not presented in the text of this report because of the size of the data file, but are available in machine-readable form upon request. Graphical summaries of national, state, and county nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use are presented to briefly describe the spatial and temporal variability that exist in the data.

  9. Accurate prediction of higher-level electronic structure energies for large databases using neural networks, Hartree-Fock energies, and small subsets of the database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malshe, M.; Pukrittayakamee, A.; Raff, L. M.; Hagan, M.; Bukkapatnam, S.; Komanduri, R.

    2009-09-01

    A novel method is presented that significantly reduces the computational bottleneck of executing high-level, electronic structure calculations of the energies and their gradients for a large database that adequately samples the configuration space of importance for systems containing more than four atoms that are undergoing multiple, simultaneous reactions in several energetically open channels. The basis of the method is the high-degree of correlation that generally exists between the Hartree-Fock (HF) and higher-level electronic structure energies. It is shown that if the input vector to a neural network (NN) includes both the configuration coordinates and the HF energies of a small subset of the database, MP4(SDQ) energies with the same basis set can be predicted for the entire database using only the HF and MP4(SDQ) energies for the small subset and the HF energies for the remainder of the database. The predictive error is shown to be less than or equal to the NN fitting error if a NN is fitted to the entire database of higher-level electronic structure energies. The general method is applied to the computation of MP4(SDQ) energies of 68 308 configurations that comprise the database for the simultaneous, unimolecular decomposition of vinyl bromide into six different reaction channels. The predictive accuracy of the method is investigated by employing successively smaller subsets of the database to train the NN to predict the MP4(SDQ) energies of the remaining configurations of the database. The results indicate that for this system, the subset can be as small as 8% of the total number of configurations in the database without loss of accuracy beyond that expected if a NN is employed to fit the higher-level energies for the entire database. The utilization of this procedure is shown to save about 78% of the total computational time required for the execution of the MP4(SDQ) calculations. The sampling error involved with selection of the subset is shown to be

  10. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary: In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships retained continuous waterlevel recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships reverted primarily to periodic or quarterly measurement status. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 25 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 25 periodically or quarterly-measured wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville or Harbor Beach, or both (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05), and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period from 1991 through 2005 was

  11. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships retained continuous waterlevel recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships reverted primarily to periodic or quarterly measurement status. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 25 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 25 periodically or quarterly-measured wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville or Harbor Beach, or both (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05), and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period from 1991 through 2005 was measured in Lake Huron

  12. Effects of sanitary sewers on ground-water levels and streams in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York; Part 2, development and application of southwest Suffolk County model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, H.T.; Reilly, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    By 1990, sanitary sewers in Nassau County Sewage Disposal Districts 2 and 3 and Suffolk County Southwest Sewer District will discharge to the ocean 140 cu ft of water/sec that would otherwise be returned to the groundwater system through septic tanks and similar systems. To evaluate the effects of this loss on groundwater levels and streamflow, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model that couples a fine-scale subregional model to a regional model of larger scale. The regional model generates flux boundary conditions for the subregional model, and the subregional model provides detail in the area of concern. Results indicate that the water table will decline by as much as 8 ft along the Suffolk-Nassau county line, with effects decreasing eastward. Base flow is predicted to decrease by as much as 73% in a stream along the county line, but this effect will decrease to zero just east of the sewered area. This report is one of a series describing the predicted hydrologic effects of sewers in southern Nassau and southwest Suffolk Counties. (USGS)

  13. Effects of sanitary sewers on ground-water levels and streams in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York; Part 3, development and application of southern Nassau County model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Buxton, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    By 1990, sanitary sewers in Nassau County Sewage Disposal Districts 2 and 3 and Suffolk County Southwest Sewer District will discharge to the ocean 140 cu ft of water per second that would otherwise be returned to the groundwater system through septic tanks and similar systems. To evaluate the effects of this loss on groundwater levels and streamflow, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model that couples a fine-scale subregional model to a regional model of a larger scale. The regional model generates flux boundary conditions for the subregional model, and the subregional model provides detail in the area of concern. Results indicate that the water table will decline by as much as 90% from conditions in the early 1970's. This report is one of a three-part series describing the predicted hydrologic effects of sewers in southern Nassau and southwestern Suffolk Counties. (USGS)

  14. BcCluster: A Bladder Cancer Database at the Molecular Level

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Akshay; Mokou, Marika; Zoidakis, Jerome; Jankowski, Vera; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bladder Cancer (BC) has two clearly distinct phenotypes. Non-muscle invasive BC has good prognosis and is treated with tumor resection and intravesical therapy whereas muscle invasive BC has poor prognosis and requires usually systemic cisplatin based chemotherapy either prior to or after radical cystectomy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not often used for patients undergoing cystectomy. High-throughput analytical omics techniques are now available that allow the identification of individual molecular signatures to characterize the invasive phenotype. However, a large amount of data produced by omics experiments is not easily accessible since it is often scattered over many publications or stored in supplementary files. Objective: To develop a novel open-source database, BcCluster (http://www.bccluster.org/), dedicated to the comprehensive molecular characterization of muscle invasive bladder carcinoma. Materials: A database was created containing all reported molecular features significant in invasive BC. The query interface was developed in Ruby programming language (version 1.9.3) using the web-framework Rails (version 4.1.5) (http://rubyonrails.org/). Results: BcCluster contains the data from 112 published references, providing 1,559 statistically significant features relative to BC invasion. The database also holds 435 protein-protein interaction data and 92 molecular pathways significant in BC invasion. The database can be used to retrieve binding partners and pathways for any protein of interest. We illustrate this possibility using survivin, a known BC biomarker. Conclusions: BcCluster is an online database for retrieving molecular signatures relative to BC invasion. This application offers a comprehensive view of BC invasiveness at the molecular level and allows formulation of research hypotheses relevant to this phenotype. PMID:27376128

  15. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Blumer, S.P.; Crowley, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to collect water-level altitudes (hereafter referred to as water levels) at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships will have continuous water-level recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships will revert to quarterly measurement status. USGS has also provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 23 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 23 quarterly-measured wells is also summarized in the annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for groundwater levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville and Harbor Beach, and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA], 2002-04; Danny Costello, NOAA hydrologist, written commun., 2003-04). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period of this study was measured in

  16. ESCOLEX: a grade-level lexical database from European Portuguese elementary to middle school textbooks.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Medeiros, José Carlos; Simões, Alberto; Machado, João; Costa, Ana; Iriarte, Álvaro; de Almeida, José João; Pinheiro, Ana P; Comesaña, Montserrat

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we introduce ESCOLEX, the first European Portuguese children's lexical database with grade-level-adjusted word frequency statistics. Computed from a 3.2-million-word corpus, ESCOLEX provides 48,381 word forms extracted from 171 elementary and middle school textbooks for 6- to 11-year-old children attending the first six grades in the Portuguese educational system. Like other children's grade-level databases (e.g., Carroll, Davies, & Richman, 1971; Corral, Ferrero, & Goikoetxea, Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1009-1017, 2009; Lété, Sprenger-Charolles, & Colé, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 156-166, 2004; Zeno, Ivens, Millard, Duvvuri, 1995), ESCOLEX provides four frequency indices for each grade: overall word frequency (F), index of dispersion across the selected textbooks (D), estimated frequency per million words (U), and standard frequency index (SFI). It also provides a new measure, contextual diversity (CD). In addition, the number of letters in the word and its part(s) of speech, number of syllables, syllable structure, and adult frequencies taken from P-PAL (a European Portuguese corpus-based lexical database; Soares, Comesaña, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, …, Machado, 2010; Soares, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, França, …, Comesaña, in press) are provided. ESCOLEX will be a useful tool both for researchers interested in language processing and development and for professionals in need of verbal materials adjusted to children's developmental stages. ESCOLEX can be downloaded along with this article or from http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases . PMID:23709164

  17. Inventory of forest resources (including water) by multi-level sampling. [nine northern Virginia coastal plain counties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Dana, R. W.; Roberts, E. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A stratified random sample using LANDSAT band 5 and 7 panchromatic prints resulted in estimates of water in counties with sampling errors less than + or - 9% (67% probability level). A forest inventory using a four band LANDSAT color composite resulted in estimates of forest area by counties that were within + or - 6.7% and + or - 3.7% respectively (67% probability level). Estimates of forest area for counties by computer assisted techniques were within + or - 21% of operational forest survey figures and for all counties the difference was only one percent. Correlations of airborne terrain reflectance measurements with LANDSAT radiance verified a linear atmospheric model with an additive (path radiance) term and multiplicative (transmittance) term. Coefficients of determination for 28 of the 32 modeling attempts, not adverseley affected by rain shower occurring between the times of LANDSAT passage and aircraft overflights, exceeded 0.83.

  18. Drought-Trigger Ground-Water Levels in Chester County, Pennsylvania, for the Period of Record Ending May 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA), to update the drought-trigger water levels for the Chester County observation-well network. The Chester County observation-well network was established in 1973 through a cooperative agreement between the CCWRA and the USGS to monitor local ground-water levels and trends and to determine drought conditions. In 1990 and again in 1997, drought-warning and drought-emergency water-level triggers were determined for the majority of wells in the existing Chester County observation-well network of 23 wells. Since 1997, the Chester County observation-well network expanded to 29 wells, some of the original wells were destroyed, and additional monthly water-level observations were made to allow for better statistical relations. Because of these changes, new statistics for water-level triggers were required. For this study, 19 of the 29 wells in the observation-well network were used to compute drought-trigger water levels. An additional 'drought-watch water-level trigger' category was developed to make the Chester County drought-trigger water-level categories consistent with those implemented by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP). The three drought-trigger water-level categories, as defined by PaDEP are 1) 'drought watch' when at the 75th-percentile level; 2) 'drought warning' when at the 90th-percentile level; and 3) 'drought emergency' when at the 95th-percentile level. A revised methodology, resulting from longer periods of record representing ground-water and climatic conditions and changes in local water use, has resulted in some observed differences in drought-trigger water levels. A comparison of current drought-trigger water levels to those calculated in 1997 shows the largest mean annual change in percentile values was in northeastern Chester County. In this northeastern region, the

  19. Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    While agricultural residue is considered as a near-term feedstock option for cellulosic biofuels, its sustainability must be evaluated by taking water into account. This study aims to analyze the county-level water footprint for four biofuel pathways in the United States, including bioethanol generated from corn grain, stover, wheat straw, and biodiesel from soybean. The county-level blue water footprint of ethanol from corn grain, stover, and wheat straw shows extremely wide variances with a national average of 31, 132, and 139 L of water per liter biofuel (L(w)/L(bf)), and standard deviation of 133, 323, and 297 L(w)/L(bf), respectively. Soybean biodiesel production results in a blue water footprint of 313 L(w)/L(bf) on the national average with standard deviation of 894 L(w)/L(bf). All biofuels show a greater green water footprint than the blue one. This work elucidates how diverse spatial resolutions affect biofuel water footprints, which can provide detailed insights into biofuels' implications on local water sustainability. PMID:22816524

  20. Current & future vulnerability of sarasota county Florida to hurricane storm surge & sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, T.; Woocf, N.; Yarnal, B.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal communities in portions of the United States are vulnerable to storm-surge inundation from hurricanes and this vulnerability will likely increase, given predicted rises in sea level from climate change and growing coastal development. In this paper, we provide an overview of research to determine current and future societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge inundation and to help public officials and planners integrate these scenarios into their long-range land use plans. Our case study is Sarasota County, Florida, where planners face the challenge of balancing increasing population growth and development with the desire to lower vulnerability to storm surge. Initial results indicate that a large proportion of Sarasota County's residential and employee populations are in areas prone to storm-surge inundation from a Category 5 hurricane. This hazard zone increases when accounting for potential sea-level-rise scenarios, thereby putting additional populations at risk. Subsequent project phases involve the development of future land use and vulnerability scenarios in collaboration with local officials. Copyright ASCE 2008.

  1. Construction, geologic, and water-level data for observation wells near Brentwood, Williamson County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanchar, Dorothea Withington

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-four observation wells were installed at 17 sites in the area of a hazardous-waste disposal site near Brentwood, in Williamson County, Tennessee. These wells were installed to supplement data collected from domestic wells in the area, to help define the geology of the study area and to determine the water levels. Both lithologic and geophysical logs were obtained for each well drilled to help define the formations encountered. Four limestone units, corresponding to the Bigby-Cannon limestone, the Hermitage Formation, the Carters Limestone (including the T-3 bentonite), and the Lebanon Limestone, were described from well cuttings and borehole geophysical logs. Water levels have been collected at both the shallow and deep wells at each site. (USGS)

  2. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; Harnly, James M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Methods Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Results Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Conclusions Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome. PMID:23459329

  3. Geoecology: a county-level environmental data base for the conterminous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.J.; Emerson, C.J.; Nungesser, M.K.

    1980-09-01

    The Geoecology Data Base represents a unique compilation of computerized environmental data for research and development needs. Environmental assessment and planning for energy development require rapid access to data at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. In the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have developed an integrated data base of diverse environmental resource information from extant sources. Data are stored at the county level of resolution for the conterminous United States with some data available for subcounty units within larger, more diverse eastern counties. The Geoecology Data Base contains selected data on terrain and soils, water resources, forestry, vegetation, agriculture, land use, wildlife, air quality, climate, natural areas, and endangered species. Basic files on human population are also included to complement the environmental files. Data are stored in metric-SI units. The Geoecology Data Base is currently fulfilling diverse ongoing research needs while it is being expanded and updated as needs and new data are identified. This report is both a documentation and a user's guide to the Geoecology Data Base. It describes the Data Base design, illustrates applications, provides examples of accessing the Data Base, and gives general information on the data set contents.

  4. Spatial and temporal statistical analysis of a ground-water level network, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; Sonenshein, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method to evaluate the spatial and temporal statistics of a continuous ground-water level recorder network in Broward County, Florida. Because the Broward County network is sparse for most spatial statistics, a technique has been developed to define polygons for each well that represent the area monitored by the well within specified criteria. The boundaries of these "confidence polygons" are defined by the endpoints of radial lines oriented toward the other wells. The lengths of these lines are determined as the statistically estimated distances to the points at which ground-water levels can be predicted within specirfied criteria. The confidence polygons indicate: (1) the areal coverage of the network, (2) locations where data are unavailable, and (3) areas of redundant data collection. Comparison with data from a noncontinuous recorder well indicates that the confidence polygons are a good represen- tation of areal coverages. The temporal analysis utilizes statistical techniques similar to those used in the spatial method, defining variations in time rather than in space. Consequently, instead of defining radial distances to points, time intervals are defined over which water-level values can be predicted within a specified confidence. These "temporal confidence intervals" correspond to maximum allowable periods between field measure- ments. To combine all results from the analyses, a single coefficient reflecting the spatial and temporal results has been developed. The coefficient is referred to as the Spatial and Temporal Adequacy and Redundancy Evaluation (STARE) and is determined by three factors: the size of the confidence polygon, the number of times the well is part of a redundant pair, and the temporal confidence interval. This coefficient and the individual results of each analysis are used in evaluating the present network and determining future management decisions.

  5. Geologic map and map database of parts of Marin, San Francisco, Alameda, Contra Costa, and Sonoma counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blake, M.C., Jr.; Jones, D.L.; Graymer, R.W.; digital database by Soule, Adam

    2000-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (mageo.txt, mageo.pdf, or mageo.ps), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (mageo.txt, mageo.pdf, or mageo.ps), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller.

  6. [Key content and formulation of national Chinese materia medica resources survey at county level].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hai-Tao; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-08-01

    According to National Census for Water, National Population Census, National Land and Resources Survey, and work experience of experimental measures for national Chinese materia medica resources(CMMR) survey,the national CMMR survey at the county level is the key point of whole survey, that includes organization and management, field survey, sorting data three key links. Organization and management works of national CMMR survey needs to finish four key contents, there are definite goals and tasks, practicable crew, preparation directory, and security assurance. Field survey works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish five key contents, there are preparation works for field survey, the choice of the key survey area (samples), fill in the questionnaire, video data collection, specimen and other physical collection. Sorting data works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish tree key contents, there are data, specimen and census results. PMID:24228581

  7. The topography of poverty in the United States: a spatial analysis using county-level data from the Community Health Status Indicators project.

    PubMed

    Holt, James B

    2007-10-01

    Socioeconomic and health-related data at the county level are now available through the Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) database. These data are useful for assessing the health of communities and regions. Users of the CHSI data can access online reports and an online mapping application for visualizing patterns in various community-related measures. It also is possible to download these data to conduct local analyses. This paper describes a spatial analysis of poverty in the United States at the county level for 2000. Spatial statistical techniques in a geographic information system were used to quantify significant spatial patterns, such as concentrated poverty rates and spatial outliers. The analysis revealed significant and stark patterns of poverty. A distinctive north-south demarcation of low versus high poverty concentrations was found, along with isolated pockets of high and low poverty within areas in which the predominant poverty rates were opposite. This pattern can be described as following a continental poverty divide. These insights can be useful in explicating the underlying processes involved in forming such spatial patterns that result in concentrated wealth and poverty. The spatial analytic techniques are broadly applicable to socioeconomic and health-related data and can provide important information about the spatial structure of datasets, which is important for choosing appropriate analysis methods. PMID:17875255

  8. Effect of pumpage on ground-water levels as modeled in Laramie County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, Marvin A.

    1980-01-01

    Groundwater is being extensively developed for domestic, agricultural, and industrial use in a 2,320-square mile area in Laramie County, WY., bounded approximately by Horse Creek on the north, Nebraska on the east, Colorado on the south, and pre-Tertiary outcrops on the west. Currently (1977) about 47,300 acres of land are irrigated with groundwater. Groundwater levels are declining in some areas as much as 4 feet per year. The investigation was made to provide State water administrators with data on water-level changes resulting from present (1977) groundwater withdrawals and to provide a means of predicting the future effect of groundwater development. A digital model was developed of the hydrologic system in the post-Cretaceous rocks. The ability of the model to simulate the hydrologic system was determined by comparing the water-level changes measured at 37 observation wells located in areas of irrigation pumping with the water-level changes calculated by the model for 1971-77. Comparison of the measured and calculated changes showed agreement with a root-mean-square deviation of + or - 3.6 feet with 8 feet as the maximum deviation. It is concluded that the model adequately simulates present hydrologic conditions in the post-Cretaceous rocks and may be used to predict the effect of applied stress to the system. (USGS)

  9. a Relative Sea Level Database for the Pacific Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, S. E.; Vacchi, M.; Horton, B.; Nelson, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reconstruction of relative sea level (RSL) has implications for investigation of crustal movements, calibration of earth rheology models and the reconstruction of ice sheets. Here we present a quality-controlled RSL database compiled using data from the Pacific coast of North America (British Columbia, Canada to California, USA). This dataset includes 446 sea level index points that estimate the position of former RSL in time and space, and 181 limiting dates that constrain whether RSL was above (marine limiting) or below (terrestrial limiting) the sample. This coastal area is characterized by significant tectonic activity due to the Cascadia Subduction Zone in the north from British Columbia to northern California, and the San Andreas Fault in northern and central California. However, the tectonic contribution to RSL change from the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the San Andreas Fault is unknown. Elastic dislocation models of the earthquake deformation cycle have commonly assumed that Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) in the Cascadia subduction zone is non-existent. However, our data indicate ongoing GIA-related subsidence along the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California of a similar magnitude observed along the Atlantic coast of the USA and other proglacial forebulge regions in Europe. This has implications for GPS observations of vertical land movement from Cascadia that assume all motion is due to subduction zone deformation. Using a late Holocene subset of our database, we estimated the land-level changes associated with the ongoing GIA. Comparing this value with long-term (>50 year) tide gauge records allows us to improve estimates of the ongoing vertical deformation at Cascadia due to the subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath the North American plate.

  10. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN HYDROWEB DATABASE Water level time series on lakes and reservoirs (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretaux, J.; Arsen, A.; Calmant, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present the current state of the Hydroweb database as well as developments in progress. It provides offline water level time series on rivers, reservoirs and lakes based on altimetry data from several satellites (Topex/Poseidon, ERS, Jason-1&2, GFO and ENVISAT). The major developments in Hydroweb concerns the development of an operational data centre with automatic acquisition and processing of IGDR data for updating time series in near real time (both for lakes & rivers) and also use of additional remote sensing data, like satellite imagery allowing the calculation of lake's surfaces. A lake data centre is under development at the Legos in coordination with Hydrolare Project leaded by SHI (State Hydrological Institute of the Russian Academy of Science). It will provide the level-surface-volume variations of about 230 lakes and reservoirs, calculated through combination of various satellite images (Modis, Asar, Landsat, Cbers) and radar altimetry (Topex / Poseidon, Jason-1 & 2, GFO, Envisat, ERS2, AltiKa). The final objective is to propose a data centre fully based on remote sensing technique and controlled by in situ infrastructure for the Global Terrestrial Network for Lakes (GTN-L) under the supervision of WMO and GCOS. In a longer perspective, the Hydroweb database will integrate data from future missions (Jason-3, Jason-CS, Sentinel-3A/B) and finally will serve for the design of the SWOT mission. The products of hydroweb will be used as input data for simulation of the SWOT products (water height and surface variations of lakes and rivers). In the future, the SWOT mission will allow to monitor on a sub-monthly basis the worldwide lakes and reservoirs bigger than 250 * 250 m and Hydroweb will host water level and extent products from this

  11. US state- and county-level social capital in relation to obesity and physical inactivity: a multilevel, multivariable analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Subramanian, S V; Gortmaker, Steven L; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-08-01

    Although social capital has been linked to a variety of health outcomes, its association with obesity has yet to be elucidated. This study explored the relations between social capital measured at the US state and county levels and individual obesity and leisure-time physical inactivity. Individual-level data were drawn from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, while data from other surveys and administrative sources were used to construct contextual measures. Two state-level social capital scales were derived from 10 indicators and two county-level scales from five indicators. In 2-level analyses of over 167,000 adults nested within 48 states plus the District of Columbia, residence in a state above the median on one or both state social capital scales (vs. neither scale) was associated with lower relative odds of obesity and physical inactivity, controlling for individual-level covariables and state-level estimates of mean household income, the Gini coefficient, and the percentage of Black residents. In 3-level analyses, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for physical inactivity associated with residence in a county above the median on one or both county social capital scales was significantly below 1, while the association with obesity was not significant. Significantly weaker inverse ORs for the relations between state- and county-level social capital and obesity were observed among American Indians/Alaska Natives compared to Whites. Meanwhile, little support was found for mediation by social capital of the associations of urban sprawl and income inequality with obesity or physical inactivity. Overall, this study provides some evidence for the promotion of social capital as a potential strategy for addressing the burgeoning obesity epidemic. PMID:16644081

  12. Modeling plant-level industrial energy demand with the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) database and the Longitudinal Research Database (LRD)

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; Neifer, M.J.; Ross, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Phase 1 of a project to help the US Department of Energy determine the applicability of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) database and the Longitudinal Research Database (LRD) for industrial modeling and analysis. Research was conducted at the US Bureau of the Census; disclosure of the MECS/LRD data used as a basis for this report was subject to the Bureau`s confidentiality restriction. The project is designed to examine the plant-level energy behavior of energy-intensive industries. In Phase 1, six industries at the four-digit standard industrial classification (SIC) level were studied. The utility of analyzing four-digit SIC samples at the plant level is mixed, but the plant-level structure of the MECS/LRD makes analyzing samples disaggregated below the four-digit level feasible, particularly when the MECS/LRD data are combined with trade association or other external data. When external data are used, the validity of using value of shipments as a measure of output for analyzing energy use can also be examined. Phase 1 results indicate that technical efficiency and the distribution of energy intensities vary significantly at the plant level. They also show that the six industries exhibit monopsony-like behavior; that is, energy prices vary significantly at the plant level, with lower prices being correlated with a higher level of energy consumption. Finally, they show to what degree selected energy-intensive products are manufactured outside their primary industry.

  13. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. PMID:26123540

  14. Determinants of climate change awareness level in upper Nyakach Division, Kisumu County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ajuang, Chadwick O; Abuom, Paul O; Bosire, Esna K; Dida, Gabriel O; Anyona, Douglas N

    2016-01-01

    Improving the understanding of climate change awareness is one of the top priorities in climate change research. While the African continent is among the regions with the highest vulnerability to climate change, research on climate knowledge and awareness is lacking. Kenya is already grappling with the impacts of climate change, which are projected to increase in a non-linear and non-predictable manner. This study sought to determine climate change awareness levels among households residing in Upper Nyakach Division, Kisumu County, Kenya using common climate change markers viz heavy rainfall, floods, droughts and temperature. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted in which 384 household heads were selected as respondents from 11 sub-locations; all located within Upper Nyakach Division. A questionnaire was used to collect data. Most (90.9 %) respondents had observed changes in the overall climate. Awareness level of climate change varied significantly across the 11 sub-locations. To further gain insight unto which variables were the most significant determinant of climate change awareness in upper Nyakach division, Kisumu county, a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with Poisson error distribution was built. The model indicated that sex of the household head, education level and age significantly influenced respondents' awareness to climate change markers. Most (87 %) households reported rising temperatures over the past 20 years. Over half (55.2 %) the respondents had observed declining rains, with significant differences being observed across age groups. Up to 75 % of the respondents reported increased droughts frequency over the last 20 years, with significant differences observed across gender. Most (86.7 %) respondents reported having observed changes in water sources with significant differences reported across age groups. The respondents reported an increased prevalence of malaria with significant differences being observed among the education levels

  15. Changes in Disparity in County-Level Diagnosed Diabetes Prevalence and Incidence in the United States, between 2004 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Edward W.; Beckles, Gloria L.; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Barker, Lawrence E.; Geiss, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent decades, the United States experienced increasing prevalence and incidence of diabetes, accompanied by large disparities in county-level diabetes prevalence and incidence. However, whether these disparities are widening, narrowing, or staying the same has not been studied. We examined changes in disparity among U.S. counties in diagnosed diabetes prevalence and incidence between 2004 and 2012. Methods We used 2004 and 2012 county-level diabetes (type 1 and type 2) prevalence and incidence data, along with demographic, socio-economic, and risk factor data from various sources. To determine whether disparities widened or narrowed over the time period, we used a regression-based β-convergence approach, accounting for spatial autocorrelation. We calculated diabetes prevalence/incidence percentage point (ppt) changes between 2004 and 2012 and modeled these changes as a function of baseline diabetes prevalence/incidence in 2004. Covariates included county-level demographic and, socio-economic data, and known type 2 diabetes risk factors (obesity and leisure-time physical inactivity). Results For each county-level ppt increase in diabetes prevalence in 2004 there was an annual average increase of 0.02 ppt (p<0.001) in diabetes prevalence between 2004 and 2012, indicating a widening of disparities. However, after accounting for covariates, diabetes prevalence decreased by an annual average of 0.04 ppt (p<0.001). In contrast, changes in diabetes incidence decreased by an average of 0.04 ppt (unadjusted) and 0.09 ppt (adjusted) for each ppt increase in diabetes incidence in 2004, indicating a narrowing of county-level disparities. Conclusions County-level disparities in diagnosed diabetes prevalence in the United States widened between 2004 and 2012, while disparities in incidence narrowed. Accounting for demographic and, socio-economic characteristics and risk factors for type 2 diabetes narrowed the disparities, suggesting that these factors are

  16. A new analysis of hypoxia tolerance in fishes using a database of critical oxygen level (Pcrit)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Nicholas J.; Urbina, Mauricio A.; Reardon, Erin E.; McKenzie, David J.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common occurrence in aquatic habitats, and it is becoming an increasingly frequent and widespread environmental perturbation, primarily as the result of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and climate change. An in-depth understanding of the hypoxia tolerance of fishes, and how this varies among individuals and species, is required to make accurate predictions of future ecological impacts and to provide better information for conservation and fisheries management. The critical oxygen level (Pcrit) has been widely used as a quantifiable trait of hypoxia tolerance. It is defined as the oxygen level below which the animal can no longer maintain a stable rate of oxygen uptake (oxyregulate) and uptake becomes dependent on ambient oxygen availability (the animal transitions to oxyconforming). A comprehensive database of Pcrit values, comprising 331 measurements from 96 published studies, covering 151 fish species from 58 families, provides the most extensive and up-to-date analysis of hypoxia tolerance in teleosts. Methodologies for determining Pcrit are critically examined to evaluate its usefulness as an indicator of hypoxia tolerance in fishes. Various abiotic and biotic factors that interact with hypoxia are analysed for their effect on Pcrit, including temperature, CO2, acidification, toxic metals and feeding. Salinity, temperature, body mass and routine metabolic rate were strongly correlated with Pcrit; 20% of variation in the Pcrit data set was explained by these four variables. An important methodological issue not previously considered is the inconsistent increase in partial pressure of CO2 within a closed respirometer during the measurement of Pcrit. Modelling suggests that the final partial pressure of CO2 reached can vary from 650 to 3500 µatm depending on the ambient pH and salinity, with potentially major effects on blood acid–base balance and Pcrit itself. This database will form part of a widely accessible repository of physiological

  17. An Analysis of the Level of Involvement of the County Staff Members by the County Extension Chairman in Decision Making in the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Max Gettys

    This study was to investigate some determinants and effects that relate to the degree of involvement of the county staff members by the County Extension Chairman in decision making. The population included 79 County Extension Chairmen who had been appointed to the position in the county and had been on the job at least one year, and 419 county…

  18. Connecting Race and Place: A County-Level Analysis of White, Black, and Hispanic HIV Prevalence, Poverty, and Level of Urbanization

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Eli; Shouse, R. Luke; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the role of poverty in racial/ethnic disparities in HIV prevalence across levels of urbanization. Methods. Using national HIV surveillance data from the year 2009, we constructed negative binomial models, stratified by urbanization, with an outcome of race-specific, county-level HIV prevalence rates and covariates of race/ethnicity, poverty, and other publicly available data. We estimated model-based Black–White and Hispanic–White prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) across levels of urbanization and poverty. Results. We observed racial/ethnic disparities for all strata of urbanization across 1111 included counties. Poverty was associated with HIV prevalence only in major metropolitan counties. At the same level of urbanization, Black–White and Hispanic–White PRRs were not statistically different from 1.0 at high poverty rates (Black–White PRR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4, 2.9; Hispanic–White PRR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.1, 1.6). In nonurban counties, racial/ethnic disparities remained after we controlled for poverty. Conclusions. The association between HIV prevalence and poverty varies by level of urbanization. HIV prevention interventions should be tailored to this understanding. Reducing racial/ethnic disparities will require multifactorial interventions linking social factors with sexual networks and individual risks. PMID:24832420

  19. Fish consumption and hair mercury levels in women of childbearing age, Martin County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anil; Jordan, Melissa; Watkins, Sharon; Washam, Robert; DuClos, Chris; Jones, Serena; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek; Blackmore, Carina

    2014-12-01

    The health effects of mercury in humans are mostly on the developing nervous system. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding must be targeted in order to decrease mercury exposure to the populations at highest risk-infants, unborn fetuses, and young children. This purpose of this study is to understand the demographics of fish-consumption patterns among women of childbearing age (including pregnant women) in Martin County, Florida, and to analyze the associations of mercury levels in participants' hair with socio-demographic variables in order to better design prevention messages and campaigns. Mercury concentrations in hair samples of 408 women ages 18-49 were assessed. Data on demographic factors, pregnancy status, fish consumption, and awareness of fish advisories were collected during personal interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The geometric and arithmetic means of hair mercury concentration were 0.371 and 0.676 µg/g of hair. One-fourth of the respondents had a concentration ≥1 µg/g of hair. Consuming a higher number of fish meals per month, consumption of commercially purchased or locally caught fish higher in mercury, White race and income ≥$75,000 were positively associated with the likelihood of having higher hair mercury levels. This study confirms the existence of a higher overall mean hair mercury level and a higher percentage of women with ≥1 µg/g hair mercury level than those reported at the national level and in other regional studies. This suggests the need for region-specific fish consumption advisories to minimize mercury exposure in humans. PMID:24807406

  20. Impact of Wind Development on County-Level Income and Employment: A Review of Methods and an Empirical Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    To gain an understanding of the long-term county-level impacts from a large sample of wind power projects and to understand the potential significance of methodological criticisms, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and NREL recently joined efforts to complete a first-of-its-kind study that quantifies the annual impact on county-level personal income resulting from wind power installations in nearly 130 counties across 12 states. The results of this study, as well as a comparison with the prior county-level estimates generated from input-output models, are summarized here.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTY-LEVEL WIND EROSION AND UNPAVED ROAD ALKALINE EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report details the methods used and the result of the conversion of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's (NAPAP's) alkaline material emissions information for wind erosion, unpaved roads, and dust devils from the' current spatial resolution to county-level res...

  2. Developing a Long-Range Program To Improve Higher-Level Thinking Skills in Hillsborough County Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval, Eilen; Whitlock, Earl

    1987-01-01

    A project to improve higher level thinking skills of elementary students in Hillsborough County, Florida is reported as a feature article (66p). An introductory overview chapter reviews the literature on teaching thinking skills. Chapter 1 provides background information on the community and the two schools selected for the practicum. The second…

  3. Spatiotemporal Cluster Patterns of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease at the County Level in Mainland China, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Xu, Qin; Huang, Fangfang; Cao, Kai; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Gao, Qi; Wang, Wei; Fang, Liqun; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is known to be a highly contagious childhood illness. In recent years, the number of reported cases of HFMD has significantly increased in mainland China. This study aims at the epidemiological features, spatiotemporal patterns of HMFD at the county/district level in mainland China. Methods Data on reported HFMD cases for each county from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Cluster analysis, spatial autocorrelation, and retrospective scan methods were used to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of the disease. Results The annual incidences varied greatly among the counties, ranging from 0 to 74.31‰ with the median of 5.42‰ (interquartile range: 1.54‰–13.55‰) during 2008–2012 in mainland China. Counties close to provincial capital cities generally had higher incidences than rural counties. A seasonal distribution was observed between the northern and southern China, of which dual epidemic were shown in southern China and usually only one in northern China. Based on the global and local spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found that the spatial distribution of HFMD was presented a significant clustering pattern for each year (P<0.001), and hotspots of the disease were mostly distributed in coastal provinces of China. The retrospective scan statistic further identified the dynamics of spatiotemporal clustering areas of the disease, which were mainly distributed in the counties of eastern and southern China, as well as provincial capitals and their surrounding counties. Conclusions The spatiotemporal clustering areas of the disease identified in this way were relatively stable, and imminent public health planning and resource allocation should be focused within those areas. PMID:26809151

  4. Urban density and the metabolic reach of metropolitan areas: A panel analysis of per capita transportation emissions at the county-level.

    PubMed

    Ergas, Christina; Clement, Matthew; McGee, Julius

    2016-07-01

    We engage a tension in the urban environment literature that positions cities as both drivers of environmental destruction and loci of environmental protection. We argue that the traditional binary view of cities as either harmful or beneficial is too simplistic; we advance a more nuanced understanding of cities to study their internal and external metabolic effects in terms of carbon emissions from on-road transportation at the county-level across the continental United States between 2002 and 2007. First, utilizing satellite imagery from the National Land Cover Database, we create a novel measure of population density by quantifying the number of people per square mile of impervious surface area. Second, we develop a measure of metropolitan adjacency from the rural classifications datasets published by the USDA. In spatial regression models, we find that while higher density reduces emissions, counties that are geographically isolated from metropolitan areas actually have lower per capita emissions, all else equal. We elaborate on the conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of our study in the conclusion. PMID:27194663

  5. Development of the county database: Estimates of exposure rates and times of arrival of fallout in the ORERP Phase-2 area. Comparison with cumulative deposition-density estimates based on analyses of retrospective and historical soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, H.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1991-12-01

    Estimates of exposure rates and fallout-arrival times have been made for each of 142 counties or county segments for 55 nuclear events producing significant deposition downwind from the Nevada Test Site. All sources of available data were examined to provide the best possible estimates for each event. The cumulative fallout deposited per unit area in each county based on these estimates is compared with estimates of cumulative deposition density based on analyses of contemporary and historical soil samples. The good agreement between the two sets of cumulative deposition estimates gives credence to the individual event estimates and suggests that no major sources of fission-product deposition were overlooked. This county database is being used as primary input data in a number of on-going dose-reconstruction studies.

  6. An updated database of Holocene relative sea level changes along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Rovere, Alessio

    2014-05-01

    Present-day sea level variations in the Mediterranean depend on various factors, including recent climatic forcing, tectonic activity, anthropogenic effects, and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA). Mediterranean coasts offer an exceptional opportunity to investigate the various mechanisms that contribute to sea level variations on different time-scales. In fact, geological, geomorphological and archaeological indicators can be coupled with the available instrumental observations. Several areas of the Mediterranean basin are affected by a significant tectonic activity contributing to a widespread coastal instability. The northern Mediterranean coasts are, potentially, the most affected by the process of isostatic adjustment due to the proximity to the former Alpine and Fennoscandian ice sheets. However, GIA-related deformation of the whole Mediterranean basin is mainly driven by water-loading, which contributes to a significant and widespread subsidence whose extension and strength, in turn, directly depend on ice sheet chronology and Earth viscosity. In the Mediterranean, different kinds of RSL markers have been used to reconstruct RSLs: biological, sedimentary, geomorphological and archaeological. The production of such great amount of literature, which is still rapidly growing in number, has led to the obvious consequence of fragmented information, only occasionally reviewed in some localities, but never collected into an organic database to be analysed at the scale of the Mediterranean basin. We aim to create a database of Holocene (last 10 ka) geological data across the Mediterranean basin. This represents a tool of fundamental importance for understanding and tuning GIA models and to assess sea level rise hazards, which are particularly magnified in low-lying or subsiding coastal areas. Here we present the first results of this study carried out both in tectonically active areas (Aegean Sea, Greece) and stable ones (Southern France and Corsica, NE Spanish coast

  7. Organ system heterogeneity DB: a database for the visualization of phenotypes at the organ system level.

    PubMed

    Mannil, Deepthi; Vogt, Ingo; Prinz, Jeanette; Campillos, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Perturbations of mammalian organisms including diseases, drug treatments and gene perturbations in mice affect organ systems differently. Some perturbations impair relatively few organ systems while others lead to highly heterogeneous or systemic effects. Organ System Heterogeneity DB (http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/Organ_System_Heterogeneity/) provides information on the phenotypic effects of 4865 human diseases, 1667 drugs and 5361 genetically modified mouse models on 26 different organ systems. Disease symptoms, drug side effects and mouse phenotypes are mapped to the System Organ Class (SOC) level of the Medical Dictionary of Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). Then, the organ system heterogeneity value, a measurement of the systemic impact of a perturbation, is calculated from the relative frequency of phenotypic features across all SOCs. For perturbations of interest, the database displays the distribution of phenotypic effects across organ systems along with the heterogeneity value and the distance between organ system distributions. In this way, it allows, in an easy and comprehensible fashion, the comparison of the phenotypic organ system distributions of diseases, drugs and their corresponding genetically modified mouse models of associated disease genes and drug targets. The Organ System Heterogeneity DB is thus a platform for the visualization and comparison of organ system level phenotypic effects of drugs, diseases and genes. PMID:25313158

  8. Organ system heterogeneity DB: a database for the visualization of phenotypes at the organ system level

    PubMed Central

    Mannil, Deepthi; Vogt, Ingo; Prinz, Jeanette; Campillos, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Perturbations of mammalian organisms including diseases, drug treatments and gene perturbations in mice affect organ systems differently. Some perturbations impair relatively few organ systems while others lead to highly heterogeneous or systemic effects. Organ System Heterogeneity DB (http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/Organ_System_Heterogeneity/) provides information on the phenotypic effects of 4865 human diseases, 1667 drugs and 5361 genetically modified mouse models on 26 different organ systems. Disease symptoms, drug side effects and mouse phenotypes are mapped to the System Organ Class (SOC) level of the Medical Dictionary of Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). Then, the organ system heterogeneity value, a measurement of the systemic impact of a perturbation, is calculated from the relative frequency of phenotypic features across all SOCs. For perturbations of interest, the database displays the distribution of phenotypic effects across organ systems along with the heterogeneity value and the distance between organ system distributions. In this way, it allows, in an easy and comprehensible fashion, the comparison of the phenotypic organ system distributions of diseases, drugs and their corresponding genetically modified mouse models of associated disease genes and drug targets. The Organ System Heterogeneity DB is thus a platform for the visualization and comparison of organ system level phenotypic effects of drugs, diseases and genes. PMID:25313158

  9. Geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle are products of a regional geologic mapping effort undertaken in the eastern Transverse Ranges in and around Joshua Tree National Park. This investigation, part of the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is conducted in cooperation with the California Geologic Survey and the National Park Service. In line with the goals of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), mapping of the Pinto Mountain and other quadrangles has been directed toward generating a multipurpose digital geologic map database that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. This mapping is conducted to further understanding of bedrock geology and surficial processes in the region and to document evidence for seismotectonic activity in the eastern Transverse Ranges. It is also intended to serve as a base layer suitable for ecosystem and mineral resource assessment and for building a hydrogeologic framework for Pinto Basin. Initial investigations span Pinto Basin from the Hexie and Eagle Mountains northward into the Pinto Mountains. Quadrangles mapped include the Conejo Well 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001a), the Porcupine Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001b), the Pinto Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle, and the San Bernardino Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2002). Parts of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle had been mapped previously at a variety of scales (Weir, and Bader, 1963; Hope, 1966, 1969; Jennings, 1967; Powell, 1981, 1993).

  10. Geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino Wash 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; digital preparation by Cossette, Pamela M.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino Wash quadrangle are products of a regional geologic mapping effort undertaken in the eastern Transverse Ranges in and around Joshua Tree National Park. This investigation, part of the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is conducted in cooperation with the California Geologic Survey and the National Park Service. In line with the goals of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), mapping of the San Bernardino Wash and other quadrangles has been directed toward generating a multipurpose digital geologic map database that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. This mapping is conducted to further understanding of bedrock geology and surficial processes in the region and to document evidence for seismotectonic activity in the eastern Transverse Ranges. It is also intended to serve as a base layer suitable for ecosystem and mineral resource assessment and for building a hydrogeologic framework for Pinto Basin. Initial investigations span Pinto Basin from the Hexie and Eagle Mountains northward into the Pinto Mountains (see fig. 1). Quadrangles mapped include the Conejo Well 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001a), the Porcupine Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001b), the Pinto Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2002), and the San Bernardino Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle. Parts of the San Bernardino Wash quadrangle had been mapped previously at a variety of scales (Weir, and Bader, 1963; Hope, 1966, 1969; Jennings, 1967; Powell, 1981, 1993).

  11. The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kenya’s human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. Methods National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Results Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value = 0.0028) and immunization rates (P value = 0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value <0.0001). Conclusions An overall shortage of nurses (range of 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000) in the public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved. PMID:24467776

  12. Geologic Map and Map Database of the Oakland Metropolitan Area, Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction This report contains a new geologic map at 1:50,000 scale, derived from a set of geologic map databases containing information at a resolution associated with 1:24,000 scale, and a new description of geologic map units and structural relationships in the mapped area. The map database represents the integration of previously published reports and new geologic mapping and field checking by the author (see Sources of Data index map on the map sheet or the Arc-Info coverage pi-so and the textfile pi-so.txt). The descriptive text (below) contains new ideas about the Hayward fault and other faults in the East Bay fault system, as well as new ideas about the geologic units and their relations. These new data are released in digital form in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency Project Impact in Oakland. The goal of Project Impact is to use geologic information in land-use and emergency services planning to reduce the losses occurring during earthquakes, landslides, and other hazardous geologic events. The USGS, California Division of Mines and Geology, FEMA, California Office of Emergency Services, and City of Oakland participated in the cooperative project. The geologic data in this report were provided in pre-release form to other Project Impact scientists, and served as one of the basic data layers for the analysis of hazard related to earthquake shaking, liquifaction, earthquake induced landsliding, and rainfall induced landsliding. The publication of these data provides an opportunity for regional planners, local, state, and federal agencies, teachers, consultants, and others outside Project Impact who are interested in geologic data to have the new data long before a traditional paper map could be published. Because the database contains information about both the bedrock and surficial deposits, it has practical applications in the study of groundwater and engineering of hillside materials, as well as the study of geologic hazards and

  13. Young driver licensing: examination of population-level rates using New Jersey's state licensing database.

    PubMed

    Curry, Allison E; Pfeiffer, Melissa R; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R; Kim, Konny H

    2015-03-01

    Recent surveys have provided insight on the primary reasons why US teens delay licensure but are limited in their ability to estimate licensing rates and trends. State administrative licensing data are the ideal source to provide this information but have not yet been analyzed for this purpose. Our objective was to analyze New Jersey's (NJ) licensing database to: (1) describe population-based rates of licensure among 17- to 20-year-olds, overall and by gender and zip code level indicators of household income, population density, and race/ethnicity; and (2) examine recent trends in licensure. We obtained records on all licensed NJ drivers through June 2012 from the NJ Motor Vehicle Commission's licensing database and determined each young driver's age at the time of intermediate and full licensure. Data from the US Census and American Community Survey were used to estimate a fixed cohort of NJ residents who turned 17 years old in 2006-2007 (n=255,833). Licensing data were used to estimate the number of these drivers who obtained an intermediate license by each month of age (numerators) and, among those who obtained an intermediate license, time to graduation to full licensure. Overall, 40% of NJ residents-and half of those who ultimately obtained a license by age 21-were licensed within a month of NJ's minimum licensing age of 17, 64% by their 18th birthday, and 81% by their 21st birthday. Starkly different patterns of licensure were observed by socioeconomic indicators; for example, 65% of 17-year-olds residing in the highest-income zip codes were licensed in the first month of eligibility compared with 13% of residents living in the lowest-income zip codes. The younger an individual obtained their intermediate license, the earlier they graduated to a full license. Finally, the rate and timing of licensure in NJ has been relatively stable from 2006 to 2012, with at most a 1-3% point decline in rates. These findings support the growing body of literature suggesting

  14. THE ECOTOX DATABASE AND ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVEL (ECO-SSL) WEB SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's ECOTOX database (http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/) provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial toxic effects information. Data on more than 8100 chemicals and 5700 terrestrial and aquatic species are included in the database. Information is ...

  15. Automatic removal of outliers in hydrologic time series and quality control of rainfall data: processing a real-time database of the Local System for Flood Monitoring in Klodzko County, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizinski, Bartlomiej; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Kryza, Maciej; Szymanowski, Mariusz

    2013-04-01

    Real-time hydrological forecasting requires the highest quality of both hydrologic and meteorological data collected in a given river basin. Large outliers may lead to inaccurate predictions, with substantial departures between observations and prognoses considered even in short term. Although we need the correctness of both riverflow and rainfall data, they cannot be processed in the same way to produce a filtered output. Indeed, hydrologic time series at a given gauge can be interpolated in time domain after having detected suspicious values, however if no outlier has been detected at the upstream sites. In the case of rainfall data, interpolation is not suitable as we cannot verify the potential outliers at a given site against data from other sites especially in the complex terrain. This is due to the fact that very local convective events may occur, leading to large rainfall peaks at a limited space. Hence, instead of interpolating data, we rather perform a flagging procedure that only ranks outliers according to the likelihood of occurrence. Following the aforementioned assumptions, we have developed a few modules that serve a purpose of a fully automated correction of a database that is updated in real-time every 15 minutes, and the main objective of the work was to produce a high-quality database for a purpose of hydrologic rainfall-runoff modeling and ensemble prediction. The database in question is available courtesy of the County Office in Kłodzko (SW Poland), the institution which owns and maintains the Local System for Flood Monitoring in Kłodzko County. The dedicated prediction system, known as HydroProg, is now being built at the University of Wrocław (Poland). As the entire prediction system, the correction modules work automatically in real time and are developed in R language. They are plugged in to a larger IT infrastructure. Hydrologic time series, which are water levels recorded every 15 minutes at 22 gauges located in Kłodzko County, are

  16. County-level analysis of the impact of temperature and population increases on California wildfire data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baltar, M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Schoenberg, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which the apparent increase in wildfire incidence and burn area in California from 1990 to 2006 is affected by population and temperature increases is examined. Using generalized linear models with random effects, we focus on the estimated impacts of increases in mean daily temperatures and populations in different counties on wildfire in those counties, after essentially controlling for the overall differences between counties in their overall mean temperatures and populations. We find that temperature increase appears to have a significant positive impact on both total burn area and number of observed wildfires. Population growth appears to have a much less pronounced impact on total burn area than do annual temperature increases, and population growth appears to be negatively correlated with the total number of observed wildfires. These effects are especially pronounced in the winter season and in Southern California counties.

  17. Water-level database update for the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California, 1907-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavelko, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The water-level database for the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system in Nevada and California was updated. The database includes more than 54,000 water levels collected from 1907 to 2007, from more than 1,800 wells. Water levels were assigned a primary flag and multiple secondary flags that describe hydrologic conditions and trends at the time of the measurement and identify pertinent information about the well or water-level measurement. The flags provide a subjective measure of the relative accuracy of the measurements and are used to identify which water levels are appropriate for calculating head observations in a regional transient groundwater flow model. Included in the report appendix are all water-level data and their flags, selected well data, and an interactive spreadsheet for viewing hydrographs and well locations.

  18. Approximate water-level changes in wells in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, 1977-79, and measured compaction, 1973-79, in Harris and Galveston Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrysch, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    This report consists of: (1) Four maps that present data on water-level changes during 1977-79 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers and; (2) one set of graphs that present data on the compaction of subsurface materials for 1973-79. During 1977-79, groundwater pumping decreased in Galveston County and southern Harris County, Tex., and increased in northern and western Harris County. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Water level ingest, archive and processing system - an integral part of NOAA's tsunami database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, S. J.; Mungov, G.; Dunbar, P. K.; Price, D. J.; Mccullough, H.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and collocated World Data Service for Geophysics (WDS) provides long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global tsunami data. Archive responsibilities include the NOAA Global Historical Tsunami event and runup database, damage photos, as well as other related hazards data. Beginning in 2008, NGDC was given the responsibility of archiving, processing and distributing all tsunami and hazards-related water level data collected from NOAA observational networks in a coordinated and consistent manner. These data include the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) data provided by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC), coastal-tide-gauge data from the National Ocean Service (NOS) network and tide-gauge data from the two National Weather Service (NWS) Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) regional networks. Taken together, this integrated archive supports tsunami forecast, warning, research, mitigation and education efforts of NOAA and the Nation. Due to the variety of the water level data, the automatic ingest system was redesigned, along with upgrading the inventory, archive and delivery capabilities based on modern digital data archiving practices. The data processing system was also upgraded and redesigned focusing on data quality assessment in an operational manner. This poster focuses on data availability highlighting the automation of all steps of data ingest, archive, processing and distribution. Examples are given from recent events such as the October 2012 hurricane Sandy, the Feb 06, 2013 Solomon Islands tsunami, and the June 13, 2013 meteotsunami along the U.S. East Coast.

  20. Groundwater levels and water quality during a 96-hour aquifer test in Pickaway County, Ohio, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haefner, Ralph J.; Runkle, Donna L.; Mailot, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    During October–November 2012, a 96-hour aquifer test was performed at a proposed well field in northern Pickaway County, Ohio, to investigate groundwater with elevated nitrate concentrations. Earlier sampling done by the City of Columbus revealed that some wells had concentrations of nitrate that approached 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L), whereas other wells and the nearby Scioto River had concentrations from 2 to 6 mg/L. The purpose of the current test was to examine potential changes in water quality that may be expected if the site was developed into a public water-supply source; therefore, water-transmitting properties determined during a previous test were not determined a second time. Before and during the test, water-level data and water-quality samples were obtained from observation wells while a test production well was pumped at 1,300 gallons per minute. Before the test, local groundwater levels indicated that groundwater was being discharged to the nearby Scioto River, but during the test, the stream was losing streamflow owing to infiltration. Water levels declined in the pumping well, in adjacent observation wells, and in a nearby streambed piezometer as pumping commenced. The maximum drawdown in the pumping well was 29.75 feet, measured about 95 hours after pumping began. Water-quality data, including analyses for field parameters, major and trace elements, nutrients, and stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen in nitrate, demonstrated only small variations before and during the test. Concentrations of nitrate in five samples from the pumping well ranged from about 5.10 to 5.42 mg/L before and during the test, whereas concentrations of nitrate in five samples on or about the same sampling dates and times at a monitoring site on the Scioto River adjacent to the pumping well ranged from 3.46 to 4.97 mg/L. Water from two nearby observation wells had nitrate concentrations approaching 10 mg/L, which is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Maximum

  1. A Holocene Database of Relative Sea Levels for North America and the Caribbean: Implications for Geophysical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Horton, B. P.; Khan, N. S.; Liu, S.; Vacchi, M.

    2011-12-01

    We have expanded the previously available quality-controlled database of relative sea-level (RSL) observations for the U.S. Atlantic coast with data from the Atlantic coast of Canada, the Pacific coast of North America and the Caribbean. The Holocene sea-level database for the U.S. Atlantic coast consisted of 836 sea-level indicators. The database documented a decreasing rate of relative sea-level (RSL) rise through time with no evidence of sea level being above present in the middle to late Holocene. The highest rates of rise were found in the mid-Atlantic region. We employed the database to constrain an ensemble of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models using two ice (ICE-5G and ICE-6G) and two mantle viscosity variation (VM5a and VM5b). We identified significant misfits between observations and predictions using ICE-5G with the VM5a viscosity profile. ICE-6G provides some improvement for the northern Atlantic region, but misfits remain elsewhere. Decreasing the upper mantle and transition zone viscosity from 0.5*1021 Pa s (VM5a) to 0.25*1021 Pa s (VM5b) removed significant discrepancies between observations and predictions along the mid-Atlantic coastline, although misfits remained in the southern Atlantic region. The addition of new data from areas more proximal and distal to Laurentide ice loading has allowed us to further investigate the VM5b mantle viscosity profile.

  2. Meteorological database for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    A meteorological database has been developed to aid in the prediction of indoor radon concentrations in the United States. The database contains predicted typical monthly meteorological statistics at the county level derived from hourly meteorological data from 208 (234 for precipitation) geographically distinct monitoring stations. Interpolation and extrapolation techniques were used to predict statistics for counties not containing a meteorological monitoring site. The LBNL database includes statistics for meteorological variables including dry-bulb temperature, dew-point temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, hours of precipitation, precipitation, and derived infiltration degree-days. The database consists of individual files of derived statistics for each weather variable and is potentially useful for indoor radon modeling as well as for other purposes. Each file contains data values for all 12 months and an aggregation of the 12 months up to a yearly statistic for all county centroids. A test was conducted to assess the quality of interpolated values. Examples showing the use of the database for mapping infiltration degree-days and an application of the database to a statistical correlation analysis attempting to find meteorological factors influencing indoor radon levels in the United States is discussed.

  3. Estimating the number of men who have sex with men by race/ethnicity at the county level in Texas.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Jesse; Poe, Jonathon; Robbins, Ann; Rowlinson, Emily

    2015-02-01

    This analysis presents a method for estimating the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) at the county and metropolitan area level in Texas. Surveillance data consistently demonstrate that MSM experience a high burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Numerous studies have shown that MSM are also vulnerable to many other health concerns such as suicide, substance abuse, domestic violence and assault, homelessness, and mental illness. However, compilation of rates of HIV, STIs, and other health issues is dependent on estimation of population denominators. In the absence of systematic, consistent, and direct assessment of sexual orientation and gender identity in national surveys, it is difficult to estimate the size of at-risk populations. Previous estimates at the national and state level have been calculated using varied methodologies. However, to date, statewide estimates at the county level have only been produced for the state of Florida. County-level and metropolitan area estimates of MSM population were produced using three modified models developed by Lieb et al. These models used data on population and same-sex households from the US Census, along with estimates of sexual behavior from the National Survey on Family Growth. These models produce an estimate of 599,683 MSM in Texas (6.4 % of the adult male population). Metropolitan areas with the highest percentage of MSM population include Dallas and Austin (10.3 and 9.8 %, respectively). County-level estimates of MSM population range from 1.0 to 12.9 %. These local estimates are critical to targeting vulnerable populations and effective allocation of resources for prevention and treatment programs. PMID:25347955

  4. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure for the conterminous United States, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David K.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    County-level nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from animal manure for the conterminous United States for 2002 were estimated from animal populations from the 2002 Census of Agriculture by using methods described in U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006–5012. These estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure were compiled in support of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

  5. Green procurement in Norway; a survey of practices at the municipal and county level.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Ottar; de Boer, Luitzen

    2009-10-01

    Consumer pressure is usually considered as one of the major drivers for more environmental friendly products. During the last decade an increasing focus on public procurement has emerged as an important contributor to that pressure. In this paper we focus on the role of municipalities and counties in green public procurement. Based on surveys we investigate to what degree green public procurement is implemented in Norwegian municipalities and counties and which capabilities are critical for successful green procurement. We both investigate to what degree environmental information is requested in call for tenders and also to what degree the information is actually used in the final selection of supplier. The information gathered from the municipalities and counties is compared with information obtained from potential suppliers to see if suppliers and purchasers agree on the importance of environmental demands in the selection of suppliers. PMID:19716223

  6. Water-level records for Adams, Larimer, Logan, Morgan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Weld Counties, Colorado, 1973-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Thomas J.; Vaught, Kenneth D.

    1977-01-01

    Water levels measured during March 1977 in 350 wells tapping alluvial aquifers in Adams, Larimer, Logan, Morgan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Weld Counties, Colo., are presented. Water-level records for the 4 preceding years are included to serve as references illustrating declining or rising water levels. These data can be used by well owners for planning their irrigation schedules for the next irrigation season and can be used by water managers for developing plans to manage the ground-water resources. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Landslides in Alameda County, California: A Digital Database Extracted from Preliminary Photointerpretation Maps of Surficial Deposits by T.H. Nilsen in USGS Open-File Report 75-277

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Sebastian; Roberts, Michelle A.; Brennan, Eileen M.

    2000-01-01

    All or part of 25 7.5-minute quadrangles identifying 8465 landslides - largely slow-moving slides and earth flows - in Alameda County, California, have been converted to a digital-map database, compiled at 1:24,000 scale and plotted at 1:62,500 scale, that can be acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey over the Internet or on magnetic tape.

  8. Scaling up health knowledge at European level requires sharing integrated data: an approach for collection of database specification.

    PubMed

    Menditto, Enrica; Bolufer De Gea, Angela; Cahir, Caitriona; Marengoni, Alessandra; Riegler, Salvatore; Fico, Giuseppe; Costa, Elisio; Monaco, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Sergio; Pani, Luca; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Computerized health care databases have been widely described as an excellent opportunity for research. The availability of "big data" has brought about a wave of innovation in projects when conducting health services research. Most of the available secondary data sources are restricted to the geographical scope of a given country and present heterogeneous structure and content. Under the umbrella of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, collaborative work conducted by the partners of the group on "adherence to prescription and medical plans" identified the use of observational and large-population databases to monitor medication-taking behavior in the elderly. This article describes the methodology used to gather the information from available databases among the Adherence Action Group partners with the aim of improving data sharing on a European level. A total of six databases belonging to three different European countries (Spain, Republic of Ireland, and Italy) were included in the analysis. Preliminary results suggest that there are some similarities. However, these results should be applied in different contexts and European countries, supporting the idea that large European studies should be designed in order to get the most of already available databases. PMID:27358570

  9. Fuzzy deductive database for handling uncertainty in the fields of medical diagnosis and high-level VLSI synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sanjoy K.; Deutsch-McLeish, Mary; Banerji, D. K.

    1993-12-01

    A Fuzzy Deductive Database System has been developed that diagnoses the disease of a patient of pediatric age group with convulsion. The entire system has been encoded in Prolog to provide a rich query interface to it. In order to provide a uniform query interface to the deductive database, a fuzzy SQL-like (a subset of SQL) query interface to the system was developed. The scheme adopted provides a framework for combining different uncertainty management mechanisms to suit any particular application. This query interface to the database can be used to identify correlations among different symptoms and/or clinical or investigational findings among groups of patients which may suggest possible new rules. The ideas of fuzzy deductive databases have also been applied to the domain of high level VLSI synthesis. The fuzzy SQL interface developed, can be used to query the database of uncertain schedules in the dataflow graph, which can be used to arrive at an estimate of the number of functional units required to carry out all the operations. This information can be used by the main software performing scheduling, allocation and binding.

  10. Scaling up health knowledge at European level requires sharing integrated data: an approach for collection of database specification

    PubMed Central

    Menditto, Enrica; Bolufer De Gea, Angela; Cahir, Caitriona; Marengoni, Alessandra; Riegler, Salvatore; Fico, Giuseppe; Costa, Elisio; Monaco, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Sergio; Pani, Luca; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Computerized health care databases have been widely described as an excellent opportunity for research. The availability of “big data” has brought about a wave of innovation in projects when conducting health services research. Most of the available secondary data sources are restricted to the geographical scope of a given country and present heterogeneous structure and content. Under the umbrella of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, collaborative work conducted by the partners of the group on “adherence to prescription and medical plans” identified the use of observational and large-population databases to monitor medication-taking behavior in the elderly. This article describes the methodology used to gather the information from available databases among the Adherence Action Group partners with the aim of improving data sharing on a European level. A total of six databases belonging to three different European countries (Spain, Republic of Ireland, and Italy) were included in the analysis. Preliminary results suggest that there are some similarities. However, these results should be applied in different contexts and European countries, supporting the idea that large European studies should be designed in order to get the most of already available databases. PMID:27358570

  11. MEASURES OF LEADER BEHAVIOR AND THEIR RELATION TO PERFORMANCE LEVELS OF COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CUNNINGHAM, CLARENCE J.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO (1) DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE LEADER BEHAVIOR DIMENSIONS OF CONSIDERATION AND INITIATING STRUCTURES AS APPLIED TO COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS, AND (2) DETERMINE WHETHER THE DIMENSIONS WERE SUFFICIENTLY RELATED TO PERFORMANCE TO PERMIT THE INSTRUMENT'S USE FOR SELECTING AND PLACING AGENTS. A LEADER DESCRIPTION…

  12. Geostatistical Analysis of County-Level Lung Cancer Mortality Rates in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of health data and putative covariates, such as environmental, socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral, or occupational factors, is a promising application for geostatistics. Transferring methods originally developed for the analysis of earth properties to health science, however, presents several methodological and technical challenges. These arise because health data are typically aggregated over irregular spatial supports (e.g., counties) and consist of a numerator and a denominator (i.e., rates). This article provides an overview of geostatistical methods tailored specifically to the characteristics of areal health data, with an application to lung cancer mortality rates in 688 U.S. counties of the southeast (1970–1994). Factorial Poisson kriging can filter short-scale variation and noise, which can be large in sparsely populated counties, to reveal similar regional patterns for male and female cancer mortality that correlate well with proximity to shipyards. Rate uncertainty was transferred through local cluster analysis using stochastic simulation, allowing the computation of the likelihood of clusters of low or high cancer mortality. Accounting for population size and rate uncertainty led to the detection of new clusters of high mortality around Oak Ridge National Laboratory for both sexes, in counties with high concentrations of pig farms and paper mill industries for males (occupational exposure) and in the vicinity of Atlanta for females. PMID:20445829

  13. A County Level Assessment of Water Withdrawals for Hydraulic Fracturing: Where are Impacts Most Likely?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, M. M.; LeDuc, S. D.; Clark, C.; Todd, J.

    2015-12-01

    Concerns have arisen of the potential effects of hydraulic fracturing water withdrawals on both water for human consumption and aquatic communities. Any impacts are likely to be location specific since current U.S. hydraulic fracturing activities are concentrated in particular regions, water availability is unevenly distributed, and hydraulic fracturing water use differs between locations, including the amount of water use per well, source water, and reuse rates. Here, we used FracFocus to estimate annual hydraulic fracturing water use, and combined this with U.S. Geological Survey water use data and water availability indices to identify U.S. counties where potential impacts may be most likely. We surveyed the literature to understand source water and reuse rates. Overall, we found that hydraulic fracturing water use and consumption are a small percentage relative to total water use and consumption for most U.S. counties. However, there are 26 counties where fracturing water use is greater than 10% compared to 2010 total water use, and eight and four counties at greater than 30% and 50%, respectively. We conclude hydraulic fracturing water use currently has the greatest potential for impacts in southern and western Texas due to relatively high fracturing water use, low reuse rates, low fresh water availability, and frequent drought. However, the availability of brackish groundwater in these areas is also high relative to fracturing water use, suggesting an alternative source that could reduce potential impacts. Comparatively, the potential for impacts appears to be lower in other U.S. regions. While our county-scale findings do not preclude the possibility of more localized water quantity effects, this study provides a relative indicator of areas where potential problems might arise. Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  14. Analyzing effective municipal solid waste recycling programs: the case of county-level MSW recycling performance in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Park, Seejeen; Berry, Frances S

    2013-09-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling performance, both nationally and in Florida, USA, has shown little improvement during the past decade. This research examines variations in the MSW recycling program performance in Florida counties in an attempt to identify effective recycling programs. After reviewing trends in the MSW management literature, we conducted an empirical analysis using cross-sectional multiple regression analysis. The findings suggest that the convenience-based hypothesis was supported by showing that curbside recycling had a positive effect on MSW recycling performance. Financial (cost-saving) incentive-based hypotheses were partially supported meaning that individual level incentives can influence recycling performance. Citizen environmental concern was found to positively affect the amount of county recycling, while education and political affiliation yielded no significant results. In conclusion, this article discusses the implications of the findings for both academic research and practice of MSW recycling programs. PMID:23836103

  15. Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, T.G.; Wood, N.; Yarnal, B.; Bauer, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir-Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent; Bauer, Denise H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir–Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards.

  17. Water levels in periodically measured wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, 1981-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Stephens, D.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Baldwin, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains data on groundwater levels beneath Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas, Nye County, Nevada. In addition to new data collected since 1983, the report contains data that has been updated from previous reports, including added explanations of the data. The data was collected in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy to help that agency evaluate the suitability of the area of storing high-level nuclear waste. The water table in the Yucca Mountain area occurs in ash-flow and air-fall tuff of Tertiary age. West of the crest of Yucca Mountain, water level altitudes are about 775 m above sea level. Along the eastern edge and southern end of Yucca Mountain, the potentiometric surface generally is nearly flat, ranging from about 730 to 728 m above sea level. (USGS)

  18. Ground-water pumpage and water-level declines in the Peedee and Black Creek aquifers in Onslow and Jones counties, North Carolina, 1900-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyke, W.L.; Brockman, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two aquifers in sediments of Cretaceous age, The Peedee and Black Creek aquifers, have become a major source of freshwater in Onslow and Jones Counties in North Carolina since about 1960. Prior to 1960, most water systems in this area withdrew water from younger sand or limestone beds that overlie the Peedee and Black Creek aquifers. Water-quality and economic considerations related to the treatment of water from these shallower aquifers led to increased use of the Peedee and Black Creek aquifers. Water withdrawals from the Black Creek and Peedee aquifers were about 10,000 gallons per day in 1933. By 1986, total withdrawals were about 7.8 million gallons per day, about 90 percent of which was supplied from the Black Creek aquifer. As a result of these withdrawals, ground-water levels have declined throughout Onslow and Jones Counties. The average rate of decline in static water levels in the Peedee aquifer is about 0.6 feet per year in central Jones County and about 1.4 feet per year in northern Onslow County. Rates of water level decline in the Black Creek aquifer average about 8.3 feet per year in Jones County to about 12 feet per year in northern Onslow County. Water levels in the Peedee aquifer have declined as much as 40 feet in Jones County and 80 feet in northern Onslow County since about 1900. During the same period, water levels in the Black Creek aquifer have declined as much as 120 and 160 feet in Jones and northern Onslow Counties, respectively.

  19. Action Tweets Linked to Reduced County-Level HIV Prevalence in the United States: Online Messages and Structural Determinants.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Molly E; Chen, Qijia; Schwartz, H Andrew; Ungar, Lyle H; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-06-01

    HIV is uncommon in most US counties but travels quickly through vulnerable communities when it strikes. Tracking behavior through social media may provide an unobtrusive, naturalistic means of predicting HIV outbreaks and understanding the behavioral and psychological factors that increase communities' risk. General action goals, or the motivation to engage in cognitive and motor activity, may support protective health behavior (e.g., using condoms) or encourage activity indiscriminately (e.g., risky sex), resulting in mixed health effects. We explored these opposing hypotheses by regressing county-level HIV prevalence on action language (e.g., work, plan) in over 150 million tweets mapped to US counties. Controlling for demographic and structural predictors of HIV, more active language was associated with lower HIV rates. By leveraging language used on social media to improve existing predictive models of geographic variation in HIV, future targeted HIV-prevention interventions may have a better chance of reaching high-risk communities before outbreaks occur. PMID:26650382

  20. Guidance and Counselling: What Is the Level of Human and Physical Resource Preparedness in Providing Effective Services in Secondary Schools in Bureti Sub County, Kericho County, Kenya?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheruiyot, David Kipkorir; Orodho, John Aluko

    2015-01-01

    The gist of this study was to examine the human and resource preparedness to provide effective guidance and counselling (G&C) services in secondary schools in Bureti Sub County, Kericho County, Kenya. The study used combinations of descriptive survey and correlation research designs. Stratified sampling technique was employed to select 20…

  1. caGrid-Enabled caBIGTM Silver Level Compatible Head and Neck Cancer Tissue Database System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Bouzyk, Erik; Kuehn, Anna; Muller, Susan; Chen, Zhengjia; Khuri, Fadlo R; Shin, Dong M; Rogatko, André; Tighiouart, Mourad

    2010-01-01

    There are huge amounts of biomedical data generated by research labs in each cancer institution. The data are stored in various formats and accessed through numerous interfaces. It is very difficult to exchange and integrate the data among different cancer institutions, even among different research labs within the same institution, in order to discover useful biomedical knowledge for the healthcare community. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a caGrid-enabled caBIGTM silver level compatible head and neck cancer tissue database system. The system is implemented using a set of open source software and tools developed by the NCI, such as the caCORE SDK and caGrid. The head and neck cancer tissue database system has four interfaces: Web-based, Java API, XML utility, and Web service. The system has been shown to provide robust and programmatically accessible biomedical information services that syntactically and semantically interoperate with other resources. PMID:21589853

  2. caGrid-Enabled caBIG Silver Level Compatible Head and Neck Cancer Tissue Database System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Bouzyk, Erik; Kuehn, Anna; Muller, Susan; Chen, Zhengjia; Khuri, Fadlo R; Shin, Dong M; Rogatko, André; Tighiouart, Mourad

    2010-01-01

    There are huge amounts of biomedical data generated by research labs in each cancer institution. The data are stored in various formats and accessed through numerous interfaces. It is very difficult to exchange and integrate the data among different cancer institutions, even among different research labs within the same institution, in order to discover useful biomedical knowledge for the healthcare community. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a caGrid-enabled caBIG(TM) silver level compatible head and neck cancer tissue database system. The system is implemented using a set of open source software and tools developed by the NCI, such as the caCORE SDK and caGrid. The head and neck cancer tissue database system has four interfaces: Web-based, Java API, XML utility, and Web service. The system has been shown to provide robust and programmatically accessible biomedical information services that syntactically and semantically interoperate with other resources. PMID:21589853

  3. Groundwater level and specific conductance monitoring at Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, Onslow County, North Carolina, 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, monitored water-resources conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers in Onslow County, North Carolina, from November 2007 through September 2008. To comply with North Carolina Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area regulations, large-volume water suppliers in Onslow County must reduce their dependency on the Black Creek aquifer as a water-supply source and have, instead, proposed using the Castle Hayne aquifer as an alternative water-supply source. The Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, uses water obtained from the unregulated surficial and Castle Hayne aquifers for drinking-water supply. Water-level data were collected and field measurements of physical properties were made at 19 wells at 8 locations spanning the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune. These wells were instrumented with near real-time monitoring equipment to collect hourly measurements of water level. Additionally, specific conductance and water temperature were measured hourly in 16 of the 19 wells. Graphs are presented relating altitude of groundwater level to water temperature and specific conductance measurements collected during the study, and the relative vertical gradients between aquifers are discussed. The period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater levels at two well clusters were compared to median monthly mean groundwater levels at these same well clusters for 2008 to determine groundwater-resources conditions. In 2008, water levels were below normal in the 3 wells at one of the well clusters and were normal in 4 wells at the other cluster.

  4. Cooling rates and crystallization dynamics of shallow level pegmatite-aplite dikes, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webber, Karen L.; Simmons, William B.; Falster, Alexander U.; Foord, Eugene E.

    1999-01-01

    Pegmatites of the Pala and Mesa Grande Pegmatite Districts, San Diego County, California are typically thin, sheet-like composite pegmatite-aplite dikes. Aplitic portions of many dikes display pronounced mineralogical layering referred to as "line rock," characterized by fine-grained, garnet-rich bands alternating with albite- and quartz-rich bands. Thermal modeling was performed for four dikes in San Diego County including the 1 m thick Himalaya dike, the 2 m thick Mission dike, the 8 m thick George Ashley dike, and the 25 m thick Stewart dike. Calculations were based on conductive cooling equations accounting for latent heat of crystallization, a melt emplacement temperature of 650 °C into 150 °C fractured, gabbroic country rock at a depth of 5 km, and an estimated 3 wt% initial H2O content in the melt. Cooling to -5 cm/s. Crystal size distribution (CSD) studies of garnet from layered aplites suggest growth rates of about 10-6 cm/s. These results indicate that the dikes cooled and crystallized rapidly, with variable nucleation rates but high overall crystal-growth rates. Initial high nucleation rates coincident with emplacement and strong undercooling can account for the millimeter-size aplite grains. Lower nucleation rates coupled with high growth rates can explain the decimeter-size minerals in the hanging walls, cores, and miarolitic cavities of the pegmatites. The presence of tourmaline and/or lepidolite throughout these dikes suggests that although the melts were initially H2O-undersaturated, high melt concentrations of incompatible (or fluxing) components such as B, F, and Li (±H2O), aided in the development of large pegmatitic crystals that grew rapidly in the short times suggested by the conductive cooling models.

  5. Statistical air quality predictions for public health surveillance: evaluation and generation of county level metrics of PM2.5 for the environmental public health tracking network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed county level metrics for the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network) to characterize potential population exposure to airborne particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5). These metrics are based on Federal Reference Method (FRM) air monitor data in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS); however, monitor data are limited in space and time. In order to understand air quality in all areas and on days without monitor data, the CDC collaborated with the EPA in the development of hierarchical Bayesian (HB) based predictions of PM2.5 concentrations. This paper describes the generation and evaluation of HB-based county level estimates of PM2.5. Methods We used three geo-imputation approaches to convert grid-level predictions to county level estimates. We used Pearson (r) and Kendall Tau-B (τ) correlation coefficients to assess the consistency of the relationship, and examined the direct differences (by county) between HB-based estimates and AQS-based concentrations at the daily level. We further compared the annual averages using Tukey mean-difference plots. Results During the year 2005, fewer than 20% of the counties in the conterminous United States (U.S.) had PM2.5 monitoring and 32% of the conterminous U.S. population resided in counties with no AQS monitors. County level estimates resulting from population-weighted centroid containment approach were correlated more strongly with monitor-based concentrations (r = 0.9; τ = 0.8) than were estimates from other geo-imputation approaches. The median daily difference was −0.2 μg/m3 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 1.9 μg/m3 and the median relative daily difference was −2.2% with an IQR of 17.2%. Under-prediction was more prevalent at higher concentrations and for counties in the western U.S. Conclusions While the relationship between county level HB

  6. Highest Vaccine Uptake after School-Based Delivery - A County-Level Evaluation of the Implementation Strategies for HPV Catch-Up Vaccination in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Rehn, Moa; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Wallensten, Anders; Sparén, Pär; Netterlid, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background The Swedish school-based vaccination programme offers HPV vaccine to girls born ≥1999 in 5-6th grade. In 2012, all counties introduced free-of-charge catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting girls born 1993–1998. Varying vaccine uptake in the catch-up group by December 2012 suggested that some implementation strategies were more successful than others. In order to inform future vaccination campaigns, we assessed the impact of different implementation strategies on the county-level catch-up vaccine uptake. Methods We conducted an ecological study including all Swedish counties (n = 21), asking regional health offices about the information channels they used and where vaccination of the catch-up target group took place in their counties. The uptake of ≥1 dose by 30 September 2014 was estimated using data from the voluntary national vaccination register. We investigated associations between counties’ catch-up vaccine uptake, information channels and vaccination settings by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using negative binomial regression models. Results County level catch-up vaccine uptake varied between 49–84%. All counties offered vaccination through primary health care settings. Apart from this eight (34%) also offered the vaccine in some of their schools, four (19%) in all their schools, and two (10%) in other health care centres. The information channels most frequently used were: information at the national on-line health care consulting web-page (100%), letter/invitations (90%), and advertisement (81%). Counties offering vaccination to girls in all schools and counties offering vaccination in some of their schools, reached higher vaccine uptake compared to counties not offering vaccination in any of their schools (all schools adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, some schools adjusted IRR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.3). Conclusion Counties offering HPV vaccination to catch-up groups in schools reached

  7. Ground-water levels in the lower Paleozoic and Precambrian crystalline rocks, southeastern Chester County, Pennsylvania, July and August 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garges, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A water table contour map of the lower Paleozoic and Precambrian crystalline rocks of southeastern Chester County, Pennsylvania was constructed on the basis of water levels measured in 261 wells in July and August 1986, elevations of 11 springs that were flowing in July and August 1986, and water levels measured in 15 wells. Pre-1986 measurements were incorporated on the map to provide control in areas where more-recent data were not available. The area of crystalline rocks underlies Thornbury, Westtown, East Goshen, and West Goshen Townships, parts of East Whiteland and West Whiteland Townships; and West Chester Borough. Water table altitudes under natural conditions range from 544 ft. above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD of 1929) near Immaculata College to 234 ft. above NGVD of 1929 near Cheyney College. (USGS)

  8. The link between unemployment and crime rate fluctuations: An analysis at the county, state, and national levels.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Julie; Land, Kenneth C

    2012-05-01

    Cantor and Land (1985) developed a theoretical model that proposed two pathways through which economic activity - as indexed by the aggregate unemployment rate - could affect the rate of criminal activity. The first is by increasing levels of criminal motivation within the population as deteriorating economic conditions affect social strain and social control; the second is by influencing the availability and vulnerability of criminal targets and thus the number of criminal opportunities. Although much empirical research has applied this theoretical model, few analyses have done so at disaggregated units of analysis. We present the most comprehensive analysis to date by empirically evaluating this model with data on 400 of the largest US counties - and examine the effects of aggregation on results as these county data are combined to the state and national levels - for the years 1978-2005. For seven Index crimes at each of the three levels of analysis, and with or without controls for structural covariates at each level, the directional effects hypothesized by Cantor and Land are found for 78 out of 84 estimated relationships. Even after taking into account the lack of statistical independence of these estimates by drawing on recently developed statistical theory, this is a very unlikely outcome. In accordance with expectations based on theory and prior research, (a) some of these relationships are weak and not statistically significant, and (b) the strongest and most consistent patterns of relationships for both the crime opportunity and crime motivation effects are found for three property crimes: burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft. Suggestions for further research on this topic are given. PMID:23017802

  9. Seres Vivos. Nivel I. Basado en el curso de estudios de Ciencia de Montgomery County Public Schools. (Living Beings. Level 1. Based on the Montgomery County Public Schools Science Studies Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senger, Graciela

    This curriculum unit, developed by the Montgomery County Public Schools, Maryland, was designed for use in the elementary level foreign language immersion program. It is geared toward the first grade science classroom. The unit includes instructional and performance objectives, necessary vocabulary lists, optional language structure sections,…

  10. Electronic nicotine delivery system landscape in licensed tobacco retailers: results of a county-level survey in Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Brame, L S; Mowls, D S; Damphousse, K E; Beebe, L A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently emerged as a component of the tobacco retail environment. The aims of this study were to describe the availability, types of ENDS and placement of ENDS relative to traditional tobacco products at franchised licensed tobacco retailers and non-franchised licensed tobacco retailers. Design Observational study. Setting Franchised and non-franchised tobacco retailers in Cleveland County, Oklahoma, USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling ENDS, the variability in brands of ENDS sold, the location of the ENDS within the retailers, the quantity of ENDS sold compared with traditional tobacco products, and the presence of outdoor signage. Results Data from 57 randomly sampled tobacco retailers were used to describe the presence of ENDS at independent non-franchised and franchised tobacco retailers. The overwhelming majority (90%) of licensed tobacco retailers sold ENDS, and differences were observed between franchised and non-franchised stores. 45 of the 51 retailers (88%) selling ENDS had them placed at the point of sale. 2 of the 21 franchised retailers (9.5%) had ENDS placed at ≤3½ feet above floor level compared to none of the 30 non-franchised retailers (0%). Conclusions This small study is the first to characterise ENDS within the tobacco retail environment in a county in Oklahoma, USA. The results from this study demonstrate the complexity of the tobacco retail landscape and generate questions for future studies regarding the incorporation and placement of ENDS in tobacco retail environments. PMID:27266774

  11. County-level estimates of nutrient inputs to the landsurface of the conterminous United States, 1982-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruddy, Barbara C.; Lorenz, David L.; Mueller, David K.

    2006-01-01

    Nutrient input data for fertilizer use, livestock manure, and atmospheric deposition from various sources were estimated and allocated to counties in the conterminous United States for the years 1982 through 2001. These nationally consistent nutrient input data are needed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program for investigations of stream- and ground-water quality. For nitrogen, the largest source was farm fertilizer; for phosphorus, the largest sources were farm fertilizer and livestock manure. Nutrient inputs from fertilizer use in nonfarm areas, while locally important, were an order of magnitude smaller than inputs from other sources. Nutrient inputs from all sources increased between 1987 and 1997, but the relative proportions of nutrients from each source were constant. Farm-fertilizer inputs were highest in the upper Midwest, along eastern coastal areas, and in irrigated areas of the West. Nonfarm-fertilizer use was similar in major metropolitan areas throughout the Nation, but was more extensive in the more populated Eastern and Central States and in California. Areas of greater manure inputs were located throughout the South-central and Southeastern States and in scattered areas of the West. Nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere generally increased from west to east and is related to the location of major sources and the effects of precipitation and prevailing winds. These nutrient-loading data at the county level are expected to be the fundamental basis for national and regional assessments of water quality for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program and other large-scale programs.

  12. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) county-level alkaline emission estimates for unpaved roads. Dust Devils and wind erosion, 1985 (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Masser, C.C.; Barnard, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The two floppy diskettes contain the data summary tables included in Appendices A, B, and C of the report Development of County-Level Wind Erosion and Unpaved Road Alkaline Emission Estimates for the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. The data tables are formatted in LOTUS 1-2-3 version 2.01 format (although they were written using Microsoft EXCEL Version 2.1). Each of the files represent one of the Appendices. It should be noted that in the report, only counties that had non-zero Dust Devil emissions were included in Appendix C. The corresponding file provides information for all counties in the continental U.S. even though most counties have Dust Devil emissions equal to zero.

  13. Estimating Impaired Waters on a County Level for Public Health Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the population-level impact of water quality on health can be difficult. Water quality data are measured at a watershed level and health data are organized at different levels of aggregation. To address this discrepancy and enable the consideration of water quality for ...

  14. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the US state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the US state level included aggregate indices based on the…

  15. Water-level conditions in the upper Cape Fear Aquifer, 1994-98, in parts of Bladen and Robeson counties, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Water-level measurements were made on a periodic basis from October 1994 through November 1998 in 17 wells that tap the upper Cape Fear aquifer. The approximately 730-square-mile study area in Bladen and Robeson Counties is in the southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Water-level declines occurred in the aquifer throughout much of the area as a result of pumping during this period. The greatest decline was about 42 feet in Bladen County. Water levels from the wells in the fall of 1998 were used to construct a map of the potentiometric surface of the upper Cape Fear aquifer. This map can be used to infer the direction of ground-water movement in the aquifer. Withdrawals from wells at pumping centers, such as in the Tar Heel and Elizabethtown areas in Bladen County, have caused ground water to flow toward pumped wells, resulting in cones of depression in the potentiometric surface.

  16. The IUPAC Database of Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels and Transitions of Water Isotopologues from Experiment and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Császár, Attila G.; Furtenbacher, T.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.

    2014-06-01

    The results of an IUPAC Task Group formed in 2004 on "A Database of Water Transitions from Experiment and Theory" (Project No. 2004-035-1-100) are presented. Energy levels and recommended labels involving exact and approximate quantum numbers for the main isotopologues of water in the gas phase, H216O, H218O, H217O, HD16O, HD18O, HD17O, D216O, D218O, and D217O, are determined from measured transition wavenumbers. The transition wavenumbers and energy levels are validated using the MARVEL (measured active rotational-vibrational energy levels) approach and first-principles nuclear motion computations. The extensive data, e.g., more than 200,000 transitions have been handled for H216O, including lines and levels that are required for analysis and synthesis of spectra, thermochemical applications, the construction of theoretical models, and the removal of spectral contamination by ubiquitous water lines. These datasets can also be used to assess where measurements are lacking for each isotopologue and to provide accurate frequencies for many yet-to-be measured transitions. The lack of high-quality frequency calibration standards in the near infrared is identified as an issue that has hindered the determination of high-accuracy energy levels at higher frequencies. The generation of spectra using the MARVEL energy levels combined with transition intensities computed using high accuracy ab initio dipole moment surfaces are discussed.

  17. Union County Public Schools Action Research: Comparing Early Literacy Interventions Used in Union County Public Schools; Reading Recovery vs. Leveled Literacy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    School systems across the country continuously seek to find ways to increase academic achievement at all grades. Possessing the ability to read is one of the keys to academic success; not being able to presents many challenges. Union County Public Schools and the state of North Carolina expect students leaving their kindergarten year to be able to…

  18. Understanding the relative influence of climatic variations and agricultural management practices on crop yields at the US county level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, G.; Zhang, X.; Huang, M.; Yang, Q.; Rafique, R.; Asrar, G.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Crop yields are largely determined by climate variations and agricultural management practices, such as irrigation, fertilization and residue management. Understanding the role of these factors in regulating crop yield variations is not only important for improved crop yield production, but also equally valuable for future crop yield prediction and food security assessments. Recently, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented and evaluated for simulating corn, soybean and cereals at coarse aerial resolutions of 2 degrees (2000x2000 km). To better understand the underlying mechanisms controlling yield variations, we implemented and validated the agricultural version of CLM (CLM-crop) at a 0.125 degree resolution over the Conterminous United States (CONUS). We conducted a suite of numerical experiments to untangle the relative influence of climatic variations (temperature, precipitation, and radiation) and agricultural management practices on yield variations for the past 30 years at the US county level. Preliminary results show that the model with default parameter settings captures well the temporal variations in crop yields, as compared with the actual yield reported by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). However, the magnitude of simulated crop yields is substantially higher, especially in the Mid-western US. We find that improved characterization of fertilizers and irrigation practices is key to model performance. Retrospectively (1979-2012), crop yields are more sensitive to changes in climate factors (such as temperature) than to changes in crop management practices. The results of this study advances understanding of the dominant factors in regulating the crop yield variations at the county level, which is essential for credible prediction of crop yields in a changing climate, under different agricultural management practices.

  19. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from commercial fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987–2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment program requires nutrient input for analysis of the national and regional assessment of water quality. Detailed information on nutrient inputs to the environment are needed to understand and address the many serious problems that arise from excess nutrients in the streams and groundwater of the Nation. This report updates estimated county-level farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input from commercial fertilizer sales for the conterminous United States for 1987 through 2006. Estimates were calculated from the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials fertilizer sales data, Census of Agriculture fertilizer expenditures, and U.S. Census Bureau county population. A previous national approach for deriving farm and nonfarm fertilizer nutrient estimates was evaluated, and a revised method for selecting representative states to calculate national farm and nonfarm proportions was developed. A national approach was used to estimate farm and nonfarm fertilizer inputs because not all states distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, and the quality of fertilizer reporting varies from year to year. For states that distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, the spatial distribution of the ratios of nonfarm-to-total fertilizer estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus calculated using the national-based farm and nonfarm proportions were similar to the spatial distribution of the ratios generated using state-based farm and nonfarm proportions. In addition, the relative highs and lows in the temporal distribution of farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input at the state level were maintained—the periods of high and low usage coincide between national- and state-based values. With a few exceptions, nonfarm nitrogen estimates were found to be reasonable when compared to the amounts that would result if the lawn application rates recommended by state and university agricultural agencies were used. Also

  20. Geologic map and map database of northeastern San Francisco Bay region, California, [including] most of Solano County and parts of Napa, Marin, Contra Costa, San Joaquin, Sacramento, Yolo, and Sonoma Counties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, Russell Walter; Jones, David Lawrence; Brabb, Earl E.

    2002-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (nesfmf.ps, nesfmf.pdf, nesfmf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller.

  1. Quality assurance and analysis of water levels in wells on Pahute Mesa and vicinity, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Periodic and continual water-level data from 1963 to 1998 were compiled and quality assured for 65 observation wells on Pahute Mesa and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada. As part of the quality assurance of all water levels, ancillary data pertinent to computing hydraulic heads in wells were compiled and analyzed. Quality-assured water levels that were not necessarily in error but which did not represent static heads in the regional aquifer system, or required some other qualification, were flagged. Water levels flagged include those recovering from recent pumping or well construction, water levels affected by nuclear tests, and measurements affected by borehole deviations. A cursory examination of about 30 wells with available water-level and down-hole temperature data indicate that water levels in most wells on Pahute Mesa would not be significantly affected by temperature if corrected to 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Wells with large corrections (greater than 10 feet) are those with long water columns (greater than 1,500 feet of water above the assumed point of inflow) in combination with mean water-column temperatures exceeding 105 degrees Fahrenheit. Water-level fluctuations in wells on Pahute Mesa are caused by several factors including infiltration of precipitation, barometric pressure, Earth tides, ground-water pumpage, and seismic events caused by tectonic activity and underground nuclear testing. No observed water-level fluctuations were attributed to a naturally occurring earthquake. The magnitude and duration of changes in water levels caused by nuclear tests are affected by the test size and the distance from a well to the test. Identifying water levels that might be affected by past nuclear tests is difficult because pre-testing water-level data are sparse. Hydrologically significant trends were found in 13 of 25 wells with multiple years of water-level record. The largest change in water levels (1,029 feet in 25 years) occurred in well U-19v PS 1D as a result of

  2. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Kent W; Elliott, William S

    2015-10-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ((238)U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74-145 mBq L(-1) (2.0-3.9 pCi L(-1)). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger and Shelburn formations, or the

  3. Water-level conditions in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers, 1992, in parts of Bladen and Robeson counties, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, Alfred Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Water-level measurements were made in 68 wells throughout an area of about 860 square miles in Bladen and Robeson Counties, North Carolina, during September and October 1992. Water levels from 58 wells were used to determine the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Black Creek aquifer. A map of the potentiometric surface shows the potential for ground water to flow from recharge areas in the local uplands to discharge areas, such as local streams and wells. Pumping from wells at major pumping centers, such as Elizabethtown in Bladen County and Lumberton in Robeson County, where water-level declines of more than 12 feet were recorded from 1988 to 1992, has resulted in cones of depression in the potentiometric surface. The cones were about 4 and 6 miles long across the major axes beneath the Elizabethtown and Lumberton areas, respectively, in 1992. Water levels measured in eight wells in 1988 and 1992, supplemented with water levels in two additional wells from driller's well- construction records, were used to estimate average yearly rates of ground-water change for the upper Cape Fear aquifer for part of the study area. During 1988-92, water-level declines occurred in the aquifer throughout much of the area as a result of pumping. The greatest decline, an average of 4.1 feet per year, was in Bladen County.

  4. A County-Level Examination of the Relationship Between HIV and Social Determinants of Health: 40 States, 2006-2008

    PubMed Central

    Z, Gant; M, Lomotey; H.I, Hall; X, Hu; X, Guo; R, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social determinants of health (SDH) are the social and physical factors that can influence unhealthy or risky behavior. Social determinants of health can affect the chances of acquiring an infectious disease – such as HIV – through behavioral influences and limited preventative and healthcare access. We analyzed the relationship between social determinants of health and HIV diagnosis rates to better understand the disparity in rates between different populations in the United States. Methods: Using National HIV Surveillance data and American Community Survey data at the county level, we examined the relationships between social determinants of health variables (e.g., proportion of whites, income inequality) and HIV diagnosis rates (averaged for 2006-2008) among adults and adolescents from 40 states with mature name-based HIV surveillance. Results: Analysis of data from 1,560 counties showed a significant, positive correlation between HIV diagnosis rates and income inequality (Pearson correlation coefficient ρ = 0.40) and proportion unmarried – ages >15 (ρ = 0.52). There was a significant, negative correlation between proportion of whites and rates (ρ = -0.67). Correlations were low between racespecific social determinants of health indicators and rates. Conclusions/Implications: Overall, HIV diagnosis rates increased as income inequality and the proportion unmarried increased, and rates decreased as proportion of whites increased. The data reflect the higher HIV prevalence among non-whites. Although statistical correlations were moderate, identifying and understanding these social determinants of health variables can help target prevention efforts to aid in reducing HIV diagnosis rates. Future analyses need to determine whether the higher proportion of singles reflects higher populations of gay and bisexual men. PMID:22408698

  5. Effects of pumping on ground-water levels near Taylorsville, Bartholomew County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Planert, Michael; Tucci, Patrick

    1979-01-01

    A two-dimensional digital flow model was used to estimate the effects of continuous pumping of a public-supply well field on the ground-water levels near Taylorsville, Indiana. Results of the modeling showed that the water levels would decline from less than 1 to about 4.5 feet within the study area and a maximum of 1 to 2 feet in Taylorsville in response to a pumping rate of 700 gallons per minute. Model results also show that the ground-water system would reach steady state in approximately 5 years after pumping begins. Corrections applied to water-level declines indicated by the model, to account for the effects of partial penetration of the aquifer by wells, showed that these effects, although substantial in the pumping wells, are negligible 200 feet from the wells.

  6. A new analysis of hypoxia tolerance in fishes using a database of critical oxygen level (P crit).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicholas J; Urbina, Mauricio A; Reardon, Erin E; McKenzie, David J; Wilson, Rod W

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common occurrence in aquatic habitats, and it is becoming an increasingly frequent and widespread environmental perturbation, primarily as the result of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and climate change. An in-depth understanding of the hypoxia tolerance of fishes, and how this varies among individuals and species, is required to make accurate predictions of future ecological impacts and to provide better information for conservation and fisheries management. The critical oxygen level (P crit) has been widely used as a quantifiable trait of hypoxia tolerance. It is defined as the oxygen level below which the animal can no longer maintain a stable rate of oxygen uptake (oxyregulate) and uptake becomes dependent on ambient oxygen availability (the animal transitions to oxyconforming). A comprehensive database of P crit values, comprising 331 measurements from 96 published studies, covering 151 fish species from 58 families, provides the most extensive and up-to-date analysis of hypoxia tolerance in teleosts. Methodologies for determining P crit are critically examined to evaluate its usefulness as an indicator of hypoxia tolerance in fishes. Various abiotic and biotic factors that interact with hypoxia are analysed for their effect on P crit, including temperature, CO2, acidification, toxic metals and feeding. Salinity, temperature, body mass and routine metabolic rate were strongly correlated with P crit; 20% of variation in the P crit data set was explained by these four variables. An important methodological issue not previously considered is the inconsistent increase in partial pressure of CO2 within a closed respirometer during the measurement of P crit. Modelling suggests that the final partial pressure of CO2 reached can vary from 650 to 3500 µatm depending on the ambient pH and salinity, with potentially major effects on blood acid-base balance and P crit itself. This database will form part of a widely accessible repository of

  7. National level biomass database comparison for Mexico in relation to vegetation degradation stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, Jean Francois; Gao, Yan; Paneque-Galvez, Jaime; Rodriguez, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic land cover change, e.g. deforestation and forest degradation cause carbon emission. To estimate deforestation and forest degradation, it is important to have reliable data on vegetation and carbon distribution. In Mexico, land cover maps are available at national level in which vegetation is described in four statuses: primary, secondary ("woodland"), secondary ("shrub land"), and secondary ("grass") according to degradation stages. Data on biomass/carbon distribution are also available including: (1) INFyS: national forest and soil inventory; (2) MODIS WHRC: biomass data by Woodshole Research Center for Pantropical region using MODIS data; (3) PALSAR EHRC: biomass data produced by WHRC for Mexico using PALSAR data; (4) MODIS VCF: Vegetation Continuous Fields percent tree cover layer. The aim of this study is 1) to evaluate if degradation stages and biomass are positively correlated, e.g. better preserved vegetation has more biomass, and 2) to evaluate the spatial patterns of the comparison in 1) using geographically weighted regression (GWR), 3) to assess the correlation among the biomass datasets including VCF data. Results show that 1) in general, the biomass value decreases following the degradation stages and the most degraded stage corresponds to the least biomass value. Cuzick value shows that this trend is significant in most of the cases. However, there is serious overlapping in biomass values in various stages. 2) GWR results show that in some regions the four disturbance stages corresponds better with the difference in biomass values. The regions with higher parameter value show better correlation. 3) The biomass data from PALSAR WHRC show higher Spearman values and thus stronger correlation with the biomass data from INFyS. However, due to that biomass data from INfyS and PALSAR WHRC are not independent; we consider the better correlation is from the rest two biomass datasets.

  8. A temporal and spatial analysis of ground-water levels for effective monitoring in Huron County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.; Sweat, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Quarterly water-level measurements were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of a monitoring network of 26 wells in Huron County, Michigan. Trends were identified as constant levels and autoregressive components were computed at all wells on the basis of data from 1993 to 1997 using structural time series analysis. Fixed seasonal components were identified at 22 wells and outliers were identified at 23 wells. The 95-percent confidence intervals were forecast for water-levels during the first and second quarters of 1998. Intervals in the first quarter were consistent with 92.3 percent of the measured values. In the second quarter, measured values were with the forecast intervals only 65.4 percent of the time. Unusually low precipitation during the second quarter is thought to have contributed to the reduced reliability of the second-quarter forecasts. Spatial interrelations among wells were investigated on the basis of the autoregressive components, which were filtered to create a set of innovation sequences that were temporally uncorrelated. The empirical covariance among the innovation sequences indicated both positive and negative spatial interrelations. The negative covariance components are considered to be physically implausible and to have resulted from random sampling error. Graphical modeling, a form of multivariate analysis, was used to model the covariance structure. Results indicate that only 29 of the 325 possible partial correlations among the water-level innovations were statistically significant. The model covariance matrix, corresponding to the model partial correlation structure, contained only positive elements. This model covariance was sequentially partitioned to compute a set of partial covariance matrices that were used to rank the effectiveness of the 26 monitoring wells from greatest to least. Results, for example, indicate that about 50 percent of the uncertainty of the water-level innovations currently monitored by the 26-well network

  9. Psychological Language on Twitter Predicts County-Level Heart Disease Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Schwartz, Hansen Andrew; Kern, Margaret L.; Park, Gregory; Labarthe, Darwin R.; Merchant, Raina M.; Jha, Sneha; Agrawal, Megha; Dziurzynski, Lukasz A.; Sap, Maarten; Weeg, Christopher; Larson, Emily E.; Ungar, Lyle H.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Hostility and chronic stress are known risk factors for heart disease, but they are costly to assess on a large scale. We used language expressed on Twitter to characterize community-level psychological correlates of age-adjusted mortality from atherosclerotic heart disease (AHD). Language patterns reflecting negative social relationships, disengagement, and negative emotions—especially anger—emerged as risk factors; positive emotions and psychological engagement emerged as protective factors. Most correlations remained significant after controlling for income and education. A cross-sectional regression model based only on Twitter language predicted AHD mortality significantly better than did a model that combined 10 common demographic, socioeconomic, and health risk factors, including smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Capturing community psychological characteristics through social media is feasible, and these characteristics are strong markers of cardiovascular mortality at the community level. PMID:25605707

  10. Records of wells and water-level fluctuations in the Aberdeen-Springfield area, Bingham and Power counties, Idaho in 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisco, Harold G.

    1955-01-01

    This report contains records of observation wells and water-level fluctuations for the calendar year 1954 in the Aberdeen-Springfield area, Bingham and Power Counties, Idaho.  Systematic observations in the Aberdeen-Springfield area were begun by the Geological Survey in 1952. Each year a progress report is issued and this report is number 3 in the series.

  11. The Efficacy of PCI's Reading Program--Level One: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empirical Education Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    PCI Education sought scientifically based evidence on the effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program--Level One" for students with severe disabilities. During the 2007-2008 academic year. Empirical Education conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) in two Florida districts, Brevard and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. For this experimental…

  12. The Efficacy of PCI's "Reading Program--Level One": A Report of a Randomized Experiment in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toby, Megan; Ma, Boya; Jaciw, Andrew; Cabalo, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    PCI Education sought scientifically based evidence on the effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program--Level One" for students with severe disabilities. During the 2007-2008 academic year. Empirical Education conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) in two Florida districts, Brevard and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. For this experimental…

  13. Source parameters for the 1952 Kern County earthquake, California: A joint inversion of leveling and triangulation observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawden, G.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coseismic leveling and triangulation observations are used to determine the faulting geometry and slip distribution of the July 21, 1952, Mw 7.3 Kem County earthquake on the White Wolf fault. A singular value decomposition inversion is used to assess the ability of the geodetic network to resolve slip along a multisegment fault and shows that the network is sufficient to resolve slip along the surface rupture to a depth of 10 km. Below 10 km, the network can only resolve dip slip near the fault ends. The preferred source model is a two-segment right-stepping fault with a strike of 51?? and a dip of 75?? SW. The epicentral patch has deep (6-27 km) leftlateral oblique slip, while the northeastern patch has shallow (1-12.5 km) reverse slip. There is nearly uniform reverse slip (epicentral, 1.6 m; northeast, 1.9 m), with 3.6 m of left-lateral strike slip limited to the epicentral patch. The seismic moment is M0= 9.2 ?? 0.5 ?? 1019 N m (Mw= 7.2). The signal-to-noise ratio of the leveling and triangulation data is reduced by 96% and 49%, respectively. The slip distribution from the preferred model matches regional geomorphic features and may provide a driving mechanism for regional shortening across the Comanche thrust and structural continuity with the Scodie seismic lineament to the northeast.

  14. Records of ground-water levels and effects of pumping in the Ardmore well-field area, Carter County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, P.R.

    1965-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to outline the results of work done by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Ardmore well-field area, near Newport, Carter County. The work, completed in two periods between April 1964 and June 1965, was done as part of the ground-water program carried out by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The study in the report area included: (1) a physical inventory of wells in the vicinity of the Ardmore well field (fig. 1); (2) information on depths, perforated intervals, ground-water levels, and water use (table 1); (3) records of water-level fluctuations in deep and shallow wells (table 2) to determine if there is a hydraulic connection between the deep zones tapped by Ardmore's wells and the shallow and intermediate zones tapped by domestic and stock wells in the surrounding area; and (4) general information on the geologic and hydrologic features that may be of use in evaluating the ground-water potential of the Wichita Formation, the principal aquifer in the area. (available as photostat copy only)

  15. How can hydrology inform economic policymaking? An assessment of water stress at the county level for the Northeastern United States using two concepts of water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Nicoletti, C.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vörösmarty, C.; Fekete, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by the Dublin-Rio Principles for water management, there is a global call to recognize the economic dimension of the interaction between societies and water resources. As frequently stated in the scientific water literature, the complexity of this interaction demands conceptual integration among diverse disciplines to both understand the critical issues and to design a set of policies to regulate the use of this resource. Water economic policy, economists are frequently told, is to be based not only on sound economic principles and knowledge, but also on hydrological realities. This paper offers a contribution for such an integration by showing how the use of two hydrological concepts for available water changes the evaluation of water stress at the county level for the Northeastern US. The analysis further suggests patterns of source-dependency that are proposed as relevant for economic policy design. Using USGS estimations for water economic withdrawals for 1985 through 2005, and benefiting from runoff data for the same period obtained from the WBMplus hydrological model, two sets of county-specific water stress indicators (WSIs) are built as ratios of withdrawals to two concepts of available water: internal runoff generated within each county, and internal runoff plus incoming surface flows generated elsewhere. A vis-a-vis value comparison between these sets yields two main findings. First, changes in the values of WSIs higher than 50% are observed for almost 70% of the 433 counties considered, a fact that suggests that small-scale stress assessments are highly sensitive to the utilized concept of water supply. Second, counties’ dependence on water sources is heterogeneous and can be classified into three groups by whether they mainly depend on internal runoff, on incoming flows, or on the mining of groundwater. The classification criterion interprets counties as mainly depending on internal runoff or on groundwater when their pairs of WSIs are of

  16. Permeability of covers over low-level radioactive-waste burial trenches, West Valley, Cattaraugus County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    1980-01-01

    Among the facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, near the hamlet of West Valley in the northern part of Cattaraugus County, N.Y., is a State-licensed burial ground for commercial low-level radioactive wastes. The 11-acre burial ground contains a series of trenches excavated in a silty-clay till of low permeability that contains scattered pods of silt, sand, and gravel. Gas pressure in the unsaturated parts of radioactive waste burial trenches responds to fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. Measurements of atmospheric pressure and the differential pressure between the trench gas and the atmosphere on several dates in 1977-78 were used to calculate hydraulic conductivity of the reworked silty-clay till that covers the trenches. Generally the hydraulic conductivity of covers over trenches that had a history of rapidly rising water levels are higher, at least seasonally, than covers over trenches in which the water level remained low. This supports the hypothesis that recharge occurs through the cover, presumably through fractures caused by desiccation and (or) subsidence. Hydraulic conductivities of the cover as calculated from gas- and air-pressure measurements at several trenches were 100 to 1,000 times greater than those calculated from the increase in water levels in the trenches. This difference suggests that the values obtained from the air- and gas-pressure measurements need to be adjusted and at present are not directly usable in ground-water flux calculations. The difference in magnitude of values may be caused by rapidly decreasing hydraulic conductivity during periods of recharge or by the clogging of fractures with sediment washed in by runoff. (USGS)

  17. Map of the Carpinteria area and vicinity, Santa Barbara County, California, showing water-level contours for March 1983, and net change in water level between March 1982 and March 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, W.R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A water-level contour map of the Carpinteria area, California, was constructed using 34 water-level measurements made by the Carpinteria County Water District in March 1983. Also shown on the map are five hydrographs that show water-level fluctuations in each well between 1978 and 1983. In addition, a water-level net-change map for March 1982 to March 1983 is shown. (USGS)

  18. Giardiasis in the United States - an epidemiologic and geospatial analysis of county-level drinking water and sanitation data, 1993-2010.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Kerry; Collier, Sarah; Derado, Gordana; Yoder, Jonathan; Gargano, Julia Warner

    2016-04-01

    Giardiasis is the most commonly reported intestinal parasitic infection in the United States. Outbreak investigations have implicated poorly maintained private wells, and hypothesized a role for wastewater systems in giardiasis transmission. Surveillance data consistently show geographic variability in reported giardiasis incidence. We explored county-level associations between giardiasis cases, household water and sanitation (1990 census), and US Census division. Using 368,847 reported giardiasis cases (1993-2010), we mapped county-level giardiasis incidence rates, private well reliance, and septic system reliance, and assessed spatiotemporal clustering of giardiasis. We used negative binomial regression to evaluate county-level associations between giardiasis rates, region, and well and septic reliance, adjusted for demographics. Adjusted giardiasis incidence rate ratios (aIRRs) were highest (aIRR 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-1.5) in counties with higher private well reliance. There was no significant association between giardiasis and septic system reliance in adjusted models. Consistent with visual geographic distributions, the aIRR of giardiasis was highest in New England (aIRR 3.3; 95% CI 2.9-3.9; reference West South Central region). Our results suggest that, in the USA, private wells are relevant to giardiasis transmission; giardiasis risk factors might vary regionally; and up-to-date, location-specific national data on water sources and sanitation methods are needed. PMID:27105412

  19. An Ecologic Analysis of County-Level PM2.5 Concentrations and Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa C.; Davis, J. Allen; Luben, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have explored the relationship between PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence. Although results are mixed, some studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between PM2.5 and lung cancer mortality. Using an ecologic study design, we examined the county-level associations between PM2.5 concentrations (2002–2005) and lung cancer incidence and mortality in North Carolina (2002–2006). Positive trends were observed between PM2.5 concentrations and lung cancer incidence and mortality; however, the R2 for both were <0.10. The slopes for the relationship between PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence and mortality were 1.26 (95% CI 0.31, 2.21, p-value 0.01) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.09, 1.36, p-value 0.03) per 1 μg/m3 PM2.5, respectively. These associations were slightly strengthened with the inclusion of variables representing socioeconomic status and smoking. Although variability is high, thus reflecting the importance of tobacco smoking and other etiologic agents that influence lung cancer incidence and mortality besides PM2.5, a positive trend is observed between PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence and mortality. This suggests the possibility of an association between PM2.5 concentrations and lung cancer incidence and mortality. PMID:21776206

  20. Final Systems Development Report for the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-18

    The Systems Development Report represents the third major step in the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mound Nevada. The first of these steps was to forge a Research Design that would serve as a guide for the overall research process. The second step was the construction of the Base Case, the purpose of which was to describe existing conditions in Clark County in the specified analytic areas of Economic-Demographic/Fiscal, Emergency Planning and Management, Transportation and Sociocultural analysis. The base case description will serve as a basis for assessing changes in these topic areas that might result from the Yucca Mountain project. These changes will be assessed by analyzing conditions with and without repository development in the county. Prior to performing such assessments, however, the snapshot type of data found in the base case must be operationalized or systematized to allow for more dynamic data utilization. In other words, a data system that can be used to analyze the consequences of the introduction of different variables (or variable values) in the Clark County context must be constructed. Such a system must be capable of being updated through subsequent data collection and monitoring efforts to both provide a rolling base case and supply information necessary to construct trend analyses. For example, during the Impact Assessment phase of the study process, the without repository analysis is accomplished by analyzing growth for the county given existing conditions and likely trends. These data are then compared to the with Yucca Mountain project conditions anticipated for the county. Similarly, once the emergency planning management and response needs associated with the repository are described, these needs will be juxtaposed against existing (and various future) capacity(ies) in order to determine the nature and magnitude of impacts in this analytic area. Analogous tasks

  1. Association of short-term exposure to ground-level ozone and respiratory outpatient clinic visits in a rural location – Sublette County, Wyoming, 2008–2011

    SciTech Connect

    Pride, Kerry R.; Peel, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Byron F.; Busacker, Ashley; Grandpre, Joseph; Bisgard, Kristine M.; Yip, Fuyuen Y.; Murphy, Tracy D.

    2015-02-15

    Objective: Short-term exposure to ground-level ozone has been linked to adverse respiratory and other health effects; previous studies typically have focused on summer ground-level ozone in urban areas. During 2008–2011, Sublette County, Wyoming (population: ~10,000 persons), experienced periods of elevated ground-level ozone concentrations during the winter. This study sought to evaluate the association of daily ground-level ozone concentrations and health clinic visits for respiratory disease in this rural county. Methods: Clinic visits for respiratory disease were ascertained from electronic billing records of the two clinics in Sublette County for January 1, 2008–December 31, 2011. A time-stratified case-crossover design, adjusted for temperature and humidity, was used to investigate associations between ground-level ozone concentrations measured at one station and clinic visits for a respiratory health concern by using an unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days and single-day lags of 0 day, 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days. Results: The data set included 12,742 case-days and 43,285 selected control-days. The mean ground-level ozone observed was 47±8 ppb. The unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days was consistent with a null association (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.990–1.012); results for lags 0, 2, and 3 days were consistent with the null. However, the results for lag 1 were indicative of a positive association; for every 10-ppb increase in the 8-h maximum average ground-level ozone, a 3.0% increase in respiratory clinic visits the following day was observed (aOR: 1.031; 95% CI: 0.994–1.069). Season modified the adverse respiratory effects: ground-level ozone was significantly associated with respiratory clinic visits during the winter months. The patterns of results from all sensitivity analyzes were consistent with the a priori model. Conclusions: The results demonstrate an association of increasing ground-level

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-joo; Kim, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the U.S. state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the U.S. state level included aggregate indices based on the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), Putnam’s index, and Kim et al.’s scales. County-level measures consisted of Rupasingha et al.’s social capital index (RGFI) and a BRFSS-derived measure. These measures, except for the PSCI, showed evidence of acceptable validity. Moreover, we observed differences across the social capital measures in their associations with population health outcomes. The implications of the findings for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:25574069

  3. Experiment Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  4. Approximate changes in water levels in wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, 1990-94 and 1993-94, in Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplin, L.S.; Santos, H.X.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of water levels from wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers were used to construct maps showing approximate changes of water levels in Fort Bend County and adjacent areas during 1990-94 and 1993-94.

  5. Vulnerabilities of Local Healthcare Providers in Complex Emergencies: Findings from the Manipur Micro-level Insurgency Database 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Samrat; David, Siddarth; Gerdin, Martin; Roy, Nobhojit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research on healthcare delivery in zones of conflict requires sustained and systematic attention. In the context of the South Asian region, there has been an absence of research on the vulnerabilities of health care workers and institutions in areas affected by armed conflict. The paper presents a case study of the varied nature of security challenges faced by local healthcare providers in the state of Manipur in the North-eastern region of India, located in the Indo-Myanmar frontier region which has been experiencing armed violence and civil strife since the late 1960s. . The aim of this study was to assess longitudinal and spatial trends in incidents involving health care workers in Manipur during the period 2008 to 2009. Methods: We conducted a retrospective database analysis of the Manipur Micro-level Insurgency Database 2008-2009, created by using local newspaper archives to measure the overall burden of violence experienced in the state over a two year period. Publicly available press releases of armed groups and local hospitals in the state were used to supplement the quantitative data. Simple linear regression was used to assess longitudinal trends. Data was visualized with GIS-software for spatial analysis. Results: The mean proportion of incidents involving health care workers per month was 2.7% and ranged between 0 and 6.1% (table 2). There was a significant (P=0.037) month-to-month variation in the proportion of incidents involving health care workers, as well as a upward trend of about 0.11% per month. Spatial analysis revealed different patterns depending on whether absolute, population-adjusted, or incident-adjusted frequencies served as the basis of the analysis. Conclusions: The paper shows a small but steady rise in violence against health workers and health institutions impeding health services in Manipur’s pervasive violence. More evidence-building backed by research along with institutional obligations and commitment is essential

  6. Prevalence and Costs of Multimorbidity by Deprivation Levels in the Basque Country: A Population Based Study Using Health Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Orueta, Juan F.; García-Álvarez, Arturo; García-Goñi, Manuel; Paolucci, Francesco; Nuño-Solinís, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a major challenge for healthcare systems. However, currently, its magnitude and impact in healthcare expenditures is still mostly unknown. Objective To present an overview of the prevalence and costs of multimorbidity by socioeconomic levels in the whole Basque population. Methods We develop a cross-sectional analysis that includes all the inhabitants of the Basque Country (N = 2,262,698). We utilize data from primary health care electronic medical records, hospital admissions, and outpatient care databases, corresponding to a 4 year period. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases out of a list of 52 of the most important and common chronic conditions given in the literature. We also use socioeconomic and demographic variables such as age, sex, individual healthcare cost, and deprivation level. Predicted adjusted costs were obtained by log-gamma regression models. Results Multimorbidity of chronic diseases was found among 23.61% of the total Basque population and among 66.13% of those older than 65 years. Multimorbid patients account for 63.55% of total healthcare expenditures. Prevalence of multimorbidity is higher in the most deprived areas for all age and sex groups. The annual cost of healthcare per patient generated for any chronic disease depends on the number of coexisting comorbidities, and varies from 637 € for the first pathology in average to 1,657 € for the ninth one. Conclusion Multimorbidity is very common for the Basque population and its prevalence rises in age, and unfavourable socioeconomic environment. The costs of care for chronic patients with several conditions cannot be described as the sum of their individual pathologies in average. They usually increase dramatically according to the number of comorbidities. Given the ageing population, multimorbidity and its consequences should be taken into account in healthcare policy, the organization of care and medical research

  7. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-70-35-5245 crossing Big Walnut Creek in Putnam County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sedimenttransport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-70-35-5245 on Interstate 70 crossing Big Walnut Creek in Pumam.County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Manhattan in the southwestern part of Putnam County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 17.0 feet for the modeled discharge of 29,200 cubic feet per second and approximately 30.9 feet for the modeled discharge of 49,600 cubic feet per second.

  8. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-74-32-4946 crossing Sugar Creek in Montgomery County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sedient-transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Levell II analysis for structure I-74-32-4946 on Interstate 74 crossing Sugar Creek in Montgomery County, Indiana are presented. The site is near the town of Crawfordsville in the central part of Montgomery County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 13.0 feet for the modeled discharge of 3,000  cubic feet per second and approximately 15.1 feet for the modeled discharge of 41,900 cubic feet per second.

  9. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-65-85-5527 crossing Sugar Creek in Johnson County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-65-85-5527 on Interstate 65 crossing Sugar Creek in Johnson County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Amity in the southeastern part of Johnson County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 26.8 feet for the modeled discharge of 26,000 cubic feet per second and approximately 30.8 feet for the modeled discharge of 34,100 cubic feet per second

  10. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-70-60-5180 crossing Branch of McCracken Creek in Hendricks County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-70-60-5180 on Interstate 70 crossing Branch of McCracken Creek in Hendricks County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Center Valley in the south-central part of Hendricks County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 12.4 feet for the modeled discharge of 1,200 cubic feet per second and approximately 24.8 feet for the modeled discharge of 2,040 cubic feet per second.

  11. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-70-69-5185 crossing East Fork White Lick Creek in Hendricks County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-70-69-5185 on Interstate 70 crossing East Fork White Lick Creek in Hendricks County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Camby and is in the southeastern part of Hendricks County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 12.0 feet for the modeled discharge of 5,720 cubic feet per second and approximately 13.8 feet for the modeled discharge of 7,360 cubic feet per second.

  12. Ground-water levels in water years 1984-86 and estimated ground-water pumpage in water years 1984-85, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Tabulations of groundwater level measurements made during the water years 1984-86 and summaries of estimated pumpage for water years 1984 and 1985 in Carson valley, Douglas County, Nevada, are included in this report. The data are being collected to provide a record of long-term groundwater changes and pumpage estimates that can be incorporated in a groundwater model change at a later date. (USGS)

  13. EOSCUBE: A Constraint Database System for High-Level Specification and Efficient Generation of EOSDIS Products. Phase 1; Proof-of-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodsky, Alexander; Segal, Victor E.

    1999-01-01

    The EOSCUBE constraint database system is designed to be a software productivity tool for high-level specification and efficient generation of EOSDIS and other scientific products. These products are typically derived from large volumes of multidimensional data which are collected via a range of scientific instruments.

  14. Ground-water levels and related hydrologic data from selected observation wells in Nassau County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isbister, John

    1959-01-01

    Nassau County has experienced a rapid growth in population and industry in the past 20 years that has resulted in increased development of its ground-water resources. The county is located in west-central Long Island and its boundaries enclose a land area of 274 square miles. The climate is relatively mild and precipitation averages 43 inches a year. The precipitation is the ultimate source of natural replenishment to the ground-water reservoir. Ground water is found in the pore spaces of unconsolidated sands, gravels, and clays which overlay a basement of crystalline bedrock.

  15. Digital mapping of soil properties in Zala County, Hungary for the support of county-level spatial planning and land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Szatmári, Gábor; Fodor, Nándor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József; Illés, Gábor

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project is to significantly extend the potential, how demands on spatial soil related information could be satisfied in Hungary. Although a great amount of soil information is available due to former mappings and surveys, there are more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data. The gaps are planned to be filled with optimized DSM products heavily based on legacy soil data, which still represent a valuable treasure of soil information at the present time. Impact assessment of the forecasted climate change and the analysis of the possibilities of the adaptation in the agriculture and forestry can be supported by scenario based land management modelling, whose results can be incorporated in spatial planning. This framework requires adequate, preferably timely and spatially detailed knowledge of the soil cover. For the satisfaction of these demands in Zala County (one of the nineteen counties of Hungary), the soil conditions of the agricultural areas were digitally mapped based on the most detailed, available recent and legacy soil data. The agri-environmental conditions were characterized according to the 1:10,000 scale genetic soil mapping methodology and the category system applied in the Hungarian soil-agricultural chemistry practice. The factors constraining the fertility of soils were featured according to the biophysical criteria system elaborated for the delimitation of naturally handicapped areas in the EU. Production related soil functions were regionalized incorporating agro-meteorological modelling. The appropriate derivatives of a 20m digital elevation model were used in the analysis. Multitemporal MODIS products were selected from the period of 2009-2011 representing different parts of the growing season and years with various climatic conditions. Additionally two climatic data layers, the 1

  16. Differential Effects of Economic Factors on Specialist and Family Physician Distribution in Illinois: A County-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistretta, Martin J.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Uneven distribution of physicians across geographic areas of the United States remains a significant problem that may have implications for health. Purpose: To develop a statistical model of physician distribution in Illinois counties that predicts where specialists and family physicians practice, and to suggest policy strategies for…

  17. Chromite deposits in central part Stillwater Complex, Sweet Grass County, Montana: a digital database for the geologic map of the east slope of Iron Mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howland, A.L.; Moyer, Lorre A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1940, A.L. Howland and J. W. Peoples, assisted by W.R. Jones and M.G. Bennett, mapped the geology of the east slope of Iron Mountain, Montana. The map was revised and extended by Howland in 1942 and published in 1955 as plate 10 of the U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1015-D (Howland, 1955). In 2000, the USGS contracted Optronics Specialty Co., Inc. of Northridge, CA to prepare a scanned digital version of plate 10. Geospatial editing and attributing of the scanned map of the east slope of Iron Mountain was performed by the USGS in order to produce an interim digital product. This digital geospatial database is one of many being created by the U.S. Geological Survey as an ongoing effort to provide geologic information in a geographic information system (GIS) for use in spatial analysis.

  18. Pregnant women in Timis County, Romania are exposed primarily to low-level (<10 μg/L) arsenic through residential drinking water consumption

    PubMed Central

    Neamtiu, Iulia; Bloom, Michael S.; Gati, Gabriel; Goessler, Walter; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Braeuer, Simone; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Baciu, Calin; Lupsa, Ioana Rodica; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen

    2015-01-01

    Excessive arsenic content in drinking water poses health risks to millions of people worldwide. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in groundwater exceeding the 10 μg/l maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the World Health Organization (WHO) is characteristic for intermediate-depth aquifers over large areas of the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe. In western Romania, near the border with Hungary, Arad, Bihor, and Timis counties use drinking water coming partially or entirely from iAs contaminated aquifers. In nearby Arad and Bihor counties, more than 45,000 people are exposed to iAs over 10 μg/l via public drinking water sources. However, comparable data are unavailable for Timis County. To begin to address this data gap, we determined iAs in 124 public and private Timis County drinking water sources, including wells and taps, used by pregnant women participating in a case-control study of spontaneous loss. Levels in water sources were low overall (median = 3.0; range = < 0.5–175 μg/l), although higher in wells (median = 3.1, range = < 0.5–175) than in community taps (median = 2.7, range = < 0.5–36.4). In a subsample of 20 control women we measured urine biomarkers of iAs exposure, including iAs (arsenite and arsenate), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and methylarsonic acid (MMA). Median values were higher among 10 women using iAs contaminated drinking water sources compared to 10 women using uncontaminated sources for urine total iAs (6.6 vs. 5.0 μg/l, P = 0.24) and DMA (5.5 vs. 4.2 μg/l, P = 0.31). The results suggested that the origin of urine total iAs (r = 0.35, P = 0.13) and DMA (r = 0.31, P = 0.18) must have been not only iAs in drinking-water but also some other source. Exposure of pregnant women to arsenic via drinking water in Timis County appears to be lower than for surrounding counties; however, it deserves a more definitive investigation as to its origin and the regional distribution of its risk potential. PMID:25697081

  19. Pregnant women in Timis County, Romania are exposed primarily to low-level (<10μg/l) arsenic through residential drinking water consumption.

    PubMed

    Neamtiu, Iulia; Bloom, Michael S; Gati, Gabriel; Goessler, Walter; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Braeuer, Simone; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Baciu, Calin; Lupsa, Ioana Rodica; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen

    2015-06-01

    Excessive arsenic content in drinking water poses health risks to millions of people worldwide. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in groundwater exceeding the 10μg/l maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the World Health Organization (WHO) is characteristic for intermediate-depth aquifers over large areas of the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe. In western Romania, near the border with Hungary, Arad, Bihor, and Timis counties use drinking water coming partially or entirely from iAs contaminated aquifers. In nearby Arad and Bihor counties, more than 45,000 people are exposed to iAs over 10μg/l via public drinking water sources. However, comparable data are unavailable for Timis County. To begin to address this data gap, we determined iAs in 124 public and private Timis County drinking water sources, including wells and taps, used by pregnant women participating in a case-control study of spontaneous loss. Levels in water sources were low overall (median=3.0; range=<0.5-175μg/l), although higher in wells (median=3.1, range=<0.5-1.75) than in community taps (median=2.7, range=<0.5-36.4). In a subsample of 20 control women we measured urine biomarkers of iAs exposure, including iAs (arsenite and arsenate), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and methylarsonic acid (MMA). Median values were higher among 10 women using iAs contaminated drinking water sources compared to 10 women using uncontaminated sources for urine total iAs (6.6 vs. 5.0μg/l, P=0.24) and DMA (5.5 vs. 4.2μg/l, P=0.31). The results suggested that the origin of urine total iAs (r=0.35, P=0.13) and DMA (r=0.31, P=0.18) must have been not only iAs in drinking-water but also some other source. Exposure of pregnant women to arsenic via drinking water in Timis County appears to be lower than for surrounding counties; however, it deserves a more definitive investigation as to its origin and the regional distribution of its risk potential. PMID:25697081

  20. Aquifer properties, stream base flow, water use, and water levels in the Pohatcong Valley, Warren County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, G.B.; Gordon, A.D.; Wieben, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the hydrogeology and describe the ground-water flow in the Pohatcong Valley in Warren County, N.J. near the Pohatcong Valley Ground Water Contamination Site. The area is underlain by glacial till and alluvial sediments and weathered and competent carbonate bedrock. The northwest and southeast valley boundaries are regional-scale thrust faults and ridges underlain by crystalline rocks. The unconsolidated sediments and weathered bedrock form a minor surficial aquifer. The carbonate rocks form a highly transmissive fractured-rock aquifer with well yields commonly as high as 500 gallons per minute. Ground-water recharge and flow in the crystalline-rock aquifer bordering the valley is minor compared to flow in the carbonate-rock aquifer, and little ground water flows into the carbonate-rock aquifer directly from the crystalline-rock aquifer. The thrust faults separating the carbonate and crystalline rocks may further impede flow between the two rock types. Interpretations of water-level and transmissivity data collected during 2000 to 2003 indicate that the carbonate formations generally can be considered to be one aquifer. The transmissivity of the carbonate-rock aquifer was estimated from the results of four aquifer tests conducted with two public supply wells. The transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests at a well located in Washington Borough is about 8,600 square feet per day. An aquifer test at a well located near the southwest border of Washington Borough was conducted to estimate transmissivity and the direction and magnitude of anisotropy. The estimated direction of maximum horizontal transmissivity near the second well is about 58? east of north and the magnitude is 7,600 square feet per day. The minimum horizontal transmissivity is 3,500 square feet per day and the ratio of anisotropy (maximum transmissivity to minimum transmissivity) is 2.2 to 1. Stream base-flow data indicate that Pohatcong Creek steadily gains flow, but

  1. Effects of sanitary sewers on ground-water levels and streams in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York; Part 1, geohydrology, modeling strategy, and regional evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Buxton, H.T.; Franke, O.L.; Wait, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation of Long Island 's regional groundwater system has been used to evaluate the effects that new-installed sewers will have on ground-water levels. Results indicate maximum water-table decliners of as much as up to 18 feet in central Nassau County and about 9 feet in Suffolk County. Total stream base flows and freshwater outflow to the south shore bay system will decrease by 22%. The regional scale of the model does not permit detailed predictions for individual streams. To quantify the effects of lowered ground-water levels on individual streams, two fine-scale sub-regional models have been designed. This report, the first in a three-part series describing the simulated effects of sewers in southern Nassau and southwestern Suffolk Counties, presents the hydrogeologic setting, pertinent literature, modeling strategy, subregional model design, and the results obtained to date from the regional ground-water model. The regional model results described will be used in the later reports to generate flux boundary conditions for the subregional models. (USGS)

  2. Ground-water levels in water year 1987 and estimated ground-water pumpage in water years 1986-87, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater levels were measured at 58 wells during water year 1987 and a summary of estimated pumpage is given for water years 1986 and 1987 in Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada. The data were collected to provide a record of groundwater changes over the long-term and pumpage estimates that can be incorporated into an existing groundwater model. The estimated total pumpage in water year 1986 was 10,200 acre-ft and in water year 1987 was 13,400 acre-ft. Groundwater levels exhibited seasonal fluctuations but remained relatively stable over the reporting period throughout most of the valley. (USGS)

  3. Water-level conditions in the upper Cape Fear aquifer, 1992-94, in parts of Bladen and Robeson counties, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, Alfred Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Water-level measurements were made on a periodic basis in 16 wells throughout an area of about 730 square miles in Bladen and Robeson Counties, North Carolina, from September 1992 to October 1994. Water levels from the wells were used to construct a map of the potentiometric surface of the upper Cape Fear aquifer in the fall of 1994. This map can be used to infer the direction of ground-water movement in the aquifer. Withdrawals from wells at pumping centers, such as in the Tar Heel and Elizabethtown areas, has disrupted the natural pattern of ground-water flow. Ground water flows toward pumped wells resulting in cones of depression in the potentiometric surface. Water levels measured in 14 wells in 1992 and 1994 were used to estimate change in ground-water levels for the upper Cape Fear aquifer in the study area. During 1992-94, water-level declines occurred in the aquifer throughout much of the area as a result of pumping. The greatest decline was 90.6 feet in Bladen County.

  4. Heavy metals in soils from a typical county in Shanxi Province, China: Levels, sources and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li-bo; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xian-liang; Hou, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Hg in 128 surface soil samples from Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province, China were measured. The concentrations of these eight heavy metals were lower than the critical values in the national soil quality standard. However, these concentrations were found to be slightly higher than their background values in soils in Shanxi Province, indicating enrichment of these metals in soils in Xiangfen County, especially for Hg and Cd. Principal component analysis coupled with cluster analysis was used to analyze the data and identify possible sources of these heavy metals; the results showed that the eight heavy metals in soils from Xiangfen County came from three different sources. Lead, Cd, Cu and Zn mainly arose from agricultural practices and vehicle emissions. Arsenic and Ni arose mainly from parent materials. Industrial practices were the main sources of Cr and Hg. The spatial distribution of the heavy metals varied greatly, and was closely correlated to local anthropogenic activities. This study will be helpful not only for improving local soil environmental quality but will also provide a basis for effectively targeting policies to protect soils from long-term heavy metal accumulation. PMID:26807946

  5. Spatial database of mining-related features in 2001 at selected phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Kayser, Helen Z.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the spatial database, PHOSMINE01, and the processes used to delineate mining-related features (active and inactive/historical) in the core of the southeastern Idaho phosphate resource area. The spatial data have varying degrees of accuracy and attribution detail. Classification of areas by type of mining-related activity at active mines is generally detailed; however, for many of the closed or inactive mines the spatial coverage does not differentiate mining-related surface disturbance features. Nineteen phosphate mine sites are included in the study, three active phosphate mines - Enoch Valley (nearing closure), Rasmussen Ridge, and Smoky Canyon - and 16 inactive (or historical) phosphate mines - Ballard, Champ, Conda, Diamond Gulch, Dry Valley, Gay, Georgetown Canyon, Henry, Home Canyon, Lanes Creek, Maybe Canyon, Mountain Fuel, Trail Canyon, Rattlesnake, Waterloo, and Wooley Valley. Approximately 6,000 hc (15,000 ac), or 60 km2 (23 mi2) of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance are documented in the spatial coverage. Spatial data for the inactive mines is current because no major changes have occurred; however, the spatial data for active mines were derived from digital maps prepared in early 2001 and therefore recent activity is not included. The inactive Gay Mine has the largest total area of disturbance, 1,900 hc (4,700 ac) or about 19 km2 (7.4 mi2). It encompasses over three times the disturbance area of the next largest mine, the Conda Mine with 610 hc (1,500 ac), and it is nearly four times the area of the Smoky Canyon Mine, the largest of the active mines with about 550 hc (1,400 ac). The wide range of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance features (141) from various industry maps were reduced to 15 types or features based on a generic classification system used for this study: mine pit; backfilled mine pit; waste rock dump; adit and waste rock dump; ore stockpile; topsoil stockpile; tailings or tailings pond; sediment

  6. Digital database of mining-related features at selected historic and active phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas; Moyle, Phillip R.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a description of data and processes used to produce a spatial database that delineates mining-related features in areas of historic and active phosphate mining in the core of the southeastern Idaho phosphate resource area. The data have varying degrees of accuracy and attribution detail. Classification of areas by type of mining-related activity at active mines is generally detailed; however, the spatial coverage does not differentiate mining-related surface disturbance features at many of the closed or inactive mines. Nineteen phosphate mine sites are included in the study. A total of 5,728 hc (14,154 ac), or more than 57 km2 (22 mi2), of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance are documented in the spatial coverage of the core of the southeast Idaho phosphate resource area. The study includes 4 active phosphate mines—Dry Valley, Enoch Valley, Rasmussen Ridge, and Smoky Canyon—and 15 historic phosphate mines—Ballard, Champ, Conda, Diamond Gulch, Gay, Georgetown Canyon, Henry, Home Canyon, Lanes Creek, Maybe Canyon, Mountain Fuel, Trail Canyon, Rattlesnake Canyon, Waterloo, and Wooley Valley. Spatial data on the inactive historic mines is relatively up-to-date; however, spatially described areas for active mines are based on digital maps prepared in early 1999. The inactive Gay mine has the largest total area of disturbance: 1,917 hc (4,736 ac) or about 19 km2 (7.4 mi2). It encompasses over three times the disturbance area of the next largest mine, the Conda mine with 607 hc (1,504 ac), and it is nearly four times the area of the Smoky Canyon mine, the largest of the active mines with 497 hc (1,228 ac). The wide range of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance features (approximately 80) were reduced to 13 types or features used in this study—adit and pit, backfilled mine pit, facilities, mine pit, ore stockpile, railroad, road, sediment catchment, tailings or tailings pond, topsoil stockpile, water reservoir, and disturbed

  7. The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) v.5: a metadata management system based on a four level (meta)genome project classification

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Tatiparthi B. K.; Thomas, Alex D.; Stamatis, Dimitri; Bertsch, Jon; Isbandi, Michelle; Jansson, Jakob; Mallajosyula, Jyothi; Pagani, Ioanna; Lobos, Elizabeth A.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2014-10-27

    The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD; http://www.genomesonline.org) is a comprehensive online resource to catalog and monitor genetic studies worldwide. GOLD provides up-to-date status on complete and ongoing sequencing projects along with a broad array of curated metadata. Within this paper, we report version 5 (v.5) of the database. The newly designed database schema and web user interface supports several new features including the implementation of a four level (meta)genome project classification system and a simplified intuitive web interface to access reports and launch search tools. The database currently hosts information for about 19 200 studies, 56 000 Biosamples, 56 000 sequencing projects and 39 400 analysis projects. More than just a catalog of worldwide genome projects, GOLD is a manually curated, quality-controlled metadata warehouse. The problems encountered in integrating disparate and varying quality data into GOLD are briefly highlighted. Lastly, GOLD fully supports and follows the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Minimum Information standards.

  8. The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) v.5: a metadata management system based on a four level (meta)genome project classification

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, T.B.K.; Thomas, Alex D.; Stamatis, Dimitri; Bertsch, Jon; Isbandi, Michelle; Jansson, Jakob; Mallajosyula, Jyothi; Pagani, Ioanna; Lobos, Elizabeth A.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2015-01-01

    The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD; http://www.genomesonline.org) is a comprehensive online resource to catalog and monitor genetic studies worldwide. GOLD provides up-to-date status on complete and ongoing sequencing projects along with a broad array of curated metadata. Here we report version 5 (v.5) of the database. The newly designed database schema and web user interface supports several new features including the implementation of a four level (meta)genome project classification system and a simplified intuitive web interface to access reports and launch search tools. The database currently hosts information for about 19 200 studies, 56 000 Biosamples, 56 000 sequencing projects and 39 400 analysis projects. More than just a catalog of worldwide genome projects, GOLD is a manually curated, quality-controlled metadata warehouse. The problems encountered in integrating disparate and varying quality data into GOLD are briefly highlighted. GOLD fully supports and follows the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Minimum Information standards. PMID:25348402

  9. The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) v.5: a metadata management system based on a four level (meta)genome project classification.

    PubMed

    Reddy, T B K; Thomas, Alex D; Stamatis, Dimitri; Bertsch, Jon; Isbandi, Michelle; Jansson, Jakob; Mallajosyula, Jyothi; Pagani, Ioanna; Lobos, Elizabeth A; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-01-01

    The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD; http://www.genomesonline.org) is a comprehensive online resource to catalog and monitor genetic studies worldwide. GOLD provides up-to-date status on complete and ongoing sequencing projects along with a broad array of curated metadata. Here we report version 5 (v.5) of the database. The newly designed database schema and web user interface supports several new features including the implementation of a four level (meta)genome project classification system and a simplified intuitive web interface to access reports and launch search tools. The database currently hosts information for about 19,200 studies, 56,000 Biosamples, 56,000 sequencing projects and 39,400 analysis projects. More than just a catalog of worldwide genome projects, GOLD is a manually curated, quality-controlled metadata warehouse. The problems encountered in integrating disparate and varying quality data into GOLD are briefly highlighted. GOLD fully supports and follows the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Minimum Information standards. PMID:25348402

  10. Analysis of water-level fluctuations of Lakes Winona and Winnemissett-- two landlocked lakes in a karst terrane in Volusia County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The water levels of Lakes Winona and Winnemissett in Volusia County, Fla., correlate reasonably well during dry spells but only poorly during wet spells. Disparities develop mostly at times when the lake levels rise abruptly owing to rainstorms passing over the lake basins. The lack of correlation is attributed to the uneven distribution of the storm rainfall, even though the average annual rainfall at National Weather Service gages in the general area of the lakes is about the same. Analyses of the monthly rainfall data show that the rainfall variability between gages is sufficient to account for most of the disparity between monthly changes in the levels of the two lakes. The total annual rainfall at times may differ between rainfall gages by as much as 15 to 20 inches. Such differences tend to balance over the long term but may persist in the same direction for two or more years, causing apparent anomalies in lake-level fluctuations. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, Southeast New Mexico-Lea County Underground Water Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. The Lea County portion of the aquifer covers approximately the northern two thirds of the 4,393-square-mile county. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context from which to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. Maps representing water-level declines, current (2007) water levels, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Lea County Underground Water Basin were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. Results of this mapping effort show the water level has declined as much as 97 feet in the Lea County Underground Water Basin from predevelopment (1914-54) to 2007 with rates as high as 0.88 feet per year.

  12. Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-10-25

    The purpose of this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to provide information on potential environmental impacts that could result from a Proposed Action to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada. The EIS also provides information on potential environmental impacts from an alternative referred to as the No-Action Alternative, under which there would be no development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

  13. The development of environmental visions and strategies at the municipal level: Case studies from the county of Östergötland in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Weddfelt, E; Vaccari, M; Tudor, T

    2016-09-01

    Sweden faces a number of environmental challenges. Municipalities can play an important role in managing these challenges. Using interviews with 13 municipalities in the county of Östergötland, the manner via which environmental visions and strategies were developed and implemented, and the challenges were explored. Differences were found in the effective development and implementation of both environmental visions and strategies due to a range of factors including the range and level of involvement of different stakeholders, variation in what constituted an environmental strategy, and the time horizons employed for the visions. Suggestions for how best to overcome the barriers are outlined. PMID:27179342

  14. Spatial disparities of regional forest land change based on ESDA and GIS at the county level in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hualin; Kung, Chih-Chun; Zhao, Yuluan

    2012-12-01

    Forest land is the essential and important natural resource that provides strong support for human survival and development. Research on forest land changes at the county level about its characteristics, rules, and spatial patterns is, therefore, important for regional resource protection and the sustainable development of the social economy. In this study we selected the GIS and Geoda software package to explore the spatial disparities of forest land changes at the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area county level, based on the global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses of exploratory spatial data. The results show that: 1) during 1985-2000, the global spatial autocorrelation of forest land change is significant in the study area. The global Moran's I value is 0.3122 for the entire time period and indicates significant positive spatial correlation ( p < 0.05). Moran's I value of forest land change decreases from 0.3084 at the time stage I to 0.3024 at the time stage II; 2) the spatial clustering characteristics of forest land changes appear on the whole in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area. Moran's I value decreases from the time stage I to time stage II, which means that trend of spatial clustering of forest land change is weakened in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area; 3) the grid map of the local Moran's I for each county reflects local spatial homogeneity of forest land change, which means that spatial clustering about regions of high value and low value is especially significant. The regions with "High-High" correlation are mainly located in the north hilly area. However, the regions with "Low-Low" correlation were distributed in the middle of the study area. Therefore, protection strategies and concrete measures should be put in place for each regional cluster in the study area.

  15. Analysis of ground-water levels and associated trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of

  16. Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Fenelon

    2005-10-05

    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of

  17. Statistical analysis and mapping of water levels in the Biscayne aquifer, water conservation areas, and Everglades National Park, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2000–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prinos, Scott T.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2016-01-01

    during 2000–2009 than during 1990–1999. Mean October water levels during 2000–2009 were generally higher than during 1990–1999 in much of western Miami-Dade County, but were lower in a large part of eastern Miami-Dade County.

  18. When overweight is the normal weight: an examination of obesity using a social media internet database.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Meghan; Yom-Tov, Elad; Pelleg, Dan; Puhl, Rebecca M; Muennig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as "skinny," "thin," "fat," or "obese" over time and across forum topics. We used these data to better understand whether a higher-than-average body mass index (BMI) in one's county might, in some ways, be protective for one's mental and physical health. For instance, we explored whether higher proportions of obese people in one's county predicts lower levels of bullying or "am I fat?" questions from those with a normal BMI relative to his/her actual BMI. Most women asking whether they were themselves fat/obese were not actually fat/obese. Both men and women who were actually overweight/obese were significantly more likely in the future to ask for advice about bullying than thinner individuals. Moreover, as mean county-level BMI increased, bullying decreased and then increased again (in a U-shape curve). Regardless of where they lived, posters who asked "am I fat?" who had a BMI in the healthy range were more likely than other posters to subsequently post on health problems, but the proportions of such posters also declined greatly as county-level BMI increased. Our findings suggest that obese people residing in counties with higher levels of BMI may have better physical and mental health than obese people living in counties with lower levels of BMI by some measures, but these improvements are modest. PMID:24058478

  19. Evaluation of the effects of the Lake Audubon on ground- and surface-water levels in the Lake Nettie area, eastern McLean County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Flooding of some roads and agricultural lands has occurred in the Lake Nettie area of eastern McLean County. Part of the flooding was caused by the raising of the level of Lake Audubon to an elevation of 1,848 feet and the construction and filling of the McClusky Canal. Water levels have risen in the Lake Nettie aquifer as a result of raising the level of Lake Audubon. As of 1982, water levels have risen as much as 4 feet in the lower unit of the Lake Nettie aquifer and between 1 and 2 feet in the upper unit of the Lake Nettie aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to Lake Nettie and Crooked Lake. Water levels have risen in the Turtle Lake aquifer both as a result of raising the water level in Lake Audubon and the filling of McClusky Canal. Water levels have risen as much as 6 feet near the canal, but generally are less than 1 foot higher at distances of about 0.5 mile. (USGS)

  20. Biofuel Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  1. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface, May and June 1993, and change in water level 1983-93, in the carbonate rocks of East Whiteland and Charlestown townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McManus, B.C.; Sloto, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A map showing ground-water levels in the carbonate rocks of northern Chester County, Pa., was constructed on the basis of water levels in 51 wells measured in May and June 1993. The area studied underlies parts of East Whiteland and Charlestown Townships. Water-level altitudes range from about 413 feet above sea level on Phoenixville Pike to 130 feet above sea level along Route 29.

  2. A Bayesian-based approach for spatio-temporal modeling of county level prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Vounatsou, Penelope; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2005-02-01

    Spatio-temporal variations of Schistosoma japonicum infection risk in Jiangsu province, China, were examined and the relationships between key climatic factors and infection prevalence at the county level were determined. The parasitological data were collected annually by means of cross-sectional surveys carried out in 47 counties from 1990 to 1998. Climatic factors, namely land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were obtained from remote sensing satellite sensors. Bayesian spatio-temporal models were employed to analyze the data. The best fitting model showed that spatial autocorrelation in Jiangsu province decreased dramatically from 1990 to 1992 and increased gradually thereafter. A likely explanation of this finding arises from the large-scale administration of praziquantel for morbidity control of schistosomiasis. Our analysis suggested a negative association between NDVI and risk of S. japonicum infection. On the other hand, an increase in LST contributed to a significant increase in S. japonicum infection prevalence. We conclude that combining geographic information system, remote sensing and Bayesian-based statistical approaches facilitate integrated risk modeling of S. japonicum, which in turn is of relevance for allocation of scarce resources for control of schistosomiasis japonica in Jiangsu province and elsewhere in China, where the disease remains of public health and economic significance. PMID:15710436

  3. Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Commencing Biologic Therapy Have High Baseline Levels of Comorbidity: A Report from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database

    PubMed Central

    Oldroyd, John; Schachna, Lionel; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Staples, Margaret; Murphy, Bridie; Bond, Molly; Briggs, Andrew; Lassere, Marissa; March, Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Aims. To compare the baseline characteristics of a population-based cohort of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) commencing biological therapy to the reported characteristics of bDMARD randomised controlled trials (RCTs) participants. Methods. Descriptive analysis of AS participants in the Australian Rheumatology Association Database (ARAD) who were commencing bDMARD therapy. Results. Up to December 2008, 389 patients with AS were enrolled in ARAD. 354 (91.0%) had taken bDMARDs at some time, and 198 (55.9%) completed their entry questionnaire prior to or within 6 months of commencing bDMARDs. 131 (66.1%) had at least one comorbid condition, and 24 (6.8%) had a previous malignancy (15 nonmelanoma skin, 4 melanoma, 2 prostate, 1 breast, cervix, and bowel). Compared with RCT participants, ARAD participants were older, had longer disease duration and higher baseline disease activity. Conclusions. AS patients commencing bDMARDs in routine care are significantly different to RCT participants and have significant baseline comorbidities. PMID:20107564

  4. Electronic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E.

    1985-01-01

    Presents examples of bibliographic, full-text, and numeric databases. Also discusses how to access these databases online, aids to online retrieval, and several issues and trends (including copyright and downloading, transborder data flow, use of optical disc/videodisc technology, and changing roles in database generation and processing). (JN)

  5. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  6. Probabilistic U.S. county-level climate projections: A new data set for local climate risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, D.; Kopp, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative estimates of local climate change risk necessitate the development of probabilistic time series of physical climate variables at high spatial resolution. To address this issue, we develop two methods, Surrogate/Model Mixed Ensemble (SMME) and Monte Carlo Pattern/Residual (MCPR), and apply them to construct joint probability density functions (PDFs) of temperature and precipitation change over the 21st century for every county in the United States. Both methods produce likely (67% probability) temperature and precipitation projections consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's interpretation of an equal-weighted Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ensemble and also include extreme temperature pathways that, while not present in general circulation model (GCM) ensembles, cannot be ruled out according to climate sensitivity uncertainty estimates. For example, both probabilistic methods indicate that, under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5, there is a 5% chance that Washington, D.C. could warm by at least 7 degrees Celsius by the end of the century, roughly 1 degree warmer that the hottest CMIP5 model projection. Joint PDFs of temperature and precipitation change that attempt to represent uncertainties embedded in modeling future climate at local scales, such as these, are ripe for input into impacts models (e.g. crop, energy, human health) that are used for studying strategies for adaptation and decision making under uncertainty.

  7. Assessment and Application of National Environmental Databases and Mapping Tools at the Local Level to Two Community Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessm...

  8. DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY I. CHARACTERIZATION OF DATABASE AND DETERMINATION OF NO OBSERVED ADVERSE EFFECT LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicity risk assessment currently relies on the estimation of reference doses or reference concentrations based on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELS) and uncertainty factors. he benchmark dose (BMD) has been proposed as an alternative basis for reference va...

  9. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  10. BioImaging Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-10-25

    The Biolmaging Database (BID) is a relational database developed to store the data and meta-data for the 3D gene expression in early Drosophila embryo development on a cellular level. The schema was written to be used with the MySQL DBMS but with minor modifications can be used on any SQL compliant relational DBMS.

  11. School District Evaluation: Database Warehouse Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Eugene P.; Haseltine, Reginald

    The Prince George's County (Maryland) school system has developed a database warehouse system as an evaluation data support tool for fulfilling the system's information demands. This paper described the Research and Evaluation Assimilation Database (READ) warehouse support system and considers the requirements for data used in evaluation and how…

  12. Seasonal changes in ground-water levels in the shallow aquifer near Hagerman and the Pecos River, Chaves County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Pecos River near Hagerman in Chaves County, New Mexico, historically has been a gaining stream. In 1938, the slope of the water table in the shallow alluvial aquifer near Hagerman was toward the Pecos River. By 1950, a large water-table depression had formed in the alluvial aquifer southwest of Hagerman. Continued enlargement of this depression could reverse the direction of groundwater flow to the Pecos River. Water levels were measured during 1981-85 in wells along a section extending from the Pecos River to a point within the depression. Although the water-table depression has not caused a perennial change in direction of groundwater flow, it has caused a seasonal reversal in the slope of the water table between the river and the depression during the growing season when pumpage from the shallow aquifer is the greatest. (USGS)

  13. A Case for Database Filesystems

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, P A; Hax, J C

    2009-05-13

    Data intensive science is offering new challenges and opportunities for Information Technology and traditional relational databases in particular. Database filesystems offer the potential to store Level Zero data and analyze Level 1 and Level 3 data within the same database system [2]. Scientific data is typically composed of both unstructured files and scalar data. Oracle SecureFiles is a new database filesystem feature in Oracle Database 11g that is specifically engineered to deliver high performance and scalability for storing unstructured or file data inside the Oracle database. SecureFiles presents the best of both the filesystem and the database worlds for unstructured content. Data stored inside SecureFiles can be queried or written at performance levels comparable to that of traditional filesystems while retaining the advantages of the Oracle database.

  14. PCDq: human protein complex database with quality index which summarizes different levels of evidences of protein complexes predicted from H-Invitational protein-protein interactions integrative dataset

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Proteins interact with other proteins or biomolecules in complexes to perform cellular functions. Existing protein-protein interaction (PPI) databases and protein complex databases for human proteins are not organized to provide protein complex information or facilitate the discovery of novel subunits. Data integration of PPIs focused specifically on protein complexes, subunits, and their functions. Predicted candidate complexes or subunits are also important for experimental biologists. Description Based on integrated PPI data and literature, we have developed a human protein complex database with a complex quality index (PCDq), which includes both known and predicted complexes and subunits. We integrated six PPI data (BIND, DIP, MINT, HPRD, IntAct, and GNP_Y2H), and predicted human protein complexes by finding densely connected regions in the PPI networks. They were curated with the literature so that missing proteins were complemented and some complexes were merged, resulting in 1,264 complexes comprising 9,268 proteins with 32,198 PPIs. The evidence level of each subunit was assigned as a categorical variable. This indicated whether it was a known subunit, and a specific function was inferable from sequence or network analysis. To summarize the categories of all the subunits in a complex, we devised a complex quality index (CQI) and assigned it to each complex. We examined the proportion of consistency of Gene Ontology (GO) terms among protein subunits of a complex. Next, we compared the expression profiles of the corresponding genes and found that many proteins in larger complexes tend to be expressed cooperatively at the transcript level. The proportion of duplicated genes in a complex was evaluated. Finally, we identified 78 hypothetical proteins that were annotated as subunits of 82 complexes, which included known complexes. Of these hypothetical proteins, after our prediction had been made, four were reported to be actual subunits of the

  15. Application of Tools and Databases to Community-Level Assessments of Exposure, Health and the Environment with Case Study Examples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to assess the application of tools to community-level assessments of exposure, health and the environment. Various tools and datasets provided different types of information, such as on health effects, chemical types and volumes, facility locations a...

  16. The City and County of San Francisco's Approach to Sea Level Rise Science and Adaptation Planning: Creating Infrastructure Resilience from Information Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, D. H.; Pfeffer, W. T.; May, K.; Mote, P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    During one 17 month period ending October 2013, three major reports on sea level rise from three highly respected science providers produced three differing, in some cases wildly divergent, estimates of sea level rise through the year 2100. These reports, by the National Research Council, the IPCC, and the National Climate Assessment, collectively flummoxed the lay reader seeking direction on sea level rise projections to incorporate into adaptation planning. Guidance documents soon emerged from state entities, including regulatory agencies, which caused further confusion. The City and County of San Francisco, surrounded by water on three sides, began developing City-wide sea level rise guidance in 2013. A Sea Level Rise Committee featuring representatives of key infrastructure managers met over a nine month period, and their work included an in-depth review of the science of sea level rise. To convert divergent scientific reports into "actionable science" required not only a close reading of each but extensive expert elicitation to tease out the meaning behind each of the numbers and the associated uncertainties. In the end, sufficient consistency between the differing projections, fortified by political exigencies, allowed a "scientific consensus" with actionable science value for the City to surface. The resulting document, "Guidance for Incorporating Sea Level Rise into Capital Planning in San Francisco," begins by providing a scientific underpinning for planning, guidelines for incorporating uncertainty - particularly for accommodating multiple projections for any particular time slice - and outlines a four step process for assessment and adaptation. It also relies on new state-of-the-art inundation maps produced as part of the SFPUC's capital improvement program. Together, the Guidance and associated tools provide a road map for successful assessment and adaptation to sea level rise. We will also draw lessons from the experience that may be of value to

  17. Creating Infrastructure Resilience from Information Chaos: The City and County of San Francisco's Approach to Sea Level Rise Science and Adaptation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, D. H.; Pfeffer, W. T.; May, K.; Mote, P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    During one 17 month period ending October 2013, three major reports on sea level rise from three highly respected science providers produced three differing, in some cases wildly divergent, estimates of sea level rise through the year 2100. These reports, by the National Research Council, the IPCC, and the National Climate Assessment, collectively flummoxed the lay reader seeking direction on sea level rise projections to incorporate into adaptation planning. Guidance documents soon emerged from state entities, including regulatory agencies, which caused further confusion. The City and County of San Francisco, surrounded by water on three sides, began developing City-wide sea level rise guidance in 2013. A Sea Level Rise Committee featuring representatives of key infrastructure managers met over a nine month period, and their work included an in-depth review of the science of sea level rise. To convert divergent scientific reports into "actionable science" required not only a close reading of each but extensive expert elicitation to tease out the meaning behind each of the numbers and the associated uncertainties. In the end, sufficient consistency between the differing projections, fortified by political exigencies, allowed a "scientific consensus" with actionable science value for the City to surface. The resulting document, "Guidance for Incorporating Sea Level Rise into Capital Planning in San Francisco," begins by providing a scientific underpinning for planning, guidelines for incorporating uncertainty - particularly for accommodating multiple projections for any particular time slice - and outlines a four step process for assessment and adaptation. It also relies on new state-of-the-art inundation maps produced as part of the SFPUC's capital improvement program. Together, the Guidance and associated tools provide a road map for successful assessment and adaptation to sea level rise. We will also draw lessons from the experience that may be of value to

  18. DataBase on Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar Aparicio, R.; Gomez, D.; Coterillo Coz, I.; Wojcik, D.

    2012-12-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  19. Excessive Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Levels in Drinkable Water Sources in Areas Along the Lake Victoria Shorelines in Siaya County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wambu, Enos W; Omwoyo, Wesley N; Akenga, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Copper(II) and zinc(II) levels in drinkable water sources in the alluvium areas of the Lake Victoria Basin in Siaya County of Kenya were evaluated to assess the risk posed to resident communities by hydrogeological accumulation of toxic residues in the sedimentary regions of the lake basin. The levels of the metals in water were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Metal concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 4.29 mg/L for Cu(II) and 0.03 to 1.62 mg/L for Zn(II), which were both higher than those normally recorded in natural waters. The Cu(II) levels also exceeded WHO guidelines for drinking water in 27% of the samples. The highest prevalence of excessive Cu(II) was found among dams and open pans (38%), piped water (33%) and spring water (25%). It was estimated that 18.2% of the resident communities in the current study area are exposed to potentially toxic levels of Cu(II) through their drinking water. PMID:26615531

  20. Approximate ground-water-level contours, April 1981, for the Soquel-Aptos area, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloyd, Richard M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-water levels in selected wells were measured in the Soquel-Aptos, Calif., area in April 1981. On the basis of these measurements approximate ground-water-level contours were constructed. The general direction of ground-water movement in the Soquell-Aptos area is from the ridges in the northern part of the area, toward the adjacent canyons, and then southward toward the ocean. Ground-water pumping has caused ground-water levels to decline below sea level in the Capitola area, in the area just to the west and northwest of aptos, and in isolated local areas southwest of Rio Del Mar. Ground-water levels in the northern part of the area away from the seacoast have not declined much over time. (USGS)

  1. Statin Use and Its Facility-Level Variation in Patients With Diabetes: Insight From the Veterans Affairs National Database.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Akeroyd, Julia M; Ramsey, David J; Hira, Ravi S; Nambi, Vijay; Shah, Tina; Woodard, LeChauncy D; Winchester, David E; Ballantyne, Christie M; Petersen, Laura A; Virani, Salim S

    2016-04-01

    We sought to determine use of any and at least moderate-intensity statin therapy in a national sample of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), with the hypothesis that nationwide frequency and facility-level variation in statin therapy are suboptimal. We sampled patients with DM age 40 to 75 years receiving primary care between October 1, 2012, and September 30, 2013, at 130 parent facilities and associated community-based outpatient clinics in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System. We examined frequency and facility-level variation in use of any or at least moderate-intensity statin therapy (mean daily dose associated with ≥30% low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering). In 911 444 patients with DM, 68.3% and 58.4% were receiving any and moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy, respectively. Patients receiving statin had higher burden of cardiovascular disease, were more likely to be on nonstatin lipid-lowering therapy and to receive care at a teaching facility, and had more frequent primary-care visits. Median facility-level uses of any and at least moderate-intensity statin therapy were 68.7% (interquartile range, 65.9%-70.8%) and 58.6% (interquartile range, 55.8%-61.4%), respectively. After adjusting for several patient-related and some facility-related characteristics, the median rate ratios for any and moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy were 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.22) and 1.29 (95% confidence interval: 1.24-1.33) respectively, indicating 20% to 29% variation in statin use between 2 identical patients receiving care at 2 random facilities. Statin use was suboptimal in a national sample of patients with DM with modest facility-level variation, likely indicating differences in statin-prescribing patterns. PMID:27059708

  2. Critical Care staffs' attitudes, confidence levels and educational needs correlate with countries' donation rates: data from the Donor Action database.

    PubMed

    Roels, Leo; Spaight, Caroline; Smits, Jacqueline; Cohen, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    To investigate on the impact of Critical Care (CC) staffs' attitudes to donation, their acceptance of the brain death (BD) concept, their confidence with donation-related tasks and educational needs on national donation rates. Donor Action (DA) Hospital Attitude Survey (HAS) data were collected from 19 537 CC staff in 11 countries, including personal attitudes to donation, self-reported knowledge, involvement and comfort levels with donation-related tasks and educational requirements. Countries' donation performance was expressed as Procurement Efficiency Index (PEI) (organs procured and transplanted/deaths from eligible causes). National PEI rates correlated well with CC staffs' average support to donation (R = 0.700, P = 0.014), acceptance of the BD concept (R = 0.742, P = 0.007), confidence levels (R = 0.796, P = 0.002) and average educational requirements with donation-related tasks (R = -0.661, P = 0.025). Nurses reported significantly lower positive attitudes (P < 0.0001), acceptance of the BD concept (P < 0.0001), comfort levels (P < 0.0001) and requested more education (P = 0.0025) than medical staff members. DA's HAS is a powerful, standardized tool to assess CC staffs' attitudes and donation-related skills in different environments. Measures to improve countries' donation performance should focus on guidance and education of CC staff so as to ensure that all practitioners have sufficient knowledge and feel comfortable with donation-related issues. PMID:20210934

  3. Lake County renewable energy plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    This report documents the preparation of a renewable energy plan for Lake County, Oregon. It is the County's intention to adopt this plan as a supporting document to its Comprehensive Plan and implementing ordinances. The consideration of renewable energy in its land-use planning program is a statutory requirement for Lake County, and under the provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act such renewable resource planning also fulfills regional energy objectives on a local level.

  4. Hydrographs Showing Groundwater Level Changes for Selected Wells in the Chambers-Clover Creek Watershed and Vicinity, Pierce County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justin, G.B.; Julich, R.; Payne, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Selected groundwater level hydrographs for the Chambers-Clover Creek watershed (CCCW) and vicinity, Washington, are presented in an interactive web-based map to illustrate changes in groundwater levels in and near the CCCW on a monthly and seasonal basis. Hydrographs are linked to points corresponding to the well location on an interactive map of the study area. Groundwater level data and well information from Federal, State, and local agencies were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS), Groundwater Site Inventory (GWSI) System.

  5. Simulation of projected water demand and ground-water levels in the Coffee Sand and Eutaw-McShan aquifers in Union County, Mississippi, 2010 through 2050

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.; Strom, E.W.; Burt, D.E.; Mallory, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water from the Eutaw-McShan and the Coffee Sand aquifers is the major source of supply for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes in Union County, Mississippi. Unbiased, scientifically sound data and assessments are needed to assist agencies in better understanding and managing available water resources as continuing development and growth places more stress on available resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Valley Authority, conducted an investigation using water-demand and ground-water models to evaluate the effect of future water demand on groundwater levels. Data collected for the 12 public-supply facilities and the self-supplied commercial and industrial facilities in Union County were used to construct water-demand models. The estimates of water demand to year 2050 were then input to a ground-water model based on the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference computer code, MODFLOW. Total ground-water withdrawals for Union County in 1998 were estimated as 2.85 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Of that amount, municipal withdrawals were 2.55 Mgal/d with about 1.50 Mgal/d (59 percent) delivered to residential users. Nonmunicipal withdrawals were 0.296 Mgal/d. About 80 percent (2.27 Mgal/d) of the total ground-water withdrawal is produced from the Eutaw-McShan aquifer and about 13 percent (0.371 Mgal/d) from the Coffee Sand aquifer. Between normal- and high-growth conditions, total water demand could increase from 72 to 131 percent (2.9 Mgal/d in 1998 to 6.7 Mgal/d in year 2050) with municipal demand increasing from 77 to 146 percent (2.6 to 6.4 Mgal/d). Increased pumping to meet the demand for water was simulated to determine the effect on water levels in the Coffee Sand and Eutaw- McShan aquifers. Under baseline-growth conditions, increased water use by year 2050 could result in an additional 65 feet of drawdown in the New Albany area below year 2000 water levels in the Coffee Sand aquifer and about 120 feet of

  6. Aquifer geometry, lithology, and water levels in the Anza–Terwilliger area—2013, Riverside and San Diego Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, Matthew K.; Morita, Andrew Y.; Nawikas, Joseph M.; Christensen, Allen H.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of data from 33 wells, water levels mostly declined between the fall of 2006 and the fall of 2013; the median decline was 5.1 feet during this period, for a median rate of decline of about 0.7 feet/year. Based on data from 40 wells, water-level changes between fall 2004 and fall 2013 were variable in magnitude and trend, but had a median decline of 2.4 feet and a median rate of decline of about 0.3 feet/ year. These differences in apparent rates of groundwater-level change highlight the value of ongoing water-level measurements to distinguish decadal, or longer term, trends in groundwater storage often associated with climatic variability and trends. Fifty-four long-term hydrographs indicated the sensitivity of groundwater levels to climatic conditions; they also showed a general decline in water levels across the study area since 1986 and, in some cases, dating back to the 1950s.

  7. The effect of the Faka Union Canal system on water levels in the Fakahatchee Strand, Collier County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, Leo J.; McPherson, Benjamin F.

    1977-01-01

    The Faka Union Canal system, constructed in the western Big Cypress Swamp, Fla., in the early 1970's, lies about 3.5 miles west of the centerline of the Fakahatchee Strand, a forested water course which the State of Florida has designated as an Area of Critical State Concern in order to conserve natural resources. Between 1970 and 1975 the canal system annually discharged to the Gulf of Mexico from 143,200 to 275,600 acre-feet of freshwater. Discharge lowered ground-water levels as much as 4 feet near the eastern canal and created a water-level gradient that indicates water flowed from the Fakahatchee Strand west toward the canal during most of the year. In June 1975, water from early summer rains was impounded in the eastern canal upstream of the control structure at Janes Scenic Drive, and, as water levels rose in this reach, water flowed from the canal into the aquifer and around the control structure. The annual low-water level in the center of the Fakahatchee Strand declined from nearly 3 feet above mean sea level in 1972 to 1 foot above mean sea level in 1974. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. SOLS: A lake database to monitor in the Near Real Time water level and storage variations from remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crétaux, J.-F.; Jelinski, W.; Calmant, S.; Kouraev, A.; Vuglinski, V.; Bergé-Nguyen, M.; Gennero, M.-C.; Nino, F.; Abarca Del Rio, R.; Cazenave, A.; Maisongrande, P.

    2011-05-01

    An accurate and continuous monitoring of lakes and inland seas is available since 1993 thanks to the satellite altimetry missions (Topex-Poseidon, GFO, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2 and Envisat). Global data processing of these satellites provides temporal and spatial time series of lakes surface height with a decimetre precision on the whole Earth. The response of water level to regional hydrology is particularly marked for lakes and inland seas in semi-arid regions. A lake data centre is under development at by LEGOS (Laboratoire d'Etude en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiale) in Toulouse, in coordination with the HYDROLARE project (Headed by SHI: State Hydrological Institute of the Russian Academy of Science). It already provides level variations for about 150 lakes and reservoirs, freely available on the web site (HYDROWEB: http://www.LEGOS.obs-mip.fr/soa/hydrologie/HYDROWEB), and surface-volume variations of about 50 big lakes are also calculated through a combination of various satellite images (Modis, Asar, Landsat, Cbers) and radar altimetry. The final objective is to achieve in 2011 a fully operating data centre based on remote sensing technique and controlled by the in situ infrastructure for the Global Terrestrial Network for Lakes (GTN-L) under the supervision of WMO (World Meteorological Organization) and GCOS (Global Climate Observing System).

  9. Household survey analysis of the impact of comprehensive strategies to improve the expanded programme on immunisation at the county level in western China, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuqing; Xing, Yi; Liang, Xiaofeng; Yue, Chenyan; Zhu, Xu; Hipgrave, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate interventions to improve routine vaccination coverage and caregiver knowledge in China's remote west, where routine immunisation is relatively weak. Design Prospective pre–post (2006–2010) evaluation in project counties; retrospective comparison based on 2004 administrative data at baseline and surveyed post-intervention (2010) data in selected non-project counties. Setting Four project counties and one non-project county in each of four provinces. Participants 3390 children in project counties at baseline, and 3299 in project and 830 in non-project counties post-intervention; and 3279 caregivers at baseline, and 3389 in project and 830 in non-project counties post-intervention. Intervention Multicomponent inexpensive knowledge-strengthening and service-strengthening and innovative, multisectoral engagement. Data collection Standard 30-cluster household surveys of vaccine coverage and caregiver interviews pre-intervention and post-intervention in each project county. Similar surveys in one non-project county selected by local authorities in each province post-intervention. Administrative data on vaccination coverage in non-project counties at baseline. Primary outcome measures Changes in vaccine coverage between baseline and project completion (2010); comparative caregiver knowledge in all counties in 2010. Analysis Crude (χ2) analysis of changes and differences in vaccination coverage and related knowledge. Multiple logistic regression to assess associations with timely coverage. Results Timely coverage of four routine vaccines increased by 21% (p<0.001) and hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose by 35% (p<0.001) over baseline in project counties. Comparison with non-project counties revealed secular improvement in most provinces, except new vaccine coverage was mostly higher in project counties. Ethnicity, province, birthplace, vaccination site, dual-parental out-migration and parental knowledge had significant associations with coverage

  10. Statistical databases

    SciTech Connect

    Kogalovskii, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a review of problems related to statistical database systems, which are wide-spread in various fields of activity. Statistical databases (SDB) are referred to as databases that consist of data and are used for statistical analysis. Topics under consideration are: SDB peculiarities, properties of data models adequate for SDB requirements, metadata functions, null-value problems, SDB compromise protection problems, stored data compression techniques, and statistical data representation means. Also examined is whether the present Database Management Systems (DBMS) satisfy the SDB requirements. Some actual research directions in SDB systems are considered.

  11. Drinking-water quality and variations in water levels in the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer, west-central Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Dennis C.; Johnson, Carl J.

    1979-01-01

    In parts of Jefferson County, CO, water for domestic use from the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer contained excessive concentrations of major ions, coliform bacteria, trace elements, or radiochemicals. Based on results of analyses from 26 wells, water from 21 of the wells contained excessive concentrations of one or more constituents. Drinking water standards were exceeded for fluoride in water from 2 wells, nitrate plus nitrite in 2 wells, dissolved solids in 1 well, iron in 6 wells, manganese in 8 wells, zinc in 2 wells, coliform bacteria in 4 wells, gross alpha radiation in 11 wells and possibly 4 more, and gross beta radiation possibly in 1 well. Local variations in concentrations of 15 chemical constituents, specific conductance, and water temperature were statistically significant. Specific conductance increased significantly during 1973-75 only in the vicinity of Indian Hills. Annual range in depths to water in 11 observation wells varied from 1 to 15 feet. The shallowest water levels were recorded in late winter, usually in February. The deepest water levels occurred during summer or fall, depending on the well and the year. Three-year trends in water level changes in 6 of the 11 wells indicated decreasing water storage in the aquifer. (USGS).

  12. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Eisenman, David; Chandra, Anita; Fogleman, Stella; Magana, Aizita; Hendricks, Astrid; Wells, Ken; Williams, Malcolm; Tang, Jennifer; Plough, Alonzo

    2014-01-01

    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports. PMID:25153472

  13. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Baseline County-Level Migration Characteristics and Trends 1995-2000 and 2001-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards. In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report uses historical, estimated, and projected population data from several Federal and State data sources to estimate baseline characteristics and trends of the region's population migration (that is, changes in a person's place of residence over time). The analysis characterizes migration by various demographic, economic, family, and household variables for the period 1995-2000. It also uses existing estimates (beginning in 2001) of the three components of population change - births, deaths, and migration - to extrapolate near-term projections of county-level migration trends through 2010. The 2010 date was chosen to provide baseline projections corresponding to a two-year recovery period following the November 2008 date that was selected for the occurrence of the ShakeOut Scenario earthquake. The baseline characteristics and projections shall assist with evaluating the effects of inflow and outflow migration trends for alternative futures in which the simulated M7.8 earthquake either does or does not occur and the impact of the event on housing and jobs, as well as community composition and regional economy changes based on dispersion of intellectual, physical, economic, and cultural capital.

  14. Using an International p53 Mutation Database as a Foundation for an Online Laboratory in an Upper Level Undergraduate Biology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melloy, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    A two-part laboratory exercise was developed to enhance classroom instruction on the significance of p53 mutations in cancer development. Students were asked to mine key information from an international database of p53 genetic changes related to cancer, the IARC TP53 database. Using this database, students designed several data mining activities…

  15. Change in glycated haemoglobin levels after initiating second-line therapy in type 2 diabetes: a primary care database study.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, W; Bongaerts, B; Kostev, K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the absolute reduction in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 6 months after initiating second-line glucose-lowering therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin monotherapy in general practices. A total of 7009 patients were identified (Disease Analyser Germany: January 2004 to December 2014). The patients' mean ± standard deviation (s.d.) age was 63 ± 11 years, 55.5% were male and their mean ± s.d. HbA1c level was 8.0 ± 1.6%. The initiated second-line therapies included: dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (38.7%); sulphonylureas (36.3%); insulin (13.3%); glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs; 2.5%); thiazolidinediones (5%); and other agents (glinides, aldose-reductase inhibitors; 4.1%). The mean absolute HbA1c change from baseline was -0.9% (DPP-4 inhibitors, -0.9%; sulphonylureas, -0.9%; insulin, -1.1%; GLP-1RAs, -0.7%; thiazolidinediones, -0.9%; and other, -0.7%; all p < 0.001). Overall, 58% of patients reached the HbA1c target of <7% (DPP-4 inhibitors, 61.7%; sulphonylureas, 56.7%; insulin, 45.6%; GLP-1RAs, 62.2%; thiazolidinediones, 69.7%; and other, 57.5%). Compared with sulphonlyureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1RAs and thiazolidinediones were associated with an increased odds of reaching HbA1c <7% [odds ratio (OR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.40; OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.01-2.04; and OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.30-2.23, respectively], whereas insulin was related to a lower odds (0.66, 95% CI 0.55-0.78). In conclusion, in patients with type 2 diabetes very similar reductions in HbA1c after 6 months of second-line therapy were achieved regardless of the type of therapy. PMID:27062643

  16. Description of piezometer nests and water levels in the Rio Grande Valley near Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, S.K.; Bullard, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four piezometers were installed from mid-October 1984 to mid-January 1985 in two sections of the Rio Grande valley near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Each cross section is comprised of four piezometer nests and each nest is comprised of three piezometers completed at different depths. The purpose of this report is to describe the piezometers nests and present some of the water level data collected from the piezometers. The piezometers were drilled using the hydraulic rotary method. The piezometers were completed with 5 feet of 60-slot wire-wound stainless steel well screen and flush joint PVC well casing. The description of each piezometer nest consists of the location of the particular piezometer nest; a figure showing the location, depth altitude, and station identification number of the piezometers in each nest; and a driller 's log, geophysical logs, and description of the well cuttings from the deepest borehole in each piezometer nest. Water level altitudes generally increased from February until June 1985 in the piezometers in the Rio Bravo section. Water level altitudes in piezometers completed at different depths in a particular nest are about the same in all of the Rio Bravo nests and in the Montano 1 nest. In several of the piezometer nests, especially the Montano nests, water level altitudes decrease with depth. (USGS)

  17. County-Level Poverty Is Equally Associated with Unmet Health Care Needs in Rural and Urban Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lars E.; Litaker, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Purpose: Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet…

  18. Database Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  19. Maize databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  20. Selected Hydrogeologic Data for the High Plains Aquifer in Southwestern Laramie County, Wyoming, 1931-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hallberg, Laura L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office, created a hydrogeologic database for southwestern Laramie County, Wyoming. The database contains records from 166 wells and test holes drilled during 1931-2006. Several types of information, including well construction; well or test hole locations; lithologic logs; gamma, neutron, spontaneous-potential, and single-point resistivity logs; water levels; and transmissivities and storativities estimated from aquifer tests, are available in the database. Most wells and test holes in the database have records containing information about construction, location, and lithology; 77 wells and test holes have geophysical logs; 70 wells have tabulated water-level data; and 60 wells have records of aquifer-test results.

  1. A Descriptive Study to Determine the Level of Crisis Preparedness Frontline Leaders Are Trained to Perform during an Exploding Crisis in Los Angeles County Healthcare Facilities, Providing Emergency Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbaley, Salomay Rose

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of crisis leadership preparedness facility administrators report frontline healthcare leaders are trained to perform during an exploding crisis in Los Angeles County healthcare facilities, providing emergency services. Methodology: This was a mixed method descriptive study. The…

  2. Determination of land subsidence related to ground-water-level declines using Global Positioning System and leveling surveys in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles and Kern counties, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.; Phillips, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A large-scale, land-subsidence monitoring network for Antelope Valley, California, was established, and positions and elevations for 85 stations were measured using Global Positioning System geodetic surveying in spring 1992. The 95-percent confidence (2@) level of accuracy for the elevations calculated for a multiple-constraint adjustment generally ranged from +0.010 meter (0.032 foot) to +0.024 meter (0.078 foot). The magnitudes and rates of land subsidence as of 1992 were calculated for several periods for 218 bench marks throughout Antelope Valley. The maximum measured magnitude of land subsidence that occurred between 1926 and 1992 was 6.0 feet (1.83 meters) at BM 474 near Avenue I and Sierra Highway. Measured or estimated subsidence of 2-7 feet (.61-2.l3 meters) had occurred in a 210- square-mile (542-square-kilometer) area of Antelope Valley, generally bounded by Avenue K, Avenue A, 90th Street West, and 120th Street East, during the same period. Land subsidence in Antelope Valley is caused by aquifer-system compaction, which is related to ground-water-level declines and the presence of fine-grained, compressible sediments. Comparison of potentiomethric-surface, water-level decline, and subsidence-rate maps for several periods indicated a general correlation between water-level declines and the distribution and rate of subsidence in the Lancaster ground-water subbasin. A conservative estimate of the amount of the reduction in storage capacity of the aquifer system in the Lancaster subbasin is about 50,000 acre-feet in the area that has been affected by more than one foot (.30 meters) of subsidence as of 1992. Information on the history of ground-water levels and the distribution and thickness of fine-grained compressible sediments can be used to mitigate continued land subsidence. Future monitoring of ground-water levels and land-surface elevations in subsidence-sensitive regions of Antelope Valley may be an effective means to manage land subsidence.

  3. Genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  4. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  5. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Analysis of the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) Database of the International Space Station On-Orbit Electrical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is investigating and developing technologies to support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task is part of the Supportability Project managed by the Exploration Technology Development Program. CLEAR is aimed at enabling a flight crew to diagnose and repair electronic circuits in space yet minimize logistics spares, equipment, and crew time and training. For insight into actual space repair needs, in early 2008 the project examined the operational experience of the International Space Station (ISS) program. CLEAR examined the ISS on-orbit Problem Reporting and Corrective Action database for electrical and electronic system problems. The ISS has higher than predicted reliability yet, as expected, it has persistent problems. A goal was to identify which on-orbit electrical problems could be resolved by a component-level replacement. A further goal was to identify problems that could benefit from the additional diagnostic and test capability that a component-level repair capability could provide. The study indicated that many problems stem from a small set of root causes that also represent distinct component problems. The study also determined that there are certain recurring problems where the current telemetry instrumentation and built-in tests are unable to completely resolve the problem. As a result, the root cause is listed as unknown. Overall, roughly 42 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could be addressed with a component-level repair. Furthermore, 63 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could benefit from additional external diagnostic and test capability. These results indicate that in situ component-level repair in combination with diagnostic and test capability can be expected to increase system availability and reduce logistics. The CLEAR approach can increase the flight crew s ability to act decisively to resolve problems while reducing

  6. Core sampling beneath low-level radioactive-waste burial trenches, West Valley, Cattaraugus County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    1979-01-01

    A technique was developed for collecting cores for radiometric analysis from beneath a low-level radioactive-waste landfill to determine the rates of downward radionuclide migration below the trenches. A closed pipe was driven through the buried waste, and a removable point withdrawn. The hole was then advanced by alternately pushing a coring device, then driving an inner casing to the depth reached by the coring device and cleaning out cuttings from within the casing. The effectiveness of the technique was limited by inability to predict the location of impenetrable objects within the waste in some parts of the burial ground and difficulty in detecting when the end of the pipe first penetrated undisturbed material beneath the trench floor. Geophysical logs of the completed hole were used to help determine the trench-floor depth. (USGS).

  7. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities.

  8. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  9. La Materia. Nivel II. Basado en el curso de estudios de Ciencia de Montgomery County Public Schools. (Matter. Level II. Based on the Montgomery County Public Schools Science Studies Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstman, M. Linda

    This curriculum unit is for use in an elementary school foreign language immersion program in Montgomery County, Maryland. The unit is geared toward the second grade science classroom. It includes instructional and performance objectives, vocabulary lists, optional language structure sections, illustrations, activities, evaluation suggestions, and…

  10. BIOMARKERS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This database was developed by assembling and evaluating the literature relevant to human biomarkers. It catalogues and evaluates the usefulness of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and effect which may be relevant for a longitudinal cohort study. In addition to describing ...

  11. Building a Comprehensive Mill-Level Database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) Model of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Nabanita; Spence, Kelley; Sood, Saloni; Rosati, Jacky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector. PMID:25806516

  12. Building a comprehensive mill-level database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model of the U.S. pulp and paper sector.

    PubMed

    Modak, Nabanita; Spence, Kelley; Sood, Saloni; Rosati, Jacky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector. PMID:25806516

  13. Approximate changes in water levels in wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, 1990-93 and 1992-93, in Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, Horatio X.; Barbie, Dana L.

    1993-01-01

    This report was prepared in cooperation with the Fort Bend Subsidence District and presents data on water-level changes in wells during 1990-93 and 1992-93 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers (figs. 1-4) in Fort Bend County.  Water-level changes maps were prepared previously by Locke (1990), and Locke and Santos (1992) for both aquifers, and by Wesselman (1972) for the Chicot aquifers.

  14. Well-construction, water-quality, and water-level data, and pond-infiltration estimates, for three ground-water subbasins, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, C.A.; Kaehler, C.A.; Christensen, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Reclaimed water in the Eastern Municipal Water District of Riverside County,California, is used within the service area for agricultural irrigation.Owing to the seasonal demand for reclaimed water, storage/infiltration ponds were constructed in the Winchester, Menifee, and south Perris subbasins.Reclaimed water infiltrates from these ponds and enters the groundwater system. Little is known of the effects of the reclaimed water on groundwater quality. In cooperation with the Eastern MunicipalWater District, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1995 to determine the quantity and fate of reclaimed water percolating from these storage ponds. Data compiled during the first phase of this study are presented in this report. Field reconnaissance of the Winchester, Menifee, and south Perris subbasins indicated the existence of many wells. Wellconstruction data for 115 of these wells were tabulated. Available historical waterquality and waterlevel data for 178 wells in the subbasins also were tabulated. In addition, water levels in 86 wells were measured during the spring and autumn of 1995. On the basis of these data, waterlevel contour lines were drawn and the direction of groundwater flow was determined.Three lithologic sections through the subbasins were constructed from drillers' logs of 26 wells.

  15. Eco-social determinants of Schistosoma japonicum infection supported by multi-level modelling in Eryuan county, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Jia, Tie-Wu; Yang, Guo-Jing; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Shi, Xue-Wen; Li, Hong-Jun; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains of considerable public health concern in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including the People's Republic of China (P.R. China). The effectiveness of schistosomiasis control interventions are, among other factors, governed by the social-ecological context. However, eco-social determinants of schistosomiasis are poorly understood, particularly at the household or village levels. In the current study, residents in 26 villages of Eryuan county, Yunnan province, P.R. China, were screened for Schistosoma japonicum infection with a serological assay that was followed by stool examination for sero-positive individuals. Bayesian multilevel models with spatial random effects were employed to profile the S. japonicum infection risk based on known transmission sites of S. japonicum that are scattered across individual land parcels in this part of the country. The key risk factors identified with this approach were the absence of a sanitary stall house for livestock and presence of living and infected intermediate host snails in close proximity. We conclude that a spatially explicit Bayesian multilevel approach can deepen our understanding of eco-social determinants that govern schistosomiasis transmission at a small geographical scale. PMID:24751418

  16. Ground-water levels and flow directions in the glacial sediments and the Lockport Dolomite in southeastern Darke and northeastern Preble counties, Ohio, July 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer of 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) began an emergency removal action at the Lewisburg Drum Site in northern Preble County, Ohio.  The site is about 3 miles west-northwest of the village of Lewisburg.  The USEPA removed about 1,200 drums of waste ink from the site, as well as 2,500 cubic yards of contaminated soil and 100,000 gallons of ground water.  Because of the potential for off-site migration of ground-water contamination, USEPA sampled residential wells in the area; results from the samples collected by USEPA indicated that the quality of water in some privately owned wells may have been affected by contaminants from the site.  However, the directions of ground-water flow in the area were not known.  In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USEPA, measure water levels in the vicinity of the site.  This map will aid in the interpretation of the water-quality data collected by USEPA.

  17. Land use zoning at the county level based on a multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm: a case study from Yicheng, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Hua; Ji, Yingli; Liu, Zhongqiu; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-08-01

    Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecological benefits of the land-use zones. This is subject to some constraints such as: the quantity limitations for varying land-use zones, regulations assigning land units to a certain land-use zone, and the stipulation of a minimum parcel area in a land-use zoning map. In addition, a crossover and mutation operator from a genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the prematurity of PSO. The results obtained for Yicheng, a county in central China, using different objective weighting schemes, are compared and suggest that: (1) the fundamental demand for attribute difference between land-use zones leads to a mass of fragmentary land-use zones; (2) the spatial pattern of land-use zones is remarkably optimized when a weight is given to the sub-objectives of spatial compactness and the degree of spatial harmony, simultaneously, with a reduction of attribute difference between land-use zones; (3) when a weight is given to the sub-objective of ecological benefits of the land-use zones, the ecological benefits get a slight increase also at the expense of a reduction in attribute difference between land-use zones; (4) the pursuit of spatial harmony or spatial compactness may have a negative effect on each other; (5) an increase in the ecological benefits may improve the spatial compactness and spatial harmony of the land-use zones; (6) adjusting the weights assigned to each sub-objective can

  18. Land Use Zoning at the County Level Based on a Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study from Yicheng, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Hua; Ji, Yingli; Liu, Zhongqiu; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecological benefits of the land-use zones. This is subject to some constraints such as: the quantity limitations for varying land-use zones, regulations assigning land units to a certain land-use zone, and the stipulation of a minimum parcel area in a land-use zoning map. In addition, a crossover and mutation operator from a genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the prematurity of PSO. The results obtained for Yicheng, a county in central China, using different objective weighting schemes, are compared and suggest that: (1) the fundamental demand for attribute difference between land-use zones leads to a mass of fragmentary land-use zones; (2) the spatial pattern of land-use zones is remarkably optimized when a weight is given to the sub-objectives of spatial compactness and the degree of spatial harmony, simultaneously, with a reduction of attribute difference between land-use zones; (3) when a weight is given to the sub-objective of ecological benefits of the land-use zones, the ecological benefits get a slight increase also at the expense of a reduction in attribute difference between land-use zones; (4) the pursuit of spatial harmony or spatial compactness may have a negative effect on each other; (5) an increase in the ecological benefits may improve the spatial compactness and spatial harmony of the land-use zones; (6) adjusting the weights assigned to each sub-objective can

  19. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone at the burial site for low-level radioactive waste near Beatty, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid waste has been buried in trenches at a site near Beatty, Nevada, since 1962. In 1976, as part of a national program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of the geohydrology of the waste burial site to provide a basis for estimating the potential for radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste burial trenches. Data collected include meteorological information for calibration of a long-term water budget analysis, soil moisture profiles, soil water potentials, and hydraulic properties of representative unsaturated sediment samples to a depth of about 10 m. The waste burial facility is in the northern Amargosa Desert about 170 km northwest of Las Vegas, NV. The region is arid; mean annual precipitation at Lathrop Wells, 30 km south of the site, is only 7.4 cm. The mean daily maximum temperature at Lathrop Wells in July, the hottest month, is 37 C. The site is underlain by poorly stratified deposits of gravelly or silty sand and sandy gravel, and thick beds of clayey sediments. The total thickness of valley fill deposits beneath the site is about 175 m; the unsaturated zone is about 85 m thick. Volumetric soil moisture to depths of 4 m ranges from 4% to 10%, but commonly is in the range from 6% to 8%. Soil water potential, measured to depths of 3 to 10 m, ranged from -10 to -70 bars. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity computed from laboratory analyses of representative samples ranges from 10 to the -13th power to 10 to the -4th power cm/day. Evaporation studies over a 2-yr period were used to calibrate a numerical procedure for analyzing long-term precipitation data and estimating annual water budgets during the 15-yr period 1962-76. This analysis (1) demonstrated that a potential exists for deep percolation (> 2 m), despite high annual evaporation demands, and (2) provided predictions of the time of yr and the antecedent conditions which enhance the probability of deep percolation. Soil moisture profiles obtained

  20. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone at the burial site for low-level radioactive waste near Beatty, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid waste has been buried in trenches at a site near Beatty, Nev., since 1962. In 1976, as part of a national program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of the geohydrology of the waste-burial site to provide a basis for estimating the potential for radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste-burial trenches. Data collected include meteorological information for calibration of a long-term water-budget analysis, soil-moisture profiles, soil-water potentials, and hydraulic properties of representative unsaturated sediment samples to a depth of about 10 meters (m). The waste-burial facility is in the northern Amargosa Desert about 170 kilometers (km) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevo The region is arid; mean annual precipitation at Lathrop Wells, 30 km south of the site, is only 7.4 centimeters (cm). The mean daily maximum temperature at Lathrop Wells in July, the hottest month, is 37 ?C. The site is underlain by poorly stratified deposits of gravelly or silty sand and sandy gravel, and thick beds of clayey sediments. The total thickness of valley-fill deposits beneath the site is about 175 m; the unsaturated zone is about 85 m thick. Volumetric soil moisture to depths of 4 m ranges from 4 to 10 percent but commonly is in the range of 6 to 8 percent. Soil-water potential, measured to depths of 3 to 10 m, ranged from -10 to -70 bars. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity computed from laboratory analyses of representative samples ranges from 10 -13 to 10 -14 centimeters per day (cm/d). Evaporation studies over a 2-year (yr) period were used to calibrate a numerical procedure for analyzing long-term precipitation data and estimating annual water budgets during the 15-yr period 1962-76. This analysis (1) demonstrated that a potential exists for deep percolation (greater than 2 m), despite high annual evaporation demands, and (2) provided predictions of the time of year and the antecedent conditions that enhance the probability

  1. Database Technologies for RDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Souripriya; Srinivasan, Jagannathan

    Efficient and scalable support for RDF/OWL data storage, loading, inferencing and querying, in conjunction with already available support for enterprise level data and operations reliability requirements, can make databases suitable to act as enterprise-level RDF/OWL repository and hence become a viable platform for building semantic applications for the enterprise environments.

  2. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-18

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.

  3. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, East-Central New Mexico-Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer in Curry and Roosevelt Counties, N. Mex., and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. This report provides a summary of the current (2007) water-level status of the Southern High Plains aquifer in New Mexico, including a basis for estimating future trends by comparison with historical conditions. This report includes estimates of the extent of ground-water level declines in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey-Lingo Ground-water Management Area parts of the High Plains Aquifer in eastern New Mexico since predevelopment. Maps representing 2007 water levels, water-level declines, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. The results of this mapping show the water level declined as much as 175 feet in the study area at rates as high as 1.76 feet per year.

  4. The Transporter Classification Database

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Västermark, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; http://www.tcdb.org) serves as a common reference point for transport protein research. The database contains more than 10 000 non-redundant proteins that represent all currently recognized families of transmembrane molecular transport systems. Proteins in TCDB are organized in a five level hierarchical system, where the first two levels are the class and subclass, the second two are the family and subfamily, and the last one is the transport system. Superfamilies that contain multiple families are included as hyperlinks to the five tier TC hierarchy. TCDB includes proteins from all types of living organisms and is the only transporter classification system that is both universal and recognized by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It has been expanded by manual curation, contains extensive text descriptions providing structural, functional, mechanistic and evolutionary information, is supported by unique software and is interconnected to many other relevant databases. TCDB is of increasing usefulness to the international scientific community and can serve as a model for the expansion of database technologies. This manuscript describes an update of the database descriptions previously featured in NAR database issues. PMID:24225317

  5. Hydrology of Polk County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2007-01-01

    the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer provides most of the water required to meet demand in Polk County. Data from about 300 geophysical and geologic logs were used to construct hydrogeologic maps showing the tops and thicknesses of the aquifers and confining units within Polk County. Thickness of the surficial aquifer system ranges from several feet thick or less in the extreme northwestern part of the county and along parts of the Peace River south of Bartow to more than 200 feet along the southern part of the Lake Wales Ridge in eastern Polk County. Thickness of the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit is highly variable throughout the county because of past erosional processes and sinkhole formation. Thickness of the unit ranges from less than 25 feet in the extreme northwestern part of the county to more than 300 feet in southwestern Polk County. The altitude of the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the county ranges from about 50 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29) in the northwestern part to more than 250 feet below NGVD 29 in the southern part. Water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer fluctuate seasonally, increasing during the wet season (June through September) and decreasing during the rest of the year. Water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer also can change from year to year, depending on such factors as pumpage and climatic variations. In the southwestern part of the county, fluctuations in water use related to phosphate mining have had a major impact on ground-water levels. Hydrographs of selected wells in southwestern Polk County show a general decline in water levels that ended in the mid-1970s. This water-level decline coincides with an increase in water use associated with phosphate mining. A substantial increase in water levels that began in the mid-1970s coincides with a period of decreasing water use in the county. Despite reductions in water use since 1970, howev

  6. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  7. Transport of hydraulic fracturing waste from Pennsylvania wells: A county-level analysis of road use and associated road repair costs.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Lauren A; Maloney, Kelly O

    2016-10-01

    Pennsylvania's rapid unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development-from a single well in 2004 to more than 6700 wells in 2013-has dramatically increased UOG waste transport by heavy trucks. This study quantified the amount of UOG waste and the distance it traveled between wells and disposal facilities on each type of road in each county between July 2010 and December 2013. In addition, the study estimated the associated financial costs to each county's road infrastructure over that period. We found that UOG wells produced a median wastewater volume of 1294 m(3) and a median of 89,267 kg of solid waste. The median number of waste-transport truck trips per well was 122. UOG wells existed in 38 Pennsylvania counties, but we estimated trucks transporting well waste traveled through 132 counties, including counties in West Virginia, Ohio, and New York. Median travel distance varied by disposal type, from 106 km to centralized treatment facilities up to 237 km to injection wells. Local roads experienced the greatest amount of truck traffic and associated costs ($1.1-6.5 M) and interstates, the least ($0.3-1.6 M). Counties with oil and gas development experienced the most truck traffic and incurred the highest associated roadway costs. However, many counties outside the active development area also incurred roadway repair costs, highlighting the extension of UOG development's spatial footprint beyond the active development area. An online data visualization tool is available here: www.nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/transportation-of-hydraulic-fracturing-waste. PMID:27393942

  8. Ground-water levels in the Floridan-Midville aquifer in the Breezy Hill area, Aiken and Edgefield Counties, South Carolina, April 1999-November 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrelson, Larry G.; Falls, W. Fred; Prowell, David C.

    2002-01-01

    The Breezy Hill area in Aiken and Edgefield Counties of west-central South Carolina is a rapidly growing region in need of increasing amounts of ground water. From 1995 to 1998, the local water utility increased ground-water withdrawals in the Breezy Hill area from 1.4 to 2.1 million gallons per day to meet water-supply demands. As development continues, future demands forground water will likely put stress on the surface-and ground-water resources of the area. To address this issue, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Aiken County, compiled and interpreted geologic and hydrologic data needed to map the ground-water system in the Breezy Hill study area. The Breezy Hill study area consists of four interfluvial areas comprising the regions between Horse and Little Horse Creeks, Little Horse and Hightower Creeks, Hightower Creek and Franklin Branch, and Franklin Branch and Mims Branch. Across the interfluvial areas, the average elevation of the water-level surface ranged from 200 to 480 feet above sea level, and the average saturated thickness of the Floridan-Midville aquifer ranged from less than 20 to 70 feet thick. A water-level aquifer indicates that recharge to the aquifer occurs mainly within the interfluves. Recharge is derived principally from precipitation, although there is some potential for ground-water recharge from underlying crystalline rocks. Ground water discharges along the flanks of the interfluves into the bounding streams where the elevations of the ground water and streams coincide. From April 1999 to November 2000, calculated long-term normal precipitation totaled about 84.0 inches; however, actual recorded precipitation totaled 69.2 inches, representing about a 17.6 percent decrease in precipitation during this period. Published estimates of annual evapotranspiration range from 30 to 35 inches. A U.S. Geological Survey surface-water gaging station located near the center of the study area on Little Horse Creek monitors runoff from a

  9. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  10. When Overweight Is the Normal Weight: An Examination of Obesity Using a Social Media Internet Database

    PubMed Central

    Kuebler, Meghan; Yom-Tov, Elad; Pelleg, Dan; Puhl, Rebecca M.; Muennig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as “skinny,” “thin,” “fat,” or “obese” over time and across forum topics. We used these data to better understand whether a higher-than-average body mass index (BMI) in one’s county might, in some ways, be protective for one’s mental and physical health. For instance, we explored whether higher proportions of obese people in one’s county predicts lower levels of bullying or “am I fat?” questions from those with a normal BMI relative to his/her actual BMI. Most women asking whether they were themselves fat/obese were not actually fat/obese. Both men and women who were actually overweight/obese were significantly more likely in the future to ask for advice about bullying than thinner individuals. Moreover, as mean county-level BMI increased, bullying decreased and then increased again (in a U-shape curve). Regardless of where they lived, posters who asked “am I fat?” who had a BMI in the healthy range were more likely than other posters to subsequently post on health problems, but the proportions of such posters also declined greatly as county-level BMI increased. Our findings suggest that obese people residing in counties with higher levels of BMI may have better physical and mental health than obese people living in counties with lower levels of BMI by some measures, but these improvements are modest. PMID:24058478

  11. North Carolina Rural Adjustment Studies. A Study of Farm Families and Their Level of Living-Income Patterns in Watauga County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Glenn C.

    The purposes of this 1961 study were to identify attitudes and goals of farm people in low income areas and to relate these factors and selected social and personal factors to patterns of adjustment to economic and situational conditions. The sample for the study consisted of 296 farm families in Watauga County, North Carolina. Results of the…

  12. Map showing the altitude and configuration of the water level in the shallow aquifer, January 1975, Roswell Basin, Chaves and Eddy counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The altitude and gradient of the water table in the ' shallow aquifer ' of the Roswell basin in Chaves and Eddy Counties, New Mexico, for January 1975 is shown on a map, scale of 1/2-inch per mile. The map was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New Mexico State Engineer Office. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Map showing the altitude and configuration of the water level in the shallow aquifer, January 1964, Roswell Basin, Chaves and Eddy counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The altitude and gradient of the water table in the ' shallow aquifer ' of the Roswell basin in Chaves and Eddy Counties, New Mexico, for January 1964 is shown on a map, scale of 1/2-inch per mile. The map was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New Mexico State Engineer Office. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  15. ECOREGION SPATIAL DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This spatial database contains boundaries and attributes describing Level III ecoregions in EPA Region 8. The ecoregions shown here have been derived from Omernik (1987) and from refinements of Omernik's framework that have been made for other projects. These ongoing or re...

  16. Village Green Project: Web-accessible Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this web-accessible database is for the public to be able to view instantaneous readings from a solar-powered air monitoring station located in a public location (prototype pilot test is outside of a library in Durham County, NC). The data are wirelessly transmitte...

  17. RNRdb, a curated database of the universal enzyme family ribonucleotide reductase, reveals a high level of misannotation in sequences deposited to Genbank

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyse the only known de novo pathway for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, and are therefore essential to DNA-based life. While ribonucleotide reduction has a single evolutionary origin, significant differences between RNRs nevertheless exist, notably in cofactor requirements, subunit composition and allosteric regulation. These differences result in distinct operational constraints (anaerobicity, iron/oxygen dependence and cobalamin dependence), and form the basis for the classification of RNRs into three classes. Description In RNRdb (Ribonucleotide Reductase database), we have collated and curated all known RNR protein sequences with the aim of providing a resource for exploration of RNR diversity and distribution. By comparing expert manual annotations with annotations stored in Genbank, we find that significant inaccuracies exist in larger databases. To our surprise, only 23% of protein sequences included in RNRdb are correctly annotated across the key attributes of class, role and function, with 17% being incorrectly annotated across all three categories. This illustrates the utility of specialist databases for applications where a high degree of annotation accuracy may be important. The database houses information on annotation, distribution and diversity of RNRs, and links to solved RNR structures, and can be searched through a BLAST interface. RNRdb is accessible through a public web interface at http://rnrdb.molbio.su.se. Conclusion RNRdb is a specialist database that provides a reliable annotation and classification resource for RNR proteins, as well as a tool to explore distribution patterns of RNR classes. The recent expansion in available genome sequence data have provided us with a picture of RNR distribution that is more complex than believed only a few years ago; our database indicates that RNRs of all three classes are found across all three cellular domains. Moreover, we find a number of organisms that

  18. Near Real-Time Automatic Data Quality Controls for the AERONET Version 3 Database: An Introduction to the New Level 1.5V Aerosol Optical Depth Data Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.; Eck, T. F.; Slutsker, I.; Sorokin, M. G.; Espenak, F.; Schafer, J.; Sinyuk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) has provided a database of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by surface-based Sun/sky radiometers for over 20 years. AERONET provides unscreened (Level 1.0) and automatically cloud cleared (Level 1.5) AOD in near real-time (NRT), while manually inspected quality assured (Level 2.0) AOD are available after instrument field deployment (Smirnov et al., 2000). The growing need for NRT quality controlled aerosol data has become increasingly important. Applications of AERONET NRT data include the satellite evaluation (e.g., MODIS, VIIRS, MISR, OMI), data synergism (e.g., MPLNET), verification of aerosol forecast models and reanalysis (e.g., GOCART, ICAP, NAAPS, MERRA), input to meteorological models (e.g., NCEP, ECMWF), and field campaign support (e.g., KORUS-AQ, ORACLES). In response to user needs for quality controlled NRT data sets, the new Version 3 (V3) Level 1.5V product was developed with similar quality controls as those applied by hand to the Version 2 (V2) Level 2.0 data set. The AERONET cloud screened (Level 1.5) NRT AOD database can be significantly impacted by data anomalies. The most significant data anomalies include AOD diurnal dependence due to contamination or obstruction of the sensor head windows, anomalous AOD spectral dependence due to problems with filter degradation, instrument gains, or non-linear changes in calibration, and abnormal changes in temperature sensitive wavelengths (e.g., 1020nm) in response to anomalous sensor head temperatures. Other less common AOD anomalies result from loose filters, uncorrected clock shifts, connection and electronic issues, and various solar eclipse episodes. Automatic quality control algorithms are applied to the new V3 Level 1.5 database to remove NRT AOD anomalies and produce the new AERONET V3 Level 1.5V AOD product. Results of the quality control algorithms are presented and the V3 Level 1.5V AOD database is compared to the V2 Level 2.0 AOD database.

  19. Protein Structure Databases.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Roman A

    2016-01-01

    Web-based protein structure databases come in a wide variety of types and levels of information content. Those having the most general interest are the various atlases that describe each experimentally determined protein structure and provide useful links, analyses, and schematic diagrams relating to its 3D structure and biological function. Also of great interest are the databases that classify 3D structures by their folds as these can reveal evolutionary relationships which may be hard to detect from sequence comparison alone. Related to these are the numerous servers that compare folds-particularly useful for newly solved structures, and especially those of unknown function. Beyond these are a vast number of databases for the more specialized user, dealing with specific families, diseases, structural features, and so on. PMID:27115626

  20. Databases for K-8 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Today's elementary school students have been exposed to computers since birth, so it is not surprising that they are so proficient at using them. As a result, they are ready to search databases that include topics and information appropriate for their age level. Subscription databases are digital copies of magazines, newspapers, journals,…

  1. Atomic Spectroscopic Databases at NIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reader, J.; Kramida, A. E.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We describe recent work at NIST to develop and maintain databases for spectra, transition probabilities, and energy levels of atoms that are astrophysically important. Our programs to critically compile these data as well as to develop a new database to compare plasma calculations for atoms that are not in local thermodynamic equilibrium are also summarized.

  2. ADANS database specification

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  3. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three missions outstanding, the Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database has nearly 3000 entries. The data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. Details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics will be provided. Post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will also be discussed. Potential enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers will be addressed in the Future Work section. A related database of returned surfaces from the International Space Station will also be introduced.

  4. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James I.; Christiansen, Eric I.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three flights remaining on the manifest, the shuttle impact hypervelocity database has over 2800 entries. The data is currently divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. The paper will provide details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics using the impact data. A discussion of post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will be presented. Future work to be discussed will be possible enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers. A related database of ISS returned surfaces that are under development will also be introduced.

  5. Geophysical Logs, Aquifer Tests, and Water Levels in Wells in and Near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 from October 2002 through December 2006. This followed work that began in 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form fractured-rock aquifers that act as a set of confined to semi-confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area. This stream flows southwest approximately parallel to strike and bisects North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 42 wells that ranged in depth from 40 to 477 ft. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 17 of the 42 wells, for a total of 122 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping and shutdown of a 600-ft deep production well in November-December 2004. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in four wells in the area from October 2002 through September 2006, and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on

  6. County Business Patterns: United States, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In this report, subnational economic data by industry, including Educational Services, is provided. County Business Patterns is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark for statistical series, surveys, and databases between economic censuses. The number of establishments,…

  7. Lycoming County Women's History Curriculum Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This project plays upon technology and an innovative way to research history -- the use of online primary source data that highlight the history of women in volunteer and reform organizations, education, the arts, the workplace, and private lives. Using an archival database from the Lycoming County Women's History collection, this curriculum…

  8. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE EAST APPROACH (LIBERTY COUNTY SIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE EAST APPROACH (LIBERTY COUNTY SIDE) AT ROAD LEVEL (SR 20), FACING NORTH - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  9. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE EAST APPROACH (LIBERTY COUNTY SIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE EAST APPROACH (LIBERTY COUNTY SIDE) AT ROAD LEVEL (SR 20), FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  10. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE) AT ROAD LEVEL (SR 20), FACING SOUTHEAST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  11. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE) AT ROAD LEVEL (SR 20), FACING NORTHEAST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  12. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  13. Description of water-resource-related data compiled for Harvey County, south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Site, construction, geologic, water-level, water- quality, water-withdrawal, and well-survey data for sites in Harvey County were compiled in cooper- ation with the Harvey County Health Department as part of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment's Local Environmental Protection Program (LEPP). These data were entered into a relational data-base management system (RDBMS) to facilitate the analysis required to meet the LEPP goals of developing plans for nonpoint-source management and for public-water-supply protection. The data in the RDBMS are organized into digital data sets. The data sets contain the water- resource-related data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for 668 wells; by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for 1,636 wells, 6 public-water-supply systems, 6 streams, and 2 surface-water impoundments; by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture for 423 wells and 26 streams or impoundments; by well-drilling con- tractors and the Kansas Geological Survey for 126 wells; and by Harvey County for 89 wells. In addition, data on 761 wells and 133 sites without wells resulting from a survey of rural landowners and residents by Harvey County as a part of the LEPP are contained in another data set. The data in these 7 data sets are available from the Harvey County Health Department in Newton, Kansas. (USGS)

  14. Stackfile Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.

  15. RBscore&NBench: a high-level web server for nucleic acid binding residues prediction with a large-scale benchmarking database.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2016-07-01

    RBscore&NBench combines a web server, RBscore and a database, NBench. RBscore predicts RNA-/DNA-binding residues in proteins and visualizes the prediction scores and features on protein structures. The scoring scheme of RBscore directly links feature values to nucleic acid binding probabilities and illustrates the nucleic acid binding energy funnel on the protein surface. To avoid dataset, binding site definition and assessment metric biases, we compared RBscore with 18 web servers and 3 stand-alone programs on 41 datasets, which demonstrated the high and stable accuracy of RBscore. A comprehensive comparison led us to develop a benchmark database named NBench. The web server is available on: http://ahsoka.u-strasbg.fr/rbscorenbench/. PMID:27084939

  16. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, E. C.; Ashworth, A. C.; Barnosky, A. D.; Betancourt, J. L.; Bills, B.; Booth, R.; Blois, J.; Charles, D. F.; Graham, R. W.; Goring, S. J.; Hausmann, S.; Smith, A. J.; Williams, J. W.; Buckland, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Neotoma Paleoecology Database (www.neotomadb.org) is a multiproxy, open-access, relational database that includes fossil data for the past 5 million years (the late Neogene and Quaternary Periods). Modern distributional data for various organisms are also being made available for calibration and paleoecological analyses. The project is a collaborative effort among individuals from more than 20 institutions worldwide, including domain scientists representing a spectrum of Pliocene-Quaternary fossil data types, as well as experts in information technology. Working groups are active for diatoms, insects, ostracodes, pollen and plant macroscopic remains, testate amoebae, rodent middens, vertebrates, age models, geochemistry and taphonomy. Groups are also active in developing online tools for data analyses and for developing modules for teaching at different levels. A key design concept of NeotomaDB is that stewards for various data types are able to remotely upload and manage data. Cooperatives for different kinds of paleo data, or from different regions, can appoint their own stewards. Over the past year, much progress has been made on development of the steward software-interface that will enable this capability. The steward interface uses web services that provide access to the database. More generally, these web services enable remote programmatic access to the database, which both desktop and web applications can use and which provide real-time access to the most current data. Use of these services can alleviate the need to download the entire database, which can be out-of-date as soon as new data are entered. In general, the Neotoma web services deliver data either from an entire table or from the results of a view. Upon request, new web services can be quickly generated. Future developments will likely expand the spatial and temporal dimensions of the database. NeotomaDB is open to receiving new datasets and stewards from the global Quaternary community

  17. Database Marketplace 2002: The Database Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Robinson, William

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the database industry over the past year, including new companies and services, company closures, popular database formats, popular access methods, and changes in existing products and services. Lists 33 firms and their database services; 33 firms and their database products; and 61 company profiles. (LRW)

  18. PMAG: Relational Database Definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keizer, P.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Genevey, A.; Staudigel, H.; Helly, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Scripps center for Physical and Chemical Earth References (PACER) was established to help create databases for reference data and make them available to the Earth science community. As part of these efforts PACER supports GERM, REM and PMAG and maintains multiple online databases under the http://earthref.org umbrella website. This website has been built on top of a relational database that allows for the archiving and electronic access to a great variety of data types and formats, permitting data queries using a wide range of metadata. These online databases are designed in Oracle 8.1.5 and they are maintained at the San Diego Supercomputer Center. They are directly available via http://earthref.org/databases/. A prototype of the PMAG relational database is now operational within the existing EarthRef.org framework under http://earthref.org/databases/PMAG/. As will be shown in our presentation, the PMAG design focuses around the general workflow that results in the determination of typical paleo-magnetic analyses. This ensures that individual data points can be traced between the actual analysis and the specimen, sample, site, locality and expedition it belongs to. These relations guarantee traceability of the data by distinguishing between original and derived data, where the actual (raw) measurements are performed on the specimen level, and data on the sample level and higher are then derived products in the database. These relations may also serve to recalculate site means when new data becomes available for that locality. The PMAG data records are extensively described in terms of metadata. These metadata are used when scientists search through this online database in order to view and download their needed data. They minimally include method descriptions for field sampling, laboratory techniques and statistical analyses. They also include selection criteria used during the interpretation of the data and, most importantly, critical information about the

  19. Tri-county pilot study. [Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Austin, T. W.; Kerber, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An area inventory was performed for three southeast Texas counties (Montgomery, Walker, and San Jacinto) totaling 0.65 million hectares. The inventory was performed using a two level hierarchy. Level 1 was divided into forestland, rangeland, and other land. Forestland was separated into Level 2 categories: pine, hardwood, and mixed; rangeland was not separated further. Results consisted of area statistics for each county and for the entire study site for pine, hardwood, mixed, rangeland, and other land. Color coded county classification maps were produced for the May data set, and procedures were developed and tested.

  20. Development and testing of a rural credit supervision system at the level of counties and rural properties utilizing remote sensing techniqes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T. (Principal Investigator); Delima, A. M.; Tardin, A. T.; Rudorff, B. F. T.; Mendonca, F. J.; Dosanjosferreirapinto, S.; Chen, S. C.; Duarte, V.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic charts were used. Aerial photographs were extremely useful for the out lining of properties boundaries with financing of sugarcane plantations by the Banco do Brasil S.A.. The percentage of correctly interpreted sugarcane on LANDSAT images, considering the 85 analyzed properties, was of 63.12%. The occurrence of atypical conditions such as excessive raining, sugarcane in bloom, and wind damaged sugarcane and sugarcane not harvested due to planning failures verified during the period the images were obtained, were some of the contributing factors associated with a low interpretation performance. An alternative approach was developed using several LANDSAT overpasses and auxiliary field data, which resulted in 91.77 percent correct.

  1. 15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, California, A.J. Logan, County Surveyor, H.J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, March 7, 1919,' showing general plan, plan of top chord, elevation of main girder, transverse section, plan section at deck level. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  2. School Progress Report 2012. Montgomery County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels. Montgomery County primary schools are…

  3. Overlap in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the topic of Fuzzy Set Theory to determine the overlap of coverage in bibliographic databases. Highlights include examples of comparisons of database coverage; frequency distribution of the degree of overlap; records with maximum overlap; records unique to one database; intra-database duplicates; and overlap in the top ten databases.…

  4. The EXOSAT database system. Available databases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, C.

    1991-02-01

    This User's Guide describes the databases that are currently available by remote login to the EXOSAT/ESTEC site of the EXOSAT database system. This includes where ever possible the following: brief descriptions of each observatory, telescope and instrument references to more complete observatory descriptions a list of the contents of each database and how it was generated, parameter descriptions.

  5. Method for Estimating Annual Atrazine Use for Counties in the Conterminous United States, 1992-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thelin, Gail P.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed to estimate annual atrazine use during 1992 to 2007 on sixteen crops and four agricultural land uses. For each year, atrazine use was estimated for all counties in the conterminous United States (except California) by combining (1) proprietary data from the Doane Marketing Research-Kynetec (DMRK) AgroTrak database on the mass of atrazine applied to agricultural crops, (2) county harvested crop acreage, by county, from the 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007 Censuses of Agriculture, and (3) annual harvested crop acreage from National Agriculture Statistics Service (NASS) for non-Census years. DMRK estimates of pesticide use on individual crops were derived from surveys of major field crops and selected specialty crops in multicounty areas referred to as Crop Reporting Districts (CRD). The CRD-level atrazine-use estimates were disaggregated to obtain county-level application rates by dividing the mass (pounds) of pesticides applied to a crop by the acreage of that crop in the CRD to yield a rate per harvested acre. When atrazine-use estimates were not available for a CRD, crop, or year, an estimated rate was developed following a hierarchy of decision rules that checked first for the availability of a crop application rate from surveyed atrazine application rate(s) for adjacent CRDs for a specific year, and second, the rates from surveyed CRDs within for U.S. Department of Agriculture Farm Production Regions for a specific year or multiple years. The estimation method applied linear interpolation to estimate crop acreage for years when harvested acres for a crop and county were not reported in either the Census of Agriculture or the NASS database, but were reported by these data sources for other years for that crop and county. Data for atrazine use for the counties in California was obtained from farmers' reports of pesticide use collected and published by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation-Pesticide Use Reporting (DPR-PUR) because these

  6. Unifying Memory and Database Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, João M.

    Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.

  7. Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and the eight other potentially sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization. 591 refs., 147 figs., 173 tabs.

  8. Coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise: a preliminary database for the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico coasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2001-01-01

    The prediction of coastal evolution is not straightforward. There is no standard methodology, and even the kind of data required to make such predictions are the subject of much scientific debate. Since a viable, quantitative predictive model for coastal evolution is not available. The relative susceptibility of the Nation's coastline to sea-level rise is quantified here at a regional to national scale using basic information on coastal geomorphology, rate of sea-level rise, past shoreline evolution and other factors. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental and conditions, and yields a relative measure of the system's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. This information has immediate application to many of the decisions our society will be making regarding coastal development in both the short- and long-term.

  9. Databases: Beyond the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Robert

    This presented paper offers an elementary description of database characteristics and then provides a survey of databases that may be useful to the teacher and researcher in Slavic and East European languages and literatures. The survey focuses on commercial databases that are available, usable, and needed. Individual databases discussed include:…

  10. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  11. Adult Literacy. Cuyahoga County Data Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Urban Poverty and Community Development (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    There are no direct measures of adult literacy in Cuyahoga County. Instead, this report uses estimates based on a statistical model derived from the National Survey of Adult Literacy. Adult literacy levels range from Level 1 (the most basic) to Level 5 (the most complex). People with Level 1 literacy are at a severe disadvantage in the sense that…

  12. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  13. Hydrologic conditions and lake-level fluctuations at Long Lost Lake, 1939-2004, White Earth Indian Reservation, Clearwater County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Bergman, Andrea L.

    2005-01-01

    Aerial photography and a geographic information system were used to construct a historical lake record from 1939 to 2001. Lake-level increases match similar increases in precipitation, indicating a strong link between the two. Results show that lake-level increases in Long Lost Lake appear to primarily be due to natural rather than anthropogenic effects.

  14. EVALUATION AND REPORTING OF COUNTY GASOLINE USE METHODOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews two EPA studies that investigated improvements in the allocation of state-level gasoline sales to the county level in order to improve annual county-level emissions estimates from this source category. The approaches taken in these studies are compared with the...

  15. Synthesized Population Databases: A US Geospatial Database for Agent-Based Models

    PubMed Central

    Wheaton, William D.; Cajka, James C.; Chasteen, Bernadette M.; Wagener, Diane K.; Cooley, Philip C.; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Roberts, Douglas J.; Allpress, Justine L.

    2010-01-01

    Agent-based models simulate large-scale social systems. They assign behaviors and activities to “agents” (individuals) within the population being modeled and then allow the agents to interact with the environment and each other in complex simulations. Agent-based models are frequently used to simulate infectious disease outbreaks, among other uses. RTI used and extended an iterative proportional fitting method to generate a synthesized, geospatially explicit, human agent database that represents the US population in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in the year 2000. Each agent is assigned to a household; other agents make up the household occupants. For this database, RTI developed the methods for generating synthesized households and personsassigning agents to schools and workplaces so that complex interactions among agents as they go about their daily activities can be taken into accountgenerating synthesized human agents who occupy group quarters (military bases, college dormitories, prisons, nursing homes).In this report, we describe both the methods used to generate the synthesized population database and the final data structure and data content of the database. This information will provide researchers with the information they need to use the database in developing agent-based models. Portions of the synthesized agent database are available to any user upon request. RTI will extract a portion (a county, region, or state) of the database for users who wish to use this database in their own agent-based models. PMID:20505787

  16. Digital computer processing of LANDSAT data for North Alabama. [Linestone County, Madison County, Jackson County, Marshall County, and DeKalb County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Atkinson, R. J.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1977-01-01

    Computer processing procedures and programs applied to Multispectral Scanner data from LANDSAT are described. The output product produced is a level 1 land use map in conformance with a Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The region studied was a five-county area in north Alabama.

  17. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF): The vitrification of high-level nuclear waste. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a production-scale facility and the world`s largest plant for the vitrification of high-level radioactive nuclear wastes (HLW) located in the United States. Initially based on the selection of borosilicate glass as the reference waste form, the citations present the history of the development including R&D projects and the actual construction of the production facility at the DOE Savannah River Plant (SRP). (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Ground-Water Occurrence and Movement, 2006, and Water-Level Changes in the Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Truini, Margot; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Remick, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water levels for water year 2006 and their change over time in Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins of northwestern Arizona were investigated to improve the understanding of current and past ground-water conditions in these basins. The potentiometric surface for ground water in the Basin-Fill aquifer of each basin is generally parallel to topography. Consequently, ground-water movement is generally from the mountain front toward the basin center and then along the basin axis toward the Colorado River or Lake Mead. Observed water levels in Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins have fluctuated during the period of historic water-level records (1943 through 2006). In Detrital Valley Basin, water levels in monitored areas have either remained the same, or have steadily increased as much as 3.5 feet since the 1980s. Similar steady conditions or water-level rises were observed for much of the northern and central parts of Hualapai Valley Basin. During the period of historic record, steady water-level declines as large as 60 feet were found in wells penetrating the Basin-Fill aquifer in areas near Kingman, northwest of Hackberry, and northeast of Dolan Springs within the Hualapai Valley Basin. Within the Sacramento Valley Basin, during the period of historic record, water-level declines as large as 55 feet were observed in wells penetrating the Basin-Fill aquifer in the Kingman and Golden Valley areas; whereas small, steady rises were observed in Yucca and in the Dutch Flat area.

  19. Bedrock Geologic Map of the New Milford Quadrangle, Litchfield and Fairfield Counties, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    The bedrock geology of the New Milford quadrangle, Litchfield and Fairfield Counties, Connecticut is described in this report. The database includes contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, structural geologic information, and photos.

  20. Water Quality and Hydrology of Silver Lake, Barron County, Wisconsin, With Special Emphasis on Responses of a Terminal Lake to Changes in Phosphorus Loading and Water Level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2009-01-01

    Silver Lake is typically an oligotrophic-to-mesotrophic, soft-water, terminal lake in northwestern Wisconsin. A terminal lake is a closed-basin lake with surface-water inflows but no surface-water outflows to other water bodies. After several years with above-normal precipitation, very high water levels caused flooding of several buildings near the lake and erosion of soil around much of the shoreline, which has been associated with a degradation in water quality (increased phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations and decreased water clarity). To gain a better understanding of what caused the very high water levels and degradation in water quality and collect information to better understand the lake and protect it from future degradation, the U.S. Geological Survey did a detailed study from 2004 to 2008. This report describes results of the study; specifically, lake-water quality, historical changes in water level, water and phosphorus budgets for the two years monitored in the study, results of model simulations that demonstrate how changes in phosphorus inputs affect lake-water quality, and the relative importance of changes in hydrology and changes in the watershed to the water quality of the lake. From 1987 to about 1996, water quality in Silver Lake was relatively stable. Since 1996, however, summer average total phosphorus concentrations increased from about 0.008 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to 0.018 mg/L in 2003, before decreasing to 0.011 mg/L in 2008. From 1996 to 2003, Secchi depths decreased from about 14 to 7.4 feet, before increasing to about 19 feet in 2008. Therefore, Silver Lake is typically classified as oligotrophic to mesotrophic; however, during 2002-4, the lake was classified as mesotrophic to eutrophic. Because productivity in Silver Lake is limited by phosphorus, phosphorus budgets for the lake were constructed for monitoring years 2005 and 2006. The average annual input of phosphorus was 216 pounds: 78 percent from tributary and

  1. Water resources of Langlade County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    An average of about 4.7 million gallons of water was pumped daily in Langlade County in 1983. Irrigation and fish rearing are the major ground-water uses in the county. An average of about 4.2 million gallons per day was pumped for irrigation during the months of June, July, and August. Results of this study show that present irrigation pumpage rates have little effect on groundwater levels in the Antigo Flats area.

  2. Assessment of Child Care Quality in Four Counties in Minnesota. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Ceglowski, Deborah

    In order to assess the state of child care in Minnesota, this study examined child care needs, resources, and issues in four counties representing both rural and urban parts of the state. Three sources of information were tapped: (1) the county Child Care Resource and Referral databases; (2) a survey of directors of child care centers; and (3)…

  3. PHENIX RPC Production Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    The Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment (PHENIX) is located on the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A primary physics goal that can be studied by PHENIX is the origin of the proton spin. One of the types of rare events looked for in the moun arms at PHENIX are single high transverse momentum mouns, which tend to result from the decay of a W bozon. Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) will be used as a level 1 trigger to select these events from a large background of low transverse momentum muons. As these RPCs are assembled it is necessary to keep track of the individual parts of each RPC as well as data from various quality assurance tests in a way that will allow the information to be easily accessible years to come as the RPCs are being used. This is done through the use of a database and web page interface that can be used to enter data about the RPCs or to look up information from tests. I will be presenting on how we keep track of the RPCs, their parts, and data from quality assurance tests as they are being assembled as well as how we can retrieve this data after it has been stored in the database.

  4. EMU Lessons Learned Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Kevin M., Jr.; Crocker, Lori; Cupples, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    As manned space exploration takes on the task of traveling beyond low Earth orbit, many problems arise that must be solved in order to make the journey possible. One major task is protecting humans from the harsh space environment. The current method of protecting astronauts during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is through use of the specially designed Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). As more rigorous EVA conditions need to be endured at new destinations, the suit will need to be tailored and improved in order to accommodate the astronaut. The Objective behind the EMU Lessons Learned Database(LLD) is to be able to create a tool which will assist in the development of next-generation EMUs, along with maintenance and improvement of the current EMU, by compiling data from Failure Investigation and Analysis Reports (FIARs) which have information on past suit failures. FIARs use a system of codes that give more information on the aspects of the failure, but if one is unfamiliar with the EMU they will be unable to decipher the information. A goal of the EMU LLD is to not only compile the information, but to present it in a user-friendly, organized, searchable database accessible to all familiarity levels with the EMU; both newcomers and veterans alike. The EMU LLD originally started as an Excel database, which allowed easy navigation and analysis of the data through pivot charts. Creating an entry requires access to the Problem Reporting And Corrective Action database (PRACA), which contains the original FIAR data for all hardware. FIAR data are then transferred to, defined, and formatted in the LLD. Work is being done to create a web-based version of the LLD in order to increase accessibility to all of Johnson Space Center (JSC), which includes converting entries from Excel to the HTML format. FIARs related to the EMU have been completed in the Excel version, and now focus has shifted to expanding FIAR data in the LLD to include EVA tools and support hardware such as

  5. Predevelopment Water-Level Contours for Aquifers in the Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Fenelon; Randell J. Laczniak; and Keith J. Halford

    2008-06-24

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. Although contaminants were introduced into low-permeability rocks above the regional flow system, the potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by ground-water transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the water-level distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. The contoured water-level distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped, presented, and discussed in general terms as being one of three aquifer types—volcanic aquifer, upper carbonate aquifer, or lower carbonate aquifer. Each of these aquifer types was subdivided and mapped as independent continuous and isolated aquifers, based on the continuity of its component rock. Ground-water flow directions, as related to the transport of test-generated contaminants, were developed from water-level contours and are presented and discussed for each of the continuous aquifers. Contoured water-level altitudes vary across the study area and range from more than 5,000 feet in the volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,450 feet in the lower carbonate aquifer in the southern part of the study area. Variations in

  6. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  7. THE ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...

  8. Network II Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  9. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2015 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

  10. Ground-water levels and flow at selected study sites in the Walnut Creek Management System Evaluation Area, Boone and Story counties, Iowa, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Data collected from May 1991 through September 1993 to determine seasonal fluctuations in ground-water levels and to estimate directions of ground-water flow in the saturated zone at selected study sites at the Iowa Management Systems Evaluation Area in the Walnut Creek Watershed are presented. The Walnut Creek Watershed is located on glacial deposits of Wisconsinan age in central Iowa and includes about 20 square miles. The upper glacial materials appear to be supraglacial tills rather than basal glacial tills and contain both oxidized and unoxidized zones. Water levels were measured in 102 wells from 38 locations at 7 study sites in the watershed. Water levels fluctuated in response to local climatic conditions and ranged from at or near the land surface to more than 30 feet below land surface. In general, ground water flowed towards Walnut Creek or large drainage tiles. Potentiometric-surface maps at the selected study sites can be used to determine which locations might be affected by agricultural management practices in place at each site.

  11. Water-level data from wells and test holes through 1991 and potentiometric contours as of 1991 for Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, G.S.; Trudeau, D.A.; Savard, C.S.

    1995-12-01

    The underground nuclear testing program of the US Department of Energy (USDOE) takes place at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 65 mi north-west of Las Vegas, Nevada. Underground nuclear tests at Yucca Flat, one of the USDOE test areas at NTS, have affected hydrologic conditions, including groundwater levels. The purpose of this map report, prepared in cooperation with USDOE, is to present selected water-level data collected from wells and test holes through December 1991, and to show potentiometric contours representing 1991 water-table conditions in the Yucca Flat area. The more generic term, potentiometric contours, is used herein rather than ``water-table contours`` because the hydrologic units contributing water to wells and test holes may not accurately represent the water table. The water table is that surface in an unconfined water body at which the pressure is atmospheric. It is defined by the altitude at which non- perched ground water is first found in wells and test holes. Perched ground water is defined as unconfined ground water separated from an underlying body of ground water by an unsaturated zone. This map report updates information on water levels in some wells and test holes and the resulting water-table contours in rocks of Cenozoic and Paleozoic age shown by Doty and Thordarson for 1980 conditions.

  12. Database Application for a Youth Market Livestock Production Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horney, Marc R.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an example of a database designed to support teaching animal production and husbandry skills in county youth livestock programs. The system was used to manage production goals, animal growth and carcass data, photos and other imagery, and participant records. These were used to produce a variety of customized reports to help…

  13. MPlus Database system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-20

    The MPlus Database program was developed to keep track of mail received. This system was developed by TRESP for the Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Operations. The MPlus Database program is a PC application, written in dBase III+'' and compiled with Clipper'' into an executable file. The files you need to run the MPLus Database program can be installed on a Bernoulli, or a hard drive. This paper discusses the use of this database.

  14. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  15. Mission and Assets Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, John; Zendejas, Silvino; Gutheinz, Sandy; Borden, Chester; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Mission and Assets Database (MADB) Version 1.0 is an SQL database system with a Web user interface to centralize information. The database stores flight project support resource requirements, view periods, antenna information, schedule, and forecast results for use in mid-range and long-term planning of Deep Space Network (DSN) assets.

  16. Plant and Crop Databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Databases have become an integral part of all aspects of biological research, including basic and applied plant biology. The importance of databases continues to increase as the volume of data from direct and indirect genomics approaches expands. What is not always obvious to users of databases is t...

  17. NIST Databases on Atomic Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, J.; Wiese, W. L.; Martin, W. C.; Musgrove, A.; Fuhr, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    The NIST atomic and molecular spectroscopic databases now available on the World Wide Web through the NIST Physics Laboratory homepage include Atomic Spectra Database, Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms, Spectrum of Platinum Lamp for Ultraviolet Spectrograph Calibration, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Transition Probabilities, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Spectral Line Broadening, and Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database. The Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) [1] offers evaluated data on energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities for atoms and atomic ions. Data are given for some 950 spectra and 70,000 energy levels. About 91,000 spectral lines are included, with transition probabilities for about half of these. Additional data resulting from our ongoing critical compilations will be included in successive new versions of ASD. We plan to include, for example, our recently published data for some 16,000 transitions covering most ions of the iron-group elements, as well as Cu, Kr, and Mo [2]. Our compilations benefit greatly from experimental and theoretical atomic-data research being carried out in the NIST Atomic Physics Division. A new compilation covering spectra of the rare gases in all stages of ionization, for example, revealed a need for improved data in the infrared. We have thus measured these needed data with our high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer [3]. An upcoming new database will give wavelengths and intensities for the stronger lines of all neutral and singly-ionized atoms, along with energy levels and transition probabilities for the persistent lines [4]. A critical compilation of the transition probabilities of Ba I and Ba II [5] has been completed and several other compilations of atomic transition probabilities are nearing completion. These include data for all spectra of Na, Mg, Al, and Si [6]. Newly compiled data for selected ions of Ne, Mg, Si and S, will form the basis for a new

  18. DDD: Dynamic Database for Diatomics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David

    2004-01-01

    We have developed as web-based database containing spectra of diatomic moiecuies. All data is computed from first principles, and if a user requests data for a molecule/ion that is not in the database, new calculations are automatically carried out on that species. Rotational, vibrational, and electronic transitions are included. Different levels of accuracy can be selected from qualitatively correct to the best calculations that can be carried out. The user can view and modify spectroscopic constants, view potential energy curves, download detailed high temperature linelists, or view synthetic spectra.

  19. Educational Attainment of Adult Residents of Tennessee Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report presents data on the educational attainment of Tennessee residents by county, postsecondary degree level, age group, and ethnicity. The report is made available through interactive maps which allow the user to view county-level educational attainment data for different populations. Data for this analysis were drawn from the U.S. Census…

  20. Borehole Geophysical, Water-Level, and Water-Quality Investigation of a Monitoring Well Completed in the St. Francois Aquifer in Oregon County, Missouri, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.; Kleeschulte, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A deep (more than 2,000 feet) monitoring well was installed in an area being explored for lead and zinc deposits within the Mark Twain National Forest in southern Missouri. The area is a mature karst terrain where rocks of the Ozark aquifer, a primary source of water for private and public supplies and major springs in the nearby Eleven Point National Wild and Scenic River and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, are exposed at the surface. The potential lead deposits lie about 2,000 feet below the surface within a deeper aquifer, called the St. Francois aquifer. The two aquifers are separated by the St. Francois confining unit. The monitoring well was installed as part of a series of investigations to examine potentiometric head relations and water-quality differences between the two aquifers. Results of borehole flowmeter measurements in the open borehole and water-level measurements from the completed monitoring well USGS-D1 indicate that a seasonal upward gradient exists between the St. Francois aquifer and the overlying Ozark aquifer from about September through February. The upward potentiometric heads across the St. Francois confining unit that separates the two aquifers averaged 13.40 feet. Large reversals in this upward gradient occurred during the late winter through summer (about February through August) when water levels in the Ozark aquifer were as much as 138.47 feet higher (average of 53.84 feet) than water levels in the St. Francois aquifer. Most of the fluctuation of potentiometric gradient is caused by precipitation and rapid recharge that cause large and rapid increases in water levels in the Ozark aquifer. Analysis of water-quality samples collected from the St. Francois aquifer interval of the monitoring well indicated a sodium-chloride type water containing dissolved-solids concentrations as large as 1,300 milligrams per liter and large concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, boron, and lithium. In contrast, water in the overlying Ozark

  1. Digital analysis of Potomac River Basin ERTS imagery: Sedimentation levels at the Potomac-Anacostia confluence and strip mining in Allegheny County, Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, J. S.; Macleod, N. H.

    1973-01-01

    Two simple algorithms for classification of sedimentation levels in water and for delineation of active strip mines are in use as part of the development of a more general resource management information system. ERTS MSS CCT's are processed so that each pixel in each channel is geographically referenced and can be accessed individually during whole frame, multi-channel analysis or partial frame analysis. The sedimentation analysis clearly separates classes representing the turbid Anacostia water, the less disturbed Potomac (really), and mud flats resulting from effluent of a major sewage treatment plant. Mud flats of organic or mineral origin are easily distinguished.

  2. VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-base access method for distributed databases. Part 1: The universal index system design document. Part 2: The universal index system low-level design document. Part 3: User's guide. Part 4: Reference manual. Part 5: UIMS test suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Universal Index System (UIS), is to provide an easy-to-use and reliable interface to many different kinds of database systems. The impetus for this system was to simplify database index management for users, thus encouraging the use of indexes. As the idea grew into an actual system design, the concept of increasing database performance by facilitating the use of time-saving techniques at the user level became a theme for the project. This Final Report describes the Design, the Implementation of UIS, and its Language Interfaces. It also includes the User's Guide and the Reference Manual.

  3. Evaluation of water-level recovery, 1996-97 to 1999-2000, and comparison of 1999-2000 and 1972-73 water levels in Goleta Central Subbasin, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Scrudato, Matthew C.; Houston, Ernest R.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water levels were measured during January 1999-June 2000 to evaluate the rate of water-level recovery in the Goleta Central ground-water subbasin that has resulted from injection of about 2,225 acre-feet of surplus water for storage in the ground-water basin. Injection of surplus water was tabulated and compared with water-level rises since 1996 to evaluate the effectiveness of the recharge effort. Water levels have risen about 4 to 37 feet since 1996-97. A preliminary water budget was compiled to assess recharge and discharge in the basin, and it is estimated that total inflow exceeded total outflow during 1998-99 by about 2,844 to 7,518 acre-feet. In addition, water levels for 1999-2000 were compared with water levels for 1972-73 to determine if a 'drought buffer' exists. Water levels measured in two wells during January 1999-June 2000 exceeded January 1972-June 1973 levels. Water levels in the remaining wells measured during January 1999-June 2000 ranged from less than 1 foot to about 32 feet below 1972-73 water levels. In general, the largest water-level rise between 1996-97 and 1999-2000 was about 37 feet in the southeastern end of the basin; the rise was less than 4 feet in the western end of the basin and about 10 feet north of the Goleta Fault. Long-term hydrographs indicate that water levels have been recovering throughout the basin since the early 1990's.

  4. A Scalable Database Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chayes, D. N.

    2001-12-01

    The rapidly increasing volume and complexity of MG&G data, and the growing demand from funding agencies and the user community that it be easily accessible, demand that we improve our approach to data management in order to reach a broader user-base and operate more efficient and effectively. We have chosen an approach based on industry-standard relational database management systems (RDBMS) that use community-wide data specifications, where there is a clear and well-documented external interface that allows use of general purpose as well as customized clients. Rapid prototypes assembled with this approach show significant advantages over the traditional, custom-built data management systems that often use "in-house" legacy file formats, data specifications, and access tools. We have developed an effective database prototype based a public domain RDBMS (PostgreSQL) and metadata standard (FGDC), and used it as a template for several ongoing MG&G database management projects - including ADGRAV (Antarctic Digital Gravity Synthesis), MARGINS, the Community Review system of the Digital Library for Earth Science Education, multibeam swath bathymetry metadata, and the R/V Maurice Ewing onboard acquisition system. By using standard formats and specifications, and working from a common prototype, we are able to reuse code and deploy rapidly. Rather than spend time on low-level details such as storage and indexing (which are built into the RDBMS), we can focus on high-level details such as documentation and quality control. In addition, because many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and public domain data browsers and visualization tools have built-in RDBMS support, we can focus on backend development and leave the choice of a frontend client(s) up to the end user. While our prototype is running under an open source RDBMS on a single processor host, the choice of standard components allows this implementation to scale to commercial RDBMS products and multiprocessor servers as

  5. Hurricane exposure and county fetal death rates, utilization of a county environmental quality index for confounding control.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of natural disasters on public health are a rising concern, with increasing severity of disaster events. Many disaster studies utilize county-level analysis, however most do not control for county level environmental factors. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy could ...

  6. Pre-construction geologic section along the cross drift through the potential high-level radioactive waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, C.J.; Day, W.C.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Juan, C.S.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Site Characterization effort for the US Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project, tunnels excavated by tunnel boring machines provide access to the volume of rock that is under consideration for possible underground storage of high-level nuclear waste beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Exploratory Studies Facility, a 7.8-km-long, 7.6-m-diameter tunnel, has been excavated, and a 2.8-km-long, 5-m-diameter Cross Drift will be excavated in 1998 as part of the geologic, hydrologic and geotechnical evaluation of the potential repository. The southwest-trending Cross Drift branches off of the north ramp of the horseshoe-shaped Exploratory Studies Facility. This report summarizes an interpretive geologic section that was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project as a tool for use in the design and construction of the Cross Drift.

  7. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Carlos; Gianelli, Michele; Martyniuk, Alex; Stelzer, Joerg; Stockton, Mark; Vazquez, Will

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger configuration system uses a centrally provided relational database to store the configurations for all levels of the ATLAS trigger system. The configuration used at any point during data taking is maintained in this database. A interface to this database is provided by the TriggerTool, a Java-based graphical user interface. The TriggerTool has been designed to work as both a convenient browser and editor of configurations in the database for both general users and experts. The updates to the trigger system necessitated by the upgrades and changes in both hardware and software during the first long shut down of the LHC will be explored.

  8. County Staff or Area Staff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, William J.

    1970-01-01

    McIntryre explores the questions of county-based extention and increased specialization in Indiana. He compares the multi-county with individual county systems using variables including clientele's reactions to the two systems. (NL)

  9. Visualization of multidimensional database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung

    2008-01-01

    The concept of multidimensional databases has been extensively researched and wildly used in actual database application. It plays an important role in contemporary information technology, but due to the complexity of its inner structure, the database design is a complicated process and users are having a hard time fully understanding and using the database. An effective visualization tool for higher dimensional information system helps database designers and users alike. Most visualization techniques focus on displaying dimensional data using spreadsheets and charts. This may be sufficient for the databases having three or fewer dimensions but for higher dimensions, various combinations of projection operations are needed and a full grasp of total database architecture is very difficult. This study reviews existing visualization techniques for multidimensional database and then proposes an alternate approach to visualize a database of any dimension by adopting the tool proposed by Kiviat for software engineering processes. In this diagramming method, each dimension is represented by one branch of concentric spikes. This paper documents a C++ based visualization tool with extensive use of OpenGL graphics library and GUI functions. Detailed examples of actual databases demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness in visualizing multidimensional databases.

  10. Ground-water discharge determined from measurements of evapotranspiration, other available hydrologic components, and shallow water-level changes, Oasis Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiner, S.R.; Laczniak, R.J.; DeMeo, G.A.; Smith, Jody L.; Elliott, P.E.; Nylund, W.E.; Fridrich, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    component of 0.5 foot, is estimated to be about 6,000 acre-feet. Annual subsurface outflow from Oasis Valley into the Amargosa Desert is estimated to be between 30 and 130 acre-feet. Estimates of total annual ground-water withdrawal from Oasis Valley by municipal and non-municipal users in 1996 and 1999 are 440 acre-feet and 210 acre-feet, respectively. Based on these values, natural annual ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley is about 6,100 acre-feet. Total annual discharge was 6,500 acre-ft in 1996 and 6,300 acre-ft in 1999. This quantity of natural ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley exceeds the previous estimate made in 1962 by a factor of about 2.5. Water levels were measured in Oasis Valley to gain additional insight into the ET process. In shallow wells, water levels showed annual fluctuations as large as 7 feet and daily fluctuations as large as 0.2 foot. These fluctuations may be attributed to water loss associated with evapotranspiration. In shallow wells affected by ET, annual minimum depths to water generally occurred in winter or early spring shortly after daily ET reached minimum rates. Annual maximum depths to water generally occurred in late summer or fall shortly after daily ET reached maximum rates. The magnitude of daily water-level fluctuations generally increased as ET increased and decreased as depth to water increased.

  11. Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  12. Evaluation of Water-Chemistry and Water-Level Data at the Henderson Road Superfund Site, Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 1991-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Several shutdown-rebound tests have been conducted at the Henderson Road Superfund Site, which has been on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List since 1984. For a given test, the extraction wells are turned off, and water samples are collected from selected monitor wells at regular intervals before and during cessation of pumping to monitor for changes in chemical concentrations. A long-term shutdown-rebound test began on July 17, 2006. In support of this test, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to determine the effects of shutting down on-site extraction wells on concentrations of selected contaminants and water levels. Concentrations were compared to ARARs (applicable relevant and appropriate requirements), which were set as remediation goals in the Henderson Road Site Record of Decision. Water from 10 wells in and near the source area and to the north, northeast, and northwest of the source area sampled in 2008 exceeded the 5.52 ug/L (micrograms per liter) ARAR for benzene. The greatest changes in benzene concentration between pre-shutdown samples collected in July 2006 and samples collected in February and March 2008 (19 months after the shutdown) were for wells in and north of the source area; increases in benzene concentration ranged from 1.5 to 164 ug/L. Water from five wells in the source area and to the north and northwest of the source area sampled in 2008 exceeded the 60 ug/L ARAR for chlorobenzene. The greatest changes in chlorobenzene concentration between pre-shutdown samples collected in July 2006 and samples collected in February and March 2008 were for wells north of the source area; increases in chlorobenzene concentration ranged from 6.9 to 99 ug/L. The highest concentrations of chlorobenzene were near or outside the northern site boundary, indicating chlorobenzene may have moved north away from the source area; however, no monitor well clusters are on the northern side of the Pennsylvania Turnpike

  13. Water-quality, lithologic, and water-level data for wells in Tulare Basin, Kings, Kern, and Tulare Counties, California, August 1990 to February 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, Sherrill; Fujii, Roger; Shanks, W. Gary

    1994-01-01

    Much of the Tulare Basin is characterized by saline shallow ground water containing elevated concen- trations of arsenic, selenium, and other trace elements. A comprehensive investigation of ground-water geochemist, and, to a limited extent, hydrology was initiated in response to concerns related to (1) adverse effects on migratory waterfowl of high concentrations of selenium in agricultural drainwater disposed of in evaporation ponds and (2) adverse effects on human health due to potential downward migration of ground water containing high concentrations of arsenic to regional aquifers used as drinking-water sources. This report presents data collected during the initial phase of this investigation. A total of 20 observation wells were installed at 5 locations in the basin. Four observation wells in a cluster were installed at each location at depths of about 20, 50, 100, and 200 feet. Water samples collected from each site were analyzed for major ions, trace elements (including arsenic and selenium), nutrients, and selected isotopes. Lithologic logs and well-construction information for each site and water-level measurements for each well measured periodically from August 1990 to February 1993 also are reported.

  14. The effects of artificial recharge on groundwater levels and water quality in the west hydrogeologic unit of the Warren subbasin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter; Everett, Rhett; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Between the late 1940s and 1994, groundwater levels in the Warren subbasin, California, declined by as much as 300 feet because pumping exceeded sparse natural recharge. In response, the local water district, Hi-Desert Water District, implemented an artificial-recharge program in early 1995 using imported water from the California State Water Project. Subsequently, the water table rose by as much as 250 feet; however, a study done by the U.S. Geological Survey found that the rising water table entrained high-nitrate septic effluent, which caused nitrate (as nitrogen) concentrations in some wells to increase to more than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter.. A new artificial-recharge site (site 3) was constructed in 2006 and this study, which started in 2004, was done to address concerns about the possible migration of nitrates in the unsaturated zone. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the hydraulic, chemical, and microbiological properties of the unsaturated zone; (2) monitor changes in water levels and water quality in response to the artificial-recharge program at site 3; (3) determine if nitrates from septic effluent infiltrated through the unsaturated zone to the water table; (4) determine the potential for nitrates within the unsaturated zone to mobilize and contaminate the groundwater as the water table rises in response to artificial recharge; and (5) determine the presence and amount of dissolved organic carbon because of its potential to react with disinfection byproducts during the treatment of water for public use. Two monitoring sites were installed and instrumented with heat-dissipation probes, advanced tensiometers, suction-cup lysimeters, and wells so that the arrival and effects of recharging water from the State Water Project through the 250 to 425 foot-thick unsaturated zone and groundwater system could be closely observed. Monitoring site YVUZ-1 was located between two

  15. An Introduction to Database Structure and Database Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detweiler, Karen

    1984-01-01

    Enumerates principal management objectives of database management systems (data independence, quality, security, multiuser access, central control) and criteria for comparison (response time, size, flexibility, other features). Conventional database management systems, relational databases, and database machines used for backend processing are…

  16. Karst database development in Minnesota: Design and data assembly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gao, Y.; Alexander, E.C., Jr.; Tipping, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Karst Feature Database (KFD) of Minnesota is a relational GIS-based Database Management System (DBMS). Previous karst feature datasets used inconsistent attributes to describe karst features in different areas of Minnesota. Existing metadata were modified and standardized to represent a comprehensive metadata for all the karst features in Minnesota. Microsoft Access 2000 and ArcView 3.2 were used to develop this working database. Existing county and sub-county karst feature datasets have been assembled into the KFD, which is capable of visualizing and analyzing the entire data set. By November 17 2002, 11,682 karst features were stored in the KFD of Minnesota. Data tables are stored in a Microsoft Access 2000 DBMS and linked to corresponding ArcView applications. The current KFD of Minnesota has been moved from a Windows NT server to a Windows 2000 Citrix server accessible to researchers and planners through networked interfaces. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  17. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    gneiss rocks can indicate a potential for corrosive water. The only constituent measured in the field that has a USEPA Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) is pH. The SMCL for pH is 6.5-8.5; 64 percent of samples analyzed for pH were acidic (below pH 6.5). Only 1 percent of samples were basic (above pH 8.5). Of the common ions, the USEPA has SMCLs for chloride, sulfate, and total dissolved solids. The USEPA has a SMCL and a Primary Maximum Contaminant Level (PMCL) for fluoride. Chloride is more closely related to land use than geology. In Chester County, chloride exceeded the SMCL (250 mg/L) only in 5 percent of the services (commercial services, community services, and military) land-use areas. No samples analyzed for sulfate exceeded the SMCL (250 mg/L). Only 3 percent of samples analyzed for total dissolved solids exceeded the SMCL (500 milligrams per liter) (mg/L). No samples analyzed for fluoride equaled or exceeded the SMCL (2.0 mg/L) or PMCL (4.0 mg/L). Iron concentrations exceeded the USEPA SMCL in 11 percent of samples and were highest in schist (14 percent) and gneiss (13 percent). Manganese concentrations exceeded the SMCL in 19 percent of samples and were highest in quartzite and schist (both 28 percent). Lead and arsenic were present in low concentrations: the highest concentrations of lead occurred in water from quartzite (8 percent exceeded the USEPA Action Level), and arsenic was detected mostly in Triassic sedimentary rocks (9 percent exceeded the USEPA PMCL). The highest concentrations of copper occurred more frequently in quartzite rocks, and to a lesser extent were evenly distributed between ground water in gneiss, schist, and Triassic sedimentary rocks. Elevated concentrations of radon-222 and the combined radium-226/radium-228 radionuclides were common in water from quartzite and schist. Gross alpha and gross beta particle activities were elevated in water from quartzite and carbonate rocks. In contrast, elevated concentrations of uranium

  18. Structural constraints for proposed Fort Hancock low-level radioactive waste disposal site (NTP-S34), southern Hudspeth County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lemone, D.V.

    1989-03-01

    Structural complexities reduce the homogeneity necessary for a site characterization model to an unacceptable level for performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal sites. The proposed site lies between the northern, stable Diablo platform and the southern, mobile Mesozoic Chihuahua tectonic belt. Structural movement along this interface has been active for the past 14,000 years. In addition, the area lies along the northern margin of the Permian Marfa basin and the northeastern margin of the deeply faulted Hueco bolson segment of the late Cenozoic Rio Grande rift system. Recent seismic activity with extensive surface rupture in Quitman Canyon (30 mi southeast of the site) is also documented from the 1931 Valentine, Texas, earthquake (6.4 Richter scale). The site is underlain by either a thrust fault or the complex terminus of a Mesozoic thrust fault. This fault is a segment of the continuous thrust sheet extending from exposures in the Sierra Blanc area, 30 mi east (Devil Ridge fault), to the El Paso area west (Rio Grande fault). This segment of the Devil Ridge-Rio Grande thrust is documented by the Haymond Krupp No. 1 Thaxton wildcat drilled at Campogrande Mountain immediately south of the site. The recent rift fault scarp (Campo Grande) immediately south of the Thaxton well has a 17-mi surface trace and is, no doubt, related to the subsurface Clint fault to the west in the El Paso area. An additional complexity is the presence of a monoclinal flexure with a minimum of 900 ft of surface relief (2 mi northeast of NTP-S34). A 4.5-mi, east-west, down-to-the-south normal fault occurs near the top of the monocline with a small associated graben. These complexities seriously compromise the proposed Fort Hancock site.

  19. Seasonal changes in ground-water quality and ground-water levels and directions of ground-water movement in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, including Mountain Home Air Force Base, 1990-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Jones, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area is located in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, and includes the Mountain Home Air Force Base located approximately 10 mi southwest of the city of Mountain Home. Chemical analyzes have been made periodically since the late 1940's on water samples from supply wells on the Air Force Base. These analyses indicate increases in specific conductance and in concentrations of nitrogen compounds, chloride, and sulfate. The purposes of this report, which was prepared in cooperation with the Department of the Air Force, are to describe the seasonal changes in water quality and water levels and to depict the directions of ground-water movement in the regional aquifer system and perched-water zones. Although data presented in this report are from both the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones, the focus is on the regional system. A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey (Parliman and Young, 1990) describes the areal changes in water quality and water levels during the fall of 1989. During March, July, and October 1990, 141 wells were inventoried and depth to water was measured. Continuous water-level recorders were installed on 5 of the wells and monthly measurements of depth to water were made in 17 of the wells during March 1990 through February 1991. Water samples from 33 wells and 1 spring were collected during the spring and fall of 1990 for chemical analyses. Samples also were collected monthly from 11 of those wells during April to September 1990 (table 1). Selected well-construction and water-use data and measurements of depth to water for 141 wells are given in table 2 (separated sheets in envelope). Directions of ground-water movement and selected hydrographs showing seasonal fluctuations of water levels in the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones are shown on sheet 2. Changes in water levels in the regional ground-water system during March to October 1990 are shown on sheet 2.

  20. Pancreatic Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Joji Kurian; Kim, Min-Sik; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Nanjappa, Vishalakshi; Raju, Rajesh; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Radhakrishnan, Aneesha; Muthusamy, Babylakshmi; Khan, Aafaque Ahmad; Sakamuri, Sruthi; Tankala, Shantal Gupta; Singal, Mukul; Nair, Bipin; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Chatterjee, Aditi; Prasad, T S Keshava; Maitra, Anirban; Gowda, Harsha; Hruban, Ralph H; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The etiology of pancreatic cancer is heterogeneous with a wide range of alterations that have already been reported at the level of the genome, transcriptome, and proteome. The past decade has witnessed a large number of experimental studies using high-throughput technology platforms to identify genes whose expression at the transcript or protein levels is altered in pancreatic cancer. Based on expression studies, a number of molecules have also been proposed as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this deadly cancer. Currently, there are no repositories which provide an integrative view of multiple Omics data sets from published research on pancreatic cancer. Here, we describe the development of a web-based resource, Pancreatic Cancer Database (http://www.pancreaticcancerdatabase.org), as a unified platform for pancreatic cancer research. PCD contains manually curated information pertaining to quantitative alterations in miRNA, mRNA, and proteins obtained from small-scale as well as high-throughput studies of pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. We believe that PCD will serve as an integrative platform for scientific community involved in pancreatic cancer research. PMID:24839966

  1. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  2. ITS-90 Thermocouple Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 60 NIST ITS-90 Thermocouple Database (Web, free access)   Web version of Standard Reference Database 60 and NIST Monograph 175. The database gives temperature -- electromotive force (emf) reference functions and tables for the letter-designated thermocouple types B, E, J, K, N, R, S and T. These reference functions have been adopted as standards by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

  3. Opening CEM vendor databases

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A.; Patel, D.

    1995-12-31

    CEM database performance requirements (i.e., voluminous data storage, rapid response times) often conflict with the concept of an open, accessible database. Utilities would like to use their CEM data for more purposes than simply submitting environmental reports. But in most cases, other uses are inhibited because today`s sophisticated CEM systems incorporate databases that have forsaken openness and accessibility in favor of performance. Several options are available for CEM vendors wishing to move in the direction of open, accessible CEM databases.

  4. Databases for Microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists. PMID:26013493

  5. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  6. Backing up DMF Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A complete backup of the Cray Data Migration Facility (DMF) databases should include the data migration databases, all media specific process' (MSP's) databases, and the journal file. The backup should be able to accomplished without impacting users or stopping DMF. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center undertook the task of finding an effective and efficient way to backup all DMF databases. This has been accomplished by taking advantage of new features introduced in DMF 2.0 and adding a minor modification to the dmdaemon. This paper discusses the investigation and the changes necessary to implement these enhancements.

  7. Database approach to communication in VLSI design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, G.; Beetem, A.; Short, G.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes recent and planned work at Stanford in applying database technology to the problems of VLSI design. In particular, it addresses the issue of communication within a design's different representations and hierarchical levels in a multiple designer environment. We demonstrate the heretofore questioned utility of using commercial database systems, at least while developing a versatile, flexible, and generally efficient model and its associated communication paths. Completed work and results from initial work using DEC DBMS 20 is presented, including macro expansion within the database, and signalling of changes to higher structural levels. Considerable discussion regarding overall philosophy for continued work is also included.

  8. School Progress Report 2013. Montgomery County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels for the 2012-2013 school year. Montgomery…

  9. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  10. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  11. Database Searching by Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen E.

    Managers and executives need the easy and quick access to business and management information that online databases can provide, but many have difficulty articulating their search needs to an intermediary. One possible solution would be to encourage managers and their immediate support staff members to search textual databases directly as they now…

  12. Morchella MLST database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Welcome to the Morchella MLST database. This dedicated database was set up at the CBS-KNAW Biodiversity Center by Vincent Robert in February 2012, using BioloMICS software (Robert et al., 2011), to facilitate DNA sequence-based identifications of Morchella species via the Internet. The current datab...

  13. First Look: TRADEMARKSCAN Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne Conway; Davidson, Alan B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes database produced by Thomson and Thomson and available on Dialog which contains over 700,000 records representing all active federal trademark registrations and applications for registrations filed in United States Patent and Trademark Office. A typical record, special features, database applications, learning to use TRADEMARKSCAN, and…

  14. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  15. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  16. Assignment to database industy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kohichiroh

    Various kinds of databases are considered to be essential part in future large sized systems. Information provision only by databases is also considered to be growing as the market becomes mature. This paper discusses how such circumstances have been built and will be developed from now on.

  17. Dictionary as Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Derrick

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of dictionaries as databases focuses on the digitizing of The Oxford English dictionary (OED) and the use of Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language (SGML). Topics include the creation of a consortium to digitize the OED, document structure, relational databases, text forms, sequence, and discourse. (LRW)

  18. A Quality System Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, William H.; Turner, Anne M.; Gifford, Luther; Stites, William

    2010-01-01

    A quality system database (QSD), and software to administer the database, were developed to support recording of administrative nonconformance activities that involve requirements for documentation of corrective and/or preventive actions, which can include ISO 9000 internal quality audits and customer complaints.

  19. The intelligent database machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancey, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    The IDM data base was compared with the data base crack to determine whether IDM 500 would better serve the needs of the MSFC data base management system than Oracle. The two were compared and the performance of the IDM was studied. Implementations that work best on which database are implicated. The choice is left to the database administrator.

  20. Build Your Own Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter; Lancaster, F. W.

    This book is intended to help librarians and others to produce databases of better value and quality, especially if they have had little previous experience in database construction. Drawing upon almost 40 years of experience in the field of information retrieval, this book emphasizes basic principles and approaches rather than in-depth and…

  1. Database Reviews: Legal Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiser, Virginia

    Detailed reviews of two legal information databases--"Laborlaw I" and "Legal Resource Index"--are presented in this paper. Each database review begins with a bibliographic entry listing the title; producer; vendor; cost per hour contact time; offline print cost per citation; time period covered; frequency of updates; and size of file. A detailed…

  2. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  3. Structural Ceramics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  4. National Vulnerability Database (NVD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    National Vulnerability Database (NVD) (Web, free access)   NVD is a comprehensive cyber security vulnerability database that integrates all publicly available U.S. Government vulnerability resources and provides references to industry resources. It is based on and synchronized with the CVE vulnerability naming standard.

  5. Knowledge Discovery in Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Jay

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) revolves around the investigation and creation of knowledge, processes, algorithms, and mechanisms for retrieving knowledge from data collections. The article is an introductory overview of KDD. The rationale and environment of its development and applications are discussed. Issues related to database design…

  6. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  7. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2008-01-01

    The Carcinogenic Potency Database reports analyses of animal cancer tests on 1,547 chemicals. These tests are used in support of cancer risk assessments for humans. Results are searchable and are made available via the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) TOXNET system. This column will provide background information on the database, as well as present search basics. PMID:19042710

  8. Bayesian Prediction of Mean Indoor Radon Concentrations for Minnesota Counties

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.N.; Nero, A.V.; Gelman, A.

    1995-08-01

    Past efforts to identify areas having higher than average indoor radon concentrations by examining the statistical relationship between local mean concentrations and physical parameters such as the soil radium concentration have been hampered by the noise in local means caused by the small number of homes monitored in some or most areas, In the present paper, indoor radon data from a survey in Minnesota are analyzed in such a way as to minimize the effect of finite sample size within counties, in order to determine the true county-to-county variation of indoor radon concentrations in the state and the extent to which this variation is explained by the variation in surficial radium concentration among counties, The analysis uses hierarchical modeling, in which some parameters of interest (such as county geometric mean (GM) radon concentrations) are assumed to be drawn from a single population, for which the distributional parameters are estimated from the data. Extensions of this technique, known as a random effects regression and mixed effects regression, are used to determine the relationship between predictive variables and indoor radon concentrations; the results are used to refine the predictions of each county's radon levels, resulting in a great decrease in uncertainty. The true county-to-county variation of GM radon levels is found to be substantially less than the county-to-county variation of the observed GMs, much of which is due to the small sample size in each county. The variation in the logarithm of surficial radium content is shown to explain approximately 80% of the variation of the logarithm of GM radon concentration among counties. The influences of housing and measurement factors, such as whether the monitored home has a basement and whether the measurement was made in a basement, are also discussed. This approach offers a self-consistent statistical method for predicting the mean values of indoor radon concentrations or other geographically

  9. Bayesian Prediction of Mean Indoor Radon Concentrations for Minnesota Counties

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.N.; Nero, A.V.; Gelman, A.

    1996-02-01

    Past efforts to identify areas with higher than average indoor radon concentrations by examining the statistical relationship between local mean concentrations and physical parameters such as the soil radium concentration have been hampered by the variation in local means caused by the small number of homes monitored in most areas. In this paper, indoor radon data from a survey in Minnesota are analyzed to minimize the effect of finite sample size within counties, to determine the true county-to-county variation of indoor radon concentrations in the state, and to find the extent to which this variation is explained by the variation in surficial radium concentration among counties. The analysis uses hierarchical modeling, in which some parameters of interest (such as county geometric mean (GM) radon concentrations) are assumed to be drawn from a single population, for which the distributional parameters are estimated from the data. Extensions of this technique, known as a random effects regression and mixed effects regression, are used to determine the relationship between predictive variables and indoor radon concentrations; the results are used to refine the predictions of each county's radon levels, resulting in a great decrease in uncertainty. The true county-to-county variation of GM radon levels is found to be substantially less than the county-to-county variation of the observed GMs, much of which is due to the small sample size in each county. The variation in the logarithm of surficial radium content is shown to explain approximately 80% of the variation of the logarithm of GM radon concentration among counties. The influences of housing and measurement factors, such as whether the monitored home has a basement and whether the measurement was made in a basement, are also discussed. The statistical method can be used to predict mean radon concentrations, or applied to other geographically distributed environmental parameters.

  10. Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

  11. Protein sequence databases.

    PubMed

    Apweiler, Rolf; Bairoch, Amos; Wu, Cathy H

    2004-02-01

    A variety of protein sequence databases exist, ranging from simple sequence repositories, which store data with little or no manual intervention in the creation of the records, to expertly curated universal databases that cover all species and in which the original sequence data are enhanced by the manual addition of further information in each sequence record. As the focus of researchers moves from the genome to the proteins encoded by it, these databases will play an even more important role as central comprehensive resources of protein information. Several the leading protein sequence databases are discussed here, with special emphasis on the databases now provided by the Universal Protein Knowledgebase (UniProt) consortium. PMID:15036160

  12. California County Data Book 1997 [and] Report Card 1997. Challenges Ahead: Can Counties Make the Grade? A Children Now Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Amy

    This Kids Count data book and report card examines statewide and county level trends in the well-being of California's children, with an additional focus on indicators of the new economic realities encountered by families as counties take on greater responsibility for local welfare programs. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the…

  13. Towards the Architecture of an Instructional Multimedia Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Plin W.; Bestebreurtje, R.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of multimedia databases in education focuses on the development of an adaptable database in The Netherlands that uses optical storage media to hold the audiovisual components. Highlights include types of applications; types of users; accessibility; adaptation; an object-oriented approach; levels of the database architecture; and…

  14. National Spill Test Technology Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sheesley, David [Western Research Institute

    Western Research Institute established, and ACRC continues to maintain, the National Spill Technology database to provide support to the Liquified Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (now called the National HAZMAT Spill Center) as directed by Congress in Section 118(n) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The Albany County Research Corporation (ACRC) was established to make publicly funded data developed from research projects available to benefit public safety. The founders since 1987 have been investigating the behavior of toxic chemicals that are deliberately or accidentally spilled, educating emergency response organizations, and maintaining funding to conduct the research at the DOEÆs HAZMAT Spill Center (HSC) located on the Nevada Test Site. ACRC also supports DOE in collaborative research and development efforts mandated by Congress in the Clean Air Act Amendments. The data files are results of spill tests conducted at various times by the Silicones Environmental Health and Safety Council (SEHSC) and DOE, ANSUL, Dow Chemical, the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) and DOE, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), OSHA, and DOT; DuPont, and the Western Research Institute (WRI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and EPA. Each test data page contains one executable file for each test in the test series as well as a file named DOC.EXE that contains information documenting the test series. These executable files are actually self-extracting zip files that, when executed, create one or more comma separated value (CSV) text files containing the actual test data or other test information.

  15. Groundwater-well data of San Miguel County, New Mexico, 1970-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matherne, Anne Marie; Stewart, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrologic resources of San Miguel County, New Mexico, are increasingly relied upon to meet growing domestic, livestock, and agricultural needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with San Miguel County, conducted a study during 2010-11 to assess current publicly available information regarding the hydrologic resources of San Miguel County. As part of that study, groundwater-well data from wells located in San Miguel County were acquired from two sources: San Miguel County groundwater-well information archived in the State of New Mexico Water Rights Reporting System online database and groundwater-well information archived in the National Water Information System of the U.S. Geological Survey. The collected data provide information regarding depth to groundwater and depth of well completions in the context of physiographic features of the county.

  16. 41 CFR 102-173.60 - What is the naming convention for Counties or Parishes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Examples of preferred domain names include— (1) Richmondcounty-ga.gov; (2) Pwc-county-va.gov; and (3... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.60 What is the naming convention for Counties or Parishes? (a) To register any second-level domain within dot-gov, County or Parish governments...

  17. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  18. PADB : Published Association Database

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hwanseok; Lee, Jin-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; ) that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases. PMID:17877839

  19. ResPlan Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellers, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    The main project I was involved in was new application development for the existing CIS0 Database (ResPlan). This database application was developed in Microsoft Access. Initial meetings with Greg Follen, Linda McMillen, Griselle LaFontaine and others identified a few key weaknesses with the existing database. The weaknesses centered around that while the database correctly modeled the structure of Programs, Projects and Tasks, once the data was entered, the database did not capture any dynamic status information, and as such was of limited usefulness. After the initial meetings my goals were identified as follows: Enhance the ResPlan Database to include qualitative and quantitative status information about the Programs, Projects and Tasks Train staff members about the ResPlan database from both the user perspective and the developer perspective Give consideration to a Web Interface for reporting. Initially, the thought was that there would not be adequate time to actually develop the Web Interface, Greg wanted it understood that this was an eventual goal and as such should be a consideration throughout the development process.

  20. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  1. Curation accuracy of model organism databases.

    PubMed

    Keseler, Ingrid M; Skrzypek, Marek; Weerasinghe, Deepika; Chen, Albert Y; Fulcher, Carol; Li, Gene-Wei; Lemmer, Kimberly C; Mladinich, Katherine M; Chow, Edmond D; Sherlock, Gavin; Karp, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Manual extraction of information from the biomedical literature-or biocuration-is the central methodology used to construct many biological databases. For example, the UniProt protein database, the EcoCyc Escherichia coli database and the Candida Genome Database (CGD) are all based on biocuration. Biological databases are used extensively by life science researchers, as online encyclopedias, as aids in the interpretation of new experimental data and as golden standards for the development of new bioinformatics algorithms. Although manual curation has been assumed to be highly accurate, we are aware of only one previous study of biocuration accuracy. We assessed the accuracy of EcoCyc and CGD by manually selecting curated assertions within randomly chosen EcoCyc and CGD gene pages and by then validating that the data found in the referenced publications supported those assertions. A database assertion is considered to be in error if that assertion could not be found in the publication cited for that assertion. We identified 10 errors in the 633 facts that we validated across the two databases, for an overall error rate of 1.58%, and individual error rates of 1.82% for CGD and 1.40% for EcoCyc. These data suggest that manual curation of the experimental literature by Ph.D-level scientists is highly accurate. Database URL: http://ecocyc.org/, http://www.candidagenome.org// PMID:24923819

  2. Database for propagation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1991-01-01

    A propagation researcher or a systems engineer who intends to use the results of a propagation experiment is generally faced with various database tasks such as the selection of the computer software, the hardware, and the writing of the programs to pass the data through the models of interest. This task is repeated every time a new experiment is conducted or the same experiment is carried out at a different location generating different data. Thus the users of this data have to spend a considerable portion of their time learning how to implement the computer hardware and the software towards the desired end. This situation may be facilitated considerably if an easily accessible propagation database is created that has all the accepted (standardized) propagation phenomena models approved by the propagation research community. Also, the handling of data will become easier for the user. Such a database construction can only stimulate the growth of the propagation research it if is available to all the researchers, so that the results of the experiment conducted by one researcher can be examined independently by another, without different hardware and software being used. The database may be made flexible so that the researchers need not be confined only to the contents of the database. Another way in which the database may help the researchers is by the fact that they will not have to document the software and hardware tools used in their research since the propagation research community will know the database already. The following sections show a possible database construction, as well as properties of the database for the propagation research.

  3. The Gaia Parameter Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Lammers, U.; Perryman, M. A. C.

    2005-01-01

    The parallel development of many aspects of a complex mission like Gaia, which includes numerous participants in ESA, industrial companies, and a large and active scientific collaboration throughout Europe, makes keeping track of the many design changes, instrument and operational complexities, and numerical values for the data analysis a very challenging problem. A comprehensive, easily-accessible, up-to-date, and definitive compilation of a large range of numerical quantities is required, and the Gaia parameter database has been established to satisfy these needs. The database is a centralised repository containing, besides mathematical, physical, and astronomical constants, many satellite and subsystem design parameters. At the end of 2004, more than 1600 parameters had been included. Version control has been implemented, providing, next to a `live' version with the most recent parameters, well-defined reference versions of the full database contents. The database can be queried or browsed using a regular Web browser (http://www.rssd.esa.int/Gaia/paramdb). Query results are formated by default in HTML. Data can also be retrieved as Fortran-77, Fortran-90, Java, ANSIC, C++, or XML structures for direct inclusion into software codes in these languages. The idea is that all collaborating scientists can use the database parameters and values, once retrieved, directly linked to computational routines. An off-line access mode is also available, enabling users to automatically download the contents of the database. The database will be maintained actively, and significant extensions of the contents are planned. Consistent use in the future of the database by the Gaia community at large, including all industrial teams, will ensure correct numerical values throughout the complex software systems being built up as details of the Gaia design develop. The database is already being used for the telemetry simulation chain in ESTEC, and in the data simulations for GDAAS2.

  4. Federal Register document image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garris, Michael D.; Janet, Stanley A.; Klein, William W.

    1999-01-01

    A new, fully-automated process has been developed at NIST to derive ground truth for document images. The method involves matching optical character recognition (OCR) results from a page with typesetting files for an entire book. Public domain software used to derive the ground truth is provided in the form of Perl scripts and C source code, and includes new, more efficient string alignment technology and a word- level scoring package. With this ground truthing technology, it is now feasible to produce much larger data sets, at much lower cost, than was ever possible with previous labor- intensive, manual data collection projects. Using this method, NIST has produced a new document image database for evaluating Document Analysis and Recognition technologies and Information Retrieval systems. The database produced contains scanned images, SGML-tagged ground truth text, commercial OCR results, and image quality assessment results for pages published in the 1994 Federal Register. These data files are useful in a wide variety of experiments and research. There were roughly 250 issues, comprised of nearly 69,000 pages, published in the Federal Register in 1994. This volume of the database contains the pages of 20 books published in January of that year. In all, there are 4711 page images provided, with 4519 of them having corresponding ground truth. This volume is distributed on two ISO-9660 CD- ROMs. Future volumes may be released, depending on the level of interest.

  5. Human variation databases

    PubMed Central

    Küntzer, Jan; Eggle, Daniela; Klostermann, Stefan; Burtscher, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    More than 100 000 human genetic variations have been described in various genes that are associated with a wide variety of diseases. Such data provides invaluable information for both clinical medicine and basic science. A number of locus-specific databases have been developed to exploit this huge amount of data. However, the scope, format and content of these databases differ strongly and as no standard for variation databases has yet been adopted, the way data is presented varies enormously. This review aims to give an overview of current resources for human variation data in public and commercial resources. PMID:20639550

  6. International Comparisions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    International Comparisions Database (Web, free access)   The International Comparisons Database (ICDB) serves the U.S. and the Inter-American System of Metrology (SIM) with information based on Appendices B (International Comparisons), C (Calibration and Measurement Capabilities) and D (List of Participating Countries) of the Comit� International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). The official source of the data is The BIPM key comparison database. The ICDB provides access to results of comparisons of measurements and standards organized by the consultative committees of the CIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations.

  7. Hybrid Terrain Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey

    2006-01-01

    A prototype hybrid terrain database is being developed in conjunction with other databases and with hardware and software that constitute subsystems of aerospace cockpit display systems (known in the art as synthetic vision systems) that generate images to increase pilots' situation awareness and eliminate poor visibility as a cause of aviation accidents. The basic idea is to provide a clear view of the world around an aircraft by displaying computer-generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information.

  8. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  9. JICST Factual Database(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Keisuke

    The computer programme, which builds atom-bond connection tables from nomenclatures, is developed. Chemical substances with their nomenclature and varieties of trivial names or experimental code numbers are inputted. The chemical structures of the database are stereospecifically stored and are able to be searched and displayed according to stereochemistry. Source data are from laws and regulations of Japan, RTECS of US and so on. The database plays a central role within the integrated fact database service of JICST and makes interrelational retrieval possible.

  10. Databases for materials selection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Cambridge Materials Selector (CMS2.0) materials database was developed by the Engineering Dept. at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. This database makes it possible to select a material for a specific application from essentially all classes of materials. Genera, Predict, and Socrates software programs from CLI International, Houston, Texas, automate materials selection and corrosion problem-solving tasks. They are said to significantly reduce the time necessary to select a suitable material and/or to assess a corrosion problem and reach cost-effective solutions. This article describes both databases and tells how to use them.

  11. Jefferson County Adult Reading Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Board of Education, Louisville, KY.

    The 1980-81 Jefferson County (Kentucky) Adult Reading Program served 601 students functioning below 6.0 grade level during the 1980-81 year. The project's instructional methods and materials were developed based on the experiences of the program for the previous two years. The program was considered a success not only from the viewpoint of the…

  12. Cumberland County College Orientation Course Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolar, Steven M.

    In an effort to determine whether OR 100, a college success orientation seminar offered at New Jersey's Cumberland County College (CCC), should be upgraded to a college-level course and whether OR 101, a one-unit orientation course, should be required of all students, CCC surveyed 288 two- and four-year institutions in New Jersey, Delaware, and…

  13. Ground-water levels, water quality, and potential effects of toxic-substance spills or cessation of quarry dewatering near a municipal ground-water supply, southeastern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.; Eberts, S.M.; Bair, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    A newly completed municipal ground-water supply that produces from a sand and gravel aquifer in southern Franklin County, Ohio, may be susceptible to potential sources of pollution. Among these are spills of toxic substances that could enter recharge areas of the aquifer or be carried by surface drainage and subsequently enter the aquifer by induced infiltration. Ground water of degraded quality also is present in the vicinity of several landfills located upstream from the municipal supply. Local dewatering by quarrying operations has created a ground-water divide which, at present, prevents direct movement of the degraded ground water to the municipal supply. In addition, the dewatering has held water levels at the largest landfills below the base of the landfill. Should the dewatering cease, concern would be raised regarding the rise of water levels at this landfills and transport of contaminants through the aquifer to the Scioto River and subsequently by the river to the well field. From June 1984 through July 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, investigated the relations among the ground-water supply and potential sources of contamination by means of an observation-well network and a program of measuring water levels and sampling for water quality. Sample collections included those made to determine the baseline levels of organic chemicals and metals, as well as periodic sampling and analysis for common constituents to evaluate any changes taking place in the system. Finally, a steady-state, three-dimensional numerical model was used to determine ground-water flow directions and average ground-water velocities to asses potential effects of toxic-substance spills. The model also was used to simulate changes in the ground-water flow system that could result if part or all of the quarry dewatering ceased. Few of the organic-chemical and metal constituents analyzed for were present at detectable levels. With respect to

  14. NCCDPHP PUBLICATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts of publications produced by the CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) including journal articles, monographs, book chapters, reports, policy documents, and fact sheets. Full...

  15. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  16. THE CTEPP DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CTEPP (Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants) database contains a wealth of data on children's aggregate exposures to pollutants in their everyday surroundings. Chemical analysis data for the environmental media and ques...

  17. Hawaii bibliographic database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.L.; Takahashi, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and abstracts or (if no abstract) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  18. Chemical Kinetics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  19. Requirements Management Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-08-13

    This application is a simplified and customized version of the RBA and CTS databases to capture federal, site, and facility requirements, link to actions that must be performed to maintain compliance with their contractual and other requirements.

  20. Navigating Public Microarray Databases

    PubMed Central

    Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources. PMID:18629145

  1. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  2. Navigating public microarray databases.

    PubMed

    Penkett, Christopher J; Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources. PMID:18629145

  3. Household Products Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commercial / Institutional Product Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More Resources What's under your kitchen sink, in your garage, in your bathroom, and ...

  4. TREATABILITY DATABASE DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities, first responders to spills or emergencies, treatment process designers, research organizations, academics, regulato...

  5. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  6. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase-out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  7. Querying genomic databases

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.

    1991-09-01

    A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.

  8. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  9. The ribosomal database project.

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, N; Olsen, G J; Maidak, B L; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Macke, T J; Marsh, T L; Woese, C R

    1993-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome data along with related programs and services. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams and various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via ftp and electronic mail. Certain analytic services are also provided by the electronic mail server. PMID:8332524

  10. Database computing in HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; MacFarlane, J.F. ); May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L.E. ); Baden, A. . Dept. of Physics); Grossman, R.; Qin, X. . Dept. of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science); Cormell, L.; Leibold, P.; Liu, D

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors. I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototype based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  11. Database computing in HEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, C. T.; Loken, S.; Macfarlane, J. F.; May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L. E.; Baden, A.; Grossman, R.; Qin, X.

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors, I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototypes based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  12. Databases: Peter's Picks and Pans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the best and worst in databases on disk, CD-ROM, and online, and offers judgments and observations on database characteristics. Two databases are praised and three are criticized. (Author/JMV)

  13. Specialist Bibliographic Databases.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D

    2016-05-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  14. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  15. The comprehensive peptaibiotics database.

    PubMed

    Stoppacher, Norbert; Neumann, Nora K N; Burgstaller, Lukas; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Peptaibiotics are nonribosomally biosynthesized peptides, which - according to definition - contain the marker amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and possess antibiotic properties. Being known since 1958, a constantly increasing number of peptaibiotics have been described and investigated with a particular emphasis on hypocrealean fungi. Starting from the existing online 'Peptaibol Database', first published in 1997, an exhaustive literature survey of all known peptaibiotics was carried out and resulted in a list of 1043 peptaibiotics. The gathered information was compiled and used to create the new 'The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database', which is presented here. The database was devised as a software tool based on Microsoft (MS) Access. It is freely available from the internet at http://peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at and can easily be installed and operated on any computer offering a Windows XP/7 environment. It provides useful information on characteristic properties of the peptaibiotics included such as peptide category, group name of the microheterogeneous mixture to which the peptide belongs, amino acid sequence, sequence length, producing fungus, peptide subfamily, molecular formula, and monoisotopic mass. All these characteristics can be used and combined for automated search within the database, which makes The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database a versatile tool for the retrieval of valuable information about peptaibiotics. Sequence data have been considered as to December 14, 2012. PMID:23681723

  16. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  17. Specialist Bibliographic Databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  18. Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Ana I.; Dorda, Beatriz A.; Rey, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the first published database of Bathynellacea. It includes all data of bathynellids (Crustacea, Bathynellacea) collected in the last 64 years (1949 to 2013) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island. The samples come from groundwater (caves, springs, wells and hyporrheic habitat associated rivers) from both sampling campaigns and occasional sampling conducted throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The dataset lists occurrence data of bathynellids distribution, sampling sites (with localities, county and geographic coordinates), taxonomic information (from family to species level) and sampling sources (collector and sampling dates) for all records. The descriptions of new species and species identifications have been carried out by an expert taxonomist (AIC) with 25 years experience in the bathynellids studies (see references). Many of the sampling sites are type localities of endemic species from Iberian Peninsula. The dataset includes 409 samples record corresponding to two families, 12 genera and 58 species, 42 of them formally described plus 16 taxa unpublished and 47 samples in study. All species known from the study area are included, which nearly sum up a quarter of species of Bathynellacea known in the world (250 species). PMID:24693212

  19. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  20. Chemical Explosion Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Peder; Brachet, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    A database containing information on chemical explosions, recorded and located by the International Data Center (IDC) of the CTBTO, should be established in the IDC prior to entry into force of the CTBT. Nearly all of the large chemical explosions occur in connection with mining activity. As a first step towards the establishment of this database, a survey of presumed mining areas where sufficiently large explosions are conducted has been done. This is dominated by the large coal mining areas like the Powder River (U.S.), Kuznetsk (Russia), Bowen (Australia) and Ekibastuz (Kazakhstan) basins. There are also several other smaller mining areas, in e.g. Scandinavia, Poland, Kazakhstan and Australia, with large enough explosions for detection. Events in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the IDC that are located in or close to these mining areas, and which therefore are candidates for inclusion in the database, have been investigated. Comparison with a database of infrasound events has been done as many mining blasts generate strong infrasound signals and therefore also are included in the infrasound database. Currently there are 66 such REB events in 18 mining areas in the infrasound database. On a yearly basis several hundreds of events in mining areas have been recorded and included in the REB. Establishment of the database of chemical explosions requires confirmation and ground truth information from the States Parties regarding these events. For an explosion reported in the REB, the appropriate authority in whose country the explosion occurred is encouraged, on a voluntary basis, to seek out information on the explosion and communicate this information to the IDC.

  1. The EcoCyc Database

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Peter D.; Weaver, Daniel; Paley, Suzanne; Fulcher, Carol; Kubo, Aya; Kothari, Anamika; Krummenacker, Markus; Subhraveti, Pallavi; Weerasinghe, Deepika; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Huerta, Araceli M.; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; Bonavides-Martinez, César; Weiss, Verena; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Schröder, Imke; Mackie, Amanda; Gunsalus, Robert; Collado-Vides, Julio; Keseler, Ingrid M.; Paulsen, Ian

    2014-01-01

    EcoCyc is a bioinformatics database available at EcoCyc.org that describes the genome and the biochemical machinery of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. The long-term goal of the project is to describe the complete molecular catalog of the E. coli cell, as well as the functions of each of its molecular parts, to facilitate a system-level understanding of E. coli. EcoCyc is an electronic reference source for E. coli biologists, and for biologists who work with related microorganisms. The database includes information pages on each E. coli gene, metabolite, reaction, operon, and metabolic pathway. The database also includes information on E. coli gene essentiality, and on nutrient conditions that do or do not support the growth of E. coli. The web site and downloadable software contain tools for analysis of high-throughput datasets. In addition, a steady-state metabolic flux model is generated from each new version of EcoCyc. The model can predict metabolic flux rates, nutrient uptake rates, and growth rates for different gene knockouts and nutrient conditions. This chapter provides a detailed description of the data content of EcoCyc, and of the procedures by which this content is generated. PMID:26442933

  2. Long Valley caldera GIS Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. J.; Battaglia, M.; Hill, D.; Langbein, J.; Segall, P.

    2002-12-01

    In May of 1980, a strong earthquake swarm that included four magnitude 6 earthquakes struck the southern margin of Long Valley Caldera associated with a 25-cm, dome-shaped uplift of the caldera floor. These events marked the onset of the latest period of caldera unrest that continues to this day. This ongoing unrest includes recurring earthquake swarms and continued dome-shaped uplift of the central section of the caldera (the resurgent dome) accompanied by changes in thermal springs and gas emissions. Analysis of combined gravity and geodetic data confirms the intrusion of silicic magma beneath Long Valley caldera. In 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey under the Volcano Hazards Program began an intensive effort to monitor and study geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera. This database provides an overview of the studies being conducted by the Long Valley Observatory in Eastern California from 1975 to 2000. The database includes geological, monitoring and topographic datasets related to the Long Valley Caldera, plus a number of USGS publications on Long Valley (e.g., fact-sheets, references). Datasets are available as text files or ArcView shapefiles. Database CD-ROM Table of Contents: - Geological data (digital geologic map) - Monitoring data: Deformation (EDM, GPS, Leveling); Earthquakes; Gravity; Hydrologic; CO2 - Topographic data: DEM, DRG, Landsat 7, Rivers, Roads, Water Bodies - ArcView Project File

  3. ERGDB: Estrogen Responsive Genes Database.

    PubMed

    Tang, Suisheng; Han, Hao; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2004-01-01

    ERGDB is an integrated knowledge database dedicated to genes responsive to estrogen. Genes included in ERGDB are those whose expression levels are experimentally proven to be either up-regulated or down-regulated by estrogen. Genes included are identified based on publications from the PubMed database and each record has been manually examined, evaluated and selected for inclusion by biologists. ERGDB aims to be a unified gateway to store, search, retrieve and update information about estrogen responsive genes. Each record contains links to relevant databases, such as GenBank, LocusLink, Refseq, PubMed and ATCC. The unique feature of ERGDB is that it contains information on the dependence of gene reactions on experimental conditions. In addition to basic information about the genes, information for each record includes gene functional description, experimental methods used, tissue or cell type, gene reaction, estrogen exposure time and the summary of putative estrogen response elements if the gene's promoter sequence was available. Through a web interface at http://sdmc.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/ergdb/ cgi-bin/explore.pl users can either browse or query ERGDB. Access is free for academic and non-profit users. PMID:14681475

  4. Interpretation of geophysical logs, aquifer tests, and water levels in wells in and near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.; Pracht, Karl A.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of various industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with various volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 beginning autumn 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area, and this stream flows southwest to bisect North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 16 wells that ranged in depth from 50 to 623 feet. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 9 of the 16 wells, for a total of 30 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping a 600-ft deep production well in February and March 2002. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in three wells in the area and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on Wissahickon Creek from December 2000 through September 2002. Geophysical logging identified water-bearing zones associated with

  5. Water-level altitudes and continuous and discrete water quality at and near an aquifer storage and recovery site, Bexar, Atascosa, and Wilson Counties, Texas, June 2004-September 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crow, Cassi L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System (SAWS), collected data during 2004–11 to characterize the quality of native groundwater from the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer (hereinafter, Edwards aquifer) and preinjection and postinjection water from the Carrizo aquifer (informal name commonly applied to the upper part of the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in the area) at and near an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) site in Bexar, Atascosa, and Wilson Counties, Texas. Daily mean water-level altitude, water temperature, and specific conductance were measured continuously in a monitoring well on the ASR site to determine how injection and withdrawal at the ASR site might affect local groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for selected physical properties and constituents to characterize the quality of native groundwater from the Edwards aquifer and preinjection and postinjection water from the Carrizo aquifer near the ASR site to provide a better understanding of possible changes in the quality of groundwater near an active ASR site that might result from the mixing of water from different aquifers. During injection periods, the water-level altitude in the monitoring well generally increased as the amount of water being injected into all wells at the ASR site increased and decreased as the amount of water being injected into all wells at the ASR site decreased. During withdrawal periods, the water-level altitude in the monitoring well generally increased as the total volume of water being withdrawn from all wells at the ASR site decreased and generally decreased as the total volume of water being withdrawn from all wells increased. Daily mean water temperature fluctuated by less than 1 degree Celsius and was determined to be independent of injection or withdrawal conditions at the ASR site. Changes in daily mean specific-conductance values measured at four depths in the monitoring well at the ASR

  6. Welfare Programs in Nonmetropolitan Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghelfi, Linda M.

    1985-01-01

    Compares the percent of population participating in three welfare programs in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas throughout the United States in 1980. Examines nonmetro data by county; investigates socioeconomic variables distinguishing high recipiency counties. (LFL)

  7. Team X Spacecraft Instrument Database Consolidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallenstein, Kelly A.

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, many changes have been made to Team X's process of designing each spacecraft, with the purpose of making the overall procedure more efficient over time. One such improvement is the use of information databases from previous missions, designs, and research. By referring to these databases, members of the design team can locate relevant instrument data and significantly reduce the total time they spend on each design. The files in these databases were stored in several different formats with various levels of accuracy. During the past 2 months, efforts have been made in an attempt to combine and organize these files. The main focus was in the Instruments department, where spacecraft subsystems are designed based on mission measurement requirements. A common database was developed for all instrument parameters using Microsoft Excel to minimize the time and confusion experienced when searching through files stored in several different formats and locations. By making this collection of information more organized, the files within them have become more easily searchable. Additionally, the new Excel database offers the option of importing its contents into a more efficient database management system in the future. This potential for expansion enables the database to grow and acquire more search features as needed.

  8. International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) database

    SciTech Connect

    Sofu, T.; Ley, H.; Turski, R.B.

    1997-08-01

    As an integral part of DOE`s International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) at Argonne National Laboratory, the INSC Database has been established to provide an interactively accessible information resource for the world`s nuclear facilities and to promote free and open exchange of nuclear safety information among nations. The INSC Database is a comprehensive resource database aimed at a scope and level of detail suitable for safety analysis and risk evaluation for the world`s nuclear power plants and facilities. It also provides an electronic forum for international collaborative safety research for the Department of Energy and its international partners. The database is intended to provide plant design information, material properties, computational tools, and results of safety analysis. Initial emphasis in data gathering is given to Soviet-designed reactors in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. The implementation is performed under the Oracle database management system, and the World Wide Web is used to serve as the access path for remote users. An interface between the Oracle database and the Web server is established through a custom designed Web-Oracle gateway which is used mainly to perform queries on the stored data in the database tables.

  9. Building a Database for a Quantitative Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, C. Joseph; Kleinhammer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A database can greatly benefit a quantitative analysis. The defining characteristic of a quantitative risk, or reliability, model is the use of failure estimate data. Models can easily contain a thousand Basic Events, relying on hundreds of individual data sources. Obviously, entering so much data by hand will eventually lead to errors. Not so obviously entering data this way does not aid linking the Basic Events to the data sources. The best way to organize large amounts of data on a computer is with a database. But a model does not require a large, enterprise-level database with dedicated developers and administrators. A database built in Excel can be quite sufficient. A simple spreadsheet database can link every Basic Event to the individual data source selected for them. This database can also contain the manipulations appropriate for how the data is used in the model. These manipulations include stressing factors based on use and maintenance cycles, dormancy, unique failure modes, the modeling of multiple items as a single "Super component" Basic Event, and Bayesian Updating based on flight and testing experience. A simple, unique metadata field in both the model and database provides a link from any Basic Event in the model to its data source and all relevant calculations. The credibility for the entire model often rests on the credibility and traceability of the data.

  10. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late

  11. The Chandra Bibliography Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, A. H.; Winkelman, S. L.; Paltani, S.; Blecksmith, S. E.; Bright, J. D.

    2004-07-01

    Early in the mission, the Chandra Data Archive started the development of a bibliography database, tracking publications in refereed journals and on-line conference proceedings that are based on Chandra observations, allowing our users to link directly to articles in the ADS from our archive, and to link to the relevant data in the archive from the ADS entries. Subsequently, we have been working closely with the ADS and other data centers, in the context of the ADEC-ITWG, on standardizing the literature-data linking. We have also extended our bibliography database to include all Chandra-related articles and we are also keeping track of the number of citations of each paper. Obviously, in addition to providing valuable services to our users, this database allows us to extract a wide variety of statistical information. The project comprises five components: the bibliography database-proper, a maintenance database, an interactive maintenance tool, a user browsing interface, and a web services component for exchanging information with the ADS. All of these elements are nearly mission-independent and we intend make the package as a whole available for use by other data centers. The capabilities thus provided represent support for an essential component of the Virtual Observatory.

  12. Using the Reactome Database

    PubMed Central

    Haw, Robin

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the bioinformatics community in creating pathway databases. The Reactome project (a collaboration between the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York University Medical Center and the European Bioinformatics Institute) is one such pathway database and collects structured information on all the biological pathways and processes in the human. It is an expert-authored and peer-reviewed, curated collection of well-documented molecular reactions that span the gamut from simple intermediate metabolism to signaling pathways and complex cellular events. This information is supplemented with likely orthologous molecular reactions in mouse, rat, zebrafish, worm and other model organisms. This unit describes how to use the Reactome database to learn the steps of a biological pathway; navigate and browse through the Reactome database; identify the pathways in which a molecule of interest is involved; use the Pathway and Expression analysis tools to search the database for and visualize possible connections within user-supplied experimental data set and Reactome pathways; and the Species Comparison tool to compare human and model organism pathways. PMID:22700314

  13. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  14. NASA Records Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.

  15. Integrating Paleoecological Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blois, Jessica; Goring, Simon; Smith, Alison

    2011-02-01

    Neotoma Consortium Workshop; Madison, Wisconsin, 23-26 September 2010 ; Paleoecology can contribute much to global change science, as paleontological records provide rich information about species range shifts, changes in vegetation composition and productivity, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem responses to abrupt climate change, and paleoclimate reconstruction, for example. However, while paleoecology is increasingly a multidisciplinary, multiproxy field focused on biotic responses to global change, most paleo databases focus on single-proxy groups. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database (http://www.neotomadb.org) aims to remedy this limitation by integrating discipline-specific databases to facilitate cross-community queries and analyses. In September, Neotoma consortium members and representatives from other databases and data communities met at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to launch the second development phase of Neotoma. The workshop brought together 54 international specialists, including Neotoma data stewards, users, and developers. Goals for the meeting were fourfold: (1) develop working plans for existing data communities; (2) identify new data types and sources; (3) enhance data access, visualization, and analysis on the Neotoma Web site; and (4) coordinate with other databases and cooperate in tool development and sharing.

  16. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  17. Environmental assessment overview, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs.

  18. OVERALL VIEW OF BASEMENT LEVEL LOOKING SOUTHEAST ( SAME LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF BASEMENT LEVEL LOOKING SOUTHEAST ( SAME LEVEL AS CYLINDER HEADS IN PREVIOUS VIEWS). - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  19. Open Geoscience Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data

  20. Automated Database Mediation Using Ontological Metadata Mappings

    PubMed Central

    Marenco, Luis; Wang, Rixin; Nadkarni, Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Objective To devise an automated approach for integrating federated database information using database ontologies constructed from their extended metadata. Background One challenge of database federation is that the granularity of representation of equivalent data varies across systems. Dealing effectively with this problem is analogous to dealing with precoordinated vs. postcoordinated concepts in biomedical ontologies. Model Description The authors describe an approach based on ontological metadata mapping rules defined with elements of a global vocabulary, which allows a query specified at one granularity level to fetch data, where possible, from databases within the federation that use different granularities. This is implemented in OntoMediator, a newly developed production component of our previously described Query Integrator System. OntoMediator's operation is illustrated with a query that accesses three geographically separate, interoperating databases. An example based on SNOMED also illustrates the applicability of high-level rules to support the enforcement of constraints that can prevent inappropriate curator or power-user actions. Summary A rule-based framework simplifies the design and maintenance of systems where categories of data must be mapped to each other, for the purpose of either cross-database query or for curation of the contents of compositional controlled vocabularies. PMID:19567801